Sample records for high liquid level

  1. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  2. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

  3. High-Level Liquid Waste Tank Integrity Workshop - 2008

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12Approved on 24 July 2008 1 Office ofHigh

  4. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  5. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  6. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

    2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  7. Adsorption of Ruthenium, Rhodium and Palladium from Simulated High-Level Liquid Waste by Highly Functional Xerogel - 13286

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Takashi [Fukushima Fuels and Materials Department O-arai Research and Development Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita-cho 4002, O-arai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan)] [Fukushima Fuels and Materials Department O-arai Research and Development Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita-cho 4002, O-arai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Koyama, Shin-ichi [Fukushima Fuels and Materials Department O-arai Research and Development Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita-cho 4002, O-arai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan)] [Fukushima Fuels and Materials Department O-arai Research and Development Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita-cho 4002, O-arai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Mimura, Hitoshi [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University Aramaki-Aza-Aoba 6-6-01-2,Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken, 980-8579 (Japan)] [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University Aramaki-Aza-Aoba 6-6-01-2,Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken, 980-8579 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fission products are generated by fission reactions in nuclear fuel. Platinum group (Pt-G) elements, such as palladium (Pd), rhodium (Rh) and ruthenium (Ru), are also produced. Generally, Pt-G elements play important roles in chemical and electrical industries. Highly functional xerogels have been developed for recovery of these useful Pt-G elements from high - level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW). An adsorption experiment from simulated HLLW was done by the column method to study the selective adsorption of Pt-G elements, and it was found that not only Pd, Rh and Ru, but also nickel, zirconium and tellurium were adsorbed. All other elements were not adsorbed. Adsorbed Pd was recovered by washing the xerogel-packed column with thiourea solution and thiourea - nitric acid mixed solution in an elution experiment. Thiourea can be a poison for automotive exhaust emission system catalysts, so it is necessary to consider its removal. Thermal decomposition and an acid digestion treatment were conducted to remove sulfur in the recovered Pd fraction. The relative content of sulfur to Pd was decreased from 858 to 0.02 after the treatment. These results will contribute to design of the Pt-G element separation system. (authors)

  8. An Istrument for Measuring the TRU Concentration in High-Level Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Craig, R. A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Hensley, Walter K.; Holt, Noah O.; Knopf, Michael A.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Mullen, O Dennis; Salaymeh, Saleem R.; Samuel, Todd J.; Smart, John E.; Tinker, Michael R.; Walker, Darrell D.

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An online monitor has been designed, built, and tested, which is capable of measuring the residual transuranic concentrations in processed high-level wastes with a detection limit of 370 Bq/ml (10 nCi/ml) in less than six hours. The monitor measures the neutrons produced by the transuranics, primarily via (?,n) reactions, in the presence of gamma-ray fields up to 1 Sv/h (100 R/h). The optimum design was determined by Monte Carlo modeling and then tempered with practical engineering and cost considerations. Correct operation of the monitor was demonstrated in a hot cell utilizing an actual sample of high-level waste. Results of that demonstration are given, and suggestions for improvements in the next generation system are discussed.

  9. An Instrument for Measuring the TRU Concentration in High-Level Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Craig, R A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Hensley, Walter K.; Holt, Noah OA; Knopf, Michael A.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Mullen, O Dennis; Salaymeh, Saleem R.; Samuel, Todd J.; Smart, John E.; Tinker, Mike R.; Walker, D

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An online monitor has been designed, built, and tested that is capable of measuring the residual transuranic concentrations in processed high-level wastes with a detection limit of 370 Bq/ml (10 nCi/ml) in less than six hours. The monitor measures the ({alpha},n) neutrons in the presence of gamma-ray fields up to 1 Sv/h (100 R/h). The optimum design was determined by Monte Carlo modeling and then tempered with practical engineering and cost considerations. A multiplicity counter is used in data acquisition to reject the large fraction of coincident and highly variable cosmic-ray-engendered background events and results in a S/N ratio {approx}1.

  10. Fluorescent optical liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level sensor comprising a transparent waveguide containing fluorescent material that is excited by light of a first wavelength and emits at a second, longer wavelength. The upper end of the waveguide is connected to a light source at the first wavelength through a beveled portion of the waveguide such that the input light is totally internally reflected within the waveguide above an air/liquid interface in a tank but is transmitted into the liquid below this interface. Light is emitted from the fluorescent material only in those portions of the waveguide that are above the air/liquid interface, to be collected at the upper end of the waveguide by a detector that is sensitive only to the second wavelength. As the interface moves down in the tank, the signal strength from the detector will increase.

  11. APPLICATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TEDESCHI AR; WILSON RA

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORP/DOE), through Columbia Energy & Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper discusses results of pre-project pilot-scale testing by Columbia Energy and ongoing technology maturation development scope through fiscal year 2012, including planned additional pilot-scale and full-scale simulant testing and operation with actual radioactive tank waste.

  12. Separation and Purification and Beta Liquid Scintillation Analysis of Sm-151 in Savannah River Site and Hanford Site DOE High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewberry, R.A.

    2001-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes development work to obtain a product phase of Sm-151 pure of any other radioactive species so that it can be determined in US Department of Energy high level liquid waste and low level solid waste by liquid scintillation {beta}-spectroscopy. The technique provides separation from {mu}Ci/ml levels of Cs-137, Pu alpha and Pu-241 {beta}-decay activity, and Sr-90/Y-90 activity. The separation technique is also demonstrated to be useful for the determination of Pm-147.

  13. EIS-0081: Long-Term Management of Liquid High-Level Radioactive Waste Stored at Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley, New York

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action prepared this environmental impact statement to analyze the environmental and socioeconomic impacts resulting from the Department’s proposed action to construct and operate facilities necessary to solidify the liquid high-level wastes currently stored in underground tanks at West Valley, New York.

  14. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

  15. FULL SCALE TESTING TECHNOLOGY MATURATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR FOR HIGH-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT AT HANFORD - 12125

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TEDESCHI AR; CORBETT JE; WILSON RA; LARKIN J

    2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulant testing of a full-scale thin-film evaporator system was conducted in 2011 for technology development at the Hanford tank farms. Test results met objectives of water removal rate, effluent quality, and operational evaluation. Dilute tank waste simulant, representing a typical double-shell tank supernatant liquid layer, was concentrated from a 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.5 using a 4.6 m{sup 2} (50 ft{sup 2}) heated transfer area Rototherm{reg_sign} evaporator from Artisan Industries. The condensed evaporator vapor stream was collected and sampled validating efficient separation of the water. An overall decontamination factor of 1.2E+06 was achieved demonstrating excellent retention of key radioactive species within the concentrated liquid stream. The evaporator system was supported by a modular steam supply, chiller, and control computer systems which would be typically implemented at the tank farms. Operation of these support systems demonstrated successful integration while identifying areas for efficiency improvement. Overall testing effort increased the maturation of this technology to support final deployment design and continued project implementation.

  16. PILOT-SCALE TEST RESULTS OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT THE HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA -11364

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CORBETT JE; TEDESCH AR; WILSON RA; BECK TH; LARKIN J

    2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORPIDOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper summarizes results of a pilot-scale test program conducted during calendar year 2010 as part of the ongoing technology maturation development scope for the WFE.

  17. The NA62 Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Bonaiuto; A. Fucci; G. Paoluzzi; A. Salamon; G. Salina; E. Santovetti; F. Sargeni; F. M. Scarfi'

    2012-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to measure the Branching Ratio of the very rare kaon decay K+ -> pi+ nu nubar collecting O(100) events with a 10% background to make a stringent test of the Standard Model. One of the main backgrounds to the proposed measurement is represented by the K+ -> pi+ pi0 decay. To suppress this background an efficient photo veto system is foreseen. In the 1-10 mrad angular region the NA48 high performance liquid krypton electromagnetic calorimeter is used. The design, implementation and current status of the Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger are presented.

  18. The NA62 Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincenzo Bonaiuto; Adolfo Fucci; Giovanni Paoluzzi; Andrea Salamon; Gaetano Salina; Emanuele Santovetti; Fausto Sargeni; Francesco M. Scarfi'

    2012-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to measure the Branching Ratio of the very rare kaon decay K+ -> pi+ nu nubar collecting O(100) events with a 10% background to make a stringent test of the Standard Model. One of the main backgrounds to the proposed measurement is represented by the K+ -> pi+ pi0 decay. To suppress this background an efficient photo veto system is foreseen. In the 1-10 mrad angular region the NA48 high performance liquid krypton electromagnetic calorimeter is used. The design, implementation and current status of the Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger are presented.

  19. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masquelier, Donald A. (Tracy, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA); Willeke, Klaus (Cincinnati, OH)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  20. Issues and design concepts for high-activity liquid packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meinert, N.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Riley, D. [Walla Walla College of Engineering, Walla Walla, WA (United States); Wells, A.H. [Nuclear Assurance Corp., Norcross, GA (United States)

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tank waste pretreatment process involves the separation of low-level and high-level constituents. The liquid high-level defense production waste will be vitrified into thousands of glass logs at the US DOE sites and then transported to a high-level repository for final disposal. Pretreatment and vitrification technology will need to be developed and tested to assess cost-effectiveness. The appropriate pretreatment strategy for complex high-activity liquid will depend on proving a competent process. As technology development matures, actual liquid will be substituted for simulants, and pilot scale plants will replace laboratory scale process demonstrations. Development of this strategy depends on tank waste sample analyses and a high-activity liquid supply for process testing. However, high-activity liquid transportation beyond DOE site boundaries is limited to Type B quantities in volumes less than 50 mL; no licensed packaging exists for greater than 50 mL quantities. The following paper summarizes the need for a high-activity liquid packaging, and identifies the agencies effecting packaging design and transportation. The high-activity liquid packaging concept retrofits licensed spent fuel casks by replacing the spent fuel basket with a sturdy containment vessel appropriate for the chemical nature of the liquid. A Nuclear Packaging (Pacific Nuclear`s NuPat{trademark} 125-B) spent fuel cask was hypothetically retrofitted with a containment vessel filled with liquid source term, the radionuclide inventory contained in the liquid. The structural, thermal, dose rate, and criticality consequences of retrofitting the cask body were evaluated based on data in the 125-B Cask Safety Analysis Report for Packaging. In addition, future packaging development work is discussed.

  1. EIS-0287: Idaho High-Level Waste & Facilities Disposition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes the potential environmental consequences of alternatives for managing high-level waste (HLW) calcine, mixed transuranic waste/sodium bearing waste (SBW) and newly generated liquid...

  2. High-Level Waste Requirements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The guide provides the criteria for determining which DOE radioactive wastes are to be managed as high-level waste in accordance with DOE M 435.1-1.

  3. Test plan for glass melter system technologies for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid waste, Project No. RDD-43288

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higley, B.A.

    1995-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of combustion fired cyclone vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System, Low-Level Waste Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it is the Babcock & Wilcox Company Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. This vendor is one of seven selected for glass melter testing.

  4. Test Plan: Phase 1 demonstration of 3-phase electric arc melting furnace technology for vitrifying high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C. [ed.

    1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of electric arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384216] is the US Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Albany Research Center, Albany, Oregon. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes feed preparation activities and melting of glass with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a 3-phase electric arc (carbon electrode) furnace.

  5. High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

    1982-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

  6. High pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA); Sakaji, Richard H. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gradient mixer which effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum "band-broadening".

  7. High Level Waste Management Division High. Level Waste System Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet WhenHiggs Boson May| ArgonneHigh Level

  8. The CMS High Level Trigger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam, W; Deldicque, C; Ero, J; Frühwirth, R; Jeitler, Manfred; Kastner, K; Köstner, S; Neumeister, N; Porth, M; Padrta P; Rohringer, H; Sakulinb, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Walzel, G; Wulz, C E; Lowette, S; Van De Vyver, B; De Lentdecker, G; Vanlaer, P; Delaere, C; Lemaître, V; Ninane, A; van der Aa, O; Damgov, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampen, T; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lehti, S; Nysten, J; Tuominiemi, J; Busson, P; Todorov, T; Schwering, G; Gras, P; Daskalakis, G; Sfyrla, A; Barone, M; Geralis, T; Markou, C; Zachariadou, K; Hidas, P; Banerjee, S; Mazumdara, K; Abbrescia, M; Colaleoa, A; D'Amato, N; De Filippis, N; Giordano, D; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Silvestris, L; Zito, G; Arcelli, S; Bonacorsi, D; Capiluppi, P; Dallavalle, G M; Fanfani, A; Grandi, C; Marcellini, S; Montanari, A; Odorici, F; Travaglini, R; Costa, S; Tricomi, A; Ciulli, a V; Magini, N; Ranieri, R; Berti, L; Biasotto, M; Gulminia, M; Maron, G; Toniolo, N; Zangrando, L; Bellato, M; Gasparini, U; Lacaprara, S; Parenti, A; Ronchese, P; Vanini, S; Zotto, S; Ventura P L; Perugia; Benedetti, D; Biasini, M; Fano, L; Servoli, L; Bagliesi, a G; Boccali, T; Dutta, S; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Palla, F; Segneri, G; Starodumov, A; Tenchini, R; Meridiani, P; Organtini, G; Amapane, a N; Bertolino, F; Cirio, R; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Pac, Y; Joo, K; Kim, S B; Suwon; Choi, Y I; Yu, I T; Cho, K; Chung, J; Ham, S W; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kim, W; CKim, J; Oh, S K; Park, H; Ro, S R; Son, D C; Suh, J S; Aftab, Z; Hoorani, H; Osmana, A; Bunkowski, K; Cwiok, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, K; Kazana, M; Królikowski, J; Kudla, I; Pietrusinski, M; Pozniak, Krzysztof T; Zabolotny, W M; Zalipska, J; Zych, P; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Almeida, C; Almeida, N; Da Silva, J C; Santos, M; Teixeira, I; Teixeira, J P; Varelaa, J; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Konoplyanikov, V F; Urkinbaev, A R; Toropin, A; Gavrilov, V; Kolosov, V; Krokhotin, A; Oulianov, A; Stepanov, N; Kodolova, O L; Vardanyan, I; Ilic, J; Skoro, G P; Albajar, C; De Troconiz, J F; Calderón, A; López-Virto, M A; Marco, R; Martínez-Rivero, C; Matorras, F; Vila, I; Cucciarelli, S; Konecki, M; Ashby, S; Barney, D; Bartalini, P; Benetta, R; Brigljevic, V; Bruno, G; Cano, E; Cittolin, S; Della Negra, M; de Roeck, A; Favre, P; Frey, A; Funk, W; Futyan, D; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Innocente, V; Jacobs, C; Jank, W; Kozlovszky, Miklos; Larsen, H; Lenzi, M; Magrans, I; Mannelli, M; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Mirabito, L; Murray, S J; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Palomares-Espiga, C; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Reynaud, S; Samyn, D; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schwick, C; Sguazzoni, G; Sinanis, N; Sphicas, P; Spiropulu, M; Strandlie, A; Taylor, B G; Van Vulpen, I; Wellisch, J P; Winkler, M; Villigen; Kotlinski, D; Zurich; Prokofiev, K; Speer, T; Dumanoglu, I; Bristol; Bailey, S; Brooke, J J; Cussans, D; Heath, G P; Machin, D; Nash, S J; Newbold, D; Didcot; Coughlan, A; Halsall, R; Haynes, W J; Tomalin, I R; Marinelli, N; Nikitenko, A; Rutherford, S; Seeza, C; Sharif, O; Antchev, G; Hazen, E; Rohlf, J; Wu, S; Breedon, R; Cox, P T; Murray, P; Tripathi, M; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Kreuzer, P; Lindgren, M; Mumford, J; Schlein, P E; Shi, Y; Tannenbaum, B; Valuev, V; Von der Mey, M; Andreevaa, I; Clare, R; Villa, S; Bhattacharya, S; Branson, J G; Fisk, I; Letts, J; Mojaver, M; Paar, H P; Trepagnier, E; Litvine, V; Shevchenko, S; Singh, S; Wilkinson, R; Aziz, S; Bowden, M; Elias, J E; Graham, G; Green, D; Litmaath, M; Los, S; O'Dell, V; Ratnikova, N; Suzuki, I; Wenzel, H; Acosta, D; Bourilkov, D; Korytov, A; Madorsky, A; Mitselmakher, G; Rodríguez, J L; Scurlock, B; Abdullin, S; Baden, D; Eno, S; Grassi, T; Kunori, S; Pavlon, S; Sumorok, K; Tether, S; Cremaldi, L M; Sanders, D; Summers, D; Osborne, I; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Fisher,W C; Mans6, J; Stickland, D P; Tully, C; Wildish, T; Wynhoff, S; Padley, B P; Chumney, P; Dasu, S; Smith, W H; CMS Trigger Data Acquisition Group

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Large Hadron Collider at CERN the proton bunches cross at a rate of 40MHz. At the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment the original collision rate is reduced by a factor of O (1000) using a Level-1 hardware trigger. A subsequent factor of O(1000) data reduction is obtained by a software-implemented High Level Trigger (HLT) selection that is executed on a multi-processor farm. In this review we present in detail prototype CMS HLT physics selection algorithms, expected trigger rates and trigger performance in terms of both physics efficiency and timing.

  9. A measurement of the absorption of liquid argon scintillation light by dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Benjamin James Poyner

    We report on a measurement of the absorption length of scintillation light in liquid argon due to dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million (ppm) level. We inject controlled quantities of nitrogen into a high purity volume ...

  10. Thin liquid lithium targets for high power density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    High charge state High velocity flow ~60 m/s High heat capacity of Li Absorbs power depositedThin liquid lithium targets for high power density applications: heavy ion beam strippers and beta Hilton Malmö City #12;Outline Liquid Lithium Stripper idea for FRIB Brief theory of film stability

  11. Production and Properties of Solidified High-Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;#12;- 5 - 1. INTRODUCTION For more than 30 years, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has taken assistance from Risø to ELSAM/ELKRAFT's waste management project. Abstract. Available information form. Liquid high-level waste will also be produced by future reprocessing of power reactor fuel

  12. High Level Waste System Plan Revision 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, N.R.; Wells, M.N.; Choi, A.S.; Paul, P.; Wise, F.E.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Revision 9 of the High Level Waste System Plan documents the current operating strategy of the HLW System at SRS to receive, store, treat, and dispose of high-level waste.

  13. Selection of liquid-level monitoring method for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive liquid low-level waste tanks, remedial investigation/feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several of the inactive liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory contain residual wastes in liquid or solid (sludge) form or both. A plan of action has been developed to ensure that potential environmental impacts from the waste remaining in the inactive LLLW tank systems are minimized. This document describes the evaluation and selection of a methodology for monitoring the level of the liquid in inactive LLLW tanks. Criteria are established for comparison of existing level monitoring and leak testing methods; a preferred method is selected and a decision methodology for monitoring the level of the liquid in the tanks is presented for implementation. The methodology selected can be used to continuously monitor the tanks pending disposition of the wastes for treatment and disposal. Tanks that are empty, are scheduled to be emptied in the near future, or have liquid contents that are very low risk to the environment were not considered to be candidates for installing level monitoring. Tanks requiring new monitoring equipment were provided with conductivity probes; tanks with existing level monitoring instrumentation were not modified. The resulting data will be analyzed to determine inactive LLLW tank liquid level trends as a function of time.

  14. High throughput liquid absorption preconcentrator sampling instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon (Hinsdale, IL); Bozen, Ralph M. (Hattiesburg, MS)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container comprising a wettable material. The wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid which flows from one part of the container to a lower end. Sampled air flows through the container in contact with the wetted material with a swirling motion which results in efficient transfer of analyte vapors or aerosol particles to the sorbing liquid and preconcentration of traces of analyte in the liquid. The preconcentrated traces of analyte may be either detected within the container or removed therefrom for injection into a separate detection means or for subsequent analysis.

  15. High throughput liquid absorption preconcentrator sampling instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, S.; Bozen, R.M.

    1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container comprising a wettable material. The wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid which flows from one part of the container to a lower end. Sampled air flows through the container in contact with the wetted material with a swirling motion which results in efficient transfer of analyte vapors or aerosol particles to the sorbing liquid and preconcentration of traces of analyte in the liquid. The preconcentrated traces of analyte may be either detected within the container or removed therefrom for injection into a separate detection means or for subsequent analysis. 12 figs.

  16. A High Temperature Liquid Plasma Model of the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre-Marie Robitaille

    2004-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a liquid model of the Sun is presented wherein the entire solar mass is viewed as a high density/high energy plasma. This model challenges our current understanding of the densities associated with the internal layers of the Sun, advocating a relatively constant density, almost independent of radial position. The incompressible nature of liquids is advanced to prevent solar collapse from gravitational forces. The liquid plasma model of the Sun is a non-equilibrium approach, where nuclear reactions are free to occur throughout the solar mass. The primary means of addressing internal heat transfer are convection and conduction. As a result of the convective processes on the solar surface, the liquid model brings into question the established temperature of the solar photosphere by highlighting a violation of Kirchhoff's law of thermal emission. Along these lines, the model emphasizes that radiative emission is a surface phenomenon. Strong evidence is provided that the Sun is a high density/high energy liquid plasma. This evidence is based on our knowledge of Planckian thermal emission and condensed matter, including the existence of pressure ionization and liquid metallic hydrogen at high temperatures and pressures. The equations of magnetohydrodynamics are invoked as the proper vehicle for the understanding od stellar convection and structure. Prior to introducing the liquid plasma model, the historic and scientific justifications for the gaseous model of the Sun are reviewed and the gaseous equations of state are also discussed.

  17. Bias-dependent molecular-level structure of electrical double layer in ionic liquid on graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Jennifer M [ORNL] [ORNL; Walters, Deron [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA] [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA; Labuda, Aleksander [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA] [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA; Feng, Guang [ORNL] [ORNL; Hillesheim, Patrick C [ORNL] [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Cummings, Peter T [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA] [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA; Balke, Nina [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bias-dependent structure of electrochemical double layers at liquid-solid interfaces underpin a multitude of phenomena in virtually all areas of scientific enquiry ranging from energy storage and conversion systems, biology, to geophysics and geochemistry. Here we report the bias-evolution of the electric double layer structure of an ionic liquid on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite as a model system for carbon-based electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors measured by atomic force microscopy. Matching the observed structures to molecular dynamics simulations allows us to resolve steric effects due to cation and anion layers. We observe reconfiguration under applied bias and the orientational transitions in the Stern layer. The synergy between molecular dynamics simulation and experiment provides a comprehensive picture of structural phenomena and long- and short range interactions. This insight will improve understanding of the mechanism of charge storage in electrochemical capacitors on a molecular level which can be used to enhance their electrochemical performance.

  18. Stability of High Level Radioactive Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, T.M.; Kulkarni, N.S.; Spear, K.E.; Vienna, J.D.; Hanni, J.B.; Crum, J.D.; Hrma, P.

    2005-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation was given at the DOE Office of Science-Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) High-Level Waste Workshop held on January 19-20, 2005 at the Savannah River Site.

  19. Crystallization in High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Dane R Spearing, Gary L Smith, SK Sundaram

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review outlines important aspects of crystallization in HLW glasses, such as equilibrium, nucleation, growth, and dissolution. The impact of crystallization on continuous melters and the chemical durability of high-level waste glass are briefly discussed.

  20. Liquid Walls Innovative High Power Density Concepts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Surface Heat Flux > 2 MW/m2 2. High Power Conversion Efficiency (> 40%) 3. High Availability -Lower rrr ×= V r J r PV r B r 1P 2P g r + - V r #12;V(initial momentum) g rFluidIn FluidOutBackingWall 2Dsurfaceturbulence · Poloidal Pumping + - J r - flowpoloidal direction - Enhancesurfaceheat transferwith2D turbulence

  1. A grid-level alkali liquid metal battery recycling process : design, implementation, and characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Dale Arlington, III

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of liquid metal batteries for large scale grid-level energy storage is being enabled through the development of research conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2006. A recycling ...

  2. High frequency nano-optomechanical disk resonators in liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gil-Santos, E; Nguyen, D T; Hease, W; Lemaître, A; Ducci, S; Leo, G; Favero, I

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vibrating nano- and micromechanical resonators have been the subject of research aiming at ultrasensitive mass sensors for mass spectrometry, chemical analysis and biomedical diagnosis. Unfortunately, their merits diminish dramatically in liquids due to dissipative mechanisms like viscosity and acoustic losses. A push towards faster and lighter miniaturized nanodevices would enable improved performances, provided dissipation was controlled and novel techniques were available to efficiently drive and read-out their minute displacement. Here we report on a nano-optomechanical approach to this problem using miniature semiconductor disks. These devices combine mechanical motion at high frequency above the GHz, ultra-low mass of a few picograms, and moderate dissipation in liquids. We show that high-sensitivity optical measurements allow to direct resolve their thermally driven Brownian vibrations, even in the most dissipative liquids. Thanks to this novel technique, we experimentally, numerically and analytically...

  3. High magnetic field processing of liquid crystalline polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Mark E. (Los Alamos, NM); Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM); Douglas, Elliot P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of forming bulk articles of oriented liquid crystalline thermoset material, the material characterized as having an enhanced tensile modulus parallel to orientation of an applied magnetic field of at least 25 percent greater than said material processed in the absence of a magnetic field, by curing a liquid crystalline thermoset precursor within a high strength magnetic field of greater than about 2 Tesla, is provided, together with a resultant bulk article of a liquid crystalline thermoset material, said material processed in a high strength magnetic field whereby said material is characterized as having a tensile modulus parallel to orientation of said field of at least 25 percent greater than said material processed in the absence of a magnetic field.

  4. High magnetic field processing of liquid crystalline polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, M.E.; Benicewicz, B.C.; Douglas, E.P.

    1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of forming bulk articles of oriented liquid crystalline thermoset material, the material characterized as having an enhanced tensile modulus parallel to orientation of an applied magnetic field of at least 25 percent greater than said material processed in the absence of a magnetic field, by curing a liquid crystalline thermoset precursor within a high strength magnetic field of greater than about 2 Tesla, is provided, together with a resultant bulk article of a liquid crystalline thermoset material, said material processed in a high strength magnetic field whereby said material is characterized as having a tensile modulus parallel to orientation of said field of at least 25 percent greater than said material processed in the absence of a magnetic field.

  5. A Software Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen,G.

    2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

  6. Statistical High-Level Synthesis under Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giles, C. Lee

    designers is process variability, which causes considerable fluctu- ations in performance and power with variability has be- come one of the major design focuses for nanoscale VLSI design. Traditionally, performanceStatistical High-Level Synthesis under Process Variability Yuan Xie and Yibo Chen Pennsylvania

  7. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  8. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  9. Designing A High Level Test Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Jing

    Designing A High Level Test Specification Language For iec 61499 function block diagram formulae. introduction Mohamad Farid Jaafar Iec 61499 Function block IEC 61499 is one of the standards((input=accelPressed) & (label=throttle.ACCEL))) Figure 1. The IEC 61499 Function Block Notation. (a) Basic Blocks (b) Composite

  10. Ultrasonic liquid-level detector for varying temperature and pressure environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.L.; Miller, G.N.

    1981-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use in varying temperature and pressure environments, such as a pressurized water nuclear reactor vessel, is provided. The detector employs ultrasonic extensional and torsional waves launched in a multiplexed alternating sequence into a common sensor. The sensor is a rectangular cross section stainless steel rod which extends into the liquid medium whose level is to be detected. The sensor temperature derived from the extensional wave velocity measurements is used to compensate for the temperature dependence of the torsional wave velocity measurements which are also level dependent. The torsional wave velocity measurements of a multiple reflection sensor then provide a measurement of liquid level over a range of several meters with a small uncertainty over a temperature range of 20 to 250/sup 0/C and pressures up to 15 MPa.

  11. Microsoft Word - SST T111 Liquid Level Decrease FINAL1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT2

  12. High Level Waste ManagemenfDivision ..

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet WhenHiggs Boson May| ArgonneHigh Level Waste

  13. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  14. Liquid Cooling v. Air Cooling Evaluation in the Maui High-Performance...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Liquid Cooling v. Air Cooling Evaluation in the Maui High-Performance Computing Center Liquid Cooling v. Air Cooling Evaluation in the Maui High-Performance Computing Center Study...

  15. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Chungming; Chevtsov, Sergei; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC; Shen, Guobao; /Brookhaven

    2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  16. High-level waste qualification: Managing uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulsipher, B.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Qualification of high-level waste implies specifications driven by risk against which performance can be assessed. The inherent uncertainties should be addressed in the specifications and statistical methods should be employed to appropriately manage these uncertainties. Uncertainties exist whenever measurements are obtained, sampling is employed, or processes are affected by systematic or random perturbations. This paper presents the approach and statistical methods currently employed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) to characterize, minimize, and control uncertainties pertinent to a waste-form acceptance specification concerned with product consistency.

  17. High-level waste tank farm set point document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony, J.A. III

    1995-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The setpoint document will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DPSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope.

  18. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean,...

  19. The use of low-level liquid scintillation spectrometry for rapid measurement and decision making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenhofer, F. [Federal Inst. for Food Control and Research (Austria)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) has proved over the last fifteen years to be an excellent tool for low-level counting of beta- and alpha-particle emitters. Using low-level instruments the determination of, for instance {sup 90}Sr, could be considerably simplified in the laboratory, saving time and also money for chemicals and manpower. Furthermore, low-level instruments have been successfully used for measurements when fast analysis was required. The four instruments (Quantulus, Wallac Oy), that the author uses, have not only very low background, which cuts measurement time considerably; but from the pulse- height spectra much information about the nature of the radionuclides present and the absence of specific radionuclides can be extracted. From the absence of high-energy beta-particle activity in the pulse-height spectra of precipitation in the first days after the Chernobyl accident the author could draw the conclusion, that practically no {sup 90}Y was present and therefore only small amounts of {sup 90}Sr, if any, could be expected in precipitation and later in food. This enabled them to make the decision not to waste time with a large number of {sup 90}Sr analyses. Large numbers of drinking water samples could be screened for contamination much more sensitively and faster than by gamma-ray spectrometry. More examples will be presented of cases where rapid information was needed; how contamination and nuclear installations can be easily checked and how LSC helped to cut down the time required, the manpower and the costs for radon measurements and environmental surveillance.

  20. Noninvasive method for determining the liquid level and density inside of a container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Noninvasive method for determining the liquid level and density inside of a container having arbitrary dimension and shape. By generating a flexural acoustic wave in the container shell and measuring the phase difference of the detected flexural wave from that of the originally generated wave a small distance from the generated wave, while moving the generation and detection means through the liquid/vapor interface, this interface can be detected. Both the wave generation and wave detection may be achieved by transducers on the surface of the container. A change in the phase difference over the outer surface of the vessel signifies that a liquid/vapor interface has been crossed, while the magnitude of the phase difference can be related to fluid density immediately opposite the measurement position on the surface of the vessel.

  1. Umbra's High Level Architecture (HLA) Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GOTTLIEB, ERIC JOSEPH; MCDONALD, MICHAEL J.; OPPEL III, FRED J.

    2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes Umbra's High Level Architecture HLA library. This library serves as an interface to the Defense Simulation and Modeling Office's (DMSO) Run Time Infrastructure Next Generation Version 1.3 (RTI NG1.3) software library and enables Umbra-based models to be federated into HLA environments. The Umbra library was built to enable the modeling of robots for military and security system concept evaluation. A first application provides component technologies that ideally fit the US Army JPSD's Joint Virtual Battlespace (JVB) simulation framework for Objective Force concept analysis. In addition to describing the Umbra HLA library, the report describes general issues of integrating Umbra with RTI code and outlines ways of building models to support particular HLA simulation frameworks like the JVB.

  2. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  3. High Level Waste Management Division High-Level Waste System Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet WhenHiggs Boson May| ArgonneHigh Level Waste.6

  4. High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of Energetic Properties of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the...

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: high PV deployment level

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    deployment level ECIS-Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter On March 19, 2013, in DETL, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy Surety, Facilities, Grid...

  6. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass feedstocks were utilized to identify optimized process conditions and selective HDO catalyst for high yield production of hydrocarbons from biomass. In addition to these experimental efforts, in Tasks D and E, we have developed a mathematical optimization framework to identify carbon and energy efficient biomass-to-liquid fuel process designs that integrate the use of different primary energy sources along with biomass (e.g. solar, coal or natural gas) for liquid fuel production. Using this tool, we have identified augmented biomass-to-liquid fuel configurations based on the fast-hydropyrolysis/HDO pathway, which was experimentally studied in this project. The computational approach used for screening alternative process configurations represents a unique contribution to the field of biomass processing for liquid fuel production.

  7. APPLICATION OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY POLYMERS FOR THE IMMOBILIZATION AND SOLIDIFICATION OF COMPLEX LIQUID RADWASTE TYPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, Dennis; Brunkow, Ward; Pokhitonov, Yuri; Starchenko, Vadim

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cold War era created a massive build-up of nuclear weapon stockpiles in the former Soviet Union and the United States. The primary objective during this period was the development of nuclear technologies for weapons, space and power with lack of attention to the impact of radioactive and hazardous waste products on the environment. Effective technologies for radioactive and hazardous waste treatment and disposal were not well investigated or promoted during the arms build-up; and consequently, environmental contamination has become a major problem. These problems in Russia and the United States are well documented. Significant amounts of liquid radwaste have existed since the 1950's. The current government of the Russian Federation is addressing the issues of land remediation and permanent storage of radwaste resulting from internal and external pressures for safe cleanup and storage. The Russian government seeks new technologies from internal sources and from the West that will provide high performance, long term stability, safe for transport and for long-term storage of liquid radwaste at a reasonable economic cost. With the great diversity of liquid chemical compositions and activity levels, it is important to note that these waste products cannot be processed with commonly used methods. Different techniques and materials can be used for this problem resolution including the use of polymer materials that are capable of forming chemically stable, solidified waste products. In 2001, the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (St. Petersburg, Russia) and Pacific World Trade (Indianapolis, Indiana) began an extensive research and test program to determine the effectiveness and performance of high technology polymers for the immobilization and solidification of complex liquid radwaste types generated by the Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom), Russia, organization. The high tech polymers used in the tests were provided by Nochar, Inc. (Indianapolis, Indiana).

  8. Towards Chip Scale Liquid Chromatography and High Throughput Immunosensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ni, J.

    2000-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This work describes several research projects aimed towards developing new instruments and novel methods for high throughput chemical and biological analysis. Approaches are taken in two directions. The first direction takes advantage of well-established semiconductor fabrication techniques and applies them to miniaturize instruments that are workhorses in analytical laboratories. Specifically, the first part of this work focused on the development of micropumps and microvalves for controlled fluid delivery. The mechanism of these micropumps and microvalves relies on the electrochemically-induced surface tension change at a mercury/electrolyte interface. A miniaturized flow injection analysis device was integrated and flow injection analyses were demonstrated. In the second part of this work, microfluidic chips were also designed, fabricated, and tested. Separations of two fluorescent dyes were demonstrated in microfabricated channels, based on an open-tubular liquid chromatography (OT LC) or an electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) format. A reduction in instrument size can potentially increase analysis speed, and allow exceedingly small amounts of sample to be analyzed under diverse separation conditions. The second direction explores the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as a signal transduction method for immunoassay analysis. It takes advantage of the improved detection sensitivity as a result of surface enhancement on colloidal gold, the narrow width of Raman band, and the stability of Raman scattering signals to distinguish several different species simultaneously without exploiting spatially-separated addresses on a biochip. By labeling gold nanoparticles with different Raman reporters in conjunction with different detection antibodies, a simultaneous detection of a dual-analyte immunoassay was demonstrated. Using this scheme for quantitative analysis was also studied and preliminary dose-response curves from an immunoassay of a mo del antigen were obtained. Simultaneous detection of several analytes at the same address can potentially increase the analysis speed, and can further expand the analysis capability of a microarray chip.

  9. JET MIXING ANALYSIS FOR SRS HIGH-LEVEL WASTE RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank to ensure uniformity of the discharge stream. Mixing is accomplished with one to four slurry pumps located within the tank liquid. The slurry pump may be fixed in position or they may rotate depending on the specific mixing requirements. The high-level waste in Tank 48 contains insoluble solids in the form of potassium tetraphenyl borate compounds (KTPB), monosodium titanate (MST), and sludge. Tank 48 is equipped with 4 slurry pumps, which are intended to suspend the insoluble solids prior to transfer of the waste to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) process. The FBSR process is being designed for a normal feed of 3.05 wt% insoluble solids. A chemical characterization study has shown the insoluble solids concentration is approximately 3.05 wt% when well-mixed. The project is requesting a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) mixing study from SRNL to determine the solids behavior with 2, 3, and 4 slurry pumps in operation and an estimate of the insoluble solids concentration at the suction of the transfer pump to the FBSR process. The impact of cooling coils is not considered in the current work. The work consists of two principal objectives by taking a CFD approach: (1) To estimate insoluble solids concentration transferred from Tank 48 to the Waste Feed Tank in the FBSR process and (2) To assess the impact of different combinations of four slurry pumps on insoluble solids suspension and mixing in Tank 48. For this work, several different combinations of a maximum of four pumps are considered to determine the resulting flow patterns and local flow velocities which are thought to be associated with sludge particle mixing. Two different elevations of pump nozzles are used for an assessment of the flow patterns on the tank mixing. Pump design and operating parameters used for the analysis are summarized in Table 1. The baseline pump orientations are chosen by the previous work [Lee et. al, 2008] and the initial engineering judgement for the conservative flow estimate since the modeling results for the other pump orientations are compared with the baseline results. As shown in Table 1, the present study assumes that each slurry pump has 900 gpm flowrate for the tank mixing analysis, although the Standard Operating Procedure for Tank 48 currently limits the actual pump speed and flowrate to a value less than 900 gpm for a 29 inch liquid level. Table 2 shows material properties and weight distributions for the solids to be modeled for the mixing analysis in Tank 48.

  10. High level waste tank farm setpoint document. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony, J.A. III

    1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Revision 1 modifies Attachment I of this Technical Report as a result of a meeting which was held Friday, January 27, 1994 between Maintenance, Work Control, and Engineering to discuss report contents. Upon completion of the meeting, the Flow Chart was edited accordingly. Attachment 2 is modified for clerical reasons. Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Fanns. The setpoint document (Appendix 2) will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope.

  11. High-level verification of system designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kundu, Sudipta

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Re?nement Checking of CSP Programs 6.8.2 SPARK: High-Levelcompression for model- checking csp or how to check 1020state-of-the-art tool to check CSP re? nements. The approach

  12. High average power laser using a transverse flowing liquid host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2003-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser includes an optical cavity. A diode laser pumping device is located within the optical cavity. An aprotic lasing liquid containing neodymium rare earth ions fills the optical cavity. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for circulating the aprotic lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump and a heat exchanger.

  13. High power laser having a trivalent liquid host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R.

    2005-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser having a lasing chamber and a semiconductor pumping device with trivalent titanium ions dissolved in a liquid host within the lasing chamber. Since the host is a liquid, it can be removed from the optical cavity when it becomes heated avoiding the inevitable optical distortion and birefringence common to glass and crystal hosts.

  14. High level indole signalling in Escherichia coli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaimster, Hannah Dorne

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    indole signalling in Escherichia coli Abstract Indole is a small signalling molecule, produced by many species of bacteria, including Escherichia coli. It is made by the enzyme tryptophanase, which converts tryptophan into indole, pyruvate and ammonia... . Indole has diverse roles in E. coli, including regulation of biofilm formation, acid resistance and pathogenicity. In these cases, E. coli responds to a low, persistent level of indole (0.5-1 mM), similar to the concentration found in an E. coli...

  15. High Level Waste Corporate Board Charter

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12Approved on 24 July 2008 1 Office of Environmental Management

  16. Pulsed laser kinetic studies of liquids under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eyring, E.M.

    1993-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been developed for measuring the rates of chemical reactions liquids and in supercritical Co[sub 2]. A pulsed (Q-switch) Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm was the pump beam for laser flash photolysis studies of molybdenum and tungsten hexacarbonyls undergoing ligand displacement reactions by bidentate chelating agents such as 2,2[prime]-bipyridine in toluene. Experiments were carried out at 0.1 to 150 MPa. In the case of molybdenum complexes, the reaction mechanism for thermal ring closure is found from activation volumes to change from associative interchange to dissociative interchange as substituents on the 2,2[prime]-bipyridine ligands become bulkier. In a similar study of more rigid, substituted phenanthroline bidentate ligands it was found that substituent bulkiness had little effect on the thermal ring closure mechanism. Similar high pressure flash photolysis experiments with tungsten hexacarbonyl have also been completed. The concentration dependence of the fluorescence and nonradiative decay quantum yields for cresyl violet in several solvent have been reported as well as stability constants for the complexation of lithium ion by four different crown ethers dissolved in a room temperature molten salt.

  17. On-Site Decontamination System for Liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste - 13010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OSMANLIOGLU, Ahmet Erdal [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Kucukcekmece Istanbul (Turkey)] [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Kucukcekmece Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is based on an evaluation of purification methods for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) by using natural zeolite. Generally the volume of liquid low-level waste is relatively large and the specific activity is rather low when compared to other radioactive waste types. In this study, a pilot scale column was used with natural zeolite as an ion exchanger media. Decontamination and minimization of LLLW especially at the generation site decrease operational cost in waste management operations. Portable pilot scale column was constructed for decontamination of LLW on site. Effect of temperature on the radionuclide adsorption of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution temperature for the plant scale operations. In addition, effect of pH on the radionuclide uptake of the zeolite column was determined to optimize the waste solution pH for the plant scale operations. The advantages of this method used for the processing of LLLW are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  18. High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  19. New Composite Membranes for High Throughput Solid-Liquid Separations at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhave, Ramesh R [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New Composite Membranes for High Throughput Solid-Liquid Separations at the Savannah River Site R. Bhave (Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Oak Ridge, TN) and M. R. Poirier* (Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken SC) Solid-liquid separation is the limiting step for many waste treatment processes at the Savannah River Site. SRNL researchers have identified the rotary microfilter as a technology to improve the rate of solid-liquid separation processes. SRNL is currently developing the rotary microfilter for radioactive service and plans to deploy the technology as part of the small column ion exchange process. The rotary microfilter can utilize any filter media that is available as a flat sheet. The current baseline membrane is a 0.5 micron (nominal) porous metal filter (Pall PMM050). Previous testing with tubular filters showed that filters composed of a ceramic membrane on top of a stainless steel support produce higher flux than filters composed only of porous metal. The authors are working to develop flat sheet filter media composed of a ceramic membrane and/or ceramic-metal composite on top of a porous stainless steel support that can be used with the rotary microfilter to substantially increase filter flux resulting in a more compact, energy efficient and cost-effective high level radioactive waste treatment system. Composite membranes with precisely controlled pore size distribution were fabricated on porous metal supports. High quality uniform porous metal (316SS) supports were fabricated to achieve high water permeability. Separative layers of several different materials such as ultrafine metal particles and ceramic oxides were used to fabricate composite membranes. The fabrication process involved several high temperature heat treatments followed by characterization of gas and liquid permeability measurements and membrane integrity analysis. The fabricated composite membrane samples were evaluated in a static test cell manufactured by SpinTek. The composite membranes were evaluated on several feed slurries: 1 wt. % strontium carbonate in deionized water, 1 wt. % monosodium titanate in simulated salt solution, and 1 wt. % simulated sludge in simulated salt solution and deionized water. Flux as a function of feed flow rate and transmembrane pressure was measured for each of the above described feed slurries. The authors will discuss the new membrane development efforts, waste slurry filtration performance evaluations and scale-up considerations.

  20. HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 4 VARIABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

    2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing for vitrification of High Level Waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in early FY2007. To support this process, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 503 for vitrifying this sludge batch, based on the composition projection provided by the Liquid Waste Organization on June 22, 2006. Frit 418 was also recommended for possible use during the transition from SB3 to SB4. A critical step in the SB4 qualification process is to demonstrate the applicability of the durability models, which are used as part of the DWPF's process control strategy, to the glass system of interest via a variability study. A variability study is an experimentally-driven assessment of the predictability and acceptability of the quality of the vitrified waste product that is anticipated from the processing of a sludge batch. At the DWPF, the durability of the vitrified waste product is not directly measured. Instead, the durability is predicted using a set of models that relate the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response of a glass to the chemical composition of that glass. In addition, a glass sample is taken during the processing of that sludge batch, the sample is transmitted to SRNL, and the durability is measured to confirm acceptance. The objective of a variability study is to demonstrate that these models are applicable to the glass composition region anticipated during the processing of the sludge batch - in this case the Frit 503 - SB4 compositional region. The success of this demonstration allows the DWPF to confidently rely on the predictions of the durability/composition models as they are used in the control of the DWPF process.

  1. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DoE SuperTruck Program Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Principal Investigator: Donald Stanton (Cummins)...

  2. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Peer Evaluation arravt081vssnewhouse2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8...

  3. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Technology and...

  4. High-throughput liquid-absorption preconcentrator sampling methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon (95706 William Dr., Hinsdale, IL 60521)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container comprising a wettable material. The wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid which flows from one part of the container to a lower end. Sampled air flows through the container in contact with the wetted material with a swirling motion which results in efficient transfer of analyte vapors or aerosol particles to the sorbing liquid and preconcentration of traces of analyte in the liquid. The preconcentrated traces of analyte may be either detected within the container or removed therefrom for injection into a separate detection means or for subsequent analysis.

  5. High-throughput liquid-absorption preconcentrator sampling methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, S.

    1994-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container comprising a wettable material. The wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid which flows from one part of the container to a lower end. Sampled air flows through the container in contact with the wetted material with a swirling motion which results in efficient transfer of analyte vapors or aerosol particles to the sorbing liquid and preconcentration of traces of analyte in the liquid. The preconcentrated traces of analyte may be either detected within the container or removed therefrom for injection into a separate detection means or for subsequent analysis. 12 figs.

  6. High Energy Neutrino Physics with Liquid Scintillation Detectors John G. Learned #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Learned, John

    High Energy Neutrino Physics with Liquid Scintillation Detectors John G. Learned # Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Hawaii, Manoa, 96822 USA (Dated: 22 February 2009) Large liquid scintillation detectors have been generally dedicated to low energy neutrino measure­ ments, in the MeV energy

  7. High Energy Neutrino Physics with Liquid Scintillation Detectors John G. Learned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Learned, John

    High Energy Neutrino Physics with Liquid Scintillation Detectors John G. Learned Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Hawaii, Manoa, 96822 USA (Dated: 22 February 2009) Large liquid scintillation detectors have been generally dedicated to low energy neutrino measure- ments, in the MeV energy

  8. Computation of Weakly-Compressible Highly-Viscous Polymeric Liquid Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, P. W.

    such circumstances, the speed of sound is much larger than the velocity of the liquid, resulting in fast pressure, the ratio of fluid velocity to the speed of sound ( cuMa /= ), characterises the influence1 Computation of Weakly-Compressible Highly-Viscous Polymeric Liquid Flows M. F. Webster 1*, I. J

  9. Development of high-power electrodes for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development of high-power electrodes for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell C. Lim, C.Y. Wang for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were fabricated by using a novel method of modi®ed Na.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cells; Membrane-electrode assembly (MEA); Polymer

  10. Survey of National Programs for Managing High-Level Radioactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Survey of National Programs for Managing High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel A Report to Congress and the Secretary of Energy October 2009 #12 Board #12;#12;U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board Survey of National Programs for Managing High

  11. Dataflow Transformations in High-level DSP System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S.

    in the application that can be analyzed and transformed for effective optimization. Because of the high level of abstraction at which they operate, the transformations employed in this process have a large impact on keyDataflow Transformations in High-level DSP System Design (Invited Paper) Sankalita Saha, Sebastian

  12. High performance batteries with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen (Littleton, CO)

    2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to lithium-ion batteries in general and more particularly to lithium-ion batteries based on aligned graphene ribbon anodes, V.sub.2O.sub.5 graphene ribbon composite cathodes, and ionic liquid electrolytes. The lithium-ion batteries have excellent performance metrics of cell voltages, energy densities, and power densities.

  13. High performance ultracapacitors with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen; Henry, Kent Douglas

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to the use of carbon nanotubes and/or electrolyte structures in various electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors having an ionic liquid electrolyte. The carbon nanotubes are preferably aligned carbon nanotubes. Compared to randomly entangled carbon nanotubes, aligned carbon nanotubes can have better defined pore structures and higher specific surface areas.

  14. Alteration of gas phase ion polarizabilities upon hydration in high dielectric liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahin Buyukdagli; Tapio Ala-Nissila

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the modification of gas phase ion polarizabilities upon solvation in polar solvents and ionic liquids. To this aim, we develop a classical electrostatic theory of charged liquids composed of solvent molecules modeled as finite size dipoles, and embedding polarizable ions that consist of Drude oscillators. In qualitative agreement with ab-initio calculations of polar solvents and ionic liquids, the hydration energy of a polarizable ion in both type of dielectric liquid is shown to favor the expansion of its electronic cloud. Namely, the ion carrying no dipole moment in the gas phase acquires a dipole moment in the liquid environment, but its electron cloud also reaches an enhanced rigidity. We find that the overall effect is an increase of the gas phase polarizability upon hydration. In the specific case of ionic liquids, it is shown that this hydration process is driven by a collective solvation mechanism where the dipole moment of a polarizable ion induced by its interaction with surrounding ions self-consistently adds to the polarization of the liquid, thereby amplifying the dielectric permittivity of the medium in a substantial way. We propose this self-consistent hydration as the underlying mechanism behind the high dielectric permittivities of ionic liquids composed of small charges with negligible gas phase dipole moment. Hydration being a correlation effect, the emerging picture indicates that electrostatic correlations cannot be neglected in polarizable liquids.

  15. Response of NSTX Liquid Lithium divertor to High Heat Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrams, Tyler; Kallman, J; Kaitaa, R; Foley, E L; Grayd, T K; Kugel, H; Levinton, F; McLean, A G

    2012-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of the NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) with and without an evaporative Li coating were directly exposed to a neutral beam ex-situ at a power of ~1.5 MW/m2 for 1-3 seconds. Measurements of front face and bulk sample temperature were obtained. Predictions of temperature evolution were derived from a 1D heat flux model. No macroscopic damage occurred when the "bare" sample was exposed to the beam but microscopic changes to the surface were observed. The Li-coated sample developed a lithium hydroxide (LiOH) coating, which did not change even when the front face temperature exceeded the pure Li melting point. These results are consistent with the lack of damage to the LLD surface and imply that heating alone may not expose pure liquid Li if the melting point of surface impurities is not exceeded. This suggests that flow and heat are needed for future PFCs requiring a liquid Li surface. __________________________________________________

  16. EIS-0063: Waste Management Operations, Double-Shell Tanks for Defense High Level Radioactive Waste Storage, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to evaluate the existing tank design and consider additional specific design and safety feature alternatives for the thirteen tanks being constructed for storage of defense high-level radioactive liquid waste at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This statement supplements ERDA-1538, "Final Environmental Statement on Waste Management Operation."

  17. High-Level Waste Corporate Board, Mark Gilbertson

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12Approved on 24 July 2008 1 Office ofHighHigh-LevelHigh-Level

  18. Observation and Measurement of Se-79 in SRS High-Level Tank Fission Product Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewberry, R.A.

    2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report the first observation of confirmed Se-79 activity in Savannah River Site high level fission product waste. Se-79 was measured after a seven step chemical treatment to remove interfering activity from Cs-137, Sr-90, and plutonium at levels 105 times higher than the observed Se-79 content and to remove Tc-99 at levels 300 times higher than observed Se-79. Se-79 was measured by liquid scintillation beta-decay counting after specific tests to eliminate uncertainties from possible contributions from Tc-99, Pm-147, Sm-151, Zr-93, or Pu-241, whose beta-decay spectra could appear similar to that of Se-79, and whose content would be expected at levels near or greater than Se-79.

  19. The High-Level Radioactive Waste Act (Manitoba, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manitoba bars the storage of high-level radioactive wastes from spent nuclear fuel, not intended for research purposes, that was produced at a nuclear facility or in a nuclear reactor outside the...

  20. High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1B—Integration of Supply Chains I: Breaking Down Barriers High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities Kevin Comer, Associate Principal, Antares Group Inc.

  1. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    d'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  2. MUTATION-BASED VALIDATION OF HIGH-LEVEL MICROPROCESSOR IMPLEMENTATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Asaad, Hussain

    MUTATION-BASED VALIDATION OF HIGH-LEVEL MICROPROCESSOR IMPLEMENTATIONS Jorge Campos and Hussain Al-level microprocessor implementation by generating a test sequence for a collection of ab- stract design error models of microprocessors, engineers are forced to validate a larger design space in a shorter time frame. This task becomes

  3. Conditioning of Boron-Containing Low and Intermediate Level Liquid Radioactive Waste - 12041

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbunova, Olga A. [SUE SIA 'Radon', Moscow (Russian Federation); Kamaeva, Tatiana S. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved cementation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW and LLW) aided by vortex electromagnetic treatment as well as silica addition was investigated. Positive effects including accelerated curing of boron-containing cement waste forms, improve end product quality, decreased product volume and reduced secondary LRW volume from equipment decontamination were established. These results established the possibility of boron-containing LRW cementation without the use of neutralizing alkaline additives that greatly increase the volume of the final product intended for long-term storage (burial). Physical (electromagnetic) treatment in a vortex mixer can change the state of LRW versus chemical treatment. By treating the liquid phase of cement solution only, instead of the whole solution, and using fine powder and nano-particles of ferric oxides instead of separable ferromagnetic cores for the activating agents the positive effect are obtained. VET for 1 to 3 minutes yields boron-containing LRW cemented products of satisfactory quality. Silica addition at 10 % by weight will accelerate curing and solidification and to decrease radionuclide leaching rates from boron-containing cement products. (authors)

  4. Liquid level, void fraction, and superheated steam sensor for nuclear-reactor cores. [PWR; BWR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This disclosure relates to an apparatus for monitoring the presence of coolant in liquid or mixed liquid and vapor, and superheated gaseous phases at one or more locations within an operating nuclear reactor core, such as pressurized water reactor or a boiling water reactor.

  5. High-Level Information Fusion and Mission Planning in Highly Anisotropic Threat Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witkowski, Mark

    High-Level Information Fusion and Mission Planning in Highly Anisotropic Threat Spaces Mark sharing and high-level information fusion to allow for the visualisation of highly anisotropic threat options. Keywords: Information Fusion, Threat Map, Tactical Planning. 1 Introduction We present a first

  6. High-Level Waste Corporate Board Performance Assessment Subcommittee

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12Approved on 24 July 2008 1 Office ofHighHigh-Level WasteLevel

  7. Water borne transport of high level nuclear waste in very deep borehole disposal of high level nuclear waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabeche, Dion Tunick

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to examine the feasibility of the very deep borehole experiment and to determine if it is a reasonable method of storing high level nuclear waste for an extended period of time. The objective ...

  8. Energy Performance and Comfort Level in High Rise and Highly Glazed Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayraktar, M.; Perino, M.; Yilmaz, A. Z.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal and visual comfort in buildings play a significant role on occupants' performance but on the other hand achieving energy savings and high comfort levels can be a quite difficult task especially in high rise buildings with highly glazed...

  9. Energy Performance and Comfort Level in High Rise and Highly Glazed Office Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayraktar, M.; Perino, M.; Yilmaz, A. Z.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal and visual comfort in buildings play a significant role on occupants' performance but on the other hand achieving energy savings and high comfort levels can be a quite difficult task especially in high rise buildings with highly glazed...

  10. Ionic liquids and ionic liquid acids with high temperature stability for fuel cell and other high temperature applications, method of making and cell employing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Broadview Heights, OH); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Chandler, AZ); Yoshizawa, Masahiro (Tokyo, JP)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are developments in high temperature fuel cells including ionic liquids with high temperature stability and the storage of inorganic acids as di-anion salts of low volatility. The formation of ionically conducting liquids of this type having conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems is described. The stability of the di-anion configuration is shown to play a role in the high performance of the non-corrosive proton-transfer ionic liquids as high temperature fuel cell electrolytes. Performance of simple H.sub.2(g) electrolyte/O.sub.2(g) fuel cells with the new electrolytes is described. Superior performance both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200.degree. C. are achieved. Both neutral proton transfer salts and the acid salts with HSO.sup.-.sub.4 anions, give good results, the bisulphate case being particularly good at low temperatures and very high temperatures. The performance of all electrolytes is improved by the addition of a small amount of involatile base of pK.sub.a value intermediate between those of the acid and base that make the bulk electrolyte. The preferred case is the imidazole-doped ethylammonium hydrogensulfate which yields behavior superior in all respects to that of the industry standard phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  11. High-level waste at Hanford: Potential for waste loading maximization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, P.; Bailey, A.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The loading of Hanford nuclear waste in borosilicate glass is limited by phase-related phenomena, such as crystallization or formation of immiscible liquids, and by the breakdown of the glass structure due to an excessive concentration of modifiers. The phase-related phenomena cause both processing and product quality problems. The deterioration of the product durability determines the ultimate waste loading limit if all processing problems are resolved. Concrete examples and mass-balance based calculations show that a substantial potential exists for increasing waste loading of high-level wastes that contain a large fraction of refractory components.

  12. Spreading of Viscous Liquids at High Temperature: Silicate Glasseson Molybdenum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Moya, Jose S.; Tomsia,Antoni P.

    2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The spreading of Si-Ca-Al-Ti-O glasses on molybdenum has been investigated. By controlling the oxygen activity in the furnace, spreading can take place under reactive or non-reactive conditions. As the nucleation of the reaction product under reactive conditions is slow in comparison to the spreading kinetics, in both cases the glass front moves on the metal surface with similar spreading velocities. Spreading can be described using a molecular dynamics model where the main contribution to the wetting activation energy comes from the viscous interactions in the liquid. Enhanced interfacial diffusions in low-oxygen activities (reactive cases) form triple-line ridges that can pin the wetting front and cause a stick-slip motion.

  13. Lessons Learned: Using Low Cost, Uncooled Infrared Cameras for the Rapid Liquid Level Assessment of Chemical UXO and Storage Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Kevin Larry

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the fall of 2001, the U.S. Army used low-cost infrared cameras provided by the INEEL to image 3190 aging ton shipping containers to determine if any contained liquid, possibly trace amounts of hazardous mustard agent. The purpose of the scan was to provide quick, "hands-off" assessment of the water-heater-sized containers before moving them with a crane. If the thermal images indicated a possible liquid level, extra safety precautions would be taken prior to moving the container. The technique of using infrared cameras to determine liquid levels in large storage tanks is well documented, but the application of this technique to ton shipping containers (45 to 1036 liters) and even smaller individual chemical munitions (2 to 4 liters) is unique and presents some interesting challenges. This paper describes the lessons learned, problems encountered and success rates associated with using low-cost infrared cameras to look for liquid levels within ton shipping containers and individual chemical munitions.

  14. Surveillance and maintenance plan for the inactive liquid low-level waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ORNL has a total of 54 inactive liquid low-level waste (ILLLW) tanks. In the past, these tanks were used to contain radioactive liquid wastes from various research programs, decontamination operations, and reactor operations. The tanks have since been removed from service for various reasons; the majority were retired because of their age, some due to integrity compromises, and others because they did not meet the current standards set by the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA). Many of the tanks contain residual radioactive liquids and/or sludges. Plans are to remediate all tanks; however, until remediation of each tank, this Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan will be used to monitor the safety and inventory containment of these tanks.

  15. Study of liquid gallium at high pressure using synchrotron x-ray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Tony; Guo Quanzhong; Parise, John [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); Chen Jiuhua [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Center for the Study of Matters at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Ehm, Lars [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Huang Shu [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Center for the Study of Matters at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Luo Shengnian [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid gallium has been studied at high pressure up to 2 GPa and ambient temperature in a diamond anvil cell using high energy synchrotron x-ray beam. The total x-ray scattering data of liquid gallium were collected up to Q = 12 A{sup -1} and analyzed using pair distribution functions (PDF). The results indicate that the first nearest neighbor peak and second nearest neighbor (shoulder) peak of PDF in liquid gallium does not change with pressure, whereas the higher order (i.e., third and fourth) nearest neighbor peaks shift towards shorter distance with increasing pressure. Reverse Monte Carlo modeling based on the observed data shows that the coordination number in the liquid gallium increases with pressure from 10.5 at 0.3 GPa to 11.6 at 2 GPa. An atomic arrangement similar to the crystalline phase of Ga(II) with coordination number of 12 is proposed for the locally dense-packed rigid unit in liquid gallium. The volume compression data derived from the structure modeling yield a bulk modulus of 12.1(6) GPa for liquid gallium.

  16. High-Level Waste Corporate Board Meeting Agenda

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12Approved on 24 July 2008 1 Office ofHighHigh-Level Waste

  17. A high power beam-on-target test of liquid lithium target for RIA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolen, J.; Reed, C.; Novick, V.; Specht, J.; Plotkin, P.; Momozaki,Y.; Gomes, I.

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the stable operation of a windowless liquid lithium target under extreme thermal loads that are equivalent to uranium beams from the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The engineering and safety issues accompanying liquid lithium systems are first discussed. The liquid metal technology knowledge base generated primarily for fast reactors, and liquid metal cooled fusion reactors, was applied to the development of these systems in a nuclear physics laboratory setting. The use of a high energy electron beam for simulating a high power uranium beam produced by the RIA driver linac is also described. Calculations were performed to obtain energy deposition profiles produced by electron beams at up to a few MeV to compare with expected uranium beam energy deposition profiles. It was concluded that an experimental simulation using a 1-MeV electron beam would be a valuable tool to assess beam-jet interaction. In the experiments, the cross section of the windowless liquid lithium target was 5 mm x 10 mm, which is a 1/3rd scale prototype target, and the velocity of the liquid lithium was varied up to 6 m/s. Thermal loads up to 20 kW within a beam spot diameter of 1mm were applied on the windowless liquid lithium target by the 1-MeV electron beam. The calculations showed that the maximum power density and total power deposited within the target, from the electron beam, was equivalent to that of a 200-kW, 400-MeV/u uranium beam. It was demonstrated that the windowless liquid lithium target flowing at velocities as low as 1.8 m/s stably operated under beam powers up to 20 kW without disruption or excessive vaporization.

  18. Project Profile: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A freezing point below 100C Stable at temperatures greater than 800C Low corrosion of stainless steel and high-nickel content alloys A heat capacity greater than 2...

  19. High Waste Loading Glass Formulations for Hanford High-Aluminum High-Level Waste Streams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet WhenHiggs BosonAccurate knowledge ofHIGH WASTE

  20. High-Level Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    16 High-Level Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips FEI SU Intel Corporation and KRISHNENDU CHAKRABARTY Duke University Microfluidic biochips offer a promising platform for massively parallel DNA-generation system-on-chip (SOC) designs that are expected to include microfluidic components. We propose a system

  1. High-Level waste process and product data annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stegen, G.E.

    1996-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this document is to provide information on available issued documents that will assist interested parties in finding available data on high-level waste and transuranic waste feed compositions, properties, behavior in candidate processing operations, and behavior on candidate product glasses made from those wastes. This initial compilation is only a partial list of available references.

  2. Reliability-Centric High-Level Synthesis , N. Mansouri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    critical applications, poor reliability can be catastrophic in terms of both human and equipment cost1 Reliability-Centric High-Level Synthesis S. Tosun , N. Mansouri , E. Arvas , M. Kandemir-down. As a result, it is becoming necessary to treat reliability as a first-class citizen in system design

  3. Putting high-level Petri nets to work in industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Aalst, Wil

    Putting high-level Petri nets to work in industry W.M.P. van der Aalst Department of Mathematics Petri nets exist for over 30 years. Especially in the last decade Petri nets have been put into practice extensively. Thanks to several useful ex- tensions and the availability of computer tools, Petri nets have

  4. Generating Code for High-Level Operations through Code Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Generating Code for High-Level Operations through Code Composition James M. Stichnoth August 1997 of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements: Compilers, code generation, parallelism, communication generation #12;Abstract A traditional compiler

  5. The R Environment A high-level overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    use it. #12;What exactly is R? R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics Sarkar The R Environment #12;What exactly is R? R is a language and environment for statisticalThe R Environment A high-level overview Deepayan Sarkar Indian Statistical Institute, Delhi 6

  6. Operational considerations for high level blast furnace fuel injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poveromo, J.J. [Quebec Cartier Mining Co., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection levels of over 400 lbs/NTHM for coal, over 250 lbs/NTHM for natural gas and over 200 lbs/NTHM for oil have been achieved. Such high levels of fuel injection has a major impact on many aspects of blast furnace operation. In this paper the author begins by reviewing the fundamentals of fuel injection with emphasis on raceway thermochemical phenomena. The operational impacts which are generic to high level injection of any injectant are then outlined. The author will then focus on the particular characteristics of each injectant, with major emphasis on coal and natural gas. Operational considerations for coping with these changes and methods of maximizing the benefits of fuel injection will be reviewed.

  7. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  8. Idaho High-Level Waste & Facilities Disposition, Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2002-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This EIS analyzes the potential environmental consequences of alternatives for managing high-level waste (HLW) calcine, mixed transuranic waste/sodium bearing waste (SBW) and newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in liquid and solid forms. This EIS also analyzes alternatives for the final disposition of HLW management facilities at the INEEL after their missions are completed. After considering comments on the Draft EIS (DOE/EIS-0287D), as well as information on available treatment technologies, DOE and the State of Idaho have identified separate preferred alternatives for waste treatment. DOE's preferred alternative for waste treatment is performance based with the focus on placing the wastes in forms suitable for disposal. Technologies available to meet the performance objectives may be chosen from the action alternatives analyzed in this EIS. The State of Idaho's Preferred Alternative for treating mixed transuranic waste/SBW and calcine is vitrification, with or without calcine separations. Under both the DOE and State of Idaho preferred alternatives, newly generated liquid waste would be segregated after 2005, stored or treated directly and disposed of as low-level, mixed low-level, or transuranic waste depending on its characteristics. The objective of each preferred alternative is to enable compliance with the legal requirement to have INEEL HLW road ready by a target date of 2035. Both DOE and the State of Idaho have identified the same preferred alternative for facilities disposition, which is to use performance-based closure methods for existing facilities and to design new facilities consistent with clean closure methods.

  9. High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of California, Los Angeles, the University of California, Berkeley, and Yale University is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI): High Operating Temperature (HOT) Fluids. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  10. Project Profile: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - TProcuring Solar forProjectDepartment of EnergyFluids |

  11. High Efficiency Liquid-Desiccant Regenerator for Air Conditioning and Industrial Drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Lowenstein

    2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 2 quads of fossil fuels are used each year for moisture removal. This includes industrial and agricultural processes where feedstocks and final products must be dried, as well as comfort conditioning of indoor spaces where the control of humidity is essential to maintaining healthy, productive and comfortable working conditions. Desiccants, materials that have a high affinity for water vapor, can greatly reduce energy use for both drying and dehumidification. An opportunity exists to greatly improve the competitiveness of advanced liquid-desiccant systems by increasing the efficiency of their regenerators. It is common practice within the chemical process industry to use multiple stage boilers to improve the efficiency of thermal separation processes. The energy needed to regenerate a liquid desiccant, which is a thermal separation process, can also be reduced by using a multiple stage boiler. In this project, a two-stage regenerator was developed in which the first stage is a boiler and the second stage is a scavenging-air regenerator. The only energy input to this regenerator is the natural gas that fires the boiler. The steam produced in the boiler provides the thermal energy to run the second-stage scavenging-air regenerator. This two-stage regenerator is referred to as a 1?-effect regenerator. A model of the high-temperature stage of a 1?-effect regenerator for liquid desiccants was designed, built and successfully tested. At nominal operating conditions (i.e., 2.35 gpm of 36% lithium chloride solution, 307,000 Btu/h firing rate), the boiler removed 153 lb/h of water from the desiccant at a gas-based efficiency of 52.9 % (which corresponds to a COP of 0.95 when a scavenging-air regenerator is added). The steam leaving the boiler, when condensed, had a solids concentration of less than 10 ppm. This low level of solids in the condensate places an upper bound of about 6 lb per year for desiccant loss from the regenerator. This low loss will not create maintenance problems nor will it significantly increase operating expenses. An energy balance on the boiler showed that heat loss through the insulated jacket was 10%. This value is much higher than the 2% to 5% that is typical of most boilers and indicates a need to better insulate the unit. With insulation that brings jacket losses down to 5%, a 1?-effect regenerator that uses this boiler as its high-temperature stage will have a gas-based COP of 1.05. The estimated cost to manufacture a 300-lb/h, 1?-effect regenerator at 500 units per year is $17,140. Unfortunately, the very high cost for natural gas that now prevails in the U.S. makes it very difficult for a gas-fired LDAC to compete against an electric vapor-compression air conditioner in HVAC applications. However, there are important industrial markets that need very dry air where the high price of natural gas will encourage the sale of a LDAC with the 1?-effect regenerator since in these markets it competes against less efficient gas-fired desiccant technologies. A manufacturer of industrial dehumidification equipment is now negotiating a sales agreement with us that would include the 1?-effect regenerator.

  12. High Level Waste Tank Closure Project at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wessman, D. L.; Quigley, K. D.

    2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is making preparations to close two underground high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and Department of Energy orders. Closure of these two tanks is scheduled for 2004 as the first phase in closure of the eleven 300,000 gallon tanks currently in service at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). The INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF) Closure sequence consists of multiple steps to be accomplished through the existing tank riser access points. Currently, the tank risers contain steam and process waste lines associated with the steam jets, corrosion coupons, and liquid level indicators. As necessary, this equipment will be removed from the risers to allow adequate space for closure equipment and activities.

  13. High Level Waste Management Division . H L W System Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet WhenHiggs Boson May| ArgonneHigh Level Waste.

  14. Binary inorganic salt mixtures as high conductivity liquid electrolytes for .100 uC fuel cells{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen

    Binary inorganic salt mixtures as high conductivity liquid electrolytes for .100 uC fuel cells cations (e.g. ammonium) as electrolytes in fuel cells operating in the temperature range 100­200 uC, where cell operating with optimized electrodes in the same temperature range, while open circuit voltages

  15. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  16. Nondestructive examination of DOE high-level waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, S.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Kassir, M.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; van Rooyen, D.; Weeks, J.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of DOE sites have buried tanks containing high-level waste. Tanks of particular interest am double-shell inside concrete cylinders. A program has been developed for the inservice inspection of the primary tank containing high-level waste (HLW), for testing of transfer lines and for the inspection of the concrete containment where possible. Emphasis is placed on the ultrasonic examination of selected areas of the primary tank, coupled with a leak-detection system capable of detecting small leaks through the wall of the primary tank. The NDE program is modelled after ASME Section XI in many respects, particularly with respects to the sampling protocol. Selected testing of concrete is planned to determine if there has been any significant degradation. The most probable failure mechanisms are corrosion-related so that the examination program gives major emphasis to possible locations for corrosion attack.

  17. Evaluation of interim and final waste forms for the newly generated liquid low-level waste flowsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abotsi, G.M.K. [Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States); Bostick, D.T.; Beck, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the final forms that have been proposed for radioactive-containing solid wastes and to determine their application to the solid wastes that will result from the treatment of newly generated liquid low-level waste (NGLLLW) and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Since cesium and strontium are the predominant radionuclides in NGLLLW and MVST supernate, this review is focused on the stabilization and solidification of solid wastes containing these radionuclides in cement, glass, and polymeric materials-the principal waste forms that have been tested with these types of wastes. Several studies have shown that both cesium and strontium are leached by distilled water from solidified cement, although the leachabilities of cesium are generally higher than those of strontium under similar conditions. The situation is exacerbated by the presence of sulfates in the solution, as manifested by cracking of the grout. Additives such as bentonite, blast-furnace slag, fly ash, montmorillonite, pottery clay, silica, and zeolites generally decrease the cesium and strontium release rates. Longer cement curing times (>28 d) and high ionic strengths of the leachates, such as those that occur in seawater, also decrease the leach rates of these radionuclides. Lower cesium leach rates are observed from vitrified wastes than from grout waste forms. However, significant quantities of cesium are volatilized due to the elevated temperatures required to vitrify the waste. Hence, vitrification will generally require the use of cleanup systems for the off-gases to prevent their release into the atmosphere.

  18. Design and operating features of the high-level waste vitrification system for the West Valley demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siemens, D.H.; Beary, M.M.; Barnes, S.M.; Berger, D.N.; Brouns, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.; Jones, R.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

    1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melter system is the reference process for immobilization of the high-level liquid waste in the US and several foreign countries. This system has been under development for over ten years at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and other national laboratories operated for the US Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributed to this research through its Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and used applicable data to design and test melters and related systems using remote handling of simulated radioactive wastes. This report describes the equipment designed in support of the high-level waste vitrification program at West Valley, New York. Pacific Northwest Laboratory worked closely with West Valley Nuclear Services Company to design a liquid-fed ceramic melter, a liquid waste preparation and feed tank and pump, an off-gas treatment scrubber, and an enclosed turntable for positioning the waste canisters. Details of these designs are presented including the rationale for the design features and the alternatives considered.

  19. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  20. Operation of a high purity germanium crystal in liquid argon as a Compton suppressed radiation spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John L. Orrell; Craig E. Aalseth; John F. Amsbaugh; Peter J. Doe; Todd W. Hossbach

    2006-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A high purity germanium crystal was operated in liquid argon as a Compton suppressed radiation spectrometer. Spectroscopic quality resolution of less than 1% of the full-width half maximum of full energy deposition peaks was demonstrated. The construction of the small apparatus used to obtain these results is reported. The design concept is to use the liquid argon bath to both cool the germanium crystal to operating temperatures and act as a scintillating veto. The scintillation light from the liquid argon can veto cosmic-rays, external primordial radiation, and gamma radiation that does not fully deposit within the germanium crystal. This technique was investigated for its potential impact on ultra-low background gamma-ray spectroscopy. This work is based on a concept initially developed for future germanium-based neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments.

  1. Fabrication and Response of High Concentration SIMPLE Superheated Droplet Detectors with Different Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combined measurement of dark matter interactions with different superheated liquids has recently been suggested as a cross-correlation technique in identifying WIMP candidates. We describe the fabrication of high concentration superheated droplet detectors based on the light nuclei liquids C3F8, C4F8, C4F10 and CCl2F2, and investigation of their irradiation response with respect to C2ClF5. The results are discussed in terms of the basic physics of superheated liquid response to particle interactions, as well as the necessary detector qualifications for application in dark matter search investigations. The possibility of heavier nuclei SDDs is explored using the light nuclei results as a basis, with CF3I provided as an example.

  2. Reconfigurable liquid metal based terahertz metamaterials via selective erasure and refilling to the unit cell level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jinqi; Liu, Shuchang; Nahata, Ajay, E-mail: ajay.nahata@utah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Guruswamy, Sivaraman [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)] [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a technique for selectively erasing and refilling unit cells of terahertz (THz) metamaterials. The structures are formed by injecting eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn), a liquid metal at room temperature, into microchannels within a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold fabricated using conventional soft lithography techniques. The thin oxide layer that forms on the surface of EGaIn can be locally dissolved via exposure to hydrochloric acid (HCl) introduced at the surface of the gas permeable PDMS mold. In the absence of the oxide skin, the liquid metal retracts to a position where a stable new oxide layer can be formed, effectively erasing the liquid metal structure in the presence of HCl. After erasing selected structures, EGaIn can be re-injected into microchannels to yield the initial structure. In the case of small unit cells, we show that mechanical pressure can be used to effectively erase individual elements. We use THz time-domain spectroscopy to characterize the distinct transmission properties for each of these different structures.

  3. Comparison of selected foreign plans and practices for spent fuel and high-level waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Hazelton, R.F.; Bradley, D.J.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the major parameters for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes in selected foreign countries as of December 1989 and compares them with those in the United States. The foreign countries included in this study are Belgium, Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All the countries are planning for disposal of spent fuel and/or high-level wastes in deep geologic repositories. Most countries (except Canada and Sweden) plan to reprocess their spent fuel and vitrify the resultant high-level liquid wastes; in comparison, the US plans direct disposal of spent fuel. The US is planning to use a container for spent fuel as the primary engineered barrier. The US has the most developed repository concept and has one of the earliest scheduled repository startup dates. The repository environment presently being considered in the US is unique, being located in tuff above the water table. The US also has the most prescriptive regulations and performance requirements for the repository system and its components. 135 refs., 8 tabs.

  4. Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

  5. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by closure operations. Subsequent down selection was based on compressive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity results. Fresh slurry property results were used as the first level of screening. A high range water reducing admixture and a viscosity modifying admixture were used to adjust slurry properties to achieve flowable grouts. Adiabatic calorimeter results were used as the second level screening. The third level of screening was used to design mixes that were consistent with the fill material parameters used in the F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment which was developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closures.

  6. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  7. Spanish high level radioactive waste management system issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulibarri, A.; Veganzones, A. [ENRESA, Madrid (Spain)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuous Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 as a state-owned limited liability company to be responsible for the management of all kinds of radioactive wastes in Spain. This paper provides an overview of the strategy and main lines of action stated in the third General Radioactive Waste Plan, currently in force, for the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level wastes, as well as an outline of the main related projects, either being developed or foreseen. Aspects concerning the organizational structure, the economic and financing system and the international co-operational are also included.

  8. High Level Waste Corporate Board Charter | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of Energy CompletingPresented By:DanielHigh

  9. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities- High and Intermediate Level Shielded

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat is abigpresentedMetal HydrideHigh

  10. High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halfon, S. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel) and Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Feinberg, G. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel) and Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel)

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

  11. High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calmus, R.B.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program`s (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of the HWVP design. The increased capacity requirements for the HLW vitrification plant`s melter prompted the assessment of candidate high-capacity HLW melter technologies to determine the most viable candidates and the required development and testing (D and T) focus required to select the Hanford Site HLW vitrification plant melter system. An assessment process was developed in early 1994. This document describes the assessment team, roles of team members, the phased assessment process and results, resulting recommendations, and the implementation strategy.

  12. Vitrification and testing of a Hanford high-level waste sample. Part 1: Glass fabrication, and chemical and radiochemical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Bates, Derrick J.; Bredt, Paul; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Smith, H D.

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford radioactive tank waste will be separated into low-activity waste and high-level waste that will both be vitrified into borosilicate glasses. To demonstrate the feasibility of vitrification and the durability of the high-level waste glass, a high-level waste sample from Tank AZ-101 was processed to glass in a hot cell and analyzed with respect to chemical composition, radionuclide content, waste loading, and the presence of crystalline phases and then tested for leachability. The glass was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ? energy spectrometry, ? spectrometry, and liquid scintillation counting. The WISE Uranium Project calculator was used to calculate the main sources of radioactivity to the year 3115. The observed crystallinity and the results of leachability testing of the glass will be reported in Part 2 of this paper.

  13. Accelerated Weathering of High-Level and Plutonium-bearing Lanthanide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weathering of High-Level and Plutonium-bearing Lanthanide Borosilicate Waste Glasses under Hydraulically Unsaturated Accelerated Weathering of High-Level and Plutonium-bearing...

  14. Development and deployment of advanced corrosion monitoring systems for high-level waste tanks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry, M. T. (Michael T.); Edgemon, G. L. (Glenn L.); Mickalonis, J. I. (John I.); Mizia, R. E. (Ronald E.)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of a collaborative technology development program, sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area, to use electrochemical noise (EN) for corrosion monitoring in underground storage tanks. These tanks, made of carbon or stainless steels, contain high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) generated by weapons production or radioactive liquid waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The term EN is used to describe low frequency fluctuations in current and voltage measurements associated with corrosion. In their most basic form, EN-based corrosion monitoring systems measure and record these fluctuations over time from electrodes immersed in the environment of interest - in this case, radioactive tank waste. The resulting EN signals have characteristic patterns for different corrosion mechanisms. In recent years, engineers and scientists from several DOE sites, in collaboration with several private companies, have conducted laboratory studies and field applications to correlate the EN signals with corrosion mechanisms active in the radioactive waste tanks. The participating DOE sites are Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge Reservation and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The commercial vendors have included HiLine Engineering and Fabrication, Inc., EIC Laboratories, Inc., and M A Technologies. Successful deployment of the EN technology will yield improved information of waste tank corrosion conditions, better tank management, and lower overall cost.

  15. Development and Deployment of Advanced Corrosion Monitoring Systems for High-Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry, M. T.; Edgemon, G. L.; Mickalonis, J. I.; Mizia, R. E.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of a collaborative technology development program, sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area, to use electrochemical noise (EN) for corrosion monitoring in underground storage tanks. These tanks, made of carbon or stainless steels, contain high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) generated by weapons production or radioactive liquid waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The term EN is used to describe low frequency fluctuations in current and voltage measurements associated with corrosion. In their most basic form, EN-based corrosion monitoring systems measure and record these fluctuations over time from electrodes immersed in the environment of interest--in this case, radioactive tank waste. The resulting EN signals have characteristic patterns for different corrosion mechanisms. In recent years, engineers and scientists from several DOE sites, in collaboration with several private companies, have conducted laboratory studies and field applications to correlate the EN signals with corrosion mechanisms active in the radioactive waste tanks. The participating DOE sites are Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge Reservation and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The commercial vendors have included HiLine Engineering and Fabrication, Inc., EIC Laboratories, Inc., and AEA Technologies. Successful deployment of the EN technology will yield improved information of waste tank corrosion conditions, better tank management, and lower overall cost.

  16. Liquid scintillator for 2D dosimetry for high-energy photon beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poenisch, Falk; Archambault, Louis; Briere, Tina Marie; Sahoo, Narayan; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam; Gillin, Michael T. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard., Unit 94, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex radiation therapy techniques require dosimetric verification of treatment planning and delivery. The authors investigated a liquid scintillator (LS) system for application for real-time high-energy photon beam dosimetry. The system was comprised of a transparent acrylic tank filled with liquid scintillating material, an opaque outer tank, and a CCD camera. A series of images was acquired when the tank with liquid scintillator was irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam, and the light data measured with the CCD camera were filtered to correct for scattering of the optical light inside the liquid scintillator. Depth-dose and lateral profiles as well as two-dimensional (2D) dose distributions were found to agree with results from the treatment planning system. Further, the corrected light output was found to be linear with dose, dose rate independent, and is robust for single or multiple acquisitions. The short time needed for image acquisition and processing could make this system ideal for fast verification of the beam characteristics of the treatment machine. This new detector system shows a potential usefulness of the LS for 2D QA.

  17. Modeling multiphase flow for high viscosity liquids: a study of vertical/inclined zero net liquid flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Jose Ramon

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conducted with superficial gas velocities ranging trom approximately 0. 100 to 4. 500 m/s, liquid viscosity from 1 to 124 cps and inclination angle from 90 to 50'. These tests yielded ZNLF liquid holdup measurements in the range of 0. 800 to 0. 040. A... is increased from horizontal, which leads to a higher slippage and liquid holdup. 38 0 900 Hte 0 800 0. 700 0 600 0 500 0 400 0 300 0. 200 + 0 100 0 000 20 80 120 140 Vtseosttt, eps e0103 ~ 0207 40413 x0827 x 1240 ~ 1654 +2067 -2894 -3720 44547...

  18. MEASUREMENTS TAKEN IN SUPPORT OF QUALIFICATION OF PROCESSING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE LOW-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE INTO SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, C.; Cozzi, A.; Staub, A.; Ray, J.

    2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Saltstone Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) immobilizes low-level liquid waste into Saltstone to be disposed of in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, Class Three Landfill. In order to meet the permit conditions and regulatory limits set by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), both the low-level salt solution and Saltstone samples are analyzed quarterly. Waste acceptance criteria (WAC) are designed to confirm the salt solution sample from the Tank Farm meets specific radioactive and chemical limits. The toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) is used to confirm that the treatment has immobilized the hazardous constituents of the salt solution. This paper discusses the methods used to characterize the salt solution and final Saltstone samples from 2007-2009.

  19. Iron under Earth's core conditions: Liquid-state thermodynamics and high-pressure melting curve from ab initio calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfè, Dario

    Hugoniot curves cross the melting line, and the sound speed and Gru¨neisen parameter along the HugoniotIron under Earth's core conditions: Liquid-state thermodynamics and high-pressure melting curve-augmented-wave implementation are used to calculate the free energy and a range of other thermodynamic properties of liquid iron

  20. High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel) [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D.; Berkovits, D.; Eliyahu, I.; Hazenshprung, N.; Mardor, I.; Nagler, A.; Shimel, G.; Silverman, I. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel)] [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Paul, M.; Friedman, M.; Tessler, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)] [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact liquid-lithium target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at the Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as neutron-producing target and beam dump by removing the beam thermal power (>5 kW, >1 MW/cm{sup 3}) with fast transport. The target was designed based on a thermal model, accompanied by a detailed calculation of the {sup 7}Li(p,n) neutron yield, energy distribution, and angular distribution. Liquid lithium is circulated through the target loop at ?200 °C and generates a stable 1.5 mm-thick film flowing at a velocity up to 7 m/s onto a concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power areal densities of >4 kW/cm{sup 2} and volume power density of ?2 MW/cm{sup 3} at a lithium flow of ?4 m/s while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. The LiLiT setup is presently in online commissioning stage for high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91–2.5 MeV, 1–2 mA) at SARAF.

  1. Tank waste remediation system high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, S.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Kim, D.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the effect of feed composition on the performance of the high-level vitrification process. It is assumed in this study that the tank wastes are retrieved and blended by tank farms, producing 12 different blends from the single-shell tank farms, two blends of double-shell tank waste, and a separately defined all-tank blend. This blending scenario was chosen only for evaluating the impact of composition on the volume of high- level waste glass produced. Special glass compositions were formulated for each waste blend based on glass property models and the properties of similar glasses. These glasses were formulated to meet the applicable viscosity, electrical conductivity, and liquidus temperature constraints for the identified candidate melters. Candidate melters in this study include the low-temperature stirred melter, which operates at 1050{degrees}C; the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant liquid-fed ceramic melter, which operates at 1150{degrees}C; and the high-temperature, joule-heated melter and the cold-crucible melter, which operate over a temperature range of 1150{degrees}C to 1400{degrees}C. In the most conservative case, it is estimated that 61,000 MT of glass will be produced if the Site`s high-level wastes are retrieved by tank farms and processed in the reference joule-heated melter. If an all-tank blend was processed under the same conditions, the reference melter would produce 21,250 MT of glass. If cross-tank blending were used, it is anticipated that $2.0 billion could be saved in repository disposal costs (based on an average disposal cost of $217,000 per canister) by blending the S, SX, B, and T Tank Farm wastes with other wastes prior to vitrification. General blending among all the tank farms is expected to produce great potential benefit.

  2. A novel concept for high conversion of coal to liquids. Final report, 1 September 1988--31 August 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, W.H.; Shabtai, J.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A batch microreactor was designed and fabricated as a means of investigating maximum yields of liquids obtainable in very short reaction times of the order of a few seconds, and the maximum ratios of liquids/hydrocarbon (HC) gases obtainable under those conditions. A Wyodak sub-bituminous coal, crushed and sieved to {minus}200 mesh particle size, was used in the experiments, with a temperature of 500{degrees}C and a pressure of 1500 psi. The fine coal particles were fed dry to the reactor and heated to reaction temperature in times of one to two seconds. At a time of 3 seconds at reaction temperature, in a single pass a liquid yield of 60% by weight of the coal was obtained, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/(HC) gases of 30/1. When the unreacted solids were recycled to the reactor, and the results combined with those of the first pass, a liquid yield of 82% by weight of the coal was achieved, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/HC gases of 30/1. This ratio represents only about 3 wt percent HC gases, much lower that is produced in current advanced technologies, and represents a large saving in hydrogen consumption. A simulated distillation technique was applied to the liquids. The liquid product contained 86% by weight (of the liquids) total distillables (boiling point below 538{degrees}C), including 70% by weight of low-boiling fractions in the gasoline, kerosene and gas oil range (boiling point up to 325{degrees}C). The liquid product exhibited a H/C ratio of 1.5, which is considerably higher than observed in current advanced technologies for the primary liquids. Several catalysts were investigated. Iron catalysts, specifically ferric chloride hexahydrate and ferric sulfate pentahydrate, each produced these high conversions and high ratios of liquids/HC gases.

  3. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  4. 4.5 Meter high level waste canister study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calmus, R. B.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Storage and Disposal Project has established the Immobilized High-Level Waste (IBLW) Storage Sub-Project to provide the capability to store Phase I and II BLW products generated by private vendors. A design/construction project, Project W-464, was established under the Sub-Project to provide the Phase I capability. Project W-464 will retrofit the Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB) to accommodate the Phase I I-ILW products. Project W-464 conceptual design is currently being performed to interim store 3.0 m-long BLW stainless steel canisters with a 0.61 in diameter, DOE is considering using a 4.5 in canister of the same diameter to reduce permanent disposal costs. This study was performed to assess the impact of replacing the 3.0 in canister with the 4.5 in canister. The summary cost and schedule impacts are described.

  5. PID Performance in the LHCb High Level Trigger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benson, S

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LHCb High Level Trigger (HLT) incorporates RICH particle identification (PID) calculations that are designed to be faster than those used for the offline reconstruction, which is necessary due to the timing constraints imposed on the HLT. The performance of this faster calculation has been evaluated using $B^+ \\to \\overline{D}^0\\pi^+$ events recorded during 2011 data taking and compared against the performance of the offline calculation. The time taken to calculate PID information in the HLT has been measured both for the configuration used in Run 1, and for configurations approaching that used offline. Similar overall efficiency and misidentification performance is seen in the configurations used offline and in the HLT, though the raw values of PID variables can differ substantially for a given candidate.

  6. High {sup 222}Rn levels, enhanced plateout, increased diffusion coefficient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, B.E.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In a previous study of plateout and resuspension effects for {sup 222}Rn progeny, an unexpected suppression of the airborne {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po levels, which is total unrelated and not predicted by theory or other works, was observed when high {sup 222}Rn concentrations were utilized in a 0.283-m{sup 3} test chamber. Two separate time-dependent methods were used and are reported here to measure this airborne progeny suppression effect to attempt to possibly determine the magnitude and cause of the effect and possible consequences on prior and current ongoing radon research by others. The earlier buildup method was used to observe the buildup phase of {sup 222} Rn and its daughters from a constant emanation source, a constant air change rate (ACH), and initially zero concentrations Rn and progeny. The data were compared with theory using Leonard`s solutions to the Bateman equations to determine the magnitude of the suppression. The second method, referred to as the {open_quotes}down{close_quotes} method, was to measure the decrease in {sup 222}Rn and progeny concentrations from an initially injected high {sup 222}Rn activity concentration in the test chamber, the decrease resulting from a constant ACH of {approximately}0.1 h{sup -1} imposed by the gradual removal of air from the chamber at a constant rate of {approximately}0.5 l/min. No {sup 222}Rn emanation source was present during the second method after the initial injection so that the level of the {sup 222}Rn underwent a monotonic decrease in concentration.

  7. Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter high-level waste solidification technical manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, D.E. (ed.)

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical manual summarizes process and equipment technology developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory over the last 20 years for vitrification of high-level liquid waste by the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process. Pacific Northwest Laboratory experience includes process development and demonstration in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale equipment using nonradioactive synthetic wastes. Also, laboratory- and pilot-scale process demonstrations have been conducted using actual high-level radioactive wastes. In the course of process development, more than 26 tonnes of borosilicate glass have been produced in 75 canisters. Four of these canisters contained radioactive waste glass. The associated process and glass chemistry is discussed. Technology areas described include calciner feed treatment and techniques, calcination, vitrification, off-gas treatment, glass containment (the canister), and waste glass chemistry. Areas of optimization and site-specific development that would be needed to adapt this base technology for specific plant application are indicated. A conceptual Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter system design and analyses are provided in the manual to assist prospective users in evaluating the process for plant application, to provide equipment design information, and to supply information for safety analyses and environmental reports. The base (generic) technology for the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process has been developed to a point at which it is ready for plant application.

  8. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, Thomas T. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  9. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  10. Kinetics of Conversion of High-level Waste to Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izak, Pavel (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Hrma, Pavel R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Schweiger, Michael J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Heineman, W.R.; Eller, P.G.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics of the conversion of high-level waste (HLW) feed to glass controls the rate of HLW processing. Simulated HLW feed and low silica - high sodium (LSHS) feed with co-precipitated Fe, Ni, Cr, and Mn hydroxides (to simulate the chemical and physical makeup of these components in the melter feed) were heated at constant temperature increase rates (0.4, 4, and 14?C/min), quenched at different stages of conversion, and analyzed with optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Quartz, sodium nitrate, carnegieite (Na8Al4Si4O18), sodalite (Na8(AlSiO4)6(NO2)2), and spinel were identified in the samples. Mass fractions of these phases were determined as functions of the temperature and the heating rate. The fractions of nitrates and quartz decreased with increasing temperature, starting above 550?C and dropping to zero at 850?C. Spinel was present in the feed within the temperature interval from 350?C to 1050?C, peaking between 550 and 700?C. Sodalite (in HLW feed) and carnegieite (in LSHS feed) formed at temperatures above 600?C and then began to dissolve. TGA and DSC were use to determine the mass loss and the conversion heat as functions of temperature and heating rate and were compared with the reaction progress reached in quenched samples.

  11. High level waste facilities -- Continuing operation or orderly shutdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, L.A.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two options for Environmental Impact Statement No action alternatives describe operation of the radioactive liquid waste facilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The first alternative describes continued operation of all facilities as planned and budgeted through 2020. Institutional control for 100 years would follow shutdown of operational facilities. Alternatively, the facilities would be shut down in an orderly fashion without completing planned activities. The facilities and associated operations are described. Remaining sodium bearing liquid waste will be converted to solid calcine in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) or will be left in the waste tanks. The calcine solids will be stored in the existing Calcine Solids Storage Facilities (CSSF). Regulatory and cost impacts are discussed.

  12. High-resolution calorimetric study of the nematic to smectic- A transition in aligned liquid crystal–aerosil gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garland, Carl W.

    High-resolution ac calorimetry has been used to study the nematic to smectic-A (N-SmA) phase transition in the liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB) confined in aligned colloidal aerosil gels. A stable and robust nematic ...

  13. Cementitious Grout for Closing SRS High Level Waste Tanks - 12315

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.A.; Stefanko, D.B.; Burns, H.H. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States); Waymer, J.; Mhyre, W.B. [URS Quality and Testing (United States); Herbert, J.E.; Jolly, J.C. Jr. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. Ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks will also be filled to the extent practical. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and to be chemically reducing with a reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400. Grouts with this chemistry stabilize potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted to support the mass placement strategy developed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Closure Operations. Subsequent down selection was based on compressive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity results. Fresh slurry property results were used as the first level of screening. A high range water reducing admixture and a viscosity modifying admixture were used to adjust slurry properties to achieve flowable grouts. Adiabatic calorimeter results were used as the second level screening. The third level of screening was used to design mixes that were consistent with the fill material parameters used in the F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment which was developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closures. The cement and slag contents of a mix selected for filling Tanks 18-F and 19-F should be limited to no more than 125 and 210 lbs/cyd, respectively, to limit the heat generated as the result of hydration reaction during curing and thereby enable mass pour placement. Trial mixes with water to total cementitious materials ratios of 0.550 to 0.580 and 125 lbs/cyd of cement and 210 lbs/cyd of slag met the strength and permeability requirements. Mix LP no.8-16 was selected for closing SRS Tanks 18-F and 19-F because it meets or exceeds the design requirements with the least amount of Portland cement and blast furnace slag. This grout is expected to flow at least 45 feet. A single point of discharge should be sufficient for unrestricted flow conditions. However, additional entry points should be identified as back-up in case restrictions in the tank impede flow. The LP no.8 series of trial mixes had surprisingly high design compressive strengths (2000 to 4000/5000 psi) which were achieved at extended curing times (28 to 90 days, respectively) given the small amount of Portland cement in the mixes (100 to 185 lbs/cyd). The grouts were flowable structural fills containing 3/8 inch gravel and concrete sand aggregate. These grouts did not segregate and require no compaction. They have low permeabilities (? 10{sup -9} cm/s) and are consequen

  14. Atomic Level Green-Kubo Stress Correlation Function for a Model Crystal: An Insight into Molecular Dynamics Results on a Model Liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Levashov

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to get insight into the connection between the vibrational dynamics and the atomic level Green-Kubo stress correlation function in liquids we consider this connection in a model crystal instead. Of course, vibrational dynamics in liquids and crystals are quite different and it is not expected that the results obtained on a model crystal should be valid for liquids. However, these considerations provide a benchmark to which the results of the previous molecular dynamics simulations can be compared. Thus, assuming that vibrations are plane waves, we derive analytical expressions for the atomic level stress correlation functions in the classical limit and analyze them. These results provide, in particular, a recipe for analysis of the atomic level stress correlation functions in Fourier space and extraction of the wavevector and frequency dependent information. We also evaluate the energies of the atomic level stresses. Obtained energies are significantly smaller than the energies that were obtained in MD simulations of liquids previously. This result suggests that the average energies of the atomic level stresses in liquids and glasses are largely determined by the structural disorder. We discuss this result in the context of equipartition of the atomic level stress energies. Analysis of the previously published data suggests that it is possible to speak about configurational and vibrational contributions to the average energies of the atomic level stresses in a glass state. However, this separation in a liquid state is problematic. We also consider peak broadening in the pair distribution function with increase of distance. We find that peak broadening (by ~40%) occurs due to the transverse vibrational modes, while contribution from the longitudinal modes does not change with distance. Finally, we introduce and consider atomic level transverse current correlation function.

  15. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  16. Savannah River Site Probabilistic Risk Assessment high-level review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has been performed by a review committee organized by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor, EG&G Idaho, Inc. The High-Level Peer Review Committee (referred to as ``the Committee`` in this report) members are identified in Section 2. The main purpose of the review has been to provide assurance that the SRS PRA is responsive to safety issues associated with the restart and continued operation of the Savannah River reactors. The Committee members are all experienced practitioners of PRA, and several of the members have been deeply involved In a concurrent, detailed review of the SRS PRA. Source material and expertise available to the Committee included the SRS PRA document itself issued August 31. 1989, and Interaction with key PRA and plant experts at both the Savannah River Site and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), who had performed an independent PRA evaluation of the SRS K-reactor. The cooperation and support received from those connected with the review were outstanding.

  17. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendel, J.E. (compiler)

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

  18. Glass formulation for phase 1 high-level waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, J.D.; Hrma, P.R.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to provide potential glass formulations for prospective Phase 1 High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification at Hanford. The results reported here will be used to aid in developing a Phase 1 HLW vitrification request for proposal (RFP) and facilitate the evaluation of ensuing proposals. The following factors were considered in the glass formulation effort: impact on total glass volume of requiring the vendor to process each of the tank compositions independently versus as a blend; effects of imposing typical values of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and waste loading in HLW borosilicate glasses as restrictions on the vendors (according to WAPS 1995, the typical values are 5--10 wt% B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 20--40 wt% waste oxide loading); impacts of restricting the processing temperature to 1,150 C on eventual glass volume; and effects of caustic washing on any of the selected tank wastes relative to glass volume.

  19. Knudsen-Hydrodynamic Crossover in Liquid 3He in High Porosity Aerogel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takeuchi, H; Nagai, K; Choi, H C; Moon, B H; Masuhara, N; Meisel, M W; Lee, Y; Mulders, N

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the drag force acting on a high porosity aerogel immersed in liquid ${}^3$He and its effect on sound propagation. The drag force is characterized by the Knudsen number, which is defined as the ratio of the quasiparticle mean free path to the radius of an aerogel strand. Evidence of the Knudsen-hydrodynamic crossover is clearly demonstrated by a drastic change in the temperature dependence of ultrasound attenuation in 98% porosity aerogel. Our theoretical analysis shows that the frictional sound damping caused by the drag force is governed by distinct laws in the two regimes, providing excellent agreement with the experimental observation.

  20. High-throughput liquid-absorption air-sampling apparatus and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon (95706 William Dr., Hinsdale, IL 60521)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler [PHTLAAS] has an asymmetric air inlet through which air is drawn upward by a small and light-weight centrifugal fan driven by a direct current motor that can be powered by a battery. The air inlet is so configured as to impart both rotational and downward components of motion to the sampled air near said inlet. The PHTLAAS comprises a glass tube of relatively small size through which air passes at a high rate in a swirling, highly turbulent motion, which facilitates rapid transfer of vapors and particulates to a liquid film covering the inner walls of the tube. The pressure drop through the glass tube is <10 cm of water, usually <5 cm of water. The sampler's collection efficiency is usually >20% for vapors or airborne particulates in the 2-3.mu. range and >50% for particles larger than 4.mu.. In conjunction with various analyzers, the PHTLAAS can serve to monitor a variety of hazardous or illicit airborne substances, such as lead-containing particulates, tritiated water vapor, biological aerosols, or traces of concealed drugs or explosives.

  1. Qualification of Innovative High Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, D.; Gokaltun, S.; Varona, J.; Awwad, A.; Roelant, D.; Srivastava, R. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past, some of the pipelines have plugged during high level waste (HLW) transfers resulting in schedule delays and increased costs. Furthermore, pipeline plugging has been cited by the 'best and brightest' technical review as one of the major issues that can result in unplanned outages at the Waste Treatment Plant causing inconsistent operation. As the DOE moves toward a more active high level waste retrieval, the site engineers will be faced with increasing cross-site pipeline waste slurry transfers that will result in increased probability of a pipeline getting plugged. Hence, availability of a pipeline unplugging tool/technology is crucial to ensure smooth operation of the waste transfers and in ensuring tank farm cleanup milestones are met. FIU had earlier tested and evaluated various unplugging technologies through an industry call. Based on mockup testing, two technologies were identified that could withstand the rigors of operation in a radioactive environment and with the ability to handle sharp 90 elbows. We present results of the second phase of detailed testing and evaluation of pipeline unplugging technologies and the objective is to qualify these pipeline unplugging technologies for subsequent deployment at a DOE facility. The current phase of testing and qualification comprises of a heavily instrumented 3-inch diameter (full-scale) pipeline facilitating extensive data acquisition for design optimization and performance evaluation, as it applies to three types of plugs atypical of the DOE HLW waste. Furthermore, the data from testing at three different lengths of pipe in conjunction with the physics of the process will assist in modeling the unplugging phenomenon that will then be used to scale-up process parameters and system variables for longer and site typical pipe lengths, which can extend as much as up to 19,000 ft. Detailed information resulting from the testing will provide the DOE end-user with sufficient data and understanding of the technology, and its limitations to aid in the benefit-cost analysis for management decision whether to deploy the technology or to abandon the pipeline as has been done in the past. In conclusion: The ultimate objective of this study is to qualify NuVision's unplugging technology for use at Hanford. Experimental testing has been conducted using three pipeline lengths and three types of blockages. Erosion rates have been obtained and pressure data is being analyzed. An amplification of the inlet pressure has been observed along the pipeline and is the key to determining up to what pipe lengths the technology can be used without surpassing the site pressure limit. In addition, we will attempt to establish what the expected unplugging rates will be at the longer pipe lengths for each of the three blockages tested. Detailed information resulting from the testing will provide the DOE end-user with sufficient data and understanding of the technology, and its limitations so that management decisions can be made whether the technology has a reasonable chance to successfully unplug a pipeline, such as a cross site transfer line or process transfer pipeline at the Waste Treatment Plant. (authors)

  2. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  3. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.C. Richardson

    2003-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, Yucca Mountain was designated as the site to be investigated as a potential repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain site is an undeveloped area located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The site currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way. If the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for the repository, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) Program because of the potential of rail transportation to reduce costs and to reduce the number of shipments relative to highway transportation. A Preliminary Rail Access Study evaluated 13 potential rail spur options. Alternative routes within the major options were also developed. Each of these options was then evaluated for potential land use conflicts and access to regional rail carriers. Three potential routes having few land use conflicts and having access to regional carriers were recommended for further investigation. Figure 1-1 shows these three routes. The Jean route is estimated to be about 120 miles long, the Carlin route to be about 365 miles long, and Caliente route to be about 365 miles long. The remaining ten routes continue to be monitored and should any of the present conflicts change, a re-evaluation of that route will be made. Complete details of the evaluation of the 13 routes can be found in the previous study. The DOE has not identified any preferred route and recognizes that the transportation issues need a full and open treatment under the National Environmental Policy Act. The issue of transportation will be included in public hearings to support development of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) proceedings for either the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility or the Yucca Mountain Project or both.

  4. High-level waste issues and resolutions document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-Level Waste (HLW) Issues and Resolutions Document recognizes US Department of Energy (DOE) complex-wide HLW issues and offers potential corrective actions for resolving these issues. Westinghouse Management and Operations (M&O) Contractors are effectively managing HLW for the Department of Energy at four sites: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), and Hanford Reservation. Each site is at varying stages of processing HLW into a more manageable form. This HLW Issues and Resolutions Document identifies five primary issues that must be resolved in order to reach the long-term objective of HLW repository disposal. As the current M&O contractor at DOE`s most difficult waste problem sites, Westinghouse recognizes that they have the responsibility to help solve some of the complexes` HLW problems in a cost effective manner by encouraging the M&Os to work together by sharing expertise, eliminating duplicate efforts, and sharing best practices. Pending an action plan, Westinghouse M&Os will take the initiative on those corrective actions identified as the responsibility of an M&O. This document captures issues important to the management of HLW. The proposed resolutions contained within this document set the framework for the M&Os and DOE work cooperatively to develop an action plan to solve some of the major complex-wide problems. Dialogue will continue between the M&Os, DOE, and other regulatory agencies to work jointly toward the goal of storing, treating, and immobilizing HLW for disposal in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost effective manner.

  5. Level 1 Tornado PRA for the High Flux Beam Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozoki, G.E.; Conrad, C.S.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a risk analysis primarily directed at providing an estimate for the frequency of tornado induced damage to the core of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), and thus it constitutes a Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) covering tornado induced accident sequences. The basic methodology of the risk analysis was to develop a ``tornado specific`` plant logic model that integrates the internal random hardware failures with failures caused externally by the tornado strike and includes operator errors worsened by the tornado modified environment. The tornado hazard frequency, as well as earlier prepared structural and equipment fragility data, were used as input data to the model. To keep modeling/calculational complexity as simple as reasonable a ``bounding`` type, slightly conservative, approach was applied. By a thorough screening process a single dominant initiating event was selected as a representative initiator, defined as: ``Tornado Induced Loss of Offsite Power.`` The frequency of this initiator was determined to be 6.37E-5/year. The safety response of the HFBR facility resulted in a total Conditional Core Damage Probability of .621. Thus, the point estimate of the HFBR`s Tornado Induced Core Damage Frequency (CDF) was found to be: (CDF){sub Tornado} = 3.96E-5/year. This value represents only 7.8% of the internal CDF and thus is considered to be a small contribution to the overall facility risk expressed in terms of total Core Damage Frequency. In addition to providing the estimate of (CDF){sub Tornado}, the report documents, the relative importance of various tornado induced system, component, and operator failures that contribute most to (CDF){sub Tornado}.

  6. High-Level Waste Systems Plan. Revision 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooke, J.N.; Gregory, M.V.; Paul, P.; Taylor, G.; Wise, F.E.; Davis, N.R.; Wells, M.N.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revision of the High-Level Waste (HLW) System Plan aligns SRS HLW program planning with the DOE Savannah River (DOE-SR) Ten Year Plan (QC-96-0005, Draft 8/6), which was issued in July 1996. The objective of the Ten Year Plan is to complete cleanup at most nuclear sites within the next ten years. The two key principles of the Ten Year Plan are to accelerate the reduction of the most urgent risks to human health and the environment and to reduce mortgage costs. Accordingly, this System Plan describes the HLW program that will remove HLW from all 24 old-style tanks, and close 20 of those tanks, by 2006 with vitrification of all HLW by 2018. To achieve these goals, the DWPF canister production rate is projected to climb to 300 canisters per year starting in FY06, and remain at that rate through the end of the program in FY18, (Compare that to past System Plans, in which DWPF production peaked at 200 canisters per year, and the program did not complete until 2026.) An additional $247M (FY98 dollars) must be made available as requested over the ten year planning period, including a one-time $10M to enhance Late Wash attainment. If appropriate resources are made available, facility attainment issues are resolved and regulatory support is sufficient, then completion of the HLW program in 2018 would achieve a $3.3 billion cost savings to DOE, versus the cost of completing the program in 2026. Facility status information is current as of October 31, 1996.

  7. Primary Research Paper Untangling the confounding effects of urbanization and high water level on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMaster University

    Primary Research Paper Untangling the confounding effects of urbanization and high water level form 1 December 2004; accepted 15 December 2004 Key words: multiple stressors, water level

  8. Engineering assessment of low-level liquid waste disposal caisson locations at the 618-11 Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S.J.; Fischer, D.D.; Crawford, R.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Rising, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rockwell Hanford Operations is currently involved in an extensive effort to perform interim ground surface stabilization activities at retired low-level waste burial grounds located at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The principal objective of these activities is to promote increased occupational and radiological safety at burial grounds. Interim stabilization activities include: (1) load testing (traversing burial ground surfaces with heavy equipment to promote incipient collapse of void spaces within the disposal structure and overburden), (2) barrier placement (placement of a {ge} 0.6 m soil barrier over existing overburden), and (3) revegetation (establishment of shallow rooted vegetation on the barrier to mitigate deep rooted plant growth and to reduce erosion). Low-level waste disposal caissons were used in 300 Area Burial Grounds as internment structures for containerized liquid wastes. These caissons, by virtue of their contents, design and methods of closure, require long-term performance evaluation. As an initial activity to evaluate long-term performance, the accurate location of these structures is required. This topical report summarizes engineering activities used to locate caissons in the subsurface environment at the Burial Ground. Activities were conducted to locate caissons during surface stabilization activities. The surface locations were marked, photographed, and recorded on an as built engineering drawing. The recorded location of these caissons will augment long-term observations of confinement structure and engineered surface barrier performance. In addition, accurate caisson location will minimize occupational risk during monitoring and observation activities periodically conducted at the burial ground.

  9. Development of low level liquid waste treatment systems: April-September 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.K.; Colvin, C.M.; Bond, W.H.

    1982-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The pilot plant reverse osmosis system was demonstrated to be effective in removing large percentages of cobalt-60, iodine-125, and a mixture of cesium-137, cobalt-60, and iodine-125 from two types of aqueous streams. The effectiveness of three membrane porosities, 0, 50, and 97% salt rejection, were explored with each isotope. The 97% salt rejection membrane was the most effective in each experiment. Removals as high as 97.5% of the cobalt, 92.9% of the iodine and 95.1% of the combined isotopes were achieved. The effect of possibly interfering factors on the adsorbence of cobalt-60 and iodine-129 on selected ion exchange resins were investigated. The factors thought to affect cobalt-60 adsorption were (OH/sup -/), (NH/sub 4//sup +/), and (SO/sub 3//sup =/). None of the seven factors investigated had any effect on iodine-129 adsorption. Cesium-137 was removed from a 4600-gal aqueous waste containing a large amount of sodium hydroxide by treatment with sodium tetraphenyl boron. The cesium concentration of the supernatant portion was reduced from 570 to 4 counts/min/ml.

  10. A high power liquid hydrogen target for the Mainz A4 parity violation experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Altarev; E. Schilling; S. Baunack; L. Capozza; J. Diefenbach; K. Grimm; Th. Hammel; D. vonHarrach; Y. Imai; E. M. Kabuss; R. Kothe; J. H. Lee; A. LopesGinja; F. E. Maas; A. SanchezLorente; G. Stephan; C. Weinrich

    2005-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new powerful liquid hydrogen target developed for the precise study of parity violating electron scattering on hydrogen and deuterium. This target has been designed to have minimal target density fluctuations under the heat load of a 20$\\mu$A CW 854.3 MeV electron beam without rastering the electron beam. The target cell has a wide aperture for scattered electrons and is axially symmetric around the beam axis. The construction is optimized to intensify heat exchange by a transverse turbulent mixing in the hydrogen stream, which is directed along the electron beam. The target is constructed as a closed loop circulating system cooled by a helium refrigerator. It is operated by a tangential mechanical pump with an optional natural convection mode. The cooling system supports up to 250 watts of the beam heating removal. Deeply subcooled liquid hydrogen is used for keeping the in-beam temperature below the boiling point. The target density fluctuations are found to be at the level 10$^{-3}$ at a beam current of 20 $\\mu$A.

  11. Development of high-waste loaded high-level nuclear waste glasses for high-temperature melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.S.; Hrma, P.; Lamar, D.A.; Elliott, M.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the approach taken in formulating glasses that can be processed at 1150 to 1500{degrees}C by applying glass property/composition models developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Compositions and melting temperatures for glasses with high waste loading that are acceptable and able to be processed were determined for two different Hanford waste types. The glasses meet high-level waste glass acceptability criteria and are suitable for processing in a continuous Joule-heated melter.

  12. Development of high-waste loaded high-level nuclear waste glasses for high-temperature melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.S.; Hrma, P.R.; Lamar, D.A.; Elliott, M.L.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the approach taken in formulating glasses that can be processed at 1150 to 1500{degrees}C by applying glass property/composition models developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Compositions and melting temperatures for glasses with high waste loading that are acceptable and able to be processed were determined for two different Hanford waste types. The glasses meet high-level waste glass acceptability criteria and are suitable for processing in a continuous Joule-heated melter.

  13. HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK CLOSURE PROJECT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quigley, K.D.; Wessman, D

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is in the process of closing two underground high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and Department of Energy orders. Closure of these two tanks is scheduled for 2004 as the first phase in closure of the eleven 1.14 million liter (300,000 gallon) tanks currently in service at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). The INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF) Closure sequence consists of multiple steps to be accomplished through the existing tank riser access points. Currently, the tank risers contain steam and process waste lines associated with the steam jets, corrosion coupons, and liquid level indicators. As necessary, this equipment will be removed from the risers to allow adequate space for closure equipment and activities. The basic tank closure sequence is as follows: Empty the tank to the residual heel using the existing jets; Video and sample the heel; Replace steam jets with new jet at a lower position in the tank, and remove additional material; Flush tank, piping and secondary containment with demineralized water; Video and sample the heel; Evaluate decontamination effectiveness; Displace the residual heel with multiple placements of grout; and Grout piping, vaults and remaining tank volume. Design, development, and deployment of a remotely operated tank cleaning system were completed in June 2002. The system incorporates many commercially available components, which have been adapted for application in cleaning high-level waste tanks. The system is cost-effective since it also utilizes existing waste transfer technology (steam jets), to remove tank heel solids from the tank bottoms during the cleaning operations. Remotely operated directional spray nozzles, automatic rotating wash balls, video monitoring equipment, decontamination spray-rings, and tank -specific access interface devices have been integrated to provide a system that efficiently cleans tank walls and heel solids in an acidic, radioactive environment. Through the deployment of the tank cleaning system, the INEEL High Level Waste Program has cleaned tanks to meet RCRA clean closure standards and DOE closure performance measures. Design, development, and testing of tank grouting delivery equipment were completed in October 2002. The system incorporates lessons learned from closures at other DOE facilities. The grout will be used to displace the tank residuals remaining after the cleaning is complete. To maximize heel displacement to the discharge pump, grout was placed in a sequence of five positions utilizing two riser locations. The project is evaluating the use of six positions to optimize the residuals removed. After the heel has been removed and the residuals stabilized, the tank, piping, and secondary containment will be grouted.

  14. Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

  15. An international initiative on long-term behavior of high-level...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    international initiative on long-term behavior of high-level nuclear waste glass. An international initiative on long-term behavior of high-level nuclear waste glass. Abstract:...

  16. Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF)...

  17. Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and...

  18. Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt This report...

  19. Low-Afterglow, High-Refractive-Index Liquid Scintillators for Fast-Neutron Spectrometry and Imaging Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lauck, Ronald; Bromberger, Benjamin; Dangendorf, Volker; Goldberg, Mark B; Mor, Ilan; Tittelmeier, Kai; Vartsky, David

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For ion and neutron spectrometry and imaging applications at a high intensity pulsed laser facility, fast liquid scintillators with very low afterglow are required. Furthermore, neutron imaging with fiber (or liquid-core) capillary arrays calls for scintillation materials with high refractive index. To this end, we have examined various combinations of established mixtures of fluors and solvents, that were enriched alternatively with nitrogen or oxygen. Dissolved molecular oxygen is known to be a highly effective quenching agent, that efficiently suppresses the population of the triplet states in the fluor, which are primarily responsible for the afterglow. For measuring the glow curves of scintillators, we have employed the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) technique, characterized by high dynamic range of several orders of magnitude in light intensity. In this paper we outline the application for the fast scintillators, briefly present the scintillation mechanism in liquids, describe our specif...

  20. Low-Afterglow, High-Refractive-Index Liquid Scintillators for Fast-Neutron Spectrometry and Imaging Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronald Lauck; Michal Brandis; Benjamin Bromberger; Volker Dangendorf; Mark B. Goldberg; Ilan Mor; Kai Tittelmeier; David Vartsky

    2009-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    For ion and neutron spectrometry and imaging applications at a high intensity pulsed laser facility, fast liquid scintillators with very low afterglow are required. Furthermore, neutron imaging with fiber (or liquid-core) capillary arrays calls for scintillation materials with high refractive index. To this end, we have examined various combinations of established mixtures of fluors and solvents, that were enriched alternatively with nitrogen or oxygen. Dissolved molecular oxygen is known to be a highly effective quenching agent, that efficiently suppresses the population of the triplet states in the fluor, which are primarily responsible for the afterglow. For measuring the glow curves of scintillators, we have employed the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) technique, characterized by high dynamic range of several orders of magnitude in light intensity. In this paper we outline the application for the fast scintillators, briefly present the scintillation mechanism in liquids, describe our specific TCSPC method and discuss the results.

  1. Improved Alumina Loading in High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.; Vienna, J.D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Peeler, D.K.; Fox, K.M. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Aloy, A.; Trofimenko, A.V. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gerdes, K.D. [EM-21, Office of Waste Processing, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent tank retrieval, blending, and treatment strategies at both the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford have identified increased amounts of high-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} waste streams that are scheduled to be processed through their respective high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities. It is well known that the addition of small amounts of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to borosilicate glasses generally enhances the durability of the waste glasses. However, at higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) formation can result in a severe deterioration of the chemical durability of the slowly cooled glass near the center of the canister. Additionally, higher concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} generally increase the liquidus temperature of the melt and decrease the processing rate. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) are jointly performing laboratory and scaled-melter tests, through US Department of Energy, EM-21 Office of Waste Processing program, to develop glass formulations with increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations. These glasses are formulated for specific DOE waste compositions at Hanford and Savannah River Site. The objectives are to avoid nepheline formation while maintaining or meeting waste loading and/or waste throughput expectations as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints such as viscosity, liquidus temperature, and glass durability. This paper summarizes the results of recent tests of simulated Hanford HLW glasses containing up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in glass. In summary: Glasses with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading ranging from 25 to 27 wt% were formulated and tested at a crucible scale. Successful glass formulations with up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} that do not precipitate nepheline during CCC treatment and had spinel crystals 1 vol% or less after 24 hr heat treatment at 950 deg. C were obtained. The selected glass, HAL-17 with 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, had viscosity and electrical conductivity within the boundaries for adequate processing in the Joule heated melters operated at 1150 deg. C. This HAL-17 glass was successfully processed using small-scale (SMK) and larger scale (EP-5) melters. There was no indication of spinel settling during processing. The product glass samples from these melter tests contained 1 to 4 vol% spinel crystals that are likely formed during cooling. The PCT tests on the product glasses are underway. The present study demonstrated that it is possible to formulate the glasses with up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} that satisfy the property requirements and is processable with Joule-heated melters operated at 1150 deg. C. The 'nepheline discriminator' for HAL-17 glass is 0.45, which supports that claim that the current rule ('nepheline discriminator' < 0.62) is too restrictive. Considering that the cost of HLW treatment is highly dependent on loading of waste in glass, this result provides a potential for significant cost saving for Hanford. The maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading that can be achieved will also depend on concentrations of other components in wastes. For example, the loading of waste used in this study was also limited by the spinel crystallization after 950 deg. C 24 hr heat treatment, which suggests that the concentrations of spinel-forming components such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, ZnO, and MnO would be critical in addition to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for the maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading achievable. The observed glass production rate per unit melter surface area of 0.75 MT/(d.m{sup 2}) for SMK test is comparable to the design capacity of WTP HLW melters at 0.8 MT/(d.m{sup 2}). However, the test with EP-5 melter achieved 0.38 MT/(d.m{sup 2}), which is roughly a half of the WTP design capacity. This result may imply that the glass with 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} may not achieve the WTP design production rate. However, this hypothesis is not conclusive because of unknown effects of melter size and operation

  2. Film boiling of saturated liquid flowing upward through a heated tube : high vapor quality range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laverty, W. F.

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Film boiling of saturated liquid flowing upward through a uniformly heated tube has been studied for the case in which pure saturated liquid enters the tube and nearly saturated vapor is discharged. Since a previous study ...

  3. Helium gas bubble trapped in liquid helium in high magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, H., E-mail: bai@magnet.fsu.edu; Hannahs, S. T.; Markiewicz, W. D.; Weijers, H. W. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    High magnetic field magnets are used widely in the area of the condensed matter physics, material science, chemistry, geochemistry, and biology at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. New high field magnets of state-of-the-art are being pursued and developed at the lab, such as the current developing 32?T, 32?mm bore fully superconducting magnet. Liquid Helium (LHe) is used as the coolant for superconducting magnets or samples tested in a high magnetic field. When the magnetic field reaches a relatively high value the boil-off helium gas bubble generated by heat losses in the cryostat can be trapped in the LHe bath in the region where BzdBz/dz is less than negative 2100 T{sup 2}/m, instead of floating up to the top of LHe. Then the magnet or sample in the trapped bubble region may lose efficient cooling. In the development of the 32?T magnet, a prototype Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide coil of 6 double pancakes with an inner diameter of 40?mm and an outer diameter of 140?mm was fabricated and tested in a resistive magnet providing a background field of 15?T. The trapped gas bubble was observed in the tests when the prototype coil was ramped up to 7.5?T at a current of 200?A. This letter reports the test results on the trapped gas bubble and the comparison with the analytical results which shows they are in a good agreement.

  4. Highly tunable large-core single-mode liquid-crystal photonic bandgap fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    the possibility of infusing liquids into the fiber and this has opened up the possibility of creating tunable

  5. Development of Crystal-Tolerant High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Schaible, Micah J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Arrigoni, Alyssa L.; Tate, Rachel M.

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Twenty five glasses were formulated. They were batched from HLW AZ-101 simulant or raw chemicals and melted and tested with a series of tests to elucidate the effect of spinel-forming components (Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, and Zn), Al, and noble metals (Rh2O3 and RuO2) on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the high-level waste (HLW) melter. In addition, the processing properties of glasses, such as the viscosity and TL, were measured as a function of temperature and composition. Furthermore, the settling of spinel crystals in transparent low-viscosity fluids was studied at room temperature to access the shape factor and hindered settling coefficient of spinel crystals in the Stokes equation. The experimental results suggest that Ni is the most troublesome component of all the studied spinel-forming components producing settling layers of up to 10.5 mm in just 20 days in Ni-rich glasses if noble metals or a higher concentration of Fe was not introduced in the glass. The layer of this thickness can potentially plug the bottom of the riser, preventing glass from being discharged from the melter. The noble metals, Fe, and Al were the components that significantly slowed down or stopped the accumulation of spinel at the bottom. Particles of Rh2O3 and RuO2, hematite and nepheline, acted as nucleation sites significantly increasing the number of crystals and therefore decreasing the average crystal size. The settling rate of ?10-?m crystal size around the settling velocity of crystals was too low to produce thick layers. The experimental data for the thickness of settled layers in the glasses prepared from AZ-101 simulant were used to build a linear empirical model that can predict crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass. The developed model predicts the thicknesses of accumulated layers quite well, R2 = 0.985, and can be become an efficient tool for the formulation of the crystal-tolerant HLW glasses for higher waste loading. A physical modeling effort revealed that the Stokes and Richardson-Zaki equations can be used to adequately predict the accumulation rate of spinel crystals of different sizes and concentrations in the glass discharge riser of HLW melters. The determined shape factor for the glass beads was only 0.73% lower than the theoretical shape factor for a perfect sphere. The shape factor for the spinel crystals matched the theoretically predicted value to within 10% and was smaller than that of the beads, given the larger drag force caused by the larger surface area-to-volume ratio of the octahedral crystals. In the hindered settling experiments, both the glass bead and spinel suspensions were found to follow the predictions of the Richardson-Zaki equation with the exponent n = 3.6 and 2.9 for glass beads and spinel crystals, respectively.

  6. Heat exchanges in fast, high-performance liquid chromatography. A complete thermodynamic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritti, Fabrice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The successive physical transformations of the mobile phase that take place in very high pressure liquid chromatography were studied based on the formalism of classical thermodynamics. The eluent is initially under atmospheric pressure (P{sup 0}) and at ambient temperature (T{sub ext}). In a first step, it is compressed to a high pressure (P{sub max} of the order of 1 kbar) in the pump heads of the chromatograph. In a second step, the pressurized eluent is transferred to the inlet of the chromatographic column, along which, in a third step, it is decompressed to atmospheric pressure. Both the compression and the decompression of the fluid were considered to take place under conditions that can be either adiabatic or nonadiabatic and either reversible or irreversible. Applications of the first and second principles of thermodynamics allow the determination of the heat and energy exchanged between the eluent and the external surroundings during each transformation. Experimental data were acquired using acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The true state equation, {rho}(P, T), of liquid acetonitrile was used in the theoretical calculations. A series of four different flow rates (0.55, 0.85, 1.15, and 1.45 mL/min, corresponding to inlet pressures of 357.2, 559.5, 765.1, and 972.9 bar, respectively), were applied to a 2.1 x 100 mm column packed with 1.7-{micro}m bridged ethane-silicon hybrid particles. Thermocouples were used to measure the eluent temperature before and after its passage through the column. These data provide estimates of the variation of the internal energy of the eluent. The heat lost through the external wall of the column during the eluent decompression was estimated by measuring the surface temperature of the column tube under steady state. Both the compression and the decompression of acetonitrile were found to be nonadiabatic and irreversible transformations. The results showed that, during the eluent decompression, the heat released by the friction forces serves four different purposes: (1) it increases the eluent entropy at constant temperature (for 35%); (2) it increases the temperature of the eluent (for 5%); (3) it provides heat to the laboratory atmosphere (for 5%); and (4) it provides some work inside the column (for 5%). This quantitative heat balance description accounts well for the actual performance of the new, very high pressure liquid chromatographic technique.

  7. Statistical Description of Liquid Low-Level Waste System Transssuranic Wastes at Oak Ridge Nation Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US DOE has presented plans for processing liquid low-level wastes (LLLW) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the LLLW tank system. These wastes are among the most hazardous on the Oak Ridge reservation and exhibit both RCRA toxic and radiological hazards. The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment has mandated that the processing of these wastes must begin by the year 2002 and the the goal should be permanent disposal at a site off the Oak Ridge Reservation. To meet this schedule, DOE will solicit bids from various private sector companies for the construction of a processing facility on land located near the ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tanks to be operated by the private sector on a contract basis. This report will support the Request for Proposal process and will give potential vendors information about the wastes contained in the ORNL tank farm system. The report consolidates current data about the properties and composition of these wastes and presents methods to calculate the error bounds of the data in the best technically defensible manner possible. The report includes information for only the tank waste that is to be included in the request for proposal.

  8. Sedimentation behavior of noble metal particles in simulated high-level waste borosilicate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakajima, M.; Ohyama, K.; Morikawa, Y.; Miyauchi, A.; Yamashita, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1109 (Japan); Komamine, S.; Ochi, E. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, Bussan-Bldg. Bekkan, 1-1-5 Nishi-Shinbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solubility of noble metal elements (NME) in the melted borosilicate glass is much smaller than its normal concentration of the high level liquid waste. Thus most of NME show small particles in the melted glass and tend to sediment in the bottom region of the vitrification melter due to their higher density than that of glass. Experiments of the sedimentation of NME particles in the melted glass were carried out under static condition. Three conditions of initial NME concentration (1.1, 3.0, 6.1 wt % with an equivalent for each oxide) in the simulated glass were set and held at 1100 C. degrees up to 2880 hours. The specimen with 1.1 wt % initial NME concentration indicated zone settling, and the settling rate of the interface is constant: 2.4 mm/h. This sedimentation behavior is the type of rapid settling. Following the rapid settling, the settling rate goes gradually slower; this is the type of compressive settling. The specimens with 3.0 wt % and 6.1 wt % initial NME concentration showed compression settling from the beginning. From the settling curve of the interface, the maximum concentration of NME in sediment was estimated to be around 23- 26 wt %. Growth of NME particles was observed by holding at 1100 C. degrees for up to 2880 hours. The viscosity becomes higher as NME concentration increases and the dependence on shear rate becomes simultaneously stronger. The effect of the particle growth to viscosity appears to be not significant.

  9. High CO2 levels in the Proterozoic atmosphere estimated from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Alan Jay

    a Proterozoic (,1.4-gigayear-old) shale in North China. Calculated magnitudes of the carbon isotope such as carbon dioxide and methane must have been much higher1,2 . However, empirical estimates of Proterozoic levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations have not hitherto been available. Here we present ion

  10. Production Cost Modeling for High Levels of Photovoltaics Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Milford, J.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this report is to evaluate the likely avoided generation, fuels, and emissions resulting from photovoltaics (PV) deployment in several U.S. locations and identify new tools, methods, and analysis to improve understanding of PV impacts at the grid level.

  11. New Generation Nuclear Plant -- High Level Functions and Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. M. Ryskamp; E. J. Gorski; E. A. Harvego; S. T. Khericha; G. A. Beitel

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This functions and requirements (F&R) document was prepared for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The highest-level functions and requirements for the NGNP preconceptual design are identified in this document, which establishes performance definitions for what the NGNP will achieve. NGNP designs will be developed based on these requirements by commercial vendor(s).

  12. HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE ) GLASSES FOR HANFORDS WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; BOWAN BW; JOSEPH I; GAN H; KOT WK; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

    2010-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of glass formulation development and melter testing to identify high waste loading glasses to treat high-Al high level waste (HLW) at Hanford. Previous glass formulations developed for this HLW had high waste loadings but their processing rates were lower that desired. The present work was aimed at improving the glass processing rate while maintaining high waste loadings. Glass formulations were designed, prepared at crucible-scale and characterized to determine their properties relevant to processing and product quality. Glass formulations that met these requirements were screened for melt rates using small-scale tests. The small-scale melt rate screening included vertical gradient furnace (VGF) and direct feed consumption (DFC) melter tests. Based on the results of these tests, modified glass formulations were developed and selected for larger scale melter tests to determine their processing rate. Melter tests were conducted on the DuraMelter 100 (DMIOO) with a melt surface area of 0.11 m{sup 2} and the DuraMelter 1200 (DMI200) HLW Pilot Melter with a melt surface area of 1.2 m{sup 2}. The newly developed glass formulations had waste loadings as high as 50 wt%, with corresponding Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration in the glass of 26.63 wt%. The new glass formulations showed glass production rates as high as 1900 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) under nominal melter operating conditions. The demonstrated glass production rates are much higher than the current requirement of 800 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) and anticipated future enhanced Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) requirement of 1000 kg/(m{sup 2}.day).

  13. atlas high level: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    s of data per board from the detector front-end on multiple high-speed serial links, low-latency data processing, data buffering, and data transmission to the ATLAS trigger and...

  14. A high-level framework for PDE-constrained optimisation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Funke

    2013-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Its main features are an intuitive mathematical interface, a high degree of ... Engineering; J.6 [Computer Applications]: Computer-Aided Engineering; D.2 ... By contrast, the adjoint method computes the gradient of a scalar functional with a.

  15. Liquidus Temperature and Primary Crystallization Phases in High-Zirconia High-Level Waste Borosilicate Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plaisted, Trevor J.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.; Jiricka, Antonin

    1999-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquidus temperature (TL) studies of high-Zr high-level waste (HLW) borosilicate glasses have identified three primary phases: baddelyite (ZrO2), zircon (ZrSiO4), and alkali-zirconium silicates, such as parakeldyshite (Na2ZrSi2O7). Using published TL data for HLW glasses with these primary phases, we have computed partial specific TLs for major glass components. On the Na2O-SiO2-ZrO2 submixture, we have determined approximate positions of the boundaries between the baddelyite, zircon, and parakeldyshite primary phase fields. The maximum that can dissolve at 1150?C in a borosilicate HLW glass subjected to common processability and acceptability constraints appears to be 16.5 mass% ZrO2.

  16. Experimental Investigations into U/TRU Recovery using a Liquid Cadmium Cathode and Salt Containing High Rare Earth Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelly X. Li; Steven D. Herrmann; Michael F. Simpson

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental Investigations into U/TRU Recovery using a Liquid Cadmium Cathode and Salt Containing High Rare Earth Concentrations Shelly X. Li, Steven D. Herrmann, and Michael F. Simpson Pyroprocessing Technology Department Idaho National Laboratory P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 USA Abstract - A series of six bench-scale liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) tests was performed to obtain basic separation data with focus on the behavior of rare earth elements. The electrolyte used for the tests was a mixed salt from the Mk-IV and Mk-V electrorefiners, in which spent metal fuels from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) had been processed. Rare earth (RE) chlorides, such as NdCl3, CeCl3, LaCl3, PrCl3, SmCl3, and YCl3, were spiked into the salt prior to the first test to create an extreme case for investigating rare earth contamination of the actinides collected by a LCC. For the first two LCC tests, an alloy with the nominal composition of 41U-30Pu-5Am-3Np-20Zr-1RE was loaded into the anode baskets as the feed material. The anode feed material for Runs 3 to 6 was spent ternary fuel (U-19Pu-10Zr). The Pu/U ratio in the salt varied from 0.6 to 1.3. Chemical and radiochemical analytical results confirmed that U and transuranics can be collected into the LCC as a group under the given run conditions. The RE contamination level in the LCC product was up to 6.7 wt% of the total metal collected. The detailed data for partitioning of actinides and REs in the salt and Cd phases are reported in the paper.

  17. Status of Physics and Safety Analyses for the Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingersoll, DT

    2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been completed to develop a new baseline core design for the liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR) that is better optimized for liquid coolant and that satisfies the top-level operational and safety targets, including strong passive safety performance, acceptable fuel cycle parameters, and favorable core reactivity response to coolant voiding. Three organizations participated in the study: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Although the intent was to generate a new reference LS-VHTR core design, the emphasis was on performing parametric studies of the many variables that constitute a design. The results of the parametric studies not only provide the basis for choosing the optimum balance of design options, they also provide a valuable understanding of the fundamental behavior of the core, which will be the basis of future design trade-off studies. A new 2400-MW(t) baseline design was established that consists of a cylindrical, nonannular core cooled by liquid {sup 7}Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (Flibe) salt. The inlet and outlet coolant temperatures were decreased by 50 C, and the coolant channel diameter was increased to help lower the maximum fuel and vessel temperatures. An 18-month fuel cycle length with 156 GWD/t burnup was achieved with a two-batch shuffling scheme, while maintaining a core power density of 10 MW/m{sup 3} using graphite-coated uranium oxicarbide particle fuel enriched to 15% {sup 235}U and assuming a 25 vol-% packing of the coated particles in the fuel compacts. The revised design appears to have excellent steady-state and transient performance. The previous concern regarding the core's response to coolant voiding has been resolved for the case of Flibe coolant by increasing the coolant channel diameter and the fuel loading. Also, the LSVHTR has a strong decay heat removal performance and appears capable of surviving a loss of forced circulation (LOFC) even with failure to scram. Significant natural convection of the coolant salt occurs, resulting in fuel temperatures below steady-state values and nearly uniform temperature distributions during the transient.

  18. High-Level Waste Corporate Board Presentation Archive | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of EnergySeacrist, Senior FellowDepartmentEnergy

  19. West Valley Demonstration Project High-Level Waste Management

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2Uranium TransferonUS-IndiaVALUEWater Power ProgramDecemberWendyDRAFT_19507_1

  20. Report on Separate Disposal of Defense High- Level Radioactive Waste

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptemberAssessments | Department ofSouthernof

  1. A TWP-ICE High-Level Cloud Case Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruaryOctober 2, AlgeriaQ1AResearchStudy of theAAAAA

  2. Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Agenda |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - T en Y ear RHostTools Visualization |Department

  3. High Level Waste Corporate Board Newsletter - 06/03/08

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12Approved on 24 July 2008 1 Office of Environmental

  4. High Level Waste Corporate Board Newsletter - 06/03/09

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12Approved on 24 July 2008 1 Office of EnvironmentalUPCOMING

  5. High Level Waste Corporate Board Newsletter - 09/11/08

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12Approved on 24 July 2008 1 Office of

  6. NERC Presentation: Accommodating High Levels of Variable Generation,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked QuestionsDepartment of Energy 3ServicesNEET FY 12a-12Environmental Policy

  7. Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Agenda

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked QuestionsDepartment ofDepartment ofNewDepartment ofNorman AugustineNorth

  8. Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Agenda |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked QuestionsDepartment ofDepartment ofNewDepartment ofNorman

  9. Integrated High-Level Waste System Planning - Utilizing an Integrated Systems Planning Approach to Ensure End-State Definitions are Met and Executed - 13244

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling, Lawrence T. [URS-Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H Room 2205, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [URS-Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H Room 2205, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Chew, David P. [URS-Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H Room 2426, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [URS-Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H Room 2426, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy site which has produced nuclear materials for national defense, research, space, and medical programs since the 1950's. As a by-product of this activity, approximately 37 million gallons of high-level liquid waste containing approximately 292 million curies of radioactivity is stored on an interim basis in 45 underground storage tanks. Originally, 51 tanks were constructed and utilized to support the mission. Four tanks have been closed and taken out of service and two are currently undergoing the closure process. The Liquid Waste System is a highly integrated operation involving safely storing liquid waste in underground storage tanks; removing, treating, and dispositioning the low-level waste fraction in grout; vitrifying the higher activity waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility; and storing the vitrified waste in stainless steel canisters until permanent disposition. After waste removal and processing, the storage and processing facilities are decontaminated and closed. A Liquid Waste System Plan (hereinafter referred to as the Plan) was developed to integrate and document the activities required to disposition legacy and future High-Level Waste and to remove from service radioactive liquid waste tanks and facilities. It establishes and records a planning basis for waste processing in the liquid waste system through the end of the program mission. The integrated Plan which recognizes the challenges of constrained funding provides a path forward to complete the liquid waste mission within all regulatory and legal requirements. The overarching objective of the Plan is to meet all Federal Facility Agreement and Site Treatment Plan regulatory commitments on or ahead of schedule while preserving as much life cycle acceleration as possible through incorporation of numerous cost savings initiatives, elimination of non-essential scope, and deferral of other scope not on the critical path to compliance. There is currently a premium on processing and storage space in the radioactive liquid waste tank system. To enable continuation of risk reduction initiatives, the Plan establishes a processing strategy that provides tank space required to meet, or minimizes the impacts to meeting, programmatic objectives. The Plan also addresses perturbations in funding and schedule impacts. (authors)

  10. High Level Architecture (HLA) federation with Umbra and OPNET federates.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oppel, Fred John III; Hart, Brian; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Network-centric systems that depend on mobile wireless ad hoc networks for their information exchange require detailed analysis to support their development. In many cases, this critical analysis is best provided with high-fidelity system simulations that include the effects of network architectures and protocols. In this research, we developed a high-fidelity system simulation capability using an HLA federation. The HLA federation, consisting of the Umbra system simulator and OPNET Modeler network simulator, provides a means for the system simulator to both affect, and be affected by, events in the network simulator. Advances are also made in increasing the fidelity of the wireless communication channel and reducing simulation run-time with a dead reckoning capability. A simulation experiment is included to demonstrate the developed modeling and simulation capability.

  11. Use of Novel Highly Selective Ion Exchange Media for Minimizing the Waste Arising from Different NPP and Other Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tusa, Esko; Harjula, Risto; Lehto, Jukka

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly selective inorganic ion exchangers give new possibilities to implement and operate new innovative treatment systems for radioactive liquids. Because of high selectivity these ion exchangers can be used even in liquids of high salt concentrations. Only selected target nuclides will be separated and inactive salts are left in the liquid, which can be released or recategorized. Thus, it is possible to reduce the volume of radioactive waste dramatically. On the other hand, only a small volume of highly selective material is required in applications, which makes it possible to design totally new types of compact treatment systems. The major benefit of selective ion exchange media comes from the very large volume reduction of radioactive waste in final disposal. It is also possible to save in investment costs, because small ion exchanger volumes can be used and handled in a very small facility. This paper describes different applications of these highly selective ion exchangers, both commercial fullscale applications and laboratory tests, to give the idea of their efficiency for different liquids.

  12. Heat transfer through horizontal films of liquids evaporating under high vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stiles, Graham Bill

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ). . . . . . . 17 6. 7 ~ 9. 10 ~ 12 ' 13 ' 14 ' Effect of Liquid Depth on the Heat Transfer Coefficient (Natural Convection') . . . . . . . . 27 Effect of Liquid Depth on the Heat Transfer Coefficient (Nucleate Boiling, 875 BTU/Hr. Ft... of boiling was first discussed by Nukiyama (22). Three main types exist. They are natural convection, nucleate boiling and fi. lm boiling (6, 17, 20). Natural convection occurs when the liquid heated at the heating surface is hotter than that above...

  13. Level Structure of 103Ag at high spins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Ray; N. S. Pattabiraman; Krishichayan; A. Chakraborty; S. Mukhopadhyay; S. S. Ghugre; S. N. Chintalapudi; A. K. Sinha; U. Garg; S. Zhu; B. Kharraja; D. Almehed

    2007-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    High spin states in $^{103}$Ag were investigated with the Gammasphere array, using the $^{72}$Ge($^{35}$Cl,$2p2n$)$^{103}$Ag reaction at an incident beam energy of 135 MeV. A $\\Delta J$=1 sequence with predominantly magnetic transitions and two nearly-degenerate $\\Delta J=1$ doublet bands have been observed. The dipole band shows a decreasing trend in the $B(M1)$ strength as function of spin, a well established feature of magnetic bands. The nearly-degenerate band structures satisfy the three experimental signatures of chirality in the nuclei; however microscopic calculations are indicative of a magnetic phenomenon

  14. High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'iPresented By:Science Bowl|HighEnergetic

  15. Enclosure 3 DOE Response to EPA Question Regarding "High-Level Liquid Radioactive Waste"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    was it removed?). I don't think the removal in Appendix F of the old Appendix D language about the hulls;Enclosure 3 In the Bismuth Phosphate process, the cladding (or coating) hulls are first removed). The fuel is then dissolved into its constituent parts consisting of uranium, transuranic elements (e

  16. Ultra-high-resolution time projection chambers with liquid crystal backplanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monreal, Benjamin

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the possibility of incorporating a liquid-crystal device into a gas ionization detector. After extensive R&D on several candidate liquid-crystal technologies, we developed some novel materials allowing twisted nematic liquid-crystal layers to be coupled directly to gas ionization counters. However, the resulting structures were unsuitable for large-scale or practical use. We tested several technologies known to result in mechanically-robust liquid crystal electrooptic layers, but found poor behavior in the detector context.

  17. Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui High Performance Computing Center

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Study evaluates the energy efficiency of a new, liquid-cooled computing system applied in a retrofit project compared to the previously used air-cooled system.

  18. HLW-OVP-97-0068 High Level Waste Management Division High-Level Waste System Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonic EngineHIV and evolution studied through6 C

  19. High-speed observation of the piston effect near the gas-liquid critical point Yuichi Miura,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-speed observation of the piston effect near the gas-liquid critical point Yuichi Miura,1-critical fluid on acoustic time scales using an ultrasensitive interferometer. A sound emitted by very weak sounds are emitted from a heater and how applied heat is transformed into mechanical work. Our

  20. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

    2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions. The incorporation of 1 wt % Pu in the glass did not adversely impact glass viscosity (as assessed using Hf surrogate) or glass durability. Finally, evaluation of DWPF glass pour samples that had Pu concentrations below the 897 g/m{sup 3} limit showed that Pu concentrations in the glass pour stream were close to targeted compositions in the melter feed indicating that Pu neither volatilized from the melt nor stratified in the melter when processed in the DWPF melter.

  1. Implementation plan for liquid low-level radioactive waste systems under the FFA for fiscal years 1996 and 1997 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the fourth annual revision of the plans and schedules for implementing the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) compliance program, originally submitted in 1992 as ES/ER-17&D1, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This document summarizes the progress that has been made to date implementing the plans and schedules for meeting the FFA commitments for the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In addition, this document lists FFA activities planned for FY 1997. Information presented in this document provides a comprehensive summary to facilitate understanding of the FFA compliance program for LLLW tank systems and to present plans and schedules associated with remediation, through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process, of LLLW tank systems that have been removed from service.

  2. EIS-0303: Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Tank Closure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates alternatives for closing 49 high-level radioactive waste tanks and associated equipment such as evaporator systems, transfer pipelines, diversion boxes, and pump pits. DOE...

  3. EIS-0287: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EIS-0287 (September 2002) This EIS analyzes the potential environmental consequences of alternatives for managing high-level waste (HLW) calcine, mixed transuranic wastesodium...

  4. Conformance Tool High Level Design Document: IEC 61850 Cyber Security Acceleration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edgar, Thomas W.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the high level design document for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IEC 62351-3, 4 and 6 standards conformance test software toolkit.

  5. 3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research investigated four techniques that could be applicable for mapping of solids remaining in radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site: stereo vision, LIDAR, flash LIDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM). Stereo vision is the least appropriate technique for the solids mapping application. Although the equipment cost is low and repackaging would be fairly simple, the algorithms to create a 3D image from stereo vision would require significant further development and may not even be applicable since stereo vision works by finding disparity in feature point locations from the images taken by the cameras. When minimal variation in visual texture exists for an area of interest, it becomes difficult for the software to detect correspondences for that object. SfM appears to be appropriate for solids mapping in waste tanks. However, equipment development would be required for positioning and movement of the camera in the tank space to enable capturing a sequence of images of the scene. Since SfM requires the identification of distinctive features and associates those features to their corresponding instantiations in the other image frames, mockup testing would be required to determine the applicability of SfM technology for mapping of waste in tanks. There may be too few features to track between image frame sequences to employ the SfM technology since uniform appearance may exist when viewing the remaining solids in the interior of the waste tanks. Although scanning LIDAR appears to be an adequate solution, the expense of the equipment ($80,000-$120,000) and the need for further development to allow tank deployment may prohibit utilizing this technology. The development would include repackaging of equipment to permit deployment through the 4-inch access ports and to keep the equipment relatively uncontaminated to allow use in additional tanks. 3D flash LIDAR has a number of advantages over stereo vision, scanning LIDAR, and SfM, including full frame time-of-flight data (3D image) collected with a single laser pulse, high frame rates, direct calculation of range, blur-free images without motion distortion, no need for precision scanning mechanisms, ability to combine 3D flash LIDAR with 2D cameras for 2D texture over 3D depth, and no moving parts. The major disadvantage of the 3D flash LIDAR camera is the cost of approximately $150,000, not including the software development time and repackaging of the camera for deployment in the waste tanks.

  6. Arsenic speciation in soil using high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, D.A.; Yaeger, J.S.; Parish, K.J.; Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Gowdy, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mohrman, G.B.; Besmer, M.G. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method has been developed to identify and quantify As(III), As(V), and organoarsenic compounds in soil samples from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) by high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP/MS). The soils were extracted using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) and sonication. The percentages of As(III), As(V), and organoarsenic species extracted from soil samples were 30, 50, and 100 respectively. The arsenic species were not altered during the extraction process. They were separated by reversed-phase, ion-pairing, HPLC using a microbore Inertsil-ODS{trademark} column. The HPLC column effluent was introduced into an ICP/MS system using a direct injection nebulizer (DIN). Detection limits of less than 1 pg were readily obtained for each arsenic species. Internal standards are recommended to increase accuracy and precision. Soil samples spiked with arsenic oxide, sodium arsenate, dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), and chlorovinyl arsenious acid (CVAA) were extracted, identified and quantified with the HPLC/ICP/MS system. The soil samples were analyzed in support of the analytical needs of a thermal desorption treatability study being conducted at the RMA.

  7. Phenylxylylethane (PXE): a high-density, high-flashpoint organic liquid scintillator for applications in low-energy particle and astrophysics experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borexino Collaboration

    2007-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the study of a new liquid scintillator target for neutrino interactions in the framework of the research and development program of the BOREXINO solar neutrino experiment. The scintillator consists of 1,2-dimethyl-4-(1-phenylethyl)-benzene (phenyl-o-xylylethane, PXE) as solvent and 1,4-diphenylbenzene (para-Terphenyl, p-Tp) as primary and 1,4-bis(2-methylstyryl)benzene (bis-MSB) as secondary solute. The density close to that of water and the high flash point makes it an attractive option for large scintillation detectors in general. The study focused on optical properties, radioactive trace impurities and novel purification techniques of the scintillator. Attenuation lengths of the scintillator mixture of 12 m at 430 nm were achieved after purification with an alumina column. A radio carbon isotopic ratio of C-14/C-12 = 9.1 * 10^{-18}$ has been measured in the scintillator. Initial trace impurities, e.g. U-238 at 3.2 * 10^{-14} g/g could be purified to levels below 10^{-17} g/g by silica gel solid column purification.

  8. Liquid Cooling in Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cader, Tahir; Sorell,, Vali; Westra, Levi; Marquez, Andres

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor manufacturers have aggressively attacked the problem of escalating microprocessor power consumption levels. Today, server manufacturers can purchase microprocessors that currently have power consumption levels capped at 100W maximum. However, total server power levels continue to increase, with the increase in power consumption coming from the supportin chipsets, memory, and other components. In turn, full rack heat loads are very aggressivley climbing as well, and this is making it increasingly difficult and cost-prohibitive for facility owners to cool these high power racks. As a result, facilities owners are turning to alternative, and more energy efficient, cooling solutions that deploy liquids in one form or another. The paper discusses the advent of the adoption of liquid-cooling in high performance computing centers. An overview of the following competing rack-based, liquid-cooling, technologies is provided: in-row, above rack, refrigerated/enclosed rack, rear door heat exchanger, and device-level (i.e., chip-level). Preparation for a liquid-cooled data center, retroft and greenfield (new), is discussed, with a focus on the key issues that are common to all liquid-cooling technologies that depend upon the delivery of water to the rack (or in some deployments, a Coolant Distribution Unit). The paper then discusses, in some detail, the actual implementation and deployment of a liquid device-level cooled (spray cooled) supercomputer at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Initial results from a successful 30 day compliance test show excellent hardware stability, operating system (OS) and software stack stability, application stability and performance, and an availability level that exceeded expectations at 99.94%. The liquid-cooled supercomputer achieved a peak performance of 9.287 TeraFlops, which placed it at number 101 in the June 2007 Top500 fastest supercomputers worldwide. Long-term performance and energy efficiency testing is currently underway, and detailed results will be reported in upcoming publications.

  9. An Investigation into the Oxidation State of Molybdenum in Simplified High Level Nuclear Waste Glass Compositions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    An Investigation into the Oxidation State of Molybdenum in Simplified High Level Nuclear Waste of Mo in glasses containing simplified simulated high level nuclear waste (HLW) streams has been originating from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Experiments using simulated nuclear waste streams

  10. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

  11. Reconfigurable Nets, a Class of High Level Petri Nets Supporting Dynamic Changes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpuente, María

    Reconfigurable Nets, a Class of High Level Petri Nets Supporting Dynamic Changes. E-mail: fjoliver@dsic.upv.es. Abstract.We introduce a class of high level Petri nets, called reconfig- urable nets, that can dynamically modify their own structure by rewrit- ing

  12. High-Level Power Estimation with Interconnect Effects Kavel M. Buyuksahin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    the predicted (at RTL) power against that measured using SPICE. An average er- ror of 14.4% is obtainedHigh-Level Power Estimation with Interconnect Effects Kavel M. B¨uy¨uks¸ahin ECE Dept.najm@toronto.edu ABSTRACT We extend earlier work on high-level average power esti- mation to include the power due

  13. Characteristics Data Base: Programmer's guide to the High-Level Waste Data Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, K.E. (DataPhile, Inc., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Salmon, R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-Level Waste Data Base is a menu-driven PC data base developed as part of OCRWM's technical data base on the characteristics of potential repository wastes, which also includes spent fuel and other materials. This programmer's guide completes the documentation for the High-Level Waste Data Base, the user's guide having been published previously. 3 figs.

  14. Non-Invasive Diagnostics for Measuring Physical Properties and Processes in High Level Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Powell; David Pfund

    2005-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This research demonstrated the usefulness of tomographic techniques for determining the physical properties of slurry suspensions. Of particular interest was the measurement of the viscosity of suspensions in complex liquids and modeling these. We undertook a long rage program that used two techniques, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonic pulsed Doppler velocimetry. Our laboratory originally developed both of these for the measurement of viscosity of complex liquids and suspensions. We have shown that the relationship between shear viscosity and shear rate can be determined over a wide range of shear rates from a single measurement. We have also demonstrated these techniques for many non-Newtonian fluids which demonstrate highly shear thinning behavior. This technique was extended to determine the yield stress with systems of interacting particles. To model complex slurries that may be found in wastes applications, we have also used complex slurries that are found in industrial applications

  15. High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence of CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNL’s sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.

  16. High magnetic shear gain in a liquid sodium stable couette flow experiment A prelude to an alpha - omega dynamo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colgate, Stirling [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Jui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Finn, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pariev, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beckley, Howard [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH; Si, Jiahe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Martinic, Joe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westpfahl, David [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Slutz, James [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westrom, Zeb [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Klein, Brianna [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.

    2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The {Omega}-phase of the liquid sodium {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo experiment at NMIMT in cooperation with LANL has successfully demonstrated the production of a high toroidal field, B{sub {phi}} {approx_equal} 8 x B{sub r} from the radial component of an applied poloidal magnetic field, B{sub r}. This enhanced toroidal field is produced by rotational shear in stable Couette Row within liquid sodium at Rm {approx_equal} 120. The small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette Row is caused by Ekman Row where ({delta}v/v){sup 2} {approx} 10{sup -3}. This high {Omega}-gain in low turbulence flow contrasts with a smaller {Omega}-gain in higher turbulence, Helmholtz-unstable shear flows. This result supports the ansatz that large scale astrophysical magnetic fields are created within semi-coherent large scale motions in which turbulence plays a diffusive role that enables magnetic flux linkage.

  17. Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography column permeability and changes of the eluent properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritti, Fabrice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of four similar liquid chromatography columns (2.1 mm i.d. x30, 50, 100, and 150 mm, all packed with fine particles, average d{sub p} {approx} 1.7 {micro}m, of bridged ethylsiloxane/silica hybrid-C{sub 18}, named BEH-C{sub 18}) was studied in wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The pressure and the temperature dependencies of the viscosity and the density of the eluent (pure acetonitrile) along the columns were also derived, using the column permeabilities and applying the Kozeny-Carman and the heat balance equations. The heat lost through the external surface area of the chromatographic column was directly derived from the wall temperature of the stainless steel tube measured with a precision of C in still air and C in the oven compartment. The variations of the density and viscosity of pure acetonitrile as a function of the temperature and pressure was derived from empirical correlations based on precise experimental data acquired between 298 and 373 K and at pressures up to 1.5 kbar. The measurements were made with the Acquity UPLC chromatograph that can deliver a maximum flow rate of 2 mL/min and apply a maximum column inlet pressure of 1038 bar. The average Kozeny-Carman permeability constant of the columns was 144 {+-} 3.5%. The temperature hence the viscosity and the density profiles of the eluent along the column deviate significantly from linear behavior under high-pressure gradients. For a 1000 bar pressure drop, we measured {Delta}T = 25-30 K, ({Delta}{eta}/{eta}) {approx_equal} 100%, and ({Delta}{rho}/{rho}) {approx_equal} 10%. These results show that the radial temperature profiles are never fully developed within 1% for any of the columns, even under still-air conditions. This represents a practical advantage regarding the apparent column efficiency at high flow rates, since the impact of the differential analyte velocity between the column center and the column wall is not maximum. The interpretation of the peak profiles recorded in UPLC is discussed.

  18. A magnetic liquid deformable mirror for high stroke and low order axially symmetrical aberrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brousseau, D; Parent, J; Ruel, H J; Borra, Ermanno F.; Brousseau, Denis; Parent, Jocelyn; Ruel, Hubert-Jean

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new class of magnetically shaped deformable liquid mirrors made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). Deformable liquid mirrors offer advantages with respect to deformable solid mirrors: large deformations, low costs and the possibility of very large mirrors with added aberration control. They have some disadvantages (e.g. slower response time). We made and tested a deformable mirror, producing axially symmetrical wavefront aberrations by applying electric currents to 5 concentric coils made of copper wire wound on aluminum cylinders. Each of these coils generates a magnetic field which combines to deform the surface of a ferrofluid to the desired shape. We have carried out laboratory tests on a 5 cm diameter prototype mirror and demonstrated defocus as well as Seidel and Zernike spherical aberrations having amplitudes up to 20 microns, which was the limiting measurable amplitude of our equipment

  19. A magnetic liquid deformable mirror for high stroke and low order axially symmetrical aberrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denis Brousseau; Ermanno F. Borra; Hubert-Jean Ruel; Jocelyn Parent

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new class of magnetically shaped deformable liquid mirrors made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). Deformable liquid mirrors offer advantages with respect to deformable solid mirrors: large deformations, low costs and the possibility of very large mirrors with added aberration control. They have some disadvantages (e.g. slower response time). We made and tested a deformable mirror, producing axially symmetrical wavefront aberrations by applying electric currents to 5 concentric coils made of copper wire wound on aluminum cylinders. Each of these coils generates a magnetic field which combines to deform the surface of a ferrofluid to the desired shape. We have carried out laboratory tests on a 5 cm diameter prototype mirror and demonstrated defocus as well as Seidel and Zernike spherical aberrations having amplitudes up to 20 microns, which was the limiting measurable amplitude of our equipment

  20. High Temperature Separation of Carbon Dioxide/Hydrogen Mixtures Using Facilitated Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Dixon, J.K. (Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN); Maginn, E.J. (Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN); Brennecke, J.F. (Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN)

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiently separating CO2 from H2 is one of the key steps in the environmentally responsible uses of fossil fuel for energy production. A wide variety of resources, including petroleum coke, coal, and even biomass, can be gasified to produce syngas (a mixture of COand H2). This gas stream can be further reacted with water to produce CO2 and more H2. Once separated, the CO2 can be stored in a variety of geological formations or sequestered by other means. The H2 can be combusted to operate a turbine, producing electricity, or used to power hydrogen fuel cells. In both cases, onlywater is produced as waste. An amine functionalized ionic liquid encapsulated in a supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM) can separate CO2 from H2 with a higher permeability and selectivity than any known membrane system. This separation is accomplished at elevated temperatures using facilitated transport supported ionic liquid membranes.

  1. A High-Yield, Liquid-Phase Approach for the Partial Oxidation of Methane to Methanol using SO3 as the Oxidant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    A High-Yield, Liquid-Phase Approach for the Partial Oxidation of Methane to Methanol using SO3 approach for producing methanol from methane in a three-step, liquid phase process is reported is hydrolyzed in the presence of an organic solvent, to produce an organic phase con- taining methanol

  2. Heat transfer through horizontal films of liquids evaporating under high vacuum 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stiles, Graham Bill

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    group, ' ? , in terms of the ~ hD K Orashof and Prandtl groups as follows; NNu ~ Ac (NOrNpr) (Eq 3) Several investigators (11, 17) have evaluated the constants Ac and a in the range of the Nusselt number from 105 to 2 x 10 . These results have... that the heat transfer coefficient could be found by h ~ 5/00 ( Npr) (Eq. 5) The coefficient 5400 varies depending on the liquid used. Cryder and Finalborgo (8) studied several liquids at pressures above and below, but close to, atmos- pheric pressure...

  3. Implementation Plan for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes the progress that has been made to date in implementing the plans and schedules for meeting the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) commitments for the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These commitments were initially submitted in ES/ER-17&Dl, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Information presented in this document provides a comprehensive summary to facilitate understanding of the FFA compliance program for LLLW tank systems and to present plans and schedules associated with remediation, through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process, of LLLW tank systems that have been removed from service. ORNL has a comprehensive program underway to upgrade the LLLW system as necessary to meet the FFA requirements. The tank systems that are removed from service are being investigated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Waste and risk characterizations have been submitted. Additional data will be prepared and submitted to EPA/TDEC as tanks are taken out of service and as required by the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. The plans and schedules for implementing the FFA compliance program that were submitted in ES/ER-17&Dl, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste tanks Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are updated in this document. Chapter 1 provides general background information and philosophies that lead to the plans and schedules that appear in Chaps. 2 through 5.

  4. Saturated absorption at nanowatt power levels using metastable xenon in a high-finesse optical cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. T. Hickman; T. B. Pittman; J. D. Franson

    2014-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Strong saturated absorption at nanowatt power levels has been demonstrated using metastable xenon in a high-finesse optical cavity. The use of metastable xenon allows a high quality factor of Q=2*10^8 to be achieved at relatively high atomic densities without any contamination or damage to the optical surfaces, which is often a problem when using high-density rubidium or other alkali atoms. This technique provides a relatively straightforward way to produce nonlinearities at the single-photon level with possible applications in quantum communications and computing.

  5. Assigning intonation elements and prosodic phrasing for English speech synthesis from high level linguistic input 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Alan W; Taylor, Paul A

    This paper describes a method for generating intonation events and prosodic phrasing from a high level linguistic description. Specifically, the input consists of information normally available from linguistic processing: ...

  6. aging high-level waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Corrosion Issues in High-level Nuclear Waste Containers. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??In this...

  7. Feasibility of lateral emplacement in very deep borehole disposal of high level nuclear waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, Jonathan Sutton

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy recently filed a motion to withdraw the Nuclear Regulatory Commission license application for the High Level Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. As the U.S. has focused exclusively ...

  8. Planning and scheduling of concurrent high-level activities for UUV mission operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Larry, S. M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis develops a mission planning and scheduling algorithm that enables a single Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (UUV) to concurrently perform high level activities, while managing various resources in a dynamic ocean ...

  9. Building a High-Level Dataflow System on top of Map-Reduce: The Pig Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olston, Christopher

    Building a High-Level Dataflow System on top of Map-Reduce: The Pig Experience Alan F. Gates, Olga are open-source projects administered by the Apache Software Foundation. This paper describes

  10. New optics technology opens door to high-resolution atomic-level...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    optics technology opens door to high-resolution atomic-level hard X-ray studies June 8, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint An international collaboration involving two U.S. Department of Energy...

  11. Functional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedorenko, Evelina G.

    Neuroscientists have debated for centuries whether some regions of the human brain are selectively engaged in specific high-level mental functions or whether, instead, cognition is implemented in multifunctional brain ...

  12. Design of a high-level waste repository system for the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Driscoll, Michael J.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a conceptual design for a High Level Waste disposal system for fuel discharged by U.S. commercial power reactors, using the Yucca Mountain repository site recently designated by federal legislation. ...

  13. Risk-informing decisions about high-level nuclear waste repositories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Suchandra Tina, 1973-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance assessments (PAs) are important sources of information for societal decisions in high-level radioactive waste (HLW) management, particularly in evaluating safety cases for proposed HLW repository development. ...

  14. Reading Between the Lines: Learning to Map High-level Instructions to Commands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branavan, Satchuthanan R.

    In this paper, we address the task of mapping high-level instructions to commands in an external environment. Processing these instructions is challenging—they posit goals to be achieved without specifying the steps required ...

  15. High-Level Fusion Physics and Materials Interface Challenges July 27, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-Level Fusion Physics and Materials Interface Challenges July 27, 2012 a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), to test materials under severe and fusion.S. fusion program complete the near term critical research and development (R

  16. OPERATING EXPERIENCE LEVEL 3, Requalification Test Failure of Certain High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters- Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document provides information regarding the previous requalification test failure and subsequent successful requalification, of certain high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter models manufactured by Flanders Corporation.

  17. Demonstration of Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation Process Using Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.B.

    2001-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the experimental effort to demonstrate the continuous precipitation of cesium from Savannah River Site High Level Waste using sodium tetraphenylborate. In addition, the experiments examined the removal of strontium and various actinides through addition of monosodium titanate.

  18. HighLevel Power Estimation with Interconnect Effects # Kavel M. B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    ) power against that measured using SPICE. An average er­ ror of 14.4% is obtained for the averageHigh­Level Power Estimation with Interconnect Effects # Kavel M. B Ë? uy Ë? uksâ?ºahin ECE Dept.najm@toronto.edu ABSTRACT We extend earlier work on high­level average power esti­ mation to include the power due

  19. Immobilized high-level waste interim storage alternatives generation and analysis and decision report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    1999-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a study of alternative system architectures to provide onsite interim storage for the immobilized high-level waste produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) privatization vendor. It examines the contract and program changes that have occurred and evaluates their impacts on the baseline immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) interim storage strategy. In addition, this report documents the recommended initial interim storage architecture and implementation path forward.

  20. The tolerance of two varieties of cotton to relatively high levels of sodium and magnesium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parekh, Manhar C

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE TO'ERANCE OF TNO VARIETIES OF COTTON TO RELATIVELY HIGH LEVELS OF SODIUM AND MAGNESIUM A Tnesis by Msnhar C. Parekh Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...) (Nember) (Nemb ) August 1969 ABSTRACT The Tolerance of Two Varieties of Cotton to Relatively High Levels of Sodium and Magnesium. (August 1969) Masher C. Parekh, B. S. , Gujarat University, Directed by: Dr. H. E. Joham An experiment was conducted...

  1. Uranium partitioning between liquid iron and silicate melt at high pressures: implications for uranium solubility in planetary cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xuezhao Bao; Richard A. Secco; Joel E. Gagnon; Brian J. Fryer

    2006-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the partitioning of U between silicate melt and Fe liquid at pressures of 3.0 to14.5 GPa and temperatures of 1660 to 2500 oC. The solubility of U in liquid Fe is in the range of 0.6 to 800 ppm and increases with temperature (T) and pressure (P). When P = or > 7 GPa and T > Tmelt of the silicate phase (olivine), the U concentration in Fe is 3 to 5 times greater than for run products where T Tmelt of the silicate phase), then > 2.4 ppb U could have entered the core. Alternatively, if a core with same composition formed by percolation (T Uranium; partition coefficients; high pressure; dynamos; planetary cores; heat sources, LA-ICP-MS.

  2. High Magnetic Shear Gain in a Liquid Sodium Stable Couette Flow Experiment: A Prelude to an {alpha}-{Omega} Dynamo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colgate, Stirling A. [T-2, MS B-227, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department of Physics, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); Beckley, Howard; Si, Jiahe; Martinic, Joe; Westpfahl, David; Slutz, James; Westrom, Cebastian; Klein, Brianna; Schendel, Paul; Scharle, Cletus; McKinney, Travis; Ginanni, Rocky; Bentley, Ian; Mickey, Timothy; Ferrel, Regnar [Department of Physics, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); Li, Hui; Pariev, Vladimir [T-2, MS B-227, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Finn, John [T-5, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The {Omega} phase of the liquid sodium {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo experiment at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated a high toroidal field B{sub {phi}} that is {approx_equal}8xB{sub r}, where B{sub r} is the radial component of an applied poloidal magnetic field. This enhanced toroidal field is produced by the rotational shear in stable Couette flow within liquid sodium at a magnetic Reynolds number Rm{approx_equal}120. Small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette flow is caused by Ekman flow at the end walls, which causes an estimated turbulence energy fraction of ({delta}v/v){sup 2{approx}}10{sup -3}.

  3. A critical concern for embedded sys tems is the need to deliver high levels of per

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mudge, Trevor

    10 A critical concern for embedded sys­ tems is the need to deliver high levels of per­ formance voltage. Because dynam­ ic energy scales quadratically with supply volt­ age, DVS can significantly reduce energy use. 2 Enabling systems to run at multiple fre­ quency and voltage levels is challenging

  4. Towards High-Level Models For Low-Power Systems Florence Maraninchi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Towards High-Level Models For Low-Power Systems Florence Maraninchi Computer Science, Joseph at Verimag addresses model-extraction from SystemC, to connect to verification tools. This work is done of transaction-level-modeling for systems-on-a-chip (TLM). We develop models in SystemC, or using the synchronous

  5. The development and operational testing of an experimental reactor for gas-liquid-solid reaction systems at high temperatures and pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hess, Richard Kenneth

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONAL TESTING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL REACTOR FOR GAS-LIQUID-SOLID REACTION SYSTEMS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES A Thesis by RICHARD KENNETH HESS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering THE DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONAL TESTING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL REACTOR FOR GAS-LIQUID-SOLID REACTION SYSTEMS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES...

  6. Method for beam steering compensation in an ultra-high power liquid laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermally induced distortion of the optical wavefront caused by heating of the laser media by waste heat from the excitation process and absorption of laser radiation creates optical phase errors. A system generates an error signal derived from the optical phase errors. The error signal is fed back to the power supplies driving semiconductor diodes that excite the lasing liquid thereby introducing an electrically controllable wedge into the optical cavity to correct the optical phase errors.

  7. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winters, W.I. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pool, K.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}Cs{sub x}NiFe (CN){sub 6}) were produced in a scavenging process to remove {sup 137}Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described.

  8. Case Study: Evaluating Liquid v. Air Cooling in the Maui High Performance Computing Center

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Change RequestFirstchampions, checklists, tap- pingLiquid Cooling

  9. Phase I high-level waste pretreatment and feed staging plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manuel, A.F.

    1996-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the preliminary planning basis for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a sufficient quantity of high-level waste feed to the privatization contractor during Phase I. By this analysis of candidate high-level waste feed sources, the initial quantity of high-level waste feed totals more than twice the minimum feed requirements. The flexibility of the current infrastructure within tank farms provides a variety of methods to transfer the feed to the privatization contractor`s site location. The amount and type of pretreatment (sludge washing) necessary for the Phase I processing can be tailored to support the demonstration goals without having a significant impact on glass volume (i.e., either inhibited water or caustic leaching can be used).

  10. Technical baseline description of high-level waste andlow-activity waste feed mobilization and delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papp, I.G. [Numatec Hanford Corporation, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a compilation of information related to the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) feed staging, mobilization, and transfer/delivery issues. Information relevant to current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) inventories and activities designed to feed the Phase I Privatization effort at the Hanford Site is included. Discussions on the higher level Phase II activities are offered for a perspective on the interfaces.

  11. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

  12. Tradeoffs in the design of a system for high level language interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osorio, F.C.C.; Patt, Y.N.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of designing a system for high-level language interpretation (HLLI) is considered. First, a model of the design process is presented where several styles of design, e.g. turing machine interpretation, CISC architecture interpretation and RISC architecture interpretation are treated uniformly. Second, the most significant characteristics of HLLI are analysed in the context of different design styles, and some guidelines are presented on how to identify the most suitable design style for a given high-level language problem. 12 references.

  13. Tank waste remediation system phase I high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, S.L.; Stegen, G.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the effects of feed composition on the Phase I high-level waste immobilization process and interim storage facility requirements for the high-level waste glass.Several different Phase I staging (retrieval, blending, and pretreatment) scenarios were used to generate example feed compositions for glass formulations, testing, and glass sensitivity analysis. Glass models and data form laboratory glass studies were used to estimate achievable waste loading and corresponding glass volumes for various Phase I feeds. Key issues related to feed process ability, feed composition, uncertainty, and immobilization process technology are identified for future consideration in other tank waste disposal program activities.

  14. High-Level Waste Corporate Board, Dr. Inᅢᄅs Triay

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12Approved on 24 July 2008 1 Office ofHighHigh-Level

  15. 324 Building radiochemical engineering cells, high-level vault, low-level vault, and associated areas closure plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J.M.

    1998-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site, located adjacent to and north of Richland, Washington, is operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The 324 Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The 324 Building was constructed in the 1960s to support materials and chemical process research and development activities ranging from laboratory/bench-scale studies to full engineering-scale pilot plant demonstrations. In the mid-1990s, it was determined that dangerous waste and waste residues were being stored for greater than 90 days in the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells (REC) and in the High-Level Vault/Low-Level Vault (HLV/LLV) tanks. [These areas are not Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) permitted portions of the 324 Building.] Through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-89, agreement was reached to close the nonpermitted RCRA unit in the 324 Building. This closure plan, managed under TPA Milestone M-20-55, addresses the identified building areas targeted by the Tri-Party Agreement and provides commitments to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable, given the special technical difficulties of managing mixed waste that contains high-activity radioactive materials, and the physical limitations of working remotely in the areas within the subject closure unit. This closure plan is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1.0 provides the introduction, historical perspective, 324 Building history and current mission, and the regulatory basis and strategy for managing the closure unit. Chapters 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 discuss the detailed facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring respectively. Chapter 6.0 deals with the closure strategy and performance standard, including the closure activities for the B-Cell, D-Cell, HLV, LLV; piping and miscellaneous associated building areas. Chapter 7.0 addresses the closure activities identified in Chapter 6.0, and also adds information on closure activities for the soil directly beneath the unit, regulated material removed during closure, and the schedule for closure. Chapter 8.0 provides Surveillance, monitoring and post-closure information and Chapter 9.0 provides a list of references used throughout the document.

  16. The kinetics of spinel crystallization from a high-level waste glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Div. of Soils; Hrma, P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics of spinel crystallization from a molten high-iron simulated high-level nuclear waste glass was studied using isothermal heat treatments. Optical microscopy with image analysis was used to measure volume fraction of spinel as a function of heat treatment time and temperature. The Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation was fitted to data to determine kinetic coefficients for spinel crystallization. The liquidus temperature and Avrami number are T{sub L} = 1,337K and n = 1.5.

  17. SETTLING OF SPINEL IN A HIGH-LEVEL WASTE GLASS MELTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel Hrma; Pert Schill; Lubomir Nemec

    2002-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    High-level nuclear waste is being vitrified, i.e., converted to a durable glass that can be stored in a safe repository for hundreds of thousands of years. Waste vitrification is accomplished in reactors called melters to which the waste is charged together with glass-forming additives. The mixture is electrically heated to a temperature as high as 1150 decrees C to create a melt that becomes glass on cooling.

  18. Post-compression of high energy terawatt-level femtosecond pulses and application to high order harmonic generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hort, Ond?ej; Cabasse, Amélie; Petit, Stéphane; Mével, Eric; Descamps, Dominique; Constant, Eric

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform a post-compression of high energy pulses by using optical-field ionization of low pressure helium gas in a guided geometry. We apply this approach to a TW chirped-pulse-amplification based Ti:Sapphire laser chain and show that spectral broadening can be controlled both with the input pulse energy and gas pressure. Under optimized conditions, we generate 10 fs pulses at TW level directly under vacuum and demonstrate a high stability of the post compressed pulse duration. These high energy post-compressed pulses are thereafter used to perform high harmonic generation in a loose focusing geometry. The XUV beam is characterized both spatially and spectrally on a single shot basis and structured continuous XUV spectra are observed.

  19. Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Process

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Departmentof1-SCORECARD-09-21-11 Page5-03 EvaluationStorageSavannah River

  20. External Technical Review for Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan| Department of Energy 088: FederalEconomicEnergyExportand Review

  1. Scheduling and Optimizing Stream Programs on Multicore Machines by Exploiting High-Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (SDF) high-level abstraction of stream programs to design adaptive stream programs for energy reduction traffic on the interconnection fabric, such as networks on-chip. While SDF abstractions can help optimize stream programs on multicore machines, SDF is more suitable for describing stream data

  2. Unified High-Level Synthesis and Module Placement for Defect-Tolerant Microfluidic Biochips*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    49.2 825 Unified High-Level Synthesis and Module Placement for Defect-Tolerant Microfluidic University, Durham, NC 27708, USA {fs, krish}@ee.duke.edu ABSTRACT Microfluidic biochips promise on the automated design of droplet-based microfluidic biochips. We present a synthesis methodology that unifies

  3. Inferring Variable Conflicts for Local Search from High-Level Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flener, Pierre

    Inferring Variable Conflicts for Local Search from High-Level Models Magnus °Agren, Pierre Flener in local search algorithms are often shrunk by only considering moves modifying variables that actually for speeding up search. State-of-the-art solutions to, e.g., the progressive party problem exploit

  4. Dual-level parallelism for high-order CFD methods q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Suchuan "Steven"

    MP shared-memory parallelization and employ a work- load-splitting scheme that reduces the OpenDual-level parallelism for high-order CFD methods q Suchuan Dong, George Em Karniadakis * Division-order methods and implemented in the spectral/hp element framework to take advantage of the hierarchical

  5. Columbia University TRECVID-2005 Video Search and High-Level Feature Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Fu

    1 Columbia University TRECVID-2005 Video Search and High-Level Feature Extraction Shih-Fu Chang and Multimedia Lab, Columbia University http://www.ee.columbia.edu/dvmm Oct. 28th 2005 Descriptions of Submitted. Search I_C_2_ColumbiaI1_1: Interactive system, using text search (against ASR/MT), content- based image

  6. ABDUCTIVE LOGIC PROGRAMMING Abductive Logic Programming is a high level knowledge representation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moraitis, Pavlos

    ABDUCTIVE LOGIC PROGRAMMING Abductive Logic Programming is a high level knowledge representation framework that allows us to solve problems declaratively based on abductive reasoning. It extends normal predicates. Problem solving is effected by deriving hypotheses on these abducible predicates (abductive hy

  7. AN EXPERIMENTAL TOOLCHAIN BASED ON HIGH-LEVEL DATAFLOW MODELS OF COMPUTATION FOR HETEROGENEOUS MPSOC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    a high-level dataflow language. The experimental platform is based on a 5-core Texas Instruments OMAP4 of functionalities and processing capabilities while respecting a fixed power budget of a few Watts. Recent improvements in em- bedded systems are due to MPSoCs that combine general purpose cores, dedicated cores

  8. Structural integrity and potential failure modes of hanford high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, F.C.

    1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural Integrity of the Hanford High-Level Waste Tanks were evaluated based on the existing Design and Analysis Documents. All tank structures were found adequate for the normal operating and seismic loads. Potential failure modes of the tanks were assessed by engineering interpretation and extrapolation of the existing engineering documents.

  9. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  10. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  11. Advanced Inverter Functions to Support High Levels of Distributed Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explains how advanced inverter functions (sometimes called 'smart inverters') contribute to the integration of high levels of solar PV generation onto the electrical grid and covers the contributions of advanced functions to maintaining grid stability. Policy and regulatory considerations associated with the deployment of advanced inverter functions are also introduced.

  12. ISO/IEC 15909-2, concepts of high-level nets and CPN Laure Petrucci

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kindler, Ekkart

    ISO/IEC 15909-2, concepts of high-level nets and CPN Laure Petrucci LIPN, University Paris 13 Villetaneuse, France L. Petrucci PNS'07 -- 26 june 2007 1 / 11 #12;Outline Outline 1 Genesis Status of ISO/IEC 2 / 11 #12;Genesis Status of ISO/IEC 15909 Status of ISO/IEC 15909 Standard in 3 parts Part 1

  13. Enabling High-Level Application Development in the Internet of Things

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -Nord Europe, France firstname.lastname@inria.fr Abstract. The sensor networking field is evolving limited subsets of above men- tioned challenges. In this paper, we propose a multi-stage modelT appli- cation development process. Key words: Internet of Things, Sensor networks, High-level program

  14. High-Level Information An Approach for Integrating Front-End and Back-End Compilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhiyuan

    High-Level Information ­ An Approach for Integrating Front-End and Back-End Compilers Sangyeun Cho-end and back-end compilers by passing front-end information to the back-end compiler. Importing this information into an existing back- end leverages the state-of-the-art analysis and transforma- tion

  15. Issues in Performance Certification for High-Level Automotive Control Software Bruce W. Weide1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the front lines of the automotive industry. We were struck by the fact that there seems to be one widelyIssues in Performance Certification for High-Level Automotive Control Software Bruce W. Weide1 Clemson University Clemson, SC USA murali@cs.clemson.edu 3 Center for Automotive Research Mechanical

  16. Operation and Control of Distribution Systems with high level integration of Renewable Generation units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    models Probabilistic methodologies are being applied to power system analysis since 70' [9] becauseOperation and Control of Distribution Systems with high level integration of Renewable Generation. Diagonal 649 Pavelló A, 08028 Barcelona, Spain Summary Traditional power systems have a hierarchical

  17. Aspects of High Level Computer Vision Using Fuzzy Sets James M. Keller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsakis, Pascal

    was that for pattern recognition, the differences between fuzzy spatial relation definitions was not crucialAspects of High Level Computer Vision Using Fuzzy Sets James M. Keller Computer Engr. & Computer Matsakis@irit.fr Abstract Fuzzy set theory is making many inroads into the handling of uncertainty

  18. Sequential Thermo-Hydraulic Modeling of Variably Saturated Flow in High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Sequential Thermo-Hydraulic Modeling of Variably Saturated Flow in High-Level Radioactive Waste-Malabry, France Key words: waste repository, geological disposal, thermo- hydraulic modeling Introduction The most long-lived radioactive wastes must be managed in a safe way for human health and for the environment

  19. Transient Attributes for High-Level Understanding and Editing of Outdoor Scenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hays, James

    Zhile Ren Xiaofeng Tao Chao Qian James Hays Brown University more "winter" more "night" more "warm" more. In this example, the user provides an input image (left) and six attribute queries corresponding to the desired a high-level image editing method which allows a user to adjust the attributes of a scene, e.g. change

  20. GRID superscalar and SAGA: forming a high-level and platform-independent Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kielmann, Thilo

    GRID superscalar and SAGA: forming a high-level and platform-independent Grid programming Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands {merzky|kielmann}@cs.vu.nl Abstract. The Simple API for Grid Applications (SAGA), as currently standardized within GGF, aims to provide a simple yet powerful Grid API; its

  1. Lung Cancer (2004) 46, 333--340 High serum YKL-40 level in patients with small

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Paul A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lung Cancer (2004) 46, 333--340 High serum YKL-40 level in patients with small cell lung cancer May 2004; accepted 6 May 2004 KEYWORDS Small cell lung carcinoma; Tumor invasiveness; YKL-40; HC gp-39 evaluated serum YKL-40 in 131 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Twenty-two percent

  2. ROLE OF MANGANESE REDUCTION/OXIDATION (REDOX) ON FOAMING AND MELT RATE IN HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) MELTERS (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Stone, M

    2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    High-level nuclear waste is being immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification into borosilicate glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Control of the Reduction/Oxidation (REDOX) equilibrium in the DWPF melter is critical for processing high level liquid wastes. Foaming, cold cap roll-overs, and off-gas surges all have an impact on pouring and melt rate during processing of high-level waste (HLW) glass. All of these phenomena can impact waste throughput and attainment in Joule heated melters such as the DWPF. These phenomena are caused by gas-glass disequilibrium when components in the melter feeds convert to glass and liberate gases such as H{sub 2}O vapor (steam), CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and/or N{sub 2}. During the feed-to-glass conversion in the DWPF melter, multiple types of reactions occur in the cold cap and in the melt pool that release gaseous products. The various gaseous products can cause foaming at the melt pool surface. Foaming should be avoided as much as possible because an insulative layer of foam on the melt surface retards heat transfer to the cold cap and results in low melt rates. Uncontrolled foaming can also result in a blockage of critical melter or melter off-gas components. Foaming can also increase the potential for melter pressure surges, which would then make it difficult to maintain a constant pressure differential between the DWPF melter and the pour spout. Pressure surges can cause erratic pour streams and possible pluggage of the bellows as well. For these reasons, the DWPF uses a REDOX strategy and controls the melt REDOX between 0.09 {le} Fe{sup 2+}/{summation}Fe {le} 0.33. Controlling the DWPF melter at an equilibrium of Fe{sup +2}/{summation}Fe {le} 0.33 prevents metallic and sulfide rich species from forming nodules that can accumulate on the floor of the melter. Control of foaming, due to deoxygenation of manganic species, is achieved by converting oxidized MnO{sub 2} or Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} species to MnO during melter preprocessing. At the lower redox limit of Fe{sup +2}/{summation}Fe {approx} 0.09 about 99% of the Mn{sup +4}/Mn{sup +3} is converted to Mn{sup +2}. Therefore, the lower REDOX limits eliminates melter foaming from deoxygenation.

  3. Experimental analysis of general ion recombination in a liquid-filled ionization chamber in high-energy photon beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Eunah; Seuntjens, Jan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital (L5-113), 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Davis, Stephen [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal General Hospital (L5-112), 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To study experimentally the general ion recombination effect in a liquid-filled ionization chamber (LIC) in high-energy photon beams. Methods: The general ion recombination effect on the response of a micro liquid ion chamber (microLion) was investigated with a 6 MV photon beam in normal and SRS modes produced from a Varian{sup Registered-Sign} Novalis Tx{sup TM} linear accelerator. Dose rates of the linear accelerator were set to 100, 400, and 1000 MU/min, which correspond to pulse repetition frequencies of 60, 240, and 600 Hz, respectively. Polarization voltages applied to the microLion were +800 and +400 V. The relative collection efficiency of the microLion response as a function of dose per pulse was experimentally measured with changing polarization voltage and pulse repetition frequencies and was compared with the theoretically calculated value. Results: For the 60 Hz pulse repetition frequency, the experimental relative collection efficiency was not different from the theoretical one for a pulsed beam more than 0.3% for both polarization voltages. For a pulsed radiation beam with a higher pulse repetition frequency, the experimental relative collection efficiency converged to the theoretically calculated efficiency for continuous beams. This result indicates that the response of the microLion tends toward the response to a continuous beam with increasing pulse repetition frequency of a pulsed beam because of low ion mobility in the liquid. Conclusions: This work suggests an empirical method to correct for differences in general ion recombination of a LIC between different radiation fields. More work is needed to quantitatively explain the LIC general ion recombination behavior in pulsed beams generated from linear accelerators.

  4. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sales, Brian C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

  5. High Level Trigger Configuration and Handling of Trigger Tables in the CMS Filter Farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, G; Behrens, U; Boyer, V; Branson, J; Brett, A; Cano, E; Carboni, A; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; O'dell, V; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino, R; Gulmini, M; Gutleber, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Kim, J C; Klute, M; Lipeles, E; Perez, J L; Maron, G; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Moser, R; Mlot, E G; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Paus, C; Petrucci, A; Pieri, M; Pollet, L; Racz, A; Sakulin, H; Sani, M; Schieferdecker, P; Schwick, C; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, I; Tsirigkas, D; Varela, J

    2009-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is currently being commissioned and is scheduled to collect the first pp collision data in 2008. CMS features a two-level trigger system. The Level-1 trigger, based on custom hardware, is designed to reduce the collision rate of 40 MHz to approximately 100 kHz. Data for events accepted by the Level-1 trigger are read out and assembled by an Event Builder. The High Level Trigger (HLT) employs a set of sophisticated software algorithms, to analyze the complete event information, and further reduce the accepted event rate for permanent storage and analysis. This paper describes the design and implementation of the HLT Configuration Management system. First experiences with commissioning of the HLT system are also reported.

  6. High Level Waste Tank Farm Replacement Project for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0831, for the construction and operation of the High-Level Waste Tank Farm Replacement (HLWTFR) Project for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The HLWTFR Project as originally proposed by the DOE and as analyzed in this EA included: (1) replacement of five high-level liquid waste storage tanks with four new tanks and (2) the upgrading of existing tank relief piping and high-level liquid waste transfer systems. As a result of the April 1992 decision to discontinue the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at INEL, DOE believes that it is unlikely that the tank replacement aspect of the project will be needed in the near term. Therefore, DOE is not proposing to proceed with the replacement of the tanks as described in this-EA. The DOE`s instant decision involves only the proposed upgrades aspect of the project described in this EA. The upgrades are needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act requirements, and the Department`s obligations pursuant to the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement and Consent Order among the Environmental Protection Agency, DOE, and the State of Idaho. The environmental impacts of the proposed upgrades are adequately covered and are bounded by the analysis in this EA. If DOE later proposes to proceed with the tank replacement aspect of the project as described in the EA or as modified, it will undertake appropriate further review pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act.

  7. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 1 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

  8. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 2 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

  9. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 3 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

  10. Completion report for the Inactive Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of the Inactive Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work performed is compared with that proposed in the statement of work and the service contract specification for the maintenance action to remediate tanks 3013, 3004-B, T-30, and 3001-B. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) among the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires that all tanks, which have been removed from service and are designated in the FFA as Category D, must be remediated in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements. The Environmental Restoration Program`s inactive tank removal program strategy and plans for remediating the inactive LLLW tanks were documented in a report issued in January 1995 (Inactive Tanks Remediation Program Strategy and Plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, ORNL/ER-297). The inactive (Category D) tanks were initially screened for remediation according to risk, remediation technology required, level of instrumentation available, interferences with other piping and equipment, location, and available sludge removal techniques and storage requirements. On the basis of this preliminary screening, the tanks were assigned to one of five batches (I through V) for consideration of remedial action alternatives, and these batches were tentatively scheduled for remedial actions. The eight links tentatively assigned to Batch I were divided into two groups (Series I and Series II).

  11. The Accessibility of patient information leaflets concerning cervical cancer - the effect of high leaflet readability level and the reader's level of education 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gale, Jennifer

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research suggests that many Patient Information Leaflets are written at too high a level for the population to understand. This study took 2 leaflets on Cervical Cancer, with their readability measured using 3 different ...

  12. What are Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste ?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are materials from nuclear power plants and government defense programs. These materials contain highly radioactive elements, such as cesium, strontium, technetium, and neptunium. Some of these elements will remain radioactive for a few years, while others will be radioactive for millions of years. Exposure to such radioactive materials can cause human health problems. Scientists worldwide agree that the safest way to manage these materials is to dispose of them deep underground in what is called a geologic repository.

  13. Water vapor, cloud liquid water paths, and rain rates over northern high latitude open seas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuidema, Paquita

    longwave radiation caused by differences in cloud cover can produce an JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL-level stratus con- tribute the most to the total Arctic cloud cover of any cloud type according to surface presence during summertime but otherwise the Wentz internal sea-ice screening appears effective

  14. Development of Ceramic Waste Forms for High-Level Nuclear Waste Over the Last 30 Years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vance, Eric [Institute of Materials and Engineering Science, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Menai, NSW, 2234 (Australia)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many types of ceramics have been put forward for immobilisation of high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing of nuclear power plant fuel or weapons production. After describing some historical aspects of waste form research, the essential features of the chemical design and processing of these different ceramic types will be discussed briefly. Given acceptable laboratory and long-term predicted performance based on appropriately rigorous chemical design, the important processing parameters are mostly waste loading, waste throughput, footprint, offgas control/minimization, and the need for secondary waste treatment. It is concluded that the 'problem of high-level nuclear waste' is largely solved from a technical point of view, within the current regulatory framework, and that the main remaining question is which technical disposition method is optimum for a given waste. (author)

  15. Progress of the High Level Waste Program at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13178

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bricker, Jonathan M.; Fellinger, Terri L.; Staub, Aaron V.; Ray, Jeff W.; Iaukea, John F. [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, South Carolina, 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, South Carolina, 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site treats and immobilizes High Level Waste into a durable borosilicate glass for safe, permanent storage. The High Level Waste program significantly reduces environmental risks associated with the storage of radioactive waste from legacy efforts to separate fissionable nuclear material from irradiated targets and fuels. In an effort to support the disposition of radioactive waste and accelerate tank closure at the Savannah River Site, the Defense Waste Processing Facility recently implemented facility and flowsheet modifications to improve production by 25%. These improvements, while low in cost, translated to record facility production in fiscal years 2011 and 2012. In addition, significant progress has been accomplished on longer term projects aimed at simplifying and expanding the flexibility of the existing flowsheet in order to accommodate future processing needs and goals. (authors)

  16. West Valley demonstration project: alternative processes for solidifying the high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holton, L.K.; Larson, D.E.; Partain, W.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the West Valley Solidification Project as the result of legislation passed by the US Congress. The purpose of this project was to carry out a high level nuclear waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The DOE authorized the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, to assess alternative processes for treatment and solidification of the WNYNSC high-level wastes. The Process Alternatives Study is the suject of this report. Two pretreatment approaches and several waste form processes were selected for evaluation in this study. The two waste treatment approaches were the salt/sludge separation process and the combined waste process. Both terminal and interim waste form processes were studied.

  17. Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    such as methane. Selectivity refers to the ratio of highly useful hydrocarbons to the total product output and intermediates for the pro- duction of other petrochemicals. Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is the main process

  18. An investigation of very high level languages and their implementation on a Forth language microprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, H.G.; Dress, W.B.; Loffman, R.S.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for using a Forth language microprocessor to implement very high level languages (VHLLs) in Artificial Intelligence research was investigated by surveying the current state-of-the-art of VHLLs, by benchmarking several computers and microcomputers against a customized Forth Language microprocessor, and by extrapolating the results to draw conclusions about implementing expert systems on the Forth language microprocessor. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Remote Handling Equipment for a High-Level Waste Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin M. Croft; Scott M. Allen; Mark W. Borland

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-level waste will be placed in sealed waste packages inside a shielded closure cell. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has designed a system for closing the waste packages including all cell interior equipment and support systems. This paper discusses the material handling aspects of the equipment used and operations that will take place as part of the waste package closure operations. Prior to construction, the cell and support system will be assembled in a full-scale mockup at INL.

  20. DELPHI expert panel evaluation of Hanford high level waste tank failure modes and release quantities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunford, G.L.; Han, F.C.

    1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Failure Modes and Release Quantities of the Hanford High Level Waste Tanks due to postulated accident loads were established by a DELPHI Expert Panel consisting of both on-site and off-site experts in the field of Structure and Release. The Report presents the evaluation process, accident loads, tank structural failure conclusion reached by the panel during the two-day meeting.

  1. Hanford Site River Protection Project High-Level Waste Safe Storage and Retrieval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aromi, E. S.; Raymond, R. E.; Allen, D. I.; Payne, M. A.; DeFigh-Price, C.; Kristofzski, J. G.; Wiegman, S. A.

    2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides an update from last year and describes project successes and issues associated with the management and work required to safely store, enhance readiness for waste feed delivery, and prepare for treated waste receipts for the approximately 53 million gallons of mixed and high-level waste currently in aging tanks at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a 560 square-mile area in southeastern Washington State near Richland, Washington.

  2. The dilemma of siting a high-level nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Easterline, D.; Kunreuther, H.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This books presents a siting process that the authors believe will prove successful within the adversarial world that characterizes most attempts to build waste-disposal facilities. They come to the following conclusions: a volunatary siting process stands the best chance of breaking the `not-in-my-backyard` problem; and without public acknowledgement that a facility is needed, any proposal to build a high-level nuclear waste storage facility will meet with opposition.

  3. Safety analysis report vitrified high level waste type B shipping cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Safety Analysis Report describes the design, analyses, and principle features of the Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) Cask. In preparing this report a detailed evaluation of the design has been performed to ensure that all safety, licensing, and operational goals for the cask and its associated Department of Energy program can be met. The functions of this report are: (1) to fully document that all functional and regulatory requirements of 10CFR71 can be met by the package; and (2) to document the design and analyses of the cask for review by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The VHLW Cask is the reusable shipping package designed by GNSI under Department of Energy contract DE-AC04-89AL53-689 for transportation of Vitrified High Level Waste, and to meet the requirements for certification under 10CFR71 for a Type B(U) package. The VHLW cask has been designed as packaging for transport of canisters of Vitrified High Level Waste solidified at Department of Energy facilities.

  4. Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Steven E.

    2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol.

  5. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall, the results of the reference design development and the cost analysis support the technical feasibility of the deep borehole disposal concept for high-level radioactive waste.

  6. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. 3rd Workshop on System-level Virtualization for High Performance Computing (HPCVirt) 2009, Nuremberg, Germany, March 30, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engelmann, Christian

    3rd Workshop on System-level Virtualization for High Performance Computing (HPCVirt) 2009 for High Performance Computing (HPCVirt) 2009, Nuremberg, Germany, March 30, 2009 Outline · Background work #12;3/193rd Workshop on System-level Virtualization for High Performance Computing (HPCVirt) 2009

  8. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  9. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Radulesscu; J.S. Tang

    2000-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M&O 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M&Q 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable canisters. The intended use of this analysis is to support Site Recommendation reports and to assist in the development of WPD drawings. Activities described in this analysis were conducted in accordance with the Development Plan ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c) with no deviations from the plan.

  10. THERMODYNAMICS OF SOLID AND LIQUID GROUP III-V ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, T.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a high temperature heat capacity for liquid gallium which isthe molar heat capacity of the stoichiometric liquid and theheat capacity of the supercooled stoichiometric binary liquid

  11. A High Temperature (400 to 650oC) Secondary Storage Battery Based on Liquid Sodium and Potassium Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Greg; Weber, Neill

    2007-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This STTR Phase I research program was on the development of high temperature (400 to 650 C), secondary batteries with roundtrip efficiency > 90% for integration with a 3 to 10 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. In fulfillment of this objective, advanced planar high temperature rechargeable batteries, comprised of an alkali metal ion conducting, highly refractory, beta'' alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) sandwiched between liquid sodium (or potassium) anode and liquid metal salt cathode, were developed at MSRI. The batteries have been successfully demonstrated at a working temperature as high as 600 C. To our knowledge, so far no work has been reported in the literature on planar rechargeable batteries based on BASE, and results obtained in Phase I for the very first time demonstrated the viability of planar batteries, though relatively low temperature tubular-based sodium-sulfur batteries and ZEBRA batteries have been actively developed by very limited non U.S. companies. The results of this Phase I work have fulfilled all the goals and stated objectives, and the achievements showed much promise for further, substantial improvements in battery design and performance. The important results of Phase I are briefly described in what follows: (1) Both Na-BASE and K-BASE discs and tubes have been successfully fabricated using MSRI's patented vapor phase process. Ionic conductivity measurements showed that Na-BASE had higher ionic conductivity than K-BASE, consistence with the literature. At 500 C, Na-BASE conductivity is 0.36 S/cm, which is more than 20 times higher than 8YSZ electrolyte used for SOFC at 800 C. The activation energy is 22.58 kJ/mol. (2) CuCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, and AgCl were identified as suitable salts for Na/metal salt or K/metal salt electrochemical couples based on thermochemical data. Further open circuit voltage measurements matched those deduced from the thermochemical data. (3) Tubular cells with CuCl{sub 2} as the cathode and Na as the anode were constructed. However, it was discovered that CuCl{sub 2} was somewhat corrosive and dissolved iron, an element of the cathode compartment. Since protective coating technology was beyond this Phase I work scope, no further work on the CuCl{sub 2} cathode was pursued in Phase I. Notwithstanding, due to its very high OCV and high specific energy, CuCl{sub 2} cathode is a very attractive possibility for a battery capable of delivering higher specific energy with higher voltage. Further investigation of the Na-CuCl{sub 2} battery can be done by using suitable metal coating technologies developed at MSRI for high temperature applications. (4) In Phase I, FeCl{sub 2} and ZnCl{sub 2} were finalized as the potential cathodes for Na-metal salt batteries for delivering high specific energies. Planar Na-FeCl{sub 2} and Na-ZnCl{sub 2} cells were designed, constructed, and tested between 350 and 600 C. Investigation of charge/discharge characteristics showed they were the most promising batteries. Charge/discharge cycles were performed as many as 27 times, and charge/discharge current was as high as 500 mA. No failure was detected after 50 hours testing. (5) Three-cell planar stacks were designed, constructed, and evaluated. Preliminary tests showed further investigation was needed for optimization. (6) Freeze-thaw survival was remarkably good for planar BASE discs fabricated by MSRI's patented vapor phase process.

  12. Production of glycoprotein-deleted rabies viruses for monosynaptic tracing and high-level gene expression in neurons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wickersham, Ian R.

    Recombinant rabies viruses rendered replication-deficient by the deletion of their envelope glycoprotein gene are useful tools for neuroscientists, permitting (1) extraordinarily high transgene expression levels within ...

  13. ASTATINE-211 RADIOCHEMISTRY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL RADIOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MICHAEL R. ZALUTSKY

    2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is emerging as a viable approach for cancer treatment because of its potential for delivering curative doses of radiation to malignant cell populations while sparing normal tissues. Alpha particles such as those emitted by 211At are particularly attractive for this purpose because of their short path length in tissue and high energy, making them highly effective in killing cancer cells. The current impact of targeted radiotherapy in the clinical domain remains limited despite the fact that in many cases, potentially useful molecular targets and labeled compounds have already been identified. Unfortunately, putting these concepts into practice has been impeded by limitations in radiochemistry methodologies. A critical problem is that the synthesis of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals provides additional challenges in comparison to diagnostic reagents because of the need to perform radio-synthesis at high levels of radioactivity. This is particularly important for {alpha}-particle emitters such as 211At because they deposit large amounts of energy in a highly focal manner. The overall objective of this project is to develop convenient and reproducible radiochemical methodologies for the radiohalogenation of molecules with the {alpha}-particle emitter 211At at the radioactivity levels needed for clinical studies. Our goal is to address two problems in astatine radiochemistry: First, a well known characteristic of 211At chemistry is that yields for electrophilic astatination reactions decline as the time interval after radionuclide isolation from the cyclotron target increases. This is a critical problem that must be addressed if cyclotrons are to be able to efficiently supply 211At to remote users. And second, when the preparation of high levels of 211At-labeled compounds is attempted, the radiochemical yields can be considerably lower than those encountered at tracer dose. For these reasons, clinical evaluation of promising 211At-labeled targeted radiotherapeutics currently is a daunting task. Our central hypothesis is that improvements in 211At radiochemistry are critically dependent on gaining an understanding of and compensating for the effects of radiolysis induced by 211At {alpha}-particles. Because of the widespread interest in labeling antibodies, antibody fragments and peptides with 211At, our proposed work plan will initially focus on reagents that we have developed for this purpose. Part of our strategy is the use of synthetic precursors immobilized on polymeric resins or perfluorous and triarylphosphonium supports. Their use could eliminate the need for a purification step to separate unreacted tin precursor from labeled product and hopefully provide a simple kit technology that could be utilized at other institutions. The specific aims of this project are: (1) To optimze methods for 211At production and isolation of 211At from cyclotron targets; (2) To develop convenient and reproducible methodologies for high activity level and high specific activity radiohalogenation of biomolecules with 211At; (3) to develop a procedure for extending the shelf-life of 211At beyond a few hours so that this radionuclide can be utilized at centers remote from its site of production; and (4) to work out high activity level synthesis methods for utilizing support immobilized tin precursors for 211At labeling. If we are successful in achieving our goals, the radiochemical methodologies that are developed could greatly facilitate the use of 211At-labeled targeted cancer therapeutics in patients, even at institutions that are distant from the few sites currently available for 211At production.

  14. Minor component study for simulated high-level nuclear waste glasses (Draft)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, H.; Langowskim, M.H.; Hrma, P.R.; Schweiger, M.J.; Vienna, J.D.; Smith, D.E.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hanford Site single-shell tank (SSI) and double-shell tank (DSI) wastes are planned to be separated into low activity (or low-level waste, LLW) and high activity (or high-level waste, HLW) fractions, and to be vitrified for disposal. Formulation of HLW glass must comply with glass processibility and durability requirements, including constraints on melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, liquidus temperature, tendency for phase segregation on the molten glass surface, and chemical durability of the final waste form. A wide variety of HLW compositions are expected to be vitrified. In addition these wastes will likely vary in composition from current estimates. High concentrations of certain troublesome components, such as sulfate, phosphate, and chrome, raise concerns about their potential hinderance to the waste vitrification process. For example, phosphate segregation in the cold cap (the layer of feed on top of the glass melt) in a Joule-heated melter may inhibit the melting process (Bunnell, 1988). This has been reported during a pilot-scale ceramic melter run, PSCM-19, (Perez, 1985). Molten salt segregation of either sulfate or chromate is also hazardous to the waste vitrification process. Excessive (Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni) spinel crystal formation in molten glass can also be detrimental to melter operation.

  15. Progress in resolving Hanford Site high-level waste tank safety issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babad, H.; Eberlein, S.J.; Johnson, G.D.; Meacham, J.E.; Osborne, J.W.; Payne, M.A.; Turner, D.A.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interim storage of alkaline, high-level radioactive waste, from two generations of spent fuel reprocessing and waste management activities, has resulted in the accumulation of 238 million liters of waste in Hanford Site single and double-shell tanks. Before the 1990`s, the stored waste was believed to be: (1) chemically unreactive under its existing storage conditions and plausible accident scenarios; and (2) chemically stable. This paradigm was proven incorrect when detailed evaluation of tank contents and behavior revealed a number of safety issues and that the waste was generating flammable and noxious gases. In 1990, the Waste Tank Safety Program was formed to focus on identifying safety issues and resolving the ferrocyanide, flammable gas, organic, high heat, noxious vapor, and criticality issues. The tanks of concern were placed on Watch Lists by safety issue. This paper summarizes recent progress toward resolving Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tank safety issues, including modeling, and analyses, laboratory experiments, monitoring upgrades, mitigation equipment, and developing a strategy to screen tanks for safety issues.

  16. Experiences with High-Level Programming Directives for Porting Applications to GPUs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, Oscar R [ORNL; Ding, Wei [University of Houston, Houston; Chapman, Barbara [University of Houston, Houston; Kartsaklis, Christos [ORNL; Sankaran, Ramanan [ORNL; Graham, Richard L [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HPC systems now exploit GPUs within their compute nodes to accelerate program performance. As a result, high-end application development has become extremely complex at the node level. In addition to restructuring the node code to exploit the cores and specialized devices, the programmer may need to choose a programming model such as OpenMP or CPU threads in conjunction with an accelerator programming model to share and manage the difference node resources. This comes at a time when programmer productivity and the ability to produce portable code has been recognized as a major concern. In order to offset the high development cost of creating CUDA or OpenCL kernels, directives have been proposed for programming accelerator devices, but their implications are not well known. In this paper, we evaluate the state of the art accelerator directives to program several applications kernels, explore transformations to achieve good performance, and examine the expressiveness and performance penalty of using high-level directives versus CUDA. We also compare our results to OpenMP implementations to understand the benefits of running the kernels in the accelerator versus CPU cores.

  17. Technical Exchange on Improved Design and Performance of High Level Waste Melters - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SK Sundaram; ML Elliott; D Bickford

    1999-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    SIA Radon is responsible for management of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) produced in Central Russia. In cooperation with Minatom organizations Radon carries out R and D programs on treatment of simulated high level waste (HLW) as well. Radon scientists deal with a study of materials for LILW, HLW, and Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) wastes immobilization, and development and testing of processes and technologies for waste treatment and disposal. Radon is mostly experienced in LILW vitrification. This experience can be carried over to HLW vitrification especially in field of melting systems. The melter chosen as a basic unit for the vitrification plant is a cold crucible. Later on Radon experience in LILW vitrification as well as our results on simulated HLW vitrification are briefly described.

  18. Increasing High-Level Waste Loading In Glass Without Changing The Baseline Melter Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Alton, Jesse; Plaisted, Trevor J.; Klouzek, Jaroslav; Matyas, Josef; Mika, Martin; Schill, Petr; Trochta, Miroslav; Nemec, Lubomir

    2001-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The main factors that determine the cost of high-level waste (HLW) vitrification are the waste loading (which determines the volume of glass) and the melting rate. Product quality should be the only factor determining the waste loading while melter design should provide a rapid melting technology. In reality, the current HLW melters are slow in glass-production rate and are subjected to operational risks that require waste loading to be kept far below its intrinsic level. One of the constraints that decrease waste loading is the liquidus-temperature limit. close inspection reveals that this constraint is probably too severe, even for the current technology. The purpose of the liquidus-temperature constraint is to prevent solids from settling on the melter bottom. It appears that some limited settling would niether interfere with melter operation nor shorten its lifetime and that the rate of settling can be greatly reduced if only small crystals are allowed to form.

  19. SEPARATION OF DIASTEREOMERS, STRUCTURAL ISOMERS, AND HOMOLOGS OF n5 -CYCLOPENTADIENYL COBALT AND DINUCLEAR MOLYBDENUM COMPLEXES BY REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY USING DEOXYGENATED SOLVENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, John M.; King, Jr., Joseph A.; Peter, K.; Vollhardt, C.; Winter, Mark J.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is being used as an analytical and preparative tool for the characterization and isolation of a series of air-sensitive organometallic compounds, Reverse phase chranatography with octadecylsilyl-modified silica (ODS) as a stationary phase and polar mobile phases saturated with argon are employed in the separation of products,

  20. High level seismic/vibrational tests at the HDR: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Hsieh, B.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Schrammel, D.; Malcher, L. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany)); Steinhilber, H. (Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg, Giessen (Germany)); Costello, J.F. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Phase II testing at the HDR Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG, two series of high-level seismic/vibrational experiments were performed. In the first of these (SHAG) a coast-down shaker, mounted on the reactor operating floor and capable of generating 1000 tonnes of force, was used to investigate full-scale structural response, soil-structure interaction (SSI), and piping/equipment response at load levels equivalent to those of a design basis earthquake. The HDR soil/structure system was tested to incipient failure exhibiting highly nonlinear response. In the load transmission from structure to piping/equipment significant response amplifications and shifts to higher frequencies occurred. The performance of various pipe support configurations was evaluated. This latter effort was continued in the second series of tests (SHAM), in which an in-plant piping system was investigated at simulated seismic loads (generated by two servo-hydraulic actuators each capable of generating 40 tonnes of force), that exceeded design levels manifold and resulted in considerable pipe plastification and failure of some supports (snubbers). The evaluation of six different support configurations demonstrated that proper system design (for a given spectrum) rather than number of supports or system stiffness is essential to limiting pipe stresses. Pipe strains at loads exceeding the design level eightfold were still tolerable, indicating that pipe failure even under extreme seismic loads is unlikely inspite of multiple support failures. Conservatively, an excess capacity (margin) of at least four was estimated for the piping system, and the pipe damping was found to be 4%. Comparisons of linear and nonlinear computational results with measurements showed that analytical predictions have wide scatter and do not necessarily yield conservative responses, underpredicting, in particular, peak support forces.

  1. High level seismic/vibrational tests at the HDR: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Hsieh, B.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Schrammel, D.; Malcher, L. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Steinhilber, H. [Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg, Giessen (Germany); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Phase II testing at the HDR Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG, two series of high-level seismic/vibrational experiments were performed. In the first of these (SHAG) a coast-down shaker, mounted on the reactor operating floor and capable of generating 1000 tonnes of force, was used to investigate full-scale structural response, soil-structure interaction (SSI), and piping/equipment response at load levels equivalent to those of a design basis earthquake. The HDR soil/structure system was tested to incipient failure exhibiting highly nonlinear response. In the load transmission from structure to piping/equipment significant response amplifications and shifts to higher frequencies occurred. The performance of various pipe support configurations was evaluated. This latter effort was continued in the second series of tests (SHAM), in which an in-plant piping system was investigated at simulated seismic loads (generated by two servo-hydraulic actuators each capable of generating 40 tonnes of force), that exceeded design levels manifold and resulted in considerable pipe plastification and failure of some supports (snubbers). The evaluation of six different support configurations demonstrated that proper system design (for a given spectrum) rather than number of supports or system stiffness is essential to limiting pipe stresses. Pipe strains at loads exceeding the design level eightfold were still tolerable, indicating that pipe failure even under extreme seismic loads is unlikely inspite of multiple support failures. Conservatively, an excess capacity (margin) of at least four was estimated for the piping system, and the pipe damping was found to be 4%. Comparisons of linear and nonlinear computational results with measurements showed that analytical predictions have wide scatter and do not necessarily yield conservative responses, underpredicting, in particular, peak support forces.

  2. Progress in High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockie, K. A.; McNaught, W. B.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is making preparations to close two underground high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and Department of Energy (DOE) orders. Closure of these two tanks is scheduled for 2004 as the first phase in closure of the eleven 300,000 gallon tanks currently in service at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Design, development, and deployment of a remotely operated tank cleaning system were completed in August 2001. The system incorporates many commercially available components, which have been adapted for application in cleaning high-level waste tanks. The system also uses existing waste transfer technology (steam-jets) to remove tank heel solids from the tank bottoms during the cleaning operations. By using this existing transfer system and commercially available equipment, the cost of developing custom designed cleaning equipment can be avoided. Remotely operated directional spray nozzles, automatic rotating wash balls, video monitoring equipment, decontamination spray-rings, and tank specific access interface devices have been integrated to provide a system that efficiently cleans tank walls and heel solids in an acidic, radioactive environment. This system is also compliant with operational and safety performance requirements at INTEC. Through the deployment of the tank cleaning system, the INEEL High Level Waste Program has demonstrated the capability to clean tanks to meet RCRA clean closure standards and DOE closure performance measures. The tank cleaning system deployed at the INTEC offers unique advantages over other approaches evaluated at the INEEL and throughout the DOE Complex. The system's ability to agitate and homogenize the tank heel sludge will simplify verification-sampling techniques and reduce the total quantity of samples required to demonstrate compliance with the performance standards. This will reduce tank closure budget requirements and improve closure-planning schedules.

  3. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Phase 1 High Level Waste Feed Tanks Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CRAWFORD, T.W.

    1999-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent revision of the US. Department of Energy privatization contract for the immobilization of high-level waste (HLW) at Hanford necessitates the investigation of alternative waste feed sources to meet contractual feed requirements. This analysis identifies wastes to be considered as HLW feeds and develops and conducts alternative analyses to comply with established criteria. A total of 12,426 cases involving 72 waste streams are evaluated and ranked in three cost-based alternative models. Additional programmatic criteria are assessed against leading alternative options to yield an optimum blended waste feed stream.

  4. RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK PITTING PREDICTIONS: AN INVESTIGATION INTO CRITICAL SOLUTION CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E.

    2012-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests was performed on samples of ASTM A537 carbon steel in support of a probability-based approach to evaluate the effect of chloride and sulfate on corrosion the steel?s susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Testing solutions were chosen to systemically evaluate the influence of the secondary aggressive species, chloride, and sulfate, in the nitrate based, high-level wastes. The results suggest that evaluating the combined effect of all aggressive species, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate, provides a consistent response for determining corrosion susceptibility. The results of this work emphasize the importance for not only nitrate concentration limits, but also chloride and sulfate concentration limits.

  5. Practical experience in achieving high levels of accuracy in energy simulations of existing buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waltz, J.P. [Energy Resource Associates, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The computer simulation of existing buildings presents unique problems and opportunities. A high level of accuracy can only be achieved through optimization of three factors: (1) an intimate understanding of the simulation tool; (2) an intimate understanding of the building to be simulated; (3) careful analysis and critique of output data. Optimization of these factors regularly produces computer simulations within 5% of the measured consumption. Examples of the optimization means are provided in this article. The values of computerized simulation in an energy services (ESCO) contract are also discussed.

  6. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II.

  7. High-Level Functional and Operational Requirements for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facilty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Park

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-Level Functional & Operational Requirements for the AFCF -This document describes the principal functional and operational requirements for the proposed Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). The AFCF is intended to be the world's foremost facility for nuclear fuel cycle research, technology development, and demonstration. The facility will also support the near-term mission to develop and demonstrate technology in support of fuel cycle needs identified by industry, and the long-term mission to retain and retain U.S. leadership in fuel cycle operations. The AFCF is essential to demonstrate a more proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and make long-term improvements in fuel cycle effectiveness, performance and economy.

  8. Collaboration, Automation, and Information Management at Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aurah, Mirwaise Y.; Roberts, Mark A.

    2013-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), operator of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms at the Hanford Site, is taking an over 20-year leap in technology, replacing systems that were monitored with clipboards and obsolete computer systems, as well as solving major operations and maintenance hurdles in the area of process automation and information management. While WRPS is fully compliant with procedures and regulations, the current systems are not integrated and do not share data efficiently, hampering how information is obtained and managed.

  9. Isothermal crystallization kinetics in simulated high-level nuclear waste glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, J.D.; Hrma, P.; Smith, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Crystallization kinetics of a simulated high-level waste (HLW) glass were measured and modelled. Kinetics of acmite growth in the standard HW39-4 glass were measured using the isothermal method. A time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram was generated from these data. Classical glass-crystal transformation kinetic models were empirically applied to the crystallization data. These models adequately describe the kinetics of crystallization in complex HLW glasses (i.e., RSquared = 0.908). An approach to measurement, fitting, and use of TTT diagrams for prediction of crystallinity in a HLW glass canister is proposed.

  10. Performance assessment overview for subseabed disposal of high level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) was part of an international program that investigated the feasibility of high-level radioactive waste disposal in the deep ocean sediments. This report briefly describes the seven-step iterative performance assessment procedures used in this study and presents representative results of the last iteration. The results of the performance are compared to interim standards developed for the SDP, to other conceptual repositories, and to related metrics. The attributes, limitations, uncertainties, and remaining tasks in the SDP feasibility phase are discussed.

  11. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

  12. Using electrochemical separation to reduce the volume of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, S.A.; Gay, E.C.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed an electrochemical separation technique called electrorefining that will treat a variety of metallic spent nuclear fuel and reduce the volume of high-level nuclear waste that requires disposal. As part of that effort, ANL has developed a high throughput electrorefiner (HTER) that has a transport rate approximately three times faster than electrorefiners previously developed at ANL. This higher rate is due to the higher electrode surface area, a shorter transport path, and more efficient mixing, which leads to smaller boundary layers about the electrodes. This higher throughput makes electrorefining an attractive option in treating Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels. Experiments have been done to characterize the HTER, and a simulant metallic fuel has been successfully treated. The HTER design and experimental results is discussed.

  13. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface...

  14. High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Water- Soluble Organic Aerosols Collected with a Particle into Liquid Sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work demonstrates the utility of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) a technique traditionally used for identification of inorganic ions present in ambient or laboratory aerosols for the analysis of water soluble organic aerosol (OA) using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was produced from 0.5 ppm mixing ratios of limonene and ozone in a 5 m3 Teflon chamber. SOA was collected simultaneously using a traditional filter sampler and a PILS. The filter samples were later extracted with either water or acetonitrile, while the aqueous PILS samples were analyzed directly. In terms of peak intensities, types of detectable compounds, average O:C ratios, and organic mass to organic carbon ratios, the resulting high resolution mass spectra were essentially identical for the PILS and filter based samples. SOA compounds extracted from both filter/acetonitrile extraction and PILS/water extraction accounted for >95% of the total ion current in ESI mass spectra. This similarity was attributed to high solubility of limonene SOA in water. In contrast, significant differences in detected ions and peak abundances were observed for pine needle biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) collected with PILS and filter sampling. The water soluble fraction of BBOA is considerably smaller than for SOA, and a number of unique peaks were detectable only by the filter/acetonitrile method. The combination of PILS collection with HR-ESI-MS analysis offers a new approach for molecular analysis of the water-soluble organic fraction in biogenic SOA, aged photochemical smog, and BBOA.

  15. Complete temperature profiles in ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritti, Fabrice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The temperature profiles were calculated along and across seven packed columns (lengths 30, 50, 100, and 150 mm, i.d., 1 and 2.1 mm, all packed with Acquity UPLC, BEH-C{sub 18} particles, average d{sub p} {approx} 1.7 {micro}m) and their stainless steel tubes (o.d. 4.53 and 6.35 mm). These columns were kept horizontal and sheltered from forced air convection (i.e., under still air conditions), at room temperature. They were all percolated with pure acetonitrile, either under the maximum pressure drop (1034 bar) or at the maximum flow rate (2 mL/min) permitted by the chromatograph. The heat balance equation of chromatographic columns was discretized and solved numerically with minimum approximation. Both the compressibility and the thermal expansion of the eluent were taken into account. The boundary conditions were determined from the experimental measurements of the column inlet pressure and of the temperature profile along the column wall, which were made with a precision better than {+-}0.1 K. These calculation results provide the 3-D temperature profiles along and across the columns. The axial and radial temperature gradients are discussed in relationship with the experimental conditions used. The temperature map obtained permits a prediction of the chromatographic data obtained under a very high pressure gradient.

  16. Towards Increased Waste Loading in High Level Waste Glasses: Developing a Better Understanding of Crystallization Behavior

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marra, James C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kim, Dong -Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JCHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these ''troublesome'' waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (with higher Al2O3). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group.

  17. Towards Increased Waste Loading in High Level Waste Glasses: Developing a Better Understanding of Crystallization Behavior

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marra, James C.; Kim, Dong -Sang

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JCHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these ''troublesome'' waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advancedmore »glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (with higher Al2O3). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group.« less

  18. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion.This document is organized into three volumes. Volumes I and II represent a tiered set of information intended for somewhat different audiences. Volume I is intended to provide an overview of waste glass corrosion, and Volume 11 is intended to provide additional experimental details on experimental factors that influence waste glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II. Volume I is intended for managers, decision makers, and modelers, the combined set of Volumes I, II, and III is intended for scientists and engineers working in the field of high-level waste.

  19. A High-Performance Fortran Code to Calculate Spin- and Parity-Dependent Nuclear Level Densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Sen'kov; M. Horoi; V. G. Zelevinsky

    2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-performance Fortran code is developed to calculate the spin- and parity-dependent shell model nuclear level densities.The algorithm is based on the extension of methods of statistical spectroscopy and implies exact calculation of the first and second Hamiltonian moments for different configurations at fixed spin and parity. The proton-neutron formalism is used. We have applied the method for calculating the level densities for a set of nuclei in the sd-, pf-, and pf+g9/2 - model spaces. Examples of the calculations for 28Si (in the sd-model space) and 64Ge (in the pf+g9/2-model space) are presented. To illustrate the power of the method we estimate the ground state energy of 64Ge in the larger model space pf+g9/2, which is not accessible to direct shell model diagonalization due to the prohibitively large dimension, by comparing with the nuclear level densities at low excitation energy calculated in the smaller model space pf.

  20. A High-Performance Fortran Code to Calculate Spin- and Parity-Dependent Nuclear Level Densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen'kov, R; Zelevinsky, V G

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-performance Fortran code is developed to calculate the spin- and parity-dependent shell model nuclear level densities.The algorithm is based on the extension of methods of statistical spectroscopy and implies exact calculation of the first and second Hamiltonian moments for different configurations at fixed spin and parity. The proton-neutron formalism is used. We have applied the method for calculating the level densities for a set of nuclei in the sd-, pf-, and pf+g9/2 - model spaces. Examples of the calculations for 28Si (in the sd-model space) and 64Ge (in the pf+g9/2-model space) are presented. To illustrate the power of the method we estimate the ground state energy of 64Ge in the larger model space pf+g9/2, which is not accessible to direct shell model diagonalization due to the prohibitively large dimension, by comparing with the nuclear level densities at low excitation energy calculated in the smaller model space pf.

  1. Pulsed laser kinetic studies of liquids under high pressure. Final technical report, April 1, 1990--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eyring, E.M.

    1993-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been developed for measuring the rates of chemical reactions liquids and in supercritical Co{sub 2}. A pulsed (Q-switch) Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm was the pump beam for laser flash photolysis studies of molybdenum and tungsten hexacarbonyls undergoing ligand displacement reactions by bidentate chelating agents such as 2,2{prime}-bipyridine in toluene. Experiments were carried out at 0.1 to 150 MPa. In the case of molybdenum complexes, the reaction mechanism for thermal ring closure is found from activation volumes to change from associative interchange to dissociative interchange as substituents on the 2,2{prime}-bipyridine ligands become bulkier. In a similar study of more rigid, substituted phenanthroline bidentate ligands it was found that substituent bulkiness had little effect on the thermal ring closure mechanism. Similar high pressure flash photolysis experiments with tungsten hexacarbonyl have also been completed. The concentration dependence of the fluorescence and nonradiative decay quantum yields for cresyl violet in several solvent have been reported as well as stability constants for the complexation of lithium ion by four different crown ethers dissolved in a room temperature molten salt.

  2. NSLS-II HIGH LEVEL APPLICATION INFRASTRUCTURE AND CLIENT API DESIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, G.; Yang; L.; Shroff; K.

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The beam commissioning software framework of NSLS-II project adopts a client/server based architecture to replace the more traditional monolithic high level application approach. It is an open structure platform, and we try to provide a narrow API set for client application. With this narrow API, existing applications developed in different language under different architecture could be ported to our platform with small modification. This paper describes system infrastructure design, client API and system integration, and latest progress. As a new 3rd generation synchrotron light source with ultra low emittance, there are new requirements and challenges to control and manipulate the beam. A use case study and a theoretical analysis have been performed to clarify requirements and challenges to the high level applications (HLA) software environment. To satisfy those requirements and challenges, adequate system architecture of the software framework is critical for beam commissioning, study and operation. The existing traditional approaches are self-consistent, and monolithic. Some of them have adopted a concept of middle layer to separate low level hardware processing from numerical algorithm computing, physics modelling, data manipulating, plotting, and error handling. However, none of the existing approaches can satisfy the requirement. A new design has been proposed by introducing service oriented architecture technology. The HLA is combination of tools for accelerator physicists and operators, which is same as traditional approach. In NSLS-II, they include monitoring applications and control routines. Scripting environment is very important for the later part of HLA and both parts are designed based on a common set of APIs. Physicists and operators are users of these APIs, while control system engineers and a few accelerator physicists are the developers of these APIs. With our Client/Server mode based approach, we leave how to retrieve information to the developers of APIs and how to use them to form a physics application to the users. For example, how the channels are related to magnet and what the current real-time setting of a magnet is in physics unit are the internals of APIs. Measuring chromaticities are the users of APIs. All the users of APIs are working with magnet and instrument names in a physics unit. The low level communications in current or voltage unit are minimized. In this paper, we discussed our recent progress of our infrastructure development, and client API.

  3. Level indicator for pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid-level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic-field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal-processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  4. MELT RATE ENHANCEMENT FOR HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS FORMULATION FINAL REPORT 08R1360-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT W; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I; BARDAKCI T; GAN H; GONG W; CHAUDHURI M

    2010-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the development and testing of new glass formulations for high aluminum waste streams that achieve high waste loadings while maintaining high processing rates. The testing was based on the compositions of Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) with limiting concentrations of aluminum specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP). The testing identified glass formulations that optimize waste loading and waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts and small scale melt rate screening tests. The results were used to select compositions for subsequent testing in a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) system. These tests were used to determine processing rates for the selected formulations as well as to examine the effects of increased glass processing temperature, and the form of aluminum in the waste simulant. Finally, one of the formulations was selected for large-scale confirmatory testing on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200), which is a one third scale prototype of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW melter and off-gas treatment system. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy (DOE) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same high-aluminum waste composition used in the present work and other Hanford HLW compositions. The scope of this study was outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the WTP is about 13,500 (equivalent to 40,500 MT glass). This estimate is based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and glass melting rate. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of {approx}1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HLW waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150 C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product. Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage. The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet WTP Contract terms. The WTP's overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulfur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in wasteloading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. It is expected that these higher waste loading glasses will reduce the HLW canister production requirement by about 25% or more.

  5. High-Pressure Phase Equilibria of Ionic Liquids and Compressed Gases for Applications in Reactions and Absorption Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Wei

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    for reactions and separations. However, without understanding the phase equilibrium, the kinetics results cannot be properly interpreted. This work also demonstrates that the absorption refrigeration system using ionic liquids and compressed gases in vehicles...

  6. The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Spinel crystals precipitate in high-level waste glasses containing Fe, Cr, Ni , Mn, Zn, and Ru. The liquidus temperature (TL) of spinel as the primary crystallization phase is a function of glass composition and the spinel solubility (c0) is a function of both glass composition and temperature (T). Previously reported models of TL as a function of composition are based on TL measured directly, which requires laborious experimental procedures. Viewing the curve of c0 versus T as the liquidus line allows a significant broadening of the composition region for model fitting. This paper estimates TL as a function of composition based on c0 data obtained with the X-ray diffraction technique.

  7. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  8. Operating experience during high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valenti, P.J.; Elliott, D.I.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a summary of operational experiences, component and system performance, and lessons learned associated with the operation of the Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The VF was designed to convert stored high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stable waste form (borosilicate glass) suitable for disposal in a federal repository. Following successful completion on nonradioactive test, HLW processing began in July 1995. Completion of Phase 1 of HLW processing was reached on 10 June 1998 and represented the processing of 9.32 million curies of cesium-137 (Cs-137) and strontium-90 (Sr-90) to fill 211 canisters with over 436,000 kilograms of glass. With approximately 85% of the total estimated curie content removed from underground waste storage tanks during Phase 1, subsequent operations will focus on removal of tank heel wastes.

  9. Conceptual modular description of the high-level waste management system for system studies model development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKee, R.W.; Young, J.R.; Konzek, G.J.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents modular descriptions of possible alternative components of the federal high-level radioactive waste management system and the procedures for combining these modules to obtain descriptions for alternative configurations of that system. The 20 separate system component modules presented here can be combined to obtain a description of any of the 17 alternative system configurations (i.e., scenarios) that were evaluated in the MRS Systems Studies program (DOE 1989a). First-approximation descriptions of other yet-undefined system configurations could also be developed for system study purposes from this database. The descriptions include, in a modular format, both functional descriptions of the processes in the waste management system, plus physical descriptions of the equipment and facilities necessary for performance of those functions.

  10. Alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, and container processing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, T.W.

    1995-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, container processing systems, and onsite interim storage. Glass waste forms considered are cullet, marbles, gems, and monolithic glass. Small and large containers configured with several combinations of overpack confinement and shield casks are evaluated for these waste forms. Onsite interim storage concepts including canister storage building, bore holes, and storage pad were configured with various glass forms and canister alternatives. All favorable options include the monolithic glass production process as the waste form. Of the favorable options the unshielded 4- and 7-canister overpack options have the greatest technical assurance associated with their design concepts due to their process packaging and storage methods. These canisters are 0.68 m and 0.54 m in diameter respectively and 4.57 m tall. Life-cycle costs are not a discriminating factor in most cases, varying typically less than 15 percent.

  11. Crucible Study of Spinel Settling in Molten High-Level Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klouzek, Jaroslav; Alton, Jesse; Hrma, Pavel R.; Plaisted, Trevor J.

    2000-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    To produce the conditions for settling of spinel crystals in a quiescent high-level waste glass melt, we used a double crucible assembly that eliminated Marangoni convection and limited bubble generation in a portion of melt volume. We observed the movement of the settling front as a function of time at temperatures 900, 950 and 1000?C. The shape of the settling front was approximately parabolic with a flap tip indicating that the settling crystals drove a convective cell within the melt. The rate of settling was close to that predicted by the Stokes' law when the growth rate of spinel crystals was taken into account. The calculated settling velocity was modified by a semi-empirical settling function providing an agreement with experimental results within 5%. In addition, spinel settling was simulated by the mathematical model that predicted the concentration distribution of spinel in glass melt and the accumulation of particles at the bottom of the crucible.

  12. The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A. A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hrma, Pavel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Spinel crystals precipitate in high-level waste glasses containing Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn, and Ru. The liquidus temperature (T{sub L}d) of spinel as the primary crystallization phase is a function of glass composition, and the spinel solubility (c{sub o}) is a function of both glass composition and temperature (T). Previously reported models of T{sub L} as a function of composition are based on T{sub L} measured directly, which requires laborious experimental procedures. Viewing the curve of c{sub o} versus T as the liquidus line allows a significant broadening of the composition region for model fitting. This paper estimates T{sub L} as a function of composition based on c{sub o} data obtained with the X-ray diffraction technique.

  13. Phase chemistry and radionuclide retention of high level radioactive waste tank sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.; ZHANG,PENGCHU; ARTHUR,SARA E.; HUTCHERSON,SHEILA K.; LIU,J.; QIAN,M.; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

    2000-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of high level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington and Savannah River, South Carolina. These tanks will eventually be emptied and decommissioned. This will leave a residue of sludge adhering to the interior tank surfaces that may contaminate groundwaters with radionuclides and RCRA metals. Experimentation on such sludges is both dangerous and prohibitively expensive so there is a great advantage to developing artificial sludges. The US DOE Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) has funded a program to investigate the feasibility of developing such materials. The following text reports on the success of this program, and suggests that much of the radioisotope inventory left in a tank will not move out into the surrounding environment. Ultimately, such studies may play a significant role in developing safe and cost effective tank closure strategies.

  14. C-106 High-Level Waste Solids: Washing/Leaching and Solubility Versus Temperature Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; PK Berry; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; RC Lettau; GF Piepel; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the Hanford tank C-106 high-level waste (HLW) solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-106 solids remaining after washing with 0.01M NaOH or leaching with 3M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of various C-106 components as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8,Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section.

  15. Overview of Hanford Site High-Level Waste Tank Gas and Vapor Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Droppo, James G.; Meacham, Joseph E.

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hanford Site processes associated with the chemical separation of plutonium from uranium and other fission products produced a variety of volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile organic and inorganic waste chemicals that were sent to high-level waste tanks. These chemicals have undergone and continue to undergo radiolytic and thermal reactions in the tanks to produce a wide variety of degradation reaction products. The origins of the organic wastes, the chemical reactions they undergo, and their reaction products have recently been examined by Stock (2004). Stock gives particular attention to explaining the presence of various types of volatile and semivolatile organic species identified in headspace air samples. This report complements the Stock report by examining the storage of volatile and semivolatile species in the waste, their transport through any overburden of waste to the tank headspaces, the physical phenomena affecting their concentrations in the headspaces, and their eventual release into the atmosphere above the tanks.

  16. Methods of calculating the post-closure performance of high-level waste repositories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, B. (ed.)

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is intended as an overview of post-closure performance assessment methods for high-level radioactive waste repositories and is designed to give the reader a broad sense of the state of the art of this technology. As described here, ''the state of the art'' includes only what has been reported in report, journal, and conference proceedings literature through August 1987. There is a very large literature on the performance of high-level waste repositories. In order to make a review of this breadth manageable, its scope must be carefully defined. The essential principle followed is that only methods of calculating the long-term performance of waste repositories are described. The report is organized to reflect, in a generalized way, the logical order to steps that would be taken in a typical performance assessment. Chapter 2 describes ways of identifying scenarios and estimating their probabilities. Chapter 3 presents models used to determine the physical and chemical environment of a repository, including models of heat transfer, radiation, geochemistry, rock mechanics, brine migration, radiation effects on chemistry, and coupled processes. The next two chapters address the performance of specific barriers to release of radioactivity. Chapter 4 treats engineered barriers, including containers, waste forms, backfills around waste packages, shaft and borehole seals, and repository design features. Chapter 5 discusses natural barriers, including ground water systems and stability of salt formations. The final chapters address optics of general applicability to performance assessment models. Methods of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are described in Chapter 6, and natural analogues of repositories are treated in Chapter 7. 473 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. International program to study subseabed disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlin, E.M.; Hinga, K.R.; Knauss, J.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview of the international program to study seabed disposal of nuclear wastes. Its purpose is to inform legislators, other policy makers, and the general public as to the history of the program, technological requirements necessary for feasibility assessment, legal questions involved, international coordination of research, national policies, and research and development activities. Each of these major aspects of the program is presented in a separate section. The objective of seabed burial, similar to its continental counterparts, is to contain and to isolate the wastes. The subseabed option should not be confuesed with past practices of ocean dumping which have introduced wastes into ocean waters. Seabed disposal refers to the emplacement of solidified high-level radioactive waste (with or without reprocessing) in certain geologically stable sediments of the deep ocean floor. Specially designed surface ships would transport waste canisters from a port facility to the disposal site. Canisters would be buried from a few tens to a few hundreds of meters below the surface of ocean bottom sediments, and hence would not be in contact with the overlying ocean water. The concept is a multi-barrier approach for disposal. Barriers, including waste form, canister, ad deep ocean sediments, will separate wastes from the ocean environment. High-level wastes (HLW) would be stabilized by conversion into a leach-resistant solid form such as glass. This solid would be placed inside a metallic canister or other type of package which represents a second barrier. The deep ocean sediments, a third barrier, are discussed in the Feasibility Assessment section. The waste form and canister would provide a barrier for several hundred years, and the sediments would be relied upon as a barrier for thousands of years. 62 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Summary Of Cold Crucible Vitrification Tests Results With Savannah River Site High Level Waste Surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefanovsky, Sergey; Marra, James; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) technology successfully applied for vitrification of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at SIA Radon, Russia, was tested to be implemented for vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) stored at Savannah River Site, USA. Mixtures of Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and 4 (SB4) waste surrogates and borosilicate frits as slurries were vitrified in bench- (236 mm inner diameter) and full-scale (418 mm inner diameter) cold crucibles. Various process conditions were tested and major process variables were determined. Melts were poured into 10L canisters and cooled to room temperature in air or in heat-insulated boxes by a regime similar to Canister Centerline Cooling (CCC) used at DWPF. The products with waste loading from ~40 to ~65 wt.% were investigated in details. The products contained 40 to 55 wt.% waste oxides were predominantly amorphous; at higher waste loadings (WL) spinel structure phases and nepheline were present. Normalized release values for Li, B, Na, and Si determined by PCT procedure remain lower than those from EA glass at waste loadings of up to 60 wt.%.

  19. A COMPARISON OF HANFORD AND SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH-LEVEL WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HILL RC PHILIP; REYNOLDS JG; RUTLAND PL

    2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is a simple comparison of high-level waste from plutonium production stored in tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Savannah River principally used the PUREX process for plutonium separation. Hanford used the PUREX, Bismuth Phosphate, and REDOX processes, and reprocessed many wastes for recovery of uranium and fission products. Thus, Hanford has 55 distinct waste types, only 17 of which could be at Savannah River. While Hanford and Savannah River wastes both have high concentrations of sodium nitrate, caustic, iron, and aluminum, Hanford wastes have higher concentrations of several key constituents. The factors by which average concentrations are higher in Hanford salt waste than in Savannah River waste are 67 for {sup 241}Am, 4 for aluminum, 18 for chromium, 10 for fluoride, 8 for phosphate, 6 for potassium, and 2 for sulfate. The factors by which average concentrations are higher in Hanford sludges than in Savannah River sludges are 3 for chromium, 19 for fluoride, 67 for phosphate, and 6 for zirconium. Waste composition differences must be considered before a waste processing method is selected: A method may be applicable to one site but not to the other.

  20. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

  1. Advanced Inverter Technology for High Penetration Levels of PV Generation in Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schauder, C.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This subcontract report was completed under the auspices of the NREL/SCE High-Penetration Photovoltaic (PV) Integration Project, which is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD&D) program funded by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) and managed by Itron. This project is focused on modeling, quantifying, and mitigating the impacts of large utility-scale PV systems (generally 1-5 MW in size) that are interconnected to the distribution system. This report discusses the concerns utilities have when interconnecting large PV systems that interconnect using PV inverters (a specific application of frequency converters). Additionally, a number of capabilities of PV inverters are described that could be implemented to mitigate the distribution system-level impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Finally, the main issues that need to be addressed to ease the interconnection of large PV systems to the distribution system are presented.

  2. Settling of Spinel in A High-Level Waste Glass Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel Hrma; Pert Schill; Lubomir Nemec

    2002-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    High-level nuclear waste is being vitrified, i.e., converted to a durable glass that can be stored in a safe repository for hundreds of thousands of years. Waste vitrification is accomplished in reactors call melters to which the waste is charged together with glass-forming additives. The mixture is electrically heated to a temperature as high as 1150 degree C (or even higher in advanced melters) to create a melt that becomes glass on cooling. This process is slow and expensive. Moreover, the melters that are currently in use or are going to be used in the U.S. are sensitive to clogging and thus cannot process melt in which solid particles are suspended. These particles settle and gradually accumulate on the melter bottom. Such particles, most often small crystals of spinel ( a mineral containing iron, nickel, chromium, and other minor oxides), inevitably occurred in the melt when the content of the waste in the glass (called waste loading) increases above a certain limit. To avoid the presence of solid particles in the melter, the waste loading is kept rather low, in average 15% lower than in glass formulated for more robust melters.

  3. Settling of Spinel in a High-Level Waste Glass Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Schill, Pert; Nemec, Lubomir

    2002-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    High-level nuclear waste is being vitrified, i.e., converted to a durable glass that can be stored in a safe repository for hundreds of thousands of years. Waste vitrification is accomplished in reactors called melters to which the waste is charged together with glass-forming additives. The mixture is electrically heated to a temperature as high as 1150?C (or even higher in advanced melters) to create a melt that becomes glass on cooling. This process is slow and expensive. Moreover, the melters that are currently in use or are going to be used in the U.S. are sensitive to clogging and thus cannot process melt in which solid particles are suspended. These particles settle and gradually accumulate on the melter bottom. Such particles, most often small crystals of spinel (a mineral containing iron, nickel, chromium, and other minor oxides), inevitably occur in the melt when the content of the waste in the glass (called waste loading) increases above a certain limit. To avoid the presence of solid particles in the melter, the waste loading is kept rather low, in average 15% lower than in glass formulated for more robust melters.

  4. Risk perception on management of nuclear high-level and transuranic waste storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dees, L.A.

    1994-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy`s program for disposing of nuclear High-Level Waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste has been impeded by overwhelming political opposition fueled by public perceptions of actual risk. Analysis of these perceptions shows them to be deeply rooted in images of fear and dread that have been present since the discovery of radioactivity. The development and use of nuclear weapons linked these images to reality and the mishandling of radioactive waste from the nations military weapons facilities has contributed toward creating a state of distrust that cannot be erased quickly or easily. In addition, the analysis indicates that even the highly educated technical community is not well informed on the latest technology involved with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. It is not surprising then, that the general public feels uncomfortable with DOE`s management plans for with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. Postponing the permanent geologic repository and use of Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) would provide the time necessary for difficult social and political issues to be resolved. It would also allow time for the public to become better educated if DOE chooses to become proactive.

  5. Study on the colloids generated from testing of high-level nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, X.; Buck, E.C.; Mertz, C.; Bates, J.K.; Cunnane, J.C.; Chaiko, D.J.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The generation of colloids in the interaction of high-level nuclear waste glasses with groundwater at 90{degrees}C has been investigated. The stability of the colloidal suspensions has been characterized with respect to salt concentration, pH time, particle size, and zeta potential. The compositions and the morphology of the colloids have also been determined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From ourtest results combined with earlier ones, we conclude that the waste glass may contribute to the colloid formation by increasing ion concentration in groundwater, which causes nucleation of colloids; by releasing radionuclides that adsorb onto existing groundwater colloids; and by spalling colloidal-size fragments from the surface layer of the reacted glass. The colloids are silicon-rich particles, such as smectites and uranium silicates. When the salt concentration in the solution is high the colloidal suspensions agglomerate. However, the agglomerated particles can be resuspended if the salt concentration is lowered by dilution with groundwater. The colloids agglomerate quickly after the leachate is cooled to room temperature. Most of the colloids settle out of the solution within a few days at ambient temperature. The isoelectric point is at a pH of approximately 1.0. Between pH 1 and 10.5, the colloids are negatively charged, which suggests that they will deposit readily on, positively charged surfaces. The average particle size islargest at the isoelectric point and is smallest around pH 6.

  6. Study on the colloids generated from testing of high-level nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, X.; Buck, E.C.; Mertz, C.; Bates, J.K.; Cunnane, J.C.; Chaiko, D.J.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The generation of colloids in the interaction of high-level nuclear waste glasses with groundwater at 90[degrees]C has been investigated. The stability of the colloidal suspensions has been characterized with respect to salt concentration, pH time, particle size, and zeta potential. The compositions and the morphology of the colloids have also been determined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From ourtest results combined with earlier ones, we conclude that the waste glass may contribute to the colloid formation by increasing ion concentration in groundwater, which causes nucleation of colloids; by releasing radionuclides that adsorb onto existing groundwater colloids; and by spalling colloidal-size fragments from the surface layer of the reacted glass. The colloids are silicon-rich particles, such as smectites and uranium silicates. When the salt concentration in the solution is high the colloidal suspensions agglomerate. However, the agglomerated particles can be resuspended if the salt concentration is lowered by dilution with groundwater. The colloids agglomerate quickly after the leachate is cooled to room temperature. Most of the colloids settle out of the solution within a few days at ambient temperature. The isoelectric point is at a pH of approximately 1.0. Between pH 1 and 10.5, the colloids are negatively charged, which suggests that they will deposit readily on, positively charged surfaces. The average particle size islargest at the isoelectric point and is smallest around pH 6.

  7. Analysis of liquified coal for nitrogenous bases; separation by high performance liquid chromatography and identification by probe microdistillation/mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schronk, Leonard Royce

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    units 82 CHAPTER I RESEARCH OBJECTIVE AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE Objective and Importance of Work The objective of this research is to develop a new method for analyzing coal liquefaction products through a combination of high performance liquid... in demand. These needs have necessi- tated the development of new sources of fuel. One of these new sources of fuel is synthetic crude derived from coal by liquefaction processes. It provides a promising temporary alternative to a long-term solution...

  8. Site Selection and Geological Research Connected with High Level Waste Disposal Programme in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomas, J.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Attempts to solve the problem of high-level waste disposal including the spent fuel from nuclear power plants have been made in the Czech Republic for over the 10 years. Already in 1991 the Ministry of Environment entitled The Czech Geological Survey to deal with the siting of the locality for HLW disposal and the project No. 3308 ''The geological research of the safe disposal of high level waste'' had started. Within this project a sub-project ''A selection of perspective HLW disposal sites in the Bohemian Massif'' has been elaborated and 27 prospective areas were identified in the Czech Republic. This selection has been later narrowed to 8 areas which are recently studied in more detail. As a parallel research activity with siting a granitic body Melechov Massif in Central Moldanubian Pluton has been chosen as a test site and the 1st stage of research i.e. evaluation and study of its geological, hydrogeological, geophysical, tectonic and structural properties has been already completed. The Melechov Massif was selected as a test site after the recommendation of WATRP (Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme) mission of IAEA (1993) because it represents an area analogous with the host geological environment for the future HLW and spent fuel disposal in the Czech Republic, i.e. variscan granitoids. It is necessary to say that this site would not be in a locality where the deep repository will be built, although it is a site suitable for oriented research for the sampling and collection of descriptive data using up to date and advanced scientific methods. The Czech Republic HLW and spent fuel disposal programme is now based on The Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (''Concept'' hereinafter) which has been prepared in compliance with energy policy approved by Government Decree No. 50 of 12th January 2000 and approved by the Government in May 2002. Preparation of the Concept was required, amongst other reasons in connection with preparations for the Czech Republic's accession to the European Union and in connection with the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management adopted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, which was signed by the Czech Republic in 1997. According to the approved Concept it is expected that a deep geological repository in the Czech Republic will be built in granitic rocks.

  9. Supplement Analysis for the Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In October 2002, DOE issued the Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) (DOE 2002) that provided an analysis of the potential environmental consequences of alternatives/options for the management and disposition of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW), High-Level Waste (HL W) calcine, and HLW facilities at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), now known as the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and referred to hereafter as the Idaho Site. Subsequent to the issuance of the Final EIS, DOE included the requirement for treatment of SBW in the Request for Proposals for Environmental Management activities on the Idaho Site. The new Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) Contractor identified Steam Reforming as their proposed method to treat SBW; a method analyzed in the Final EIS as an option to treat SBW. The proposed Steam Reforming process for SBW is the same as in the Final EIS for retrieval, treatment process, waste form and transportation for disposal. In addition, DOE has updated the characterization data for both the HLW Calcine (BBWI 2005a) and SBW (BBWI 2004 and BBWI 2005b) and identified two areas where new calculation methods are being used to determine health and safety impacts. Because of those changes, DOE has prepared this supplement analysis to determine whether there are ''substantial changes in the proposed action that are relevant to environmental concerns'' or ''significant new circumstances or information'' within the meaning of the Council of Environmental Quality and DOE National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Regulations (40 CFR 1502.9 (c) and 10 CFR 1021.314) that would require preparation of a Supplemental EIS. Specifically, this analysis is intended to determine if: (1) the Steam Reforming Option identified in the Final EIS adequately bounds impacts from the Steam Reforming Process proposed by the new ICP Contractor using the new characterization data, (2) the new characterization data is significantly different than the data presented in the Final EIS, (3) the new calculation methods present a significant change to the impacts described in the Final EIS, and (4) would the updated characterization data cause significant changes in the environmental impacts for the action alternatives/options presented in the Final EIS. There are no other aspects of the Final EIS that require additional review because DOE has not identified any additional new significant circumstances or information that would warrant such a review.

  10. Technology development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory high-level waste management history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McElroy, J.L. [Geosafe Corp., Richland, WA (United States); Platt, A.M.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During WWII and the post-WWII years, until the late 1950`s, plutonium production was Hanford`s primary mission. This mission produced an enormous legacy of wastes that have themselves become the new mission at Hanford. Waste management, as practiced at Hanford, during the defense production years was in many ways unique to Hanford, taking advantage of the dry climate, distance from the Columbia river and depth to the water table. Near-surface storage in tanks, ion exchange in seepage trenches and cribs, and near surface burial were the norm. Isolation of the wastes by the high and dry nature of the 200 Area plateau, where reprocessing and waste management took place, was one of the reasons Hanford had been selected for it`s nuclear mission. Thus, location was a significant aspect of the initial waste management program at Hanford. Treatment, other than simple chemical steps such as neutralization and ion exchange, had not been considered necessary to the mission and was therefore not developed. To support the development of commercial nuclear power and to provide improved means of handling nuclear wastes, new waste management programs were initiated in the 1950`s by the Atomic Energy Commission. The programs focused on high level waste. They included `spray calcination/vitrification` at Hanford Laboratories. Hanford Labs later became Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) when Battelle Memorial Institute became the Operating Contractor in 1965. In 1996, it was renamed Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The purpose of this paper is to describe the HLW projects and programs that followed from this early HLW R&D at PNNL.

  11. Granite disposal of U.S. high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Lee, Joon H.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Francis D.; Price, Ronald H.; Lord, Anna Snider

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the feasibility of disposing U.S. high-level radioactive waste in granite several hundred meters below the surface of the earth. The U.S. has many granite formations with positive attributes for permanent disposal. Similar crystalline formations have been extensively studied by international programs, two of which, in Sweden and Finland, are the host rocks of submitted or imminent repository license applications. This report is enabled by the advanced work of the international community to establish functional and operational requirements for disposal of a range of waste forms in granite media. In this report we develop scoping performance analyses, based on the applicable features, events, and processes (FEPs) identified by international investigators, to support generic conclusions regarding post-closure safety. Unlike the safety analyses for disposal in salt, shale/clay, or deep boreholes, the safety analysis for a mined granite repository depends largely on waste package preservation. In crystalline rock, waste packages are preserved by the high mechanical stability of the excavations, the diffusive barrier of the buffer, and favorable chemical conditions. The buffer is preserved by low groundwater fluxes, favorable chemical conditions, backfill, and the rigid confines of the host rock. An added advantage of a mined granite repository is that waste packages would be fairly easy to retrieve, should retrievability be an important objective. The results of the safety analyses performed in this study are consistent with the results of comprehensive safety assessments performed for sites in Sweden, Finland, and Canada. They indicate that a granite repository would satisfy established safety criteria and suggest that a small number of FEPs would largely control the release and transport of radionuclides. In the event the U.S. decides to pursue a potential repository in granite, a detailed evaluation of these FEPs would be needed to inform site selection and safety assessment.

  12. Kinetic model for quartz and spinel dissolution during melting of high-level-waste glass batch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The dissolution of quartz particles and the growth and dissolution of crystalline phases during the conversion of batch to glass potentially affects both the glass melting process and product quality. Crystals of spinel exiting the cold cap to molten glass below can be troublesome during the vitrification of iron-containing high-level wastes. To estimate the distribution of quartz and spinel fractions within the cold cap, we used kinetic models that relate fractions of these phases to temperature and heating rate. Fitting the model equations to data showed that the heating rate, apart from affecting quartz and spinel behavior directly, also affects them indirectly via concurrent processes, such as the formation and motion of bubbles. Because of these indirect effects, it was necessary to allow one kinetic parameter (the pre-exponential factor) to vary with the heating rate. The resulting kinetic equations are sufficiently simple for the detailed modeling of batch-to-glass conversion as it occurs in glass melters. The estimated fractions and sizes of quartz and spinel particles as they leave the cold cap, determined in this study, will provide the source terms needed for modeling the behavior of these solid particles within the flow of molten glass in the melter.

  13. TWRS retrieval and disposal mission, immobilized high-level waste storage plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calmus, R.B.

    1998-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This project plan has a two fold purpose. First, it provides a plan specific to the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Immobilized High-Level Waste (EMW) Storage Subproject for the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) that meets the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-90-01 (Ecology et al. 1996) and is consistent with the project plan content guidelines found in Section 11.5 of the Tri-Party Agreement action plan. Second, it provides an upper tier document that can be used as the basis for future subproject line item construction management plans. The planning elements for the construction management plans are derived from applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) planning guidance documents (DOE Orders 4700.1 (DOE 1992a) and 430.1 (DOE 1995)). The format and content of this project plan are designed to accommodate the plan`s dual purpose. A cross-check matrix is provided in Appendix A to explain where in the plan project planning elements required by Section 11.5 of the Tri-Party Agreement are addressed.

  14. SUMO, System performance assessment for a high-level nuclear waste repository: Mathematical models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Engel, D.W.; Chamberlain, P.J. II

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Following completion of the preliminary risk assessment of the potential Yucca Mountain Site by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in 1988, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) requested the Performance Assessment Scientific Support (PASS) Program at PNL to develop an integrated system model and computer code that provides performance and risk assessment analysis capabilities for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The system model that has been developed addresses the cumulative radionuclide release criteria established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and estimates population risks in terms of dose to humans. The system model embodied in the SUMO (System Unsaturated Model) code will also allow benchmarking of other models being developed for the Yucca Mountain Project. The system model has three natural divisions: (1) source term, (2) far-field transport, and (3) dose to humans. This document gives a detailed description of the mathematics of each of these three divisions. Each of the governing equations employed is based on modeling assumptions that are widely accepted within the scientific community.

  15. PERFORMANCE OF A BURIED RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS AFTER 24 YEARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Daniel Kaplan, D; Ned Bibler, N; David Peeler, D; John Plodinec, J

    2008-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A radioactive high level waste glass was made in 1980 with Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 15 waste. This glass was buried in the SRS burial ground for 24 years but lysimeter data was only available for the first 8 years. The glass was exhumed and analyzed in 2004. The glass was predicted to be very durable and laboratory tests confirmed the durability response. The laboratory results indicated that the glass was very durable as did analysis of the lysimeter data. Scanning electron microscopy of the glass burial surface showed no significant glass alteration consistent with the results of the laboratory and field tests. No detectable Pu, Am, Cm, Np, or Ru leached from the glass into the surrounding sediment. Leaching of {beta}/{delta} from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the glass was diffusion controlled. Less than 0.5% of the Cs and Sr in the glass leached into the surrounding sediment, with >99% of the leached radionuclides remaining within 8 centimeters of the glass pellet.

  16. West Valley high-level nuclear waste glass development: a statistically designed mixture study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chick, L.A.; Bowen, W.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Wald, J.W.; Bunnell, L.R.; Strachan, D.M.

    1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first full-scale conversion of high-level commercial nuclear wastes to glass in the United States will be conducted at West Valley, New York, by West Valley Nuclear Services Company, Inc. (WVNS), for the US Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting WVNS in the design of the glass-making process and the chemical formulation of the glass. This report describes the statistically designed study performed by PNL to develop the glass composition recommended for use at West Valley. The recommended glass contains 28 wt% waste, as limited by process requirements. The waste loading and the silica content (45 wt%) are similar to those in previously developed waste glasses; however, the new formulation contains more calcium and less boron. A series of tests verified that the increased calcium results in improved chemical durability and does not adversely affect the other modeled properties. The optimization study assessed the effects of seven oxide components on glass properties. Over 100 melts combining the seven components into a wide variety of statistically chosen compositions were tested. Viscosity, electrical conductivity, thermal expansion, crystallinity, and chemical durability were measured and empirically modeled as a function of the glass composition. The mathematical models were then used to predict the optimum formulation. This glass was tested and adjusted to arrive at the final composition recommended for use at West Valley. 56 references, 49 figures, 18 tables.

  17. Semiconductor High-Level Dosimeters Used in the SLAC Mixed Gamma and Neutron Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Stan

    2003-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of an exploration of Semiconductor High-Level Dosimetry (SHLD) in the accelerator radiation fields, the response of SHLD system, composed of dual MOSFETs, wide-base PIN diode, and a microprocessor-controlled reader, was calibrated in photon (Co-60) and neutron (Bare-reactor) fields. The response curves for the MOSFET and the PIN diode were determined. The neutron sensitivity of the PIN diode is about a factor of 2200 times higher than its photon sensitivity. Therefore, the PIN diode can be used to measure the neutron dose and virtually ignore the photon dose contribution. The MOSFET can be used to estimate the photon dose after subtracting the ionizing effect of the neutrons. The SHLD was used in the SLAC mixed field to measure the photon and neutron doses around a copper beam dump. The photon measurements near the copper dump agreed reasonably with the FLUKA Monte Carlo calculations. The neutron measurements agreed with FLUKA calculations to within a factor of two.

  18. Analysis of crack initiation and growth in the high level vibration test at Tadotsu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassir, M.K.; Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Shteyngart, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Level Vibration Test data are used to assess the accuracy and usefulness of current engineering methodologies for predicting crack initiation and growth in a cast stainless steel pipe elbow under complex, large amplitude loading. The data were obtained by testing at room temperature a large scale modified model of one loop of a PWR primary coolant system at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory in Japan. Fatigue crack initiation time is reasonably predicted by applying a modified local strain approach (Coffin-Mason-Goodman equation) in conjunction with Miner`s rule of cumulative damage. Three fracture mechanics methodologies are applied to investigate the crack growth behavior observed in the hot leg of the model. These are: the {Delta}K methodology (Paris law), {Delta}J concepts and a recently developed limit load stress-range criterion. The report includes a discussion on the pros and cons of the analysis involved in each of the methods, the role played by the key parameters influencing the formulation and a comparison of the results with the actual crack growth behavior observed in the vibration test program. Some conclusions and recommendations for improvement of the methodologies are also provided.

  19. US Department of Energy Storage of Spent Fuel and High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandra M Birk

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) storage management. Like commercial reactor fuel, DOE's SNF and HLW were destined for the Yucca Mountain repository. In March 2010, the DOE filed a motion with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to withdraw the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain. A new repository is now decades away. The default for the commercial and DOE research reactor fuel and HLW is on-site storage for the foreseeable future. Though the motion to withdraw the license application and delay opening of a repository signals extended storage, DOE's immediate plans for management of its SNF and HLW remain the same as before Yucca Mountain was designated as the repository, though it has expanded its research and development efforts to ensure safe extended storage. This paper outlines some of the proposed research that DOE is conducting and will use to enhance its storage systems and facilities.

  20. HIGH-LEVEL WASTE FEED CERTIFICATION IN HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    THIEN MG; WELLS BE; ADAMSON DJ

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission modeling and WTP facility modeling assume that individual 3785 cubic meter (l million gallon) HLW feed tanks are homogenously mixed, representatively sampled, and consistently delivered to the WTP. It has been demonstrated that homogenous mixing ofHLW sludge in Hanford DSTs is not likely achievable with the baseline design thereby causing representative sampling and consistent feed delivery to be more difficult. Inconsistent feed to the WTP could cause additional batch-to-batch operational adjustments that reduce operating efficiency and have the potential to increase the overall mission length. The Hanford mixing and sampling demonstration program will identify DST mixing performance capability, will evaluate representative sampling techniques, and will estimate feed batch consistency. An evaluation of demonstration program results will identify potential mission improvement considerations that will help ensure successful mission completion. This paper will discuss the history, progress, and future activities that will define and mitigate the mission risk.

  1. Design Improvements and Analysis of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 12171

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pribanic, Tomas; Awwad, Amer; Crespo, Jairo; McDaniel, Dwayne; Varona, Jose; Gokaltun, Seckin; Roelant, David [Florida International University, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transferring high-level waste (HLW) between storage tanks or to treatment facilities is a common practice performed at the Department of Energy (DoE) sites. Changes in the chemical and/or physical properties of the HLW slurry during the transfer process may lead to the formation of blockages inside the pipelines resulting in schedule delays and increased costs. To improve DoE's capabilities in the event of a pipeline plugging incident, FIU has continued to develop two novel unplugging technologies: an asynchronous pulsing system and a peristaltic crawler. The asynchronous pulsing system uses a hydraulic pulse generator to create pressure disturbances at two opposite inlet locations of the pipeline to dislodge blockages by attacking the plug from both sides remotely. The peristaltic crawler is a pneumatic/hydraulic operated crawler that propels itself by a sequence of pressurization/depressurization of cavities (inner tubes). The crawler includes a frontal attachment that has a hydraulically powered unplugging tool. In this paper, details of the asynchronous pulsing system's ability to unplug a pipeline on a small-scale test-bed and results from the experimental testing of the second generation peristaltic crawler are provided. The paper concludes with future improvements for the third generation crawler and a recommended path forward for the asynchronous pulsing testing. (authors)

  2. A COMPLETE HISTORY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE PLANT AT THE WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petkus, Lawrence L.; Paul, James; Valenti, Paul J.; Houston, Helene; May, Joseph

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) vitrification melter was shut down in September 2002 after being used to vitrify High Level Waste (HLW) and process system residuals for six years. Processing of the HLW occurred from June 1996 through November 2001, followed by a program to flush the remaining HLW through to the melter. Glass removal and shutdown followed. The facility and process equipment is currently in a standby mode awaiting deactivation. During HLW processing operations, nearly 24 million curies of radioactive material were vitrified into 275 canisters of HLW glass. At least 99.7% of the curies in the HLW tanks at the WVDP were vitrified using the melter. Each canister of HLW holds approximately 2000 kilograms of glass with an average contact dose rate of over 2600 rem per hour. After vitrification processing ended, two more cans were filled using the Evacuated Canister Process to empty the melter at shutdown. This history briefly summarizes the initial stages of process development and earlier WVDP experience in the design and operation of the vitrification systems, followed by a more detailed discussion of equipment availability and failure rates during six years of operation. Lessons learned operating a system that continued to function beyond design expectations also are highlighted.

  3. Liquidus Temperature of High-Level Waste Borosilicate Glasses with Spinel Primary Phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Vienna, John D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Crum, Jarrod V. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Piepel, Gregory F. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Mika, Martin (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Robert W. Smith; David W. Shoesmith

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquidus temperatures (TL) were measured for high-level waste (HLW) borosilicate glasses covering a Savannah River composition region. The primary crystallization phase for most glasses was spinel, a solid solution of trevorite (NiFe2O4) with other oxides (FeO, MnO, and Cr2O3). The TL values ranged from 859 to 1310?C. Component additions increased the TL (per mass%) as Cr2O3 261?C, NiO 85?C, TiO2 42?C, MgO 33?C, Al2O3 18?C, and Fe2O3 18?C and decreased the TL (per mass%) as Na2O -29?C, Li2O -28?C, K2O -20?C, and B2O3 -8?C. Other oxides (CaO, MnO, SiO2, and U3O8) had little effect. The effect of RuO2 is not clear.

  4. Strategy for addressing composition uncertainties in a Hanford high-level waste vitrification plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, M.F.; Piepel, G.F.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various requirements will be imposed on the feed material and glass produced by the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant at the Hanford Site. A statistical process/product control system will be used to control the melter feed composition and to check and document product quality. Two general types of uncertainty are important in HLW vitrification process/product control: model uncertainty and composition uncertainty. Model uncertainty is discussed by Hrma, Piepel, et al. (1994). Composition uncertainty includes the uncertainties inherent in estimates of feed composition and other process measurements. Because feed composition is a multivariate quantity, multivariate estimates of composition uncertainty (i.e., covariance matrices) are required. Three components of composition uncertainty will play a role in estimating and checking batch and glass attributes: batch-to-batch variability, within-batch uncertainty, and analytical uncertainty. This document reviews the techniques to be used in estimating and updating composition uncertainties and in combining these composition uncertainties with model uncertainty to yield estimates of (univariate) uncertainties associated with estimates of batch and glass properties.

  5. The Effect of Composition on Spinel Equilibrium and Crystal Size in High-Level Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, B. K.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Alton, Jesse; Plaisted, Trevor J.; Vienna, John D.

    2002-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The equilibrium concentration (Co) of spinel was measured in 16 high-level waste (HLW) glasses as a function of temperature (T). Glasses were formulated by increasing or decreasing concentrations of Al2O3, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, Li2O, MgO, Na2O, or NiO, one-at-a-time, from a baseline composition. Data were fitted using the quasi-ideal-solution relationship between Co and T. The coefficients of this relationship were expressed as functions of glass composition using first-order approximation. All glass components had an effect on liquidus temperature (TL), but only NiO and Fe2O3 had a significant impact on spinel concentration below TL. The temperature at which Co had a given value was also expressed as a function of glass composition. These results can be used to optimize a HLW glass formulation to meet a constraint of either no spinel or a limited spinel fraction in the melter. In addition, the measurement of the size of spinel crystals and subsequent calculation of crystal number density (n) showed that Cr2O4 and Al2O3 increase n.

  6. Evaluation of high-efficiency gas-liquid contactors for natural gas processing. Semi-annual report, April--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this proposed program is to ensure reliable supply of high-quality natural gas by reducing the cost of treating subquality natural gas containing H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and/or trace quantities of other gaseous impurities by applying high-efficiency rotating and structured packing gas liquid contactors. Work accomplished during this reporting period are discussed for the following tasks: Task 2, field experimental site seletion; Task 3, field experimental skid unit design and preliminary economic evaluations; and Task 6, fluid dynamic studies.

  7. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  8. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  9. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  10. ROAD MAP FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.; Herman, C.

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystaltolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will also be addressed in this road map. The planned research described in this road map is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (significant reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized if the current constraints (T1% for WTP and TL for DWPF) are approached in an appropriate and technically defensible manner for defense waste and current melter designs. The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal-tolerant high-level waste (HLW) glasses targeting high waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. The modeling effort will be an iterative process, where model form and a broader range of conditions, e.g., glass composition and temperature, will evolve as additional data on crystal accumulation are gathered. Model validation steps will be included to guide the development process and ensure the value of the effort (i.e., increased waste loading and waste throughput). A summary of the stages of the road map for developing the crystal-tolerant glass approach, their estimated durations, and deliverables is provided.

  11. Mercury Reduction and Removal from High Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 12511

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrouzi, Aria [Savannah River Remediation, LLC (United States); Zamecnik, Jack [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina, 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site during production of enriched uranium and plutonium required by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. One of the constituents in the nuclear waste is mercury, which is present because it served as a catalyst in the dissolution of uranium-aluminum alloy fuel rods. At high temperatures mercury is corrosive to off-gas equipment, this poses a major challenge to the overall vitrification process in separating mercury from the waste stream prior to feeding the high temperature melter. Mercury is currently removed during the chemical process via formic acid reduction followed by steam stripping, which allows elemental mercury to be evaporated with the water vapor generated during boiling. The vapors are then condensed and sent to a hold tank where mercury coalesces and is recovered in the tank's sump via gravity settling. Next, mercury is transferred from the tank sump to a purification cell where it is washed with water and nitric acid and removed from the facility. Throughout the chemical processing cell, compounds of mercury exist in the sludge, condensate, and off-gas; all of which present unique challenges. Mercury removal from sludge waste being fed to the DWPF melter is required to avoid exhausting it to the environment or any negative impacts to the Melter Off-Gas system. The mercury concentration must be reduced to a level of 0.8 wt% or less before being introduced to the melter. Even though this is being successfully accomplished, the material balances accounting for incoming and collected mercury are not equal. In addition, mercury has not been effectively purified and collected in the Mercury Purification Cell (MPC) since 2008. A significant cleaning campaign aims to bring the MPC back up to facility housekeeping standards. Two significant investigations are being undertaken to restore mercury collection. The SMECT mercury pump has been removed from the tank and will be functionally tested. Also, research is being conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory to determine the effects of antifoam addition on the behavior of mercury. These path forward items will help us better understand what is occurring in the mercury collection system and ultimately lead to an improved DWPF production rate and mercury recovery rate. (authors)

  12. Shale disposal of U.S. high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sassani, David Carl; Stone, Charles Michael; Hansen, Francis D.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Martinez, Mario J.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Gaither, Katherine N.; Holland, John Francis; Brady, Patrick Vane

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the feasibility of high-level radioactive waste disposal in shale within the United States. The U.S. has many possible clay/shale/argillite basins with positive attributes for permanent disposal. Similar geologic formations have been extensively studied by international programs with largely positive results, over significant ranges of the most important material characteristics including permeability, rheology, and sorptive potential. This report is enabled by the advanced work of the international community to establish functional and operational requirements for disposal of a range of waste forms in shale media. We develop scoping performance analyses, based on the applicable features, events, and processes identified by international investigators, to support a generic conclusion regarding post-closure safety. Requisite assumptions for these analyses include waste characteristics, disposal concepts, and important properties of the geologic formation. We then apply lessons learned from Sandia experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Project and the Yucca Mountain Project to develop a disposal strategy should a shale repository be considered as an alternative disposal pathway in the U.S. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste in suitable shale formations is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable and self-sealing, conditions are chemically reducing, and sorption tends to prevent radionuclide transport. Vertically and laterally extensive shale and clay formations exist in multiple locations in the contiguous 48 states. Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical calculations indicate that temperatures near emplaced waste packages can be maintained below boiling and will decay to within a few degrees of the ambient temperature within a few decades (or longer depending on the waste form). Construction effects, ventilation, and the thermal pulse will lead to clay dehydration and deformation, confined to an excavation disturbed zone within a few meters of the repository, that can be reasonably characterized. Within a few centuries after waste emplacement, overburden pressures will seal fractures, resaturate the dehydrated zones, and provide a repository setting that strongly limits radionuclide movement to diffusive transport. Coupled hydrogeochemical transport calculations indicate maximum extents of radionuclide transport on the order of tens to hundreds of meters, or less, in a million years. Under the conditions modeled, a shale repository could achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios. The performance analyses described here are based on the assumption that long-term standards for disposal in clay/shale would be identical in the key aspects, to those prescribed for existing repository programs such as Yucca Mountain. This generic repository evaluation for shale is the first developed in the United States. Previous repository considerations have emphasized salt formations and volcanic rock formations. Much of the experience gained from U.S. repository development, such as seal system design, coupled process simulation, and application of performance assessment methodology, is applied here to scoping analyses for a shale repository. A contemporary understanding of clay mineralogy and attendant chemical environments has allowed identification of the appropriate features, events, and processes to be incorporated into the analysis. Advanced multi-physics modeling provides key support for understanding the effects from coupled processes. The results of the assessment show that shale formations provide a technically advanced, scientifically sound disposal option for the U.S.

  13. Low-temperature lithium diffusion in simulated high-level boroaluminosilicate nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeway, James J.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gin, Stephane; Wang, Zhaoying; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion exchange is recognized as an integral, if underrepresented, mechanism influencing glass corrosion. However, due to the formation of various alteration layers in the presence of water, it is difficult to conclusively deconvolute the mechanisms of ion exchange from other processes occurring simultaneously during corrosion. In this work, an operationally inert non-aqueous solution was used as an alkali source material to isolate ion exchange and study the solid-state diffusion of lithium. Specifically, the experiments involved contacting glass coupons relevant to the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste, SON68 and CJ-6, which contained Li in natural isotope abundance, with a non-aqueous solution of 6LiCl dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide at 90 °C for various time periods. The depth profiles of major elements in the glass coupons were measured using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Lithium interdiffusion coefficients, DLi, were then calculated based on the measured depth profiles. The results indicate that the penetration of 6Li is rapid in both glasses with the simplified CJ-6 glass (D6Li ? 4.0-8.0 × 10-21 m2/s) exhibiting faster exchange than the more complex SON68 glass (DLi ? 2.0-4.0 × 10-21 m2/s). Additionally, sodium ions present in the glass were observed to participate in ion exchange reactions; however, different diffusion coefficients were necessary to fit the diffusion profiles of the two alkali ions. Implications of the diffusion coefficients obtained in the absence of alteration layers to the long-term performance of nuclear waste glasses in a geological repository system are also discussed.

  14. Potential Application Of Radionuclide Scaling Factors To High Level Waste Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reboul, S. H.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Production sources, radiological properties, relative solubilities in waste, and laboratory analysis techniques for the forty-five radionuclides identified in Hanford?s Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Feed Acceptance Data Quality Objectives (DQO) document are addressed in this report. Based on Savannah River Site (SRS) experience and waste characteristics, thirteen of the radionuclides are judged to be candidates for potential scaling in High Level Waste (HLW) based on the concentrations of other radionuclides as determined through laboratory measurements. The thirteen radionuclides conducive to potential scaling are: Ni-59, Zr-93, Nb-93m, Cd-113m, Sn-121m, Sn-126, Cs-135, Sm-151, Ra-226, Ra-228, Ac-227, Pa-231, and Th-229. The ability to scale radionuclides is useful from two primary perspectives: 1) it provides a means of checking the radionuclide concentrations that have been determined by laboratory analysis; and 2) it provides a means of estimating radionuclide concentrations in the absence of a laboratory analysis technique or when a complex laboratory analysis technique fails. Along with the rationale for identifying and applying the potential scaling factors, this report also provides examples of using the scaling factors to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in current SRS waste and into the future. Also included in the report are examples of independent laboratory analysis techniques that can be used to check results of key radionuclide analyses. Effective utilization of radionuclide scaling factors requires understanding of the applicable production sources and the chemistry of the waste. As such, the potential scaling approaches identified in this report should be assessed from the perspective of the Hanford waste before reaching a decision regarding WTP applicability.

  15. ENHANCED DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES: SRNL GLASS SELECTION STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy has authorized a team of glass formulation and processing experts at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) at Catholic University of America to develop a systematic approach to increase high level waste melter throughput (by increasing waste loading with minimal or positive impacts on melt rate). This task is aimed at proof-of-principle testing and the development of tools to improve waste loading and melt rate, which will lead to higher waste throughput. Four specific tasks have been proposed to meet these objectives (for details, see WSRC-STI-2007-00483): (1) Integration and Oversight, (2) Crystal Accumulation Modeling (led by PNNL)/Higher Waste Loading Glasses (led by SRNL), (3) Melt Rate Evaluation and Modeling, and (4) Melter Scale Demonstrations. Task 2, Crystal Accumulation Modeling/Higher Waste Loading Glasses is the focus of this report. The objective of this study is to provide supplemental data to support the possible use of alternative melter technologies and/or implementation of alternative process control models or strategies to target higher waste loadings (WLs) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--ultimately leading to higher waste throughputs and a reduced mission life. The glass selection strategy discussed in this report was developed to gain insight into specific technical issues that could limit or compromise the ability of glass formulation efforts to target higher WLs for future sludge batches at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These technical issues include Al-dissolution, higher TiO{sub 2} limits and homogeneity issues for coupled-operations, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility, and nepheline formation. To address these technical issues, a test matrix of 28 glass compositions has been developed based on 5 different sludge projections for future processing. The glasses will be fabricated and characterized based on the protocols outlined in the SRNL Task and Quality Assurance (QA) plan.

  16. Evaluation of West Valley High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClure, L. W.; Henderson, J. C.; Elmore, M. R.

    2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the task summarized in this paper was to demonstrate a methodology for evaluating alternative strategies for preclosure lay-up of the two high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). Lay-up is defined as the period between operational use of tanks for waste storage and final closure. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to separate the environmental impact statement (EIS) for completion of closure of the WVDP into two separate EISs. The first EIS will cover only waste management and decontamination. DOE expects to complete this EIS in about 18 months. The second EIS will cover final decommissioning and closure and may take up to five years to complete. This approach has been proposed to expedite continued management of the waste and decontamination activities in advance of the final EIS and its associated Record of Decision on final site closure. Final closure of the WVDP site may take 10 to 15 years; therefore, the tanks need to be placed in a safe, stable condition with minimum surveillance during an extended lay-up period. The methodology developed for ranking the potential strategies for lay-up of the WVDP tanks can be used to provide a basis for a decision on the preferred path forward. The methodology is also applicable to determining preferred lay-up approaches at other DOE sites. Some of the alternative strategies identified for the WVDP should also be considered for implementation at the other DOE sites. Each site has unique characteristics that would require unique considerations for lay-up.

  17. Expected environments in high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel repositories in salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Rickertsen, L.D., Graham, R.F.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to describe the expected environments associated with high-level waste (HLW) and spent fuel (SF) repositories in salt formations. These environments include the thermal, fluid, pressure, brine chemistry, and radiation fields predicted for the repository conceptual designs. In this study, it is assumed that the repository will be a room and pillar mine in a rock-salt formation, with the disposal horizon located approx. 2000 ft (610 m) below the surface of the earth. Canistered waste packages containing HLW in a solid matrix or SF elements are emplaced in vertical holes in the floor of the rooms. The emplacement holes are backfilled with crushed salt or other material and sealed at some later time. Sensitivity studies are presented to show the effect of changing the areal heat load, the canister heat load, the barrier material and thickness, ventilation of the storage room, and adding a second row to the emplacement configuration. The calculated thermal environment is used as input for brine migration calculations. The vapor and gas pressure will gradually attain the lithostatic pressure in a sealed repository. In the unlikely event that an emplacement hole will become sealed in relatively early years, the vapor space pressure was calculated for three scenarios (i.e., no hole closure - no backfill, no hole closure - backfill, and hole closure - no backfill). It was assumed that the gas in the system consisted of air and water vapor in equilibrium with brine. A computer code (REPRESS) was developed assuming that these changes occur slowly (equilibrium conditions). The brine chemical environment is outlined in terms of brine chemistry, corrosion, and compositions. The nuclear radiation environment emphasized in this report is the stored energy that can be released as a result of radiation damage or crystal dislocations within crystal lattices.

  18. Evaluation of West Valley High-Level Waste Tank Lay-up Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcclure, Lloyd W.; Henderson, J C.; Elmore, Monte R.

    2002-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this task was to demonstrate a methodology for evaluating alternative strategies for preclosure lay-up of the two high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). Lay-up is defined as the period between operational use of tanks for waste storage and final closure. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to separate the environmental impact statement (EIS) for completion of closure of the WVDP into two separate EISs. The first EIS will cover only waste management and decontamination. DOE expects to complete this EIS in about 18 months. The second EIS will cover final decommissioning and closure, and may take up to five years to complete. This approach has been proposed to expedite continued management of the waste and decontamination activities in advance of the final EIS and Record of Decision on final site closure. Final closure of the WVDP site may take 10 to 15 years. Therefore, the tanks need to be placed in a safe, stable condition with minimum surveillance during an extended lay-up period. The methodology developed for ranking the potential strategies for lay-up of the WVDP tanks can be used to provide a basis for a decision on the preferred path forward. The methodology is also applicable to determining preferred lay-up approaches at other DOE sites. Some of the alternative strategies identified for West Valley should also be considered for implementation at the other sites. Each site has unique characteristics that would require unique considerations for lay-up.

  19. Systems analysis approach to the disposal of high-level waste in deep ocean sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Marsily, G.; Hill, M. D.; Murray, C. N.; Talbert, D. M.; Van Dorp, F.; Webb, G. A.M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the different options being studied for disposal of high-level solidified waste, increasing attention is being paid to that of emplacement of glasses incorporating the radioactivity in deep oceanic sediments. This option has the advantage that the areas of the oceans under investigation appear to be relatively unproductive biologically, are relatively free from cataclysmic events, and are areas in which the natural processes are slow. Thus the environment is stable and predictable so that a number of barriers to the release and dispersion of radioactivity can be defined. Task Groups set up in the framework of the International Seabed Working Group have been studying many aspects of this option since 1976. In order that the various parts of the problem can be assessed within an integrated framework, the methods of systems analysis have been applied. In this paper the Systems Analysis Task Group members report the development of an overall system model. This will be used in an iterative process in which a preliminary analysis, together with a sensitivity analysis, identifies the parameters and data of most importance. The work of the other task groups will then be focussed on these parameters and data requirements so that improved results can be fed back into an improved overall systems model. The major requirements for the development of a preliminary overall systems model are that the problem should be separated into identified elements and that the interfaces between the elements should be clearly defined. The model evolved is deterministic and defines the problem elements needed to estimate doses to man.

  20. Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. T. Case (DOE-ID); M. L. Renfro (INEEL)

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of the Independent Project Evaluation (IPE) Team assessment of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering (SE) Team's deliberations, evaluations, and selections. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company concluded in early 1998 that production goals and safety requirements for processing SRS HLW salt to remove Cs-137 could not be met in the existing In-Tank Precipitation Facility as currently configured for precipitation of cesium tetraphenylborate. The SE Team was chartered to evaluate and recommend an alternative(s) for processing the existing HLW salt to remove Cs-137. To replace the In-Tank Precipitation process, the Savannah River Site HLW Salt Disposition SE Team downselected (October 1998) 140 candidate separation technologies to two alternatives: Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate (TPB) Precipitation (primary alternative) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Nonelutable Ion Exchange (backup alternative). The IPE Team, commissioned by the Department of Energy, concurs that both alternatives are technically feasible and should meet all salt disposition requirements. But the IPE Team judges that the SE Team's qualitative criteria and judgments used in their downselection to a primary and a backup alternative do not clearly discriminate between the two alternatives. To properly choose between Small-Tank TPB and CST Ion Exchange for the primary alternative, the IPE Team suggests the following path forward: Complete all essential R and D activities for both alternatives and formulate an appropriate set of quantitative decision criteria that will be rigorously applied at the end of the R and D activities. Concurrent conceptual design activities should be limited to common elements of the alternatives.

  1. High-Level Nets with Nets and Rules as Tokens Kathrin Ho mann 1 , Hartmut Ehrig 1 , and Till Mossakowski 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mossakowski, Till - Deutschen Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz & Fachbereich 3

    High-Level Nets with Nets and Rules as Tokens Kathrin Ho#11;mann 1 , Hartmut Ehrig 1 , and Till-Level net models following the paradigm \

  2. Electronmagnetic induction probe calibration for electrical conductivity measurements and moisture content determination of Hanford high level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittekind, W.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Logic of converting EMI measured electrical conductivity to moisture with expected uncertainty. Estimates from present knowledge, assumptions, and measured data. Archie`s Law has been used since the 1940`s to relate electrical conductivity in porous media to liquid volume fraction. Measured electrical conductivity to moisture content uses: Porosity, Interstitial liquid electrical conductivity, Solid particle density,Interstitial liquid density, and interstitial liquid water content. The uncertainty of assumed values is calculated to determine the final moisture wt.% result uncertainty.

  3. A Deeply Pipelined CABAC Decoder for HEVC Supporting Level 6.2 High-tier Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu-Hsin

    High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is the latest video coding standard that specifies video resolutions up to 8K Ultra-HD (UHD) at 120 fps to support the next decade of video applications. This results in high-throughput ...

  4. Preliminary Technology Maturation Plan for Immobilization of High-Level Waste in Glass Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Smith, G L.

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A technology maturation plan (TMP) was developed for immobilization of high-level waste (HLW) raffinate in a glass ceramics waste form using a cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM). The TMP was prepared by the following process: 1) define the reference process and boundaries of the technology being matured, 2) evaluate the technology elements and identify the critical technology elements (CTE), 3) identify the technology readiness level (TRL) of each of the CTE’s using the DOE G 413.3-4, 4) describe the development and demonstration activities required to advance the TRLs to 4 and 6 in order, and 5) prepare a preliminary plan to conduct the development and demonstration. Results of the technology readiness assessment identified five CTE’s and found relatively low TRL’s for each of them: • Mixing, sampling, and analysis of waste slurry and melter feed: TRL-1 • Feeding, melting, and pouring: TRL-1 • Glass ceramic formulation: TRL-1 • Canister cooling and crystallization: TRL-1 • Canister decontamination: TRL-4 Although the TRL’s are low for most of these CTE’s (TRL-1), the effort required to advance them to higher values. The activities required to advance the TRL’s are listed below: • Complete this TMP • Perform a preliminary engineering study • Characterize, estimate, and simulate waste to be treated • Laboratory scale glass ceramic testing • Melter and off-gas testing with simulants • Test the mixing, sampling, and analyses • Canister testing • Decontamination system testing • Issue a requirements document • Issue a risk management document • Complete preliminary design • Integrated pilot testing • Issue a waste compliance plan A preliminary schedule and budget were developed to complete these activities as summarized in the following table (assuming 2012 dollars). TRL Budget Year MSA FMP GCF CCC CD Overall $M 2012 1 1 1 1 4 1 0.3 2013 2 2 1 1 4 1 1.3 2014 2 3 1 1 4 1 1.8 2015 2 3 2 2 4 2 2.6 2016 2 3 2 2 4 2 4.9 2017 2 3 3 2 4 2 9.8 2018 3 3 3 3 4 3 7.9 2019 3 3 3 3 4 3 5.1 2020 3 3 3 3 4 3 14.6 2021 3 3 3 3 4 3 7.3 2022 3 3 3 3 4 3 8.8 2023 4 4 4 4 4 4 9.1 2024 5 5 5 5 5 5 6.9 2025 6 6 6 6 6 6 6.9 CCC = canister cooling and crystallization; FMP = feeding, melting, and pouring; GCF = glass ceramic formulation; MSA = mixing, sampling, and analyses. This TMP is intended to guide the development of the glass ceramics waste form and process to the point where it is ready for industrialization.

  5. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemistry occurring in the liquid and liquid surface is important in many applications. Chemical imaging of liquids using vacuum based analytical techniques is challenging due to the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface sensitive techniques such as electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Due to its small size, low cost, and flexibility in design, liquid cells based on microfluidics have been increasingly used in studying and imaging complex phenomena involving liquids. This paper presents a review of microfluidic cells that were developed to adapt to electron microscopes and various spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis and imaging of liquids. The following topics will be covered including cell designs, fabrication techniques, unique technical features for vacuum compatible cells, and imaging with electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Challenges are summarized and recommendations for future development priority are proposed.

  6. Reevaluation of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria for Potential Cost Savings at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13598

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, J.W. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation (United States); Marra, S.L.; Herman, C.C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form. (authors)

  7. Thermal-mechanical modeling of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Hadgu, Teklu

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 C and 180 C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient isotropic stress of 100 MPa) at the borehole wall for the disposal of fuel assemblies and by about 90 MPa for vitrified waste. Simulated peak volumetric strain at the borehole wall is about 420 and 2600 microstrain for the disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Stress and volumetric strain decline rapidly with distance from the borehole and with time. Simulated peak stress at and parallel to the borehole wall for the disposal of vitrified waste with anisotropic ambient horizontal stress is about 440 MPa, which likely exceeds the compressive strength of granite if unconfined by fluid pressure within the borehole. The relatively small simulated displacements and volumetric strain near the borehole suggest that software codes using a nondeforming grid provide an adequate approximation of mechanical deformation in the coupled thermal-mechanical model. Additional modeling is planned to incorporate the effects of hydrologic processes coupled to thermal transport and mechanical deformation in the host rock near the heated borehole.

  8. RESULTS OF THE FY09 ENHANCED DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this task is to develop data, assess property models, and refine or develop the necessary models to support increased WL of HLW at SRS. It is a continuation of the studies initiated in FY07, but is under the specific guidance of a Task Change Request (TCR)/Work Authorization received from DOE headquarters (Project Number RV071301). Using the data generated in FY07, FY08 and historical data, two test matrices (60 glasses total) were developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in order to generate data in broader compositional regions. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), viscosity, liquidus temperature (TL) measurement and durability as defined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study are summarized below: (1) In general, the current durability model predicts the durabilities of higher waste loading glasses quite well. A few of the glasses exhibited poorer durability than predicted. (2) Some of the glasses exhibited anomalous behavior with respect to durability (normalized leachate for boron (NL [B])). The quenched samples of FY09EM21-02, -07 and -21 contained no nepheline or other wasteform affecting crystals, but have unacceptable NL [B] values (> 10 g/L). The ccc sample of FY09EM21-07 has a NL [B] value that is more than one half the value of the quenched sample. These glasses also have lower concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}. (3) Five of the ccc samples (EM-13, -14, -15, -29 and -30) completely crystallized with both magnetite and nepheline, and still had extremely low NL [B] values. These particular glasses have more CaO present than any of the other glasses in the matrix. It appears that while all of the glasses contain nepheline, the NL [B] values decrease as the CaO concentration increases from 2.3 wt% to 4.3 wt%. A different form of nepheline may be created at higher concentrations of CaO that does not significantly reduce glass durability. (4) The T{sub L} model appears to be under-predicting the measured values of higher waste loading glasses. Trends in T{sub L} with composition are not evident in the data from these studies. (5) A small number of glasses in the FY09 matrix have measured viscosities that are much lower than the viscosity range over which the current model was developed. The decrease in viscosity is due to a higher concentration of non-bridging oxygens (NBO). A high iron concentration is the cause of the increase in NBO. Durability, viscosity and T{sub L} data collected during FY07 and FY09 that specifically targeted higher waste loading glasses was compiled and assessed. It appears that additional data may be required to expand the coverage of the T{sub L} and viscosity models for higher waste loading glasses. In general, the compositional regions of the higher waste loading glasses are very different than those used to develop these models. On the other hand, the current durability model seems to be applicable to the new data. At this time, there is no evidence to modify this model; however additional experimental studies should be conducted to determine the cause of the anomalous durability data.

  9. Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Tank Closure Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) predecessor agency, established the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, in the early 1950s. The primary mission of SRS was to produce nuclear materials for national defense. With the end of the Cold War and the reduction in the size of the United States stockpile of nuclear weapons, the SRS mission has changed. While national defense is still an important facet of the mission, SRS no longer produces nuclear materials and the mission is focused on material stabilization, environmental restoration, waste management, and decontamination and decommissioning of facilities that are no longer needed. As a result of its nuclear materials production mission, SRS generated large quantities of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The HLW resulted from dissolving spent reactor fuel and nuclear targets to recover the valuable radioactive isotopes. DOE had stored the HLW in 51 large underground storage tanks located in the F- and H-Area Tank Farms at SRS. DOE has emptied and closed two of those tanks. DOE is treating the HLW, using a process called vitrification. The highly radioactive portion of the waste is mixed with a glass like material and stored in stainless steel canisters at SRS, pending shipment to a geologic repository for disposal. This process is currently underway at SRS in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The HLW tanks at SRS are of four different types, which provide varying degrees of protection to the environment due to different degrees of containment. The tanks are operated under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) and DOE Orders issued under the AEA. The tanks are permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) under South Carolina wastewater regulations, which require permitted facilities to be closed after they are removed from service. DOE has entered into an agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and SCDHEC to close the HLW tanks after they have been removed from service. Closure of the HLW tanks would comply with DOE's responsibilities under the AEA and the South Carolina closure requirements and be carried out under a schedule agreed to by DOE, EPA, and SCDHEC. There are several ways to close the HLW tanks. DOE has prepared this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to ensure that the public and DOE's decision makers have a thorough understanding of the potential environmental impacts of alternative means of closing the tanks. This Summary: (1) describes the HLW tanks and the closure process, (2) describes the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process that DOE is using to aid in decision making, (3) summarizes the alternatives for closing the HLW tanks and identifies DOE.s preferred alternative, and (4) identifies the major conclusions regarding environmental impacts, areas of controversy, and issues that remain to be resolved as DOE proceeds with the HLW tank closure process.

  10. Effect of residual gases in high vacuum on the energy-level alignment at noble metal/organic interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helander, M. G.; Wang, Z. B.; Lu, Z. H.

    2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy-level alignment at metal/organic interfaces has traditionally been studied using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). However, since most devices are fabricated in high vacuum (HV), these studies do not accurately reflect the interfaces in real devices. We demonstrate, using UPS measurements of samples prepared in HV and UHV and current-voltage measurements of devices prepared in HV, that the small amounts of residual gases that are adsorbed on the surface of clean Cu, Ag, and Au (i.e., the noble metals) in HV can significantly alter the energy-level alignment at metal/organic interfaces.

  11. Role of Congress in the High Level Radioactive Waste Odyssey: The Wisdom and Will of the Congress - 13096

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vieth, Donald L. [DOE/NVOO Project Manager for Yucca Mountain, 1982 thru 1987, 1154 Cheltenham Place, Maineville, OH 45039 (United States)] [DOE/NVOO Project Manager for Yucca Mountain, 1982 thru 1987, 1154 Cheltenham Place, Maineville, OH 45039 (United States); Voegele, Michael D. [Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office, 7404 Oak Grove Ave, Las Vegas, NV 89117 (United States)] [Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office, 7404 Oak Grove Ave, Las Vegas, NV 89117 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Congress has had a dual role with regard to high level radioactive waste, being involved in both its creation and its disposal. A significant amount of time has passed between the creation of the nation's first high level radioactive waste and the present day. The pace of addressing its remediation has been highly irregular. Congress has had to consider the technical, regulatory, and political issues and all have had specific difficulties. It is a true odyssey framed by an imperative and accountability, by a sense of urgency, by an ability or inability to finish the job and by consequences. Congress had set a politically acceptable course by 1982. However, President Obama intervened in the process after he took office in January 2009. Through the efforts of his Administration, by the end of 2012, the US government has no program to dispose of high level radioactive waste and no reasonable prospect of a repository for high level radioactive waste. It is not obvious how the US government program will be reestablished or who will assume responsibility for leadership. The ultimate criteria for judging the consequences are 1) the outcome of the ongoing NRC's Nuclear Waste Confidence Rulemaking and 2) the concomitant permissibility of nuclear energy supplying electricity from operating reactors in the US. (authors)

  12. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Overcoming tunnel vision: Redirecting the U.S. high-level nuclear waste program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    permission. Overcoming tunnel vision: Redirecting the U.S. high-level nuclear waste program James Flynn

  13. Liquid Water Oceans in Ice Giants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloane J. Wiktorowicz; Andrew P. Ingersoll

    2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Aptly named, ice giants such as Uranus and Neptune contain significant amounts of water. While this water cannot be present near the cloud tops, it must be abundant in the deep interior. We investigate the likelihood of a liquid water ocean existing in the hydrogen-rich region between the cloud tops and deep interior. Starting from an assumed temperature at a given upper tropospheric pressure (the photosphere), we follow a moist adiabat downward. The mixing ratio of water to hydrogen in the gas phase is small in the photosphere and increases with depth. The mixing ratio in the condensed phase is near unity in the photosphere and decreases with depth; this gives two possible outcomes. If at some pressure level the mixing ratio of water in the gas phase is equal to that in the deep interior, then that level is the cloud base. Alternately, if the mixing ratio of water in the condensed phase reaches that in the deep interior, then the surface of a liquid ocean will occur. We find that Neptune is both too warm (photospheric temperature too high) and too dry (mixing ratio of water in the deep interior too low) for liquid oceans to exist at present. To have a liquid ocean, Neptune's deep interior water to gas ratio would have to be higher than current models allow, and the density at 19 kbar would have to be ~ 0.8 g/cm^3. Such a high density is inconsistent with gravitational data obtained during the Voyager flyby. As Neptune cools, the probability of a liquid ocean increases. Extrasolar "hot Neptunes," which presumably migrate inward toward their parent stars, cannot harbor liquid water oceans unless they have lost almost all of the hydrogen and helium from their deep interiors.

  14. Hanford high level waste (HLW) tank mixer pump safe operating envelope reliability assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Clark, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy and its contractor, Westinghouse Corp., are responsible for the management and safe storage of waste accumulated from processing defense reactor irradiated fuels for plutonium recovery at the Hanford Site. These wastes, which consist of liquids and precipitated solids, are stored in underground storage tanks pending final disposition. Currently, 23 waste tanks have been placed on a safety watch list because of their potential for generating, storing, and periodically releasing various quantities of hydrogen and other gases. Tank 101-SY in the Hanford SY Tank Farm has been found to release hydrogen concentrations greater than the lower flammable limit (LFL) during periodic gas release events. In the unlikely event that an ignition source is present during a hydrogen release, a hydrogen burn could occur with a potential to release nuclear waste materials. To mitigate the periodic gas releases occurring from Tank 101-SY, a large mixer pump currently is being installed in the tank to promote a sustained release of hydrogen gas to the tank dome space. An extensive safety analysis (SA) effort was undertaken and documented to ensure the safe operation of the mixer pump after it is installed in Tank 101-SY.1 The SA identified a need for detailed operating, alarm, and abort limits to ensure that analyzed safety limits were not exceeded during pump operations.

  15. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases ({open_quotes}burps{close_quotes}) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity.

  16. THE STRUCTURAL CHEMISTRY OF MOLYBDENUM IN MODEL HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES, INVESTIGATED BY MO K-EDGE X-RAY ABSORPTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    THE STRUCTURAL CHEMISTRY OF MOLYBDENUM IN MODEL HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES, INVESTIGATED of molybdenum in model UK high level nuclear waste glasses was investigated by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Molybdenum K-edge XAS data were acquired from several inactive simulant high level nuclear waste

  17. Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.

    2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    processing strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal tolerant high level waste (HLW) glasses targeting higher waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. This report provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with scaled melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by K-3 refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. This report includes a review of the crystallization observed with the scaled melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2). Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for WTP. Operation of the first and second (current) DWPF melters has demonstrated that the strategy of using a liquidus temperature predictive model combined with a 100 °C offset from the normal melter operating temperature of 1150 °C (i.e., the predicted liquidus temperature (TL) of the glass must be 1050 °C or less) has been successful in preventing any detrimental accumulation of spinel in the DWPF melt pool, and spinel has not been observed in any of the pour stream glass samples. Spinel was observed at the bottom of DWPF Melter 1 as a result of K-3 refractory corrosion. Issues have occurred with accumulation of spinel in the pour spout during periods of operation at higher waste loadings. Given that both DWPF melters were or have been in operation for greater than 8 years, the service life of the melters has far exceeded design expectations. It is possible that the DWPF liquidus temperature approach is conservative, in that it may be possible to successfully operate the melter with a small degree of allowable crystallization in the glass. This could be a viable approach to increasing waste loading in the glass assuming that the crystals are suspended in the melt and swept out through the riser and pour spout. Additional study is needed, and development work for WTP might be leveraged to support a different operating limit for the DWPF. Several recommendations are made regarding considerations that need to be included as part of the WTP crystal tolerant strategy based on the DWPF development work and operational data reviewed here. These include: Identify and consider the impacts of potential heat sinks in the WTP melter and glass pouring system; Consider the contributions of refractory corrosion products, which may serve to nucleate additional crystals leading to further accumulation; Consider volatilization of components from the melt (e.g., boron, alkali, halides, etc.) and determine their impacts on glass crystallization behavior; Evaluate the impacts of glass REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) conditions and the distribution of temperature within the WTP melt pool and melter pour chamber on crystal accumulation rate; Consider the impact of precipitated crystals on glass viscosity; Consider the impact of an accumulated crystalline layer on thermal convection currents and bubbler effectiveness within the melt pool; Evaluate the impact of spinel accumulation on Joule heating of the WTP melt pool; and Include noble metals in glass melt experiments because of their potential to act as nucleation site

  18. INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF ALUMINUM IMPACTS ON CRYSTALLIZATION IN U.S. HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K; David Peeler, D; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P; James Marra, J

    2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this task was to develop glass formulations for (Department of Energy) DOE waste streams with high aluminum concentrations to avoid nepheline formation while maintaining or meeting waste loading and/or waste throughput expectations as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints. Liquidus temperatures and crystallization behavior were carefully characterized to support model development for higher waste loading glasses. The experimental work, characterization, and data interpretation necessary to meet these objectives were performed among three partnering laboratories: the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Projected glass compositional regions that bound anticipated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Hanford high level waste (HLW) glass regions of interest were developed and used to generate glass compositions of interest for meeting the objectives of this study. A thorough statistical analysis was employed to allow for a wide range of waste glass compositions to be examined while minimizing the number of glasses that had to be fabricated and characterized in the laboratory. The glass compositions were divided into two sets, with 45 in the test matrix investigated by the U.S. laboratories and 30 in the test matrix investigated by KRI. Fabrication and characterization of the US and KRI-series glasses were generally handled separately. This report focuses mainly on the US-series glasses. Glasses were fabricated and characterized by SRNL and PNNL. Crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the quenched and canister centerline cooled (CCC) glasses and were generally iron oxides and spinels, which are not expected to impact durability of the glass. Nepheline was detected in five of the glasses after the CCC heat treatment. Chemical composition measurements for each of the glasses were conducted following an analytical plan. A review of the individual oxides for each glass revealed that there were no errors in batching significant enough to impact the outcome of the study. A comparison of the measured compositions of the replicates indicated an acceptable degree of repeatability as the percent differences for most of the oxides were less than 5% and percent differences for all of the oxides were less than 10 wt%. Chemical durability was measured using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). All but two of the study glasses had normalized leachate for boron (NL [B]) values that were well below that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass. The two highest NL [B] values were for the CCC versions of glasses US-18 and US-27 (10.498 g/L and 15.962 g/L, respectively). Nepheline crystallization was identified by qualitative XRD in five of the US-series glasses. Each of these five glasses (US-18, US-26, US-27, US-37 and US-43) showed a significant increase in NL [B] values after the CCC heat treatment. This reduction in durability can be attributed to the formation of nepheline during the slow cooling cycle and the removal of glass formers from the residual glass network. The liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) of each glass in the study was determined by both optical microscopy and XRD methods. The correlation coefficient of the measured XRD TL data versus the measured optical TL data was very good (R{sup 2} = 0.9469). Aside from a few outliers, the two datasets aligned very well across the entire temperature range (829 C to 1312 C for optical data and 813 C to 1310 C for XRD crystal fraction data). The data also correlated well with the predictions of a PNNL T{sub L} model. The correlation between the measured and calculated data had a higher degree of merit for the XRD crystal fraction data than for the optical data (higher R{sup 2} value of 0.9089 versus 0.8970 for the optical data). The SEM-EDS analysis of select samples revealed the presence of undissolved RuO{sub 2} in all glasses due to the low solubility of RuO{sub 2} in borosilicate glass. These

  19. A critical concern for embedded sys-tems is the need to deliver high levels of per-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mudge, Trevor

    10 A critical concern for embedded sys- tems is the need to deliver high levels of per- formance proces- sor utilization and allows a corresponding reduction in supply voltage. Because dynam- ic energy scales quadratically with supply volt- age, DVS can significantly reduce energy use.2 Enabling systems

  20. Short-time OD matrix estimation for a complex junction using Fuzzy-Timed High-Level Petri Nets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Short-time OD matrix estimation for a complex junction using Fuzzy-Timed High-Level Petri Nets cedex, France, E-mail: krystyna.biletska@utc.fr (corresponding author) Abstract--The OD matrix systems. A new dynamic two-steps method is proposed to estimate such an OD matrix. First, a vehicle

  1. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction.

  2. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 3) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Safeguards and Security, Engineering Design, and Maintenance.

  3. Sustained high levels of neuregulin-1 in the longest-lived rodents; a key determinant of rodent longevity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huchon, Dorothée

    Sustained high levels of neuregulin-1 in the longest-lived rodents; a key determinant of rodent 31905, Israel Summary Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber), the longest-lived rodents, live 7% of their lives. Little is known about the mechanisms that allow them to delay the aging process and live so long

  4. High CO2 Levels in Boreholes at El Teide Volcano Complex (Tenerife, Canary Islands): Implications for Volcanic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    High CO2 Levels in Boreholes at El Teide Volcano Complex (Tenerife, Canary Islands): Implications emissions at numerous water prospection drillings in the volcanic island of Tenerife. Large concentrations region of the island (Las Can~ adas del Teide caldera). In this work we analysed CO2 concentrations

  5. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 5) outlines the standards and requirements for the Fire Protection and Packaging and Transportation sections.

  6. Foreign programs for the storage of spent nuclear power plant fuels, high-level waste canisters and transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, K.M.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The various national programs for developing and applying technology for the interim storage of spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and TRU wastes are summarized. Primary emphasis of the report is on dry storage techniques for uranium dioxide fuels, but data are also provided concerning pool storage.

  7. Immobilized High Level Waste (HLW) Interim Storage Alternative Generation and analysis and Decision Report 2nd Generation Implementing Architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Two alternative approaches were previously identified to provide second-generation interim storage of Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). One approach was retrofit modification of the Fuel and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) to accommodate IHLW. The results of the evaluation of the FMEF as the second-generation IHLW interim storage facility and subsequent decision process are provided in this document.

  8. A three-level buck converter to regulate a high-voltage DC-to-AC inverter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrock, Kenneth C

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-level buck converter is designed and analyzed, and shown to be suitable as a high-voltage down converter as a pre-regulation stage for a 600 watt DC-to-AC power inverter. Topology selection for the inverter is ...

  9. The Abstract State Machines Method for High-Level System Design and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Börger, Egon

    of concepts and techniques from the stock of engineering and mathematical methods, at the given level and applications of the method in other areas than software engineering. 1 Introduction In this paper we give the practical and scientifically well-founded systems engineering methods? The question is justified since

  10. High Level Power Analysis for Embedded DSP Software Johann LAURENT Nathalie JULIEN Eric MARTIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on power consumption optimization for DSP which operate at the instruction level [2], we have chosen applications, power dissipation is currently a major parameter. Power consumption optimization allows to reduce-known that algorithm transformations are more efficient than technologic optimizations [1]; furthermore

  11. Implementation of RFID in a low volume high flexibility assembly plant : item-level tagging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koniski, Cyril (Cyril A.)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The implementation of an RFID checkpoint system in a low volume high flexibility assembly plant, aimed at tracking the flow of parts within the facility, was studied. A pilot revealed the suitability of the technology to ...

  12. Establishing an inventory management process to meet high customer service levels in a vaccines organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wonsowicz, Johanna Christine

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inventory management is a complex aspect of Supply Chain Management that is frequently discussed and debated due to the fact that it has a high impact on customer satisfaction as well as financial performance. This thesis ...

  13. asal exhibits high-level: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 14 through March 7, 2014 Opening Reception: Friday, February 14, 5-8PM TRI-COUNTY HIGH Berdichevsky, Victor 459 An Activity-Centered Design Perspective for the...

  14. Ionic liquids and electrochemistry: from proteins to electrochromic devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keizer, T. S. (Timothy S.); McCleskey, T. M. (Thomas Mark); Baker, G. A. (Gary A.); Burrell, A. K. (Anthony K.); Baker, S. N. (Sheila N.); Warner, B. P. (Benjamin P.); Hall, S. B. (Simon B.)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We will report on a wide range of activities within the chemistry division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Results on basic and applied research involving electrochemistry will be discussed. Topics will include electrochemistry of proteins, sensors based on electrochemical signals, temperature sensors, electrochromic devices in ionic liquids and the characterization of organic cation radicals. We have recently developed several applications in ionic liquids that include electrochromic devices, temperature sensors and chemical sensors. The electrochromic windows are being marketed as selftinting automotive mirrors. The ionic liquid based temperature sensor is stable and accurate over a wide range and has the potential to provide high-resolution temperature imaging. Chemical sensors have been developed that use electrochemistry to detect low levels of potential chemical agents in air. We have also studied the basic chemistry of charge transfer complexes and proteins in ionic liquids. Charge transfer complexes display unique behavior in ionic liquid compare to traditional solvents. Proteins can be solubilized at high levels that make it possible to probe electrochemistry in the proper ionic liquid.

  15. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, L.L.

    1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

  16. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

  17. A High-Performance Algorithm to Calculate Spin- and Parity-Dependent Nuclear Level Densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Sen'kov; M. Horoi

    2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A new algorithm for calculating the spin- and parity-dependent shell model nuclear level densities using the moments method in the proton-neutron formalism is presented. A new, parallelized code based on this algorithm was developed and tested using up to 4000 cores for a set of nuclei from the sd-, pf-, and pf + g9/2 - model spaces. By comparing the nuclear level densities at low excitation energy for a given nucleus calculated in two model spaces, such as pf and pf + g9/2, one could estimate the ground state energy in the larger model space, which is not accessible to direct shell model calculations due to the unmanageable dimension. Examples for the ground state energies of for 64Ge and 68Se in the pf + g9/2 model space are presented.

  18. A High-Performance Algorithm to Calculate Spin- and Parity-Dependent Nuclear Level Densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen'kov, R A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new algorithm for calculating the spin- and parity-dependent shell model nuclear level densities using the moments method in the proton-neutron formalism is presented. A new, parallelized code based on this algorithm was developed and tested using up to 4000 cores for a set of nuclei from the sd-, pf-, and pf + g9/2 - model spaces. By comparing the nuclear level densities at low excitation energy for a given nucleus calculated in two model spaces, such as pf and pf + g9/2, one could estimate the ground state energy in the larger model space, which is not accessible to direct shell model calculations due to the unmanageable dimension. Examples for the ground state energies of for 64Ge and 68Se in the pf + g9/2 model space are presented.

  19. A delayed-neutron monitor for a liquid-waste stream with high gamma-ray intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinard, P.M.; Crane, T.W.; Van Lyssel, T.; Kroncke, K.M.; Schneider, C.M.; Bourret, S.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An instrument has been built to monitor the uranium concentration in a liquid-waste stream to avoid a criticality accident in a downstream holding tank. The measurement technique is based on the production and counting of delayed neutrons using the shuffler'' process because the waste contains enough fission products to produce a gamma-ray dose rate of 10 R/h on the surface of the assay tank. The design goal was a sensitivity of 0.034 g/L (1{sigma} = 10%) in 100 s as the stream flows at 80 L/h through the assay chamber. The instrument is to run unattended for at least three months; during this time it it to transmit assay results to the plant computer and generate warnings and alarms when necessary.

  20. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly...

  1. SULFATE RETENTION IN HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 4 GLASSES: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Early projections of the Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) composition predicted relatively high concentrations of alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 23.5 wt%) and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, 1.2 wt%) in the sludge. A high concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the sludge, combined with Na{sub 2}O additions in the frit, raises the potential for nepheline crystallization in the glass. However, strategic frit development efforts at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have shown that frits containing a relatively high concentration of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} can both suppress nepheline crystallization and improve melt rates. A high sulfate concentration is a concern to the DWPF as it can lead to the formation of sulfate inclusions in the glass and/or the formation of a molten, sulfate-rich phase atop the melt pool. To avoid these issues, a sulfate concentration limit of 0.4 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass was originally set in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) used at DWPF. It was later shown that this limit could be increased to 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass for the Frit 418, Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) system.

  2. Two-Level Free-Form Deformation for High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zingg, David W.

    awakened global awareness.1 Its disastrous impacts on the environ- ment have long been linked to oil, whose diminishing world reserves have led to a substantial rise in fuel prices. As far as the aviation industry of incorporating an high-fidelity finite-element structural solver in the near future. Historically, shape control

  3. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

  4. Hydrostatic Level Sensors as High Precision Ground Motion Instrumentation for Tevatron and Other Energy Frontier Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volk, James; Hansen, Sten; Johnson, Todd; Jostlein, Hans; Kiper, Terry; Shiltsev, Vladimir; Chupyra, Andrei; Kondaurov, Mikhail; Medvedko, Anatoly; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Singatulin, Shavkat

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle accelerators require very tight tolerances on the alignment and stability of their elements: magnets, accelerating cavities, vacuum chambers, etc. In this article we describe the Hydrostatic Level Sensors (HLS) for very low frequency measurements used in a variety of facilities at Fermilab. We present design features of the sensors, outline their technical parameters, describe their test and calibration procedures, discuss different regimes of operation and give few illustrative examples of the experimental data. Detail experimental results of the ground motion measurements with these detectors will be presented in subsequent papers.

  5. Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1.SpaceFluorControlsEnergy Copyin Salt | Department of

  6. West Valley Demonstration Project Prepares to Relocate High-Level Waste |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradley Nickell DirectorThe& FederalPleasePhotoWest

  7. Comments of Santiago Grijalva: High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Smart Grid

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613PortsmouthBartlesville EnergyDepartment. CashDay-June 22, 2015Policy | Department of

  8. Report on Separate Disposal of Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR -Department of Energyasto| DepartmentDepartment

  9. Microsoft Word - Vit Plant High-Level Waste Dampers 20110921.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625 FINALOptimizationForArticle from the

  10. Microsoft Word - Vit Plant_HighLevelWasteBridgeCrane_20110909.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625 FINALOptimizationForArticle from

  11. Chromium Speciation and Mobility in a High Level Nuclear Waste Vadose Zone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma ofTop EnvironmentaltoPeter S. Nico1,

  12. Comments of Santiago Grijalva: High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Smart Grid

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. DepartmentEnergy This part governsNational

  13. Report on Separate Disposal of Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptemberAssessments | Department ofSouthernofDepartment of

  14. Biofuels and Food Security. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find Find More Like ThisBioenergyBiofuelFood Security and

  15. Hanford Waste Treatment Plant completes critical system design for High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cn SunnybankD.jpgHanford LEED&soil Hanford Traffic DepartmentDesign in21,

  16. Hanford Waste Treatment Plant completes critical system design for High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cn SunnybankD.jpgHanford LEED&soil Hanford Traffic DepartmentDesign

  17. Amended Record of Decision for the Idaho High-Level Waste (HLW) and

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613Portsmouth SitePresentations |StateNuclear EnergyofEnergyPower - GreatFacilities

  18. Idaho High-Level Waste & Facilities Disposition, Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOEthe RankingReform at the Department of Energy| Department

  19. EIS-0287: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Department ofNotices | DepartmentEnvironmental Impactin7: Amended

  20. EM Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Department ofNotices |Notice of38:3:1:EM OfficialAugustJulySSABEM2/2012