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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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1

High pressure liquid level monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

High temperature liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

High-Level Liquid Waste Tank Integrity Workshop - 2008  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Liquid Waste Tank Integrity Liquid Waste Tank Integrity Workshop - 2008 Karthik Subramanian Bruce Wiersma November 2008 High Level Waste Corporate Board Meeting karthik.subramanian@srnl.doe.gov bruce.wiersma@srnl.doe.gov 2 Acknowledgements * Bruce Wiersma (SRNL) * Kayle Boomer (Hanford) * Michael T. Terry (Facilitator) * SRS - Liquid Waste Organization * Hanford Tank Farms * DOE-EM 3 Background * High level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks provide critical interim confinement for waste prior to processing and permanent disposal * Maintaining structural integrity (SI) of the tanks is a critical component of operations 4 Tank Integrity Workshop - 2008 * Discuss the HLW tank integrity technology needs based upon the evolving waste processing and tank closure requirements along with its continued storage mission

4

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

6

Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?  

SciTech Connect

During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

1998-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

7

Liquid level detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses a method. It is for detecting presence of a liquid level at a first predetermined point along the depth of a borehole.

Fryer, C.D.; Stie, K.E.; Wedel, M.W.; Stamper, K.R.

1990-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

8

Liquid level controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies. (auth)

Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

1975-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

10

An Istrument for Measuring the TRU Concentration in High-Level Liquid Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An online monitor has been designed, built, and tested, which is capable of measuring the residual transuranic concentrations in processed high-level wastes with a detection limit of 370 Bq/ml (10 nCi/ml) in less than six hours. The monitor measures the neutrons produced by the transuranics, primarily via (?,n) reactions, in the presence of gamma-ray fields up to 1 Sv/h (100 R/h). The optimum design was determined by Monte Carlo modeling and then tempered with practical engineering and cost considerations. Correct operation of the monitor was demonstrated in a hot cell utilizing an actual sample of high-level waste. Results of that demonstration are given, and suggestions for improvements in the next generation system are discussed.

Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Craig, R. A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Hensley, Walter K.; Holt, Noah O.; Knopf, Michael A.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Mullen, O Dennis; Salaymeh, Saleem R.; Samuel, Todd J.; Smart, John E.; Tinker, Michael R.; Walker, Darrell D.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

An Instrument for Measuring the TRU Concentration in High-Level Liquid Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An online monitor has been designed, built, and tested that is capable of measuring the residual transuranic concentrations in processed high-level wastes with a detection limit of 370 Bq/ml (10 nCi/ml) in less than six hours. The monitor measures the ({alpha},n) neutrons in the presence of gamma-ray fields up to 1 Sv/h (100 R/h). The optimum design was determined by Monte Carlo modeling and then tempered with practical engineering and cost considerations. A multiplicity counter is used in data acquisition to reject the large fraction of coincident and highly variable cosmic-ray-engendered background events and results in a S/N ratio {approx}1.

Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Craig, R A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Hensley, Walter K.; Holt, Noah OA; Knopf, Michael A.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Mullen, O Dennis; Salaymeh, Saleem R.; Samuel, Todd J.; Smart, John E.; Tinker, Mike R.; Walker, D

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

APPLICATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT HANFORD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORP/DOE), through Columbia Energy & Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper discusses results of pre-project pilot-scale testing by Columbia Energy and ongoing technology maturation development scope through fiscal year 2012, including planned additional pilot-scale and full-scale simulant testing and operation with actual radioactive tank waste.

TEDESCHI AR; WILSON RA

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

13

Ultrasonic Liquid Level Monitor - Available Technologies - PNNL  

The ultrasonic liquid level monitor is a single transducer mounted to the outside surface of a tank and an estimation algorithm that relies on the ...

14

Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

FULL SCALE TESTING TECHNOLOGY MATURATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR FOR HIGH-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT AT HANFORD - 12125  

SciTech Connect

Simulant testing of a full-scale thin-film evaporator system was conducted in 2011 for technology development at the Hanford tank farms. Test results met objectives of water removal rate, effluent quality, and operational evaluation. Dilute tank waste simulant, representing a typical double-shell tank supernatant liquid layer, was concentrated from a 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.5 using a 4.6 m{sup 2} (50 ft{sup 2}) heated transfer area Rototherm{reg_sign} evaporator from Artisan Industries. The condensed evaporator vapor stream was collected and sampled validating efficient separation of the water. An overall decontamination factor of 1.2E+06 was achieved demonstrating excellent retention of key radioactive species within the concentrated liquid stream. The evaporator system was supported by a modular steam supply, chiller, and control computer systems which would be typically implemented at the tank farms. Operation of these support systems demonstrated successful integration while identifying areas for efficiency improvement. Overall testing effort increased the maturation of this technology to support final deployment design and continued project implementation.

TEDESCHI AR; CORBETT JE; WILSON RA; LARKIN J

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

16

PILOT-SCALE TEST RESULTS OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT THE HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA -11364  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORPIDOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper summarizes results of a pilot-scale test program conducted during calendar year 2010 as part of the ongoing technology maturation development scope for the WFE.

CORBETT JE; TEDESCH AR; WILSON RA; BECK TH; LARKIN J

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

17

Action plan for response to abnormal conditions in Hanford high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks containing flammable gases. Revision 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Radioactive liquid waste tends to produce hydrogen as a result of the interaction of gamma radiation and water. In tanks containing organic chelating agents, additional hydrogen gas as well as nitrous oxide and ammonia can be produced by thermal and radiolytic decomposition of these organics. Several high-level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks, located underground at the Hanford Site, contain waste that retains the gases produced in them until large quantities are released rapidly to the tank vapor space. Tanks filled to near capacity have relatively little vapor space; therefore, if the waste suddenly releases a large amount of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a flammable gas mixture may result. The most notable waste tank with a flammable gas problem is tank 241-SY-101. Waste in this tank has occasionally released enough flammable gas to burn if an ignition source had been present inside of the tank. Several other waste tanks exhibit similar behavior to a lesser magnitude. Administrative controls have been developed to assure that these Flammable Gas Watch List tanks are safely maintained. Responses have also been developed for off-normal conditions which might develop in these tanks. In addition, scientific and engineering studies are underway to further understand and mitigate the behavior of the Flammable Gas Watch List tanks.

Sherwood, D.J.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Liquid low level waste management expert system  

SciTech Connect

An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs.

Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Jackson, J.R. (Southwest Baptist Univ., Bolivar, MO (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Universal single point liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector comprises a thermistor and circuitry for determining electrically if the thermistor is wet or dry and additionally, and continuously, if the thermistor is open or shorted. The voltage across the thermistor is filtered to remove low frequency electrical noise, then compared with a reference low voltage to determine if shorted and to a transition voltage chosen to be between the thermistor's normal wet and dry voltages to determine if the thermistor is wet or dry. The voltage is also compared to the supply voltage using a CMOS gate circuit element to determine if the thermistor is open. The gate passes both faults on to an LED to signal that a fault condition exists or indicates by another LED the wet or dry condition of the thermistor. A pump may be activated through a relay if the thermistor tests wet or dry, as desired.

Kronberg, James W. (353 Church Rd., Beech Island, SC 29842)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Universal single point liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector comprises a thermistor and circuitry for determining electrically if the thermistor is wet or dry and additionally, and continuously, if the thermistor is open or shorted. The voltage across the thermistor is filtered to remove low frequency electrical noise, then compared with a reference low voltage to determine if shorted and to a transition voltage chosen to be between the thermistor's nominal wet and dry voltages to determine if the thermistor is wet or dry. The voltage is also compared to the supply voltage using a CMOS gate circuit element to determine if the thermistor is open. The gate passes both faults on to an LED to signal that a fault condition exists or indicates by another LED the wet or dry condition of the thermistor. A pump may be activated through a relay if the thermistor tests wet or dry, as desired. 1 fig.

Kronberg, J.W.

1989-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Universal single point liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector comprises a thermistor and circuitry for determining electrically if the thermistor is wet or dry and additionally, and continuously, if the thermistor is open or shorted. The voltage across the thermistor is filtered to remove low frequency electrical noise, then compared with a reference low voltage to determine if shorted and to a transition voltage chosen to be between the thermistor's normal wet and dry voltages to determine if the thermistor is wet or dry. The voltage is also compared to the supply voltage using a CMOS gate circuit element to determine if the thermistor is open. The gate passes both faults on to an LED to signal that a fault condition exists or indicates by another LED the wet or dry condition of the thermistor. A pump may be activated through a relay if the thermistor tests wet or dry, as desired. 1 figure.

Kronberg, J.W.

1992-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

22

Sensitivity testing of liquid high explosives  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a test procedure for a liquid high explosive. The liquid to be tested is NTN, a mixture of nitromethane, tetranitomethane, and 1-nitropropane in 52, 33.3, and 14.7 weight per cent. The test is to study the sensitivity of the explosive to shock by firing it in projectiles from a M1A1 155mm howlitzer, with a charge such that it will not exceed 16,500 g`s acceleration.

O`Connell, L.

1961-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

23

Pressure sensor for high-temperature liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure sensor for use in measuring pressures in liquid at high temperatures, especially such as liquid sodium or liquid potassium, comprises a soft diaphragm in contact with the liquid. The soft diaphragm is coupled mechanically to a stiff diaphragm. Pressure is measured by measuring the displacment of both diaphragms, typically by measuring the capacitance between the stiff diaphragm and a fixed plate when the stiff diaphragm is deflected in response to the measured pressure through mechanical coupling from the soft diaphragm. Absolute calibration is achieved by admitting gas under pressure to the region between diaphragms and to the region between the stiff diaphragm and the fixed plate, breaking the coupling between the soft and stiff diaphragms. The apparatus can be calibrated rapidly and absolutely.

Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Test plan for glass melter system technologies for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid waste, Project No. RDD-43288  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides a test plan for the conduct of combustion fired cyclone vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System, Low-Level Waste Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it is the Babcock & Wilcox Company Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. This vendor is one of seven selected for glass melter testing.

Higley, B.A.

1995-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

25

Test plan for evaluation of plasma melter technology for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a test plan for the conduct of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384212] is the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC) in Pittsburgh, PA. WSTC authors of the test plan are D. F. McLaughlin, E. J. Lahoda, W. R. Gass, and N. D`Amico. The WSTC Program Manager for this test is D. F. McLaughlin. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes melting of glass frit with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a plasma arc fired furnace.

McLaughlin, D.F.; Lahoda, E.J.; Gass, W.R.; D`Amico, N. [ed.

1994-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

26

Gamma thermometer based reactor core liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is provided which employs a modified gamma thermometer for determining the liquid coolant level within a nuclear reactor core. The gamma thermometer which normally is employed to monitor local core heat generation rate (reactor power), is modified by thermocouple junctions and leads to obtain an unambiguous indication of the presence or absence of coolant liquid at the gamma thermometer location. A signal processor generates a signal based on the thermometer surface heat transfer coefficient by comparing the signals from the thermocouples at the thermometer location. The generated signal is a direct indication of loss of coolant due to the change in surface heat transfer when coolant liquid drops below the thermometer location. The loss of coolant indication is independent of reactor power at the thermometer location. Further, the same thermometer may still be used for the normal power monitoring function.

Burns, Thomas J. (Knoxville, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Wireless remote liquid level detector and indicator for well testing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An acoustic system is provided for measuring the fluid level in oil, gas or water wells under pressure conditions that does not require an electrical link to the surface for level detection. A battery powered sound transmitter is integrated with a liquid sensor in the form of a conductivity probe, enclosed in a sealed housing which is lowered into a well by means of a wire line reel assembly. The sound transmitter generates an intense identifiable acoustic emission when the sensor contacts liquid in the well. The acoustic emissions propagate up the well which functions as a waveguide and are detected by an acoustic transducer. The output signal from the transducer is filtered to provide noise rejection outside of the acoustic signal spectrum. The filtered signal is used to indicate to an operator the liquid level in the well has been reached and the depth is read from a footage counter coupled with the wire line reel assembly at the instant the sound signal is received.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Evans, Donald M. (Point Marion, PA); Ernest, John H. (Morgantown, WV)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

1982-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

29

Developing Yttria-based Ceramics Having High Liquid Metal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Green Technologies for Materials Manufacturing and Processing V. Presentation Title, Developing Yttria-based Ceramics Having High Liquid Metal ...

30

Decontamination of high-level waste canisters  

SciTech Connect

This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces.

Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

High level white noise generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

Borkowski, Casimer J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blalock, Theron V. (Knoxville, TN)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Low-level liquid waste treatment system start-up  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Following removal of Cs-137 by ion exchange in the Supernatant Treatment System immediately upstream, the radioactive liquid waste is volume-reduced by evaporation. Trace amounts of Cs-137 in the resulting distillate are removed by ion exchange, then the distillate is discharged to the existing plant water treatment system. The concentrated product, 37 to 41 percent solids (by weight), is encapsulated in cement, producing a stable low-level waste form. This report provides a summary of work performed to test the Liquid Waste Treatment System following construction turnover and prior to radioactive operation. All mechanical and electrical components, piping, valves, pumps, tanks, controls, and instrumentation required to operate the system were tested; first with water, then with simulated waste. Subsystems (individual tanks, pumps, and control loops) were tested individually, then as a complete system. Finally, the system began a controlled start-up phase, which included the first four months of radioactive operation. Components were tested for operability then for performance data to verify the system`s ability to produce an acceptable waste form at design feed rates.

Baker, M.N.; Gessner, R.F.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Thin liquid lithium targets for high power density  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thin liquid lithium targets for high power density applications: heavy ion beam strippers and beta Hilton Malmö City #12;Outline Liquid Lithium Stripper idea for FRIB Brief theory of film stability Thickness measurement results Next Steps Beta-beams 2 #12;Liquid Lithium Stripper for FRIB: Advantages

McDonald, Kirk

34

Infrared Thermography in High Level Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site is a Department of Energy, government-owned, company-operated industrial complex built in the 1950s to produce materials used in nuclear weapons. Five reactors were built to support the production of nuclear weapons material. Irradiated materials were moved from the reactors to one of the two chemical separation plants. In these facilities, known as ''canyons,'' the irradiated fuel and target assemblies were chemically processed to separate useful products from waste. Unfortunately, the by-product waste of nuclear material production was a highly radioactive liquid that had to be stored and maintained. In 1993 a strategy was developed to implement predictive maintenance technologies in the Liquid Waste Disposition Project Division responsible for processing the liquid waste. Responsibilities include the processing and treatment of 51 underground tanks designed to hold 750,000 to1,300,000 gallons of liquid waste and operation of a facility that vitrifies highly radioactive liquid waste into glass logs. Electrical and mechanical equipment monitored at these facilities is very similar to that found in non-nuclear industrial plants. Annual inspections are performed on electrical components, roof systems, and mechanical equipment. Troubleshooting and post installation and post-maintenance infrared inspections are performed as needed. In conclusion, regardless of the industry, the use of infrared thermography has proven to be an efficient and effective method of inspection to help improve plant safety and reliability through early detection of equipment problems.

GLEATON, DAVIDT.

2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

35

High Thermal Gradient Directional Solidification with Liquid Metal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, High Thermal Gradient Directional Solidification with Liquid Metal Cooling and Its Application in the Processing of Nickel-Based Superalloys.

36

Selection of liquid-level monitoring method for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive liquid low-level waste tanks, remedial investigation/feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Several of the inactive liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory contain residual wastes in liquid or solid (sludge) form or both. A plan of action has been developed to ensure that potential environmental impacts from the waste remaining in the inactive LLLW tank systems are minimized. This document describes the evaluation and selection of a methodology for monitoring the level of the liquid in inactive LLLW tanks. Criteria are established for comparison of existing level monitoring and leak testing methods; a preferred method is selected and a decision methodology for monitoring the level of the liquid in the tanks is presented for implementation. The methodology selected can be used to continuously monitor the tanks pending disposition of the wastes for treatment and disposal. Tanks that are empty, are scheduled to be emptied in the near future, or have liquid contents that are very low risk to the environment were not considered to be candidates for installing level monitoring. Tanks requiring new monitoring equipment were provided with conductivity probes; tanks with existing level monitoring instrumentation were not modified. The resulting data will be analyzed to determine inactive LLLW tank liquid level trends as a function of time.

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system.

Siemens, D.H.; Heath, W.O.; Larson, D.E.; Craig, S.N.; Berger, D.N.; Goles, R.W.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

High throughput liquid absorption preconcentrator sampling instrument  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container comprising a wettable material. The wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid which flows from one part of the container to a lower end. Sampled air flows through the container in contact with the wetted material with a swirling motion which results in efficient transfer of analyte vapors or aerosol particles to the sorbing liquid and preconcentration of traces of analyte in the liquid. The preconcentrated traces of analyte may be either detected within the container or removed therefrom for injection into a separate detection means or for subsequent analysis. 12 figs.

Zaromb, S.; Bozen, R.M.

1990-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

39

A High Temperature Liquid Plasma Model of the Sun  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, a liquid model of the Sun is presented wherein the entire solar mass is viewed as a high density/high energy plasma. This model challenges our current understanding of the densities associated with the internal layers of the Sun, advocating a relatively constant density, almost independent of radial position. The incompressible nature of liquids is advanced to prevent solar collapse from gravitational forces. The liquid plasma model of the Sun is a non-equilibrium approach, where nuclear reactions are free to occur throughout the solar mass. The primary means of addressing internal heat transfer are convection and conduction. As a result of the convective processes on the solar surface, the liquid model brings into question the established temperature of the solar photosphere by highlighting a violation of Kirchhoff's law of thermal emission. Along these lines, the model emphasizes that radiative emission is a surface phenomenon. Strong evidence is provided that the Sun is a high density/high energy liquid plasma. This evidence is based on our knowledge of Planckian thermal emission and condensed matter, including the existence of pressure ionization and liquid metallic hydrogen at high temperatures and pressures. The equations of magnetohydrodynamics are invoked as the proper vehicle for the understanding od stellar convection and structure. Prior to introducing the liquid plasma model, the historic and scientific justifications for the gaseous model of the Sun are reviewed and the gaseous equations of state are also discussed.

Pierre-Marie Robitaille

2004-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

40

A variation aware high level synthesis framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The worst-case delay/power of function units has been used in traditional high level synthesis to facilitate design space exploration. As technology scales to nanometer regime, the impact of process variations increases. The degree of variability encountered ...

Feng Wang; Guangyu Sun; Yuan Xie

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Electron mobility on the surface of liquid Helium: influence of surface level atoms and depopulation of lowest subbands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temperature dependence of electron mobility is examined. We calculate the contribution to the electron scattering rate from the surface level atoms (SLAs), proposed in [10]. This contribution is substantial at low temperatures T electron mobility at high temperature. The results explain certain long-standing discrepancies between the existing theory and experiment on electron mobility on the surface of liquid helium.

Grigoriev, P. D., E-mail: grigorev@itp.ac.ru; Dyugaev, A. M. [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation); Lebedeva, E. V. [Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Southern Research Institute Project Number: FE0010231 Project Description Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, called syngas, into liquid hydrocarbons. It is a leading technology for converting syngas derived from gasification of coal and coal-biomass mixtures to hydrocarbons in coal to liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes. However, conventional FTS catalysts produce undesirable waxes (C21+) that need to be upgraded to liquids (C5-C20) by hydrotreating. This adds significantly to the cost of FTS. The objectives of this project are (i) to demonstrate potential for CBTL cost reduction by maximizing the production of C5-C20 hydrocarbon liquids using a selective FTS catalyst and (ii) to evaluate the impacts of the addition of biomass to coal on product characteristics, carbon foot print, and economics.

43

A Software Architecture for High Level Applications  

SciTech Connect

A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

Shen,G.

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

44

Review of High Level Waste Tanks Ultrasonic Inspection Data  

SciTech Connect

A review of the data collected during ultrasonic inspection of the Type I high level waste tanks has been completed. The data was analyzed for relevance to the possibility of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion. The review of the Type I tank UT inspection data has confirmed that the vapor space general corrosion is not an unusually aggressive phenomena and correlates well with predicted corrosion rates for steel exposed to bulk solution. The corrosion rates are seen to decrease with time as expected. The review of the temperature data did not reveal any obvious correlations between high temperatures and the occurrences of leaks. The complex nature of temperature-humidity interaction, particularly with respect to vapor corrosion requires further understanding to infer any correlation. The review of the waste level data also did not reveal any obvious correlations.

Wiersma, B

2006-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

45

Liquidity Constraints and High Electricity Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with the subsidy cost recovered in the pricing of larger levels of electricity use. As an illustration, Figure 1 below shows a hypothetical two-part tari¤ for Northern Ireland. It shows a price below the current ?at rate tari¤ up to 200 KWh per month and a higher... this assumption is generally true (i.e. there is a positive correlation between income and electricity use) ca 20% of households in Northern Ireland with an annual income of £ 20,000 or less consume more than 375 KWh per month ?which is, their consumption lies...

Brutscher, Philipp-Bastian

2011-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

46

High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

McLaren, L.H. (ed.) [ed.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

CERTA, P.J.

2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

48

High-level radioactive waste management alternatives  

SciTech Connect

A summary of a comprehensive overview study of potential alternatives for long-term management of high-level radioactive waste is presented. The concepts studied included disposal in geologic formations, disposal in seabeds, disposal in ice caps, disposal into space, and elimination by transmutation. (TFD)

1974-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

High-Level Real-Time Concurrency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary goal of all real-time systems is predictability. Achieving this goal requires all levels of the system to be well de ned and have a xed worst-case execution time. These needs have resulted in the creation of overly restrictive commercial real-time systems providing only ad-hoc scheduling facilities and basic concurrent functionality. Ad-hoc scheduling makes developing, verifying, and maintaining a real-time system extremely dicult and time consuming. Basic concurrent functionality forces programmers to develop complex concurrent programs without the aid of high-level concurrency features.

Ashif S. Harji; C Ashif S. Harji

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

The CMS High-Level Trigger  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the 'High-Level Trigger'(HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, {tau} leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

Covarelli, R. [CERN, Geneva 1211 (Switzerland)

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

51

Ionic Liquids and Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Species James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 3225-3231 (2010). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request View the video on this Perspective article at The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (5:03) Selected for the ACS Special Virtual Issue on Ionic Liquids (March 2011). Abstract: Due to their unique properties, ionic liquids present many opportunities for basic research on the interactions of radiation with materials under conditions not previously available. At the same time, there are practical applied reasons for characterizing, understanding, and being able to predict how ionic-liquid-based devices and industrial-scale systems will perform under conditions of extreme reactivity, including radiation. This

52

High magnetic field processing of liquid crystalline polymers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of forming bulk articles of oriented liquid crystalline thermoset material, the material characterized as having an enhanced tensile modulus parallel to orientation of an applied magnetic field of at least 25 percent greater than said material processed in the absence of a magnetic field, by curing a liquid crystalline thermoset precursor within a high strength magnetic field of greater than about 2 Tesla, is provided, together with a resultant bulk article of a liquid crystalline thermoset material, said material processed in a high strength magnetic field whereby said material is characterized as having a tensile modulus parallel to orientation of said field of at least 25 percent greater than said material processed in the absence of a magnetic field.

Smith, M.E.; Benicewicz, B.C.; Douglas, E.P.

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

53

High magnetic field processing of liquid crystalline polymers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of forming bulk articles of oriented liquid crystalline thermoset material, the material characterized as having an enhanced tensile modulus parallel to orientation of an applied magnetic field of at least 25 percent greater than said material processed in the absence of a magnetic field, by curing a liquid crystalline thermoset precursor within a high strength magnetic field of greater than about 2 Tesla, is provided, together with a resultant bulk article of a liquid crystalline thermoset material, said material processed in a high strength magnetic field whereby said material is characterized as having a tensile modulus parallel to orientation of said field of at least 25 percent greater than said material processed in the absence of a magnetic field.

Smith, Mark E. (Los Alamos, NM); Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM); Douglas, Elliot P. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Micro-polarimeter for high performance liquid chromatography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A micro-polarimeter interfaced with a system for high performance liquid chromatography, for quantitatively analyzing micro and trace amounts of optically active organic molecules, particularly carbohydrates. A flow cell with a narrow bore is connected to a high performance liquid chromatography system. Thin, low birefringence cell windows cover opposite ends of the bore. A focused and polarized laser beam is directed along the longitudinal axis of the bore as an eluent containing the organic molecules is pumped through the cell. The beam is modulated by air gap Faraday rotators for phase sensitive detection to enhance the signal to noise ratio. An analyzer records the beams's direction of polarization after it passes through the cell. Calibration of the liquid chromatography system allows determination of the quantity of organic molecules present from a determination of the degree to which the polarized beam is rotated when it passes through the eluent.

Yeung, Edward E. (Ames, IA); Steenhoek, Larry E. (Wilmington, DE); Woodruff, Steven D. (Morgantown, WV); Kuo, Jeng-Chung (Skokie, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Development of the Liquid Level Meters for the PandaX Dark Matter Detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The two-phase xenon detector is at the frontier of dark matter direct search. This kind of detector uses liquid xenon as the sensitive target and is operated in two-phase (liquid/gas) mode, where the liquid level needs to be monitored and controlled in sub-millimeter precision. In this paper, we present a detailed design and study of two kinds of level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector. The long level meter is used to monitor the overall liquid level while short level meters are used to monitor the inclination of the detector. These level meters are cylindrical capacitors custom-made from two concentric metal tubes. Their capacitance values are read out by a universal transducer interface chip and recorded by the PandaX slow control system. We present the developments that lead to level meters with long-term stability and sub-millimeter precision. Fluctuations (standard deviations) of less than 0.02 mm for the short level meters and less than 0.2 mm for the long level meter were achieved during a few days of test operation.

J. Hu; H. Gong; Q. Lin; K. Ni; A. Tan; Y. Wei; M. Xiao; X. Xiao; L. Zhao

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

56

Development of the Liquid Level Meters for the PandaX Dark Matter Detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The two-phase xenon detector is at the frontier of dark matter direct search. This kind of detector uses liquid xenon as the sensitive target and is operated in two-phase (liquid/gas) mode, where the liquid level needs to be monitored and controlled in sub-millimeter precision. In this paper, we present a detailed design and study of two kinds of level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector. The long level meter is used to monitor the overall liquid level while short level meters are used to monitor the inclination of the detector. These level meters are cylindrical capacitors custom-made from two concentric metal tubes. Their capacitance values are read out by a universal transducer interface chip and recorded by the PandaX slow control system. We present the developments that lead to level meters with long-term stability and sub-millimeter precision. Fluctuations (standard deviations) of less than 0.02 mm for the short level meters and less than 0.2 mm for the long level meter were achieved during a few...

Hu, J; Lin, Q; Ni, K; Tan, A; Wei, Y; Xiao, M; Xiao, X; Zhao, L

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Issue 5: Optimizing High Levels of Insulation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Issue 5: Optimizing High Levels of Insulation NREL, Ren Anderson Building America Technical Update Meeting July 25 th , 2012 Issue 5 - How Much Insulation is Too Much? How do we define the cost-effective limit for improvements in enclosure efficiency? Key Factors to Consider: -Cost of savings vs. cost of grid-supplied energy -Cost of efficiency savings vs. cost of savings from renewable generation. -Savings from envelope improvements vs. other efficiency options Context * It is widely believed that code-specified insulation levels also represent cost-effective limits. * However, the cost-effective insulation levels exceed IECC values in many climates. * The homeowner-driven value of modest increases in enclosure performance can create economies of scale that will reduce

58

High Level Waste Corporate Board Charter  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

on 24 July 2008 1 on 24 July 2008 1 Office of Environmental Management High-Level Waste Corporate Board Charter Purpose This Charter establishes the High- Level Waste (HLW) Corporate Board, (hereinafter referred to as the 'Board') within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The Board will serve as a consensus building body to integrate the Department of Energy (DOE) HLW management and disposition activities across the EM program and, with the coordination and cooperation of other program offices, across the DOE complex. The Board will identify the need for and develop policies, planning, standards and guidance and provide the integration necessary to implement an effective and efficient national HLW program. The Board will also evaluate the implications of HLW issues and their

59

High-Level Waste Melter Study Report  

SciTech Connect

At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

60

High-Level Waste Melter Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is faced with a massive cleanup task in resolving the legacy of environmental problems from years of manufacturing nuclear weapons. One of the major activities within this task is the treatment and disposal of the extremely large amount of high-level radioactive (HLW) waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The current planning for the method of choice for accomplishing this task is to vitrify (glassify) this waste for disposal in a geologic repository. This paper describes the results of the DOE-chartered independent review of alternatives for solidification of Hanford HLW that could achieve major cost reductions with reasonable long-term risks, including recommendations on a path forward for advanced melter and waste form material research and development. The potential for improved cost performance was considered to depend largely on increased waste loading (fewer high-level waste canisters for disposal), higher throughput, or decreased vitrification facility size.

Ahearne, J.; Gentilucci, J.; Pye, L. D.; Weber, T.; Woolley, F.; Machara, N. P.; Gerdes, K.; Cooley, C.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

Agostino, L.; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Bauer, G.; /MIT, LNS; Beccati, B.; /CERN; Behrens, U.; /DESY; Berryhil, J.; Biery, K.; /Fermilab; Bose, T.; /Boston U.; Brett, A.; /Fermilab; Branson, J.; /UC, San Diego; Cano, E.; /CERN; Cheung, H.; /Fermilab /CERN /LLNL, Livermore /Minnesota U.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Ultrasonic liquid-level detector for varying temperature and pressure environments  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use in varying temperature and pressure environments, such as a pressurized water nuclear reactor vessel, is provided. The detector employs ultrasonic extensional and torsional waves launched in a multiplexed alternating sequence into a common sensor. The sensor is a rectangular cross section stainless steel rod which extends into the liquid medium whose level is to be detected. The sensor temperature derived from the extensional wave velocity measurements is used to compensate for the temperature dependence of the torsional wave velocity measurements which are also level dependent. The torsional wave velocity measurements of a multiple reflection sensor then provide a measurement of liquid level over a range of several meters with a small uncertainty over a temperature range of 20 to 250/sup 0/C and pressures up to 15 MPa.

Anderson, R.L.; Miller, G.N.

1981-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

63

High Hydrogen, Low Methane Syngas from Low-Rank Coals for Coal-to-Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Hydrogen, Low Methane Syngas from Low-Rank Coals for Coal-to-Liquids Production High Hydrogen, Low Methane Syngas from Low-Rank Coals for Coal-to-Liquids Production Southern Research Institute (SRI) Project Number: FE0012054 Project Description The focus of the project will be to develop, test, and optimize steam-reforming catalysts for converting tars, C2+ hydrocarbons, NH3, and CH4 in high-temperature and sulfur environments, increasing the ratio of hydrogen in syngas, as part of a modified, advanced gasification platform for the conversion of low-rank coals to syngas for coal-to-liquid and integrated gasification combined cycle applications. Project Details Program Background and Project Benefits Project Scope and Technology Readiness Level Accomplishments Contacts, Duration, and Cost Project Images Abstract Performer website: Southern Research Institute

64

EIS-0287: Idaho High-Level Waste & Facilities Disposition | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Idaho High-Level Waste & Facilities Disposition 7: Idaho High-Level Waste & Facilities Disposition EIS-0287: Idaho High-Level Waste & Facilities Disposition SUMMARY This EIS analyzes the potential environmental consequences of alternatives for managing high-level waste (HLW) calcine, mixed transuranic waste/sodium bearing waste (SBW) and newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in liquid and solid forms. This EIS also analyzes alternatives for the final disposition of HLW management facilities at the INEEL after their missions are completed. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD January 12, 2010 EIS-0287: Amended Record of Decision Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition January 4, 2010

65

EIS-0287: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement, EIS-0287 (September 2002) EIS-0287: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement, EIS-0287 (September 2002) This EIS analyzes the potential environmental consequences of alternatives for managing high-level waste (HLW) calcine, mixed transuranic waste/sodium bearing waste (SBW) and newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in liquid and solid forms. This EIS also analyzes alternatives for the final disposition of HLW management facilities at the INEEL after their missions are completed. Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement, DOE/EIS-0287 (September 2002)

66

The dissociation of liquid silica at high pressure and temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid silica at high pressure and temperature is shown to undergo significant structural modifications and profound changes in its electronic properties. Temperature measurements on shock waves in silica at 70-1000 GPa indicate that the specific heat of liquid SiO{sub 2} rises well above the Dulong-Petit limit, exhibiting a broad peak with temperature that is attributable to the growing structural disorder caused by bond-breaking in the melt. The simultaneous sharp rise in optical reflectivity of liquid SiO{sub 2} indicates that dissociation causes the electrical and therefore thermal conductivities of silica to attain metallic-like values of 1-5 x 10{sup 5} S/m and 24-600 W/m.K respectively.

Hicks, D; Boehly, T; Eggert, J; Miller, J; Celliers, P; Collins, G

2005-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

67

High-temperature liquid--metal MHD generator experiments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Detailed data were obtained for the world's first high-temperature two-phase liquid--metal MHD generator under open-circuit conditions. Both single-phase (sodium) and two-phase (sodium and nitrogen) flows were used in the temperture range of approx. 490 to approx. 740/sup 0/K. The data presented includes pressures, voltages, and slip ratios (ratio of gas velocity to liquid velocity). The two-phase pressure--gradient data were predicted well by a simplified two-phase MHD correlation that includes the effect of a pure-liquid shunt layer between the electrodes. The slip ratio is shown to decrease with increasing temperature, implying higher generator and system efficiencies; this anticipated result was a prime reason for performing these experiments.

Dunn, P.F.; Pierson, E.S.; Staffon, J.D.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

Chu, Chungming; Chevtsov, Sergei; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC; Shen, Guobao; /Brookhaven

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

69

The ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter high level triggers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) detector yields a huge sample of data from different sub-detectors. On-line data processing is applied to select and reduce the volume of the stored data. ALICE applies a multi-level hardware trigger scheme where fast detectors are used to feed a three-level (L0, L1, and L2) deep chain. The High-Level Trigger (HLT) is a fourth filtering stage sitting logically between the L2 trigger and the data acquisition event building. The EMCal detector comprises a large area electromagnetic calorimeter that extends the momentum measurement of photons and neutral mesons up to $p_T=250$ GeV/c, which improves the ALICE capability to perform jet reconstruction with measurement of the neutral energy component of jets. An online reconstruction and trigger chain has been developed within the HLT framework to sharpen the EMCal hardware triggers, by combining the central barrel tracking information with the shower reconstruction (clusters) in the calorimeter. In the present report the status and the functionality of the software components developed for the EMCal HLT online reconstruction and trigger chain will be discussed, as well as preliminary results from their commissioning performed during the 2011 LHC running period.

F. Ronchetti; F. Blanco; M. Figueredo; A. G. Knospe; L. Xaplanteris for the ALICE HLT Collaboration

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

70

High accuracy electronic material level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: 1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, 2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, 3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or "ghost" reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

A High Power Liquid Hydrogen Target for Parity Violation Experiments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Parity-violating electron scattering measurements on hydrogen and deuterium, such as those underway at the Bates and CEBAF laboratories, require luminosities exceeding 10{sup 38} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, resulting in large beam power deposition into cryogenic liquid. Such targets must be able to absorb 500 watts or more with minimal change in target density. A 40 cm long liquid hydrogen target, designed to absorb 500 watts of beam power without boiling, has been developed for the SAMPLE experiment at Bates. In recent tests with 40 {micro}A of incident beam, no evidence was seen for density fluctuations in the target, at a sensitivity level of better than 1%. A summary of the target design and operational experience will be presented.

Mark, John W.

2003-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

72

High-level waste tank farm set point document  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The setpoint document will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DPSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope.

Anthony, J.A. III

1995-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

Umbra's High Level Architecture (HLA) Interface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes Umbra's High Level Architecture HLA library. This library serves as an interface to the Defense Simulation and Modeling Office's (DMSO) Run Time Infrastructure Next Generation Version 1.3 (RTI NG1.3) software library and enables Umbra-based models to be federated into HLA environments. The Umbra library was built to enable the modeling of robots for military and security system concept evaluation. A first application provides component technologies that ideally fit the US Army JPSD's Joint Virtual Battlespace (JVB) simulation framework for Objective Force concept analysis. In addition to describing the Umbra HLA library, the report describes general issues of integrating Umbra with RTI code and outlines ways of building models to support particular HLA simulation frameworks like the JVB.

GOTTLIEB, ERIC JOSEPH; MCDONALD, MICHAEL J.; OPPEL III, FRED J.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

SunShot Initiative: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Operating Temperature Liquid High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards

75

A VERY HIGH LEVEL NEUTRAL BEAM CONTROL SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Level Neutial Beam Control System we have elucidated theseHigh Level Neutral Beam Control System 8!. References 1. V.High-Level Neutral-Beam Control System Victor Elischer Van

Elischer, V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

High speed shadowgraphy for the study of liquid drops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Creating Panoramic and Object Images, Library of Congress, ISBN: 978-0-165-34223-8, p 38. Hutchings I M, Martin G D and Hoath S D, (2007) Journal of Imaging Science and Technology 51(5), 438-444. Jones A R, (1977) Progress in Energy and Combustion... High speed shadowgraphy for the study of liquid drops José Rafael Castrejón-Pita, Rafael Castrejón-García§, Ian Hutchings Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, CB3 0FS, 17 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge, United Kingdom...

Castrejon-Pita, J.R.; Castrejon-Garcia, R.; Hutchings, I.M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Liquid low-level waste generation projections for ORNL in 1993  

SciTech Connect

Liquid low-level waste (LLLW) is generated by various programs and projects throughout Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These wastes are collected in underground collection tanks, bottles, and trucks; they are then neutralized with sodium hydroxide and treated for volume reduction at the ORNL evaporator facility. This report presents historical and projected data concerning the volume and characterization of LLLW, prior to and after evaporation. Storage space for projected waste generation is also discussed.

DePaoli, S.M.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Meeting Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Meeting March 13, 2006 - 11:48am Addthis...

79

High-level verification of system designs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Re?nement Checking of CSP Programs 6.8.2 SPARK: High-Levelcompression for model- checking csp or how to check 1020state-of-the-art tool to check CSP re? nements. The approach

Kundu, Sudipta

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

New methods for determination of interstitial liquid levels in Hanford waste tanks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The key to the leak detection program for many tanks at Hanford is the method used to evaluate the apparent interstitial liquid interface (ILL) within the pore space of the solid waste medium (either crystalline or sludge). Three new approaches were introduced in the summer of 1993 (count rate, derivative, and sigmoid), all of which significantly improved the accuracy and repeatability of interstitial liquid level values from neutron survey data. This paper summarizes the three new methods and details a case study in which, as a direct result of this improved analysis, a tank that had been declared an ``assumed leaker`` was reclassified as ``sound`` for the first time in Hanford`s 50 year history.

Barnes, D.A.; Raymond, R.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Whitney, P.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

JET MIXING ANALYSIS FOR SRS HIGH-LEVEL WASTE RECOVERY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank to ensure uniformity of the discharge stream. Mixing is accomplished with one to four slurry pumps located within the tank liquid. The slurry pump may be fixed in position or they may rotate depending on the specific mixing requirements. The high-level waste in Tank 48 contains insoluble solids in the form of potassium tetraphenyl borate compounds (KTPB), monosodium titanate (MST), and sludge. Tank 48 is equipped with 4 slurry pumps, which are intended to suspend the insoluble solids prior to transfer of the waste to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) process. The FBSR process is being designed for a normal feed of 3.05 wt% insoluble solids. A chemical characterization study has shown the insoluble solids concentration is approximately 3.05 wt% when well-mixed. The project is requesting a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) mixing study from SRNL to determine the solids behavior with 2, 3, and 4 slurry pumps in operation and an estimate of the insoluble solids concentration at the suction of the transfer pump to the FBSR process. The impact of cooling coils is not considered in the current work. The work consists of two principal objectives by taking a CFD approach: (1) To estimate insoluble solids concentration transferred from Tank 48 to the Waste Feed Tank in the FBSR process and (2) To assess the impact of different combinations of four slurry pumps on insoluble solids suspension and mixing in Tank 48. For this work, several different combinations of a maximum of four pumps are considered to determine the resulting flow patterns and local flow velocities which are thought to be associated with sludge particle mixing. Two different elevations of pump nozzles are used for an assessment of the flow patterns on the tank mixing. Pump design and operating parameters used for the analysis are summarized in Table 1. The baseline pump orientations are chosen by the previous work [Lee et. al, 2008] and the initial engineering judgement for the conservative flow estimate since the modeling results for the other pump orientations are compared with the baseline results. As shown in Table 1, the present study assumes that each slurry pump has 900 gpm flowrate for the tank mixing analysis, although the Standard Operating Procedure for Tank 48 currently limits the actual pump speed and flowrate to a value less than 900 gpm for a 29 inch liquid level. Table 2 shows material properties and weight distributions for the solids to be modeled for the mixing analysis in Tank 48.

Lee, S.

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

82

A Measurement of the Absorption of Liquid Argon Scintillation Light by Dissolved Nitrogen at the Part-Per-Million Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a measurement of the absorption length of scintillation light in liquid argon due to dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million (ppm) level. We inject controlled quantities of nitrogen into a high purity volume of liquid argon and monitor the light yield from an alpha source. The source is placed at different distances from a cryogenic photomultiplier tube assembly. By comparing the light yield from each position we extract the absorption cross section of nitrogen. We find that nitrogen absorbs argon scintillation light with strength of $(1.51\\pm 0.15)\\times10^{-4} \\;\\mathrm{cm^{-1} ppm^{-1}}$, corresponding to an absorption cross section of $(7.14 \\pm 0.74)\\times10^{-21}\\;\\mathrm{cm^{2} molecule^{-1}}$. We obtain the relationship between absorption length and nitrogen concentration over the 0 to 50 ppm range and discuss the implications for the design and data analysis of future large liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) detectors. Our results indicate that for a current-generation LArTPC, where a concentration of 2 parts per million of nitrogen is expected, the attenuation length due to nitrogen will be $30 \\pm 3$ meters.

B. J. P. Jones; C. S. Chiu; J. M. Conrad; C. M. Ignarra; T. Katori; M. Toups

2013-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

83

Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts Eisa Engineering at University of New South Wales. #12;1 Introduction Gas-to-liquid (GTL) compounds are clean fuels for converting natural gas to the liquid hydrocarbons [1]. However, the reaction is a complex network of many

New South Wales, University of

84

The High Level Vibration Test Program  

SciTech Connect

As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the PWR primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis. 4 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Kawakami, S. (Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center, Tokyo (Japan))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Fermilab Tevatron high level rf accelerating systems  

SciTech Connect

Eight tuned rf cavities have been installed and operated in the F0 straight section of the Tevatron. Their mechanical placement along the beam line enables them to be operated for colliding beams as two independent groups of four cavities, group 1-4 accelerating antiprotons and group 5-8 accelerating protons. The only difference is that the spacing between cavities 4 and 5 was increased to stay clear of the F0 colliding point. The cavities can easily be rephased by switching cables in a low-level distribution system (fan-out) so that the full accelerating capability of all eight cavities can be used during fixed target operations. Likewise, the cables from capacitive probes on each cavity gap can be switched to proper lengths and summed in a fan-back system to give an rf signal representing the amplitude and phase as ''seen by the beam,'' separately for protons and antiprotons. Such signals have been used to phase lock the Tevatron to the Main Ring for synchronous transfer.

Kerns, Q.; Kerns, C.; Miller, H.; Tawser, S.; Reid, J.; Webber, R.; Wildman, D.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Hydrogen gettering the overpressure gas from highly radioactive liquids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Remediation of current inventories of high-activity radioactive liquid waste (HALW) requires transportation of Type-B quantities of radioactive material, possibly up to several hundred liters. However, the only currently certified packaging is limited to quantities of 50 ml (0.01 gal) quantities of Type-B radioactive liquid. Efforts are under way to recertify the existing packaging to allow the shipment of up to 4 L (1.1 gal) of Type-B quantities of HALW, but significantly larger packaging could be needed in the future. Scoping studies and preliminary designs have identified the feasibility of retrofitting an insert into existing casks, allowing the transport of up to 380 L (100 gal) of HALW. However, the insert design and ultimate certification strategy depend heavily on the gas-generating attributes of the HALW. A non-vented containment vessel filled with HALW, in the absence of any gas-mitigation technologies, poses a deflagration threat and, therefore, gas generation, specifically hydrogen generation, must be reliably controlled during all phases of transportation. Two techniques are available to mitigate hydrogen accumulation: recombiners and getters. Getters have an advantage over recombiners in that oxides are not required to react with the hydrogen. A test plan was developed to evaluate three forms of getter material in the presence of both simulated HALW and the gases that are produced by the HALW. These tests demonstrated that getters can react with hydrogen in the presence of simulated waste and in the presence of several other gases generated by the HALW, such as nitrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide. Although the use of such a gettering system has been shown to be technically feasible, only a preliminary design for its use has been completed. No further development is planned until the requirement for bulk transport of Type-B quantities of HALW is more thoroughly defined.

Riley, D.L. [Walla Walla Coll., College Place, WA (United States). School of Engineering; McCoy, J.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Schicker, J.R. [AlliedSignal Inc. Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, Kansas City, MO (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Studies of Mercury in High Level Waste Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During nuclear weapons production, nuclear reactor target and fuel rods were processed in F- and H-Canyons. For the target rods, a caustic dissolution of the aluminum cladding was performed prior to nitric acid dissolution of the uranium metal targets in the large canyon dissolvers. To dissolve the aluminum cladding and the U-Al fuel, mercury in the form of soluble mercury (II) nitrate was added as a catalyst to accelerate the dissolution of the aluminum. F-Canyon began to process plutonium-containing residues that were packaged in aluminum cans and thus required the use of mercury as a dissolution catalyst. Following processing to remove uranium and plutonium using the solvent extraction process termed the Plutonium-Uranium Recovery by Extraction (PUREX) process, the acidic waste solutions containing fission products and other radionuclides were neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The mercury used in canyon processing is fractionated between the sludge and supernate that is transferred from the canyons to the tank farm. The sludge component of the waste is currently vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The vitrified waste canisters are to be sent to the federal repository for High Level Waste. The mercury in the sludge, presumably in an oxide or hydroxide form is reduced to elemental mercury by the chemical additions and high temperatures, steam stripped and collected in the Mercury Collection Tank. The mercury in the dilute supernate is in the form of mercuric ion and is soluble. During evaporation, the mercuric ion is reduced to elemental mercury, vaporizes into the overheads system and is collected as a metallic liquid in the Mercury Removal Tank.

Wilmarth, W.R.

2003-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

88

APPLICATION OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY POLYMERS FOR THE IMMOBILIZATION AND SOLIDIFICATION OF COMPLEX LIQUID RADWASTE TYPES  

SciTech Connect

The Cold War era created a massive build-up of nuclear weapon stockpiles in the former Soviet Union and the United States. The primary objective during this period was the development of nuclear technologies for weapons, space and power with lack of attention to the impact of radioactive and hazardous waste products on the environment. Effective technologies for radioactive and hazardous waste treatment and disposal were not well investigated or promoted during the arms build-up; and consequently, environmental contamination has become a major problem. These problems in Russia and the United States are well documented. Significant amounts of liquid radwaste have existed since the 1950's. The current government of the Russian Federation is addressing the issues of land remediation and permanent storage of radwaste resulting from internal and external pressures for safe cleanup and storage. The Russian government seeks new technologies from internal sources and from the West that will provide high performance, long term stability, safe for transport and for long-term storage of liquid radwaste at a reasonable economic cost. With the great diversity of liquid chemical compositions and activity levels, it is important to note that these waste products cannot be processed with commonly used methods. Different techniques and materials can be used for this problem resolution including the use of polymer materials that are capable of forming chemically stable, solidified waste products. In 2001, the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (St. Petersburg, Russia) and Pacific World Trade (Indianapolis, Indiana) began an extensive research and test program to determine the effectiveness and performance of high technology polymers for the immobilization and solidification of complex liquid radwaste types generated by the Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom), Russia, organization. The high tech polymers used in the tests were provided by Nochar, Inc. (Indianapolis, Indiana).

Kelley, Dennis; Brunkow, Ward; Pokhitonov, Yuri; Starchenko, Vadim

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

89

Improving polyhedral code generation for high-level synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-level synthesis (HLS) tools are now capable of generating high-quality RTL codes for a number of programs. Nevertheless, for best performance aggressive program transformations are still required to exploit data reuse and enable communication/computation ... Keywords: high-level synthesis, loop tiling, polyhedral compilation

Wei Zuo; Peng Li; Deming Chen; Louis-Noël Pouchet; Shunan Zhong; Jason Cong

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

West Valley Demonstration Project High-Level Waste Management  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DRAFT_19507_1 DRAFT_19507_1 High-Level Waste Management Bryan Bower, DOE Director - WVDP DOE High-Level Waste Corporate Board Meeting Savannah River Site April 1, 2008 West Valley Demonstration Project West Valley Demonstration Project DRAFT_19507_2 West Valley High-Level Waste To solidify the radioactive material from approximately 600,000 gallons of high-level radioactive waste into a durable, high-quality glass, both a pretreatment system to remove salts and sulfates from the waste and a vitrification system/process were designed. To solidify the radioactive material from approximately 600,000 gallons of high-level radioactive waste into a durable, high-quality glass, both a pretreatment system to remove salts and sulfates from the waste and a vitrification system/process were designed.

91

NERC Presentation: Accommodating High Levels of Variable Generation...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

high levels of variable electricity eneration. Variable resources are types of electric power generation that rely on an uncontrolled, "variable" fuel (e.g. wind, sunlight,...

92

SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ocean Research Safety States Supply Chain SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather Safety DataTools Apps Challenges Resources Blogs Let's Talk Safety You are here...

93

HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 4 VARIABILITY STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing for vitrification of High Level Waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in early FY2007. To support this process, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 503 for vitrifying this sludge batch, based on the composition projection provided by the Liquid Waste Organization on June 22, 2006. Frit 418 was also recommended for possible use during the transition from SB3 to SB4. A critical step in the SB4 qualification process is to demonstrate the applicability of the durability models, which are used as part of the DWPF's process control strategy, to the glass system of interest via a variability study. A variability study is an experimentally-driven assessment of the predictability and acceptability of the quality of the vitrified waste product that is anticipated from the processing of a sludge batch. At the DWPF, the durability of the vitrified waste product is not directly measured. Instead, the durability is predicted using a set of models that relate the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response of a glass to the chemical composition of that glass. In addition, a glass sample is taken during the processing of that sludge batch, the sample is transmitted to SRNL, and the durability is measured to confirm acceptance. The objective of a variability study is to demonstrate that these models are applicable to the glass composition region anticipated during the processing of the sludge batch - in this case the Frit 503 - SB4 compositional region. The success of this demonstration allows the DWPF to confidently rely on the predictions of the durability/composition models as they are used in the control of the DWPF process.

Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

94

High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Metal Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids UCLA, UCB, Yale DE-EE0005941 | April 15, 2013 | Ju 1.1 Thermochemistry modeling * Continue CALPHAD based calculations to search for optimal ternary alloy compositions. * Initiate development of liquid density models. 1.2 Combinatorial synthesis and characterization * Pipe-Liquid interaction of compositional library * More alloys, alloy additions and effect on liquidus temperatures * Iteratively optimize the compositions. 1.3 Corrosion characterization and mitigation * Tune static corrosion testing systems for testing over an extended period of time. * Perform analysis of the micro mechanical testing on the oxide layers. 1.4 Heat transfer characterization and modeling * Complete the construction of the flow loop and perform experiments to measure

95

Spectral Density of Cloud Liquid Water Content at High Frequencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aircraft measurements of liquid water content (LWC) made at sampling frequencies of 1 and 2 kHz with a particle volume monitor (PVM) probe from horizontal traverses in stratocumulus clouds during the Southern Ocean Cloud Experiment and cumulus ...

H. Gerber; J. B. Jensen; A. B. Davis; A. Marshak; W. J. Wiscombe

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Update of the management strategy for Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Low-Level Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The strategy for management of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) radioactively contaminated liquid waste was reviewed in 1991. The latest information available through the end of 1990 on waste characterization, regulations, US Department of Energy (DOE) budget guidance, and research and development programs was evaluated to determine how the strategy should be revised. Few changes are needed to update the strategy to reflect new waste characterization, research, and regulatory information. However, recent budget guidance from DOE indicates that minimum funding will not be sufficient to accomplish original objectives to upgrade the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system to comply with the Federal Facilities Agreement, provide long-term LLLW treatment capability, and minimize environmental, safety, and health risks. Options are presented that might allow the ORNL LLLW system to continue operations temporarily, but they would significantly reduce its capabilities to handle emergency situations, provide treatment for new waste streams, and accommodate waste from the Environmental Restoration Program and from decontamination and decommissioning of surplus facilities. These options are also likely to increase worker radiation exposure, risk of environmental insult, and generation of solid waste for on-site and off-site disposal/storage beyond existing facility capacities. The strategy will be fully developed after receipt of additional guidance. The proposed budget limitations are too severe to allow ORNL to meet regulatory requirements or continue operations long term.

Robinson, S.M.; Abraham, T.J.; DePaoli, S.M.; Walker, A.B.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

A Heuristic for Clock Selection in High-Level Synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clock selection has a significant impact on the performance and quality of designs in high-level synthesis. In most synthesis systems, a convenient value of the clock is chosen or exact (and expensive) methods have been used for clock selection. This ... Keywords: high-level synthesis, clock selection, graph structure, design space exploration, heuristics

J. Ramanujam; Sandeep Deshpande; Jinpyo Hong; Mahmut Kandemir

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

High-Level Power Minimization of Analog Sensor Interface Architectures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-level analog design and optimization tool was developed for the architectural synthesis of complex analog systems towards minimal power consumption. In this paper we will illustrate the use of this tool with the high-level design of an analog ...

Stéphane Donnay; Georges Gielen; Willy Sansen

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Preliminary analysis of the ORNL Liquid Low-Level Waste system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to summarize the status of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) Systems Analysis project. The focus of this project has been to collect and tabulate data concerning the LLLW system, analyze the current LLLW system operation, and develop the information necessary for the development of long-term treatment options for the LLLW generated at ORNL. The data used in this report were collected through a survey of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) literature, various letter reports, and a survey of all current LLLW generators. These data are also being compiled in a user friendly database for ORNL-wide distribution. The database will allow the quick retrieval of all information collected on the ORNL LLLW system and will greatly benefit any LLLW analysis effort. This report summarizes the results for the analyses performed to date on the LLLW system.

Abraham, T.J.; DePaoli, S.M.; Robinson, S.M.; Walker, A.B.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

A novel concept for high conversion of coal to liquids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this work is to demonstrate conversion of coal to produce at least 70% by weight of the coal as liquids, with ratios of liquids to gases in excess of 10/1, resulting in low hydrogen consumption and a significant reduction in the cost of producing hydrocarbon liquid fuels from coal. Utilizing a small continuous-flow reactor designed and constructed for this research, the maximum possible ratio of liquids to gases will be defined, operating at short residence times of a few seconds, at the same time converting more than 70% of the carbon in the coal to liquids. The practical ability to attain coal particle center-line temperatures of 500 {degree}C in one second or less, using hot hydrogen gas in turbulent flow, will also be demonstrated. Particle heat-up rates for a few selected system pressures and particle sizes will be determined. Catalysts will be screened and selected for sufficient activity and selectivity. Particle heat-up rates for small coal particles slurried in a super-critical hydrocarbon-type fluid will be examined, using hot hydrogen gas in turbulent flow as the heat transfer medium.

Wiser, W.H.; Shabtai, J.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

National high-level waste systems analysis report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy.

Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

High performance ultracapacitors with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to the use of carbon nanotubes and/or electrolyte structures in various electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors having an ionic liquid electrolyte. The carbon nanotubes are preferably aligned carbon nanotubes. Compared to randomly entangled carbon nanotubes, aligned carbon nanotubes can have better defined pore structures and higher specific surface areas.

Lu, Wen; Henry, Kent Douglas

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

103

High performance batteries with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to lithium-ion batteries in general and more particularly to lithium-ion batteries based on aligned graphene ribbon anodes, V.sub.2O.sub.5 graphene ribbon composite cathodes, and ionic liquid electrolytes. The lithium-ion batteries have excellent performance metrics of cell voltages, energy densities, and power densities.

Lu, Wen (Littleton, CO)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

104

High CO2 Solubility, Permeability and Selectivity in Ionic Liquids with the Tetracyanoborate Anion  

SciTech Connect

Five different ionic liquids containing the tetracyanoborate anion were synthesized and evaluated for CO2 separation performance. Measured CO2 solubility values were exceptionally high compared to analogous ionic liquids with different anions and ranged from 0.128 mol L-1 atm-1 to 0.148 mol L-1 atm-1. In addition, CO2 permeability and CO2/N2 selectivity values were measured using a supported ionic liquid membrane architecture and the separations performance of the ionic liquid membranes exceeded the Robeson upper bound. These results establish the distinct potential of the tetracyanoborate, [B(CN)4], anion for the separation of CO2.

Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Hillesheim, Patrick C [ORNL; Yeary, Joshua S [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then "boil off" or evaporate a neutron.

Parkin, Don M. (Los Alamos, NM); Dudey, Norman D. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

A TWP-ICE High-Level Cloud Case Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A TWP-ICE High-Level Cloud Case Study Mace, Gerald University of Utah Category: Field Campaigns The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP ICE) was conducted near...

107

NERC Presentation: Accommodating High Levels of Variable Generation,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NERC Presentation: Accommodating High Levels of Variable NERC Presentation: Accommodating High Levels of Variable Generation, October 29, 2010 NERC Presentation: Accommodating High Levels of Variable Generation, October 29, 2010 North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) presentation to the Electricity Advisory Committee, October 29, 2010, on accommodating high levels of variable electricity eneration. Variable resources are types of electric power generation that rely on an uncontrolled, "variable" fuel (e.g. wind, sunlight, waves, tidal forces, and some types of rivers) to generate electricity. Most renewablesfall into this category. Reliably integrating these resources into the bulk power system will require significant changes to traditional methods used for system planning and operation. Ongoing efforts brought together by NERC and its stakeholders

108

High-level test synthesis for delay fault testability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-level test synthesis (HLTS) method targeted for delay fault testability is presented. The proposed method, when combined with hierarchical test pattern generation for embedded modules, guarantees 100% delay test coverage for detectable faults ...

Sying-Jyan Wang; Tung-Hua Yeh

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Comments of the Western Interstate Energy Board's High-Level...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Counsel's Notice of Inquiry concerning the preparation of a report to Congress on the Price-Anderson Act. Comments of the Western Interstate Energy Board's High-Level Radioactive...

110

The High-Level Radioactive Waste Act (Manitoba, Canada)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Manitoba bars the storage of high-level radioactive wastes from spent nuclear fuel, not intended for research purposes, that was produced at a nuclear facility or in a nuclear reactor outside the...

111

Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Process  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Process Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Process June 2009 Monica C. Regalbuto Office of Waste Processing DOE/EM Kevin G. Brown Vanderbilt University and CRESP David W. DePaoli Oak Ridge National Laboratory Candido Pereira Argonne National Laboratory John R. Shultz Office of Waste Processing DOE/EM Sahid C. Smith Office of Waste Processing DOE/EM External Technical Review for Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Process June 2009 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Review Team thanks Ms. Sonitza Blanco, Team Lead Planning and Coordination Waste Disposition Project U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Operations Office and Mr. Pete Hill, Liquid Waste Planning Manager for Washington Savannah River Company, for their

112

Preconceptual design study for solidifying high-level waste: Appendices A, B and C West Valley Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a preconceptual design study for processing radioactive high-level liquid waste presently stored in underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York, and for incorporating the radionculides in that waste into a solid. The high-level liquid waste accumulated from the operation of a chemical reprocessing plant by the Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. from 1966 to 1972. The high-level liquid waste consists of approximately 560,000 gallons of alkaline waste from Purex process operations and 12,000 gallons of acidic (nitric acid) waste from one campaign of processing thoria fuels by a modified Thorex process (during this campaign thorium was left in the waste). The alkaline waste contains approximately 30 million curies and the acidic waste contains approximately 2.5 million curies. The reference process described in this report is concerned only with chemically processing the high-level liquid waste to remove radionuclides from the alkaline supernate and converting the radionuclide-containing nonsalt components in the waste into a borosilicate glass.

Hill, O.F. (comp.)

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Microsoft PowerPoint - Ultrasonic Liquid Level ProbeSRNL-L9100-2009-00145TechBriefp1.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Self-Targeting Ultrasonic Self-Targeting Ultrasonic Liquid Level Probe at a glance  U.S. patent 7,802,470  protected ultrasonic transducer  top, side, bottom mount without signal loss  penetrates metals or liquids  audible alarm and LED indicators  reduces or eliminates personnel exposure An ultrasonic transducer is mounted on the "dry" side of a dual chamber well with the beam directed at a "target" located at the far end of the flooded or "wet" side. Internal spring loading maintains a constant level of pressure on the transducer and eliminates air gaps at the interface. When the wet side becomes fully flooded during filling operations, an ultrasonic wave is transmitted through the liquid where it reaches and is reflected by the target returning the wave back to the

114

Water borne transport of high level nuclear waste in very deep borehole disposal of high level nuclear waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to examine the feasibility of the very deep borehole experiment and to determine if it is a reasonable method of storing high level nuclear waste for an extended period of time. The objective ...

Cabeche, Dion Tunick

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Climate Fluctuations and Record-High Levels of Lake Michigan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lake Michigan reached record-high levels during 1985 and 1986 just 10 years after attaining its previous record highs of this century. The climate of the basin has become cloudier and cooler over the past 40 years, loading to decreased ...

Stanley A. Changnon Jr.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Alteration of gas phase ion polarizabilities upon hydration in high dielectric liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the modification of gas phase ion polarizabilities upon solvation in polar solvents and ionic liquids. To this aim, we develop a classical electrostatic theory of charged liquids composed of solvent molecules modeled as finite size dipoles, and embedding polarizable ions that consist of Drude oscillators. In qualitative agreement with ab-initio calculations of polar solvents and ionic liquids, the hydration energy of a polarizable ion in both type of dielectric liquid is shown to favor the expansion of its electronic cloud. Namely, the ion carrying no dipole moment in the gas phase acquires a dipole moment in the liquid environment, but its electron cloud also reaches an enhanced rigidity. We find that the overall effect is an increase of the gas phase polarizability upon hydration. In the specific case of ionic liquids, it is shown that this hydration process is driven by a collective solvation mechanism where the dipole moment of a polarizable ion induced by its interaction with surrounding ions self-consistently adds to the polarization of the liquid, thereby amplifying the dielectric permittivity of the medium in a substantial way. We propose this self-consistent hydration as the underlying mechanism behind the high dielectric permittivities of ionic liquids composed of small charges with negligible gas phase dipole moment. Hydration being a correlation effect, the emerging picture indicates that electrostatic correlations cannot be neglected in polarizable liquids.

Sahin Buyukdagli; Tapio Ala-Nissila

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

117

Convective heat transfer model for determining quench recovery of high temperature superconducting YBCO in liquid nitrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stability of a superconducting magnet is critical for reliable operation of a device in which the magnet plays a role. With the advent of high temperature superconductors (HTS), liquid nitrogen may be used to cool HTS ...

Jankowski, Joseph Edward, 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Pressure Steam Reforming of High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids S. Ahmed, S. Lee, D. Papadias, and R. Kumar November 6, 2007 Laurel, MD Research sponsored by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Rationale and objective Rationale „ Steam reforming of liquid fuels at high pressures can reduce hydrogen compression costs - Much less energy is needed to pressurize liquids (fuel and water) than compressing gases (reformate or H 2 ) „ High pressure reforming is advantageous for subsequent separations and hydrogen purification Objective „ Develop a reformer design that takes advantage of the savings in compression cost in the steam reforming bio-derived liquid fuels - Metric:

119

Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels Gas Technology Institute (GTI) Project Number: FE0011958 Project Description Proof-of-concept of a metal-polymeric...

120

HIGH TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES - SIA RADON EXPERIENCE  

SciTech Connect

This review describes high temperature methods of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) treatment currently used at SIA Radon. Solid and liquid organic and mixed organic and inorganic wastes are subjected to plasma heating in a shaft furnace with formation of stable leach resistant slag suitable for disposal in near-surface repositories. Liquid inorganic radioactive waste is vitrified in a cold crucible based plant with borosilicate glass productivity up to 75 kg/h. Radioactive silts from settlers are heat-treated at 500-700 0C in electric furnace forming cake following by cake crushing, charging into 200 L barrels and soaking with cement grout. Various thermochemical technologies for decontamination of metallic, asphalt, and concrete surfaces, treatment of organic wastes (spent ion-exchange resins, polymers, medical and biological wastes), batch vitrification of incinerator ashes, calcines, spent inorganic sorbents, contaminated soil, treatment of carbon containing 14C nuclide, reactor graphite, lubricants have been developed and implemented.

Sobolev, I.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Lifanov, F.A.; Kobelev, A.P.; Popkov, V.N.; Polkanov, M.A.; Savkin, A.E.; Varlakov, A.P.; Karlin, S.V.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Karlina, O.K.; Semenov, K.N.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Liquid level, void fraction, and superheated steam sensor for nuclear-reactor cores. [PWR; BWR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This disclosure relates to an apparatus for monitoring the presence of coolant in liquid or mixed liquid and vapor, and superheated gaseous phases at one or more locations within an operating nuclear reactor core, such as pressurized water reactor or a boiling water reactor.

Tokarz, R.D.

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

122

Grid Reliability Considerations for High Levels of Demand Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of this white paper are to: (1) consider the unique characteristics of demand response relative to bulk electric system reliability needs and present contributions to system reliability, (2) identify potential bulk electric system reliability impacts of high levels of demand response without appropriate characterization of the resource over time and at increasing penetration levels, and (3) identify research needs to address these impacts so that the potential benefits of DR as system ...

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

123

Pyrochemical treatment of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant high-level waste calcine  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), has reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuels for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1951 to recover uranium, krypton-85, and isolated fission products for interim treatment and immobilization. The acidic radioactive high-level liquid waste (HLLW) is routinely stored in stainless steel tanks and then, since 1963, calcined to form a dry granular solid. The resulting high-level waste (HLW) calcine is stored in seismically hardened stainless steel bins that are housed in underground concrete vaults. A research and development program has been established to determine the feasibility of treating ICPP HLW calcine using pyrochemical technology.This technology is described.

Todd, T.A.; DelDebbio, J.A.; Nelson, L.O.; Sharpsten, M.R.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Surveillance and maintenance plan for the inactive liquid low-level waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ORNL has a total of 54 inactive liquid low-level waste (ILLLW) tanks. In the past, these tanks were used to contain radioactive liquid wastes from various research programs, decontamination operations, and reactor operations. The tanks have since been removed from service for various reasons; the majority were retired because of their age, some due to integrity compromises, and others because they did not meet the current standards set by the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA). Many of the tanks contain residual radioactive liquids and/or sludges. Plans are to remediate all tanks; however, until remediation of each tank, this Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan will be used to monitor the safety and inventory containment of these tanks.

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

External Technical Review for Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process September 2009 Monica C. Regalbuto Office of Waste Processing DOE/EM Kevin G. Brown Vanderbilt University and CRESP David W. DePaoli Oak Ridge National Laboratory Candido Pereira Argonne National Laboratory John R. Shultz Office of Waste Processing DOE/EM External Technical Review for Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process September 2009 Acknowledgements The Review Team thanks Mr. Glyn Trenchard, Team Lead for Planning and Coordination Waste Disposition Project, U.S. Department of Energy--Office of River Protection, Mr. Paul Rutland, RPP System Planning Manager for Washington River Protection Solutions, and Mr. Ernie Lee,

126

High Temperature Ultrasonic Transducers for In-Service Inspection of Liquid Metal Fast Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In-service inspection of liquid metal (sodium) fast reactors requires the use of ultrasonic transducers capable of operating at high temperatures (>200°C), high gamma radiation fields, and the chemically reactive liquid sodium environment. In the early- to mid-1970s, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission supported development of high-temperature, submersible single-element transducers, used for scanning and under-sodium imaging in the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Current work is building on this technology to develop the next generation of high-temperature linear ultrasonic transducer arrays for under-sodium viewing and in-service inspections.

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Harris, Robert V.; Baldwin, David L.; Jones, Anthony M.; Bond, Leonard J.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

127

Ionic liquids and ionic liquid acids with high temperature stability for fuel cell and other high temperature applications, method of making and cell employing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are developments in high temperature fuel cells including ionic liquids with high temperature stability and the storage of inorganic acids as di-anion salts of low volatility. The formation of ionically conducting liquids of this type having conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems is described. The stability of the di-anion configuration is shown to play a role in the high performance of the non-corrosive proton-transfer ionic liquids as high temperature fuel cell electrolytes. Performance of simple H.sub.2(g) electrolyte/O.sub.2(g) fuel cells with the new electrolytes is described. Superior performance both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200.degree. C. are achieved. Both neutral proton transfer salts and the acid salts with HSO.sup.-.sub.4 anions, give good results, the bisulphate case being particularly good at low temperatures and very high temperatures. The performance of all electrolytes is improved by the addition of a small amount of involatile base of pK.sub.a value intermediate between those of the acid and base that make the bulk electrolyte. The preferred case is the imidazole-doped ethylammonium hydrogensulfate which yields behavior superior in all respects to that of the industry standard phosphoric acid electrolyte.

Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Broadview Heights, OH); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Chandler, AZ); Yoshizawa, Masahiro (Tokyo, JP)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

128

Array recovery and high-level transformations for DSP applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Efficient implementation of DSP applications is critical for many embedded systems. Optimizing compilers for application programs, written in C, largely focus on code generation and scheduling, which, with their growing maturity, are providing diminishing ... Keywords: Pointer conversion, dataflow graphs, embedded processors, high-level transformations

Björn Franke; Michael O'boyle

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Exploring high-level features for detecting cyberpedophilia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we suggest a list of high-level features and study their applicability in detection of cyberpedophiles. We used a corpus of chats downloaded from http://www.perverted-justice.com and two negative datasets of different nature: cybersex ... Keywords: Cyberpedophilia, Emotion detection, Sentiment analysis

Dasha Bogdanova, Paolo Rosso, Thamar Solorio

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

A high-level abstraction of shared accesses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe the design and use of the tape mechanism, a new high-level abstraction of accesses to shared data for software DSMs. Tapes consolidate and generalize a number of recent protocol optimizations, including update-based locks ... Keywords: DSM, programming libraries, shared memory, update protocols

Peter J. Keleher

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

THE XAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HIGH LEVEL CONTROL ROOM APPLICATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

XAL is a Java programming framework for building high-level control applications related to accelerator physics. The structure, details of implementation, and interaction between components, auxiliary XAL packages, and the latest modifications are discussed. A general overview of XAL applications created for the SNS project is presented.

Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL; Allen, Christopher K [ORNL; Chu, Paul [Stanford University; Galambos, John D [ORNL; Pelaia II, Tom [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

High-level synthesis of digital microfluidic biochips  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microfluidic biochips offer a promising platform for massively parallel DNA analysis, automated drug discovery, and real-time biomolecular recognition. Current techniques for full-custom design of droplet-based “digital” biochips do not scale ... Keywords: High-level synthesis, biochips, microfluidics, scheduling, system-on-chip

Fei Su; Krishnendu Chakrabarty

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

High Level Waste Corporate Board Newsletter - 09/11/08  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

UPCOMING UPCOMING EVENTS: The Low-Level Waste Federal Review Group (LFRG) in Washington, DC on 16-18 September 2008. Contact Maureen O'Dell for details (MAUREEN.O'DELL@hq.doe.gov) Next High-Level Waste Corporate Board meeting will be held at DOE- RL on 6 November 2008. Meeting details will be presented here and e- mailed to those persons with an interest to participate. Topics for discussion include but are not limited to: ï‚· Results of the Tank Integrity Workshop ï‚· Strategic Initiative Briefing ï‚· Performance Assessment Guide Proposal NEWS ITEMS 3 June 2008: WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy today announced submittal of a License Application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission seeking authorization to construct America's first repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. (http://www.ocrwm.doe.gov) 8

134

Liquid Metal, a Heat Transport Fluid for High Temperature Solar ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The need for high efficiency and direct heat conversion into hydrogen, process heat and energy storage pushes the temperature for solar concentrator systems.

135

Methods for delivering liquid payloads from high altitudes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As part of a military design project, further research was requested into an optimum method for delivering water from high altitude to a civilian population on the ground. This thesis explores current airdrop technology ...

Lipoma, Thomas (Thomas S.)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

High-Performance Supercapacitors Based on Poly(ionic liquid)-Modified  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-Performance Supercapacitors Based on Poly(ionic liquid)-Modified Graphene Electrodes Tae Young for supercapacitor electrodes owing to its low mass density, excellent electronic conduc- tivity, and high surface- sition closely related to graphene, is a prom- ising material for supercapacitor applica- tions

137

Study of liquid gallium at high pressure using synchrotron x-ray  

SciTech Connect

Liquid gallium has been studied at high pressure up to 2 GPa and ambient temperature in a diamond anvil cell using high energy synchrotron x-ray beam. The total x-ray scattering data of liquid gallium were collected up to Q = 12 A{sup -1} and analyzed using pair distribution functions (PDF). The results indicate that the first nearest neighbor peak and second nearest neighbor (shoulder) peak of PDF in liquid gallium does not change with pressure, whereas the higher order (i.e., third and fourth) nearest neighbor peaks shift towards shorter distance with increasing pressure. Reverse Monte Carlo modeling based on the observed data shows that the coordination number in the liquid gallium increases with pressure from 10.5 at 0.3 GPa to 11.6 at 2 GPa. An atomic arrangement similar to the crystalline phase of Ga(II) with coordination number of 12 is proposed for the locally dense-packed rigid unit in liquid gallium. The volume compression data derived from the structure modeling yield a bulk modulus of 12.1(6) GPa for liquid gallium.

Yu, Tony; Guo Quanzhong; Parise, John [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); Chen Jiuhua [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Center for the Study of Matters at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Ehm, Lars [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Huang Shu [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Center for the Study of Matters at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Luo Shengnian [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

High-Level Waste Corporate Board Performance Assessment Subcommittee  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Level Level Waste Corporate Board Performance Assessment Subcommittee John E. Marra, Ph.D. Associate Laboratory Director November 6, 2008 Richland, WA DOE-EM HLW Corporate Board Meeting Background - Performance Assessment Process Performance assessments are the fundamental risk assessment tool used by the DOE to evaluate and communicate the effectiveness and long-term impact of waste management and cleanup decisions. This includes demonstrations of compliance, NEPA analyses, and decisions about technologies and 2 analyses, and decisions about technologies and waste forms. Background - Process Perception EM-2 'Precepts' for Improved High-Level Waste Management (HLW Corporate Board Meeting - April 2008) Improved Performance Assessments (PA) The PA process is not consistently applied amongst the 3 The PA process is not consistently applied amongst the major HLW sites PA

139

High-level waste management technology program plan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

Harmon, H.D.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

High-Level Waste Corporate Board Meeting Agenda  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High-Level Waste Corporate Board High-Level Waste Corporate Board Meeting Agenda Loews Hotel 1065 West Peachtree St, Atlanta, Georgia November 18, 2010 Time Topic Speaker 7:30 AM Closed Session - ratify Charter Board members 8:30 AM Welcome, Introduction, 2011 focus for HLW Corp Board Shirley Olinger 8:50 AM Introduction to Tc/I in Hanford Flowsheet ï‚· Show flowsheet w/ split locations ï‚· Describe recycle of LAW concept ï‚· Discuss baseline assumptions ï‚· Describe subsequent talks using flowsheet figure Gary Smith 9:15 AM Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) ï‚· Tc/I split factors (w/ and w/o recycle) ï‚· Water management (w/ and w/o recycle) Albert Kruger 9:45 AM WTP Melter/Offgas Systems Decontamination Factors ï‚· Re as a stimulant for Tc ï‚· Issues that limit Tc incorporation in LAW glass

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Agenda  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Spring Meeting - May 15, 2012 Hilton Knoxville 501 West Church Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37902-2591 Agenda (Draft #1 - 4/18/12) ______________________________________________________________________________ Tuesday, May 15 - 9:00 AM - 3:30 PM / (need meeting room name) 8:00 a.m. Continental Breakfast - served in meeting room 9:00 a.m. Task Force Business Meeting - John Giarrusso, MEMA and Rich Pinney, NJDEP Co-chairs presiding  Welcome: Introductions; Agenda Review; Announcements  2012 funding  Co-Chair Election  Rules of Procedure  Membership: members & alternates appointment status  Legislative Liaisons  Staff Regional Meeting Attendance

142

Nondestructive examination of DOE high-level waste storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

A number of DOE sites have buried tanks containing high-level waste. Tanks of particular interest am double-shell inside concrete cylinders. A program has been developed for the inservice inspection of the primary tank containing high-level waste (HLW), for testing of transfer lines and for the inspection of the concrete containment where possible. Emphasis is placed on the ultrasonic examination of selected areas of the primary tank, coupled with a leak-detection system capable of detecting small leaks through the wall of the primary tank. The NDE program is modelled after ASME Section XI in many respects, particularly with respects to the sampling protocol. Selected testing of concrete is planned to determine if there has been any significant degradation. The most probable failure mechanisms are corrosion-related so that the examination program gives major emphasis to possible locations for corrosion attack.

Bush, S.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Kassir, M.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; van Rooyen, D.; Weeks, J.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Life Extension of Aging High-Level Waste Tanks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) play a critical role in the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex, and therefore activities are underway to protect and better understand these tanks. The DST Life Extension Program is focused on both tank life extension and on evaluation of tank integrity. Tank life extension activities focus on understanding tank failure modes and have produced key chemistry and operations controls to minimize tank corrosion and extend useful tank life. Tank integrity program activities have developed and applied key technologies to evaluate the condition of the tank structure and predict useful tank life. Program results to date indicate that DST useful life can be extended well beyond the original design life and allow the existing tanks to fill a critical function within the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex. In addition the tank life may now be more reliably predicted, facilitating improved planning for the use and possible future replacement of these tanks.

Bryson, D.; Callahan, V.; Ostrom, M.; Bryan, W.; Berman, H.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

144

RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS  

SciTech Connect

High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

Fox, K.

2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

145

A high power beam-on-target test of liquid lithium target for RIA.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the stable operation of a windowless liquid lithium target under extreme thermal loads that are equivalent to uranium beams from the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The engineering and safety issues accompanying liquid lithium systems are first discussed. The liquid metal technology knowledge base generated primarily for fast reactors, and liquid metal cooled fusion reactors, was applied to the development of these systems in a nuclear physics laboratory setting. The use of a high energy electron beam for simulating a high power uranium beam produced by the RIA driver linac is also described. Calculations were performed to obtain energy deposition profiles produced by electron beams at up to a few MeV to compare with expected uranium beam energy deposition profiles. It was concluded that an experimental simulation using a 1-MeV electron beam would be a valuable tool to assess beam-jet interaction. In the experiments, the cross section of the windowless liquid lithium target was 5 mm x 10 mm, which is a 1/3rd scale prototype target, and the velocity of the liquid lithium was varied up to 6 m/s. Thermal loads up to 20 kW within a beam spot diameter of 1mm were applied on the windowless liquid lithium target by the 1-MeV electron beam. The calculations showed that the maximum power density and total power deposited within the target, from the electron beam, was equivalent to that of a 200-kW, 400-MeV/u uranium beam. It was demonstrated that the windowless liquid lithium target flowing at velocities as low as 1.8 m/s stably operated under beam powers up to 20 kW without disruption or excessive vaporization.

Nolen, J.; Reed, C.; Novick, V.; Specht, J.; Plotkin, P.; Momozaki,Y.; Gomes, I.

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

146

Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

Sattler, L.R.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Disappearance of the Gas-Liquid Phase Transition for Highly Charged Colloids A.-P. Hynninen and A. Z. Panagiotopoulos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Disappearance of the Gas-Liquid Phase Transition for Highly Charged Colloids A.-P. Hynninen and A in a uniform dielectric continuum. We show that the gas-liquid critical point becomes metastable with respect the primitive model, like-charge attraction has been shown to give rise to a gas-liquid phase coexistence [5

149

jet-compressible-gas-july25.tex 1 Liquid jet in a high Mach number air stream  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

jet-compressible-gas-july25.tex 1 Liquid jet in a high Mach number air stream T.Funada, D velocity airstream is studied assuming that the flow of the viscous gas and liquid is irrotational for the perturbations which depend on all the material properties of the incompressible liquid and compressible gas

Joseph, Daniel D.

150

High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of California, Los Angeles, the University of California, Berkeley, and Yale University is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI): High Operating Temperature (HOT) Fluids. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

Not Available

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage  

SciTech Connect

This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist.

Deffenbaugh, M.L.

1997-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

152

The ATLAS High Level Trigger Configuration and Steering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In March 2010 the four LHC experiments saw the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV. Still within the year a collision rate of nearly 10 MHz is expected. At ATLAS, events of potential interest for ATLAS physics are selected by a three level trigger system, with a final recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first level (L1) is implemented in customized hardware, the two levels of the high level trigger (HLT) are software triggers. Within the ATLAS physics program more than 500 trigger signatures are defined. The HLT tests each signature on each L1-accepted event, the test outcome is recorded for later analysis. The HLT-Steering is responsible for this. It foremost ensures the independent test of each signature, guarantying unbiased trigger decisions. Yet, to minimize data readout and execution time, cached detector data and once-calculated trigger objects are reused to form the decision. Some signature tests are performed only on a scaled-down fraction of candidate events, in order to reduce the output rate a...

Stelzer, J; The ATLAS collaboration

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

High Efficiency Liquid-Desiccant Regenerator for Air Conditioning and Industrial Drying  

SciTech Connect

Over 2 quads of fossil fuels are used each year for moisture removal. This includes industrial and agricultural processes where feedstocks and final products must be dried, as well as comfort conditioning of indoor spaces where the control of humidity is essential to maintaining healthy, productive and comfortable working conditions. Desiccants, materials that have a high affinity for water vapor, can greatly reduce energy use for both drying and dehumidification. An opportunity exists to greatly improve the competitiveness of advanced liquid-desiccant systems by increasing the efficiency of their regenerators. It is common practice within the chemical process industry to use multiple stage boilers to improve the efficiency of thermal separation processes. The energy needed to regenerate a liquid desiccant, which is a thermal separation process, can also be reduced by using a multiple stage boiler. In this project, a two-stage regenerator was developed in which the first stage is a boiler and the second stage is a scavenging-air regenerator. The only energy input to this regenerator is the natural gas that fires the boiler. The steam produced in the boiler provides the thermal energy to run the second-stage scavenging-air regenerator. This two-stage regenerator is referred to as a 1?-effect regenerator. A model of the high-temperature stage of a 1?-effect regenerator for liquid desiccants was designed, built and successfully tested. At nominal operating conditions (i.e., 2.35 gpm of 36% lithium chloride solution, 307,000 Btu/h firing rate), the boiler removed 153 lb/h of water from the desiccant at a gas-based efficiency of 52.9 % (which corresponds to a COP of 0.95 when a scavenging-air regenerator is added). The steam leaving the boiler, when condensed, had a solids concentration of less than 10 ppm. This low level of solids in the condensate places an upper bound of about 6 lb per year for desiccant loss from the regenerator. This low loss will not create maintenance problems nor will it significantly increase operating expenses. An energy balance on the boiler showed that heat loss through the insulated jacket was 10%. This value is much higher than the 2% to 5% that is typical of most boilers and indicates a need to better insulate the unit. With insulation that brings jacket losses down to 5%, a 1?-effect regenerator that uses this boiler as its high-temperature stage will have a gas-based COP of 1.05. The estimated cost to manufacture a 300-lb/h, 1?-effect regenerator at 500 units per year is $17,140. Unfortunately, the very high cost for natural gas that now prevails in the U.S. makes it very difficult for a gas-fired LDAC to compete against an electric vapor-compression air conditioner in HVAC applications. However, there are important industrial markets that need very dry air where the high price of natural gas will encourage the sale of a LDAC with the 1?-effect regenerator since in these markets it competes against less efficient gas-fired desiccant technologies. A manufacturer of industrial dehumidification equipment is now negotiating a sales agreement with us that would include the 1?-effect regenerator.

Andrew Lowenstein

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

154

Evaluation of interim and final waste forms for the newly generated liquid low-level waste flowsheet  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this review is to evaluate the final forms that have been proposed for radioactive-containing solid wastes and to determine their application to the solid wastes that will result from the treatment of newly generated liquid low-level waste (NGLLLW) and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Since cesium and strontium are the predominant radionuclides in NGLLLW and MVST supernate, this review is focused on the stabilization and solidification of solid wastes containing these radionuclides in cement, glass, and polymeric materials-the principal waste forms that have been tested with these types of wastes. Several studies have shown that both cesium and strontium are leached by distilled water from solidified cement, although the leachabilities of cesium are generally higher than those of strontium under similar conditions. The situation is exacerbated by the presence of sulfates in the solution, as manifested by cracking of the grout. Additives such as bentonite, blast-furnace slag, fly ash, montmorillonite, pottery clay, silica, and zeolites generally decrease the cesium and strontium release rates. Longer cement curing times (>28 d) and high ionic strengths of the leachates, such as those that occur in seawater, also decrease the leach rates of these radionuclides. Lower cesium leach rates are observed from vitrified wastes than from grout waste forms. However, significant quantities of cesium are volatilized due to the elevated temperatures required to vitrify the waste. Hence, vitrification will generally require the use of cleanup systems for the off-gases to prevent their release into the atmosphere.

Abotsi, G.M.K. [Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States); Bostick, D.T.; Beck, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Development of a method for measuring the density of liquid sulfur at high pressures using the falling-sphere technique  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new method for the in situ measurement of the density of a liquid at high pressure and high temperature using the falling-sphere technique. Combining synchrotron radiation X-ray radiography with a large-volume press, the newly developed falling-sphere method enables the determination of the density of a liquid at high pressure and high temperature based on Stokes' flow law. We applied this method to liquid sulfur and successfully obtained the density at pressures up to 9 GPa. Our method could be used for the determination of the densities of other liquid materials at higher static pressures than are currently possible.

Funakoshi, Ken-ichi; Nozawa, Akifumi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Comparison of selected foreign plans and practices for spent fuel and high-level waste management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the major parameters for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes in selected foreign countries as of December 1989 and compares them with those in the United States. The foreign countries included in this study are Belgium, Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All the countries are planning for disposal of spent fuel and/or high-level wastes in deep geologic repositories. Most countries (except Canada and Sweden) plan to reprocess their spent fuel and vitrify the resultant high-level liquid wastes; in comparison, the US plans direct disposal of spent fuel. The US is planning to use a container for spent fuel as the primary engineered barrier. The US has the most developed repository concept and has one of the earliest scheduled repository startup dates. The repository environment presently being considered in the US is unique, being located in tuff above the water table. The US also has the most prescriptive regulations and performance requirements for the repository system and its components. 135 refs., 8 tabs.

Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Hazelton, R.F.; Bradley, D.J.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by closure operations. Subsequent down selection was based on compressive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity results. Fresh slurry property results were used as the first level of screening. A high range water reducing admixture and a viscosity modifying admixture were used to adjust slurry properties to achieve flowable grouts. Adiabatic calorimeter results were used as the second level screening. The third level of screening was used to design mixes that were consistent with the fill material parameters used in the F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment which was developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closures.

Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

158

Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents.

N. E. Pettit

2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

159

Development of a High Level Waste Tank Inspection System  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center was requested by it`s sister site, West Valley Nuclear Service (WVNS), to develop a remote inspection system to gather wall thickness readings of their High Level Waste Tanks. WVNS management chose to take a proactive approach to gain current information on two tanks t hat had been in service since the early 70`s. The tanks contain high level waste, are buried underground, and have only two access ports to an annular space between the tank and the secondary concrete vault. A specialized remote system was proposed to provide both a visual surveillance and ultrasonic thickness measurements of the tank walls. A magnetic wheeled crawler was the basis for the remote delivery system integrated with an off-the-shelf Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. A development program was initiated for Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to design, fabricate, and test a remote system based on the Crawler. The system was completed and involved three crawlers to perform the needed tasks, an Ultrasonic Crawler, a Camera Crawler, and a Surface Prep Crawler. The crawlers were computer controlled so that their operation could be done remotely and their position on the wall could be tracked. The Ultrasonic Crawler controls were interfaced with ABB Amdata`s I-PC, Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System so that thickness mapping of the wall could be obtained. A second system was requested by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), to perform just ultrasonic mapping on their similar Waste Storage Tanks; however, the system needed to be interfaced with the P-scan Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. Both remote inspection systems were completed 9/94. Qualifications tests were conducted by WVNS prior to implementation on the actual tank and tank development was achieved 10/94. The second inspection system was deployed at WSRC 11/94 with success, and the system is now in continuous service inspecting the remaining high level waste tanks at WSRC.

Appel, D.K.; Loibl, M.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, SC (United States); Meese, D.C. [Westinghouse West Valley Nuclear Services, West Valley, NY (United States)

1995-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

160

Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted.

Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Extreme Chromatography: Faster, Hotter, SmallerChapter 4 High-temperature Liquid Chromatography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extreme Chromatography: Faster, Hotter, Smaller Chapter 4 High-temperature Liquid Chromatography Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books A0E60F9889E91C3C140760EF7AE5F026 AOCS Press Downloadable pdf...

163

High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program`s (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of the HWVP design. The increased capacity requirements for the HLW vitrification plant`s melter prompted the assessment of candidate high-capacity HLW melter technologies to determine the most viable candidates and the required development and testing (D and T) focus required to select the Hanford Site HLW vitrification plant melter system. An assessment process was developed in early 1994. This document describes the assessment team, roles of team members, the phased assessment process and results, resulting recommendations, and the implementation strategy.

Calmus, R.B.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

ATW system impact on high-level waste  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products.

Arthur, E.D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

ATW system impact on high-level waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products.

Arthur, E.D.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report  

SciTech Connect

This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report  

SciTech Connect

This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report  

SciTech Connect

This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Feasibility of high-voltage systems for a very long drift in liquid argon TPCs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Designs of high-voltage (HV) systems for creating a drift electric field in liquid argon TPCs are reviewed. In ongoing experiments systems capable of approx. 100 kV are realised for a drift field of 0.5-1 kV/cm over a length of up to 1.5 m. Two of them having different approaches are presented: (1) the ICARUS-T600 detector having a system consisting of an external power supply, HV feedthroughs and resistive voltage degraders and (2) the ArDM-1t detector having a cryogenic Greinacher HV multiplier inside the liquid argon volume. For a giant scale liquid argon TPC, a system providing 2 MV may be required to attain a drift length of approx. 20 m. Feasibility of such a system is evaluated by extrapolating the existing designs.

Horikawa, S; Kaufmann, L; Laffranchi, M; Marchionni, A; Messina, M; Natterer, G; Rubbia, A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Evaluation of ultrafiltration membranes for treating low-level radioactive contaminated liquid waste  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments were performed on Waste Disposal Facility (WD) influent using Romicon hollow fiber ultrafiltration modules with molecular weight cutoffs ranging from 2000 to 80,000. The rejection of conductivity was low in most cases. The rejection of radioactivity ranged from 90 to 98%, depending on the membrane type and on the feed concentration. Typical product activity ranged from 7 to 100 dis/min/ml of alpha radiation. Experiments were also performed on alpha-contaminated laundry wastewater. Results ranged from 98 to >99.8%, depending on the membrane type. This yielded a product concentration of less than 0.1 dis/min/ml of alpha radiation. Tests on PP-Building decontamination water yielded rejections of 85 to 88% alpha radiation depending on the membrane type. These experiments show that the ability to remove radioactivity by membrane is a function of the contents of the waste stream because the radioactivity in the wastewater is in various forms: ionic, polymeric, colloidal, and absorbed onto suspended solids. Although removal of suspended or colloidal material is very high, removal of ionic material is not as effective. Alpha-contaminated laundry wastewater proved to be the easiest to decontaminate, whereas the low-level PP-Building decontamination water proved to be the most difficult to decontaminate. Decontamination of the WD influent, a combined waste stream, varied considerably from day to day because of its constantly changing makeup. The WD influent was also treated with various substances, such as polyelectrolytes, complexing agents, and coagulants, to determine if these additives would aid in the removal of radioactive material from the various wastewaters by complexing the ionic species. At the present time, none of the additives evaluated has had much effect; but experiments are continuing.

Koenst, J.W.; Roberts, R.C.

1978-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

171

The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) for Producing Hydrogen to Manufacture Liquid Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conventional world oil production is expected to peak within a decade. Shortfalls in production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) from conventional oil sources are expected to be offset by increased production of fuels from heavy oils and tar sands that are primarily located in the Western Hemisphere (Canada, Venezuela, the United States, and Mexico). Simultaneously, there is a renewed interest in liquid fuels from biomass, such as alcohol; but, biomass production requires fertilizer. Massive quantities of hydrogen (H2) are required (1) to convert heavy oils and tar sands to liquid fuels and (2) to produce fertilizer for production of biomass that can be converted to liquid fuels. If these liquid fuels are to be used while simultaneously minimizing greenhouse emissions, nonfossil methods for the production of H2 are required. Nuclear energy can be used to produce H2. The most efficient methods to produce H2 from nuclear energy involve thermochemical cycles in which high-temperature heat (700 to 850 C) and water are converted to H2 and oxygen. The peak nuclear reactor fuel and coolant temperatures must be significantly higher than the chemical process temperatures to transport heat from the reactor core to an intermediate heat transfer loop and from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the chemical plant. The reactor temperatures required for H2 production are at the limits of practical engineering materials. A new high-temperature reactor concept is being developed for H2 and electricity production: the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR). The fuel is a graphite-matrix, coated-particle fuel, the same type that is used in modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs). The coolant is a clean molten fluoride salt with a boiling point near 1400 C. The use of a liquid coolant, rather than helium, reduces peak reactor fuel and coolant temperatures 100 to 200 C relative to those of a MHTGR. Liquids are better heat transfer fluids than gases and thus reduce three temperature losses in the system associated with (1) heat transfer from the fuel to the reactor coolant, (2) temperature rise across the reactor core, and (3) heat transfer across the heat exchangers between the reactor and H2 production plant. Lowering the peak reactor temperatures and thus reducing the high-temperature materials requirements may make the AHTR the enabling technology for low-cost nuclear hydrogen production.

Forsberg, C.W.; Peterson, P.F.; Ott, L.

2004-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

172

Commissioning of the ALICE High-Level Trigger  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new era in experimental nuclear physics has begun with the start-up of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and its dedicated heavy-ion detector system ALICE. Measuring the highest energy density ever produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions, the detector has been designed to study the properties of the created hot and dense medium, assumed to be a Quark-Gluon Plasma. Comprised of 18 high granularity sub-detectors, ALICE delivers data from a few million electronic channels of proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions. The produced data volume can reach up to 26 GByte/s for central Pb–Pb collisions at design luminosity of L = $10^{27} cm^{?2} s^{?1}$ , challenging not only the data storage, but also the physics analysis. A High-Level Trigger (HLT) has been built and commissioned to reduce that amount of data to a storable value prior to archiving with the means of data filtering and compression without the loss of physics information. Implemented as a large high performance compute cluster, the HLT is able to ...

Thäder, Jochen; Lindenstruth, V

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

173

Separating and Stabilizing Phosphate from High-Level Radioactive Waste: Process Development and Spectroscopic Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Removing phosphate from alkaline high-level waste sludges at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State is necessary to increase the waste loading in the borosilicate glass waste form that will be used to immobilize the highly radioactive fraction of these wastes. We are developing a process which first leaches phosphate from the high-level waste solids with aqueous sodium hydroxide, and then isolates the phosphate by precipitation with calcium oxide. Tests with actual tank waste confirmed that this process is an effective method of phosphate removal from the sludge and offers an additional option for managing the phosphorus in the Hanford tank waste solids. The presence of vibrationally active species, such as nitrate and phosphate ions, in the tank waste processing streams makes the phosphate removal process an ideal candidate for monitoring by Raman or infrared spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were acquired for all phases during a test of the process with actual tank waste. Quantitative determination of phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate in the liquid phases was achieved by Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of these species in the tank waste process streams.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Peterson, James M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

174

EIS-0287: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement, EIS-0287 (September 2002) EIS-0287: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final...

175

High Level Waste Corporate Board Newsletter - 06/03/08  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 June 2008 3 June 2008 UPCOMING EVENTS: Next High-Level Waste Corporate Board meeting will be held at DOE-ID on 24 July 2008. Meeting details will be presented here and e-mailed to those persons with an interest to participate. Topics for discussion include: * Strategic Planning Initiative * Technology Development / Needs Collection / Prioritization * Waste Acceptance Product Specification This meeting will include a members-only executive session OTHER NEWS DOE SELECTS WASHINGTON RIVER PROTECTION SOLUTIONS, LLC FOR TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT AT HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), LLC has been selected as the tank operations contractor to store, retrieve and treat Hanford tank

176

Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A necessary step in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed preparation for the immobilization of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) is reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0), permitting steam stripping of the Hg. Denitrition and associated NOx evolution is a secondary effect of the use of formic acid as the mercury-reducing agent. Under certain conditions the presence of transition or noble metals can result in significant formic acid decomposition, with associated CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} evolution. These processes can result in varying redox properties of melter feed, and varying sequential gaseous evolution of oxidants and hydrogen. Electrochemical methods for monitoring the competing processes are discussed. Laboratory scale techniques have been developed for simulating the large-scale reactions, investigating the relative effectiveness of the catalysts, and the effectiveness of catalytic poisons. The reversible nitrite poisoning of formic acid catalysts is discussed.

Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.; Hsu, C.L.W.; Eibling, R.E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

KETUSKY, EDWARD

2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

178

High-spin level scheme of {sup 194}Pb  

SciTech Connect

High-spin states in {sup 194}Pb have been populated in the {sup 168}Er({sup 30}Si,4n) reaction at 142 MeV. The emitted {gamma} rays were detected by the EUROBALL III multidetector array. The level scheme was considerably extended and many previously observed {gamma}-ray transitions were reordered. Four new magnetic rotational bands were observed. The energies and spins of the bandheads of all previously observed magnetic rotational bands were corrected based on the observation of new transitions. From nine observed bands, only one could not be connected to the lower lying states. Based on comparison systematics with neighboring Pb isotopes and tilted-axis cranking model calculations previously reported, configuration assignments to the observed bands have been made.

Kutsarova, T.; Stefanova, E. A.; Minkova, A.; Lalkovski, S.; Korichi, A.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Hannachi, F.; Huebel, H.; Goergen, A.; Jansen, A.; Schoenwasser, G.; Khoo, T. L.; Herskind, B.; Bergstroem, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Podolyak, Z. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, BAS, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia 'St. Kliment Ohridski', BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); CSNSM Orsay, IN2P3/CNRS, F-91405 (France); HISKP, Helmholtz-Institute fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 (Germany); ISKP, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 (Germany); Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nationali di Legnaro (Italy)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

4.5 Meter high level waste canister study  

SciTech Connect

The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Storage and Disposal Project has established the Immobilized High-Level Waste (IBLW) Storage Sub-Project to provide the capability to store Phase I and II BLW products generated by private vendors. A design/construction project, Project W-464, was established under the Sub-Project to provide the Phase I capability. Project W-464 will retrofit the Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB) to accommodate the Phase I I-ILW products. Project W-464 conceptual design is currently being performed to interim store 3.0 m-long BLW stainless steel canisters with a 0.61 in diameter, DOE is considering using a 4.5 in canister of the same diameter to reduce permanent disposal costs. This study was performed to assess the impact of replacing the 3.0 in canister with the 4.5 in canister. The summary cost and schedule impacts are described.

Calmus, R.B., Westinghouse Hanford, Richland, WA

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Development and Deployment of Advanced Corrosion Monitoring Systems for High-Level Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of a collaborative technology development program, sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area, to use electrochemical noise (EN) for corrosion monitoring in underground storage tanks. These tanks, made of carbon or stainless steels, contain high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) generated by weapons production or radioactive liquid waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The term EN is used to describe low frequency fluctuations in current and voltage measurements associated with corrosion. In their most basic form, EN-based corrosion monitoring systems measure and record these fluctuations over time from electrodes immersed in the environment of interest--in this case, radioactive tank waste. The resulting EN signals have characteristic patterns for different corrosion mechanisms. In recent years, engineers and scientists from several DOE sites, in collaboration with several private companies, have conducted laboratory studies and field applications to correlate the EN signals with corrosion mechanisms active in the radioactive waste tanks. The participating DOE sites are Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge Reservation and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The commercial vendors have included HiLine Engineering and Fabrication, Inc., EIC Laboratories, Inc., and AEA Technologies. Successful deployment of the EN technology will yield improved information of waste tank corrosion conditions, better tank management, and lower overall cost.

Terry, M. T.; Edgemon, G. L.; Mickalonis, J. I.; Mizia, R. E.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Development and deployment of advanced corrosion monitoring systems for high-level waste tanks.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the results of a collaborative technology development program, sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area, to use electrochemical noise (EN) for corrosion monitoring in underground storage tanks. These tanks, made of carbon or stainless steels, contain high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) generated by weapons production or radioactive liquid waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The term EN is used to describe low frequency fluctuations in current and voltage measurements associated with corrosion. In their most basic form, EN-based corrosion monitoring systems measure and record these fluctuations over time from electrodes immersed in the environment of interest - in this case, radioactive tank waste. The resulting EN signals have characteristic patterns for different corrosion mechanisms. In recent years, engineers and scientists from several DOE sites, in collaboration with several private companies, have conducted laboratory studies and field applications to correlate the EN signals with corrosion mechanisms active in the radioactive waste tanks. The participating DOE sites are Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge Reservation and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The commercial vendors have included HiLine Engineering and Fabrication, Inc., EIC Laboratories, Inc., and M A Technologies. Successful deployment of the EN technology will yield improved information of waste tank corrosion conditions, better tank management, and lower overall cost.

Terry, M. T. (Michael T.); Edgemon, G. L. (Glenn L.); Mickalonis, J. I. (John I.); Mizia, R. E. (Ronald E.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

MEASUREMENTS TAKEN IN SUPPORT OF QUALIFICATION OF PROCESSING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE LOW-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE INTO SALTSTONE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Saltstone Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) immobilizes low-level liquid waste into Saltstone to be disposed of in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, Class Three Landfill. In order to meet the permit conditions and regulatory limits set by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), both the low-level salt solution and Saltstone samples are analyzed quarterly. Waste acceptance criteria (WAC) are designed to confirm the salt solution sample from the Tank Farm meets specific radioactive and chemical limits. The toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) is used to confirm that the treatment has immobilized the hazardous constituents of the salt solution. This paper discusses the methods used to characterize the salt solution and final Saltstone samples from 2007-2009.

Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, C.; Cozzi, A.; Staub, A.; Ray, J.

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

183

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip Advanced Computer Science 120 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) Credit

Programme Csad

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip Computer Science 120 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) Credit

unknown authors

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials will be selected for the disposal container inner and outer cylinders. The two metal cylinders, in combination with the Emplacement Drift System, drip shield, and natural barrier, will support the design philosophy of defense-in-depth. The use of materials with different properties prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The inner cylinder and inner cylinder lids will be constructed of stainless steel and the outer cylinder and outer cylinder lids will be a barrier made of high-nickel alloy. The defense HLW disposal container interfaces with the emplacement drift environment and the internal waste by transferring heat from the canisters to the external environment and by protecting the canisters and their contents from damage/degradation by the external environment. The disposal container also interfaces with the canisters by limiting access of moderator and oxidizing agents to the waste. A loaded and sealed disposal container (waste package) interfaces with the Emplacement Drift System's emplacement drift waste package supports upon which the waste packages are placed. The disposal container interfaces with the Canister Transfer System, Waste Emplacement /Retrieval System, Disposal Container Handling System, and Waste Package Remediation System during loading, handling, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval for the disposal container/waste package.

NONE

2000-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

186

High level waste facilities -- Continuing operation or orderly shutdown  

SciTech Connect

Two options for Environmental Impact Statement No action alternatives describe operation of the radioactive liquid waste facilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The first alternative describes continued operation of all facilities as planned and budgeted through 2020. Institutional control for 100 years would follow shutdown of operational facilities. Alternatively, the facilities would be shut down in an orderly fashion without completing planned activities. The facilities and associated operations are described. Remaining sodium bearing liquid waste will be converted to solid calcine in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) or will be left in the waste tanks. The calcine solids will be stored in the existing Calcine Solids Storage Facilities (CSSF). Regulatory and cost impacts are discussed.

Decker, L.A.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target  

SciTech Connect

A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

Halfon, S. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel) and Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Feinberg, G. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel) and Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

188

High energy gas fracture experiments in liquid-filled boreholes: potential geothermal application  

SciTech Connect

High Energy Gas Fracturing is a tailored pulse fracturing technique which uses propellants to obtain controlled fracture initiation and extension. Borehole pressurization rates can be tailored, by suitable choice of propellants, to produce four or eight fractures radiating from the wellbore. High Energy Gas Fracture (HEGF) research is conducted at DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS) in a tunnel complex where experiments can be done under realistic in situ stress conditions (1400 psi (9.7 MPa) overburden stress). Pressure measurements are made in the test borehole during all fracturing experiments. Experiments are mined back to provide direct observation of fracturing obtained. The initial objective of HEGF research was to develop multiple fracturing technology for application in gas well stimulation. HEGF research at NTS and in Devonian shale demonstration tests has resulted in a completed technology for multiple fracturing in uncased, liquid-free wellbores. Current resarch is directed toward extending the technique to liquid-filled boreholes for application in geothermal in addition to gas and oil wells. For liquid-free boreholes, multiple fracturing is specified in terms of pressure risetime required for a given borehole diameter. Propellants are mixed to achieve the desired risetime using a semiempirical mixing equation. The same techniques were successfully applied to fracturing in liquid-filled wellbores. However, the addition of liquid in the borehole results in a significantly more complicated fracturing behavior. Hydrodynamic effects are significant. Multiple fractures are initiated but only some propagated. Multiple- and hydraulic-type fracturing and wellbore crushing have been observed in the same experiment. The potential of using HEGB for geothermal well stimulation has been demonstrated through the present experiments. 18 refs., 40 figs., 4 tabs.

Cuderman, J.F.; Chu, T.Y.; Jung, J.; Jacobson, R.D.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter high-level waste solidification technical manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical manual summarizes process and equipment technology developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory over the last 20 years for vitrification of high-level liquid waste by the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process. Pacific Northwest Laboratory experience includes process development and demonstration in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale equipment using nonradioactive synthetic wastes. Also, laboratory- and pilot-scale process demonstrations have been conducted using actual high-level radioactive wastes. In the course of process development, more than 26 tonnes of borosilicate glass have been produced in 75 canisters. Four of these canisters contained radioactive waste glass. The associated process and glass chemistry is discussed. Technology areas described include calciner feed treatment and techniques, calcination, vitrification, off-gas treatment, glass containment (the canister), and waste glass chemistry. Areas of optimization and site-specific development that would be needed to adapt this base technology for specific plant application are indicated. A conceptual Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter system design and analyses are provided in the manual to assist prospective users in evaluating the process for plant application, to provide equipment design information, and to supply information for safety analyses and environmental reports. The base (generic) technology for the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process has been developed to a point at which it is ready for plant application.

Larson, D.E. (ed.)

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

650 mm long liquid hydrogen target for use in a high intensity electron beam  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes a 650 mm long liquid hydrogen targetr constructed for use in the high intensity electron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The main design problem was to construct a target that would permit the heat deposited by the electron beam to be removed rapidly without boiling the hydrogen so as to maintain constant target density for optimum data taking. Design requirements, cosntruction details and operating experience are discussed.

Mark, J.W.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

650 mm long liquid hydrogen target for use in a high intensity electron beam  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes a 650 mm long liquid hydrogen target constructed for use in the high intensity electron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The main design problem was to construct a target that would permit the heat deposited by the electron beam to be removed rapidly without boiling the hydrogen so as to maintain constant target density for optimum data taking. Design requirements, construction details and operating experience are discussed.

Mark, J.W.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy of liquid water: novel instrumentation, high resolution, and the"map" approach  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Techniques to study the electronic structure of liquids are rare. Most recently, resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has been shown to be an extremely versatile spectroscopy to study both occupied and unoccupied electronic states for liquids in thermodynamic equilibrium. However, XES requires high-brilliance soft x-ray synchrotron radiation and poses significant technical challenges to maintain a liquid sample in an ultra-high vacuum environment. Our group has therefore developed and constructed a novel experimental setup for the study of liquids, with the long-term goal of investigating the electronic structure of biological systems in aqueous environments. We have developed a flow-through liquid cell in which the liquid is separated from vacuum by a thin Si3N4 or SiC window and which allows a precise control of temperature. This approach has significant advantages compared to static liquids cells used in the past. Furthermore, we have designed a dedicated high-transmission, high-resolution soft x-ray spectrometer. The high transmission makes it possible to measure complete resonant XES"maps" in less than an hour, giving unprecedented detailed insight into the electronic structure of the investigated sample. Using this new equipment we have investigated the electronic structure of liquid water. Furthermore, our XES spectra and maps give information about ultra-fast dissociation on the timescale of the O 1s core hole lifetime, which is strongly affected by the initial state hydrogen bonding configuration.

Weinhardt, L.; Fuchs, O.; Blum, M.; Bär, M.; Weigand, M.; Denlinger, J.D.; Zubavichus, Y.; Zharnikov, M.; Grunze, M.; Heske, C.; Umbach, E.

2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

193

Hanford high-level waste melter system evaluation data packages  

SciTech Connect

The Tank Waste Remediation System is selecting a reference melter system for the Hanford High-Level Waste vitrification plant. A melter evaluation was conducted in FY 1994 to narrow down the long list of potential melter technologies to a few for testing. A formal evaluation was performed by a Melter Selection Working Group (MSWG), which met in June and August 1994. At the June meeting, MSWG evaluated 15 technologies and selected six for more thorough evaluation at the Aug. meeting. All 6 were variations of joule-heated or induction-heated melters. Between the June and August meetings, Hanford site staff and consultants compiled data packages for each of the six melter technologies as well as variants of the baseline technologies. Information was solicited from melter candidate vendors to supplement existing information. This document contains the data packages compiled to provide background information to MSWG in support of the evaluation of the six technologies. (A separate evaluation was performed by Fluor Daniel, Inc. to identify balance of plant impacts if a given melter system was selected.)

Elliott, M.L.; Shafer, P.J.; Lamar, D.A.; Merrill, R.A.; Grunewald, W.; Roth, G.; Tobie, W.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

Mendel, J.E. (compiler)

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

THE HIGH-ENERGY IMPULSIVE GROUND-LEVEL ENHANCEMENT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have studied short-lived (21 minute average duration), highly anisotropic pulses of cosmic rays that constitute the first phase of 10 large ground-level enhancements (GLEs), and which extend to rigidities in the range 5-20 GV. We provide a set of constraints that must be met by any putative acceleration mechanism for this type of solar-energetic-particle (SEP) event. The pulses usually have very short rise-times (three to five minutes) at all rigidities, and exhibit the remarkable feature that the intensity drops precipitously by 50% to 70% from the maximum within another three to five minutes. Both the rising and falling phases exhibit velocity dispersion, which indicates that there are particles with rigidities in the range 1 90 MeV gamma-ray bursts, indicating that freshly accelerated SEPs had impinged on higher-density matter in the chromosphere prior to the departure of the SEP pulse for Earth. This study was based on an updated archive of the 71 GLEs in the historic record, which is now available for public use.

McCracken, K. G. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Moraal, H. [Centre for Space Research, School for Physical and Chemical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Shea, M. A. [CSPAR, University of Alabama at Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

196

High Level Waste Feed Certification in Hanford Double Shell Tanks  

SciTech Connect

The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE’s River Protection Project (RPP) mission modeling and WTP facility modeling assume that individual 3785 cubic meter (1 million gallon) HLW feed tanks are homogenously mixed, representatively sampled, and consistently delivered to the WTP. It has been demonstrated that homogenous mixing of HLW sludge in Hanford DSTs is not likely achievable with the baseline design thereby causing representative sampling and consistent feed delivery to be more difficult. Inconsistent feed to the WTP could cause additional batch to batch operational adjustments that reduces operating efficiency and has the potential to increase the overall mission length. The Hanford mixing and sampling demonstration program will identify DST mixing performance capability, will evaluate representative sampling techniques, and will estimate feed batch consistency. An evaluation of demonstration program results will identify potential mission improvement considerations that will help ensure successful mission completion. This paper will discuss the history, progress, and future activities that will define and mitigate the mission risk.

Thien, Micheal G.; Wells, Beric E.; Adamson, Duane J.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Potential for erosion corrosion of SRS high level waste tanks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SRS high-level radioactive waste tanks will not experience erosion corrosion to any significant degree during slurry pump operations. Erosion corrosion in carbon steel structures at reported pump discharge velocities is dominated by electrochemical (corrosion) processes. Interruption of those processes, as by the addition of corrosion inhibitors, sharply reduces the rate of metal loss from erosion corrosion. The well-inhibited SRS waste tanks have a near-zero general corrosion rate, and therefore will be essentially immune to erosion corrosion. The experimental data on carbon steel erosion corrosion most relevant to SRS operations was obtained at the Hanford Site on simulated Purex waste. A metal loss rate of 2.4 mils per year was measured at a temperature of 102 C and a slurry velocity comparable to calculated SRS slurry velocities on ground specimens of the same carbon steel used in SRS waste tanks. Based on these data and the much lower expected temperatures, the metal loss rate of SRS tanks under waste removal and processing conditions should be insignificant, i.e. less than 1 mil per year.

Zapp, P.E.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels in the hydroceramic grout process (i.e., 21 m) appears to be about the same as that estimated by the Direct Cementitious Waste Process in 1998, for which a conceptual design was developed. Some of the conceptual design efforts in the 1998 study may be applicable to the stabilizer processes addressed in this EDF. (e) The gamma radiation fields near the process vessels handling HLW calcine would vary from a range of about 300-350 R/hr at a distance of 2.5 cm from the side of the vessels to a range of about 50-170 R/hr at a distance of 100 cm from the side of the vessels. The calculations were made for combined calcine, which was defined as the total HLW calcine inventory uniformly mixed. (f) The gamma radiation fields near the stabilized waste in canisters would range from about 25-170 R/hr at 2.5 cm from the side of the canister and 5-35 R/hr at 100 cm from the side of the canister, depending on the which bin set was the source of calcine.

T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as neutron-producing target and beam dump by removing the beam thermal power (>5 kW, >1 MW/cm3) with fast transport. The target was designed based on a thermal model, accompanied by a detailed calculation of the 7Li(p,n) neutron yield, energy distribution and angular distribution. Liquid lithium is circulated through the target loop at ~200oC and generates a stable 1.5 mm-thick film flowing at a velocity up to 7 m/s onto a concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power areal densities of > 4 kW/cm2 and volume power density of ~ 2 MW/cm3 at a lithium flow of ~4 m/s while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. The LiLiT setup is presently in online commissioning stage for high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91- 2.5 MeV, 1-2 mA) at SARAF.

S. Halfon; A. Arenshtam; D. Kijel; M. Paul; D. Berkovits; I. Eliyahu; G. Feinberg; M. Friedman; N. Hazenshprung; I. Mardor; A. Nagler; G. Shimel; M. Tessler; I. Silverman

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

200

Liquidus Temperature Studies for High Level Nuclear Waste Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Determining Thermal Conductivity of Simulated Feed for High Level ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

202

High-Level Waste Corporate Board Performance Assessment Subcommittee  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Level Waste Corporate Board Performance Assessment Community of Practice John E. Marra, Ph.D. Associate Laboratory Director 21 May 2009 Denver, CO Office of Waste Processing...

203

Level 1 Tornado PRA for the High Flux Beam Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a risk analysis primarily directed at providing an estimate for the frequency of tornado induced damage to the core of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), and thus it constitutes a Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) covering tornado induced accident sequences. The basic methodology of the risk analysis was to develop a ``tornado specific`` plant logic model that integrates the internal random hardware failures with failures caused externally by the tornado strike and includes operator errors worsened by the tornado modified environment. The tornado hazard frequency, as well as earlier prepared structural and equipment fragility data, were used as input data to the model. To keep modeling/calculational complexity as simple as reasonable a ``bounding`` type, slightly conservative, approach was applied. By a thorough screening process a single dominant initiating event was selected as a representative initiator, defined as: ``Tornado Induced Loss of Offsite Power.`` The frequency of this initiator was determined to be 6.37E-5/year. The safety response of the HFBR facility resulted in a total Conditional Core Damage Probability of .621. Thus, the point estimate of the HFBR`s Tornado Induced Core Damage Frequency (CDF) was found to be: (CDF){sub Tornado} = 3.96E-5/year. This value represents only 7.8% of the internal CDF and thus is considered to be a small contribution to the overall facility risk expressed in terms of total Core Damage Frequency. In addition to providing the estimate of (CDF){sub Tornado}, the report documents, the relative importance of various tornado induced system, component, and operator failures that contribute most to (CDF){sub Tornado}.

Bozoki, G.E.; Conrad, C.S.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

High-Level Waste Systems Plan. Revision 7  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This revision of the High-Level Waste (HLW) System Plan aligns SRS HLW program planning with the DOE Savannah River (DOE-SR) Ten Year Plan (QC-96-0005, Draft 8/6), which was issued in July 1996. The objective of the Ten Year Plan is to complete cleanup at most nuclear sites within the next ten years. The two key principles of the Ten Year Plan are to accelerate the reduction of the most urgent risks to human health and the environment and to reduce mortgage costs. Accordingly, this System Plan describes the HLW program that will remove HLW from all 24 old-style tanks, and close 20 of those tanks, by 2006 with vitrification of all HLW by 2018. To achieve these goals, the DWPF canister production rate is projected to climb to 300 canisters per year starting in FY06, and remain at that rate through the end of the program in FY18, (Compare that to past System Plans, in which DWPF production peaked at 200 canisters per year, and the program did not complete until 2026.) An additional $247M (FY98 dollars) must be made available as requested over the ten year planning period, including a one-time $10M to enhance Late Wash attainment. If appropriate resources are made available, facility attainment issues are resolved and regulatory support is sufficient, then completion of the HLW program in 2018 would achieve a $3.3 billion cost savings to DOE, versus the cost of completing the program in 2026. Facility status information is current as of October 31, 1996.

Brooke, J.N.; Gregory, M.V.; Paul, P.; Taylor, G.; Wise, F.E.; Davis, N.R.; Wells, M.N.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, Yucca Mountain was designated as the site to be investigated as a potential repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain site is an undeveloped area located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The site currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way. If the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for the repository, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) Program because of the potential of rail transportation to reduce costs and to reduce the number of shipments relative to highway transportation. A Preliminary Rail Access Study evaluated 13 potential rail spur options. Alternative routes within the major options were also developed. Each of these options was then evaluated for potential land use conflicts and access to regional rail carriers. Three potential routes having few land use conflicts and having access to regional carriers were recommended for further investigation. Figure 1-1 shows these three routes. The Jean route is estimated to be about 120 miles long, the Carlin route to be about 365 miles long, and Caliente route to be about 365 miles long. The remaining ten routes continue to be monitored and should any of the present conflicts change, a re-evaluation of that route will be made. Complete details of the evaluation of the 13 routes can be found in the previous study. The DOE has not identified any preferred route and recognizes that the transportation issues need a full and open treatment under the National Environmental Policy Act. The issue of transportation will be included in public hearings to support development of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) proceedings for either the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility or the Yucca Mountain Project or both.

D.C. Richardson

2003-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

206

Development of high temperature liquid lubricants for low-heat rejection heavy duty diesel engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objective was to develop a liquid lubricant that will allow advanced diesel engines to operate at top ring reversal temperatures approaching 500 C and lubricant sump temperatures approaching 250 C. Base stock screening showed that aromatic esters and diesters has the lowest deposit level, compared to polyol esters, poly-alpha-olefins, or refined mineral oil of comparable viscosity. Classical aryl and alkyl ZDP antiwear additives are ineffective in reducing wear with aromatic esters; the phosphate ester was a much better antiwear additive, and polyol esters are more amenable to ZDP treatment. Zeolites and clays were evaluated for filtration.

Wiczynski, T.A.; Marolewski, T.A.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

Coburn, T.T.

1988-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

208

High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

Coburn, Thomas T. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Colloidal Nanocrystal Growth Mechanisms using Graphene Liquid Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Growth Mechanisms using Graphene Liquid Cells Jong Min Yuk,Legends Fig. S1. Preparation of a graphene liquid cell. (fabrication processes of the graphene liquid cell. (B) SEM

Yuk, Jong Min

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

A Scalable Methodology for Cost Estimation in a Transformational High-Level Design Space Exploration Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Objective of the methodology presented in this paper is to perform design space exploration on a high level of abstraction by applying high-level transformations. To realize a design loop which is close and settled on upper design levels, a high-level estimation step is integrated. In this paper, several estimation methodologies fixed on different states of the high-level synthesis process are examined with respect to their aptitude on controlling the transformational design space exploration process.

Gerlach

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

High level waste interim storge architecture selection - decision report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has embarked upon a course to acquire Hanford Site tank waste treatment and immobilization services using privatized facilities (RL 1996a). This plan contains a two-phased approach. Phase I is a proof-of-principle/connnercial demonstration- scale effort and Phase II is a fiill-scale production effort. In accordance with the planned approach, interim storage and disposal of various products from privatized facilities are to be DOE fumished. The high-level waste (BLW) interim storage options, or alternative architectures, were identified and evaluated to provide the framework from which to select the most viable method of Phase I BLW interim storage (Calmus 1996). This evaluation, hereafter referred to as the Alternative Architecture Evaluation, was performed to established performance and risk criteria (technical merit, cost, schedule, etc.). Based on evaluation results, preliminary architectures and path forward reconunendations were provided for consideration in the architecture decision- maldng process. The decision-making process used for selection of a Phase I solidified BLW interim storage architecture was conducted in accordance with an approved Decision Plan (see the attachment). This decision process was based on TSEP-07,Decision Management Procedure (WHC 1995). The established decision process entailed a Decision Board, consisting of Westinghouse Hanford Company (VY`HC) management staff, and included appointment of a VTHC Decision Maker. The Alternative Architecture Evaluation results and preliminary recommendations were presented to the Decision Board members for their consideration in the decision-making process. The Alternative Architecture Evaluation was prepared and issued before issuance of @C-IP- 123 1, Alternatives Generation and Analysis Procedure (WI-IC 1996a), but was deemed by the Board to fully meet the intent of WHC-IP-1231. The Decision Board members concurred with the bulk of the Alternative Architecture Evaluation results and recommendations. However, the Board required changes to some criteria definitions and weightings in establishing its own recommendation basis. This report documents information presented to the Decision Board, and the Decision Board`s recommendations and basis for these recommendations. The Board`s recommendations were fully adopted by the WHC Decision Maker, R. J. Murkowski, Manager, TWRS Storage and Disposal. The Decision Board`s recommendation is as follows. The Phase I BLW Interim storage concept architecture will use Vaults 2 and 3 of the Hanford Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building, being located in the Hanford Site 200 East Area, and include features to faciliate addition of one or more vaults at a later date.

Calmus, R.B.

1996-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

212

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 180 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip in Advanced Computer Science with

Programme Csci

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

SunShot Initiative: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids UCLA logo University of California Berkeley logo Yale logo Four graphics in a grid that represent the sputtering technique being used in this project. Combinatorial screening and high throughput characterization of materials will be used to identify, develop, and demonstrate metal alloys that meet the MURI HOT Fluids targets suitable for CSP applications. The University of California, Los Angeles, the University of California, Berkeley, and Yale University The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), along with partners at the University of California, Berkeley, and Yale University, under the 2012 Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI): High Operating Temperature (HOT) Fluids funding opportunity, is investigating the use of metal alloys as a heat transfer fluid (HTF) in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems operating at temperatures in excess of 800°C. By allowing higher temperature operation, CSP systems can achieve greater efficiencies and thereby reduce the overall cost of electricity production.

214

Development of ultrafiltration and inorganic adsorbents for reducing volumes of low-level and intermediate-level liquid waste. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1976  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate separation methods for removing radionuclides from liquid process waste streams. As part of this program, Mound Laboratory will develop lower cost alternatives for use i n1980 fuel reprocessing and waste solidification plants, evaluate the processes within the nuclear fuel cycle which contribute to low-level and intermediate-level waste, and determine the feasibility of ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, inorganic adsorbents and other separation concepts as additions to process design to reduce the generation of this type of waste. In the initial phase of this program, membrane equipment will be obtained from a commercial membrane manufacturer. After the pilot plant is installed, it will be checked out on cold feed in order to obtain initial flux and rejection data for comparison to data obtained later in the program. After completion of the cold tests, the membrane pilot plant will be run on a combined contaminated feed emanating from showers, laboratory drains, janitorial sinks and decontamination in processing areas, as well as a laundry waste stream containing alpha-contaminated wastes. This combined waste stream contains only alpha contamination (uranium and plutonium). However, as part of this program, gamma activity will be added to the waste stream. These wastes will be representative of those streams found at fuel reprocessing plants, as well as various ERDA processing facilities such as Mound, LASL, Hanford, and Rocky Flats. For the second part of the program, laboratory tests will be run on various adsorbents to evaluate their capacities for removing radionuclides. As part of this program, a technique for screening adsorbents developed at Mound Laboratory will be utilized.

1976-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

215

The Use of Routine Weather Observations to Calculate Liquid Water Content in Summertime High-Elevation Fog  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper represents a stage within a larger project to estimate acid ion deposition from cloud impacting on high-elevation forests. Acid ion deposition depends principally on three factors: the liquid water content (LWC), the ion concentration(...

John L. Walmsley; William R. Burrows; Robert S. Schemenauer

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Extreme Chromatography: Faster, Hotter, SmallerChapter 5 High-efficiency Liquid Chromatography Separations Achieved by Monolithic Silica Columns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extreme Chromatography: Faster, Hotter, Smaller Chapter 5 High-efficiency Liquid Chromatography Separations Achieved by Monolithic Silica Columns Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books AOCS Press Downloada

217

Cholesterol and Phytosterol Oxidation ProductsChapter 4 Determination of Cholesterol Oxidation Products by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cholesterol and Phytosterol Oxidation Products Chapter 4 Determination of Cholesterol Oxidation Products by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health -

218

Alpha and gamma radiation effects on air-water systems at high gas/liquid ratios  

SciTech Connect

Radiolysis tests were conducted on air-water systems to examine the effects of radiation on liquid phase chemistry under high gas/liquid volume (G/L) ratios that are characteristic of an unsaturated nuclear waste repository setting. Test parameters included temperatures of 25, 90, and 200{degrees}C; gamma vs. alpha radiation; dose rates of {approximately}3500 and 50,000 rad/h; and G/L ratios of 10 and 100. Formate, oxalate, and total organic carbon contents increased during irradiation of the air-water systems in gamma and alpha tests at low-dose rate ({approximately}3500 rad/h). Increases in organic components were not observed for tests run at 200{degrees}C or high-dose rates (50,000 rad/h). In the tests where increases in organics occurred, the formate and oxalate were preferentially enriched in solutions that were rinsed from the test vessel walls. Nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is the dominant anion produced during the radiolysis reactions. Significant nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) also occurs in some high-dose rate tests, with the reduced form of nitrogen possibly resulting from reactions with the test vessels. These results indicate that nitrogen acids are being produced and concentrated in the limited quantities of solution present in the tests. Nitrate + nitrite production varied inversely with temperature, with the lowest quantities being detected for the higher temperature tests. The G(NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} + NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) values for the 25, 90, and 200{degrees}C experiments with gamma radiation are 3.2 {+-} 0.7, 1.3 {+-} 1.0, and 0.4 {+-} 0.3, respectively. Thus, the elevated temperatures expected early in the life of a repository may counteract pH decreases resulting from nitrogen acid production. Little variation was observed in G values as a function of dose rate or gas/liquid ratio.

Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

PSA results for Hanford high level waste Tank 101-SY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) that includes consideration of external events for the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases (``burps``) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is underway in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. This PSA for Tank 101-SY, which did not consider the pump experiment or future tank-remediation activities, involved three distinct tasks. First, the accident sequence analysis identified and quantified those potential accidents whose consequences result in tank material release. Second, characteristics and release paths for the airborne and liquid radioactive source terms were determined. Finally, the consequences, primarily onsite and offsite potential health effects resulting from radionuclide release, were estimated, and overall risk curves were constructed. An overview of each of these tasks and a summary of the overall results of the analysis are presented in the following sections.

MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Development of Crystal-Tolerant High-Level Waste Glasses  

SciTech Connect

Twenty five glasses were formulated. They were batched from HLW AZ-101 simulant or raw chemicals and melted and tested with a series of tests to elucidate the effect of spinel-forming components (Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, and Zn), Al, and noble metals (Rh2O3 and RuO2) on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the high-level waste (HLW) melter. In addition, the processing properties of glasses, such as the viscosity and TL, were measured as a function of temperature and composition. Furthermore, the settling of spinel crystals in transparent low-viscosity fluids was studied at room temperature to access the shape factor and hindered settling coefficient of spinel crystals in the Stokes equation. The experimental results suggest that Ni is the most troublesome component of all the studied spinel-forming components producing settling layers of up to 10.5 mm in just 20 days in Ni-rich glasses if noble metals or a higher concentration of Fe was not introduced in the glass. The layer of this thickness can potentially plug the bottom of the riser, preventing glass from being discharged from the melter. The noble metals, Fe, and Al were the components that significantly slowed down or stopped the accumulation of spinel at the bottom. Particles of Rh2O3 and RuO2, hematite and nepheline, acted as nucleation sites significantly increasing the number of crystals and therefore decreasing the average crystal size. The settling rate of ?10-?m crystal size around the settling velocity of crystals was too low to produce thick layers. The experimental data for the thickness of settled layers in the glasses prepared from AZ-101 simulant were used to build a linear empirical model that can predict crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass. The developed model predicts the thicknesses of accumulated layers quite well, R2 = 0.985, and can be become an efficient tool for the formulation of the crystal-tolerant HLW glasses for higher waste loading. A physical modeling effort revealed that the Stokes and Richardson-Zaki equations can be used to adequately predict the accumulation rate of spinel crystals of different sizes and concentrations in the glass discharge riser of HLW melters. The determined shape factor for the glass beads was only 0.73% lower than the theoretical shape factor for a perfect sphere. The shape factor for the spinel crystals matched the theoretically predicted value to within 10% and was smaller than that of the beads, given the larger drag force caused by the larger surface area-to-volume ratio of the octahedral crystals. In the hindered settling experiments, both the glass bead and spinel suspensions were found to follow the predictions of the Richardson-Zaki equation with the exponent n = 3.6 and 2.9 for glass beads and spinel crystals, respectively.

Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Schaible, Micah J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Arrigoni, Alyssa L.; Tate, Rachel M.

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Gas-liquid transition in the model of particles interacting at high energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An application of the ideas of the inertial confinement fusion process in the case of particles interacting at high energy is investigated. A possibility of the gas-liquid transition in the gas is considered using different approaches. In particular, a shock wave description of interactions between particles is studied and a self-similar solution of Euler's equation is discussed. Additionally, Boltzmann equation is solved for self-consistent field (Vlasov's equation) in linear approximation for the case of a gas under external pressure and the corresponding change of Knudsen number of the system is calculated.

S. Bondarenko; K. Komoshvili

2012-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

222

Knudsen-Hydrodynamic Crossover in Liquid 3He in High Porosity Aerogel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the drag force acting on a high porosity aerogel immersed in liquid ${}^3$He and its effect on sound propagation. The drag force is characterized by the Knudsen number, which is defined as the ratio of the quasiparticle mean free path to the radius of an aerogel strand. Evidence of the Knudsen-hydrodynamic crossover is clearly demonstrated by a drastic change in the temperature dependence of ultrasound attenuation in 98% porosity aerogel. Our theoretical analysis shows that the frictional sound damping caused by the drag force is governed by distinct laws in the two regimes, providing excellent agreement with the experimental observation.

Takeuchi, H; Nagai, K; Choi, H C; Moon, B H; Masuhara, N; Meisel, M W; Lee, Y; Mulders, N

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

High-throughput liquid-absorption air-sampling apparatus and methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler [PHTLAAS] has an asymmetric air inlet through which air is drawn upward by a small and light-weight centrifugal fan driven by a direct current motor that can be powered by a battery. The air inlet is so configured as to impart both rotational and downward components of motion to the sampled air near said inlet. The PHTLAAS comprises a glass tube of relatively small size through which air passes at a high rate in a swirling, highly turbulent motion, which facilitates rapid transfer of vapors and particulates to a liquid film covering the inner walls of the tube. The pressure drop through the glass tube is <10 cm of water, usually <5 cm of water. The sampler's collection efficiency is usually >20% for vapors or airborne particulates in the 2-3.mu. range and >50% for particles larger than 4.mu.. In conjunction with various analyzers, the PHTLAAS can serve to monitor a variety of hazardous or illicit airborne substances, such as lead-containing particulates, tritiated water vapor, biological aerosols, or traces of concealed drugs or explosives.

Zaromb, Solomon (95706 William Dr., Hinsdale, IL 60521)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Production Cost Modeling for High Levels of Photovoltaics Penetration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this report is to evaluate the likely avoided generation, fuels, and emissions resulting from photovoltaics (PV) deployment in several U.S. locations and identify new tools, methods, and analysis to improve understanding of PV impacts at the grid level.

Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Milford, J.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Event:World Bank-High-Level Dialogue on International Architecture...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bank-High-Level Dialogue on International Architecture to Scale-up Low-Emissions Development Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png World Bank-High-Level Dialogue on...

226

A ghost fluid, level set methodology for simulating multiphase electrohydrodynamic flows with application to liquid fuel injection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we present the development of a sharp numerical scheme for multiphase electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flows for a high electric Reynolds number regime. The electric potential Poisson equation contains EHD interface boundary conditions, which ... Keywords: Conservative level set, DNS, Electrohydrodynamics, Ghost fluid method, Multiphase flow, Primary atomization

B. P. Van Poppel; O. Desjardins; J. W. Daily

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

HIGH-TEMPERATURE LIQUID-METAL TECHNOLOGY REVIEW. A Bimonthly Technical Progress Review. Volume 1, No. 6  

SciTech Connect

Information is included on: sodium-heated steam generntor development; thermodynamic properties of K and Nb- Zr alloy; engineering properties of K and Cs; research on cavitation and cavitation damage in liquid metals, Hg and H/sub 2/ O, and mechanical pump impellers operating in liquid metal space power loops; sodium pumps and loops; 15 kw solar mechanical engine; sodium cold traps; reactor development; liquid metals technology of Hg, K, Na, NaK, Rb, and Cs; liquid metal heat and mass transfe r; heat rejection problems in nuclear space power plants; SPUR program; effects of high temperature Na on austenitic and ferritic steels; structural materials in LASL liquid sodium systems; LAMPRE program; twostage potassium test turbine; and application of nuclear electrical power to manned orbiting space stations. (P.C.H.)

1963-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Energy Performance and Comfort Level in High Rise and Highly Glazed Office Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal and visual comfort in buildings play a significant role on occupants' performance but on the other hand achieving energy savings and high comfort levels can be a quite difficult task especially in high rise buildings with highly glazed facades. Many studies suggest that the energy needed to keep the interior conditions at required comfort levels in buildings depends on several factors such as physical and optical properties of building elements, indoor and outdoor climate and behaviour of the occupants, etc. Moreover depending on the different orientation of building facade, the impact of these parameters might vary. The buildings are usually designed without paying much attention to this fact. The needs of each building zone might differ greatly and in order to achieve better indoor environment, different actions might be needed to taken considering the individual characteristics of each zone. In the proposed research the possibilities of evaluating building energy and comfort performance simultaneously taking into account the impact of facade orientation with use of whole building energy simulation tools are investigated through a case study.

Bayraktar, M.; Perino, M.; Yilmaz, A. Z.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Locations of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Map of the United States of America showing the locations of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste.

231

Sulfate Retention in High Level Nuclear Waste Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Materials Solutions for the Nuclear Renaissance ... Atomistic Simulations of Radiation Effects in Ceramics for Nuclear Waste Disposal ... Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Applications.

232

Effective scheduling techniques for high-level parallel programming languages.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? In the not-so-distant past, parallel programming was mostly the concern of programmers specializing in high-performance computing. Nowadays, on the other hand, many of today's… (more)

Rainey, Michael Alan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

The development of high performance online tracker for High Level Trigger of Muon Spectrometer of ALICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Muon Spectrometer (MS) of the ALICE experiment at LHC is equipped with a HLT (High Level Trigger), whose aim is to improve the accuracy of the trigger cuts delivered at the L0 stage. A computational challenge of real-time event reconstruction is satisfied to achieve this software trigger cut of the HLT. After the description of the online algorithms, the performance of the online tracker is compared with that of the offline tracker using the measured pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV.

Indranil Das

2011-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

234

The development of high performance online tracker for High Level Trigger of Muon Spectrometer of ALICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Muon Spectrometer (MS) of the ALICE experiment at LHC is equipped with a HLT (High Level Trigger), whose aim is to improve the accuracy of the trigger cuts delivered at the L0 stage. A computational challenge of real-time event reconstruction is satisfied to achieve this software trigger cut of the HLT. After the description of the online algorithms, the performance of the online tracker is compared with that of the offline tracker using the measured pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV.

Das, Indranil

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

A high power liquid hydrogen target for the Mainz A4 parity violation experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new powerful liquid hydrogen target developed for the precise study of parity violating electron scattering on hydrogen and deuterium. This target has been designed to have minimal target density fluctuations under the heat load of a 20$\\mu$A CW 854.3 MeV electron beam without rastering the electron beam. The target cell has a wide aperture for scattered electrons and is axially symmetric around the beam axis. The construction is optimized to intensify heat exchange by a transverse turbulent mixing in the hydrogen stream, which is directed along the electron beam. The target is constructed as a closed loop circulating system cooled by a helium refrigerator. It is operated by a tangential mechanical pump with an optional natural convection mode. The cooling system supports up to 250 watts of the beam heating removal. Deeply subcooled liquid hydrogen is used for keeping the in-beam temperature below the boiling point. The target density fluctuations are found to be at the level 10$^{-3}$ at a beam current of 20 $\\mu$A.

I. Altarev; E. Schilling; S. Baunack; L. Capozza; J. Diefenbach; K. Grimm; Th. Hammel; D. vonHarrach; Y. Imai; E. M. Kabuss; R. Kothe; J. H. Lee; A. LopesGinja; F. E. Maas; A. SanchezLorente; G. Stephan; C. Weinrich

2005-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

236

HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE ) GLASSES FOR HANFORDS WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of glass formulation development and melter testing to identify high waste loading glasses to treat high-Al high level waste (HLW) at Hanford. Previous glass formulations developed for this HLW had high waste loadings but their processing rates were lower that desired. The present work was aimed at improving the glass processing rate while maintaining high waste loadings. Glass formulations were designed, prepared at crucible-scale and characterized to determine their properties relevant to processing and product quality. Glass formulations that met these requirements were screened for melt rates using small-scale tests. The small-scale melt rate screening included vertical gradient furnace (VGF) and direct feed consumption (DFC) melter tests. Based on the results of these tests, modified glass formulations were developed and selected for larger scale melter tests to determine their processing rate. Melter tests were conducted on the DuraMelter 100 (DMIOO) with a melt surface area of 0.11 m{sup 2} and the DuraMelter 1200 (DMI200) HLW Pilot Melter with a melt surface area of 1.2 m{sup 2}. The newly developed glass formulations had waste loadings as high as 50 wt%, with corresponding Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration in the glass of 26.63 wt%. The new glass formulations showed glass production rates as high as 1900 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) under nominal melter operating conditions. The demonstrated glass production rates are much higher than the current requirement of 800 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) and anticipated future enhanced Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) requirement of 1000 kg/(m{sup 2}.day).

KRUGER AA; BOWAN BW; JOSEPH I; GAN H; KOT WK; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

2010-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

237

Data acquisition and control system for the High-Level Waste Tank Farm at Hanford, Washington  

SciTech Connect

The High-Level Nuclear Waste Storage Tank 241-SY-101 periodically releases flammable gasses. Mitigation experiments to release the gasses continuously to avoid a catastrophic build-up are planned for FY93 and beyond. Los Alamos has provided a data acquisition and control system (DACS) to monitor and control mitigation experiments on SY-101. The DACS consists of a data acquisition trailer to house the electronic components and computers in a friendly environment, a computer system running process control software for monitoring and controlling the tests, signal conditioners to convert the instrument signals to a usable form for the DACS, programmable logic controllers to process sensor signals and take action quickly, a fast data acquisition system for recording transient data, and a remote monitoring system to monitor the progress of the experiment. Equipment to monitor the release of the gasses was also provided. The first experiment involves a mixer pump to mix the waste and allow the gasses to be released at the surface of the liquid as the gas is being formed. The initial tests are scheduled for July 1993.

Hoida, H.W.; Hatcher, C.R.; Trujillo, L.T.; Holt, D.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Vargo, G.F. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Martin, J.; Stastny, G.; Echave, R. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Eldridge, K. [Eldridge Engineering, Spokane, WA (United States)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Effective scheduling techniques for high-level parallel programming languages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the not-so-distant past, parallel programming was mostly the concern of programmers specializing in high-performance computing. Nowadays, on the other hand, many of today's desktop and laptop computers come equipped with a species of shared-memory ...

Michael Alan Rainey / John H. Reppy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Production and Properties of Solidified High-Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of glass composition. A high concentration of B2 0, or substitution of sodium with lithium diminishes viscosity of the molten glasses even at the refining temperatures. Small gas bubbles is another type of in of the glass. The weight of the cylinder is recorded continuously during the casting operation. The viscosity

240

High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria in the propane-1-propanol system  

SciTech Connect

High-pressure isothermal vapor liquid equilibrium data were measured for the propane-1-propanol system at 81.6, 105.2, and 120.1 C in a static equilibrium cell with liquid-phase sampling by a piston-driven sampling rod and homogenizing the sample with a static jet mixer. The vapor phase was sampled by releasing it into an evacuated manifold, and the gas chromatograph was calibrated with a new variable volumetric device. Satisfactory modeling was achieved with the combined method using the UNIQUAC equation with equations of sate: the group contribution EOS, Peng-Robinson EOS, or the two-parameter Virial EOS. Differences between the measured and calculated vapor-phase mole fractions, however, were significant for the lower pressure regions of the 81.6 and 120.1 C isotherms. UNIQUAC parameters, hitherto unavailable, with fairly strong temperature dependence in the 81.6 to 120.1 C range are proposed for the system. The covariance matrix indicated a significant correlation among the parameters. The classical mixing rule interaction parameters required for the original Peng-Robinson EOS in the combined method were obtained using the direct method and were temperature-independent for the isotherms for which the propane was supercritical. The possibility of propane/1-propanol immiscibility was theoretically examined according to the criteria of Baker et al. The plots of Gibbs energy of mixing vs. phase mole fractions did not indicate liquid-phase splitting, but the inferences are EOS-dependent and must await visual confirmation. The authors earlier vapor-phase thermodynamic consistency test indicated the data for all three data sets not to be inconsistent.

Muehlbauer, A.L.; Raal, J.D. (Univ. of Natal, Durban (South Africa))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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241

High Level Architecture (HLA) federation with Umbra and OPNET federates.  

SciTech Connect

Network-centric systems that depend on mobile wireless ad hoc networks for their information exchange require detailed analysis to support their development. In many cases, this critical analysis is best provided with high-fidelity system simulations that include the effects of network architectures and protocols. In this research, we developed a high-fidelity system simulation capability using an HLA federation. The HLA federation, consisting of the Umbra system simulator and OPNET Modeler network simulator, provides a means for the system simulator to both affect, and be affected by, events in the network simulator. Advances are also made in increasing the fidelity of the wireless communication channel and reducing simulation run-time with a dead reckoning capability. A simulation experiment is included to demonstrate the developed modeling and simulation capability.

Oppel, Fred John III; Hart, Brian; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Film boiling of saturated liquid flowing upward through a heated tube : high vapor quality range  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Film boiling of saturated liquid flowing upward through a uniformly heated tube has been studied for the case in which pure saturated liquid enters the tube and nearly saturated vapor is discharged. Since a previous study ...

Laverty, W. F.

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

West Valley Demonstration Project Prepares to Relocate High-Level Waste |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

West Valley Demonstration Project Prepares to Relocate High-Level West Valley Demonstration Project Prepares to Relocate High-Level Waste West Valley Demonstration Project Prepares to Relocate High-Level Waste December 24, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The West Valley Demonstration Project’s high-level waste canisters will be relocated to interim onsite storage. The West Valley Demonstration Project's high-level waste canisters will be relocated to interim onsite storage. The first group of eight concrete storage casks for the West Valley Demonstration Project’s high-level waste. The first group of eight concrete storage casks for the West Valley Demonstration Project's high-level waste. Site subcontractor American DND completed demolition of the contaminated 01-14 Building in 2013. Site subcontractor American DND completed demolition of the contaminated

244

West Valley Demonstration Project Prepares to Relocate High-Level Waste |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

West Valley Demonstration Project Prepares to Relocate High-Level West Valley Demonstration Project Prepares to Relocate High-Level Waste West Valley Demonstration Project Prepares to Relocate High-Level Waste December 24, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The West Valley Demonstration Project’s high-level waste canisters will be relocated to interim onsite storage. The West Valley Demonstration Project's high-level waste canisters will be relocated to interim onsite storage. The first group of eight concrete storage casks for the West Valley Demonstration Project’s high-level waste. The first group of eight concrete storage casks for the West Valley Demonstration Project's high-level waste. Site subcontractor American DND completed demolition of the contaminated 01-14 Building in 2013. Site subcontractor American DND completed demolition of the contaminated

245

SUPPORTED LIQUID CATALYSTS FOR REMOVAL OF HIGH TEMPERATURE FUEL CELL CONTAMINANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A novel catalytic synthesis gas oxidation process using molten carbonate salts supported on compatible fluidized iron oxide particles (supported-liquid-phase-catalyst (SLPC) fluidized bed process) was investigated. This process combines the advantages of large scale fluidized bed processing with molten salt bath oxidation. Molten salt catalysts can be supported within porous fluidized particles in order to improve mass transfer rates between the liquid catalysts and the reactant gases. Synthesis gas can be oxidized at reduced temperatures resulting in low NO{sub x} formation while trace sulfides and halides are captured in-situ. Hence, catalytic oxidation of synthesis gas can be carried out simultaneously with hot gas cleanup. Such SLPC fluidized bed processes are affected by inter-particle liquid capillary forces that may lead to agglomeration and de-fluidization of the bed. An understanding of the origin and strength of these forces is needed so that they can be overcome in practice. Process design is based on thermodynamic free energy minimization calculations that indicate the suitability of eutectic Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixtures for capturing trace impurities in-situ (< 1 ppm SO{sub x} released) while minimizing the formation of NO{sub x}(< 10 ppm). Iron oxide has been identified as a preferred support material since it is non-reactive with sodium, is inexpensive, has high density (i.e. inertia), and can be obtained in various particle sizes and porosities. Force balance modeling has been used to design a surrogate ambient temperature system that is hydrodynamically similar to the real system, thus allowing complementary investigation of the governing fluidization hydrodynamics. The primary objective of this research was to understand the origin of and to quantify the liquid capillary interparticle forces affecting the molten carbonate SLPC fluidized bed process. Substantial theoretical and experimental exploratory results indicate process feasibility. The potential environmental gain from success is enormous, impacting all areas of the world where coal is burned to supply steam or direct industrial heat. Project success may lead to an integrated combustion system providing for simultaneous catalytic oxidation and hot gas cleanup of raw synthesis gas from an upstream coal gasifier.

Alan W. Weimer (PI); Peter Czerpak; Patrick Hilbert

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Fracturing of simulated high-level waste glass in canisters  

SciTech Connect

Waste-glass castings generated from engineering-scale developmental processes at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory are generally found to have significant levels of cracks. The causes and extent of fracturing in full-scale canisters of waste glass as a result of cooling and accidental impact are discussed. Although the effects of cracking on waste-form performance in a repository are not well understood, cracks in waste forms can potentially increase leaching surface area. If cracks are minimized or absent in the waste-glass canisters, the potential for radionuclide release from the canister package can be reduced. Additional work on the effects of cracks on leaching of glass is needed. In addition to investigating the extent of fracturing of glass in waste-glass canisters, methods to reduce cracking by controlling cooling conditions were explored. Overall, the study shows that the extent of glass cracking in full-scale, passively-cooled, continuous melting-produced canisters is strongly dependent on the cooling rate. This observation agrees with results of previously reported Pacific Northwest Laboratory experiments on bench-scale annealed canisters. Thus, the cause of cracking is principally bulk thermal stresses. Fracture damage resulting from shearing at the glass/metal interface also contributes to cracking, more so in stainless steel canisters than in carbon steel canisters. This effect can be reduced or eliminated with a graphite coating applied to the inside of the canister. Thermal fracturing can be controlled by using a fixed amount of insulation for filling and cooling of canisters. In order to maintain production rates, a small amount of additional facility space is needed to accomodate slow-cooling canisters. Alternatively, faster cooling can be achieved using the multi-staged approach. Additional development is needed before this approach can be used on full-scale (60-cm) canisters.

Peters, R.D.; Slate, S.C.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS  

SciTech Connect

The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions. The incorporation of 1 wt % Pu in the glass did not adversely impact glass viscosity (as assessed using Hf surrogate) or glass durability. Finally, evaluation of DWPF glass pour samples that had Pu concentrations below the 897 g/m{sup 3} limit showed that Pu concentrations in the glass pour stream were close to targeted compositions in the melter feed indicating that Pu neither volatilized from the melt nor stratified in the melter when processed in the DWPF melter.

Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

248

Design of a high-pressure circulating pump for viscous liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of a reciprocating dual action piston pump capable of circulating viscous fluids at pressures of up to 34 MPa (5000 psi) and temperatures up to 80 ? ° C is described. The piston of this pump is driven by a pair of solenoids energized alternatively by a 12 V direct current power supply controlled by an electronic controller facilitating continuously adjustable flow rates. The body of this seal-less pump is constructed using off-the-shelf parts eliminating the need for custom made parts. Both the electronic controller and the pump can be assembled relatively easily. Pump performance has been evaluated at room temperature ( 22 ? ° C ) and atmospheric pressure using liquids with low and moderately high viscosities

Bernhard Seifried; Feral Temelli

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

HIGH-TEMPERATURE LIQUID-METAL TECHNOLOGY REVIEW. A Bimonthly Technical Progress Review. Volume 1, Number 2  

SciTech Connect

Metals ---technology of high-temperature liquid, review; Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP-2) ---coolant boiling research for; Nuclear Power Plants ---development research on thermionic, Los Alamos Molten Plutonium Reactor Experiments ---fuel element analysis; Heat Transfer Systems ---conference on liquid metal; Bearings --coating for liquid metal, performance of; Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP-8) ---component development; Sodium---heat transfer research on; Mercury --heat transfer research on; Potassium ---heat transfer research on; Nitrogen Systems ---Hg --N, flow characteristics for two-phase; Mercury Systems ---Hg --N, flow characteristics for two-phase; Nuclear Power Plants ---heat transfer rejection by space, research on; Alkali Metals ---heat transfer research on; Turbines ---development of twostage potassium; Bearings --- development of liquid-metal lubricated; Niobium Alloys ---properties for alkali metal containment, research on; Rubidium ---thermophysical properties of; Los Alamos Molten Plutonium Reactor Experiments ---design of LAMPRE-1. (D.C.W.)

Dwyer, O.E. ed.

1963-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Auto-tuning on the macro scale : high level algorithmic auto-tuning for scientific applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we describe a new classification of auto-tuning methodologies spanning from low-level optimizations to high-level algorithmic tuning. This classification spectrum of auto-tuning methods encompasses the space ...

Chan, Cy P

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

EIS-0303: Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Tank Closure | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

03: Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Tank Closure 03: Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Tank Closure EIS-0303: Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Tank Closure SUMMARY This EIS evaluates alternatives for closing 49 high-level radioactive waste tanks and associated equipment such as evaporator systems, transfer pipelines, diversion boxes, and pump pits. DOE selected the preferred alternative identified in the Final EIS, Stabilize Tanks-Fill with Grout, to guide development and implementation of closure of the high-level waste tanks and associated equipment at the Savannah River Site. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD March 5, 2012 EIS-0303: Supplement Analysis Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Tank Closure, SC July 8, 2011 EIS-0303: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement

252

Status of Physics and Safety Analyses for the Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study has been completed to develop a new baseline core design for the liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR) that is better optimized for liquid coolant and that satisfies the top-level operational and safety targets, including strong passive safety performance, acceptable fuel cycle parameters, and favorable core reactivity response to coolant voiding. Three organizations participated in the study: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Although the intent was to generate a new reference LS-VHTR core design, the emphasis was on performing parametric studies of the many variables that constitute a design. The results of the parametric studies not only provide the basis for choosing the optimum balance of design options, they also provide a valuable understanding of the fundamental behavior of the core, which will be the basis of future design trade-off studies. A new 2400-MW(t) baseline design was established that consists of a cylindrical, nonannular core cooled by liquid {sup 7}Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (Flibe) salt. The inlet and outlet coolant temperatures were decreased by 50 C, and the coolant channel diameter was increased to help lower the maximum fuel and vessel temperatures. An 18-month fuel cycle length with 156 GWD/t burnup was achieved with a two-batch shuffling scheme, while maintaining a core power density of 10 MW/m{sup 3} using graphite-coated uranium oxicarbide particle fuel enriched to 15% {sup 235}U and assuming a 25 vol-% packing of the coated particles in the fuel compacts. The revised design appears to have excellent steady-state and transient performance. The previous concern regarding the core's response to coolant voiding has been resolved for the case of Flibe coolant by increasing the coolant channel diameter and the fuel loading. Also, the LSVHTR has a strong decay heat removal performance and appears capable of surviving a loss of forced circulation (LOFC) even with failure to scram. Significant natural convection of the coolant salt occurs, resulting in fuel temperatures below steady-state values and nearly uniform temperature distributions during the transient.

Ingersoll, DT

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

White light emitting diode as liquid crystal display backlight; High brightness light emitting diode as liquid crystal display backlight.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The discovery of high brightness (white) light emitting diode (LED) is considered as a real threat to the current lighting industry in various applications. One… (more)

Soon, Chian Myau

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Break Throughs in High-Level Waste Vitrification for the Hanford ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Throughs in High-Level Waste Vitrification for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant ... Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b .

255

Life Estimation of High Level Waste Tank Steel for H-Tank Farm ...  

the tanks is not considered in the analysis. Life Estimation of High Level Waste Tank ... conservative scenario in which the concrete vault has completely

256

DOE management of high-level waste at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 60 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste--caustic liquids, slurries, saltcakes, and sludges--are stored in underground tanks at the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. At least one-third of the tanks are known to have leaked waste into the enviroranent, and there are many unresolved tank safety issues. In order to resolve the environmental and safety concerns, the Department plans to retrieve the waste, immobilize it, and dispose of it in a permanent geologic repository. Processing all of the tank waste in this manner could cost $40 billion, including $1.2 billion to construct the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. The purpose of our audit was to examine the reasons for cost estimate increases and schedule delays on the Hanford vitrification program. We also wanted to report on outstanding technical, safety, and environmental issues that could make the project even more costly and further delay its completion. We found that the Department managed the Hanford remediation system as a number of separate projects not fully integrated into one major system acquisition. Total costs have, therefore, been obscured, and the Department has not yet clearly defined system requirements or developed overall cost and schedule baselines. This lack of visibility could result in additional cost growth and schedule delays. We also noted a vast array of technical uncertainties, including tank safety and inadequate information about the makeup of tank waste, that could significantly affect the program`s cost and ultimate success. To increase visibility of program cost and schedule, we are recommending that all separate projects relating to tank waste be included in a single major system acquisition, and that the Department complete its ongoing baselining effort to the extent practical before making major funding commitments. Management concurred with our finding and recommendations.

Not Available

1993-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

257

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory High-Level Waste Roadmap. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) High-Level Waste (HLW) Roadmap takes a strategic look at the entire HLW life-cycle starting with generation, through interim storage, treatment and processing, transportation, and on to final disposal. The roadmap is an issue-based planning approach that compares ``where we are now`` to ``where we want and need to be.`` The INEL has been effectively managing HLW for the last 30 years. Calcining operations are continuing to turn liquid HLW into a more manageable form. Although this document recognizes problems concerning HLW at the INEL, there is no imminent risk to the public or environment. By analyzing the INEL current business operations, pertinent laws and regulations, and committed milestones, the INEL HLW Roadmap has identified eight key issues existing at the INEL that must be resolved in order to reach long-term objectives. These issues are as follows: A. The US Department of Energy (DOE) needs a consistent policy for HLW generation, handling, treatment, storage, and disposal. B. The capability for final disposal of HLW does not exist. C. Adequate processes have not been developed or implemented for immobilization and disposal of INEL HLW. D. HLW storage at the INEL is not adequate in terms of capacity and regulatory requirements. E. Waste streams are generated with limited consideration for waste minimization. F. HLW is not adequately characterized for disposal nor, in some cases, for storage. G. Research and development of all process options for INEL HLW treatment and disposal are not being adequately pursued due to resource limitations. H. HLW transportation methods are not selected or implemented. A root-cause analysis uncovered the underlying causes of each of these issues.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Comments of Santiago Grijalva: High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Smart Grid  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Santiago Grijalva: High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Santiago Grijalva: High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Smart Grid Policy Comments of Santiago Grijalva: High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Smart Grid Policy High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Smart Grid Policy: This document responds to DOE questions regarding smart grid policy. The approach followed herein is to write concise comments addressing the overall RFI document at a higher level. High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Smart Grid Policy More Documents & Publications Initial Comments of Honeywell, Inc. on Policy and Logistical Challenges in Implementing Smart Grid Solutions Comments of DRSG to DOE Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart

259

Comparison of the Climatologies of High-Level Clouds from HIRS and ISCCP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comparison of individually matched analyses of high-level cloudiness from the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS) CO2-slicing analysis and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) analysis of satellite data for 4 months ...

Yao Jin; William B. Rossow; Don P. Wylie

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

WILLIS, W.L.

2000-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

User interface prototyping based on UML scenarios and high-level Petri nets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we suggest a requirement engineering process that generates a user interface prototype from scenarios and yields a formal specification of the system in form of a high-level Petri net. Scenarios are acquired in the form of sequence diagrams ... Keywords: high-level petri net, scenario specification, unified modeling language, user interface prototyping

Mohammed Elkoutbi; Rudolf K. Keller

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

A thread partitioning algorithm in low power high-level synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a thread partitioning algorithm in low power high-level synthesis. The algorithm is applied to high-level synthesis systems. In the systems, we can describe parallel behaving circuit blocks(threads) explicitly. First it focuses on ...

Jumpei Uchida; Nozomu Togawa; Masao Yanagisawa; Tatsuo Ohtsuki

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Characteristics Data Base: Programmer's guide to the High-Level Waste Data Base  

SciTech Connect

The High-Level Waste Data Base is a menu-driven PC data base developed as part of OCRWM's technical data base on the characteristics of potential repository wastes, which also includes spent fuel and other materials. This programmer's guide completes the documentation for the High-Level Waste Data Base, the user's guide having been published previously. 3 figs.

Jones, K.E. (DataPhile, Inc., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Salmon, R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

High-level synthesis of asynchronous systems by data-driven decomposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a method for decomposing a high-level program description of a circuit into a system of concurrent modules that can each be implemented as asynchronous pre-charge half-buffer pipeline stages (the circuits used in the asynchronous R3000 MIPS ... Keywords: asynchronous VLSI, high-level synthesis

Catherine G. Wong; Alain J. Martin

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Mathematical analysis of hydrogen mixing and diffusion in the vapor space of a high-level nuclear waste tank  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents mathematical analyses of the possible accumulation of radiolytically produced hydrogen in the vapor space in a tank storing liquid high-level radioactive waste. Under normal operating conditions, these tanks are continuously ventilated with air to ensure that the concentration of hydrogen never reaches its lower flammability limit (4%). These scenarios are considered in which it is postulated that hydrogen may accumulate and present a flammability hazard. These scenarios are stratification due to gravity, slow mixing when the ventilation system is operating, and slow mixing when the ventilation system is not operating. In all three cases, the analyses indicate that the accumulation of hydrogen is not likely and thus does not present a flammability problem so long as controls are in place to dilute its concentration to less than 4%.

Bibler, N.E. (ed.); Wallace, R.M.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Calibrations of Johnson-Williams Liquid Water Content Meters in a High-Speed Icing Tunnel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wind tunnel tests have provided calibrations and intercomparisons of 14 Johnson-Williams (J–W) cloud liquid water content (LWC) measuring devices with 23 sensor heads from 10 research organizations. The absolute tunnel LWC was deduced using a ...

J. Walter Strapp; Robert S. Schemenauer

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

SystemC-AMS high-level modeling of linear analog blocks with power consumption information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SystemC-AMS allows the modeling of complex heterogeneous systems at different levels of abstraction using different modeling styles, called Models of Computation (MoC). This work presents an approach for including energy consumption information in high-level ... Keywords: passive fourth-order low pass filter, systemC-AMS high-level modeling, linear analog blocks, power consumption information, energy consumption information, linear electrical circuits, systemC-AMS linear signal flow MoC, SPICE netlist, state space representation extraction, LSF description level

L. Bousquet; F. Cenni; E. Simeu

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Aerosol First Indirect Effects on Non-Precipitating Low-Level Liquid Cloud Properties as Simulated by CAM5 at ARM Sites  

SciTech Connect

We quantitatively examine the aerosol first indirect effects (FIE) for non-precipitating low-level single-layer liquid phase clouds simulated by the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) running in the weather forecast mode at three DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites. The FIE is quantified in terms of a relative change in cloud droplet effective radius for a relative change in aerosol accumulation mode number concentration under conditions of fixed liquid water content (LWC). CAM5 simulates aerosol-cloud interactions reasonably well for this specific cloud type, and the simulated FIE is consistent with the long-term observations at the examined locations. The FIE in CAM5 generally decreases with LWC at coastal ARM sites, and is larger by using cloud condensation nuclei rather than aerosol accumulation mode number concentration as the choice of aerosol amount. However, it has no significant variations with location and has no systematic strong seasonal variations at examined ARM sites.

Zhao, Chuanfeng; Klein, Stephen A.; Xie, Shaocheng; Liu, Xiaohong; Boyle, James; Zhang, Yuying

2012-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

269

Preliminary estimates of cost savings for defense high level waste vitrification options  

SciTech Connect

The potential for realizing cost savings in the disposal of defense high-level waste through process and design modificatins has been considered. Proposed modifications range from simple changes in the canister design to development of an advanced melter capable of processing glass with a higher waste loading. Preliminary calculations estimate the total disposal cost (not including capital or operating costs) for defense high-level waste to be about $7.9 billion dollars for the reference conditions described in this paper, while projected savings resulting from the proposed process and design changes could reduce the disposal cost of defense high-level waste by up to $5.2 billion.

Merrill, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Measurement of highly enriched uranium metal buttons with the high-level neutron coincidence counter operating in the active mode  

SciTech Connect

The portable High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter is used in the active mode with the addition of AmLi neutron sources to assay the /sup 235/U content of highly enriched metal pieces or buttons. It is concluded that the portable instrument is a practical instrument for assaying uranium metal buttons with masses in the range 1.5 to 4 kg.

Foley, J.E.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence of CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNL’s sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

EIS-0023: Long-Term Management of Defense High-Level Radioactive Wastes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

023: Long-Term Management of Defense High-Level Radioactive 023: Long-Term Management of Defense High-Level Radioactive Wastes (Research and Development Program for Immobilization) Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina EIS-0023: Long-Term Management of Defense High-Level Radioactive Wastes (Research and Development Program for Immobilization) Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina SUMMARY This EIS analyzes the potential environmental implications of the proposed continuation of a large Federal research and development (R&D) program directed toward the immobilization of the high-level radioactive wastes resulting from chemical separations operations for defense radionuclides production at the DOE Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time.

273

Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Meeting |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Meeting Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Meeting March 13, 2006 - 11:48am Addthis Discuss Pakistan's energy opportunities; Follows United States-Pakistan Strategic Partnership launched by President Bush earlier this month WASHINGTON, DC - Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today visited Pakistan, the first stop in his four-nation swing where he will discuss ways that the U.S. and Pakistan can increase cooperation on energy-related issues. The Secretary's visit follows President Bush's pledge earlier this month to hold a high-level meeting between U.S. and Pakistani officials to collaborate on solutions to Pakistan's energy sources. "The U.S. and Pakistan are strong allies and America supports the people of

274

Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt This report summarizes efforts to simulate coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes occurring within a generic hypothetical high-level waste (HLW) repository in bedded salt; chemical processes of the system allow precipitation and dissolution of salt with elevated temperatures that drive water and water vapor flow around hot waste packages. Characterizing salt backfill processes is an important objective of the exercise. An evidence-based algorithm for mineral dehydration is also applied in the modeling. The Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer code (FEHM) is used to simulate coupled thermal,

275

Event:ECOWAS High-Level Forum: Paving the Way for Sustainable...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for All in West Africa through Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png ECOWAS High-Level Forum: Paving...

276

Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

GC-52 provides legal advice to DOE regarding the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). SNF is nuclear fuel that has been used as fuel in a reactor...

277

Comparison of high level design methodologies for algorithmic IPs : Bluespec and C-based synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High level hardware design of Digital Signal Processing algorithms is an important design problem for decreasing design time and allowing more algorithmic exploration. Bluespec is a Hardware Design Language (HDL) that ...

Agarwal, Abhinav

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Floorplan Driven High Level Synthesis for Crosstalk Noise Minimization in Macro-cell Based Designs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In DSM regime, due to higher interconnect densities, the coupling noise between adjacent signals is aggravated and can lead to many timing violations. In traditional high-level synthesis (HLS), due to lack detailed physical details, it is difficult to ...

Hariharan Sankaran; Srinivas Katkoori

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

On lower bounds for scheduling problems in high-level synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents new results on lower bounds for the scheduling problem in high-level synthesis. While several techniques exist for lower bound estimation, comparisons among the techniques have been experimental with few guarantees on the quality ...

M. Narasimhan; J. Ramanujam

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Reading Between the Lines: Learning to Map High-level Instructions to Commands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we address the task of mapping high-level instructions to commands in an external environment. Processing these instructions is challenging—they posit goals to be achieved without specifying the steps required ...

Branavan, Satchuthanan R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Feasibility of lateral emplacement in very deep borehole disposal of high level nuclear waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy recently filed a motion to withdraw the Nuclear Regulatory Commission license application for the High Level Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. As the U.S. has focused exclusively ...

Gibbs, Jonathan Sutton

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

9.71 Functional MRI of High-Level Vision, Fall 2004  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Covers the basics of fMRI, the strengths and limitations of fMRI compared to other techniques, and the design and analysis of fMRI experiments, focusing primarily on experiments on high-level vision. Upon completion, ...

Kanwisher, Nancy

283

Risk-informing decisions about high-level nuclear waste repositories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Performance assessments (PAs) are important sources of information for societal decisions in high-level radioactive waste (HLW) management, particularly in evaluating safety cases for proposed HLW repository development. ...

Ghosh, Suchandra Tina, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

DOE G 435.1-1 Chapter 2, High-Level Waste Requirements  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The guide provides the criteria for determining which DOE radioactive wastes are to be managed as high-level waste in accordance with DOE M 435.1-1.

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

285

A high-level approach to synthesis of high-performance codes for quantum chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses an approach to the synthesis of high-performance parallel programs for a class of computations encountered in quantum chemistry and physics. These computations are expressible as a set of tensor contractions and arise in electronic ...

Gerald Baumgartner; David E. Bernholdt; Daniel Cociorva; Robert Harrison; So Hirata; Chi-Chung Lam; Marcel Nooijen; Russell Pitzer; J. Ramanujam; P. Sadayappan

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Multiple implementations of a microprocessor from a single high-level design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors discuss the use of the interactive design language (IDL) for the design of three distinctly different physical implementations of a control microprocessor. The high-level, implementation-independent design and the simulation were done once in IDL. This one high-level design was transformed (more or less routinely) into an IBM NMOS custom version, and into a TTL lab version driven by IBM masterslice PLAS. 3 references.

Brown, M.W.; Kimmel, M.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

High-Level Synthesis of Analog Sensor Interface Front-Ends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we compare three different methodologies for analog high-level synthesis. Two optimization-based methods-one with simulations in the loop, the other with equations-and a library-based approach are discussed and illustrated with experimental ... Keywords: sensors, analog high-level synthesis, analog sensor interface front-ends, optimization-based methods, library-based approach, radiation detector interface ASIC

S. Donnay; G. Gielen; W. Sansen; W. Kruiskamp; D. Leenaerts; W. Van Bokhoven

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Event:World Bank-High-Level Dialogue on International Architecture to  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bank-High-Level Dialogue on International Architecture to Bank-High-Level Dialogue on International Architecture to Scale-up Low-Emissions Development Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png World Bank-High-Level Dialogue on International Architecture to Scale-up Low-Emissions Development: 9:00am Eastern Time on 2011/07/13 High-Level Dialogue on International Architecture to Scale-up Low-Emissions Development Event Details Name World Bank-High-Level Dialogue on International Architecture to Scale-up Low-Emissions Development Date 2011/07/13 Time 9:00am Eastern Time Location Washington, District of Columbia Organizer World Bank Tags LEDS, CLEAN Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Event:World_Bank-High-Level_Dialogue_on_International_Architecture_to_Scale-up_Low-Emissions_Development&oldid=3681

289

Implementation Plan for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes the progress that has been made to date in implementing the plans and schedules for meeting the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) commitments for the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These commitments were initially submitted in ES/ER-17&Dl, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Information presented in this document provides a comprehensive summary to facilitate understanding of the FFA compliance program for LLLW tank systems and to present plans and schedules associated with remediation, through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process, of LLLW tank systems that have been removed from service. ORNL has a comprehensive program underway to upgrade the LLLW system as necessary to meet the FFA requirements. The tank systems that are removed from service are being investigated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Waste and risk characterizations have been submitted. Additional data will be prepared and submitted to EPA/TDEC as tanks are taken out of service and as required by the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. The plans and schedules for implementing the FFA compliance program that were submitted in ES/ER-17&Dl, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste tanks Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are updated in this document. Chapter 1 provides general background information and philosophies that lead to the plans and schedules that appear in Chaps. 2 through 5.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

High magnetic shear gain in a liquid sodium stable couette flow experiment A prelude to an alpha - omega dynamo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The {Omega}-phase of the liquid sodium {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo experiment at NMIMT in cooperation with LANL has successfully demonstrated the production of a high toroidal field, B{sub {phi}} {approx_equal} 8 x B{sub r} from the radial component of an applied poloidal magnetic field, B{sub r}. This enhanced toroidal field is produced by rotational shear in stable Couette Row within liquid sodium at Rm {approx_equal} 120. The small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette Row is caused by Ekman Row where ({delta}v/v){sup 2} {approx} 10{sup -3}. This high {Omega}-gain in low turbulence flow contrasts with a smaller {Omega}-gain in higher turbulence, Helmholtz-unstable shear flows. This result supports the ansatz that large scale astrophysical magnetic fields are created within semi-coherent large scale motions in which turbulence plays a diffusive role that enables magnetic flux linkage.

Colgate, Stirling [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Jui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Finn, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pariev, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beckley, Howard [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH; Si, Jiahe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Martinic, Joe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westpfahl, David [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Slutz, James [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westrom, Zeb [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Klein, Brianna [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.

2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

291

High-Throughput Proteomics Using High Efficiency Multiple-Capillary Liquid Chromatography With On-Line High-Performance ESI FTICR Mass Spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the design and application of a high-efficiency multiple-capillary liquid chromatography (LC) system for high-throughput proteome analysis. The multiple-capillary LC system was operated at the pressure of 10,000 psi using commercial LC pumps to deliver the mobile phase and newly developed passive feedback valves to switch the mobile phase flow and introduce samples. The multiple-capillary LC system was composed of several serially connected dual-capillary column devices. The dual-capillary column approach was designed to eliminate the time delay for regeneration (or equilibrium) of the capillary column after its use under the mobile phase gradient condition (i.e. one capillary column was used in separation and the other was washed using mobile phase A). The serially connected dual-capillary columns and ESI sources were operated independently, and could be used for either''backup'' operation or with other mass spectrometer(s). This high-efficiency multiple-capillary LC system uses switching valves for all operations and is highly amenable to automation. The separations efficiency of dual-capillary column device, optimal capillary dimensions (column length and packed particle size), suitable mobile phases for electrospray, and the capillary re-generation were investigated. A high magnetic field (11.5 tesla) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was coupled on-line with this high-efficiency multiple-capillary LC system through an electrospray ionization source. The capillary LC provided a peak capacity of {approx}600, and the 2-D capillary LC-FTICR provided a combined resolving power of > 6 x 10 7 polypeptide isotopic distributions. For yeast cellular tryptic digests, > 100,000 polypeptides were typically detected, and {approx}1,000 proteins can be characterized in a single run.

Shen, Yufeng (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Tolic, Nikola (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Zhao, Rui (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Li, Lingjun (Illinois Univ Of-Urbana/Champa); Berger, Scott J. (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Harkewicz, Richard (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Anderson, Gordon A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Belov, Mikhail E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Smith, Richard D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

A highly modular beamline electrostatic levitation facility, optimized for in situ high-energy x-ray scattering studies of equilibrium and supercooled liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-energy x-ray diffraction studies of metallic liquids provide valuable information about structural evolution on the atomic length scale, leading to insights into the origin of the nucleation barrier and the processes of supercooling and glass formation. The containerless processing of the beamline electrostatic levitation (BESL) facility allows coordinated thermophysical and structural studies of equilibrium and supercooled liquids to be made in a contamination-free, high-vacuum ({approx}10{sup -8} Torr) environment. To date, the incorporation of electrostatic levitation facilities into synchrotron beamlines has been difficult due to the large footprint of the apparatus and the difficulties associated with its transportation and implementation. Here, we describe a modular levitation facility that is optimized for diffraction studies of high-temperature liquids at high-energy synchrotron beamlines. The modular approach used in the apparatus design allows it to be easily transported and quickly setup. Unlike most previous electrostatic levitation facilities, BESL can be operated by a single user instead of a user team.

Mauro, N.A.; Kelton, K.F. (WU)

2011-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

293

THE RETRIEVAL KNOWLEDGE CENTER EVALUATION OF LOW TANK LEVEL MIXING TECHNOLOGIES FOR DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK RETRIEVAL 10516  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) Complex has over two-hundred underground storage tanks containing over 80-million gallons of legacy waste from the production of nuclear weapons. The majority of the waste is located at four major sites across the nation and is planned for treatment over a period of almost forty years. The DOE Office of Technology Innovation & Development within the Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) sponsors technology research and development programs to support processing advancements and technology maturation designed to improve the costs and schedule for disposal of the waste and closure of the tanks. Within the waste processing focus area are numerous technical initiatives which included the development of a suite of waste removal technologies to address the need for proven equipment and techniques to remove high level radioactive wastes from the waste tanks that are now over fifty years old. In an effort to enhance the efficiency of waste retrieval operations, the DOE-EM Office of Technology Innovation & Development funded an effort to improve communications and information sharing between the DOE's major waste tank locations as it relates to retrieval. The task, dubbed the Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) was co-lead by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with core team members representing the Oak Ridge and Idaho sites, as well as, site contractors responsible for waste tank operations. One of the greatest challenges to the processing and closure of many of the tanks is complete removal of all tank contents. Sizeable challenges exist for retrieving waste from High Level Waste (HLW) tanks; with complications that are not normally found with tank retrieval in commercial applications. Technologies currently in use for waste retrieval are generally adequate for bulk removal; however, removal of tank heels, the materials settled in the bottom of the tank, using the same technology have proven to be difficult. Through the RKC, DOE-EM funded an evaluation of adaptable commercial technologies that could assist with the removal of the tank heels. This paper will discuss the efforts and results of developing the RKC to improve communications and discussion of tank waste retrieval through a series of meetings designed to identify technical gaps in retrieval technologies at the DOE Hanford and Savannah River Sites. This paper will also describe the results of an evaluation of commercially available technologies for low level mixing as they might apply to HLW tank heel retrievals.

Fellinger, A.

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

294

Consequence assessment for the high-level waste tanks probabilistic risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

At the US DOE Hanford Site, there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total volume is about 60 million gallons containing approximately 120 Curies of radioactivity. The radioactive material consists primarily of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and transuranics. Risk concerns with the tanks are associated with possible energy releases because of the presence of flammable gases, organic liquids, reactive chemical compounds, and radioactive decay heat. Because of the high concentration of radioactivity in the wastes and because a large number of the older single-shell tanks have some history or evidence of leaking, there is a public perception that they pose a serious risk to the onsite workers and the offsite public. The tank farm probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) was performed for two reasons: (1) to develop a baseline estimate of the risks these wastes pose to the workers and the public for the present tank contents and configurations and (2) to provide a relative ranking of the risks associated with individual groups of tanks. The latter information would be helpful in planning the order of the tank remediation work by indicating which tanks pose the greatest risk; the former could help allay concerns.

MacFarlane, D.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

295

Event:ECOWAS High-Level Forum: Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Level Forum: Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for Level Forum: Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for All in West Africa through Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png ECOWAS High-Level Forum: Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for All in West Africa through Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: on 2012/10/29 "ECREEE in cooperation with the Global Forum for Sustainable Energy (GSFE), and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), are organizing a three-day High Level Forum on the theme: "Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for All in West Africa through Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency". Hosted by the Government of Ghana, the forum will contribute to the UN Sustainable Energy For All Initiative and will follow-up on the key decisions of the Rio+20 Summit". Participants will

296

A high level power model for Network-on-Chip (NoC) router  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a high level power estimation methodology for a Network-on-Chip (NoC) router, that is capable of providing cycle accurate power profile to enable power exploration at system level. Our power macro model is based on the number of flits ... Keywords: Interconnection network, Multi-processor System-on-Chip (MPSoC), Network-on-Chip (NoC), Power model

Seung Eun Lee; Nader Bagherzadeh

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Spent Fuel and High-Level Waste Requirements (Maine) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Spent Fuel and High-Level Waste Requirements (Maine) Spent Fuel and High-Level Waste Requirements (Maine) Spent Fuel and High-Level Waste Requirements (Maine) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Maine Program Type Safety and Operational Guidelines Provider Public Utilities Commission All proposed nuclear power generation facilities must be certified by the Public Utilities Commission under this statute prior to construction and

298

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic, and Tank Wastes, Hanford  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic, and Tank Wastes, Hanford Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic, and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington; Record of Decision (ROO). This Record of Decision has been prepared pursuant to the Council on Environme~tal Quality ~egulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of the National Environmental Pol icy Act (NEPAl (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508) and the Department of Energy NEPA Guidelines (52 FR 47662, December 15, 1987). It is based on DOE's "Environmental Impact Statement for the Oi sposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic, and Tank Wastes'' (OOE/EIS-0113) and consideration of ~11 public and agency comments received on the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). fJECISION The decision is to implement the ''Preferred Alternative'' as discussed in

299

Graphical and tabular summaries of decay characteristics for once-through PWR, LMFBR, and FFTF fuel cycle materials. [Spent fuel, high-level waste fuel can scrap  

SciTech Connect

Based on the results of ORIGEN2 and a newly developed code called ORMANG, graphical and summary tabular characteristics of spent fuel, high-level waste, and fuel assembly structural material (cladding) waste are presented for a generic pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The characteristics include radioactivity, thermal power, and toxicity (water dilution volume). Given are graphs and summary tables containing characteristic totals and the principal nuclide contributors as well as graphs comparing the three reactors for a single material and the three materials for a single reactor.

Croff, A.G.; Liberman, M.S.; Morrison, G.W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

SRS - Programs - Liquid Waste Disposition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Waste Disposition Liquid Waste Disposition This includes both the solidification of highly radioactive liquid wastes stored in SRS's tank farms and disposal of liquid low-level waste generated as a by-product of the separations process and tank farm operations. This low-level waste is treated in the Effluent Treatment Facility. High-activity liquid waste is generated at SRS as by-products from the processing of nuclear materials for national defense, research and medical programs. The waste, totaling about 36 million gallons, is currently stored in 49 underground carbon-steel waste tanks grouped into two "tank farms" at SRS. While the waste is stored in the tanks, it separates into two parts: a sludge that settles on the bottom of the tank, and a liquid supernate that resides on top of the sludge. The waste is reduced to about 30 percent of its original volume by evaporation. The condensed evaporator "overheads" are transferred to the Effluent Treatment Project for final cleanup prior to release to the environment. As the concentrate cools a portion of it crystallizes forming solid saltcake. The concentrated supernate and saltcake are less mobile and therefore less likely to escape to the environment in the event of a tank crack or leak.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

SHAM: High-level seismic tests of piping at the HDR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the second phase of vibrational/earthquake investigations at the HDR (Heissdampfreaktor) Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG, high-level simulated seismic tests (SHAM) were performed during April--May 1988 on the VKL (Versuchskreislauf) in-plant piping system with two servohydraulic actuators, each capable of generating 40 tons of force. The purpose of these experiments was to study the behavior of piping subjected to seismic excitation levels that exceed design levels manifold and may result in failure/plastification of pipe supports and pipe elements, and to establish seismic margins for piping and pipe supports. The performance of six different dynamic pipe support systems was compared in these tests and the response, operability, and fragility of dynamic supports and of a typical US gate valve were investigated. Data obtained in the tests are used to validate analysis methods. Very preliminary evaluations lead to the observation that, in general, failures of dynamic supports (in particular snubbers) occur only at load levels that substantially exceed the design capacity. Pipe strains at load levels exceeding the design level threefold are quite small, and even when exceeding the design level eightfold are quite tolerable. Hence, under seismic loading, even at extreme levels and in spite of multiple support failures, pipe failure is unlikely. 5 refs., 16 figs.

Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Hsieh, B.J.; Malcher, L.; Schrammel, D.; Steinhilber, H.; Costello, J.F.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Extreme Chromatography: Faster, Hotter, SmallerChapter 6 Silver-ion High-performance Liquid Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry in the Analysis of Lipids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extreme Chromatography: Faster, Hotter, Smaller Chapter 6 Silver-ion High-performance Liquid Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry in the Analysis of Lipids Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books Downloadable pdf...

303

Vitrification of high level nuclear waste inside ambient temperature disposal containers using inductive heating: The SMILE system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new approach, termed SMILE (Small Module Inductively Loaded Energy), for the vitrification of high level nuclear wastes (HLW) is described. Present vitrification systems liquefy the HLW solids and associated frit material in large high temperature melters. The molten mix is then poured into small ({approximately}1 m{sup 3}) disposal canisters, where it solidifies and cools. SMILE eliminates the separate, large high temperature melter. Instead, the BLW solids and frit melt inside the final disposal containers, using inductive heating. The contents then solidify and cool in place. The SMILE modules and the inductive heating process are designed so that the outer stainless can of the module remains at near ambient temperature during the process cycle. Module dimensions are similar to those of present disposal containers. The can is thermally insulated from the high temperature inner container by a thin layer of refractory alumina firebricks. The inner container is a graphite crucible lined with a dense alumina refractory that holds the HLW and fiit materials. After the SMILE module is loaded with a slurry of HLW and frit solids, an external multi-turn coil is energized with 30-cycle AC current. The enclosing external coil is the primary of a power transformer, with the graphite crucible acting as a single turn ``secondary.`` The induced current in the ``secondary`` heats the graphite, which in turn heats the HLW and frit materials. The first stage of the heating process is carried out at an intermediate temperature to drive off remnant liquid water and water of hydration, which takes about 1 day. The small fill/vent tube to the module is then sealed off and the interior temperature raised to the vitrification range, i.e., {approximately}1200C. Liquefaction is complete after approximately 1 day. The inductive heating then ceases and the module slowly loses heat to the environment, allowing the molten material to solidify and cool down to ambient temperature.

Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Barletta, R.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Waste Characterization Data Manual for the inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Waste Characterization Data Manual contains the results of an analysis of the contents of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), Section IX.G.1. Section IX.G.1 of the FFA requires waste characterizations be conducted and provided to EPA and TDEC for all LLLW tanks that are removed from service. These waste characterizations shall include the results of sampling and analysis of the tank contents, including wastes, liquids, and sludges. This manual was first issued as ORNL/ER-80 in June 1992. The waste characterization data were extracted from ORNL reports that described tank sampling and analysis conducted in 1988 for 32 out-of-service tanks. This revision of the manual contains waste characterization data for 54 tanks, including the 32 tanks from the 1988 sampling campaign (Sects. 2.1 through 2.32) and the 22 additional tanks from a subsequent sampling campaign in 1992 and 1993 (Sects. 2.33 through 2.54). Data are presented from analyses of volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, radiochemical compounds, and inorganic compounds. As additional data resulting from analyses of out-of-service tank samples become available, they will be added to this manual.

Not Available

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Production of liquid fuels with a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent events by OPEC have sharply increased interest in the United States for synfuels, and there are plans for several types of synfuel demonstration plants. The early timing of these plants will probably preclude their use of a nuclear heat source, but their operation will be a necessary step to the eventual integration of a nuclear heat source. The applications using coal liquids that are considered active candidates for nuclear process heat, the reference heat source design, and nuclear and non-nuclear methods for coal liquefaction are described.

Quade, R.N.; Vrable, D.L.; Green, L. Jr.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Photoconductivity and luminescence in GaSe crystals at high levels of optical excitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The photoconductivity and luminescence of GaSe layered crystals at high levels of optical excitation are studied experimentally. The specific features observed in the photoconductivity and photoluminescence spectra are controlled by the nonlinear optical absorption in the region of excitonic resonance.

Kyazym-zade, A. G.; Salmanov, V. M., E-mail: vagif_salmanov@yahoo.com; Salmanova, A. A. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan); Alieva, A. M.; Ibaeva, R. Z. [National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

Design of equipment used for high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The equipment as designed, started, and operated for high-level radioactive waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project in western New York State is described. Equipment for the processes of melter feed make-up, vitrification, canister handling, and off-gas treatment are included. For each item of equipment the functional requirements, process description, and hardware descriptions are presented.

Vance, R.F.; Brill, B.A.; Carl, D.E. [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Exploiting off-chip memory access modes in high-level synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Memory-intensive behaviors often contain large arrays that are synthesized into off-chip memories. With the increasing gap between on-chip and off-chip memory access delays, it is imperative to exploit the efficient access mode features of modern-day ... Keywords: Memory Synthesis, DRAM, High Level Synthesis

Preeti Ranjan Panda; Nikil D. Dutt; Alexandru Nicolau

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Chemical evolution of a high-level magma system: the Black Mountain volcanic center, southern Nevada  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comprehensive study of stratigraphically controlled samples of both lavas and ash-flow tuffs from the Black Mountain volcanic center enables us to evaluate magmatic processes. The results of this study are used to: (1) determine how this high-level magma system developed; (2) compare this system with other similar systems; and (3) correlate ash-flow sheets using their chemical characteristics.

Vogel, T.A.; Noble, D.C.; Younker, L.W.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Structural integrity and potential failure modes of hanford high-level waste tanks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structural Integrity of the Hanford High-Level Waste Tanks were evaluated based on the existing Design and Analysis Documents. All tank structures were found adequate for the normal operating and seismic loads. Potential failure modes of the tanks were assessed by engineering interpretation and extrapolation of the existing engineering documents.

Han, F.C.

1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

311

A Formal Verification Method of Scheduling in High-level Synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a formal method for checking the equivalence between the finite state machine with data path (FSMD) model of the high-level behavioural specification and the FSMD model of the behaviour transformed by the scheduler. The method consists ...

C Karfa; C Mandal; D Sarkar; S R. Pentakota; Chris Reade

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

A scheduling algorithm for optimization and early planning in high-level synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Complexities of applications implemented on embedded and programmable systems grow with the advances in capacities and capabilities of these systems. Mapping applications onto them manually is becoming a very tedious task. This draws attention to using ... Keywords: Scheduling, bipartite matching, data flow graph, high-level synthesis

Seda Ogrenci Memik; Ryan Kastner; Elaheh Bozorgzadeh; Majid Sarrafzadeh

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

A humidity temperature test on the HLNC (high-level neutron coincidence counter) instrument  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the findings of a laboratory study made to determine the effects of unusual climatic conditions on high-level neutron coincidence counters (HLNCs). The capability of the instrument, when undesirable temperatures and/or humidities are present, the change in count rate as temperature and humidity increase, and the extent of humidity/temperature interaction are examined.

Goldman, A.; Augustson, R.; Karlin, E.W.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

Burgard, K.C.

1998-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

315

Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

Burgard, K.C.

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

316

High Level Trigger Configuration and Handling of Trigger Tables in the CMS Filter Farm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is currently being commissioned and is scheduled to collect the first pp collision data in 2008. CMS features a two-level trigger system. The Level-1 trigger, based on custom hardware, is designed to reduce the collision rate of 40 MHz to approximately 100 kHz. Data for events accepted by the Level-1 trigger are read out and assembled by an Event Builder. The High Level Trigger (HLT) employs a set of sophisticated software algorithms, to analyze the complete event information, and further reduce the accepted event rate for permanent storage and analysis. This paper describes the design and implementation of the HLT Configuration Management system. First experiences with commissioning of the HLT system are also reported.

Bauer, G; Behrens, U; Boyer, V; Branson, J; Brett, A; Cano, E; Carboni, A; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; O'dell, V; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino, R; Gulmini, M; Gutleber, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Kim, J C; Klute, M; Lipeles, E; Perez, J L; Maron, G; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Moser, R; Mlot, E G; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Paus, C; Petrucci, A; Pieri, M; Pollet, L; Racz, A; Sakulin, H; Sani, M; Schieferdecker, P; Schwick, C; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, I; Tsirigkas, D; Varela, J

2009-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

317

Lead-iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste

Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

1984-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

318

Separation of polar shale oil compounds using high-speed liquid chromatography. [Compounds known to exist in shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methods for separation of potentially toxic compounds from shale oil and its waste products by high-speed liquid chromatography (HSLC) are discussed. The following classes of compounds were selected for study: aromatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, thiophenes, and indoles. No attempt was made to identify or quantitate compounds in shale oil, but it was demonstrated that HSLC can be a rapid and sensitive method for the separation of polar compounds from classes recognized to be present in shale oil and its waste products. Specific compounds studied were: phenanthrene, naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene, triphenylene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, 1,2,3,4-dibenzanthracene, and 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene. (JGB)

Riley, R.G.

1976-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sales, Brian C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

DOE/EIS-0287 Idaho High-Level Waste & Facilities Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement (December 1999)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HLW & FD EIS HLW & FD EIS 3-13 DOE/EIS-0287D Calcine storag e i n b i n s ets Calcine storag e i n b i n s et s Cesium ion exchange & grouting Cesium ion exchange & grouting NWCF* NWCF* Calcine Mixed transuranic waste/SBW Mixed transuranic waste/NGLW Low-level waste disposa l*** disposa l*** Tank heels Transuranic waste (from tank heels) * * * * Mixed transuranic waste/ NGLW Mixed transuranic waste/ NGLW M i x e d t r a nsuran ic w a s t e / M i x e d t r a nsuran ic w a s t e / S B W s t o rage in Ta n k F a r m S B W s t o rage in Ta n k F a r m Low-leve l waste Low-leve l waste FIGURE 3-2. Continued Current Operations Alternative. LEGEND * Including high-temperature and maximum achievable control technology upgrades. Mixed transuranic waste/ newly generated liquid waste New Waste Calcining Facility ** Calcine would be transferred from bin set #1 to bin set #6 or #7.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Development of a Real-Time, High-Speed Distribution Level Data Acquisition System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the development of smart grids and the deployment of their enabling technologies, improved data acquisition will be needed at the distribution level to understand the full impact of these changes. With this in mind, NREL has developed a high-speed measurement and data collection network targeted specifically at the distribution level. This network is based around adaptable, rugged measurement devices designed for deployment at a variety of low and medium voltage locations below the sub-station. Each of these devices is capable of real-time data transmission via an Internet connection. Additionally, several analysis and visualization applications have been developed around the incoming data streams.

Bank, J.; Kroposki, B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

DOE-EA-0179; Waste Form Selection for Savannah River Plant High-Level Waste  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

48326 (F.R.) 48326 (F.R.) NOTICES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Compliance With the National Environmental Policy Act Proposed Finding of No Significant Impact, Selection of Borosilicate Glass as the Defense Waste Processing Facility Waste Form for High -Level Radioactive Wastes Savanah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina Thursday, July 29, 1982 *32778 AGENCY: Energy Department. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA- 0179) on the proposed selection of borosilicate glass as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) waste form for the immobilization of the high -level radioactive wastes generated and stored at the DOE Savannah River Plant (SRP), Aiken, South Carolina. DOE recently decided to immobilize

323

Title: An Advanced Solution for the Storage, Transportation and Disposal of Vitrified High Level Waste  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presented at Global 99, Jackson, Wyoming, August 29 - September 2, 1999 Presented at Global 99, Jackson, Wyoming, August 29 - September 2, 1999 1 AN ADVANCED SOLUTION FOR THE STORAGE, TRANSPORTATION AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT FUEL AND VITRIFIED HIGH LEVEL WASTE William J. Quapp Teton Technologies, Inc. 860 W. Riverview Dr. Idaho Falls, ID 83401 208-535-9001 ABSTRACT For future nuclear power deployment in the US, certain changes in the back end of the fuel cycle, i.e., disposal of high level waste and spent fuel, must become a real options. However, there exists another problem from the front end of the fuel cycle which has until recently, received less attention. Depleted uranium hexafluoride is a by-product of the enrichment process and has accumulated for over 50 years. It now represents a potential environmental problem. This paper describes a

324

West Valley demonstration project: alternative processes for solidifying the high-level wastes  

SciTech Connect

In 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the West Valley Solidification Project as the result of legislation passed by the US Congress. The purpose of this project was to carry out a high level nuclear waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The DOE authorized the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, to assess alternative processes for treatment and solidification of the WNYNSC high-level wastes. The Process Alternatives Study is the suject of this report. Two pretreatment approaches and several waste form processes were selected for evaluation in this study. The two waste treatment approaches were the salt/sludge separation process and the combined waste process. Both terminal and interim waste form processes were studied.

Holton, L.K.; Larson, D.E.; Partain, W.L.; Treat, R.L.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Theoretical and experimental analysis of a multiphase screw pump, handling gas-liquid mixtures with very high gas volume fractions  

SciTech Connect

In the investigation of the pumping behaviour of multiphase screw pumps, handling gas-liquid mixtures with very high gas volume fractions, theoretical and experimental analyses were performed. A new theoretical screw pump model was developed, which calculates the time-dependent conditions inside the several chambers of a screw pump as well as the exchange of mass and energy between these chambers. By means of the performed experimental analysis, the screw pump model was verified, especially at very high gas volume fractions from 90% to 99%. The experiments, which were conducted with the reference fluids water and air, can be divided mainly into the determination of the steady state pumping behaviour on the one hand and into the analysis of selected transient operating conditions on the other hand, whereas the visualisation of the leakage flows through the circumferential gaps was rounded off the experimental analysis. (author)

Raebiger, K. [LEISTRITZ Pumpen GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany); Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales (United Kingdom); Maksoud, T.M.A.; Ward, J. [Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales (United Kingdom); Hausmann, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Building Services Engineering, University of Applied Sciences, Nuremberg (Germany)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

What are Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste ?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are materials from nuclear power plants and government defense programs. These materials contain highly radioactive elements, such as cesium, strontium, technetium, and neptunium. Some of these elements will remain radioactive for a few years, while others will be radioactive for millions of years. Exposure to such radioactive materials can cause human health problems. Scientists worldwide agree that the safest way to manage these materials is to dispose of them deep underground in what is called a geologic repository.

DOE

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Development of a new noncytopathic Semliki Forest virus vector providing high expression levels and stability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alphavirus vectors express high levels of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells, but their cytopathic nature makes this expression transient. In order to generate a Semliki Forest virus (SFV) noncytopathic vector we introduced mutations previously described to turn Sindbis virus noncytopathic into a conserved position in an SFV vector expressing LacZ. Interestingly, mutant P718T in replicase nsp2 subunit was able to replicate in only a small percentage of BHK cells, producing {beta}-gal-expressing colonies without selection. Puromycin N-acetyl-transferase (pac) gene was used to replace LacZ in this mutant allowing selection of an SFV noncytopathic replicon containing a second mutation in nsp2 nuclear localization signal (R649H). This latter mutation did not confer a noncytopathic phenotype by itself and did not alter nsp2 nuclear translocation. Replicase synthesis was diminished in the SFV double mutant, leading to genomic and subgenomic RNA levels that were 125-fold and 66-fold lower than in wild-type vector, respectively. Interestingly, this mutant expressed {beta}-gal levels similar to parental vector. By coexpressing pac and LacZ from independent subgenomic promoters this vector was able to generate stable cell lines maintaining high expression levels during at least 10 passages, indicating that it could be used as a powerful system for protein production in mammalian cells.

Casales, Erkuden; Rodriguez-Madoz, Juan R.; Ruiz-Guillen, Marta; Razquin, Nerea; Cuevas, Yolanda; Prieto, Jesus [Division of Gene Therapy, School of Medicine, Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), University of Navarra, Av. Pio XII 55, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Smerdou, Cristian [Division of Gene Therapy, School of Medicine, Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), University of Navarra, Av. Pio XII 55, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)], E-mail: csmerdou@unav.es

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

328

High-level directives to drive the allocation of parallel object-oriented applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents the Abstract Configuration Language (ACL) implemented within the Parallel Objects object oriented parallel programming environment. ACL defines a set of directives that allow users to specify the allocation needs of his/her application ... Keywords: ACL, ACL directives, Abstract Configuration Language, Parallel Objects object oriented parallel programming environment, allocation decisions, allocation needs, application components, high level directives, parallel languages, parallel object oriented application allocation, run time support, testbed application

A. Corradi; L. Leenardi; F. Zambonelli

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Remote Handling Equipment for a High-Level Waste Waste Package Closure System  

SciTech Connect

High-level waste will be placed in sealed waste packages inside a shielded closure cell. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has designed a system for closing the waste packages including all cell interior equipment and support systems. This paper discusses the material handling aspects of the equipment used and operations that will take place as part of the waste package closure operations. Prior to construction, the cell and support system will be assembled in a full-scale mockup at INL.

Kevin M. Croft; Scott M. Allen; Mark W. Borland

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Alternatives generation and analysis for the phase 1 high-level waste pretreatment process selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report evaluates the effects of enhanced sludge washing and sludge washing without caustic leaching during the preparation of the Phase 1 high-level waste feeds. The pretreatment processing alternatives are evaluated against their ability to satisfy contractual, cost minimization, and other criteria. The information contained in this report is consistent with, and supplemental to, the Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (Kirkbride et al. 1997).

Manuel, A.F.

1997-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

331

Thermal analysis of Yucca Mountain commercial high-level waste packages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermal performance of commercial high-level waste packages was evaluated on a preliminary basis for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. The purpose of this study is to provide an estimate for waste package component temperatures as a function of isolation time in tuff. Several recommendations are made concerning the additional information and modeling needed to evaluate the thermal performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system.

Altenhofen, M.K. [Altenhofen (M.K.), Richland, WA (United States); Eslinger, P.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

ROGERS, C.A.

2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

333

Safety analysis report vitrified high level waste type B shipping cask  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Safety Analysis Report describes the design, analyses, and principle features of the Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) Cask. In preparing this report a detailed evaluation of the design has been performed to ensure that all safety, licensing, and operational goals for the cask and its associated Department of Energy program can be met. The functions of this report are: (1) to fully document that all functional and regulatory requirements of 10CFR71 can be met by the package; and (2) to document the design and analyses of the cask for review by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The VHLW Cask is the reusable shipping package designed by GNSI under Department of Energy contract DE-AC04-89AL53-689 for transportation of Vitrified High Level Waste, and to meet the requirements for certification under 10CFR71 for a Type B(U) package. The VHLW cask has been designed as packaging for transport of canisters of Vitrified High Level Waste solidified at Department of Energy facilities.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Modeling of Boehmite Leaching from Actual Hanford High-Level Waste Samples  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy plans to vitrify approximately 60,000 metric tons of high level waste sludge from underground storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. To reduce the volume of high level waste requiring treatment, a goal has been set to remove about 90 percent of the aluminum, which comprises nearly 70 percent of the sludge. Aluminum in the form of gibbsite and sodium aluminate can be easily dissolved by washing the waste stream with caustic, but boehmite, which comprises nearly half of the total aluminum, is more resistant to caustic dissolution and requires higher treatment temperatures and hydroxide concentrations. In this work, the dissolution kinetics of aluminum species during caustic leaching of actual Hanford high level waste samples is examined. The experimental results are used to develop a shrinking core model that provides a basis for prediction of dissolution dynamics from known process temperature and hydroxide concentration. This model is further developed to include the effects of particle size polydispersity, which is found to strongly influence the rate of dissolution.

Peterson, Reid A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Rapko, Brian M.; Poloski, Adam P.

2007-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

335

Progress in resolving Savannah River Site high-level waste tank safety issues  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina, approximately 35 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste are stored in 51 underground, carbon steel waste tanks. These tanks and associated facilities are distributed between the F and H areas, two processing areas at SRS, and are called the F- and H-area high-level waste tank farms. Within the last few years, issues have been raised about the safety of high-level waste tank farms throughout the DOE complex, including those at SRS. Plans for resolution of these issues were reported at the Waste Management 192 conference. This paper addresses progress made at SRS since 1992. Most of the efforts for resolving the six safety issues identified at SRS have concentrated on (1) preparing the tanks for waste removal and (2) completing construction, testing, and starting up three key facilities. These facilities will transform the waste into forms suitable for final disposal, specifically borosilicate glass and saltstone (grout). Removing the waste from the tanks and processing it is needed to resolve three of the safety issues. Two facilities -- In-Tank Precipitation and the Defense Waste Processing Facility -- are undergoing non-radioactive simulant testing (``cold runs``) at this time. The third facility -- Sludge Processing -- began testing with actual waste in October 1993. In Tank Precipitation is scheduled to be operating by the end of 1994.

d`Entremont, P.D.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

336

Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing - 14194  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok?'s accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol.

Kelly, Steven E.

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

337

Risk characterization data manual for Category D inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This manual reports the results of a risk characterization of Category D inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) underground storage tanks (Uses) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The risk characterization is required by the Federal Facility Agreement between the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office, the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The intent of the risk characterization is to determine relative priorities for assessment and remediation. A total of 55 FFA Category D inactive LLLW tanks are discussed in this manual. Of the 39 tanks at ORNL that have been accepted into the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program, all have been sampled for preliminary characterization, except for 5 tanks that were found to be empty plus I that was found not to exist. The remaining 16 tanks are in the Waste Management (WM) Program. Twelve were sampled for preliminary characterization, and four were found empty. Each sampled tank was scored on a scale of I to 5 on the basis of three criteria: (1) leak characteristics, (2) location, and (3) toxicological characteristics of residual sludges and liquids. Each criterion was assigned a weighing factor based on perceived importance. The criterion score multiplied by the weighting factor equaled the tank`s total score for that criterion. The three weighted criterion scores for each tank were then summed for a total score for that tank. When the scores for all tanks had been weighted and summed, the tanks were ranked in descending order on the basis of their total scores. The highest possible score for a tank is 30. The descending rank order represents the recommended priorities for evaluation: the higher the score, the higher the priority for evaluation. Of the 54 tanks sampled in the risk characterization, 23 tanks scored 16 or higher, 11 scored between 10 and 15, 5 scored between 4 and 9, and 15 scored 3 or less.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Risk characterization data manual for Category D inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This manual reports the results of a risk characterization of Category D inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) underground storage tanks (USTs) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The risk characterization is required by the Federal Facility Agreement between the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office, the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The intent of the risk characterization is to determine relative priorities for assessment and remediation. A total of 55 FFA Category D inactive LLLW tanks are discussed in this manual. Of the 39 tanks at ORNL that have been accepted into the Environmental Restoration (ER) Pregrain, all have been sampled for preliminary characterization, except for 5 tanks that were found to be empty plus 1 that was found not to exist. The remaining 16 tanks are in the Waste Management (WM) Program. Twelve were sampled for preliminary characterization, and four were found empty. Each sampled tank was scored on a scale of I to 5 on the basis of three criteria: (1) leak characteristics, (2) location, and (3) toxicological characteristics of residual sludges and liquids. Each criterion was assigned a weighing factor based on perceived importance. The criterion score multiplied by the weighting factor equaled the tank`s total score for that criterion. The three weighted criterion scores for each tank were then summed for a total score for that tank. When the scores for all tanks had been weighted and summed, the tanks were ranked in descending order on the basis of their total scores. The highest possible score for a tank is 30. The descending rank order represents the recommended priorities for evaluation: the higher the score, the higher the priority for evaluation. Of the 54 tanks sampled in the risk characterization, 23 tanks scored 16 or higher, 11 scored between 10 and 15, 5 scored between 4 and 9, and 15 scored 3 or less.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 5: COMPOSITIONAL TRENDS FOR VARYING ALUMINUM CONCENTRATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as processed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The data was used to provide recommendations to the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) regarding blending and washing strategies in preparing SB5 based on acceptability of the glass compositions. These data were also used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of frits. Three composition projections for SB5 were developed using a model-based approach at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These compositions, referred to as SB5 Cases B, C and D, projected removal of 25, 50 and 75% (respectively) of the aluminum in Tank 51 through the low temperature aluminum dissolution process. The frits for this study (Frits 530 through 537) were selected based on their predicted operating windows (i.e., ranges of waste loadings over which the predicted properties of the glasses were acceptable) and their potential (based on historical trends) to provide acceptable melt rates for SB5. Six additional glasses were designed to evaluate alternatives for uranium in DWPF-type glasses used for variability studies and some scoping studies. Since special measures are necessary when working with uranium-containing glasses in the laboratory, it is desirable as a cost and time saving measure to find an alternative for uranium to support frit optimization efforts. Hafnium and neodymium were investigated as potential surrogates for uranium, and other glasses were made by simply excluding the radioactive components and renormalizing the glass composition. The study glasses were fabricated and characterized at SRNL. Chemical composition analyses suggested only minor difficulties in meeting the targeted compositions for some of the oxides for some of the glasses. Although minor differences were observed, they did not have a significant impact on the conclusions made in this study. Several of the study compositions showed retention of more than 0.5 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass. Trevorite (a spinel) was the only crystalline phase that was positively identified in a few of the study glasses after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Spinels are not of concern as they have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. The crystallization behavior of the surrogate glasses was generally the same as that of their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. There are two pairs that were exceptions: SB5-04 (amorphous) and SB5-24 (possible trevorite), along with SB5-07 (amorphous) and SB5-25 (trevorite). In these cases, the surrogate glasses (SB5-24 and SB5-25) appear to be more conservative (more prone to crystallization) than their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The normalized leachate (NL) values for B, Li, Na and Si for all of the study glasses were well below those of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass, regardless of heat treatment or compositional view. This indicates that all of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The highest NL [B] for the study glasses was 0.914 g/L (the quenched version of glass SB5-13), normalized using the measured, bias-correct composition. There was little practical impact of the CCC heat treatment on the PCT responses of the study glasses. The measured PCT responses were predictable by the current {Delta}G{sub p} models. In general, the PCT responses for the surrogate glasses or the glasses without U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were quite similar to their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. The average percent error in NL [B] normalized by the measured, bias-corrected compositions for the surrogate glasses compared with their radioactive counterparts was 8.8%. The largest difference in NL

Fox, K; Tommy Edwards; David Best; Irene Reamer; Phyllis Workman

2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

340

Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.  

SciTech Connect

A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall, the results of the reference design development and the cost analysis support the technical feasibility of the deep borehole disposal concept for high-level radioactive waste.

Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The copper-based alloy materials are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The austenitic materials are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr, and they must be retrievable from the disposal site during the first 50 yr after emplacement. The containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on the phase stability of both groups of candidate alloys. The austenitic alloys are reviewed in terms of the physical metallurgy of the iron-chromium-nickel system, martensite transformations, carbide formation, and intermetallic-phase precipitation. The copper-based alloys are reviewed in terms of their phase equilibria and the possibility of precipitation of the minor alloying constituents. For the austenitic materials, the ranking based on phase stability is: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper) (best), and then both CDA 715 and CDA 613. 75 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Automated Sampling and Sample Pneumatic Transport of High Level Tank Wastes at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the development work, and design and engineering tasks performed, to provide a fully automated sampling system for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) project at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, USA. WTP is being built to enable the emptying and immobilization of highly active waste resulting from processing of irradiated nuclear fuel since the 1940's. The Hanford Tank Wastes are separated into Highly Level Waste (HLW), and Low Active Waste (LAW) fractions, which are separately immobilized by vitrification into borosilicate glass. Liquid samples must be taken of the waste and Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs) before vitrification, and analyzed to insure the glass products will comply with specifications established in the WTP contract. This paper describes the non-radioactive testing of the sampling of the HLW and LAW melter feed simulants that was performed ahead of final equipment design. These trials were essential to demonstrate the effectiveness and repeatability of the integrated sampling system to collect representative samples, free of cross-contamination. Based on existing tried and proven equipment, the system design is tailored to meet the WTP project's specific needs. The design provides sampling capabilities from 47 separate sampling points and includes a pneumatic transport system to move the samples from the 3 separate facilities to the centralized analytical laboratory. The physical and rheological compositions of the waste simulants provided additional challenges in terms of the sample delivery, homogenization, and sample capture equipment design requirements. The activity levels of the actual waste forms, specified as 486 E9 Bq/liter (Cs-137), 1.92 E9 Bq/liter (Co-60), and 9.67 E9 Bq/liter (Eu-154), influenced the degree of automation provided, and justified the minimization of manual intervention needed to obtain and deliver samples from the process facilities to the analytical laboratories. Maintaining high integrity primary and secondary confinement, including during the cross-site transportation of the samples, is a key requirement that is achieved and assured at all times. (authors)

Phillips, C.; Richardson, J. E. [BNG America, 2345 Stevens Drive, Richland, WA, 99354 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

High Level Waste Tank Farm Replacement Project for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Environmental Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0831, for the construction and operation of the High-Level Waste Tank Farm Replacement (HLWTFR) Project for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The HLWTFR Project as originally proposed by the DOE and as analyzed in this EA included: (1) replacement of five high-level liquid waste storage tanks with four new tanks and (2) the upgrading of existing tank relief piping and high-level liquid waste transfer systems. As a result of the April 1992 decision to discontinue the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at INEL, DOE believes that it is unlikely that the tank replacement aspect of the project will be needed in the near term. Therefore, DOE is not proposing to proceed with the replacement of the tanks as described in this-EA. The DOE`s instant decision involves only the proposed upgrades aspect of the project described in this EA. The upgrades are needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act requirements, and the Department`s obligations pursuant to the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement and Consent Order among the Environmental Protection Agency, DOE, and the State of Idaho. The environmental impacts of the proposed upgrades are adequately covered and are bounded by the analysis in this EA. If DOE later proposes to proceed with the tank replacement aspect of the project as described in the EA or as modified, it will undertake appropriate further review pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act.

Not Available

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M&O 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M&Q 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable canisters. The intended use of this analysis is to support Site Recommendation reports and to assist in the development of WPD drawings. Activities described in this analysis were conducted in accordance with the Development Plan ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c) with no deviations from the plan.

G. Radulesscu; J.S. Tang

2000-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

346

Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 3 of 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

Stephen Bergin

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

347

Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 2 of 3  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

Stephen Bergin

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

348

Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 1 of 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

Stephen Bergin

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

349

ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

HOLROYD,R.A.

2002-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

350

Low-level dynamic system formation with high-level automation: extending UML in support of UPnP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One way of defining system evolvability is in terms of the lowlevel discrete-systems composition and dynamic bindings. Evidently, direct low-level implementation has its drawbacks and might be expensive for the performance of system formation process ... Keywords: UPnP, abstractions, complex systems, conceptual modeling, design patterns, dynamic binding, evolvable systems, framework, methodologies, modeling, network interoperability, open systems, software architecture, software engineering, specification, system integration

Behzad Bastani

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

3rd Workshop on System-level Virtualization for High Performance Computing (HPCVirt) 2009, Nuremberg, Germany, March 30, 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3rd Workshop on System-level Virtualization for High Performance Computing (HPCVirt) 2009 for High Performance Computing (HPCVirt) 2009, Nuremberg, Germany, March 30, 2009 Outline · Background work #12;3/193rd Workshop on System-level Virtualization for High Performance Computing (HPCVirt) 2009

Engelmann, Christian

352

Selection of candidate canister materials for high-level nuclear waste containment in a tuff repository  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A repository located at Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site is a potential site for permanent geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The repository can be located in a horizon in welded tuff, a volcanic rock, which is above the static water level at this site. The environmental conditions in this unsaturated zone are expected to be air and water vapor dominated for much of the containment period. Type 304L stainless steel is the reference material for fabricating canisters to contain the solid high-level wastes. Alternative stainless alloys are considered because of possible susceptibility of 304L to localized and stress forms of corrosion. For the reprocessed glass wastes, the canisters serve as the recipient for pouring the glass with the result that a sensitized microstructure may develop because of the times at elevated temperatures. Corrosion testing of the reference and alternative materials has begun in tuff-conditioned water and steam environments. 21 references, 8 figures, 8 tables.

McCright, R.D.; Weiss, H.; Juhas, M.C.; Logan, R.W.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Separation of strontium-90 from Hanford high-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

Current guidelines for disposing of high-level radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site call for vitrifying high-level waste (HLW) in borosilicate glass and disposing the glass canisters in a deep geologic repository. Disposition of the low-level waste (LLW) is yet to be determined, but it will likely be immobilized in a glass matrix and disposed of on site. To lower the radiological risk associated with the LLW form, methods are being developed to separate {sup 90}Sr from the bulk waste material so this isotope can be routed to the HLW stream. A solvent extraction method is being investigated to separate {sup 90}Sr from acid-dissolved Hanford tank wastes. Results of experiments with actual tank waste indicate that this method can be used to achieve separation of {sup 90}Sr from the bulk waste components. Greater than 99% of the {sup 90}Sr was removed from an acidic dissolved sludge solution by extraction with di-tbutylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 in 1-octanol (the SREX process). The major sludge components were not extracted.

Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Jones, E.O.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

High-level seismic tests of piping at the HDR (Heissdampfreaktor)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the second-phase testing at the Heissdampfreaktor (HDR) Test Facility in Kahl/Main, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), high-level seismic experiments, designated SHAM, were performed on an in-plant piping system during the period of 19 April to 27 May 1988. The objectives of the SHAM experiments were to (1) study the response of piping subjected to seismic excitation levels that exceed design levels manifold and which may result in failure/plastification of pipe supports and pipe elements; (2) provide data for the validation of linear and nonlinear pipe response analyses; (3) compare and evaluate, under identical loading conditions, the performance of various dynamic support system, ranging from very flexible to very stiff support configurations; (4) establish seismic margins for piping, dynamic pipe supports, and pipe anchorages; and (5) investigate the response, operability, and fragility of dynamic supports and of a typical US gate valve under extreme levels of seismic excitation. A brief description of the SHAM tests is provided, followed by highlights of the test results that are given primarily in the form of maximum response values. Also presented are very limited comparisons of experimental data and pretest analytical predictions. 6 refs., 8 figs.

Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Hsieh, B.J.; Costello, J.F.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger Configuration System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ATLAS detector system installed in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is designed to study proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions with a maximum centre of mass energy of 14 TeV at a bunch collision rate of 40MHz. In March 2010 the four LHC experiments saw the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV. Still within the year a collision rate of nearly 10 MHz is expected. At ATLAS, events of potential interest for ATLAS physics are selected by a three-level trigger system, with a final recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first level (L1) is implemented in custom hardware; the two levels of the high level trigger (HLT) are software triggers, running on large farms of standard computers and network devices. Within the ATLAS physics program more than 500 trigger signatures are defined. The HLT tests each signature on each L1-accepted event; the test outcome is recorded for later analysis. The HLT-Steering is responsible for this. It foremost ensures the independent test of each signature, guarantying u...

Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; The ATLAS collaboration

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Technical Exchange on Improved Design and Performance of High Level Waste Melters - Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SIA Radon is responsible for management of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) produced in Central Russia. In cooperation with Minatom organizations Radon carries out R and D programs on treatment of simulated high level waste (HLW) as well. Radon scientists deal with a study of materials for LILW, HLW, and Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) wastes immobilization, and development and testing of processes and technologies for waste treatment and disposal. Radon is mostly experienced in LILW vitrification. This experience can be carried over to HLW vitrification especially in field of melting systems. The melter chosen as a basic unit for the vitrification plant is a cold crucible. Later on Radon experience in LILW vitrification as well as our results on simulated HLW vitrification are briefly described.

SK Sundaram; ML Elliott; D Bickford

1999-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

357

ASTATINE-211 RADIOCHEMISTRY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL RADIOSYNTHESIS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Targeted radionuclide therapy is emerging as a viable approach for cancer treatment because of its potential for delivering curative doses of radiation to malignant cell populations while sparing normal tissues. Alpha particles such as those emitted by 211At are particularly attractive for this purpose because of their short path length in tissue and high energy, making them highly effective in killing cancer cells. The current impact of targeted radiotherapy in the clinical domain remains limited despite the fact that in many cases, potentially useful molecular targets and labeled compounds have already been identified. Unfortunately, putting these concepts into practice has been impeded by limitations in radiochemistry methodologies. A critical problem is that the synthesis of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals provides additional challenges in comparison to diagnostic reagents because of the need to perform radio-synthesis at high levels of radioactivity. This is particularly important for {alpha}-particle emitters such as 211At because they deposit large amounts of energy in a highly focal manner. The overall objective of this project is to develop convenient and reproducible radiochemical methodologies for the radiohalogenation of molecules with the {alpha}-particle emitter 211At at the radioactivity levels needed for clinical studies. Our goal is to address two problems in astatine radiochemistry: First, a well known characteristic of 211At chemistry is that yields for electrophilic astatination reactions decline as the time interval after radionuclide isolation from the cyclotron target increases. This is a critical problem that must be addressed if cyclotrons are to be able to efficiently supply 211At to remote users. And second, when the preparation of high levels of 211At-labeled compounds is attempted, the radiochemical yields can be considerably lower than those encountered at tracer dose. For these reasons, clinical evaluation of promising 211At-labeled targeted radiotherapeutics currently is a daunting task. Our central hypothesis is that improvements in 211At radiochemistry are critically dependent on gaining an understanding of and compensating for the effects of radiolysis induced by 211At {alpha}-particles. Because of the widespread interest in labeling antibodies, antibody fragments and peptides with 211At, our proposed work plan will initially focus on reagents that we have developed for this purpose. Part of our strategy is the use of synthetic precursors immobilized on polymeric resins or perfluorous and triarylphosphonium supports. Their use could eliminate the need for a purification step to separate unreacted tin precursor from labeled product and hopefully provide a simple kit technology that could be utilized at other institutions. The specific aims of this project are: (1) To optimze methods for 211At production and isolation of 211At from cyclotron targets; (2) To develop convenient and reproducible methodologies for high activity level and high specific activity radiohalogenation of biomolecules with 211At; (3) to develop a procedure for extending the shelf-life of 211At beyond a few hours so that this radionuclide can be utilized at centers remote from its site of production; and (4) to work out high activity level synthesis methods for utilizing support immobilized tin precursors for 211At labeling. If we are successful in achieving our goals, the radiochemical methodologies that are developed could greatly facilitate the use of 211At-labeled targeted cancer therapeutics in patients, even at institutions that are distant from the few sites currently available for 211At production.

MICHAEL R. ZALUTSKY

2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

358

Experiences with High-Level Programming Directives for Porting Applications to GPUs  

SciTech Connect

HPC systems now exploit GPUs within their compute nodes to accelerate program performance. As a result, high-end application development has become extremely complex at the node level. In addition to restructuring the node code to exploit the cores and specialized devices, the programmer may need to choose a programming model such as OpenMP or CPU threads in conjunction with an accelerator programming model to share and manage the difference node resources. This comes at a time when programmer productivity and the ability to produce portable code has been recognized as a major concern. In order to offset the high development cost of creating CUDA or OpenCL kernels, directives have been proposed for programming accelerator devices, but their implications are not well known. In this paper, we evaluate the state of the art accelerator directives to program several applications kernels, explore transformations to achieve good performance, and examine the expressiveness and performance penalty of using high-level directives versus CUDA. We also compare our results to OpenMP implementations to understand the benefits of running the kernels in the accelerator versus CPU cores.

Hernandez, Oscar R [ORNL; Ding, Wei [University of Houston, Houston; Chapman, Barbara [University of Houston, Houston; Kartsaklis, Christos [ORNL; Sankaran, Ramanan [ORNL; Graham, Richard L [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Progress in resolving Hanford Site high-level waste tank safety issues  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Interim storage of alkaline, high-level radioactive waste, from two generations of spent fuel reprocessing and waste management activities, has resulted in the accumulation of 238 million liters of waste in Hanford Site single and double-shell tanks. Before the 1990`s, the stored waste was believed to be: (1) chemically unreactive under its existing storage conditions and plausible accident scenarios; and (2) chemically stable. This paradigm was proven incorrect when detailed evaluation of tank contents and behavior revealed a number of safety issues and that the waste was generating flammable and noxious gases. In 1990, the Waste Tank Safety Program was formed to focus on identifying safety issues and resolving the ferrocyanide, flammable gas, organic, high heat, noxious vapor, and criticality issues. The tanks of concern were placed on Watch Lists by safety issue. This paper summarizes recent progress toward resolving Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tank safety issues, including modeling, and analyses, laboratory experiments, monitoring upgrades, mitigation equipment, and developing a strategy to screen tanks for safety issues.

Babad, H.; Eberlein, S.J.; Johnson, G.D.; Meacham, J.E.; Osborne, J.W.; Payne, M.A.; Turner, D.A.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Development and application of a conceptual approach for defining high-level waste  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a conceptual approach to defining high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and a preliminary quantitative definition obtained from an example implementation of the conceptual approach. On the basis of the description of HLW in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, we have developed a conceptual model in which HLW has two attributes: HLW is (1) highly radioactive and (2) requires permanent isolation via deep geologic disposal. This conceptual model results in a two-dimensional waste categorization system in which one axis, related to ''requires permanent isolation,'' is associated with long-term risks from waste disposal and the other axis, related to ''highly radioactive,'' is associated with short-term risks from waste management and operations; this system also leads to the specification of categories of wastes that are not HLW. Implementation of the conceptual model for defining HLW was based primarily on health and safety considerations. Wastes requiring permanent isolation via deep geologic disposal were defined by estimating the maximum concentrations of radionuclides that would be acceptable for disposal using the next-best technology, i.e., greater confinement disposal (GCD) via intermediate-depth burial or engineered surface structures. Wastes that are highly radioactive were defined by adopting heat generation rate as the appropriate measure and examining levels of decay heat that necessitate special methods to control risks from operations in a variety of nuclear fuel-cycle situations. We determined that wastes having a power density >200 W/m/sup 3/ should be considered highly radioactive. Thus, in the example implementation, the combination of maximum concentrations of long-lived radionuclides that are acceptable for GCD and a power density of 200 W/m/sup 3/ provides boundaries for defining wastes that are HLW.

Croff, A.G.; Forsberg, C.W.; Kocher, D.C.; Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Miller, D.E.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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361

High level seismic/vibrational tests at the HDR: An overview  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Phase II testing at the HDR Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG, two series of high-level seismic/vibrational experiments were performed. In the first of these (SHAG) a coast-down shaker, mounted on the reactor operating floor and capable of generating 1000 tonnes of force, was used to investigate full-scale structural response, soil-structure interaction (SSI), and piping/equipment response at load levels equivalent to those of a design basis earthquake. The HDR soil/structure system was tested to incipient failure exhibiting highly nonlinear response. In the load transmission from structure to piping/equipment significant response amplifications and shifts to higher frequencies occurred. The performance of various pipe support configurations was evaluated. This latter effort was continued in the second series of tests (SHAM), in which an in-plant piping system was investigated at simulated seismic loads (generated by two servo-hydraulic actuators each capable of generating 40 tonnes of force), that exceeded design levels manifold and resulted in considerable pipe plastification and failure of some supports (snubbers). The evaluation of six different support configurations demonstrated that proper system design (for a given spectrum) rather than number of supports or system stiffness is essential to limiting pipe stresses. Pipe strains at loads exceeding the design level eightfold were still tolerable, indicating that pipe failure even under extreme seismic loads is unlikely inspite of multiple support failures. Conservatively, an excess capacity (margin) of at least four was estimated for the piping system, and the pipe damping was found to be 4%. Comparisons of linear and nonlinear computational results with measurements showed that analytical predictions have wide scatter and do not necessarily yield conservative responses, underpredicting, in particular, peak support forces.

Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Hsieh, B.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Schrammel, D.; Malcher, L. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany)); Steinhilber, H. (Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg, Giessen (Germany)); Costello, J.F. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

High level seismic/vibrational tests at the HDR: An overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the Phase II testing at the HDR Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG, two series of high-level seismic/vibrational experiments were performed. In the first of these (SHAG) a coast-down shaker, mounted on the reactor operating floor and capable of generating 1000 tonnes of force, was used to investigate full-scale structural response, soil-structure interaction (SSI), and piping/equipment response at load levels equivalent to those of a design basis earthquake. The HDR soil/structure system was tested to incipient failure exhibiting highly nonlinear response. In the load transmission from structure to piping/equipment significant response amplifications and shifts to higher frequencies occurred. The performance of various pipe support configurations was evaluated. This latter effort was continued in the second series of tests (SHAM), in which an in-plant piping system was investigated at simulated seismic loads (generated by two servo-hydraulic actuators each capable of generating 40 tonnes of force), that exceeded design levels manifold and resulted in considerable pipe plastification and failure of some supports (snubbers). The evaluation of six different support configurations demonstrated that proper system design (for a given spectrum) rather than number of supports or system stiffness is essential to limiting pipe stresses. Pipe strains at loads exceeding the design level eightfold were still tolerable, indicating that pipe failure even under extreme seismic loads is unlikely inspite of multiple support failures. Conservatively, an excess capacity (margin) of at least four was estimated for the piping system, and the pipe damping was found to be 4%. Comparisons of linear and nonlinear computational results with measurements showed that analytical predictions have wide scatter and do not necessarily yield conservative responses, underpredicting, in particular, peak support forces.

Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Hsieh, B.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Schrammel, D.; Malcher, L. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Steinhilber, H. [Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg, Giessen (Germany); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

363

High Levels of Winter Air Pollution under the Influence of the Urban Heat Island along the Shore of Tokyo Bay  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A wintertime small-scale sea breeze associated with high levels of air pollution is described, in which the urban heat island plays an important role.

Hiroshi Yoshikado; Makoto Tsuchida

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

High-Level Waste Corporate Board, Dr. Inᅢᄅs Triay  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of Environmental Management Office of Environmental Management High-Level Waste Corporate Board April 1, 2008 safety v performance v cleanup v closure M E Environmental Management Environmental Management What Are Corporate Issues? * They usually occur at multiple sites * They usually have an impact that exceeds their initial point of application. Thus, they impact: - Policies - Planning - Standards & Guidance - EM's relationship with other agencies both internal and external to DOE safety v performance v cleanup v closure M E Environmental Management Environmental Management Current Corporate Issues * Performance Assessment * Quality Assurance * Methods to Determine the Waste Inventory * Chemical Processing * Waste Forms * Actual Disposition of Waste * Waste Treatment safety v

365

High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II.

Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

367

High-Level Functional and Operational Requirements for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facilty  

SciTech Connect

High-Level Functional & Operational Requirements for the AFCF -This document describes the principal functional and operational requirements for the proposed Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). The AFCF is intended to be the world's foremost facility for nuclear fuel cycle research, technology development, and demonstration. The facility will also support the near-term mission to develop and demonstrate technology in support of fuel cycle needs identified by industry, and the long-term mission to retain and retain U.S. leadership in fuel cycle operations. The AFCF is essential to demonstrate a more proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and make long-term improvements in fuel cycle effectiveness, performance and economy.

Charles Park

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK PITTING PREDICTIONS: AN INVESTIGATION INTO CRITICAL SOLUTION CONCENTRATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests was performed on samples of ASTM A537 carbon steel in support of a probability-based approach to evaluate the effect of chloride and sulfate on corrosion the steel?s susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Testing solutions were chosen to systemically evaluate the influence of the secondary aggressive species, chloride, and sulfate, in the nitrate based, high-level wastes. The results suggest that evaluating the combined effect of all aggressive species, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate, provides a consistent response for determining corrosion susceptibility. The results of this work emphasize the importance for not only nitrate concentration limits, but also chloride and sulfate concentration limits.

Hoffman, E.

2012-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

369

Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Phase 1 High Level Waste Feed Tanks Selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recent revision of the US. Department of Energy privatization contract for the immobilization of high-level waste (HLW) at Hanford necessitates the investigation of alternative waste feed sources to meet contractual feed requirements. This analysis identifies wastes to be considered as HLW feeds and develops and conducts alternative analyses to comply with established criteria. A total of 12,426 cases involving 72 waste streams are evaluated and ranked in three cost-based alternative models. Additional programmatic criteria are assessed against leading alternative options to yield an optimum blended waste feed stream.

CRAWFORD, T.W.

1999-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

370

A Tangible Interface for High-Level Direction of Multiple Animated Characters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many training, education, and visualization environments would benefit from realistic animated characters. Unfortunately, interfaces for character motion specification are often complex and ill-suited to non-experts. We present a tangible interface for basic character manipulation on planar surfaces. In particular, we focus on interface aspects specific to 2D gross character animation such as path and timing specification. Our approach allows for character manipulation and high-level motion specification through a natural metaphor – the figurine. We present an example interface for designing and visualizing strategy in the sport of American football and discuss usability studies of this interface. Key words: tangible interfaces, animation 1

Ronald A. Metoyer

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Collaboration, Automation, and Information Management at Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms - 14210  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), operator of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms at the Hanford Site, is taking an over 20-year leap in technology, replacing systems that were monitored with clipboards and obsolete computer systems, as well as solving major operations and maintenance hurdles in the area of process automation and information management. While WRPS is fully compliant with procedures and regulations, the current systems are not integrated and do not share data efficiently, hampering how information is obtained and managed.

Aurah, Mirwaise Y.; Roberts, Mark A.

2013-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

372

High-energy-density solid and liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report, July 1987-December 1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of new high-energy hydrocarbon fuels for use in air-breathing missiles has been the objective of a number of investigations which have received support during the past decade through programs sponsored by the Air Force Systems Command and/or the Naval Air Systems Command. The key characteristics which must be met by potential cruise missile fuels have been described by Burdette and coworkers. A primary requirement in this regard is that candidate fuels must possess high net volumetric heat of combustion (preferably greater than 160,000 BTU/gallon). In order to meet the primary requirement of high net volumetric heat of combustion, hydrocarbon systems have been sought which maximize the ratio of carbon-atom to hydrogen-atom content have been sought that maximize the ratio n/m.(JES)

Marchand, A.P.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Hydrogen generation rates in Savannah River Site high-level nuclear waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-level nuclear waste (HLW) is stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as alkaline, high-nitrate slurries in underground carbon steel tanks. Hydrogen is continuously generated in the waste tanks as a result of the radiolysis of water. Hydrogen generation rates have recently been measured in several waste tanks containing different types of waste. The measured rates ranged from 1.1 to 6.7 cubic feet per million Btu of decay heat. The measured rates are consistent with laboratory data which show that the hydrogen generation rate depends on the nitrate concentration and the decay heat content of the waste. Sampling at different locations indicated that the hydrogen is uniformly distributed radially within the tank.

Hobbs, D.T.; Norris, P.W.; Pucko, S.A.; Bibler, N.E.; Walker, D.D.; d'Entremont, P.D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Test methods for selection of materials of construction for high-level radioactive waste vitrification. Revision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Candidate materials of construction were evaluated for a facility at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant to vitrify high-level radioactive waste. Limited operating experience was available under the corrosive conditions of the complex vitrification process. The objective of the testing program was to provide a high degree of assurance that equipment will meet or exceed design lifetimes. To meet this objective in reasonable time and minimum cost, a program was designed consisting of a combination of coupon immersion and electrochemical laboratory tests and pilot-scale tests. Stainless steels and nickel-based alloys were tested. Alloys that were most resistant to general and local attack contained nickel, molybdenum (>9%), and chromium (where Cr + Mo > 30%). Alloy C-276 was selected as the reference material for process equipment. Stellite 6 was selected for abrasive service in the presence of formic acid. Alloy 690 and ALLCORR were selected for specific applications.

Bickford, D F; Corbett, R A; Morrison, W S

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

A high order moment method simulating evaporation and advection of a polydisperse liquid spray  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we tackle the modeling and numerical simulation of sprays and aerosols, that is dilute gas-droplet flows for which polydispersity description is of paramount importance. Starting from a kinetic description for point particles experiencing ... Keywords: Aerosols, Canonical moments, Eulerian multi-fluid model, High order moment method, Kinetic finite volume schemes, Maximum entropy reconstruction, Moment space, Polydisperse sprays

D. Kah; F. Laurent; M. Massot; S. Jay

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

The Gender Gap in Secondary School Mathematics at High Achievement Levels: Evidence from the American Mathematics Competitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper uses a new data source, American Mathematics Competitions, to examine the gender gap among high school students at very high achievement levels. The data bring out several new facts. There is a large gender gap ...

Ellison, Glenn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Process Modeling Results of Bio-Syntrolysis: Converting Biomass to Liquid Fuel with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A new process called Bio-Syntrolysis is being researched at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigating syngas production from renewable biomass that is assisted with high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE). The INL is the world leader in researching HTSE and has recently produced hydrogen from high temperature solid oxide cells running in the electrolysis mode setting several world records along the way. A high temperature (~800°C) heat source is necessary to heat the steam as it goes into the electrolytic cells. Biomass provides the heat source and the carbon source for this process. Syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, can be used for the production of synthetic liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch processes. This concept, coupled with fossil-free electricity, provides a possible path to reduced greenhouse gas emissions and increased energy independence, without the major infrastructure shift that would be required for a purely hydrogen-based transportation system. Furthermore, since the carbon source is obtained from recyclable biomass, the entire concept is carbon-neutral

G. L. Hawkes; M. G. McKellar; R. Wood; M. M. Plum

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Diagnostic Systems and Resources utilization of the ATLAS High Level Trigger  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the LHC started colliding protons in December 2009, the ATLAS trigger has operated very successfully with a collision rate which has increased by several orders of magnitude. The trigger monitoring and data quality infrastructure was essential to this success. We describe the software tools used to monitor the trigger system performance and assess the overall quality of the trigger selection during collisions running. ATLAS has broad physics goals which require a large number of different active triggers due to complex event topology, requiring quite sophisticated software structures and concepts. The trigger of the ATLAS experiment is built as a three level system. The first level is realized in hardware while the high level triggers (HLT) are software based and run on large PC farms. The trigger reduces the bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz, at design, to an average event rate of about 200 Hz for storage. Since the ATLAS detector is a general purpose detector, the trigger must be sensitive to a large numb...

zur Nedden, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Ospanov, R

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion.This document is organized into three volumes. Volumes I and II represent a tiered set of information intended for somewhat different audiences. Volume I is intended to provide an overview of waste glass corrosion, and Volume 11 is intended to provide additional experimental details on experimental factors that influence waste glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II. Volume I is intended for managers, decision makers, and modelers, the combined set of Volumes I, II, and III is intended for scientists and engineers working in the field of high-level waste.

Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

New High Capacity Getter for Vacuum-Insulated Mobile Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Current ''Non evaporable getters'' (NEGs), based on the principle of metallic surface sorption of gas molecules, are important tools for the improving the performance of many vacuum systems. High porosity alloys or powder mixtures of Zr, Ti, Al, V, Fe and other metals are the base materials for this type of getters. The continuous development of vacuum technologies has created new challenges for the field of getter materials. The main sorption parameters of the current NEGs, namely, pumping speed and sorption capacity, have reached certain upper limits. Chemically active metals are the basis of a new generation of NEGs. The introduction of these new materials with high sorption capacity at room temperature is a long-awaited development. These new materials enable the new generation of NEGs to reach faster pumping speeds, significantly higher sticking rates and sorption capacities up to 104 times higher during their lifetimes. Our development efforts focus on producing these chemically active metals with controlled insulation or protection. The main structural forms of our new getter materials are spherical powders, granules and porous multi-layers. The full pumping performance can take place at room temperature with activation temperatures ranging from room temperature to 650 C. In one of our first pilot projects, our proprietary getter solution was successfully introduced as a getter pump in a double-wall mobile LH2 tank system. Our getters were shown to have very high sorption capacity of all relevant residual gases, including H2. This new concept opens the opportunity for significant vacuum improvements, especially in the field of H2 pumping which is an important task in many different vacuum applications.

H. Londer; G. R. Myneni; P. Adderley; G. Bartlok; J. Setina; W. Knapp; D. Schleussner

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

High Rayleigh number turbulent convection in a gas near the gas-liquid critical point  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

$SF_6$ in the vicinity of its critical point was used to study turbulent convection up to exceptionally high Rayleigh numbers, $Ra$, (up to $5\\cdot 10^{14}$) and to verify for the first time the generalized scaling laws for the heat transport and the large scale circulation velocity as a function of $Ra$ and the Prandtl number, $Pr$, in very wide range of these parameters. The both scaling laws obtained are consistent with theoretical predictions by B.Shraiman and E.Siggia, Phys. Rev. {\\bf A 42}, 3650 (1990).

Sh. Ashkenazi; V. Steinberg

1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

382

A look-ahead synthesis technique with backtracking for switching activity reduction in low power high-level synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research work done has shown that power consumption in digital integrated circuits can be effectively reduced by reducing the switching activity occurring on the functional modules. High-level synthesis of digital integrated circuits for low power often ... Keywords: High-level synthesis, Low power, Simultaneous scheduling and binding, Switching activity

Xianwu Xing; Ching Chuen Jong

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

A High Temperature (400 to 650oC) Secondary Storage Battery Based on Liquid Sodium and Potassium Anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This STTR Phase I research program was on the development of high temperature (400 to 650 C), secondary batteries with roundtrip efficiency > 90% for integration with a 3 to 10 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. In fulfillment of this objective, advanced planar high temperature rechargeable batteries, comprised of an alkali metal ion conducting, highly refractory, beta'' alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) sandwiched between liquid sodium (or potassium) anode and liquid metal salt cathode, were developed at MSRI. The batteries have been successfully demonstrated at a working temperature as high as 600 C. To our knowledge, so far no work has been reported in the literature on planar rechargeable batteries based on BASE, and results obtained in Phase I for the very first time demonstrated the viability of planar batteries, though relatively low temperature tubular-based sodium-sulfur batteries and ZEBRA batteries have been actively developed by very limited non U.S. companies. The results of this Phase I work have fulfilled all the goals and stated objectives, and the achievements showed much promise for further, substantial improvements in battery design and performance. The important results of Phase I are briefly described in what follows: (1) Both Na-BASE and K-BASE discs and tubes have been successfully fabricated using MSRI's patented vapor phase process. Ionic conductivity measurements showed that Na-BASE had higher ionic conductivity than K-BASE, consistence with the literature. At 500 C, Na-BASE conductivity is 0.36 S/cm, which is more than 20 times higher than 8YSZ electrolyte used for SOFC at 800 C. The activation energy is 22.58 kJ/mol. (2) CuCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, and AgCl were identified as suitable salts for Na/metal salt or K/metal salt electrochemical couples based on thermochemical data. Further open circuit voltage measurements matched those deduced from the thermochemical data. (3) Tubular cells with CuCl{sub 2} as the cathode and Na as the anode were constructed. However, it was discovered that CuCl{sub 2} was somewhat corrosive and dissolved iron, an element of the cathode compartment. Since protective coating technology was beyond this Phase I work scope, no further work on the CuCl{sub 2} cathode was pursued in Phase I. Notwithstanding, due to its very high OCV and high specific energy, CuCl{sub 2} cathode is a very attractive possibility for a battery capable of delivering higher specific energy with higher voltage. Further investigation of the Na-CuCl{sub 2} battery can be done by using suitable metal coating technologies developed at MSRI for high temperature applications. (4) In Phase I, FeCl{sub 2} and ZnCl{sub 2} were finalized as the potential cathodes for Na-metal salt batteries for delivering high specific energies. Planar Na-FeCl{sub 2} and Na-ZnCl{sub 2} cells were designed, constructed, and tested between 350 and 600 C. Investigation of charge/discharge characteristics showed they were the most promising batteries. Charge/discharge cycles were performed as many as 27 times, and charge/discharge current was as high as 500 mA. No failure was detected after 50 hours testing. (5) Three-cell planar stacks were designed, constructed, and evaluated. Preliminary tests showed further investigation was needed for optimization. (6) Freeze-thaw survival was remarkably good for planar BASE discs fabricated by MSRI's patented vapor phase process.

Tao, Greg; Weber, Neill

2007-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

384

The selective catalytic cracking of Fischer-Tropsch liquids to high value transportation fuels. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Amoco Oil Company, investigated a selective catalytic cracking process (FCC) to convert the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) gasoline and wax fractions to high value transportation fuels. The primary tasks of this contract were to (1) optimize the catalyst and process conditions of the FCC process for maximum conversion of F-T wax into reactive olefins for later production of C{sub 4}{minus}C{sub 8} ethers, and (2) use the olefin-containing light naphtha obtained from FCC processing of the F-T wax as feedstock for the synthesis of ethers. The catalytic cracking of F-T wax feedstocks gave high conversions with low activity catalysts and low process severities. HZSM-5 and beta zeolite catalysts gave higher yields of propylene, isobutylene, and isoamylenes but a lower gasoline yield than Y zeolite catalysts. Catalyst selection and process optimization will depend on product valuation. For a given catalyst and process condition, Sasol and LaPorte waxes gave similar conversions and product selectivities. The contaminant iron F-T catalyst fines in the LaPorte wax caused higher coke and hydrogen yields.

Schwartz, M.M.; Reagon, W.J.; Nicholas, J.J.; Hughes, R.D.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

NSLS-II HIGH LEVEL APPLICATION INFRASTRUCTURE AND CLIENT API DESIGN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The beam commissioning software framework of NSLS-II project adopts a client/server based architecture to replace the more traditional monolithic high level application approach. It is an open structure platform, and we try to provide a narrow API set for client application. With this narrow API, existing applications developed in different language under different architecture could be ported to our platform with small modification. This paper describes system infrastructure design, client API and system integration, and latest progress. As a new 3rd generation synchrotron light source with ultra low emittance, there are new requirements and challenges to control and manipulate the beam. A use case study and a theoretical analysis have been performed to clarify requirements and challenges to the high level applications (HLA) software environment. To satisfy those requirements and challenges, adequate system architecture of the software framework is critical for beam commissioning, study and operation. The existing traditional approaches are self-consistent, and monolithic. Some of them have adopted a concept of middle layer to separate low level hardware processing from numerical algorithm computing, physics modelling, data manipulating, plotting, and error handling. However, none of the existing approaches can satisfy the requirement. A new design has been proposed by introducing service oriented architecture technology. The HLA is combination of tools for accelerator physicists and operators, which is same as traditional approach. In NSLS-II, they include monitoring applications and control routines. Scripting environment is very important for the later part of HLA and both parts are designed based on a common set of APIs. Physicists and operators are users of these APIs, while control system engineers and a few accelerator physicists are the developers of these APIs. With our Client/Server mode based approach, we leave how to retrieve information to the developers of APIs and how to use them to form a physics application to the users. For example, how the channels are related to magnet and what the current real-time setting of a magnet is in physics unit are the internals of APIs. Measuring chromaticities are the users of APIs. All the users of APIs are working with magnet and instrument names in a physics unit. The low level communications in current or voltage unit are minimized. In this paper, we discussed our recent progress of our infrastructure development, and client API.

Shen, G.; Yang; L.; Shroff; K.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

386

Roadmapping Process Improvements by Experience at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory High Level Waste Program and Synergistic Interfaces with Decision-Making  

SciTech Connect

Six technology roadmaps were developed for various technologies under consideration for the treatment of sodium bearing liquid and calcine wastes. In the process of creating these roadmaps, a number of process improvements were identified for each of the formal roadmapping phases as described in the Department of Energy’s draft roadmapping guidance. The lessons learned, presented as beneficial improvements to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) High Level Waste Program, are proposed to be added to the draft guidance. Additionally, synergistic interfaces between the roadmapping and decision-making processes were observed and reported on. With these improvements, technology roadmapping has become an effective integration tool at the INEEL for planning technology development.

Murphy, James Anthony; Olson, Arlin Leland

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between the two liquid phases, separation will result. This is the principle upon which separation by liquid-liquid extraction is based, and there are a number of important applications of this concept in industrial processes. This paper will review the basic concepts and applications as well as present future directions for the liquid-liquid extraction process.

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

EM Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EM Waste Acceptance Product EM Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms Presentation to the HLW Corporate Board July 24, 2008 By Tony Kluk/Ken Picha 2 Background * Originally Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications were Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) documents and project specific: - Defense Waste Processing Facility (PE-03, July 1989) - West Valley Demonstration Project (PE-04, January 1990) * Included many of same specifications as current version of WAPS * First version of RW Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document in January 1993 (included requirements for both SNF and HLW) * EM decided to extract requirements for HLW and put into the WAPS document 3 Background (Cont'd) * Lists technical specifications for acceptance of borosilicate HLW

389

Modeling the corrosion of high-level waste containers: CAM-CRM interface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 825, 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as A516 or Monel 400. At the present time, Alloy C-22 and A516 are favored. This publication addresses the development of models to account for corrosion of Alloy C-22 surfaces exposed directly to the Near Field Environment (NFE), as well as to the exacerbated conditions in the CAM-CRM crevice.

Farmer, J. C., LLNL

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spinel crystals precipitate in high-level waste glasses containing Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn, and Ru. The liquidus temperature (T{sub L}d) of spinel as the primary crystallization phase is a function of glass composition, and the spinel solubility (c{sub o}) is a function of both glass composition and temperature (T). Previously reported models of T{sub L} as a function of composition are based on T{sub L} measured directly, which requires laborious experimental procedures. Viewing the curve of c{sub o} versus T as the liquidus line allows a significant broadening of the composition region for model fitting. This paper estimates T{sub L} as a function of composition based on c{sub o} data obtained with the X-ray diffraction technique.

Kruger, A. A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hrma, Pavel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Operating experience during high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of operational experiences, component and system performance, and lessons learned associated with the operation of the Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The VF was designed to convert stored high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stable waste form (borosilicate glass) suitable for disposal in a federal repository. Following successful completion on nonradioactive test, HLW processing began in July 1995. Completion of Phase 1 of HLW processing was reached on 10 June 1998 and represented the processing of 9.32 million curies of cesium-137 (Cs-137) and strontium-90 (Sr-90) to fill 211 canisters with over 436,000 kilograms of glass. With approximately 85% of the total estimated curie content removed from underground waste storage tanks during Phase 1, subsequent operations will focus on removal of tank heel wastes.

Valenti, P.J.; Elliott, D.I.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Source terms for analysis of accidents at a high level waste repository  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an approach to identifying source terms from possible accidents during the preclosure phase of a high-level nuclear waste repository. A review of the literature on repository safety analyses indicated that source term estimation is in a preliminary stage, largely based on judgement-based scoping analyses. The approach developed here was to partition the accident space into domains defined by certain threshold values of temperature and impact energy density which may arise in potential accidents and specify release fractions of various radionuclides, present in the waste form, in each domain. Along with a more quantitative understanding of accident phenomenology, this approach should help in achieving a clearer perspective on scenarios important to preclosure safety assessments of geologic repositories. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

Mubayi, V.; Davis, R.E.; Youngblood, R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

High-Level Specification and Automatic Generation of IP Interface Monitors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A central problem in functional verification is to check that a circuit block is producing correct outputs while enforcing that the environment is providing legal inputs. To attack this problem, several researchers have proposed monitor-based methodologies, which offer many benefits. This paper presents a novel, high-level specification style for these monitors, along with a linear-size, linear-time translation algorithm into monitor circuits. The specification style naturally fits the complex, but well-specified interfaces used between IP blocks in systems-on-chip. To demonstrate the advantage of our specification style, we have specified monitors for various versions of the Sonics OCP protocol as well as the AMBA AHB protocol, and have developed a prototype tool that automatically translates specifications into Verilog or VHDL monitor circuits.

Marcio T. Oliveira; Alan J. Hu

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Seismic design and analysis considerations for high level nuclear waste repositories  

SciTech Connect

A high level nuclear waste repository, like the one at Nevada`s Yucca Mountain that is being investigated for site suitability, will have some unique seismic design and analysis considerations. These are discussed, and a design philosophy that can rationally account for the unique performance objectives of such facilities is presented. A case is made for the use of DOE`s performance goal-based seismic design and evaluation methodology that is based on a hybrid ``deterministic`` and ``probabilistic`` concept. How and to what extent this methodology should be modified to adopt it for a potential site like Yucca Mountain is also outlined. Finally, the issue of designing for seismic fault rupture is discussed briefly, and the desirability of using the proposed seismic design philosophy in fault rupture evaluation is described.

Hossain, Q.A.

1993-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

395

SPONTANEOUS CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION DURING PRE-TREATMENT OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLUDGE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) operates the Defense Waste Processing Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. This facility immobilizes high-level radioactive waste through vitrification following chemical pretreatment. Catalytic destruction of formate and oxalate ions to carbon dioxide has been observed during qualification testing of non-radioactive analog systems. Carbon dioxide production greatly exceeded hydrogen production, indicating the occurrence of a process other than the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. Statistical modeling was used to relate the new reaction chemistry to partial catalytic wet air oxidation of both formate and oxalate ions driven by the low concentrations of palladium, rhodium, and/or ruthenium in the waste. Variations in process conditions led to increases or decreases in the total oxidative destruction, as well as partially shifting the preferred species undergoing destruction from oxalate ion to formate ion.

Koopman, D.; Herman, C.; Pareizs, J.; Bannochie, C.; Best, D.; Bibler, N.; Fellinger, T.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume  

SciTech Connect

This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

397

Statement of work for the immobilized high-level waste transportation system, Project W-464  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this Statement of Work (SOW) is to present the scope, the deliverables, the organization, the technical and schedule expectations for the development of a Package Design Criteria (PDC), cost and schedule estimate for the acquisition of a transportation system for the Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). This transportation system which includes the truck, the trailer, and a shielded cask will be used for on-site transportation of the IHLW canisters from the private vendor vitrification facility to the Hanford Site interim storage facility, i.e., vaults 2 and 3 of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This Statement of Work asks Waste Management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations, to provide Project W-464 with a Design Criteria Document, plus a life-cycle schedule and cost estimate for the acquisition of a transportation system (shielded cask, truck, trailer) for IHLW on-site transportation.

Mouette, P.

1998-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

398

Comparison of sugar molecule decomposition through glucose and fructose: a high-level quantum chemical study.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Efficient chemical conversion of biomass is essential to produce sustainable energy and industrial chemicals. Industrial level conversion of glucose to useful chemicals, such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and levulinic acid, is a major step in the biomass conversion but is difficult because of the formation of undesired products and side reactions. To understand the molecular level reaction mechanisms involved in the decomposition of glucose and fructose, we have carried out high-level quantum chemical calculations [Gaussian-4 (G4) theory]. Selective 1,2-dehydration, keto-enol tautomerization, isomerization, retro-aldol condensation, and hydride shifts of glucose and fructose molecules were investigated. Detailed kinetic and thermodynamic analyses indicate that, for acyclic glucose and fructose molecules, the dehydration and isomerization require larger activation barriers compared to the retro-aldol reaction at 298 K in neutral medium. The retro-aldol reaction results in the formation of C2 and C4 species from glucose and C3 species from fructose. The formation of the most stable C3 species, dihydroxyacetone from fructose, is thermodynamically downhill. The 1,3-hydride shift leads to the cleavage of the C-C bond in the acyclic species; however, the enthalpy of activation is significantly higher (50-55 kcal/mol) than that of the retro-aldol reaction (38 kcal/mol) mainly because of the sterically hindered distorted four-membered transition state compared to the hexa-membered transition state in the retro-aldol reaction. Both tautomerization and dehydration are catalyzed by a water molecule in aqueous medium; however, water has little effect on the retro-aldol reaction. Isomerization of glucose to fructose and glyceraldehyde to dihydroxyacetone proceeds through hydride shifts that require an activation enthalpy of about 40 kcal/mol at 298 K in water medium. This investigation maps out accurate energetics of the decomposition of glucose and fructose molecules that is needed to help find more efficient catalysts for the conversion of hexose to useful chemicals.

Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( MSD); (Northwestern Univ.)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Federal Facility Agreement plans and schedules for liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA was January 1, 1992. Section 9 and Appendix F of the agreement impose design and operating requirements on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) tank systems and identify several plans, schedules, and assessments that must be submitted to EPA/TDEC for review or approval. The initial issue of this document in March 1992 transmitted to EPA/TDEC those plans and schedules that were required within 60 to 90 days of the FFA effective date. The current revision of this document updates the plans, schedules, and strategy for achieving compliance with the FFA, and it summarizes the progress that has been made over the past year. Chapter 1 describes the history and operation of the ORNL LLLW System, the objectives of the FFA, the organization that has been established to bring the system into compliance, and the plans for achieving compliance. Chapters 2 through 7 of this report contain the updated plans and schedules for meeting FFA requirements. This document will continue to be periodically reassessed and refined to reflect newly developed information and progress.

Not Available

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

SAGA: A Simple API for Grid Applications -- High-Level ApplicationProgramming on the Grid  

SciTech Connect

Grid technology has matured considerably over the past fewyears. Progress in both implementation and standardization is reaching alevel of robustness that enables production quality deployments of gridservices in the academic research community with heightened interest andearly adoption in the industrial community. Despite this progress, gridapplications are far from ubiquitous, and new applications require anenormous amount of programming effort just to see first light. A keyimpediment to accelerated deployment of grid applications is the scarcityof high-level application programming abstractions that bridge the gapbetween existing grid middle-ware and application-level needs. The SimpleAPI for Grid Applications (SAGA [1]) is a GGF standardization effort thataddresses this particular gap by providing a simple, stable, and uniformprogramming interface that integrates the most common grid programmingabstractions. These most common abstractions were identified through theanalysis of several existing and emerging Grid applications. In thisarticle, we present the SAGA effort, describe its relationship to otherGrid API efforts within the GGF community, and introduce the first draftof the API using some application programming examples.

Goodale, Tom; Jha, Shantenu; Kaiser, Hartmut; Kielmann, Thilo; Kleijer, Pascal; von Laszewski, Gregor; Lee, Craig; Merzky, Andre; Rajic,Hrabri; Shalf, John

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high liquid level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Analysis of vapor samples from the Organice PISA high level waste tanks  

SciTech Connect

Analyses for organic materials in vapor samples taken from the eight High Level Waste tanks (26F, 33F, 46F, 11H, 22H, 32H, 39H, and 43H) have been completed. Of these tanks, 26F, 33F, and 43H are designated 'organic'' tanks. Samples were collected on solvent desorption (SD) tubes (containing activated charcoal) from various heights above the tank waste. Tank ventilation was stopped for one hour prior to sampling and was not reinitiated until sample collection was complete. The results indicate that the concentration of organic materials is extremely low in all samples. Some organic materials were found in the vapor samples but in nanogram/liter (ng/L) quantities. These materials were present in the samples within the practical quantitation limit (PQL), which represents a practical and routinely achievable detection limit with a relatively good certainty that any reported value is reliable. Because of the low levels and the fact that no field background analysis was run (laboratory background analyses were run), the researchers cannot absolutely determine whether the materials were actually taken from the waste tanks or whether they are from environmental background. In any case, the quantities of material found are several orders magnitude below that which would comprise a flammability concern.

Swingle, R.F. II

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

HIGH-TEMPERATURE LIQUID-METAL TECHNOLOGY REVIEW. A Bimonthly Technical Progress Review. Vol. 1, No. 1  

SciTech Connect

Unclassified technical reports and papers in the hightemperature liquid- metal field are reviewed. All phases of liquid-metal technology pertinent to the space power development program are covered, including materials development, corrosion, heat transfer, fluid dynamics, instrumentation, component development, physical properties, and power systems. Twelve reviews are included. (M.C.G.)

Dwyer, O.E. ed.

1963-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

[Study of institutional issues relating to transportation of high level waste]. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This is the ``seventh`` and final Quarterly Report under the scope of work for cooperative agreement between the Western Interstate Energy Board and the US Department of Energy. The report covers the period January--March 1993. The cooperative agreement was to expire in June 1992, but DOE granted an extension through March 24, 1993. Since this is the last Quarterly Report under the expired cooperative agreement, most tasks are noted as being completed. Two final items, however, will soon be sent to DOE -- final minutes from the March 9--11 High- Level Radioactive Waste Committee meeting, and the Year-End Technical Report. Some highlights from the quarter: The Committee decided on a preferred format for the revised Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. The document would be 100- 200 pages, accompanied by a series of white papers on key transportation elements. A 25--30 page handbook for educating western state elected officials would also be prepared. On March 24, the Committee sent a letter to DOE commenting on the Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure report findings. The Committee is concerned that infrastructure limitations may limit the rail shipping option in many instances, even after upgrades have been implemented. The NSTI findings may also have significant relevance to the decision to develop multi-purpose canisters. On April 1, the Committee sent DOE the white paper, Transportation Implications of Various NWPA Program Options, which determined that DOE cannot develop a national transportation system by 1998 for shipments to an MRS or other federal storage facility.

Not Available

1993-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

404

Methods of calculating the post-closure performance of high-level waste repositories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is intended as an overview of post-closure performance assessment methods for high-level radioactive waste repositories and is designed to give the reader a broad sense of the state of the art of this technology. As described here, ''the state of the art'' includes only what has been reported in report, journal, and conference proceedings literature through August 1987. There is a very large literature on the performance of high-level waste repositories. In order to make a review of this breadth manageable, its scope must be carefully defined. The essential principle followed is that only methods of calculating the long-term performance of waste repositories are described. The report is organized to reflect, in a generalized way, the logical order to steps that would be taken in a typical performance assessment. Chapter 2 describes ways of identifying scenarios and estimating their probabilities. Chapter 3 presents models used to determine the physical and chemical environment of a repository, including models of heat transfer, radiation, geochemistry, rock mechanics, brine migration, radiation effects on chemistry, and coupled processes. The next two chapters address the performance of specific barriers to release of radioactivity. Chapter 4 treats engineered barriers, including containers, waste forms, backfills around waste packages, shaft and borehole seals, and repository design features. Chapter 5 discusses natural barriers, including ground water systems and stability of salt formations. The final chapters address optics of general applicability to performance assessment models. Methods of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are described in Chapter 6, and natural analogues of repositories are treated in Chapter 7. 473 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

Ross, B. (ed.)

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Polysiloxane Encapsulation of High Level Calcine Waste for Transportation or Disposal  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an experimental study investigating the potential uses for silicon-polymer encapsulation of High Level Calcine Waste currently stored within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The study investigated two different applications of silicon polymer encapsulation. One application uses silicon polymer to produce a waste form suitable for disposal at a High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility directly, and the other application encapsulates the calcine material for transportation to an offsite melter for further processing. A simulated waste material from INTEC, called pilot scale calcine, which contained hazardous materials but no radioactive isotopes was used for the study, which was performed at the University of Akron under special arrangement with Orbit Technologies, the originators of the silicon polymer process called Polymer Encapsulation Technology (PET). This document first discusses the PET process, followed by a presentation of past studies involving PET applications to waste problems. Next, the results of an experimental study are presented on encapsulation of the INTEC calcine waste as it applies to transportation or disposal of calcine waste. Results relating to long-term disposal include: 1) a characterization of the pilot calcine waste; 2) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing of an optimum mixture of pilot calcine, polysiloxane and special additives; and, 3) Material Characterization Center testing MCC-1P evaluation of the optimum waste form. Results relating to transportation of the calcine material for a mixture of maximum waste loading include: compressive strength testing, 10-m drop test, melt testing, and a Department of Transportation (DOT) oxidizer test.

Loomis, Guy George

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Silicon-Polymer Encapsulation of High-Level Calcine Waste for Transportation or Disposal  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an experimental study investigating the potential uses for silicon-polymer encapsulation of High Level Calcine Waste currently stored within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The study investigated two different applications of silicon polymer encapsulation. One application uses silicon polymer to produce a waste form suitable for disposal at a High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility directly, and the other application encapsulates the calcine material for transportation to an offsite melter for further processing. A simulated waste material from INTEC, called pilot scale calcine, which contained hazardous materials but no radioactive isotopes was used for the study, which was performed at the University of Akron under special arrangement with Orbit Technologies, the originators of the silicon polymer process called Polymer Encapsulation Technology (PET). This document first discusses the PET process, followed by a presentation of past studies involving PET applications to waste problems. Next, the results of an experimental study are presented on encapsulation of the INTEC calcine waste as it applies to transportation or disposal of calcine waste. Results relating to long-term disposal include: (1) a characterization of the pilot calcine waste; (2) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing of an optimum mixture of pilot calcine, polysiloxane and special additives; and, (3) Material Characterization Center testing MCC-1P evaluation of the optimum waste form. Results relating to transportation of the calcine material for a mixture of maximum waste loading include: compressive strength testing, 10-m drop test, melt testing, and a Department of Transportation (DOT) oxidizer test.

G. G. Loomis; C. M. Miller; J. A. Giansiracusa; R. Kimmel; S. V. Prewett

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

MELT RATE ENHANCEMENT FOR HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS FORMULATION FINAL REPORT 08R1360-1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the development and testing of new glass formulations for high aluminum waste streams that achieve high waste loadings while maintaining high processing rates. The testing was based on the compositions of Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) with limiting concentrations of aluminum specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP). The testing identified glass formulations that optimize waste loading and waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts and small scale melt rate screening tests. The results were used to select compositions for subsequent testing in a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) system. These tests were used to determine processing rates for the selected formulations as well as to examine the effects of increased glass processing temperature, and the form of aluminum in the waste simulant. Finally, one of the formulations was selected for large-scale confirmatory testing on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200), which is a one third scale prototype of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW melter and off-gas treatment system. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy (DOE) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same high-aluminum waste composition used in the present work and other Hanford HLW compositions. The scope of this study was outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the WTP is about 13,500 (equivalent to 40,500 MT glass). This estimate is based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and glass melting rate. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of {approx}1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HLW waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150 C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product. Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage. The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet WTP Contract terms. The WTP's overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulfur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in wasteloading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. It is expected that these higher waste loading glasses will reduce the HLW canister production requirement by about 25% or more.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT W; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I; BARDAKCI T; GAN H; GONG W; CHAUDHURI M

2010-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

408

Combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay for the measurement of urodilatin and. alpha. -hANP in the urine of healthy males  

SciTech Connect

Urodilatin (ANP-(95-126)), a natriuretic peptide in urine, and {alpha}-hANP (ANP-(99-126)) are crossreactive in the radioimmunoassay of {alpha}-hANP (ANP-RIA). The authors therefore developed a method to separate physiological amounts of urodilatin and {alpha}-hANP in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography followed by ANP-RIA of the separated fractions. They studied urine samples of 10 healthy adult males with a plasma {alpha}-hANP level of 41 {plus minus} 21 pg/ml (mean {plus minus} SD) and a total urinary ANP-RIA reactivity of 40 {plus minus} 21 pg/ml. In all urine samples they found three peaks of ANP-RIA reactivity, the first one coeluting with synthetic urodilatin, the second one with the retention time of {alpha}-hANP and a late eluting ANP-RIA-reactive peak, possibly containing degradation products. The ratio of urodilatin/{alpha}-hANP was 0.77 {plus minus} 0.17.

Solc, J.; Bauer, K.; Timnik, A.; Doehlemann, C.; Strom, T.M.; Weil, J. (Univ. of Munich, Muenchen (West Germany)); Solcova, A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. [High temperature soaking coal in coal liquids prior to liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

Soaking coal in coal liquids at 300-400[degrees]C (high-tenperature soaking) has been studied for coal dissolution prior to liquefaction in the previous task. Two high-volatile bituminous coals, Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh No. 8, were examined in three different coal liquids. The high-temperature soaking was effective to solubilize more than 70 wt% cf these coals. The mechanism of disintegration of coal by the high-temperature soaking was investigated under various soaking conditions. The products was also analyzed with solvent swelling. These results were rationalized that coal is solubilized primarily by physical disintegration. The derived mechanism was consistent with the new concept of coal structure: A significant portion of coal is physically associated, not three-dimensionally cross-linked. Radically-induced scission reactions were proposed to prorate breakage of coal moleculs by the combination of the high-temperature soaking before liquefaction. In this term, the effect of radical initiators were investigated under the conditions of the high-temperature soaking and liquefaction. Illinois No. 6 coal and a coal liquid derived from the same coal were used. The first section reports the effect of radical initiators on coal disintegration, and the second section reports the effect of a radical initiator on coal liquefaction. Radical initiators had a positive effect on disintegration. However, the effect was highly temperature-dependent and had a negative effect on liquefaction at high tenperatures.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Marker ReDistancing/Level Set Method for High-Fidelity Implicit Interface Tracking  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid of the Front-Tracking (FT) and the Level-Set (LS) methods is introduced, combining advantages and removing drawbacks of both methods. The kinematics of the interface is treated in a Lagrangian (FT) manner, by tracking markers placed at the interface. The markers are not connected – instead, the interface topology is resolved in an Eulerian (LS) framework, by wrapping a signed distance function around Lagrangian markers each time the markers move. For accuracy and efficiency, we have developed a high-order “anchoring” algorithm and an implicit PDE-based re-distancing. We have demonstrated that the method is 3rd-order accurate in space, near the markers, and therefore 1st-order convergent in curvature; in contrast to traditional PDE-based re-initialization algorithms, which tend to slightly relocate the zero Level Set and can be shown to be non-convergent in curvature. The implicit pseudo-time discretization of the re-distancing equation is implemented within the Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov (JFNK) framework combined with ILU(k) preconditioning. We have demonstrated that the steady-state solutions in pseudo-time can be achieved very efficiently, with iterations (CFL ), in contrast to the explicit re-distancing which requires 100s of iterations with CFL . The most cost-effective algorithm is found to be a hybrid of explicit and implicit discretizations, in which we apply first 10-15 iterations with explicit discretization (to bring the initial guess to the ball of convergence for the Newton’s method) and then finishing with 2-3 implicit steps, bringing the re-distancing equation to a complete steady-state. The eigenscopy of the JFNK-ILU(k) demonstrates the efficiency of the ILU(k) preconditioner, which effectively cluster eigenvalues of the otherwise extremely ill-conditioned Jacobian matrices, thereby enabling the Krylov (GMRES) method to converge with iterations, with only a few levels of ILU fill-ins. Importantly, due to the Level Set localization, the bandwidth of the Jacobian matrix is nearly constant, and the ILU preconditioning scales as , which implies efficiency and good scalability of the overall algorithm. The numerical examples include the well-established tests for interface kinematics under translational, rotational and tearing/stretching motion. We have shown that the mass conservation is not an issue anymore, as demonstrated using the Rider&Kothe’s time-reversed tests with extreme deformation. We are able to stretch interface structures to the under-resolved/subgrid (on the chosen Eulerian mesh) scales, and recover them back without any change in shape/loss of mass.

Robert Nourgaliev; Samet Kadioglu; Vincent Mousseau; Dana Knoll

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Water- Soluble Organic Aerosols Collected with a Particle into Liquid Sampler  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work demonstrates the utility of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) a technique traditionally used for identification of inorganic ions present in ambient or laboratory aerosols for the analysis of water soluble organic aerosol (OA) using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was produced from 0.5 ppm mixing ratios of limonene and ozone in a 5 m3 Teflon chamber. SOA was collected simultaneously using a traditional filter sampler and a PILS. The filter samples were later extracted with either water or acetonitrile, while the aqueous PILS samples were analyzed directly. In terms of peak intensities, types of detectable compounds, average O:C ratios, and organic mass to organic carbon ratios, the resulting high resolution mass spectra were essentially identical for the PILS and filter based samples. SOA compounds extracted from both filter/acetonitrile extraction and PILS/water extraction accounted for >95% of the total ion current in ESI mass spectra. This similarity was attributed to high solubility of limonene SOA in water. In contrast, significant differences in detected ions and peak abundances were observed for pine needle biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) collected with PILS and filter sampling. The water soluble fraction of BBOA is considerably smaller than for SOA, and a number of unique peaks were detectable only by the filter/acetonitrile method. The combination of PILS collection with HR-ESI-MS analysis offers a new approach for molecular analysis of the water-soluble organic fraction in biogenic SOA, aged photochemical smog, and BBOA.

Bateman, Adam P.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Quality assurance plan for the High Level Controller for the CBMS Block II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document establishes the software Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) for the High Level Controller for the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II (HLC/CBMS-II) project activities under the Computing, Robotics, and Education (CRE) Directorate management. It defines the requirements and assigns responsibilities for ensuring, with a high degree of confidence, that project objectives will be achieved as planned. The CBMS Program was awarded to ORNL by the US Army Chemical and Biological Defense command, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, to design the next version (Block II) mass spectrometer for the detection and identification of chemical and biological warfare agents, to fabricate four engineering prototypes, and to construct eight preproduction units. Section 1 of this document provides an introduction to the HLC/CBMS-II project QAP. Sections 2 and 3 describe the specific aspects of quality assurance as applicable to the project. Section 4 reviews the project approach to risk management. The Risk Management Matrix given in Appendix A is a tool to assess, prioritize, and prevent problems before they occur; therefore, the matrix will be reviewed and revised on a periodic basis. Appendix B shows the quality assurance criteria of the DOE Order 5700.6C and their applicability to this project.

Reid, R.W.; Robbins, I.F.; Stewart, K.A.; Terry, C.L.; Whitaker, R.A.; Wolf, D.A.; Zager, J.C.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Iron Phosphate Glass as Potential Waste Matrix for High-Level Radioactive Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, Iron Phosphate Glass (IPG) is investigated as the alternative final waste form for High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) in U.S. This study is aimed to investigate feasibility of IPG to HLW arising from commercial reprocessing in Japan. In order to evaluate favorable preparation conditions, maximum waste loading and property of IPG, the melting tests were carried. From the results of melting tests, the favorable preparation conditions was with matrix of Fe/P 0.43 (mole ratio in products) and melting at 1200{sup o} for 4h. The products of 10-20mass% waste loading of simulated HLW were glassy and had no crystal peaks, however the product of 30mass% waste loading showed some crystal peaks by XRD analysis. IPG and Borosilicate glass (BG) had about the same thermal properties. As a result, IPG had enough potential for high waste loading and the extremely good chemical durability for consideration as a waste form for Japanese HLW.

Fukui, T.; Ishinomori, T.; Endo, Y.; Sazarashi, M.; Ono, S.; Suzuki, K.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

414

A COMPARISON OF HANFORD AND SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH-LEVEL WASTES  

SciTech Connect

This study is a simple comparison of high-level waste from plutonium production stored in tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Savannah River principally used the PUREX process for plutonium separation. Hanford used the PUREX, Bismuth Phosphate, and REDOX processes, and reprocessed many wastes for recovery of uranium and fission products. Thus, Hanford has 55 distinct waste types, only 17 of which could be at Savannah River. While Hanford and Savannah River wastes both have high concentrations of sodium nitrate, caustic, iron, and aluminum, Hanford wastes have higher concentrations of several key constituents. The factors by which average concentrations are higher in Hanford salt waste than in Savannah River waste are 67 for {sup 241}Am, 4 for aluminum, 18 for chromium, 10 for fluoride, 8 for phosphate, 6 for potassium, and 2 for sulfate. The factors by which average concentrations are higher in Hanford sludges than in Savannah River sludges are 3 for chromium, 19 for fluoride, 67 for phosphate, and 6 for zirconium. Waste composition differences must be considered before a waste processing method is selected: A method may be applicable to one site but not to the other.

HILL RC PHILIP; REYNOLDS JG; RUTLAND PL

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

415

Risk perception on management of nuclear high-level and transuranic waste storage  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s program for disposing of nuclear High-Level Waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste has been impeded by overwhelming political opposition fueled by public perceptions of actual risk. Analysis of these perceptions shows them to be deeply rooted in images of fear and dread that have been present since the discovery of radioactivity. The development and use of nuclear weapons linked these images to reality and the mishandling of radioactive waste from the nations military weapons facilities has contributed toward creating a state of distrust that cannot be erased quickly or easily. In addition, the analysis indicates that even the highly educated technical community is not well informed on the latest technology involved with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. It is not surprising then, that the general public feels uncomfortable with DOE`s management plans for with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. Postponing the permanent geologic repository and use of Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) would provide the time necessary for difficult social and political issues to be resolved. It would also allow time for the public to become better educated if DOE chooses to become proactive.

Dees, L.A.

1994-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Composition of simulants used in the evaluation of electrochemical processes for the treatment of high-level wastes  

SciTech Connect

Four simulants are being used in the evaluation of electrochemical processes for the treatment of high-level wastes (HLW). These simulants represent waste presently stored at the Hanford, Idaho Falls, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River sites. Three of the simulants are highly alkaline salt solutions (Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River), and one is highly acidic (Idaho Falls).

Hobbs, D.T.

1994-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

417

Battery-level material cost model facilitates high-power li-ion battery cost reductions.  

SciTech Connect

Under the FreedomCAR Partnership, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is working to identify and develop advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte components that can significantly reduce the cost of the cell chemistry, while simultaneously enhancing the calendar life and inherent safety of high-power Li-Ion batteries. Material cost savings are quantified and tracked via the use of a cell and battery design model that establishes the quantity of each material needed in batteries designed to meet the requirements of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In order to quantify the material costs, relative to the FreedomCAR battery cost goals, ANL uses (1) laboratory cell performance data, (2) its battery design model and (3) battery manufacturing process yields to create battery-level material cost models. Using these models and industry-supplied material cost information, ANL assigns battery-level material costs for different cell chemistries. These costs can then be compared to the battery cost goals to determine the probability of meeting the goals with these cell chemistries. The most recent freedomCAR cost goals for 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries are $500 and $800, respectively, which is $20/kW in both cases. In 2001, ANL developed a high-power cell chemistry that was incorporated into high-power 18650 cells for use in extensive accelerated aging and thermal abuse characterization studies. This cell chemistry serves as a baseline for this material cost study. It incorporates a LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode, a synthetic graphite anode, and a LiPF6 in EC:EMC electrolyte. Based on volume production cost estimates for these materials-as well as those for binders/solvents, cathode conductive additives, separator, and current collectors--the total cell winding material cost for a 25-kW power-assist HEV battery is estimated to be $399 (based on a 48- cell battery design, each cell having a capacity of 15.4 Ah). This corresponds to {approx}$16/kW. Our goal is to reduce the cell winding material cost to <$10/kW, in order to allow >$10/kW for the cell and battery manufacturing costs, as well as profit for the industrial manufacturer. The material cost information is obtained directly from the industrial material suppliers, based on supplying the material quantities necessary to support an introductory market of 100,000 HEV batteries/year. Using its battery design model, ANL provides the material suppliers with estimates of the material quantities needed to meet this market, for both 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries. Also, ANL has funded a few volume-production material cost analyses, with industrial material suppliers, to obtain needed cost information. In a related project, ANL evaluates and develops low-cost advanced materials for use in high-power Li-Ion HEV batteries. [This work is the subject of one or more separate papers at this conference.] Cell chemistries are developed from the most promising low-cost materials. The performance characteristics of test cells that employ these cell chemistries are used as input to the cost model. Batteries, employing these cell chemistries, are designed to meet the FreedomCAR power, energy, weight, and volume requirements. The cost model then provides a battery-level material cost and material cost breakdown for each battery design. Two of these advanced cell chemistries show promise for significantly reducing the battery-level material costs (see Table 1), as well as enhancing calendar life and inherent safety. It is projected that these two advanced cell chemistries (A and B) could reduce the battery-level material costs by an estimated 24% and 43%, respectively. An additional cost advantage is realized with advanced chemistry B, due to the high rate capability of the 3-dimensional LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel cathode. This means that a greater percentage of the total Ah capacity of the cell is usable and cells with reduced Ah capacity can be used. This allows for a reduction in the quantity of the anode, electrolyte, separator, and current collector materials needed f

Henriksen, G.; Chemical Engineering

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Centrifugal contactor with liquid mixing and flow control vanes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to an improvement in centrifugal contactors of a type used for solvent extraction systems in nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing. The centrifugal contactor is vertically oriented and is provided with an annular vertically oriented mixing chamber between the rotor housing and the rotor wherein the mixing of the process liquids such as the aqueous and organic phases of the solvent extraction process used for nuclear fuel reprocessing takes place. A set of helically disposed vanes carried by the housing is positioned in the lower region of the mixing chamber at a location below the inlets of the process liquids for the purpose of urging the liquids in an upward direction. The upper region of the mixing vessel above the inlets for the process liquids is also provided with a helically disposed vane set carried by the housing which urges the liquid in a downward direction when the liquid flow rates through the inlets are relatively high and liquid contacts the vane set in the upper region. The use of these opposing vane sets in the mixing zone within a desirable level while providing a greater degree of mixing of the process liquids which generates more liquid surface area for contact and improves the mass transfer between the process liquids. The van set in the lower region also significantly reduces or eliminates the formation of vortices which induces cavitation and air entrainment in the process liquids which detract from the efficiency of the centrifugal contactor. 2 figs.

Jubin, R.T.; Randolph, J.D.

1989-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

419

HIGH TEMPERATURE CONDUCTIVITY PROBE FOR MONITORING CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN POWER PLANT BOILER WATER.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A high temperature/high pressure flow through probe was designed to measure high temperature electrical conductivity of aqueous (aq) dilute electrolyte solutions, an application which can… (more)

Hipple, Sarah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Supplement Analysis for the Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In October 2002, DOE issued the Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) (DOE 2002) that provided an analysis of the potential environmental consequences of alternatives/options for the management and disposition of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW), High-Level Waste (HL W) calcine, and HLW facilities at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), now known as the Idaho National Laboratory (INL