National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for high growth case

  1. Journal of Crystal Growth 304 (2007) 399401 Growth of high quality, epitaxial InSb nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    2007-01-01

    Journal of Crystal Growth 304 (2007) 399­401 Growth of high quality, epitaxial InSb nanowires Hyun, Washington, DC. 20375, USA b School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology March 2007 Communicated by R.M. Biefeld Available online 1 April 2007 Abstract The growth of In

  2. Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis This report considers a...

  3. Bulge growth through disk instabilities in high-redshift galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bournaud, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The role of disk instabilities, such as bars and spiral arms, and the associated resonances, in growing bulges in the inner regions of disk galaxies have long been studied in the low-redshift nearby Universe. There it has long been probed observationally, in particular through peanut-shaped bulges. This secular growth of bulges in modern disk galaxies is driven by weak, non-axisymmetric instabilities: it mostly produces pseudo-bulges at slow rates and with long star-formation timescales. Disk instabilities at high redshift (z>1) in moderate-mass to massive galaxies (10^10 to a few 10^11 Msun of stars) are very different from those found in modern spiral galaxies. High-redshift disks are globally unstable and fragment into giant clumps containing 10^8-10^9 Msun of gas and stars each, which results in highly irregular galaxy morphologies. The clumps and other features associated to the violent instability drive disk evolution and bulge growth through various mechanisms, on short timescales. The giant clumps can...

  4. Metropolitan High-Technology Industry Growth in the Mid 1970s: Can Everyone Have a Slice of the High-Tech Pie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasmeier, Amy; Hall, Peter; Markusen, Ann R.

    1984-01-01

    such as crystal-growth technology. The second measure ,sustained economic growth (Office of Technology Assessmen t,TABLE 1 High Technology Industries Growth Performance, 1972-

  5. Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    building science.com 2009 Building Science Press All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis...

  6. Supporting Broadband Growth in an Interregional Level: The Case of Greece-Italy Partnership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supporting Broadband Growth in an Interregional Level: The Case of Greece-Italy Partnership of Patras, Greece *** Department of Informatics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract in an Interregional Level between regions of Italy and Greece. Main target of the project is the technology

  7. Component Overpressure Growth and Characterization of High Resistivity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    States Language: English Subject: 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; BRIDGMAN METHOD; CHARGE TRANSPORT; CRYSTAL GROWTH; RADIATION DETECTORS Word...

  8. High Penetration Photovoltaic Case Study Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bank, J.; Mather, B.; Keller, J.; Coddington, M.

    2013-01-01

    Technical concerns with integrating higher penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems include grid stability, voltage regulation, power quality (voltage rise, sags, flicker, and frequency fluctuations), and protection and coordination. The current utility grid was designed to accommodate power flows from the central generation source to the transmission system and eventually to the distribution feeders. At the distribution level, the system was designed to carry power from the substation toward the load. Renewable distributed generation, particularly solar PV, provides power at the distribution level challenging this classical paradigm. As these resources become more commonplace the nature of the distribution network and its operation is changing to handle power flow in both directions. This report is focused on large PV installations in which penetration is significantly greater than 15% of maximum daytime feeder load. These case studies are intended to demonstrate success stories with integration of large PV plants at the distribution level as well as some of the solutions used by the utility to ensure safe, reliable operation of both the PV system and the distribution network.

  9. The Santa Clara Valley R & D Dillema: The Real Estate Industry and High Tech Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Cynthia A.; Kimball, Linda M.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption . 57 VI. Evolving High Tech Demand for Space:Silicon Valley Job Growth within High Tech Sectors .. 64 TheOccupational Composition of High Tech Employment. 71 Santa

  10. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: High Performance Homes...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    R-15 unfaced batt on walls, sealed attic with R-49 ocsf under roof deck; ground source heat pump COP 4.4. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: High Performance Homes,...

  11. Linking atomistic and mesoscale simulations of nanocrystalline materials : quantitative validation for the case of grain growth.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moldovan, D.; Wolf, D.; Phillpot, S. R.; Materials Science Division; Louisiana State Univ.

    2003-11-01

    Using grain growth in nanocrystalline palladium as a simple case study, we demonstrate how a novel mesoscale approach for simulating microstructural evolution in polycrystalline materials can be validated directly against atomic-level simulations of the same system. We first describe molecular dynamics simulations of grain growth in a columnar model microstructure. The atomic-level insights into the grain-growth mechanism gained from these simulations, particularly in the role of grain rotations, are captured theoretically for incorporation into the mesoscale approach, in which the objects evolving in space and time are the grain boundaries and grain junctions rather than the atoms. With all the input parameters to the mesoscale being physically well defined and obtained directly from the atomic-level simulations, the mesoscale simulations are fully prescribed. We find that the morphology of the mesoscale system evolves in an almost identical manner with that of the molecular dynamics simulation, demonstrating that the length- and time-scale linking has been performed correctly. When applied to systems containing large numbers of grains, the now validated mesoscale simulation approach allows the growth topology and long-time growth kinetics to be determined. As an outlook, we describe how the effects of applied stress can be incorporated.

  12. Technology Solutions Case Study: Moisture Management of High-Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-12-01

    Moisture management of high-R walls is important to ensure optimal performance. This case study, developed by Building America team Building Science Corporation, focuses on how eight high-R walls handle the three main sources of moisture—construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leaks.

  13. Epitaxial growth of high quality WO3 thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leng, X.; Pereiro, J.; Strle, J.; Bollinger, A. T.; Bozovic, I.

    2015-09-09

    We have grown epitaxial WO3 films on various single-crystal substrates using radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. While pronounced surface roughness is observed in films grown on LaSrAlO4 substrates, films grown on YAlO3 substrates show atomically flat surfaces, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The crystalline structure has been confirmed to be monoclinic by symmetric and skew-symmetric XRD. The dependence of the growth modes and the surface morphology on the lattice mismatch is discussed.

  14. TECHNICAL ADVANCE A high-throughput method for quantifying growth of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dangl, Jeff

    : Arabidopsis, resistance genes, Pseudomonas syringae, phytopathogenic bacteria, counting bacteria IntroductionTECHNICAL ADVANCE A high-throughput method for quantifying growth of phytopathogenic bacteria; email: dangl@email.unc.edu) Summary Measuring the growth of pathogenic bacteria in leaves is a mainstay

  15. Highly oriented, free-standing, superconducting NbN films growth on chemical vapor deposited graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raychaudhuri, Pratap

    Highly oriented, free-standing, superconducting NbN films growth on chemical vapor deposited oriented, free-standing, superconducting NbN films growth on chemical vapor deposited graphene Garima field of 33 T. In addition, we demonstrate a process for obtaining flexible, free-standing NbN films

  16. Case studies of six high priority DOD installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-11-01

    This is a supplement to the report entitled Environmental Cleanup: Too Many High Priority Sites Impede DOD`s Program. It provides six installation case studies addressing issues including the status of the restoration program, the cost of cleanup to date and projected costs, the cleanup options considered, the option selected, expected completion, and the applicable cleanup standards. The case studies also provide installation specific information on reasons installation was listed on the NPL, the regulatory process, cooperation between the installation and the regulatory agencies, staffing at the installations and the regulatory agencies, and the process for funding the cleanup.

  17. Deploying High Penetration Photovoltaic Systems: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M. H.; Baca, D.; Kroposki, B. D.; Basso, T.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system capacity penetration, or simply 'penetration,' is often defined as the rated power output of the aggregate PV systems on a distribution circuit segment divided by the peak load of that circuit segment. Industry experts agree that a single value defining high penetration is not universally applicable. However, it is generally agreed that a conservative value to designate high penetration is the condition when the ratio of aggregate PV systems ratings to peak load exceeds 15%. This case study illustrates the case of a distribution feeder which is able to accommodate a traditional capacity penetration level of 47%, and perhaps more. New maximum penetration levels need to be defined and verified and enhanced definitions for penetration on a distribution circuit need to be developed. The new penetration definitions and studies will help utility engineers, system developers, and regulatory agencies better agree what levels of PV deployment can be attained without jeopardizing the reliability and power quality of a circuit.

  18. Does a High Tech Boom Worsen Housing Problems for Working Families?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Querica, Roberto G.; Stegman, Michael A.; Davis, Walter R.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamics and Outcomes in High- Tech Economies. Presented atthis is the case in areas experiencing high tech growth.Metropolitan areas promoting high tech growth would do well

  19. Soil Aggregate Size Affects Phosphorus Desorption from Highly Weathered Soils and Plant Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Kessel, Chris

    Soil Aggregate Size Affects Phosphorus Desorption from Highly Weathered Soils and Plant Growth X of P around soil aggregates (Gunary et al., 1964; Linquist etfrom soil, understanding P desorption from soils may improve the precision of P diagnosis and fertilization recommendations. Many al., 1997

  20. Power/energy use cases for high performance computing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laros, James H.,; Kelly, Suzanne M; Hammond, Steven [National Renewable Energy Laboratory] [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Elmore, Ryan; Munch, Kristin

    2013-12-01

    Power and Energy have been identified as a first order challenge for future extreme scale high performance computing (HPC) systems. In practice the breakthroughs will need to be provided by the hardware vendors. But to make the best use of the solutions in an HPC environment, it will likely require periodic tuning by facility operators and software components. This document describes the actions and interactions needed to maximize power resources. It strives to cover the entire operational space in which an HPC system occupies. The descriptions are presented as formal use cases, as documented in the Unified Modeling Language Specification [1]. The document is intended to provide a common understanding to the HPC community of the necessary management and control capabilities. Assuming a common understanding can be achieved, the next step will be to develop a set of Application Programing Interfaces (APIs) to which hardware vendors and software developers could utilize to steer power consumption.

  1. Growth of highly oriented carbon nanotubes by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Z.P.; Xu, J.W.; Ren, Z.F.; Wang, J.H.; Siegal, M.P.; Provencio, P.N.

    1998-12-01

    Highly oriented, multiwalled carbon nanotubes were grown on polished polycrystalline and single crystal nickel substrates by plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition at temperatures below 666 {degree}C. The carbon nanotubes range from 10 to 500 nm in diameter and 0.1 to 50 {mu}m in length depending on growth conditions. Acetylene is used as the carbon source for the growth of the carbon nanotubes and ammonia is used for dilution gas and catalysis. The plasma intensity, acetylene to ammonia gas ratio, and their flow rates, etc. affect the diameters and uniformity of the carbon nanotubes. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Basic criteria for formation of growth twins in high stacking fault energy metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, K. Y.; Zhang, X. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Bufford, D.; Chen, Y.; Liu, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Wang, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2013-10-28

    Nanotwinned metals received significant interest lately as twin boundaries may enable simultaneous enhancement of strength, ductility, thermal stability, and radiation tolerance. However, nanotwins have been the privilege of metals with low-to-intermediate stacking fault energy (SFE). Recent scattered studies show that nanotwins could be introduced into high SFE metals, such as Al. In this paper, we examine several sputter-deposited, (111) textured Ag/Al, Cu/Ni, and Cu/Fe multilayers, wherein growth twins were observed in Al, Ni, and face-centered cubic (fcc) Fe. The comparisons lead to two important design criteria that dictate the introduction of growth twins in high SFE metals. The validity of these criteria was then examined in Ag/Ni multilayers. Furthermore, another twin formation mechanism in high SFE metals was discovered in Ag/Ni system.

  3. Tuning calcite morphology and growth acceleration by a rational design of highly stable protein-mimetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chunlong; Qi, Jiahui; Tao, Jinhui; Zuckermann, Ronald; De Yoreo, James J.

    2014-09-05

    In nature, proteins play a significant role in biomineral formation. One of the ultimate goals of bioinspired materials science is to develop highly stable synthetic molecules that mimic the function of these natural proteins by controlling crystal formation. Here, we demonstrate that both the morphology and the degree of acceleration or inhibition observed during growth of calcite in the presence of peptoids can be rationally tuned by balancing the electrostatic interactions (EI) and hydrophobic interactions (HI), with HI playing the dominant role. While either strong EI or HI inhibit growth and suppress (104) face expression, correlations between peptoid-crystal binding energies and observed changes in calcite growth indicate moderate EI allow peptoids to weakly adsorb while moderate HI cause disruption of surface-adsorbed water layers, leading to growth acceleration with retained expression of (104) faces. This study provides fundamental principles for designing peptoids as crystallization promoters, and offers a straightforward screening method based on macroscopic crystal morphology. Because peptoids are sequence-specific, highly stable, and easily synthesized, peptoid-enhanced crystallization offers a broad range of potential applications.

  4. The growth of cultural industry and the role of government : the case of Korea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Kang Ah

    2008-01-01

    The 21 st century is the age of culture. Cultural industry is rapidly internationalizing and a number of countries seeking a new source of economic growth are now turning their attention to cultural industries. In Asia, ...

  5. Energy Consumption and Economic Growth The Case of Australia Hong To a, *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;3 depend on imports of crude oil, natural gas, and coal for their industrial and residential energy needs energy consumption and economic growth. Peak oil, energy security and climate change have become key

  6. Southeast high speed rail (SEHSR): a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallagher, William

    2005-01-01

    transportation system. High speed rail service will provideof 100 – 500 miles. High speed rail in the Southeast willcoalition to develop a high speed rail network connecting

  7. Growth of Highly-Oriented Carbon Nanotubes by Plasma-Enhanced Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Z.P.; Provencio, P.N.; Ren, Z.F.; Siegal, M.P.; Wang, J.H.; Xu, J.W.

    1998-10-11

    Highly-oriented, multi-walled carbon nanotubes were grown on polished polycrystalline and single crystal nickel substrates by plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition at temperatures below 666"C. The carbon nanotubes range from 10 to 500 nm in diameter and 0.1 to 50 pm in length depending on growth conditions. Acetylene is used as the carbon source for the growth of the carbon nanotubes and ammonia is used for dilution gas and catalysis. The plasma intensity, acetylene to ammonia gas ratio and their flow rates, etc. affect the diameters and uniformity of the carbon nanotubes. In summary, we synthesized large-area highly-oriented carbon nanotubes at temperatures below 666C by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Acetylene gas is used to provide carbon for nanotube growth and ammonia gas is used for dilution and catalysis. Plasma intensity is critical in determining the nanotube aspect ratios (diameter and length), and range of both site and height distributions within a given film.

  8. Exponential growth of ``snow molds'' at sub-zero temperatures: an explanation for high beneath-snow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    Exponential growth of ``snow molds'' at sub-zero temperatures: an explanation for high beneath organisms of the beneath-snow microbial community, ``snow molds'', exhibit robust exponential growth to -0.3°C for these snow molds vary from 22 to 330. Third, we derive an analytical equation

  9. A study of the correlation between pre-IPO venture funds and founder characteristics with high-tech firm growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaheer, Safwan

    2008-01-01

    High-tech firms are among the fastest growing in the United States. The four industries with the most rapid growth -internet, software, semiconductors, and technology hardware - have almost doubled their share of industry ...

  10. Case Studies of High Efficiency Electric Motor Applicability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Much has been written about the advantages and disadvantages of high efficiency electric motors. For a given motor application it is possible to find literature that enables a plant engineer to make an informed choice between a standard efficiency...

  11. High Efficiency Motors for Refrigerated Open Display Cases

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡ ¢HelpHigh EfficiencyEnergyHigh

  12. Vapor-transport growth of high optical quality WSe{sub 2} monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Genevieve [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Wu, Sanfeng; Rivera, Pasqual; Finney, Joseph; Nguyen, Paul; Cobden, David H. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Xu, Xiaodong, E-mail: xuxd@uw.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are atomically thin direct-gap semiconductors that show a variety of novel electronic and optical properties with an optically accessible valley degree of freedom. While they are ideal materials for developing optical-driven valleytronics, the restrictions of exfoliated samples have limited exploration of their potential. Here, we present a physical vapor transport growth method for triangular WSe{sub 2} sheets of up to 30 ?m in edge length on insulating SiO{sub 2} substrates. Characterization using atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy reveals that they are uniform, monolayer crystals. Low temperature photoluminescence shows well resolved and electrically tunable excitonic features similar to those in exfoliated samples, with substantial valley polarization and valley coherence. The monolayers grown using this method are therefore of high enough optical quality for routine use in the investigation of optoelectronics and valleytronics.

  13. Bounds on the growth of high Sobolev norms of solutions to nonlinear Schrödinger equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohinger, Vedran

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the growth of Sobolev norms of global solutions of solutions to nonlinear Schrödinger type equations which we can't bound from above by energy conservation. The growth of such norms gives a ...

  14. Automatic Metadata Extraction - The High Energy Physics Use Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Joseph; Rajman, Martin

    Automatic metadata extraction (AME) of scientific papers has been described as one of the hardest problems in document engineering. Heterogeneous content, varying style, and unpredictable placement of article components render the problem inherently indeterministic. Conditional random fields (CRF), a machine learning technique, can be used to classify document metadata amidst this uncertainty, annotating document contents with semantic labels. High energy physics (HEP) papers, such as those written at CERN, have unique content and structural characteristics, with scientific collaborations of thousands of authors altering article layouts dramatically. The distinctive qualities of these papers necessitate the creation of specialised datasets and model features. In this work we build an unprecedented training set of HEP papers and propose and evaluate a set of innovative features for CRF models. We build upon state-of-the-art AME software, GROBID, a tool coordinating a hierarchy of CRF models in a full document ...

  15. Effects of High Nighttime Temperature and Role of Plant Growth Regulators on Growth, Development and Physiology of Rice Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammed, Abdul R.

    2010-07-14

    betaine (GB), and salicylic acid (SA), which play different roles in inducing thermo-tolerance in plants. High nighttime temperature had no effect on plant height, number of tillers and panicles, or rice net leaf photosynthetic rates. However, HNT...

  16. Nonlinear effects in collision cascades and high energy shock waves during ta-C:H growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piazza, F.; Resto, O.; Morell, G. [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 23343, San Juan, 00931 (Puerto Rico)

    2007-07-01

    The surface topography of hydrogenated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C:H) is critical for various applications such as microelectromechanical devices, magnetic and optical storage devices, and medical implants. The surface topography of ta-C:H films deposited by distributed electron cyclotron resonance plasma from C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gas precursor was investigated. The effects of pressure, together with ion flux and energy, are studied by atomic force microscopy in relation to the structural evolution of the films. The results are compared with the predictions of the Edward-Wilkinson model [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 44, 1039 (1966)] recently proposed to account for ta-C:H growth and with previous interpretations based on hypersonic shock waves. The random hillocks observed on the smooth surfaces of ta-C:H films deposited at high pressure are thought to result from the interference of high energy shock waves triggered by C{sub 4}H{sub x}{sup +} ions that produce overlapping collision cascades and induce nonlinear effects.

  17. High-Tech Means High-Efficiency: The Business Case for Energy Management in High-Tech Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamshoian, Gary; Blazek, Michele; Naughton, Phil; Seese, Robert S.; Mills, Evan; Tschudi, William

    2005-01-01

    Comparative Energy Costs High-Tech Facilities vs. Standardof energy costs for high-tech buildings and conventionalSurvey (1999 values). High-Tech buildings from LBNL

  18. Whose parking space is it? : managing residential parking in the context of urban growth : case study of Cambridge, MA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Winnie C

    2014-01-01

    In the context of urban growth, how can a city approach residential parking issues? Cambridge, MA is experiencing rapid growth in real estate development and investment, shifts in demographics and travel behavior. How do ...

  19. Achieving high mobility ZnO:Al at very high growth rates by dc filtered cathodic arc deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendelsberg, Rueben

    2013-01-01

    scale heating in cathodic arc plasma deposition. Appl. Phys.modest 25-70 A dc. The arc plasma was ?ltered using aenergy of the cathodic arc plasma is utilized for ?lm growth

  20. Isolation and cultivation of microalgae select for low growth rate and tolerance to high pH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isolation and cultivation of microalgae select for low growth rate and tolerance to high pH Terje microalgae, especially oceanic forms from stable pH environments (ca. pH 8.1 Æ 0.5) and large species et al., 2007). Because microalgae have species-specific differences in their upper pH tolerance

  1. Mixed-Mode, High-Cycle Fatigue-Crack Growth Thresholds in Ti-6Al-4V

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    and control of failure due to high cycle fatigue (HCF) in turbine engine components is currently one and Engineering University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1760 ABSTRACT: There are few experimental results-cycle fatigue-crack growth thresholds with crack size and shape are reported for a Ti-6Al-4V turbine blade alloy

  2. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Colloidal Nanocrystal Growth Mechanisms using Graphene Liquid Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuk, Jong Min

    2013-01-01

    Growth Mechanisms using Graphene Liquid Cells Jong Min Yuk,Legends Fig. S1. Preparation of a graphene liquid cell. (fabrication processes of the graphene liquid cell. (B) SEM

  3. Effect of oxygen potential on high temperature crack growth in alloy 617

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benz, Julian K

    2009-01-01

    The effect of oxygen partial pressure on crack growth rates in Alloy 617 has been studied using both static and fatigue loading at 650°C. Tests were conducted at a constant stress intensity factor, K, for static loading ...

  4. Growth of normal faults in multilayer sequences: A 3D seismic case study from the Egersund Basin, Norwegian North Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fossen, Haakon

    Accepted 7 August 2013 Available online 14 August 2013 Keywords: Salt tectonics Fault reactivation Throw the structural style and evolution of a salt-influenced, extensional fault array in the Egersund Basin (Norwegian and growth, suggesting an evolution of (1) initial syn-sedimentary fault growth contemporaneous with salt

  5. High density growth of T7 expression strains with auto-induction option

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studier, F. William (Stony Brook, NY)

    2010-07-20

    A bacterial growth medium for promoting auto-induction of transcription of cloned DNA in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise is disclosed. The transcription is under the control of a lac repressor. Also disclosed is a bacterial growth medium for improving the production of a selenomethionine-containing protein or polypeptide in a bacterial cell, the protein or polypeptide being produced by recombinant DNA techniques from a lac or T7lac promoter, the bacterial cell encoding a vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine methylase. Finally, disclosed is a bacterial growth medium for suppressing auto-induction of expression in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise, said transcription being under the control of lac repressor.

  6. A=B: The Case for CAS and Research in High School Mathematics by Justin Burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong, Alexander

    A=B: The Case for CAS and Research in High School Mathematics by Justin Burner Having excelled. The implementation of these devices, however, has been overall lackluster. #12;Burner 2 These devices are primarily does that #12;Burner 3 actually do that?' " [Young 2009]. A basic understanding of computer languages

  7. High resolution remote sensing observations for missions to the Jovian system: Io as a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    High resolution remote sensing observations for missions to the Jovian system: Io as a case study Keywords: Io Remote sensing Instruments a b s t r a c t We present modeled images of Io at a variety objectives that could be achieved from missions engaged in long range remote-sensing of Io during

  8. Vibration Isolation with High Strain Shape Memory Alloy Actuators: Case of the impulse disturbance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayward, Vincent

    disturbance, while an active stage is used to aug- ment low frequency damping and provide attenuationVibration Isolation with High Strain Shape Memory Alloy Actuators: Case of the impulse disturbance disturbance on a mass to be isolated from vibrations. The vibration isolation testbed consists of a `strong

  9. High density growth of T7 expression strains with auto-induction option

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studier, F. William (Stony Brook, NY)

    2009-07-14

    Disclosed is a method for promoting auto-induction of transcription of cloned DNA in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise, the transcription being under the control of a promoter whose activity can be induced by an exogenous inducer whose ability to induce said promoter is dependent on the metabolic state of said bacterial cells. Initially, a culture media is provided which includes: i) an inducer that causes induction of transcription from said promoter in said bacterial cells; and ii) a metabolite that prevents induction by said inducer, the concentration of said metabolite being adjusted so as to substantially preclude induction by said inducer in the early stages of growth of the bacterial culture, but such that said metabolite is depleted to a level that allows induction by said inducer at a later stage of growth. The culture medium is inoculated with a bacterial inoculum, the inoculum comprising bacterial cells containing cloned DNA, the transcription of which is induced by said inducer. The culture is then incubated under conditions appropriate for growth of the bacterial cells.

  10. Material requirements for the adoption of unconventional silicon crystal and wafer growth techniques for high-efficiency solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hofstetter, Jasmin; del Cañizo, Carlos; Wagner, Hannes; Castellanos, Sergio; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-10-15

    Silicon wafers comprise approximately 40% of crystalline silicon module cost and represent an area of great technological innovation potential. Paradoxically, unconventional wafer-growth techniques have thus far failed to displace multicrystalline and Czochralski silicon, despite four decades of innovation. One of the shortcomings of most unconventional materials has been a persistent carrier lifetime deficit in comparison to established wafer technologies, which limits the device efficiency potential. In this perspective article, we review a defect-management framework that has proven successful in enabling millisecond lifetimes in kerfless and cast materials. Control of dislocations and slowly diffusing metal point defects during growth, coupled tomore »effective control of fast-diffusing species during cell processing, is critical to enable high cell efficiencies. As a result, to accelerate the pace of novel wafer development, we discuss approaches to rapidly evaluate the device efficiency potential of unconventional wafers from injection-dependent lifetime measurements.« less

  11. High-Tech Means High-Efficiency: The Business Case for EnergyManagement in High-Tech Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanshoian, Gary; Blazek, Michele; Naughton, Phil; Seese, RobertS.; Mills, Evan; Tschudi, William

    2005-11-15

    In the race to apply new technologies in ''high-tech'' facilities such as data centers, laboratories, and clean rooms, much emphasis has been placed on improving service, building capacity, and increasing speed. These facilities are socially and economically important, as part of the critical infrastructure for pharmaceuticals,electronics, communications, and many other sectors. With a singular focus on throughput, some important design issues can be overlooked, such as the energy efficiency of individual equipment (e.g., lasers, routers and switches) as well as the integration of high-tech equipment into the power distribution system and the building envelope. Among technology-based businesses, improving energy efficiency presents an often untapped opportunity to increase profits, enhance process control,maximize asset value, improve the work place environment, and manage a variety of business risks. Oddly enough, the adoption of energy efficiency improvements in this sector lags behind many others. As a result, millions of dollars are left on the table with each year ofoperation.

  12. The Growth of Black Holes and Their Host Spheroids in (Sub)mm-loud QSOs at High Redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. N. Hao; X. Y. Xia; S. Mao; Z. G. Deng; Hong Wu

    2007-04-24

    We study the growth of black holes and stellar population in spheroids at high redshift using several (sub)mm-loud QSO samples. Applying the same criteria established in an earlier work, we find that, similar to IR QSOs at low redshift, the far-infrared emission of these (sub)mm-loud QSOs mainly originates from dust heated by starbursts. By combining low-z IR QSOs and high-z (sub)mm-loud QSOs, we find a trend that the star formation rate ($\\Mstardot$) increases with the accretion rate ($\\Mdot$). We compare the values of $\\Mstardot/\\Mdot$ for submm emitting galaxies (SMGs), far-infrared ultraluminous/hyperluminous QSOs and typical QSOs, and construct a likely evolution scenario for these objects. The (sub)mm-loud QSO transition phase has both high $\\Mdot$ and $\\Mstardot$ and hence is important for establishing the correlation between the masses of black holes and spheroids.

  13. Studies and calculations of transverse emittance growth in high-energy proton storage rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mane, S.R.; Jackson, G.

    1989-03-01

    In the operation of proton-antiproton colliders, an important goal is to maximize the integrated luminosity. During such operations in the Fermilab Tevatron, the transverse beam emittances were observed to grow unexpectedly quickly, thus causing a serious reduction of the luminosity. We have studied this phenomenon experimentally and theoretically. A formula for the emittance growth rate, due to random dipole kicks, is derived. In the experiment, RF phase noise of known amplitude was deliberately injected into the Tevatron to kick the beam randomly, via dispersion at the RF cavities. Theory and experiment are found to agree reasonably well. We also briefly discuss the problem of quadrupole kicks. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Heteroepitaxial growth of highly conductive metal oxide RuO{sub 2} thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Q.X.; Wu, X.D.; Foltyn, S.R.; Findikoglu, A.T.; Tiwari, P.; Zheng, J.P.; Jow, T.R.

    1995-09-18

    Highly conductive ruthenium oxide (RuO{sub 2}) has been epitaxially grown on LaAlO{sub 3} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The RuO{sub 2} film is ({ital h}00) oriented normal to the substrate surface. The heteroepitaxial growth of RuO{sub 2} on LaAlO{sub 3} is demonstrated by the strong in-plane orientation of thin films with respect to the major axes of the substrate. High crystallinity of RuO{sub 2} thin films is also determined from Rutherford backscattering channeling measurements. Electrical measurements on the RuO{sub 2} thin films demonstrate a quite low room-temperature resistivity of 35{plus_minus}2 {mu}{Omega} cm at deposition temperatures of above 500 {degree}C. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  15. An (ultra) high-vacuum compatible sputter source for oxide thin film growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayr, Lukas; Köpfle, Norbert; Auer, Andrea; Klötzer, Bernhard; Penner, Simon [Institute for Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)] [Institute for Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-09-15

    A miniaturised CF-38 mountable sputter source for oxide and metal thin film preparation with enhanced high-vacuum and ultra-high-vacuum compatibility is described. The all home-built sputtering deposition device allows a high flexibility also in oxidic sputter materials, suitable deposition rates for preparation of films in the nm- and the sub-monolayer regime and excellent reliability and enhanced cleanliness for usage in UHV chambers. For a number of technologically important – yet hardly volatile – materials, the described source represents a significant improvement over thermal deposition techniques like electron-beam- or thermal evaporation, as especially the latter are no adequate tool to prepare atomically clean layers of refractory oxide materials. Furthermore, it is superior to commercially available magnetron sputter devices, especially for applications, where highly reproducible sub-monolayer thin film preparation under very clean UHV conditions is required (e.g., for studying phase boundary effects in catalysis). The device in turn offers the usage of a wide selection of evaporation materials and special target preparation procedures also allow the usage of pressed oxide powder targets. To prove the performance of the sputter-source, test preparations with technologically relevant oxide components, comprising ZrO{sub 2} and yttrium-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, have been carried out. A wide range of characterization methods (electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy ion scattering, atomic force microscopy, and catalytic testing) were applied to demonstrate the properties of the sputter-deposited thin film systems.

  16. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sustarsic, Elahu G.; Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH ; Junnila, Riia K.; Kopchick, John J.

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Most cancer types of the NCI60 have sub-sets of cell lines with high GHR expression. •GHR is highly expressed in melanoma cell lines. •GHR is elevated in advanced stage IV metastatic tumors vs. stage III. •GH treatment of metastatic melanoma cell lines alters growth and cell signaling. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence implicates the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in carcinogenesis. While multiple studies show evidence for expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR mRNA in human cancer tissue, there is a lack of quantification and only a few cancer types have been investigated. The National Cancer Institute’s NCI60 panel includes 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer: breast, CNS, colon, leukemia, melanoma, non-small cell lung, ovarian, prostate and renal. We utilized this panel to quantify expression of GHR, GH, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and prolactin (PRL) mRNA with real-time RT qPCR. Both GHR and PRLR show a broad range of expression within and among most cancer types. Strikingly, GHR expression is nearly 50-fold higher in melanoma than in the panel as a whole. Analysis of human metastatic melanoma biopsies confirmed GHR gene expression in melanoma tissue. In these human biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found that human metastatic melanoma tumors express GHR and cell lines possess active GHRs that can modulate multiple signaling pathways and alter cell proliferation. Based on this data, GH could be a new therapeutic target in melanoma.

  17. Endocytic proteins drive vesicle growth via instability in high membrane tension environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikhil Walani; Jennifer Torres; Ashutosh Agrawal

    2015-02-14

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a key pathway for transporting cargo into cells via membrane vesicles. It plays an integral role in nutrient import, signal transduction, neurotransmission and cellular entry of pathogens and drug-carrying nanoparticles. As CME entails substantial local remodeling of the plasma membrane, the presence of membrane tension offers resistance to bending and hence, vesicle formation. Experiments show that in such high tension conditions, actin dynamics is required to carry out CME successfully. In this study, we build upon these pioneering experimental studies to provide fundamental mechanistic insights into the roles of two key endocytic proteins, namely, actin and BAR proteins in driving vesicle formation in high membrane tension environment. Our study reveals a new actin force induced `snap-through instability' that triggers a rapid shape transition from a shallow invagination to a highly invaginated tubular structure. We show that the association of BAR proteins stabilizes vesicles and induces a milder instability. In addition, we present a new counterintuitive role of BAR depolymerization in regulating the shape evolution of vesicles. We show that the dissociation of BAR proteins, supported by actin-BAR synergy, leads to considerable elongation and squeezing of vesicles. Going beyond the membrane geometry, we put forth a new stress-based perspective for the onset of vesicle scission and predict the shapes and composition of detached vesicles. We present the snap-through transition and the high in-plane stress as possible explanations for the intriguing direct transformation of broad and shallow invaginations into detached vesicles in BAR mutant yeast cells.

  18. Crystal growth and detector performance of large size high-purity Ge crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guojian; Mei, Hao; Mei, Dongming; Irmscher, Klaus; Guan, Yutong; Yang, Gang

    2015-01-01

    High-purity germanium crystals approximately 12 cm in diameter were grown in a hydrogen atmosphere using the Czochralski method. The dislocation density of the crystals was determined to be in the range of 2000 - 4200 cm-2, which meets a requirement for use as a radiation detector. The axial and radial distributions of impurities in the crystals were measured and are discussed. A planar detector was also fabricated from one of the crystals and then evaluated for electrical and spectral performance. Measurements of gamma-ray spectra from Cs-137 and Am-241 sources demonstrate that the detector has excellent energy resolution.

  19. Crystal growth and detector performance of large size high-purity Ge crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guojian Wang; Mark Amman; Hao Mei; Dongming Mei; Klaus Irmscher; Yutong Guan; Gang Yang

    2015-05-07

    High-purity germanium crystals approximately 12 cm in diameter were grown in a hydrogen atmosphere using the Czochralski method. The dislocation density of the crystals was determined to be in the range of 2000 - 4200 cm-2, which meets a requirement for use as a radiation detector. The axial and radial distributions of impurities in the crystals were measured and are discussed. A planar detector was also fabricated from one of the crystals and then evaluated for electrical and spectral performance. Measurements of gamma-ray spectra from Cs-137 and Am-241 sources demonstrate that the detector has excellent energy resolution.

  20. Component Overpressure Growth and Characterization of High Resistivity CdTe

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnect Collider Tests ofO y (Journal Article) |high

  1. Epitaxial growth of highly conductive RuO{sub 2} thin films on (100) Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Q.X.; Song, S.G.; Wu, X.D.; Cho, J.H.; Foltyn, S.R.; Findikoglu, A.T.; Smith, J.L.

    1996-02-01

    Conductive RuO{sub 2} thin films have been heteroepitaxially grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si substrates with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffer layers. The RuO{sub 2} thin films deposited under optimized processing conditions are {ital a}-axis oriented normal to the Si substrate surface with a high degree of in-plane alignment with the major axes of the (100) Si substrate. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy analysis on the RuO{sub 2}/YSZ/Si multilayer shows an atomically sharp interface between the RuO{sub 2} and the YSZ. Electrical measurements show that the crystalline RuO{sub 2} thin films are metallic over a temperature range from 4.2 to 300 K and are highly conductive with a room-temperature resistivity of 37{plus_minus}2 {mu}{Omega}cm. The residual resistance ratio ({ital R}{sub 300K}/{ital R}{sub 4.2K}) above 5 for our RuO{sub 2} thin films is the highest ever reported for such films on Si substrates. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, Thomas D.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Ogata, Craig M.; Vo, Huy; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-08-11

    Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (<2 µl) of microcrystals grown under common laboratory formats and delivering them to an X-ray beam source under native growth conditions. One approach that shows promise in overcoming the challenges intrinsic to microcrystal analysis is to pair so-called `fixed-target' sample-delivery devices with microbeam-based X-ray diffraction methods. However, to record weak diffraction patterns it is necessary to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (10–15 µm) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (<1.6 Å) data set sufficient to determine a high-quality structure by molecular replacement. In addition, the features of the chip allow the rapid and user-friendly analysis of microcrystals grown under virtually any laboratory format at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and XFELs.

  3. Education's 'Perfect Storm?' Racial Resegregation, "High Stakes" Testing, & School Inequities: The Case of North Carolina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boger, John Charles

    2002-01-01

    INEQUITIES: THE CASE OF NORTH CAROLINA John Charles BogerIn Chapel Hill, North Carolina on The Resegregation ofINEQUITIES: THE CASE OF NORTH CAROLINA Introduction I.

  4. Modelling high resolution Echelle spectrographs for calibrations: Hanle Echelle spectrograph, a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chanumolu, Anantha; Thirupathi, Sivarani

    2015-01-01

    We present a modelling scheme that predicts the centroids of spectral line features for a high resolution Echelle spectrograph to a high accuracy. Towards this, a computing scheme is used, whereby any astronomical spectrograph can be modelled and controlled without recourse to a ray tracing program. The computations are based on paraxial ray trace and exact corrections added for certain surface types and Buchdahl aberration coefficients for complex modules. The resultant chain of paraxial ray traces and corrections for all relevant components is used to calculate the location of any spectral line on the detector under all normal operating conditions with a high degree of certainty. This will allow a semi-autonomous control using simple in-house, programming modules. The scheme is simple enough to be implemented even in a spreadsheet or in any scripting language. Such a model along with an optimization routine can represent the real time behaviour of the instrument. We present here a case study for Hanle Echel...

  5. Substrate Structures For Growth Of Highly Oriented And/Or Epitaxial Layers Thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM); Groves, James R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-07-26

    A composite substrate structure including a substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the substrate, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer is provided together with additional layers such as one or more layers of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer. Jc's of 2.3×106 A/cm2 have been demonstrated with projected Ic's of 320 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide for a superconducting article including a flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, an inert oxide material layer upon the surface of the flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the layer of the inert oxide material, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer, a layer of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer, and, a top-layer of a high temperature superconducting material upon the layer of a buffer material.

  6. Bridgman Growth of Large SrI2:Eu2+ Single Crystals: A High-performance Scintillator for Radiation Detection Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boatner, Lynn A; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Kolopus, James A; Hawrami, Rastgo; Higgins, William; Van Loef, Edgar; Glodo, J.; Shah, Kanai; Bhattacharya, P.; Tupitsyn, E; Groza, Michael; Burger, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Single-crystal strontium iodide (SrI2) doped with relatively high levels (e.g., 3 - 6 %) of Eu2+ exhibits characteristics that make this material superior, in a number of respects, to other scintillators that are currently used for radiation detection. Specifically, SrI2:Eu2+ has a light yield that is significantly higher than LaBr3:Ce3+ -a currently employed commercial high-performance scintillator. Additionally, SrI2:Eu2+ is characterized by an energy resolution as high as 2.6% at the 137Cs gamma-ray energy of 662 keV, and there is no radioactive component in SrI2:Eu2+ - unlike LaBr3:Ce3+ that contains 138La. The Ce3+-doped LaBr3 decay time is, however, faster (30 nsec) than the 1.2 sec decay time of SrI2:Eu2+. Due to the relatively low melting point of strontium iodide (~515 oC), crystal growth can be carried out in quartz crucibles by the vertical Bridgman technique. Materials-processing and crystal-growth techniques that are specific to the Bridgman growth of europium-doped strontium iodide scintillators are described here. These techniques include the use of a porous quartz frit to physically filter the molten salt from a quartz antechamber into the Bridgman growth crucible and the use of a bent or bulb grain selector design to suppress multiple grain growth. Single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+ scintillators with good optical quality and scintillation characteristics have been grown in sizes up to 5.0 cm in diameter by applying these techniques. Other aspects of the SrI2:Eu2+ crystal-growth methods and of the still unresolved crystal-growth issues are described here.

  7. High quality Y-type hexaferrite thick films for microwave applications by an economical and environmentally benign crystal growth technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Bolin; Chen, Yajie, E-mail: y.chen@neu.edu; Gillette, Scott; Su, Zhijuan; Harris, Vincent G. [Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Wolf, Jason; McHenry, Michael E. [Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2014-02-17

    Thick barium hexaferrite Ba{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (i.e., Zn{sub 2}Y) films having thicknesses of ?100??m were epitaxially grown on MgO (111) substrates using an environmentally benign ferrite-salt mixture by vaporizing the salt. X-ray diffraction pole figure analyses showed (00l) crystallographic alignment with little in plane dispersion confirming epitaxial growth. Saturation magnetization, 4?M{sub s}, was measured for as-grown films to be 2.51?±?0.1?kG with an out of plane magnetic anisotropy field H{sub A} of 8.9?±?0.1?kOe. Ferromagnetic resonance linewidth, as the peak-to-peak power absorption derivative at 9.6?GHz, was measured to be 62?Oe. These properties demonstrate a rapid, convenient, cost-effective, and nontoxic method of growing high quality thick crystalline ferrite films which could be used widely for microwave device applications.

  8. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Murray, Thomas D.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Ogata, Craig M.; Vo, Huy; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-08-11

    Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (more »to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (10–15 µm) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (« less

  9. Effects of microstructure on mixed-mode, high-cycle fatigue crack-growth thresholds in Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    O D U C T IO N The control of failures owing to high-cycle fatigue (HCF) in turbine-engine for such HCF failures. Indeed, there are many fatigue-critical locations within the turbine engine where- ing HCF failures in turbine engines, it is critical that fatigue crack-growth thresholds are well

  10. Modeling Cotton and Winter Wheat Growth and Yield Responses to Irrigation Management in the Texas High Plains and Rolling Plains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attia Mohamed, Ahmed

    2014-12-17

    were negatively correlated. A modeling study was performed using the cotton growth simulation model, Cotton2K, to investigate the lint yield, WUE, and economic return responses using 31 years weather records (1980 – 2010) from the Texas Rolling Plains...

  11. Comparison of growth texture in round Bi2212 and flat Bi2223 wires and its relation to high critical current density development

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kametani, F.; Jiang, J.; Matras, M.; Abraimov, D.; Hellstrom, E. E.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2015-02-10

    Why Bi?Sr?CaCu?Ox (Bi2212) allows high critical current density Jc in round wires rather than only in the anisotropic tape form demanded by all other high temperature superconductors is important for future magnet applications. Here we compare the local texture of state-of-the-art Bi2212 and Bi2223 ((Bi,Pb)?Sr?Ca?Cu?O??), finding that round wire Bi2212 generates a dominant a-axis growth texture that also enforces a local biaxial texture (FWHM more »perpendicular to the tape plane without any in-plane texture. Consistent with these observations, a marked, field-increasing, field-decreasing Jc(H) hysteresis characteristic of weak-linked systems appears in Bi2223 but is absent in Bi2212 round wire. Growth-induced texture on cooling from the melt step of the Bi2212 Jc optimization process appears to be the key step in generating this highly desirable microstructure.« less

  12. In-situ x-ray diffraction study of the growth of highly strained epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinsheimer, J.; Callori, S. J.; Ziegler, B.; Bein, B.; Dawber, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Chinta, P. V.; Ashrafi, A.; Headrick, R. L. [Department of Physics, Cook Physical Science Building, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Cook Physical Science Building, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States)

    2013-12-09

    In-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction was performed during the growth of BaTiO{sub 3} thin films on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates using both off-axis RF magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition techniques. It was found that the films were ferroelectric during the growth process, and the presence or absence of a bottom SrRuO{sub 3} electrode played an important role in the growth of the films. Pulsed laser deposited films on SrRuO{sub 3} displayed an anomalously high tetragonality and unit volume, which may be connected to the previously predicted negative pressure phase of BaTiO{sub 3}.

  13. Metropolitan High-Technology Industry Growth in the Mid 1970s: Can Everyone Have a Slice of the High-Tech Pie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasmeier, Amy; Hall, Peter; Markusen, Ann R.

    1984-01-01

    surroundi ng high-technology (high-tech) i ndus­ tries is incommunities compete for high - tech employment with only agoverning the diffusion of high-tech development. All too

  14. High Quality Epitaxial Growth of GaAsyP1-y Alloys on Si1-xGex Virtual P. Sharma, M. T. Bulsara, and E. A. Fitzgerald

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in an appropriate temperature window, could produce high-quality GaAs thin films on Ge. Over a range of growth, tandem solar cell designs on Si. Despite the lattice-matched condition of GaP on Si, low defect density less than 106 /cm2 ) has not been reported in the literature [1-4]. In contrast, the analogous GaAs

  15. High-speed rail commuting in the United States : a case study in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasuya, Shuichi, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    High-speed rail (HSR) is primarily for intermediate distance intercity passenger travel. The concept of high-speed rail commuting is to provide short distance commuting transportation service on dedicated HSR, by sharing ...

  16. Deposition of High-Quality a-Si:H by Suppressing Growth of a-Si Clusters in SiH4 Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, Yukio [Kyushu Electric College, Fukuoka 812-0018 (Japan); Shiratani, Masaharu; Koga, Kazunori [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2005-10-31

    The density of Si-particles in a small size range below 10nm (referred to as clusters) in SiH4 capacitively-coupled high-frequency discharges amounts to 1011cm-3 even under deposition conditions of device-quality a-Si:H films. The results reported until now regarding the growth of such clusters are shown to be reasonably understood by taking into account the effects of gas flow on the growth. The Si-H2 bond formation in the a-Si films are found to be mainly contributed by incorporation of large clusters (clusters in a range above about 0.5 nm in size) rather than higher-order-silane (HOS) radicals [SinHx (n<5, x<2n+2)] in the plasma. By employing the cluster-suppressed plasma CVD reactors, the remarkable decrease in Si-H2 bond density in the films is realized, leading to the deposition of a-Si:H films of less light-induced degradation. Based on the knowledge of cluster growth obtained until now, the reactor with a potentiality of high rate deposition of high-quality films is proposed and its preliminary results are presented.

  17. Weatherization Beyond the Numbers: Case Studies of Fifteen High-performing Weatherization Agencies - Conducted May 2011 through July 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Hawkins, Beth A.

    2014-09-01

    The report presents fifteen individual case studies of high-performing and unique local weatherization agencies. This research was one component of the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. The agencies were chosen to represent a range of contexts and approaches to weatherization. For example, the set of agencies includes a mix of urban and rural agencies, those that mainly use in-house crews to weatherize homes versus those that use contractor crews, and a mix of locations, from very cold climates to moderate to hot humid and dry climates. The case studies were mainly based on site visits to the agencies that encompassed interviews with program directors, weatherization crews, and recipients of weatherization. This information was supplemented by secondary materials. The cases document the diversity of contexts and challenges faced by the agencies and how they operate on a day-by-day basis. The cases also high common themes found throughout the agencies, such as their focus on mission and respect for their clients.

  18. DOE ZERH Case Study: High Performance Homes, Chamberlain Court #75, Gettysburg, PA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning production home in the cold climate that got a HERS 37 without PV, or HERS 23 with PV, with R-24 SIP walls, Basement with R-10 under slab, and R-15 unfaced batt on walls, sealed attic with R-49 ocsf under roof deck; ground source heat pump COP 4.4.

  19. Choosing transportation alternatives for highly perishable goods : a case study on nuclear medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Xiaowen, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    The transport of highly perishable goods, in particular nuclear medicine, is subject to stringent regulations. Carefully designed transport selection criteria considering available alternatives, product attributes, decay ...

  20. Metropolitan High-Technology Industry Growth in the Mid 1970s: Can Everyone Have a Slice of the High-Tech Pie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasmeier, Amy; Hall, Peter; Markusen, Ann R.

    1984-01-01

    tion and Gro wth in High Technology Industries: A R egionalC . Burke , Thomas. 1 97 9 . High Technology En terprise in1 9 83c. De fining High Technology Industries. I nstitute of

  1. The Growth of InGaAsN for High Efficiency Solar Cells by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; BANKS,JAMES C.; GEE,JAMES M.; JONES,ERIC D.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.

    1999-09-16

    InGaAsN alloys are a promising material for increasing the efficiency of multi-junction solar cells now used for satellite power systems. However, the growth of these dilute N containing alloys has been challenging with further improvements in material quality needed before the solar cell higher efficiencies are realized. Nitrogen/V ratios exceeding 0.981 resulted in lower N incorporation and poor surface morphologies. The growth rate was found to depend on not only the total group III transport for a fixed N/V ratio but also on the N/V ratio. Carbon tetrachloride and dimethylzinc were effective for p-type doping. Disilane was not an effective n-type dopant while SiCl4 did result in n-type material but only a narrow range of electron concentrations (2-5e17cm{sup -3}) were achieved.

  2. High density and taper-free boron doped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} nanowire via two-step growth process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Periwal, Priyanka; Salem, Bassem; Bassani, Franck; Baron, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.baron@cea.fr [University of Grenoble Alpes LTM, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CNRS LTM, UMR-5129, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Barnes, Jean-Paul [CEA-Leti, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-07-01

    The authors study Au catalyzed chemical vapor growth of Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} alloyed nanowires in the presence of diborane, serving as a dopant precursor. Our experiments reveal that introduction of diborane has a significant effect on doping and morphology. Boron exposure poisons the Au catalyst surface, suppresses catalyst activity, and causes significantly tapered wires, as a result of conformal growth. The authors develop here a two-step method to obtain high density and taper-free boron doped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} alloy nanowires. The two-step process consists of: (1) growth of a small undoped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} section and (2) introduction of diborane to form a boron doped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} section. The catalyst preparation step remarkably influences wire yield, quality and morphology. The authors show that dopant-ratio influences wire resistivity and morphology. Resistivity for high boron doped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} nanowire is 6 m?-cm. Four probe measurements show that it is possible to dope Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} alloy nanowires with diborane.

  3. Quantitative comparison between Type Ia supernova spectra at low and high redshifts: A case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garavini, G.; Supernova Cosmology Project

    2008-01-01

    Highlight - The Physics of Supernovae, ESO/MPA/MPE Workshop,Evolution in high-redshift supernovae Fig. 8 “Ca ii H&K”SN 1991T/SN 1999aa-like supernovae. 1. Introduction Type Ia

  4. High Performing Hospital Enterprise Architecture: Insights from a Multi-method Exploratory Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliveira, Jorge F.

    2009-12-03

    The US healthcare system is a critical infrastructure grappling with as much as 16% of the GDP in its expenditures and unsatisfactory outcomes, and undergoing considerable public scrutiny. High ranking officials have both ...

  5. Thermal Storage for Energy Efficient Structures (Poteet High School Case Study) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utesch, A. L.

    1988-01-01

    Poteet High School, in Mesquite, Texas, is a facility that demonstrates state-of-the-art environmental control through the application of energy conserving technologies relative to architecture, HVAC and lighting. It is also recognized...

  6. Mountain Brook High School Fine Arts Center: Moisture Control Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nunnelly, R. M.

    2002-01-01

    Upon returning to school in the fall, significant problems became evident in the Fine Arts Center of Mountain Brook High School, located near Birmingham, Alabama. In the band department, black mold was found on ceiling tiles, marching band uniforms...

  7. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Pyatina, T.

    2014-11-14

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  8. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Pyatina, T.

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  9. Neutron Stars as Sources of High Energy Particles - the case of RPP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Rudak

    2001-01-09

    Highly magnetised rapidly spinning neutron stars are widely considered to be natural sites for acceleration of charged particles. Powerful acceleration mechanism due to unipolar induction is thought to operate in the magnetospheres of isolated neutron stars, bringing the particles to ultrarelativistic energies at the expense of the neutron star rotational energy, with inevitable emission of high energy photons. The aim of this review is to present basic ingredients of modern models of magnetospheric activity of rotation powered pulsars in the context of high-energy radiation from these objects. Several aspects of pulsar activity are addressed and related to spectacular results of pulsar observations with two major satellite missions of the past - CGRO and ROSAT. It is then argued that high sensitivity experiments of the future - GLAST, VERITAS and MAGIC - will be vital for a progress in our understanding of pulsar magnetospheric processes. In a conservative approach rotation powered pulsars are not expected to be the sources of UHE Cosmic Rays. However, several scenarios have been proposed recently to explain the UHECR events above the GZK limit with the help of acceleration processes in the immediate surrounding of newly born pulsars. Major features of these scenarios are reviewed along with references to contemporary models of magnetospheric activity.

  10. The Case for a Kilometer-Scale High-Energy Neutrino Detector: 1996

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Halzen

    1996-05-02

    The objective of neutrino astronomy, born with the identification of thermonuclear fusion in the sun and the particle processes controlling the fate of a nearby supernova, is to build instruments which reach throughout and far beyond our Galaxy and make measurements relevant to cosmology, astrophysics, cosmic-ray and particle physics. These telescopes will push astronomy to wavelengths smaller than $10^{-14}$~cm by mapping the sky in high-energy neutrinos instead of high-energy photons to which the Universe is partially opaque. While a variety of collaborations are pioneering complementary methods by building neutrino detectors with effective area in excess of 0.01~km$^2$, we show here that the science dictates 1~km$^2$, or a 1~km$^3$ instrumented volume, as the natural scale of a high-energy neutrino telescope. The construction of a high-energy neutrino telescope therefore requires a huge volume of very transparent, deeply buried material such as ocean water or ice, which acts as the medium for detecting the particles. We will speculate on its architecture. The field is immersed in technology in the domain of particle physics to which many of its research goals are intellectually connected. With several thousand optical modules the scope of constructing a kilometer-scale instrument is similar to that of experiments presently being commissioned such as the SNO neutrino observatory in Canada and the Superkamiokande experiment in Japan.

  11. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Li, Ning [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wu, Borong [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Power Battery and Chemical Energy Materials (China); Xu, Hongliang [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wang, Lei [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Wu, Feng [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  12. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achievingmore »around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.« less

  13. Incidence of High Nitrogen in Sintered Uranium Dioxide: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakrishna, Palanki; Murty, B. Narasimha; Anuradha, M.; Yadav, R.B.; Jayaraj, R.N

    2005-05-15

    Nitrogen content, above the specified limit of 75 {mu}g(gU){sup -1}, was encountered in sintered uranium dioxide in the course of its manufacture. The cause was traced to the sintering process, wherein carbon, a degradation product of the die wall or admixed lubricant, was retained in the compact as a result of inadvertent reversal of gas flow in the sintering furnace. In the presence of carbon, the uranium dioxide reacted with nitrogen from the furnace atmosphere to form nitride. The compacts with high nitrogen were also those with low sintered density, arising from low green density. The low green density was due to filling problems of an inhomogeneous powder. The experiments carried out establish the causes of high nitrogen to be the carbon residue from lubricant when the UO{sub 2} is sintered in a cracked ammonia atmosphere.

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Hoeschele, A. German, E. Weitzel, R. Chitwood

    2015-08-01

    Ducts in conditioned space (DCS) represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. Various strategies exist for incorporating ducts within the conditioned thermal envelope. To support this activity, in 2013 the Pacific Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation) to solicit builder involvement in California to participate in field demonstrations of various DCS strategies. Builders were given incentives and design support in exchange for providing site access for construction observation, diagnostic testing, and builder survey feedback. Information from the project was designed to feed into California's 2016 Title 24 process, but also to serve as an initial mechanism to engage builders in more high performance construction strategies. This Building America project complemented information collected in the California project with BEopt simulations of DCS performance in hot/dry climate regions.

  15. High Energy Neutrinos from Novae in Symbiotic Binaries: The Case of V407 Cygni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soebur Razzaque; Pierre Jean; Olga Mena

    2010-12-07

    Detection of high-energy (~> 100 MeV) gamma rays by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) from a nova in the symbiotic binary system V407 Cygni has opened possibility of high-energy neutrino detection from this type of sources. Thermonuclear explosion on the white dwarf surface sets off a nova shell in motion that expands and slows down in a dense surrounding medium provided by the red giant companion. Particles are accelerated in the shocks of the shell, and interact with surrounding medium to produce observed gamma rays. We show that proton-proton interaction, which is most likely responsible for producing gamma rays via neutral pion decay, produces ~> 0.1 GeV neutrinos that can be detected by the current and future experiments at ~> 10 GeV.

  16. Spleen tyrosine kinase mediates high glucose-induced transforming growth factor-{beta}1 up-regulation in proximal tubular epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Won Seok; Chang, Jai Won [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Nam Jeong [Department of Cell Biology, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Cell Biology, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Koo [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Su-Kil, E-mail: skpark@amc.seoul.kr [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-10

    The role of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in high glucose-induced intracellular signal transduction has yet to be elucidated. We investigated whether Syk is implicated in high glucose-induced transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) up-regulation in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cell). High glucose increased TGF-{beta}1 gene expression through Syk, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B. High glucose-induced AP-1 DNA binding activity was decreased by Syk inhibitors and U0126 (an ERK inhibitor). Syk inhibitors suppressed high glucose-induced ERK activation, whereas U0126 had no effect on Syk activation. High glucose-induced NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity was also decreased by Syk inhibitors. High glucose increased nuclear translocation of p65 without serine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and without degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, but with an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} that may account for the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Both Syk inhibitors and Syk-siRNA attenuated high glucose-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} tyrosine phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation. Depletion of p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2) by transfection of Pak2-siRNA abolished high glucose-induced Syk activation. In summary, high glucose-induced TGF-{beta}1 gene transcription occurred through Pak2, Syk and subsequent ERK/AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B pathways. This suggests that Syk might be implicated in the diabetic kidney disease.

  17. Final Report for High Latitude Climate Modeling: ARM Takes Us Beyond Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Lynn M

    2013-06-18

    The main thrust of this project was to devise a method by which the majority of North Slope of Alaska (NSA) meteorological and radiometric data, collected on a daily basis, could be used to evaluate and improve global climate model (GCM) simulations and their parameterizations, particularly for cloud microphysics. Although the standard ARM Program sensors for a less complete suite of instruments for cloud and aerosol studies than the instruments on an intensive field program such as the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), the advantage they offer lies in the long time base and large volume of data that covers a wide range of meteorological and climatological conditions. The challenge has been devising a method to interpret the NSA data in a practical way, so that a wide variety of meteorological conditions in all seasons can be examined with climate models. If successful, climate modelers would have a robust alternative to the usual “case study” approach (i.e., from intensive field programs only) for testing and evaluating their parameterizations’ performance. Understanding climate change on regional scales requires a broad scientific consideration of anthropogenic influences that goes beyond greenhouse gas emissions to also include aerosol-induced changes in cloud properties. For instance, it is now clear that on small scales, human-induced aerosol plumes can exert microclimatic radiative and hydrologic forcing that rivals that of greenhouse gas–forced warming. This project has made significant scientific progress by investigating what causes successive versions of climate models continue to exhibit errors in cloud amount, cloud microphysical and radiative properties, precipitation, and radiation balance, as compared with observations and, in particular, in Arctic regions. To find out what is going wrong, we have tested the models' cloud representation over the full range of meteorological conditions found in the Arctic using the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) data.

  18. The Case for a Kilometer-Scale High Energy Neutrino Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Halzen

    1994-10-26

    Doing astronomy with photons of energies in excess of a GeV has turned out to be extremely challenging. Efforts are underway to develop instruments that may push astronomy to wavelengths smaller than $10^{-14}$~cm by mapping the sky in high energy neutrinos instead. Neutrino astronomy, born with the identification of thermonuclear fusion in the sun and the particle processes controlling the fate of a nearby supernova, will reach outside the galaxy and make measurements relevant to cosmology. The field is immersed in technology in the domains of particle physics to which many of its research goals are intellectually connected. To mind come the search for neutrino mass, cold dark matter (supersymmetric particles?) and the monopoles of the Standard Model. While a variety of collaborations are pioneering complementary methods by building telescopes with effective area in excess of 0.01~km$^2$, we show here that the natural scale of a high energy neutrino telescope is 1~km$^2$. With several thousand optical modules and a price tag unlikely to exceed 100 million dollars, the scope of a kilometer-scale instrument is similar to that of experiments presently being commissioned such as the SNO neutrino observatory in Canada and the Superkamiokande experiment in Japan.

  19. High-z objects and cold-dark-matter cosmogonies: the case of 53W091

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kashlinsky; R. Jimenez

    1996-10-31

    The recently discovered high redshift galaxy, 53W091, with accurate age measurements (Dunlop et al 1996) provides a measure of the small-scale power of the primordial density field and, as we show, a crucial test of the inflation-inspired models. It allows $\\Omega$=1 cosmologies only for low values of $H_0$, but then pushes formation of that galaxy to redshift much greater than allowed for by the cold-dark-matter density field. Cold-dark-matter (CDM) models with cosmological constant ($\\Lambda$) and low $\\Omega$ would decrease the redshift at which this galaxy has collapsed. However, in CDM models decreasing $\\Omega$ suppresses the small scale power in the density field and this effect turns out to be dominant. We estimate the mass of the galaxy and show that it represents a very rare and unlikely event in the density field of such models. Similar problems would occur in other modifications of the CDM cosmogonies.

  20. The Perceptions of Black High School Students Regarding Their Experiences Prior to an Assignment to a District Alternative Educational Placement: A Phenomenological Single Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Margie

    2014-04-28

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological single case study was to understand the perceptions of Black high school students regarding their experiences prior to being sent to a district’s discipline alternative ...

  1. A case study for cloud based high throughput analysis of NGS data using the globus genomics system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhuvaneshwar, Krithika; Sulakhe, Dinanath; Gauba, Robinder; Rodriguez, Alex; Madduri, Ravi; Dave, Utpal; Lacinski, Lukasz; Foster, Ian; Gusev, Yuriy; Madhavan, Subha

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies produce massive amounts of data requiring a powerful computational infrastructure, high quality bioinformatics software, and skilled personnel to operate the tools. We present a case study of a practical solution to this data management and analysis challenge that simplifies terabyte scale data handling and provides advanced tools for NGS data analysis. These capabilities are implemented using the “Globus Genomics” system, which is an enhanced Galaxy workflow system made available as a service that offers users the capability to process and transfer data easily, reliably and quickly to address end-to-end NGS analysis requirements. The Globus Genomics system is built on Amazon's cloud computing infrastructure. The system takes advantage of elastic scaling of compute resources to run multiple workflows in parallel and it also helps meet the scale-out analysis needs of modern translational genomics research.

  2. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes - Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-05-01

    This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). In this project, the Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program worked with Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction and Bonneville Power Administration to help four factory homebuilders build prototype zero energy ready manufactured homes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This case study describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  3. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2012-05-18

    We estimate the long-run economic value of variable renewable generation with increasing penetration using a unique investment and dispatch model that captures long-run investment decisions while also incorporating detailed operational constraints and hourly time resolution over a full year. High time resolution and the incorporation of operational constraints are important for estimating the economic value of variable generation, as is the use of a modeling framework that accommodates new investment decisions. The model is herein applied with a case study that is loosely based on California in 2030. Increasing amounts of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) with and without thermal energy storage (TES) are added one at a time. The marginal economic value of these renewable energy sources is estimated and then decomposed into capacity value, energy value, day-ahead forecast error cost, and ancillary services. The marginal economic value, as defined here, is primarily based on the combination of avoided capital investment cost and avoided variable fuel and operations and maintenance costs from other power plants in the power system. Though the model only captures a subset of the benefits and costs of renewable energy, it nonetheless provides unique insights into how the value of that subset changes with technology and penetration level. Specifically, in this case study implementation of the model, the marginal economic value of all three solar options is found to exceed the value of a flat-block of power (as well as wind energy) by \\$20--30/MWh at low penetration levels, largely due to the high capacity value of solar at low penetration. Because the value of CSP per unit of energy is found to be high with or without thermal energy storage at low penetration, we find little apparent incremental value to thermal storage at low solar penetration in the present case study analysis. The marginal economic value of PV and CSP without thermal storage is found to drop considerably (by more than \\$70/MWh) as the penetration of solar increases toward 30\\percent on an energy basis. This is due primarily to a steep drop in capacity value followed by a decrease in energy value. In contrast, the value of CSP with thermal storage drops much less dramatically as penetration increases. As a result, at solar penetration levels above 10\\percent, CSP with thermal storage is found to be considerably more valuable relative to PV and CSP without thermal storage. The marginal economic value of wind is found to be largely driven by energy value, and is lower than solar at low penetration. The marginal economic value of wind drops at a relatively slower rate with penetration, however. As a result, at high penetration, the value of wind can exceed the value of PV and CSP without thermal storage. Though some of these findings may be somewhat unique to the specific case study presented here, the results: (1) highlight the importance of an analysis framework that addresses long-term investment decisions as well as short-term dispatch and operational constraints, (2) can help inform long-term decisions about renewable energy procurement and supporting infrastructure, and (3) point to areas where further research is warranted.

  4. A case study for cloud based high throughput analysis of NGS data using the globus genomics system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhuvaneshwar, Krithika; Sulakhe, Dinanath; Gauba, Robinder; Rodriguez, Alex; Madduri, Ravi; Dave, Utpal; Lacinski, Lukasz; Foster, Ian; Gusev, Yuriy; Madhavan, Subha

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies produce massive amounts of data requiring a powerful computational infrastructure, high quality bioinformatics software, and skilled personnel to operate the tools. We present a case study of a practical solution to this data management and analysis challenge that simplifies terabyte scale data handling and provides advanced tools for NGS data analysis. These capabilities are implemented using the “Globus Genomics” system, which is an enhanced Galaxy workflow system made available as a service that offers users the capability to process and transfer data easily, reliably and quickly to address end-to-end NGS analysis requirements. The Globus Genomicsmore »system is built on Amazon's cloud computing infrastructure. The system takes advantage of elastic scaling of compute resources to run multiple workflows in parallel and it also helps meet the scale-out analysis needs of modern translational genomics research.« less

  5. High-Dose Estrogen and Clinical Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators Induce Growth Arrest, p21, and p53 in Primate Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Jay W.; Stouffer, Richard L.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2005-06-09

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer affecting women. Hormone-based therapies are variably successful in treating ovarian cancer, but the reasoning behind these therapies is paradoxical. Clinical reagents such as tamoxifen are considered to inhibit or reverse tumor growth by competitive inhibition of the estrogen receptor (ER); however high dose estrogen is as clinically effective as tamoxifen, and it is unlikely that estrogen is acting by blocking ER activity; however, it may be activating a unique function of the ER that is nonmitogenic. For poorly defined reasons, 90% of varian cancers derive from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). In vivo the ER-positive OSE is exposed to high estrogen levels, reaching micromolar concentrations in dominant ovarian follicles. Using cultured OSE cells in vitro, we show that these levels of estradiol (1 ug/ml; {approx}3um) block the actions of serum growth factors, activate the G1 phase retinoblastoma AQ:A checkpoint, and induce p21, an inhibitor of kinases that normally inactivate the retinoblastoma checkpoint. We also show that estradiol increases p53 levels, which may contribute to p21 induction. Supporting the hypothesis that clinical selective ER modulators activate this novel ER function, we find that micromolar doses of tamoxifen and the ''pure antiestrogen'' ICI 182,780 elicit the same effects as estradiol. We propose that, in the context of proliferation, these data clarify some paradoxical aspects of hormone-based therapy and suggest that fuller understanding of normal ER function is necessary to improve therapeutic strategies that target the ER. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90: 0000-0000, 2005)

  6. High Strain, /001S Textured 0.675Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O30.325PbTiO3 Ceramics: Templated Grain Growth and Piezoelectric Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messing, Gary L.

    High Strain, /001S Textured 0.675Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3­0.325PbTiO3 Ceramics: Templated Grain Growth­ 0.325PbTiO3 (PMN­32.5PT) ceramics were textured (grain- oriented) in the /001S-crystallographic direction by the templated grain growth process. The textured PMN­32.5PT ceramics were produced by orienting

  7. Growth, strain relaxation properties and high-? dielectric integration of mixed-anion GaAs{sub 1-y}Sb{sub y} metamorphic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Y.; Clavel, M.; Goley, P.; Hudait, M. K., E-mail: mantu.hudait@vt.edu [Advanced Devices and Sustainable Energy Laboratory (ADSEL), Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    Mixed-anion, GaAs{sub 1-y}Sb{sub y} metamorphic materials with a wide range of antimony (Sb) compositions extending from 15% to 62%, were grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs substrates. The impact of different growth parameters on the Sb composition in GaAs{sub 1-y}Sb{sub y} materials was systemically investigated. The Sb composition was well-controlled by carefully optimizing the As/Ga ratio, the Sb/Ga ratio, and the substrate temperature during the MBE growth process. High-resolution x-ray diffraction demonstrated a quasi-complete strain relaxation within each composition of GaAs{sub 1-y}Sb{sub y}. Atomic force microscopy exhibited smooth surface morphologies across the wide range of Sb compositions in the GaAs{sub 1-y}Sb{sub y} structures. Selected high-? dielectric materials, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, HfO{sub 2}, and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} were deposited using atomic layer deposition on the GaAs{sub 0.38}Sb{sub 0.62} material, and their respective band alignment properties were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Detailed XPS analysis revealed a valence band offset of >2 eV for all three dielectric materials on GaAs{sub 0.38}Sb{sub 0.62}, indicating the potential of utilizing these dielectrics on GaAs{sub 0.38}Sb{sub 0.62} for p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) applications. Moreover, both Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} showed a conduction band offset of >2 eV on GaAs{sub 0.38}Sb{sub 0.62}, suggesting these two dielectrics can also be used for n-type MOS applications. The well-controlled Sb composition in several GaAs{sub 1-y}Sb{sub y} material systems and the detailed band alignment analysis of multiple high-? dielectric materials on a fixed Sb composition, GaAs{sub 0.38}Sb{sub 0.62}, provides a pathway to utilize GaAs{sub 1-y}Sb{sub y} materials in future microelectronic and optoelectronic applications.

  8. Journal of Crystal Growth ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) at high pressure of CO2 (initial PCO2 ¼ 55 bar) and moderate to high temperature (30 and 90 1C) was used and the dissolved quantity of CO2 have a significant effect on the average particle size, specific surface areaJournal of Crystal Growth ] (

  9. A global approach of the representativity concept: Application on a high-conversion light water reactor MOX lattice case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, N. D.; Blaise, P.; Santamarina, A.

    2013-07-01

    The development of new types of reactor and the increase in the safety specifications and requirements induce an enhancement in both nuclear data knowledge and a better understanding of the neutronic properties of the new systems. This enhancement is made possible using ad hoc critical mock-up experiments. The main difficulty is to design these experiments in order to obtain the most valuable information. Its quantification is usually made by using representativity and transposition concepts. These theories enable to extract some information about a quantity of interest (an integral parameter) on a configuration, but generally a posteriori. This paper presents a more global approach of this theory, with the idea of optimizing the representativity of a new experiment, and its transposition a priori, based on a multiparametric approach. Using a quadratic sum, we show the possibility to define a global representativity which permits to take into account several quantities of interest at the same time. The maximization of this factor gives information about all quantities of interest. An optimization method of this value in relation to technological parameters (over-clad diameter, atom concentration) is illustrated on a high-conversion light water reactor MOX lattice case. This example tackles the problematic of plutonium experiment for the plutonium aging and a solution through the optimization of both the over-clad and the plutonium content. (authors)

  10. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2010: ElectrcityAdministration (EIA). Annual Energy Outlook, 2011.2030 in the EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook 2011 reference case

  11. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Merritt, E. C.; Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-06-24

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-? type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varyingmore »two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. In addition, we also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.« less

  12. Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardsley, John

    Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario, Leonid Kalachev Marko Laine, Lappeenranta University of the phenomena studied. Here, in the case of algae growth modelling, we show how a systematic model reduction may: Algae growth modelling, asymptotic methods, model reduction, MCMC, Adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo. 1

  13. In many cases, tsunami waveheights and effects show a high variability along the coast. The possible causes are insecurities about the tectonic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    In many cases, tsunami waveheights and effects show a high variability along the coast area in propagation direction of a tsunami wave can produce largely amplified waves by near coast tsunami waveguiding, see [1]. The waveguiding is caused by the fact that different propagation speeds

  14. Growth strategies to control tapering in Ge nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Periwal, P.; Baron, T., E-mail: thierry.baron@cea.fr; Salem, B.; Bassani, F. [Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microelectronique (LTM), UMR 5129 CNRS-UJF, CEA Grenoble, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Gentile, P. [SiNaPs Laboratory SP2M, UMR-E, CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-04-01

    We report the effect of PH{sub 3} on the morphology of Au catalyzed Ge nanowires (NWs). Ge NWs were grown on Si (111) substrate at 400?°C in the presence of PH{sub 3}, using vapor-liquid-solid method by chemical vapor deposition. We show that high PH{sub 3}/GeH{sub 4} ratio causes passivation at NW surface. At high PH{sub 3} concentration phosphorous atoms attach itself on NW surface and form a self-protection coating that prevents conformal growth and leads to taper free nanostructures. However, in case of low PH{sub 3} flux the combination of axial and radial growth mechanism occurs resulting in conical structure. We have also investigated axial PH{sub 3}-intrinsic junctions in Ge NWs. The unusual NW shape is attributed to a combination of catalyzed, uncatalyzed and diffusion induced growth.

  15. Cleaning the Buildings of High Tech Companies in Silicon Valley: The Case of Mexican Janitors in Sonix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zlolniski, Christián

    2000-01-01

    Cleaning the Buildings of High Tech Companies in SiliconCleaning the Buildings of High-Tech Companies in Siliconand success of the high-tech industry (Alarcon, 1999). Less

  16. Numerical simulations of epitaxial growth process in MOVPE reactor as a tool for design of modern semiconductors for high power electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skibinski, Jakub; Wejrzanowski, Tomasz [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02507 Warsaw (Poland); Caban, Piotr [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01919 Warsaw (Poland); Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering Woloska, 141, 02507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-10-06

    In the present study numerical simulations of epitaxial growth of gallium nitride in Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy reactor AIX-200/4RF-S is addressed. Epitaxial growth means crystal growth that progresses while inheriting the laminar structure and the orientation of substrate crystals. One of the technological problems is to obtain homogeneous growth rate over the main deposit area. Since there are many agents influencing reaction on crystal area such as temperature, pressure, gas flow or reactor geometry, it is difficult to design optimal process. According to the fact that it's impossible to determine experimentally the exact distribution of heat and mass transfer inside the reactor during crystal growth, modeling is the only solution to understand the process precisely. Numerical simulations allow to understand the epitaxial process by calculation of heat and mass transfer distribution during growth of gallium nitride. Including chemical reactions in numerical model allows to calculate the growth rate of the substrate and estimate the optimal process conditions for obtaining the most homogeneous product.

  17. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Annual Energy Outlook. NEMS includes wind and solar energyOutlook Alternative Nuclear Retirement Case (EIA, 2010). 30 No existing wind or solarOutlook assumptions (EIA, 2010). No capital cost assumptions are made for wind and solar

  18. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Annual Energy Outlook. NEMS includes wind and solar energyEnergy Outlook Alternative Nuclear Retirement Case (EIA, 2010). 30 No existing wind or solarEnergy Outlook assumptions (EIA, 2010). No capital cost assumptions are made for wind and solar

  19. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricitythe DA forecast error costs for solar. Note that the solarthe addition of a carbon cost to the solar cases only has a

  20. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    for parabolic trough solar power plants. Energy, 29(5-6):of concentrating solar power plants: A case study of thesolar field relative to the nameplate capacity of the solar plant power

  1. Lighting Business Case -- A Report Analyzing Lighting Technology Opportunities with High Return on Investment Energy Savings for the Federal Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Carol C.; Richman, Eric E.

    2005-12-30

    This document analyzes lighting technology opportunities with high return on investment energy savings for the Federal sector.

  2. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    wind or solar energy variability and uncertainty like storage, or impactsimpact of these trends on the relative differences in the marginal economic value of wind and solarwind, the addition of a carbon cost to the solar cases only has a noticable impact

  3. Energy transition in Jordanian and Lebanese Cities : the case of electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    not have access to the electricity or only on a part time basis. But, given high growth rates if some attempts at renewable electricity plants are discussed. Both countries also have very high rates1 Energy transition in Jordanian and Lebanese Cities : the case of electricity Paper

  4. Government-led performance standard and high-tech innovation in China : a case study of Zhongguancun high-tech development zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yang, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    The object of the thesis is to gain an understanding of the role that Chinese government has played in promoting high-tech industries through performance standards and the output the policy generates. As a latecomer in the ...

  5. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    conventional power plants and wind power. IEEE Transactionsplanning with significant wind power generation. IEEEmix with high level of wind power penetration. Applied

  6. Updating of ASME Nuclear Code Case N-201 to Accommodate the Needs of Metallic Core Support Structures for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Currently in Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mit Basol; John F. Kielb; John F. MuHooly; Kobus Smit

    2007-05-02

    On September 29, 2005, ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) executed a multi-year, cooperative agreement with the United States DOE for the Generation IV Reactor Materials project. The project's objective is to update and expand appropriate materials, construction, and design codes for application in future Generation IV nuclear reactor systems that operate at elevated temperatures. Task 4 was embarked upon in recognition of the large quantity of ongoing reactor designs utilizing high temperature technology. Since Code Case N-201 had not seen a significant revision (except for a minor revision in September, 2006 to change the SA-336 forging reference for 304SS and 316SS to SA-965 in Tables 1.2(a) and 1.2(b), and some minor editorial changes) since December 1994, identifying recommended updates to support the current high temperature Core Support Structure (CSS) designs and potential new designs was important. As anticipated, the Task 4 effort identified a number of Code Case N-201 issues. Items requiring further consideration range from addressing apparent inconsistencies in definitions and certain material properties between CC-N-201 and Subsection NH, to inclusion of additional materials to provide the designer more flexibility of design. Task 4 developed a design parameter survey that requested input from the CSS designers of ongoing high temperature gas cooled reactor metallic core support designs. The responses to the survey provided Task 4 valuable input to identify the design operating parameters and future needs of the CSS designers. Types of materials, metal temperature, time of exposure, design pressure, design life, and fluence levels were included in the Task 4 survey responses. The results of the survey are included in this report. This research proves that additional work must be done to update Code Case N-201. Task 4 activities provide the framework for the Code Case N-201 update and future work to provide input on materials. Candidate materials such as Type 321 and Type 347 austenitic stainless steels, Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel for core support structure construction, and Alloy 718 for Threaded Structural Fasteners were among the recommended materials for inclusion in the Code Case. This Task 4 Report identifies the need to address design life beyond 3 x 105 hours, especially in consideration of 60-year design life. A proposed update to the latest Code Case N-201 revision (i.e., Code Case N-201-5) including the items resolved in this report is included as Appendix A.

  7. Appendix B: Economic growth case comparisons

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProved Reserves (BillionTechnical Information >,901,760Thousand CubicDryDry4,6456384 U.S.4

  8. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    based on solar trough or parabolic dish technology) to PV astechnologies: wind, single-axis tracking photovoltaics (PV), 1 concentrating solarTechnology High Penetration of VG Single-Axis PV CSP w/ 6hr TES Wind Solar

  9. Method and apparatus for aluminum nitride monocrystal boule growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Shaoping (Brookfield, CT)

    2009-04-28

    A crystal growth setup within a physical vapor transport growth furnace system for producing AlN monocrystal boules at high temperatures includes a crucible effective to contain an AlN source material and a growing AlN crystal boule. This crucible has a thin wall thickness in at least that portion housing the growing AlN crystal boule. Other components include a susceptor, in case of an inductive heating, or a heater, in case of a resistive heating, a thermal insulation enclosing the susceptor or heater effective to provide a thermal gradient inside the crucible in the range of 5-100.degree. C./cm and a furnace chamber capable of being operated from a vacuum (<0.1 torr) to a gas pressure of at least 4000 torr through filling or flowing a nitrogen gas or a mixture of nitrogen gas and argon gas. The high temperatures contribute to a high boule growth rate and the thin wall thickness contributes to reduced imparted stress during boule removal.

  10. Another short-burst host galaxy with an optically obscured high star formation rate: The case of GRB 071227

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Klose, S.; Kann, D. A.; Rossi, A.; Schmidl, S. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Micha?owski, M. J.; McKenzie, M. R. G. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Savaglio, S.; Greiner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hunt, L. K. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Gorosabel, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Palazzi, E. [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    We report on radio continuum observations of the host galaxy of the short gamma-ray burst 071227 (z = 0.381) with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We detect the galaxy in the 5.5 GHz band with an integrated flux density of F {sub ?} = 43 ± 11 ?Jy, corresponding to an unobscured star-formation rate of about 24 M {sub ?} yr{sup –1}, 40 times higher than what was found from optical emission lines. Among the ?30 well-identified and studied host galaxies of short bursts this is the third case where the host is found to undergo an episode of intense star formation. This suggests that a fraction of all short-burst progenitors hosted in star-forming galaxies could be physically related to recent star formation activity, implying a relatively short merger timescale.

  11. High pressure elastic properties of minerals from ab initio simulations: The case of pyrope, grossular and andradite silicate garnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erba, A., E-mail: alessandro.erba@unito.it; Mahmoud, A.; Dovesi, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica and Centre of Excellence NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces), Università di Torino, via Giuria 5, IT-10125 Torino (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Chimica and Centre of Excellence NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces), Università di Torino, via Giuria 5, IT-10125 Torino (Italy); Belmonte, D. [DISTAV, Università di Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genoa (Italy)] [DISTAV, Università di Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genoa (Italy)

    2014-03-28

    A computational strategy is devised for the accurate ab initio simulation of elastic properties of crystalline materials under pressure. The proposed scheme, based on the evaluation of the analytical stress tensor and on the automated computation of pressure-dependent elastic stiffness constants, is implemented in the CRYSTAL solid state quantum-chemical program. Elastic constants and related properties (bulk, shear and Young moduli, directional seismic wave velocities, elastic anisotropy index, Poisson's ratio, etc.) can be computed for crystals of any space group of symmetry. We apply such a technique to the study of high-pressure elastic properties of three silicate garnet end-members (namely, pyrope, grossular, and andradite) which are of great geophysical interest, being among the most important rock-forming minerals. The reliability of this theoretical approach is proved by comparing with available experimental measurements. The description of high-pressure properties provided by several equations of state is also critically discussed.

  12. Geometry of Valley Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petroff, Alexander P; Abrams, Daniel M; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rothman, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    Although amphitheater-shaped valley heads can be cut by groundwater flows emerging from springs, recent geological evidence suggests that other processes may also produce similar features, thus confounding the interpretations of such valley heads on Earth and Mars. To better understand the origin of this topographic form we combine field observations, laboratory experiments, analysis of a high-resolution topographic map, and mathematical theory to quantitatively characterize a class of physical phenomena that produce amphitheater-shaped heads. The resulting geometric growth equation accurately predicts the shape of decimeter-wide channels in laboratory experiments, 100-meter wide valleys in Florida and Idaho, and kilometer wide valleys on Mars. We find that whenever the processes shaping a landscape favor the growth of sharply protruding features, channels develop amphitheater-shaped heads with an aspect ratio of pi.

  13. Multi-wavelength analysis of high energy electrons in solar flares: a case study of August 20, 2002 flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kasparova; M. Karlicky; E. P. Kontar; R. A. Schwartz; B. R. Dennis

    2005-08-30

    A multi-wavelength spatial and temporal analysis of solar high energy electrons is conducted using the August 20, 2002 flare of an unusually flat (gamma=1.8) hard X-ray spectrum. The flare is studied using RHESSI, Halpha, radio, TRACE, and MDI observations with advanced methods and techniques never previously applied in the solar flare context. A new method to account for X-ray Compton backscattering in the photosphere (photospheric albedo) has been used to deduce the primary X-ray flare spectra. The mean electron flux distribution has been analysed using both forward fitting and model independent inversion methods of spectral analysis. We show that the contribution of the photospheric albedo to the photon spectrum modifies the calculated mean electron flux distribution, mainly at energies below 100 keV. The positions of the Halpha emission and hard X-ray sources with respect to the current-free extrapolation of the MDI photospheric magnetic field and the characteristics of the radio emission provide evidence of the closed geometry of the magnetic field structure and the flare process in low altitude magnetic loops. In agreement with the predictions of some solar flare models, the hard X-ray sources are located on the external edges of the Halpha emission and show chromospheric plasma heated by the non-thermal electrons. The fast changes of Halpha intensities are located not only inside the hard X-ray sources, as expected if they are the signatures of the chromospheric response to the electron bombardment, but also away from them.

  14. An Extreme Case of a Misaligned Highly Flattened Wind in the Wolf-Rayet Binary CX Cephei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Villar-Sbaffi; N. St-Louis; Anthony F. J. Moffat; Vilppu Piirola; 1- Departement de Physique; Observatoire du Mont Megantic. 2- Tuorla Observatory. 3- Specola Vaticana

    2005-07-26

    CX Cep (WR 151) is the WR+O binary (WN5+O5V) with the second shortest period known in our Galaxy. To examine the circumstellar matter distribution and to better constraint the orbital parameters and mass-loss rate of the WR star, we obtained broadband and multi-band (i.e. UBVRI) linear polarization observations of the system. Our analysis of the phase-locked polarimetric modulation confirms the high orbital inclination of the system (i.e. $i=65^o$). Using the orbital solution of Lewis et al. (1993) we obtain masses of $33.9 M_{\\odot}$ and $23.9 M_{\\odot}$ for the O and WR stars respectively, which agree with their spectral types. A simple polarimetric model accounting for finite stellar size effects allowed us to derive a mass-loss rate for the WR star of $0.3-0.5\\times10^{-5} M_{\\odot}/yr$. This result was remarkably independent of the model's input parameters and favors an earlier spectral type for the WR component (i.e. WN4). Finally, using our multi-band observations, we fitted and subtracted from our data the interstellar polarization. The resulting constant intrinsic polarization of $3-4%$ is misaligned in relation to the orbital plane (i.e. $\\theta_{CIP}=26^o$ vs. $\\Omega=75^o$) and is the highest intrinsic polarization ever observed for a WR star. This misalignment points towards a rotational (or magnetic) origin for the asymmetry and contradicts the most recent evolutionary models for massive stars (Meynet & Maeder 2003) which predict spherically symmetric winds during the WR phase (i.e. $CIP=0%$).

  15. Interface control and snow crystal growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jessica Li; Laura P. Schaposnik

    2015-05-08

    The growth of snow crystals is dependent on the temperature and saturation of the environment. In the case of dendrites, Reiter's local two-dimensional model provides a realistic approach to the study of dendrite growth. In this paper we obtain a new geometric rule that incorporates interface control, a basic mechanism of crystallization that is not taken into account in the original Reiter's model. By defining two new variables, growth latency and growth direction, our improved model gives a realistic model not only for dendrite but also for plate forms.

  16. Longitudinal changes in Chinese adolescent girls’ physical growth, social contexts and mental health during the transition from primary to junior high school 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Jia

    2015-07-03

    This study explores the longitudinal changes among a sample of early adolescent girls in China throughout their transition from primary to junior high school. Early adolescence is a time of multiple transitions and ...

  17. Tectonic development of the Samail ophiolite: High-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology and Sm-Nd isotopic constraints on crustal growth and emplacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rioux, Matthew

    New high-precision single grain U-Pb zircon geochronology and whole rock Nd isotopic data provide insight into the magmatic and tectonic development of the Samail ophiolite. The analyzed rocks can be broadly divided into ...

  18. Rate-dependent morphology of Li2O2 growth in Li-O2 batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horstmann, B; Mitchell, R; Bessler, W G; Shao-Horn, Y; Bazant, M Z

    2013-01-01

    Compact solid discharge products enable energy storage devices with high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities, but solid deposits on active surfaces can disturb charge transport and induce mechanical stress. In this Letter we develop a nanoscale continuum model for the growth of Li2O2 crystals in lithium-oxygen batteries with organic electrolytes, based on a theory of electrochemical non-equilibrium thermodynamics originally applied to Li-ion batteries. As in the case of lithium insertion in phase-separating LiFePO4 nanoparticles, the theory predicts a transition from complex to uniform morphologies of Li2O2 with increasing current. Discrete particle growth at low discharge rates becomes suppressed at high rates, resulting in a film of electronically insulating Li2O2 that limits cell performance. We predict that the transition between these surface growth modes occurs at current densities close to the exchange current density of the cathode reaction, consistent with experimental observations.

  19. Mixed-mode, high-cycle fatigue-crack growth thresholds in I. A comparison of large-and short-crack behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    of turbine engine components to failure from high-cycle fatigue (HCF), i.e., the rapid propagation of fatigue are known to exist at speci®c fatigue-critical locations within the turbine engine com- ponents Engineering, University of California, 463 Evans Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1760, USA Received 27 December 1999

  20. Inuence of foreign-object damage on crack initiation and early crack growth during high-cycle fatigue of Ti6Al4V

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    ; Ti±6Al±4V 1. Introduction The high-cycle fatigue (HCF) of aircraft gas-turbine engine components has-cycle fatigue of Ti±6Al±4V J.O. Peters, R.O. Ritchie * Department of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering of small surface fatigue cracks in a Ti±6Al±4V alloy, processed for typical turbine blade applications

  1. Influence of constraints on axial growth reduction of cylindrical Li-ion battery electrode particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeevanjyoti Chakraborty; Colin P. Please; Alain Goriely; S. Jonathan Chapman

    2014-11-24

    Volumetric expansion of silicon anode particles in a lithium-ion battery during charging may lead to the generation of undesirable internal stresses. For a cylindrical particle such growth may also lead to failure by buckling if the expansion is constrained in the axial direction due to other particles or supporting structures. To mitigate this problem, the possibility of reducing axial growth is investigated theoretically by studying simple modifications of the solid cylinder geometry. First, an annular cylinder is considered with lithiation either from the inside or from the outside. In both cases, the reduction of axial growth is not found to be significant. Next, explicit physical constraints are studied by addition of a non-growing elasto-plastic material: first, an outer annular constraint on a solid silicon cylinder, and second a rod-like inner constraint for an annular silicon cylinder. In both cases, it is found that axial growth can be reduced if the yield stress of the constraining material is significantly higher than that of silicon and/or the thickness of the constraint is relatively high. Phase diagrams are presented for both the outer and the inner constraint cases to identify desirable operating zones. Finally, to interpret the phase diagrams and isolate the key physical principles two different simplified models are presented and are shown to recover important qualitative trends of the numerical simulation results.

  2. Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steel. Part 2, Water flow rate effects in high sulfur plate steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, L.A; Lee, H.B.; Wire, G.L.; Novak, S.R.; Cullen, W.H.

    1996-04-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a high- sulfur ASTM A302-B plate steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 22.8--27.3 mm, and depths of 10.5--14.1 mm. The experiments were initiated in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O{sub 2} < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243{degrees}C, under loading conditions ({Delta}K, R, cyclic frequency) conducive to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) under quasi-stagnant conditions. Following fatigue testing under quasi-stagnant conditions where EAC was observed, the specimens were then fatigue tested under conditions where active water flow of either 1.7 m/sec. or 4.7 m/sec. was applied parallel to the crack. Earlier experiments on unclad surface-cracked specimens of the same steel exhibited EAC under quasi- stagnant conditions, but water flow rates at 1.7 m/sec. and 5.0 m/sec. parallel to the crack mitigated EAC. In the present experiments on clad specimens, water flow at approximately the same as the lower of these velocities did not mitigate EAC, and a free stream velocity approximately the same as the higher of these velocities resulted in sluggish mitigation of EAC. The lack of robust EAC mitigation was attributed to the greater crack surface roughness in the cladding interfering with flow induced within the crack cavity. An analysis employing the computational fluid dynamics code, FIDAP, confirmed that frictional forces associated with the cladding crack surface roughness reduced the interaction between the free stream and the crack cavity.

  3. Technology Policy and Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borrus, Michael; Stowsky, Jay

    1997-01-01

    economic growth) and the Pentagon’s Technology Reinvestment20 Tassey, Technology and Economic Growth: Implications forTechnology Policy and Economic Growth Michael Borrus Jay

  4. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program BWR High-Fluence Material Project: Assessment of the Role of High-Fluence on the Efficiency of HWC Mitigation on SCC Crack Growth Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sebastien Teysseyre

    2014-04-01

    As nuclear power plants age, the increasing neutron fluence experienced by stainless steels components affects the materials resistance to stress corrosion cracking and fracture toughness. The purpose of this report is to identify any new issues that are expected to rise as boiling water reactor power plants reach the end of their initial life and to propose a path forward to study such issues. It has been identified that the efficiency of hydrogen water chemistry mitigation technology may decrease as fluence increases for high-stress intensity factors. This report summarizes the data available to support this hypothesis and describes a program plan to determine the efficiency of hydrogen water chemistry as a function of the stress intensity factor applied and fluence. This program plan includes acquisition of irradiated materials, generation of material via irradiation in a test reactor, and description of the test plan. This plan offers three approaches, each with an estimated timetable and budget.

  5. Modelling and Analysis of Phase Variation in Bacterial Colony Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, David

    Modelling and Analysis of Phase Variation in Bacterial Colony Growth Ovidiu P^arvu1 , David Gilbert, Brandenburg University of Technology monika.heiner@informatik.tu-cottbus.de 3 Harbin Institute of Technology case study, namely phase variation patterning in bacterial colony growth, forming circular colonies

  6. A Framework for Analysis of the Uncertainty of Socioeconomic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Framework for Analysis of the Uncertainty of Socioeconomic Growth and Climate Change on the Risk of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue, E19-411 Cambridge, MA 02139 (USA) Location: Building E19, Room 411 400 Growth and Climate Change on the Risk of Water Stress: a Case Study in Asia Charles Fant* , C. Adam

  7. Strategic Growth Initiative (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A joint venture between Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) and the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC), the Strategic Growth Initiative Grant Program was...

  8. Direct growth of graphene on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanh Trung, Pham Joucken, Frédéric; Colomer, Jean-François; Robert, Sporken; Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benoît; Santos, Cristiane N.

    2014-06-14

    Due to the need of integrated circuit in the current silicon technology, the formation of graphene on Si wafer is highly desirable, but is still a challenge for the scientific community. In this context, we report the direct growth of graphene on Si(111) wafer under appropriate conditions using an electron beam evaporator. The structural quality of the material is investigated in detail by reflection high energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Our experimental results confirm that the quality of graphene is strongly dependent on the growth time during carbon atoms deposition.

  9. Seeking Smart Growth: The Idea of a California Global Higher Education Hub

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglass, John Aubrey; Edelstein, Richard; Haoreau, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    future for US economic growth is greater knowledge production, including high-tech areas such as developing alternative energy

  10. Spatial Integration of Corporate R&D and Mass Production Activities in High-tech Manufacturing: A Case Study of Samsung Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Kyung-min

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the high-tech manufacturing sector’s location pattern in favor of the Capital Region is a key variable that can explain both divergent local manufacturing performance and Korea’s monocentric economic ...

  11. Collective renovation : case study on the public / private relationship in high-density low-rise residential areas of central Tokyo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mizuguchi, Saki

    2012-01-01

    This thesis starts with the interest in the undefined open spaces of high-density low-rise (HDLR) residential areas in Tokyo. In these spaces, one can witness numerous examples of overlapping public and private uses. For ...

  12. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801764 Low-Temperature Deterministic Growth of Ge Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Moon-Ho

    DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801764 Low-Temperature Deterministic Growth of Ge Nanowires Using Cu Solid-dimensional crystal growth essentially exploits the highly asymmetric growth kinetics in the radial and axial and the subsequent one-dimensional crystal growth.[1­3] One of the earliest and prevailing examples of such one

  13. Modeling tin whisker growth.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberger, Christopher Robert

    2013-08-01

    Tin, lead, and lead-tin solders are the most commonly used solders due to their low melting temperatures. However, due to the toxicity problems, lead must now be removed from solder materials. This has lead to the re-emergence of the issue of tin whisker growth. Tin whiskers are a microelectronic packaging issue because they can lead to shorts if they grow to sufficient length. However, the cause of tin whisker growth is still not well understood and there is lack of robust methods to determine when and if whiskering will be a problem. This report summarizes some of the leading theories on whisker growth and attempts to provide some ideas towards establishing the role microstructure plays in whisker growth.

  14. Renewable Energy Growth Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2014, Act H 7727 created the Renewable Energy Growth (REG) program with the goal to promote installation of grid connected renewable energy within the load zones of electric distribution...

  15. Robust Growth Determinants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doppelhofer, Gernot; Weeks, Melvyn

    2011-01-31

    growth in European regions, allowing for spa- tial spillovers across regions. The robust model averaging approach can also account for spatial clustering of errors by accommodating outliers and heteroscedastic errors. In both Classical and Bayesian...

  16. Well having inhibited microbial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Brady D.; Dooley, Kirk J.

    2006-08-15

    The invention includes methods of inhibiting microbial growth in a well. A packing material containing a mixture of a first material and an antimicrobial agent is provided to at least partially fill a well bore. One or more access tubes are provided in an annular space around a casing within the well bore. The access tubes have a first terminal opening located at or above a ground surface and have a length that extends from the first terminal opening at least part of the depth of the well bore. The access tubes have a second terminal opening located within the well bore. An antimicrobial material is supplied into the well bore through the first terminal opening of the access tubes. The invention also includes well constructs.

  17. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  18. Transient Growth in Stochastic Burgers Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diogo Poças; Bartosz Protas

    2015-10-16

    This study considers the problem of the extreme behavior exhibited by solutions to Burgers equation subject to stochastic forcing. More specifically, we are interested in the maximum growth achieved by the "enstrophy" (the Sobolev $H^1$ seminorm of the solution) as a function of the initial enstrophy $\\mathcal{E}_0$, in particular, whether in the stochastic setting this growth is different than in the deterministic case considered by Ayala & Protas (2011). This problem is motivated by questions about the effect of noise on the possible singularity formation in hydrodynamic models. The main quantities of interest in the stochastic problem are the expected value of the enstrophy and the enstrophy of the expected value of the solution. The stochastic Burgers equation is solved numerically with a Monte Carlo sampling approach. By studying solutions obtained for a range of optimal initial data and different noise magnitudes, we reveal different solution behaviors and it is demonstrated that the two quantities always bracket the enstrophy of the deterministic solution. The key finding is that the expected values of the enstrophy exhibit the same power-law dependence on the initial enstrophy $\\mathcal{E}_0$ as reported in the deterministic case. This indicates that the stochastic excitation does not increase the extreme enstrophy growth beyond what is already observed in the deterministic case.

  19. Novel method for carbon nanofilament growth on carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Johathan; Luhrs, Claudia; Terani, Mehran; Al - Haik, Marwan; Garcia, Daniel; Taha, Mahmoud R

    2009-01-01

    Fiber reinforced structural composites such as fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs) have proven to be key materials for blast mitigation due to their enhanced mechanical performance. However, there is a need to further increase total energy absorption of the composites in order to retain structural integrity in high energy environments, for example, blast events. Research has shown that composite failure in high energy environments can be traced to their relatively low shear strength attributed to the limited bond strength between the matrix and the fibers. One area of focus for improving the strength of composite materials has been to create 'multi-scale' composites. The most common approach to date is to introduce carbon nanotubes into a more traditional composite consisting of epoxy with embedded micron scale fibers. The inclusion of carbon nanotubes (CNT) clearly toughens different matrices. Depositing CNT in brittle matrix increases stiffness by orders of magnitude. Currently, this approach to create multiscale composites is limited due to the difficulty of dispersing significant amounts of nanotubes. It has repeatedly been reported that phase separation occurs above relatively low weight percent loading (ca. 3%) due to the strong van der Waals forces between CNTs compared with that between CNT and polymer. Hence, the nanotubes tend to segregate and form inclusions. One means to prevent nanotube or nanofilament agglomeration is to anchor one end of the nanostructure, thereby creating a stable multi-phase structure. This is most easily done by literally growing the CNTs directly on micron scale fibers. Recently, CNT were grown on carbon fibers, both polyacrylonitrile- (PAN-) and pitch-based, by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) using H2 and CH4 as precursors. Nickel clusters were electrodeposited on the fiber surfaces to catalyze the growth and uniform CNT coatings were obtained on both the PAN- and pitch-based carbon fibers. Multiwalled CNTs with smooth walls and low impurity content were grown. Carbon nanofibers were also grown on a carbon fiber cloth using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a mixture of acetylene and ammonia. In this case, a cobalt colloid was used to achieve a good coverage of nanofibers on carbon fibers in the cloth. Caveats to CNT growth include damage in the carbon fiber surface due to high-temperatures (>800 C). More recently, Qu et al. reported a new method for uniform deposition of CNT on carbon fibers. However, this method requires processing at 1100 C in the presence of oxygen and such high temperature is anticipated to deepen the damage in the carbon fibers. In the present work, multi-scale filaments (herein, linear carbon structures with multi-micron diameter are called 'fibers', all structures with sub-micron diameter are called 'filaments') were created with a low temperature (ca. 550 C) alternative to CVD growth of CNTs. Specifically, nano-scale filaments were rapidly generated (> 10 microns/hour) on commercial micron scale fibers via catalytic (Pd particles) growth from a fuel rich combustion environment at atmospheric pressure. This atmospheric pressure process, derived from the process called Graphitic Growth by Design (GSD), is rapid, the maximum temperature low enough (below 700 C) to avoid structural damage and the process inexpensive and readily scalable. In some cases, a significant and unexpected aspect of the process was the generation of 'three scale' materials. That is, materials with these three size characteristics were produced: (1) micrometer scale commercial PAN fibers, (2) a layer of 'long' sub-micrometer diameter scale carbon filaments, and (3) a dense layer of 'short' nanometer diameter filaments.

  20. Case Study

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Case Study M2M Smart Grid Investment Grant 1 An irrigation pump connected to a web---to---wireless controller designed by M2M Communications. Agricultural Demand Response Program...

  1. Pulsar Wind Nebulae as a source of the observed electron and positron excess at high energy: the case of Vela-X

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Della Torre, S; Rancoita, P G; Rozza, D; Treves, A

    2015-01-01

    We investigate, in terms of production from pulsars and their nebulae, the cosmic ray positron and electron fluxes above $\\sim10$ GeV, observed by the AMS-02 experiment up to 1 TeV. We concentrate on the Vela-X case. Starting from the gamma-ray photon spectrum of the source, generated via synchrotron and inverse Compton processes, we estimated the electron and positron injection spectra. Several features are fixed from observations of Vela-X and unknown parameters are borrowed from the Crab nebula. The particle spectra produced in the pulsar wind nebula are then propagated up to the Solar System, using a diffusion model. Differently from previous works, the omnidirectional intensity excess for electrons and positrons is obtained as a difference between the AMS-02 data and the corresponding local interstellar spectrum. An equal amount of electron and positron excess is observed and we interpreted this excess (above $\\sim$100 GeV in the AMS-02 data) as a supply coming from Vela-X. The particle contribution is c...

  2. Why is GDP growth linear?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Jörg D

    2015-01-01

    In many European countries the growth of the real GDP per capita has been linear since 1950. An explanation for this linearity is still missing. We propose that in artificial intelligence we may find models for a linear growth of performance. We also discuss possible consequences of the fact that in systems with linear growth the percentage growth goes to zero.

  3. Laboratory Evidence for Stochastic Plasma-Wave Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, D. R.; Hole, M. J.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.; Dallaqua, R.

    2007-11-16

    The first laboratory confirmation of stochastic growth theory is reported. Floating potential fluctuations are measured in a vacuum arc centrifuge using a Langmuir probe. Statistical analysis of the energy density reveals a lognormal distribution over roughly 2 orders of magnitude, with a high-field nonlinear cutoff whose spatial dependence is consistent with the predicted eigenmode profile. These results are consistent with stochastic growth and nonlinear saturation of a spatially extended eigenmode, the first evidence for stochastic growth of an extended structure.

  4. Improved Performance of GaInNAs Solar Cells Grown by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy Using Increased Growth Rate Instead of Surfactants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ptak, A. J.; France, R.; Jiang, C. S.; Romero, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    GaInNAs is potentially useful for increasing the conversion efficiency of multijunction solar cells if low photocurrents and photovoltages can be increased. Wide-depletion width devices generate significant photocurrents using an n-i-p structure grown by molecular-beam epitaxy, but these wide depletion widths are only realized in a region of parameter space that leads to rough surface morphologies. Surfactants are effective at reducing the surface roughness, but lead to increased defect densities and changes in the net acceptor or donor concentration. Here, we show that increasing the growth rate of GaInNAs solar cells leads to smooth surfaces without the use of a surfactant, even at high In compositions and substrate temperatures. No degradation in material quality is observed when increasing the growth rate from 1.5 to 3.0 {micro}m/h, but a shunt resistance does appear for the high-growth-rate samples. This shunt is attributed to increased spitting of the Ga cell, leading to an increase in the oval defect density, at the higher effusion cell temperatures used to achieve high growth rates. As with the case of Bi in GaInNAs, increased growth rates also appear to increase the net donor concentration, but it is not clear if these effects have the same cause.

  5. Collaborative landscapes of growth and change : the case of Nicosia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tourvas, Teresa, 1972-

    1999-01-01

    Continually changing information technologies and communication patterns have facilitated the spatial dispersal of production and consumption while, offering new affordances on physical and organizational structures. Within ...

  6. Fuel Cycle Analysis Framework Base Cases for the IAEA/INPRO GAINS Collaborative Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01

    Thirteen countries participated in the Collaborative Project GAINS “Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems Based on Thermal and Fast Reactors Including a Closed Fuel Cycle”, which was the primary activity within the IAEA/INPRO Program Area B: “Global Vision on Sustainable Nuclear Energy” for the last three years. The overall objective of GAINS was to develop a standard framework for assessing future nuclear energy systems taking into account sustainable development, and to validate results through sample analyses. This paper details the eight scenarios that constitute the GAINS framework base cases for analysis of the transition to future innovative nuclear energy systems. The framework base cases provide a reference for users of the framework to start from in developing and assessing their own alternate systems. Each base case is described along with performance results against the GAINS sustainability evaluation metrics. The eight cases include four using a moderate growth projection and four using a high growth projection for global nuclear electricity generation through 2100. The cases are divided into two sets, addressing homogeneous and heterogeneous scenarios developed by GAINS to model global fuel cycle strategies. The heterogeneous world scenario considers three separate nuclear groups based on their fuel cycle strategies, with non-synergistic and synergistic cases. The framework base case analyses results show the impact of these different fuel cycle strategies while providing references for future users of the GAINS framework. A large number of scenario alterations are possible and can be used to assess different strategies, different technologies, and different assumptions about possible futures of nuclear power. Results can be compared to the framework base cases to assess where these alternate cases perform differently versus the sustainability indicators.

  7. Fracture mechanics analysis of slow crack growth in polyethylene 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Self, Robert Alan

    1997-01-01

    Slow crack growth in polyethylene is often the limiting factor in long-term service of plastic pipe or other structural applications. A new test method and analysis method was developed to study slow crack growth in polyethylene. Two high density...

  8. Internet traffic growth: Sources and implications Andrew M. Odlyzko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odlyzko, Andrew M.

    Internet traffic growth: Sources and implications Andrew M. Odlyzko University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA ABSTRACT The high tech bubble was inflated by myths of astronomical Internet traffic growth rates. Yet although these myths were false, Internet traffic was increasing very rapidly, close

  9. Real-time synchrotron x-ray studies of low- and high-temperature nitridation of c-plane sapphire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Yiyi; Oezcan, Ahmet S.; Ludwig, Karl F. Jr. [Physics Department, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Oezaydin, Goezde [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Moustakas, Theodore D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Zhou, Hua; Headrick, Randall L. [Department of Physics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States); Siddons, D. Peter [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    The plasma nitridation kinetics of c-plane sapphire at both low (200-300 deg. C) and high (750 deg. C) substrate temperatures was examined using grazing-incidence real-time x-ray diffraction, in situ x-ray reflection and in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). These monitored the evolution of the nitride thickness, strain, and surface structure during nitridation. The evolution of the AlN(1010) peak showed that the heteroepitaxial strain in the first layer of nitride is already significantly relaxed relative to the substrate. Subsequent layers grow with increasing relaxation. In both the high- and low-temperature nitridation cases, the results suggest that the early stage nitridation is governed by a complex nucleation and growth process. Nitridation at both temperatures apparently proceeds in a two-dimensional growth mode with the initial nucleating islands consisting of several monolayers which grow laterally. At low temperature the growth slows or even stops after impingement of the nucleating islands covering the surface, possibly due to low diffusivities through the existing layer. Initial formation and growth rates of nucleating islands at high temperatures are comparable to those at low temperatures, but subsequent growth into the substrate is significantly enhanced over the low temperature case, consistent with activation energies of 0.1-0.25 eV.

  10. BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR MERGERS WITH A HOT NUCLEAR EQUATION OF STATE: OUTFLOW AND NEUTRINO-COOLED DISK FOR A LOW-MASS, HIGH-SPIN CASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deaton, M. Brett; Duez, Matthew D.; Foucart, Francois; O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Muhlberger, Curran D. E-mail: m.duez@wsu.edu

    2013-10-10

    Neutrino emission significantly affects the evolution of the accretion tori formed in black hole-neutron star mergers. It removes energy from the disk, alters its composition, and provides a potential power source for a gamma-ray burst. To study these effects, simulations in general relativity with a hot microphysical equation of state (EOS) and neutrino feedback are needed. We present the first such simulation, using a neutrino leakage scheme for cooling to capture the most essential effects and considering a moderate mass (1.4 M{sub ?} neutron star, 5.6 M{sub ?} black hole), high-spin (black hole J/M {sup 2} = 0.9) system with the K{sub 0} = 220 MeV Lattimer-Swesty EOS. We find that about 0.08 M{sub ?} of nuclear matter is ejected from the system, while another 0.3 M{sub ?} forms a hot, compact accretion disk. The primary effects of the escaping neutrinos are (1) to make the disk much denser and more compact, (2) to cause the average electron fraction Y{sub e} of the disk to rise to about 0.2 and then gradually decrease again, and (3) to gradually cool the disk. The disk is initially hot (T ? 6 MeV) and luminous in neutrinos (L{sub ?} ? 10{sup 54} erg s{sup –1}), but the neutrino luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude over 50 ms of post-merger evolution.

  11. Building America Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes; Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-05-01

    ?This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). The scope of this project involved building four HPMH prototypes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). The HPMH home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.
    home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  12. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Testing Ductless Heat Pumps in High-Performance Affordable Housing, the Woods at Golden Given - Tacoma, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    The Woods is a 30-home, high- performance, energy efficient sustainable community built by Habitat for Humanity (HFH). With Support from Tacoma Public Utilities, Washington State University (part of the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction) is researching the energy performance of these homes and the ductless heat pumps (DHP) they employ. This project provides Building America with an opportunity to: field test HVAC equipment, ventilation system air flows, building envelope tightness, lighting, appliance, and other input data that are required for preliminary Building Energy Optimization (BEopt™) modeling and ENERGY STAR® field verification; analyze cost data from HFH and other sources related to building-efficiency measures that focus on the DHP/hybrid heating system and heat recovery ventilation system; evaluate the thermal performance and cost benefit of DHP/hybrid heating systems in these homes from the perspective of homeowners; compare the space heating energy consumption of a DHP/electric resistance (ER) hybrid heating system to that of a traditional zonal ER heating system; conduct weekly "flip-flop tests" to compare space heating, temperature, and relative humidity in ER zonal heating mode to DHP/ER mode.

  13. Single casing reheat turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsushima, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Shigeo

    1999-07-01

    For conventional power plants, regenerative reheat steam turbines have been accepted as the most practical method to meet the demand for efficient and economical power generation. Recently the application of reheat steam turbines for combined cycle power plant began according to the development of large-capacity high temperature gas turbine. The two casing double flow turbine has been applied for this size of reheat steam turbine. The single casing reheat turbine can offer economical and compact power plant. Through development of HP-LP combined rotor and long LP blading series, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. had developed a single casing reheat steam turbine series and began to use it in actual plants. Six units are already in operation and another seven units are under manufacturing. Multiple benefits of single casing reheat turbine are smaller space requirements, shorter construction and erection period, equally good performance, easier operation and maintenance, shorter overhaul period, smaller initial investment, lower transportation expense and so on. Furthermore, single exhaust steam turbine makes possible to apply axial exhaust type, which will lower the height of T/G foundation and T/G housing. The single casing reheat turbine has not only compact and economical configuration itself but also it can reduce the cost of civil construction. In this paper, major developments and design features of the single casing reheat turbine are briefly discussed and operating experience, line-up and technical consideration for performance improvement are presented.

  14. Eco-Growth: A Framework for Sustainable Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanco, Edgar E.

    Growth is imperative for corporate success and yet the environmental impact of this growth is not sustainable. In this paper we offer a framework for thinking about the stages of tackling the environmental sustainability ...

  15. A mechanical model of early salt dome growth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irwin, Frank Albert

    1988-01-01

    salt and the upper layer representing the overlying sediment, is used to study the mechanics of growth in the early stages of salt dome formation. Three cases of this model, each representing a particular rate of removal of the surface topography..., are examined to determine which case best fits observations of salt domes in East Texas, Northwest Germany, and the North Sea. These observations include the spacing and growth rate of the dome and the amount of deformation of the sediments above the dome...

  16. Abnormal grain growth in AISI 304L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirdel, M.; Mirzadeh, H.; Parsa, M.H.

    2014-11-15

    The microstructural evolution during abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in 304L stainless steel was studied in a wide range of annealing temperatures and times. At relatively low temperatures, the grain growth mode was identified as normal. However, at homologous temperatures between 0.65 (850 °C) and 0.7 (900 °C), the observed transition in grain growth mode from normal to abnormal, which was also evident from the bimodality in grain size distribution histograms, was detected to be caused by the dissolution/coarsening of carbides. The microstructural features such as dispersed carbides were characterized by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and microhardness. Continued annealing to a long time led to the completion of secondary recrystallization and the subsequent reappearance of normal growth mode. Another instance of abnormal grain growth was observed at homologous temperatures higher than 0.8, which may be attributed to the grain boundary faceting/defaceting phenomenon. It was also found that when the size of abnormal grains reached a critical value, their size will not change too much and the grain growth behavior becomes practically stagnant. - Highlights: • Abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in AISI 304L stainless steel • Exaggerated grain growth due to dissolution/coarsening of carbides • The enrichment of carbide particles by titanium • Abnormal grain growth due to grain boundary faceting at very high temperatures • The stagnancy of abnormal grain growth by annealing beyond a critical time.

  17. Morphological control of silicalite-1 crystals using microemulsion mediated growth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seung Ju

    2005-11-01

    space afforded by the microemulsion, is essential. The results suggest that this may be a versatile and useful approach to controlling zeolite crystal morphology and growth of crystals obtained from conventional high-silica zeolite synthesis procedures....

  18. Bubble growth rates in boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, P.

    1956-01-01

    The conditions determining the growth rate of a bubble on a surface in boiling are considered and a mathematical model framed in the light of these conditions. The growth rate is then calculated for bubbles growing under ...

  19. 1.5 Malthusian Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PRETEX (Halifax NS) #1 1054 1999 Mar 05 10:59:16

    2010-01-20

    Feb 16, 2007 ... Logistic Population Model. The Malthusian growth law (1.5.1) does not provide an accurate model for the growth of a population over a long ...

  20. Role of Nucleation and Growth in Two-Phase Microstructure Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jong Ho Shin

    2008-05-01

    During the directional solidification of peritectic alloys, a rich variety of two-phase microstructures develop, and the selection process of a specific microstructure is complicated due to the following two considerations. (1) In contrast to many single phase and eutectic microstructures that grow under steady state conditions, two-phase microstructures in a peritectic system often evolve under non-steady-state conditions that can lead to oscillatory microstructures, and (2) the microstructure is often governed by both the nucleation and the competitive growth of the two phases in which repeated nucleation can occur due to the change in the local conditions during growth. In this research, experimental studies in the Sn-Cd system were designed to isolate the effects of nucleation and competitive growth on the dynamics of complex microstructure formation. Experiments were carried out in capillary samples to obtain diffusive growth conditions so that the results can be analyzed quantitatively. At high thermal gradient and low velocity, oscillatory microstructures were observed in which repeated nucleation of the two phases was observed at the wall-solid-liquid junction. Quantitative measurements of nucleation undercooling were obtained for both the primary and the peritectic phase nucleation, and three different ampoule materials were used to examine the effect of different contact angles at the wall on nucleation undercooling. Nucleation undercooling for each phase was found to be very small, and the experimental undercooling values were orders of magnitude smaller than that predicted by the classical theory of nucleation. A new nucleation mechanism is proposed in which the clusters of atoms at the wall ahead of the interface can become a critical nucleus when the cluster encounters the triple junction. Once the nucleation of a new phase occurs, the microstructure is found to be controlled by the relative growth of the two phases that give rise to different oscillatory microstructures that depend on the imposed velocity and the size of the sample. At low thermal gradient to velocity ratio, a steady-state composite microstructure is observed. Two mechanisms of composite microstructure formation were examined: (1) the formation of the peritectic phase in the intercellular region of the primary phase where the solute rejected by the primary phase is absorbed by the peritectic phase. The peritectic phase forms a small distance behind the growing primary phase front. (2) The second mechanism is the coupled growth of the two phases with a macroscopically planar interface, as in the case of eutectic growth. Detailed studies showed that this composite microstructure, although it appears as a eutectic microstructure, did not grow in the coupled manner at the advancing interface in the Sn-cd system. However, a new observation was made when experiments were carried out in thin ampoule of Ta. The peritectic phase nucleated at the wall-interface triple junction and grew along the wall, while the primary phase continued to grow at the center, giving rise to a steady-state couple growth at some specific velocity. The mechanism of coupled growth in this case was shown to be operative due to the presence of a finite contact angle at the wall, and this was demonstrated by including the contact angle effect at the wall in the rod eutectic growth model. The experimental results were summarized to map out the conditions of thermal gradient and velocity on the regimes of composite and oscillatory microstructure formation. The formation of complex time-dependent microstructures was then discussed in terms of the time-dependent dynamics of planar interface growth.

  1. Transient Growth in Stochastic Burgers Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poças, Diogo

    2015-01-01

    This study considers the problem of the extreme behavior exhibited by solutions to Burgers equation subject to stochastic forcing. More specifically, we are interested in the maximum growth achieved by the "enstrophy" (the Sobolev $H^1$ seminorm of the solution) as a function of the initial enstrophy $\\mathcal{E}_0$, in particular, whether in the stochastic setting this growth is different than in the deterministic case considered by Ayala & Protas (2011). This problem is motivated by questions about the effect of noise on the possible singularity formation in hydrodynamic models. The main quantities of interest in the stochastic problem are the expected value of the enstrophy and the enstrophy of the expected value of the solution. The stochastic Burgers equation is solved numerically with a Monte Carlo sampling approach. By studying solutions obtained for a range of optimal initial data and different noise magnitudes, we reveal different solution behaviors and it is demonstrated that the two quantities ...

  2. Case Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a lCarib Energy (USA)civilEnergy Water Heaters FurnacesCase Study

  3. Philippines' downstream sector poised for growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that the Philippines' downstream sector is poised for sharp growth. Despite a slip in refined products demand in recent years, Philippines products demand will rebound sharply by 2000, East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu, predicts. Philippines planned refinery expansions are expected to meet that added demand, EWC Director Fereidun Fesharaki says. Like the rest of the Asia-Pacific region, product specifications are changing, but major refiners in the area expect to meet the changes without major case outlays. At the same time, Fesharaki says, push toward deregulation will further bolster the outlook for the Philippines downstream sector.

  4. Jointness of Growth Determinants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doppelhofer, Gernot; Weeks, Melvyn

    2006-03-14

    @cam.ac.uk, Tel: +44 1223 335200, Fax: +44 1223 335475. ‡Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 9DD, UK. Email: mw217@econ.cam.ac.uk 1 Introduction Model uncertainty is encountered in many areas of empirical work in economics... presents the empirical results for jointness of growth, and section 5 concludes. 2 Bayesian Model Averaging Consider the following general linear regression model y = X? + ? (1) where y is a (T × 1) vector of observations of the dependent variable...

  5. Growth, microstructure, and luminescent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Lowï‚— WeUpdate Jon Peschong Richland5 EOCGroveGrowth,

  6. Regional companies eye growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProtonAbout UsRegional companies eye growth Regional

  7. Proactive campus supervision : a high school case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steitz, Matthew Harold

    2010-01-01

    helped recover lost property, lockout or ISS) a. Explain thethat student to go to lockout. APPENDIX D Campus Supervisorgrade level, number of lockouts, number of referrals, and

  8. Method for solid state crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolas, George S.; Beekman, Matthew K.

    2013-04-09

    A novel method for high quality crystal growth of intermetallic clathrates is presented. The synthesis of high quality pure phase crystals has been complicated by the simultaneous formation of both clathrate type-I and clathrate type-II structures. It was found that selective, phase pure, single-crystal growth of type-I and type-II clathrates can be achieved by maintaining sufficient partial pressure of a chemical constituent during slow, controlled deprivation of the chemical constituent from the primary reactant. The chemical constituent is slowly removed from the primary reactant by the reaction of the chemical constituent vapor with a secondary reactant, spatially separated from the primary reactant, in a closed volume under uniaxial pressure and heat to form the single phase pure crystals.

  9. Reducing dislocations in semiconductors utilizing repeated thermal cycling during multistage epitaxial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, John C. C. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Tsaur, Bor-Yeu (Arlington, MA); Gale, Ronald P. (Bedford, MA); Davis, Frances M. (Framingham, MA)

    1992-02-25

    Dislocation densities are reduced in growing semiconductors from the vapor phase by employing a technique of interrupting growth, cooling the layer so far deposited, and then repeating the process until a high quality active top layer is achieved. The method of interrupted growth, coupled with thermal cycling, permits dislocations to be trapped in the initial stages of epitaxial growth.

  10. Reducing dislocations in semiconductors utilizing repeated thermal cycling during multistage epitaxial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, John C. C. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Tsaur, Bor-Yeu (Arlington, MA); Gale, Ronald P. (Bedford, MA); Davis, Frances M. (Framingham, MA)

    1986-12-30

    Dislocation densities are reduced in growing semiconductors from the vapor phase by employing a technique of interrupting growth, cooling the layer so far deposited, and then repeating the process until a high quality active top layer is achieved. The method of interrupted growth, coupled with thermal cycling, permits dislocations to be trapped in the initial stages of epitaxial growth.

  11. Modeling snow crystal growth III: three-dimensional snowfakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janko Gravner; David Griffeath

    2007-11-26

    We introduce a three-dimensional, computationally feasible, mesoscopic model for snow crystal growth, based on diffusion of vapor, anisotropic attachment, and a semi-liquid boundary layer. Several case studies are presented that faithfully emulate a wide variety of physical snowflakes.

  12. Bornholm Cases in Web Mining rup Nielsen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    Bornholm Cases in Web Mining Finn A Æ rup Nielsen Informatics and Mathematical Modelling Technical A Æ rup Nielsen, IMM, DTU April 7, 2002 OVERVIEW #15; PubMed & ISI #15; ResearchIndex. Web; DEADLINER. Special topic search engine. #15; Webgames. #15; Modeling the growth of the web. #15; Gene

  13. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E. (South Setauket, NY); James, Ralph B. (Ridge, NY)

    2010-07-20

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  14. Growth and poverty in the urban fringe : decentralization, dispersion, and inequality in greater Buenos Aires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Libertun de Duren, Nora R

    2007-01-01

    This research presents the case of growth in Buenos Aires since the late 1970s, when the decentralization of urban planning powers in the Province of Buenos Aires began, until 2001, when an economic crisis submerged -even ...

  15. Banknorth: Designing IT Governance for a Growth-Oriented Business Evironment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weill, Peter

    2007-04-20

    This case describes the challenges of implementation of IT Governance in a regional New England bank experiencing explosive and very profitable growth through mergers and acquisitions. Led by the CIO the new IT governance ...

  16. Effects of Brown v. Board of Education on the growth of social psychology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryant, William Howard McKinley

    1995-01-01

    This study probed the effects of Brown v. Board of Education on the growth of social psychology and psychology in general. Brown v. Board of Education, the 1954 landmark case that made segregation illegal and ended the ...

  17. Nanowire-templated lateral epitaxial growth of non-polar group III nitrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, George T. (Albuquerque, NM); Li, Qiming (Albuquerque, NM); Creighton, J. Randall (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-03-02

    A method for growing high quality, nonpolar Group III nitrides using lateral growth from Group III nitride nanowires. The method of nanowire-templated lateral epitaxial growth (NTLEG) employs crystallographically aligned, substantially vertical Group III nitride nanowire arrays grown by metal-catalyzed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) as templates for the lateral growth and coalescence of virtually crack-free Group III nitride films. This method requires no patterning or separate nitride growth step.

  18. High Availability for High-End Scientific A Dissertation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engelmann, Christian

    High Availability for High-End Scientific Computing A Dissertation Submitted In Partial Fulfilment in the area of high availability is essential to meet the needs to sustain the current growth. This thesis introduces a new approach to high availability which focuses on the head node of a cluster system

  19. Dimension growth for C -algebras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-05-14

    Feb 6, 2007 ... its range is exhausted by simple, nuclear C?-algebras. As consequences we obtain a well developed the- ory of dimension growth for ...

  20. Issues with the High Definition Space Telescope (HDST) ExoEarth Biosignature Case: A Critique of the 2015 AURA Report "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths: the future of UVOIR Astronomy"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elvis, Martin

    2015-01-01

    "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths" advocates a 12-meter optical/near-IR space telescope for launch ~2035. The goal that sets this large size is the detection of biosignatures from Earth-like planets in their habitable zones around G-stars. The discovery of a single instance of life elsewhere in the universe would be a profound event for humanity. But not at any cost. At 8-9B USD this High Definition Space Telescope (HDST) would take all the NASA astrophysics budget for nearly 20 years, unless new funds are found. For a generation NASA could build no "Greater Observatories" matching JWST in the rest of the spectrum. This opportunity cost prompted me to study the driving exobiosphere detection case for HDST. I find that: (1) the focus on G-stars is not well justified; (2) only G-stars require the use of direct imaging; (3) in the chosen 0.5 - 2.5 micron band, the available biosignatures are ambiguous and a larger sample does not help; (4) the expected number of exobiospheres is 1, with a 5% chance of zero; (5...

  1. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, Timothy J. (Tijeras, NM); Ginley, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  2. Growth management and sustainable transport: Do growth management policies promote transit use? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deal, Brian; Kim, Jae H; Chackraborty, Arnab

    2009-01-01

    4). Figure 4. Sustainable Growth Management and TransportIntegration Growth Management and Sustainable Transport2004. Do state growth management regulations reduce sprawl?

  3. A Minimal Model for Large-scale Epitaxial Growth Kinetics of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huijun

    2015-01-01

    Epitaxial growth via chemical vapor deposition is considered to be the most promising way towards synthesizing large area graphene with high quality. However, it remains a big theoretical challenge to reveal growth kinetics with atomically energetic and large-scale spatial information included. Here, we propose a minimal kinetic Monte Carlo model to address such an issue on an active catalyst surface with graphene/substrate lattice mismatch, which facilitates us to perform large scale simulations of the growth kinetics over two dimensional surface with growth fronts of complex shapes. A geometry-determined large-scale growth mechanism is revealed, where the rate-dominating event is found to be $C_{1}$-attachment for concave growth front segments and $C_{5}$-attachment for others. This growth mechanism leads to an interesting time-resolved growth behavior which is well consistent with that observed in a recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiment.

  4. Logistic Growth The logistic equation is a model of limited population growth. The exponential growth model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ikenaga, Bruce

    9­28­1998 Logistic Growth The logistic equation is a model of limited population growth of organisms runs out of food, encounters predators, or fouls its own environment with waste. The logistic the carrying capacity. Example. A population of roaches grows logistically in Calvin Butterball's kitchen

  5. Agronomic differences in growth and yield between BT and conventional cotton treated with mepiquat chloride 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underbrink, Shelley Marie

    1999-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), an indeterminacy plant, may exhibit rank vegetative growth under conditions of high fertility and high moisture. Traditionally, mepiquat chloride (l,l-dimethylpiperidinium chloride) has been applied to cotton...

  6. High Flux Ti Nanofiltration Membrane

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    heat exchangers. Success would lead to a US-manufactured high performance nano-ceramic coating that could be exported and contribute to the growth of the US manufacturing sector of...

  7. Implementing the Third Industrial Revolution : a case study of a French example

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malidin, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth is now stalling in Europe and at the same time unemployment has remained at high levels for a long time. On the other hand, the United-States are posting record growth rates and enjoy low unemployment, in ...

  8. The Very Long Run Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Lemin

    2013-01-01

    the stochastic growth of technology as the source of inter-2000. “Population, technology, and growth: From Malthusianhas constant growth rates of technology g A and g B , then g

  9. Growth machine theory: a qualitative analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Gavin Paul

    1993-01-01

    of land inherent in growth machine theory, does not necessarily result in a dialectic, win-lose situation. Furthermore, it is argued that the growth coalition may not always ado t a unidimensional roach to development where further growth...

  10. Human linear growth trajectory defined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    a child’s height in its 3rd year of age is greater than thatbut its growth rate in the 3rd year is slower than that in

  11. The Annual Growth In Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courtright, J. E.

    1903-01-01

    KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection The Annual Growth In Plants 1903 by J. E. Courtright This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU Libraries’ Center...

  12. III-V Growth on Silicon Toward a Multijunction Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geisz, J.; Olson, J.; McMahon, W.; Friedman, D.; Kibbler, A.; Kramer, C.; Young, M.; Duda, A.; Ward, S.; Ptak, A.; Kurtz, S.; Wanlass, M.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Jiang, C. S.; Moutinho, H.; Norman, A.; Jones, K.; Romero, M.; Reedy, B.

    2005-11-01

    A III-V on Si multijunction solar cell promises high efficiency at relatively low cost. The challenges to epitaxial growth of high-quality III-Vs on Si, though, are extensive. Lattice-matched (LM) dilute-nitride GaNPAs solar cells have been grown on Si, but their performance is limited by defects related to the nitrogen. Advances in the growth of lattice-mismatched (LMM) materials make more traditional III-Vs, such as GaInP and GaAsP, very attractive for use in multijunction solar cells on silicon.

  13. Developmental time windows for axon growth influence neuronal network topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sol

    2015-01-01

    Early brain connectivity development consists of multiple stages: birth of neurons, their migration and the subsequent growth of axons and dendrites. Each stage occurs within a certain period of time depending on types of neurons and cortical layers. Forming synapses between neurons either by growing axons starting at similar times for all neurons (much-overlapped time windows) or at different time points (less-overlapped) may affect the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks. Here, we explore the extreme cases of axon formation especially concerning short-distance connectivity during early development, either starting at the same time for all neurons (parallel, i.e. maximally-overlapped time windows) or occurring for each neuron separately one neuron after another (serial, i.e. no overlaps in time windows). For both cases, the number of potential and established synapses remained comparable. Topological and spatial properties, however, differed: neurons that started axon growth early on in s...

  14. Cosmic Growth History and Expansion History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linder, Eric V.

    2009-01-01

    LBNL- 58260 Cosmic Growth History andExpansion History Eric V. Linder Physics Division, LawrenceCalifornia. Cosmic Growth History and Expansion History Eric

  15. Technology Deployment Case Studies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Find technology deployment case studies below. Click on each individual project link to see the full case study. You can also view a map of technology deployment case studies.

  16. Fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloy 1441

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakash, R.V.; Parida, B.K.

    1995-12-31

    Fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloy 1441 having a marginally lower lithium content, compared to 80xx and 20xx series Al-Li alloys is presented in this paper. This investigation was conducted on single edge tension--SE(T)--specimens, under constant amplitude as well as under MiniLCA flight spectrum loading with the specific objective of determining the effects of stress ratio, orientation, thickness and cladding. Three thicknesses were considered: 1.2 mm(clad and unclad), 2.0 mm(clad and unclad) and 8.0 mm unclad. Constant amplitude fatigue tests were conducted at stress ratios of {minus}0.3, 0.1 and 0.7. Testing was performed under ambient conditions and along three orientations, namely L-T, T-L and L+45 degrees. Crack growth characteristics of this alloy are compared with that of BS:L73 (2014-T4 equivalent) for assessing the possibility of replacing BS:L73. Significant effect of stress ratio on crack growth rate was observed in all thicknesses. However, in case of 1.2 and 2.0 mm thick sheets, the effect was minimal at intermediate-crack growth regime. The orientation of the specimen does not adversely affect the fatigue crack growth behavior of 8.0 mm and 2.0 mm thick specimens. However, for 1.2 mm unclad sheet crack growth resistance in L-T direction was found to be superior to that along T-L direction. In majority of test cases considered, no significant effect was observed on crack growth rate due to thickness or cladding. Crack growth characteristics of Al-Li alloy 1441 and Al-Cu alloy BS:L73 under constant amplitude as well as MiniLCA spectrum loading are similar in the low and intermediate-crack growth rate regime. Based on these observations, it is felt that this Al-Li alloy has the potential for future aerospace applications.

  17. Growth kinetics of NaCl crystals in a drying drop of gelatin: transition from faceted to dendritic growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moutushi Dutta Choudhury; Tapati Dutta; Sujata Tarafdar

    2015-06-20

    We report a study on the kinetics of drying of a droplet of aqueous gelatin containing sodium chloride. The process of drying recorded on video, clearly shows different regimes of growth leading to a variety of crystalline patterns. Large faceted crystals of $\\sim$mm size form in the early stages of evaporation, followed by highly branched multi-fractal patterns with micron sized features. We simulate the growth using a simple algorithm incorporating aggregation and evaporation, which reproduces the cross-over between the two growth regimes. As evaporation proceeds, voids form in the gel film. The time development of the fluid-void system can be characterized by an Euler number. A minimum in the Euler number marks the transition between the two regimes of growth.

  18. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  19. High Impact Technology Hub- Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Highlights, outcomes and activities to support the adoption of High Impact Technologies.  Technology Highlights preview early results from current technology demonstrations.  Case Studies overview...

  20. CHIN.PHYS.LETT. Vol. 25, No. 2 (2008) 663 Growth Model for Pulsed-Laser Deposited Perovskite Oxide Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xiangdong

    2008-01-01

    CHIN.PHYS.LETT. Vol. 25, No. 2 (2008) 663 Growth Model for Pulsed-Laser Deposited Perovskite Oxide features of perovskite oxide film growth as observed in the reflection high energy electron diffraction the Ostwald ripening dur- ing and after deposition as the effect is prevalent in the growth of perovskite

  1. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2013-12-15

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread.

  2. Surfactant-and Salt-Induced Growth of Normal Sodium Alkyl Sulfate Micelles Well above Their Critical Micelle Concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bales, Barney

    Surfactant- and Salt-Induced Growth of Normal Sodium Alkyl Sulfate Micelles Well above, dodecyl, and tetradecyl were studied. In all cases, the growth of the aggregates with added salt counterion concentration in the aqueous phase (supplied by the surfactant and the added salt). The constants

  3. High pressure floating zone growth and structural properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA; Zhao, Z. Y. Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

  4. High pressure floating zone growth and structural properties...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1188512 GrantContract Number: DMR-1157490; GBMF4416 Type: Published Article Journal Name: APL Materials Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue:...

  5. Monitoring plant growth using high resolution micro-CT images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paquit, Vincent C [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A multidisciplinary research conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory aims at understanding the molecular controls of partitioning, transport and fate of carbon xed by photosynthesis in plants and its correlation with other measured plant system properties. Ultimately, we intend to develop a modeling framework to assess, correlate and predict as to which spatiotemporal changes in system dynamics are key to predicting emergent properties of system. Within this research, this paper relates to the quantitative morphological imaging of the main structures forming a plant (stem, roots, and leaves), their internal sub-structures, and changes occurring overtime.

  6. Improved Growth of High-Temperature Superconductors with HF Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THE SITE-218 58 84 168 167Control - Energy

  7. Growth of graphene on Ir(111) Johann Coraux1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    a renewed interest as a route towards high quality graphene prepared in a reproducible manner. Here weC) substrate has attracted much interest. Whatever the recent progress in the preparation of grapheneGrowth of graphene on Ir(111) Johann Coraux1 ,, Alpha T. N'Diaye1 §, Martin Engler1 , Carsten Busse

  8. Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Donald E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Holdaway, Ray F. (Clinton, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

  9. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Liange

    2014-01-01

    S. and K.S. Johnson, (1984). Shale and other argillaceousand R. T. Cygan, (2010). Shale Disposal of U.S. High-LevelDC. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case August

  10. SBA Growth Accelerator Fund Competition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is accepting applications for the Growth Accelerator Fund Competition to identify the nation's innovative accelerators and similar organizations and award them cash prizes they may use to fund their operations costs and allow them to bring startup competitions to scale and new ideas to life.

  11. Graphene Growth and Device Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INVITED P A P E R Graphene Growth and Device Integration This paper describes one of the emerging methods for growing grapheneVthe chemical vapor deposition methodVwhich is based on a catalytic reaction, Fellow IEEE, Robert M. Wallace, Fellow IEEE, and Rodney S. Ruoff ABSTRACT | Graphene has been introduced

  12. Spatial periodicity in growth plate shear mechanical properties is disrupted by vitamin D deficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Itai

    Spatial periodicity in growth plate shear mechanical properties is disrupted by vitamin D modulus Vitamin D a b s t r a c t The growth plate is a highly organized section of cartilage in the long disruption caused by a dietary deficiency of vitamin D. The shear mechanical properties of the proximal

  13. Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endres. William J.

    Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery Hessam to observe the real-time nucleation and growth of the lithium fibers inside a nanoscale Li-ion battery. Our.1063/1.3643035] Lithium-ion batteries are of great interest due to their high energy density, however, various safety

  14. Mechanism(s) of cell Nucleation and Growth in Foam Injection Molding through Visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milgram, Paul

    Mechanism(s) of cell Nucleation and Growth in Foam Injection Molding through Visualization Research field: Mechanism(s) of cell Nucleation and Growth in Foam Injection Molding through Visualization Equipment/materials: Injection Molding Machine, Visualization Mold, High-speed Camera, Thermoplastics

  15. GROWTH RATE OF THE SAND CRAB, EMERITA ANALOGA, (HIPPIDAE) IN TWO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GROWTH RATE OF THE SAND CRAB, EMERITA ANALOGA, (HIPPIDAE) IN TWO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS CRAIG of the present work. This study is an analysis of the growth rate in two nearby populations of the sand crab. tions are not considered here. The crab normally lives between high and low tide marks buried in sand

  16. Surface current effects on the fetch-limited growth of wave energy Brian K. Haus1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Surface current effects on the fetch-limited growth of wave energy Brian K. Haus1 Received 5 the fetch-limited growth of wind wave energy over a region with significant lateral shear of the current. Both the near-surface currents and wave energy and period were mapped over the highly sheared inshore

  17. High-Tech Industries in California: Panacea or Problem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raphael, Stephen; Brown, Claire; Campbell, Ben

    2001-01-01

    of its employees are high-tech. We should also note that toemployment growth in high-tech industries, such as computerand speculate that as the high-tech sector expands, wages

  18. N-body simulations of oligarchic growth of Mars: Implications for Hf-W chronology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morishima, Ryuji; Samuel, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Dauphas and Pourmand (2011) [Nature 473, 489--492] estimated the accretion timescale of Mars to be 1.8 $^{+0.9}_{-1.0}$ Myr from the W isotopes of martian meteorites. This timescale was derived assuming perfect metal-silicate equilibration between the impactor and the target's mantle. However, in the case of a small impactor most likely only a fraction of the target's mantle is involved in the equilibration, while only a small part of the impactor's core equilibrates in the case of a giant impact. We examined the effects of imperfect equilibration using results of high-resolution $N$-body simulations for the oligarchic growth stage. These effects were found to be small as long as a planetary embryo has a deep liquid magma ocean during its accretion. The effect due to partial involvement of the target's mantle in equilibration is small due to the low metal-silicate partition coefficient for W suggested from the low Hf/W ratio of the martian mantle. The effect due to partial involvement of the impactor's core i...

  19. Growth-rate dependent partitioning of RNA polymerases in bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Klumpp; Terence Hwa

    2008-12-11

    Physiological changes which result in changes in bacterial gene expression are often accompanied by changes in the growth rate for fast adapting enteric bacteria. Since the availability of RNA polymerase (RNAP) in cells is dependent on the growth rate, transcriptional control involves not only the regulation of promoters, but also depends on the available (or free) RNAP concentration which is difficult to quantify directly. Here we develop a simple physical model describing the partitioning of cellular RNAP into different classes: RNAPs transcribing mRNA and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), RNAPs non-specifically bound to DNA, free RNAP, and immature RNAP. Available experimental data for E. coli allow us to determine the two unknown parameters of the model and hence deduce the free RNAP concentration at different growth rates. The results allow us to predict the growth-rate dependence of the activities of constitutive (unregulated) promoters, and to disentangle the growth-rate dependent regulation of promoters (e.g., the promoters of rRNA operons) from changes in transcription due to changes in the free RNAP concentration at different growth rates. Our model can quantitatively account for the observed changes in gene expression patterns in mutant E. coli strains with altered levels of RNAP expression without invoking additional parameters. Applying our model to the case of the stringent response following amino acid starvation, we can evaluate the plausibility of various scenarios of passive transcriptional control proposed to account for the observed changes in the expression of rRNA and biosynthetic operons.

  20. A fast grain-growth mechanism revealed in nanocrystalline ceramic-oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J

    2014-01-01

    Grain growth problem in nanocrystalline ceramic-oxides renders their highly attractive properties practically unusable due to limited understanding on the underlying grain growth mechanisms. Two conventional 'slow' grain-growth mechanisms, i.e., curvature-driven and grainrotation driven, are shown to be thermally active, and the discovery of a 'fast' disorder-driven mechanism is revealed using molecular dynamics simulation on nanocrystalline ceria, in conjunction with experimental observations. We elucidate that this disorder mechanism drives the unexpected fast grain growth observed experimentally during synthesis and irradiation conditions.

  1. Case No. VWZ-0012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DECISION AND ORDER OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Motion to Dismiss Name of Case: Lucy B. Smith Date of Filing: June 30, 1999 Case Number: VWZ-0012 This determination will consider a...

  2. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Case study describes an outline of energy efficiency opportunities in federal high-performance computing data centers. dchpcc.pdf More Documents & Publications Case Study:...

  3. Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demaurex, Bénédicte; Bartlome, Richard; Seif, Johannes P.; Geissbühler, Jonas; Alexander, Duncan T. L.; Jeangros, Quentin; Ballif, Christophe; De Wolf, Stefaan

    2014-08-05

    Low-temperature (? 180 °C) epitaxial growth yields precise thickness, doping, and thermal-budget control, which enables advanced-design semiconductor devices. In this paper, we use plasma-ehanced chemical vapor deposition to grow homo-epitaxial layers and study the different growth modes on crystalline silicon substrates. In particular, we determine the conditions leading to epitaxial growth in light of a model that depends only on the silane concentration in the plasma and the mean free path length of surface adatoms. For such growth, we show that the presence of a persistent defective interface layer between the crystalline silicon substrate and the epitaxial layer stems notmore »only from the growth conditions but also from unintentional contamination of the reactor. As a result of our findings, we determine the plasma conditions to grow high-quality bulk epitaxial films and propose a two-step growth process to obtain device-grade material.« less

  4. Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demaurex, Bénédicte, E-mail: benedicte.demaurex@epfl.ch; Bartlome, Richard; Seif, Johannes P.; Geissbühler, Jonas; Ballif, Christophe; De Wolf, Stefaan [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory, Maladière 71B, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Alexander, Duncan T. L.; Jeangros, Quentin [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Interdisciplinary Centre for Electron Microscopy (CIME), Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-08-07

    Low-temperature (?200?°C) epitaxial growth yields precise thickness, doping, and thermal-budget control, which enables advanced-design semiconductor devices. In this paper, we use plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to grow homo-epitaxial layers and study the different growth modes on crystalline silicon substrates. In particular, we determine the conditions leading to epitaxial growth in light of a model that depends only on the silane concentration in the plasma and the mean free path length of surface adatoms. For such growth, we show that the presence of a persistent defective interface layer between the crystalline silicon substrate and the epitaxial layer stems not only from the growth conditions but also from unintentional contamination of the reactor. Based on our findings, we determine the plasma conditions to grow high-quality bulk epitaxial films and propose a two-step growth process to obtain device-grade material.

  5. Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic Growth Rate and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kay, Steve A. [University of California San Diego

    2013-05-02

    Several breakthroughs have been recently made in our understanding of plant growth and biomass accumulation. It was found that plant growth is rhythmically controlled throughout the day by the circadian clock through a complex interplay of light and phytohormone signaling pathways. While plants such as the C4 energy crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and possibly the C3 grass (Brachypodium distachyon) also exhibit daily rhythms in growth rate, the molecular details of its regulation remain to be explored. A better understanding of diurnally regulated growth behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield. Here we propose to devise a systems approach to identify, in parallel, regulatory hubs associated with rhythmic growth in C3 and C4 plants. We propose to use rhythmicity in daily growth patterns to drive the discovery of regulatory network modules controlling biomass accumulation.

  6. Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demaurex, Bénédicte; Bartlome, Richard; Seif, Johannes P.; Geissbühler, Jonas; Alexander, Duncan T. L.; Jeangros, Quentin; Ballif, Christophe; De Wolf, Stefaan

    2014-08-07

    Low-temperature (? 180 °C) epitaxial growth yields precise thickness, doping, and thermal-budget control, which enables advanced-design semiconductor devices. In this paper, we use plasma-ehanced chemical vapor deposition to grow homo-epitaxial layers and study the different growth modes on crystalline silicon substrates. In particular, we determine the conditions leading to epitaxial growth in light of a model that depends only on the silane concentration in the plasma and the mean free path length of surface adatoms. For such growth, we show that the presence of a persistent defective interface layer between the crystalline silicon substrate and the epitaxial layer stems not only from the growth conditions but also from unintentional contamination of the reactor. Based on our findings, we determine the plasma conditions to grow high-quality bulk epitaxial films and propose a two-step growth process to obtain device-grade material.

  7. Cadmium zinc sulfide by solution growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1992-05-12

    A process for depositing thin layers of a II-VI compound cadmium zinc sulfide (CdZnS) by an aqueous solution growth technique with quality suitable for high efficiency photovoltaic or other devices which can benefit from the band edge shift resulting from the inclusion of Zn in the sulfide. A first solution comprising CdCl.sub.2 2.5H.sub.2 O, NH.sub.4 Cl, NH.sub.4 OH and ZnCl.sub.2, and a second solution comprising thiourea ((NH.sub.2).sub.2 CS) are combined and placed in a deposition cell, along with a substrate to form a thin i.e. 10 nm film of CdZnS on the substrate. This process can be sequentially repeated with to achieve deposition of independent multiple layers having different Zn concentrations.

  8. Bilayer graphene growth by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on copper foil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Wenjing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Successfully integrating graphene in standard processes for applications in electronics relies on the synthesis of high-quality films. In this work we study Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) growth of bilayer ...

  9. Chain-Growth Polymerization of 2-Chlorothiophenes Promoted by Lewis Acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonillo Fernandez, Baltasar

    Lewis acids promote the polymerization of several 2-chloroalkylenedioxythiophenes, providing high-molecular-weight conjugated polymers. The proposed mechanism is a cationic chain-growth polymerization, as confirmed by ...

  10. Development of a Templated Grain Growth System for Texturing Piezoelectric Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    Development of a Templated Grain Growth System for Texturing Piezoelectric Ceramics MATTHEW M be obtained from crystallographically textured piezoelectric ceramics. Single crystal piezoelectrics orientation. Single crystals actuate better than typical ceramics, but are expensive. Highly textured ceramics

  11. Effects of PMMA-transfer residues on the growth of organic semiconductor molecules on CVD graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kratzer, Markus; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Kidambi, Piran R.; Matkovi?, Aleksandar; Gaji?, Radoš; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Weatherup, Robert S.; Hofmann, Stephan; Teichert, Christian

    2015-03-09

    Scalably grown and transferred graphene is a highly promising material for organic electronic applications, but controlled interfacing of graphene thereby remains a key challenge. Here, we study the growth characteristics of the important organic...

  12. Case Study: Opportunities to Improve Energy Efficiency in Three...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Case Study: Innovative Energy Efficiency Approaches in NOAA's...

  13. Public Research and Racism - The Case of the Racist Researchers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    America, Richard F.

    1971-01-01

    PUBLIC RESEARCH AND RACISM THE CASE OF THE RACISTare highly educated, their racism often takes the relativelyfor social problems, deplore racism and discrimination, and

  14. Method for crystal growth control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Douglas A. (Burlington, MA); Hatch, Arthur E. (Waltham, MA); Goldsmith, Jeff M. (Medford, MA)

    1981-01-01

    The growth of a crystalline body of a selected material is controlled so that the body has a selected cross-sectional shape. The apparatus is of the type which includes the structure normally employed in known capillary die devices as well as means for observing at least the portion of the surfaces of the growing crystalline body and the meniscus (of melt material from which the body is being pulled) including the solid/liquid/vapor junction in a direction substantially perpendicular to the meniscus surface formed at the junction when the growth of the crystalline body is under steady state conditions. The cross-sectional size of the growing crystalline body can be controlled by determining which points exhibit a sharp change in the amount of reflected radiation of a preselected wavelength and controlling the speed at which the body is being pulled or the temperature of the growth pool of melt so as to maintain those points exhibiting a sharp change at a preselected spatial position relative to a predetermined reference position. The improvement comprises reference object means positioned near the solid/liquid/vapor junction and capable of being observed by the means for observing so as to define said reference position so that the problems associated with convection current jitter are overcome.

  15. Nutritional Modulations of Piglet Growth and Survival 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rezaei, Reza

    2012-02-14

    on mortality, growth performance, and efficiency of sow-reared piglets; and 2) determine the effects of a phytochemical (Yucca schidigera) on growth performance of postweaning pigs. In the first experiment, piglets (n=160) from 18 multiparous sows (Landrace X...

  16. New Partners for Smart Growth Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Partners for Smart Growth Conference is the nation's largest smart growth and sustainability conference. The three-day conference is themed, "Practical Tools and Innovative Strategies for Creating Great Communities."

  17. Stress corrosion crack growth in porous sandstones. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ojala, Ira O

    Stress corrosion crack growth occurs when the chemical weakening of strained crack tip bonds facilitates crack propagation. I have examined the effect of chemical processes on the growth of a creack population by carrying out triaxial compression...

  18. A comparison of parametric decay of oblique Langmuir wave in high and low density magneto-plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahid, M.; Hussain, A.; Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore-54000 ; Murtaza, G.

    2013-09-15

    The parametric decay instability of an obliquely propagating Langmuir wave into the low-frequency electromagnetic shear Alfven wave and the Left-Handed Circularly Polarized wave has been investigated in an electron-ion plasma, immersed in a uniform external magnetic field. Quantum magneto-hydrodynamic model has been used to find the linear and non-linear response of a high density quantum magneto-plasma. Going to the classical limit (??0) retrieves the results for low density classical plasma. Nonlinear dispersion relations and growth rates are derived with analytically and numerically. It is observed that growth rate in the high density degenerate magneto-plasma increases exponentially, while in the low density classical case it increases logarithmically.

  19. Nonlocal competition and logistic growth: patterns, defects and fronts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yosef E. Maruvka; Nadav M. Shnerb

    2005-06-22

    Logistic growth of diffusing reactants on spatial domains with long range competition is studied. The bifurcations cascade involved in the transition from the homogenous state to a spatially modulated stable solution is presented, and a distinction is made between a modulated phase, dominated by single or few wavenumbers, and the spiky phase, where localized colonies are separated by depleted region. The characteristic defects in the periodic structure are presented for each phase, together with the invasion dynamics in case of local initiation. It is shown that the basic length scale that controls the bifurcation is the width of the Fisher front, and that the total population grows as this width decreases. A mix of analytic results and extensive numerical simulations yields a comprehensive examination of the possible phases for logistic growth in the presence of nonlocal competition.

  20. Advanced Manufacturing Use Cases and Early Results in GENI Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calyam, Prasad

    for controlling remote processes in manufacturing facilities. In addition, there is a need to suitably configureAdvanced Manufacturing Use Cases and Early Results in GENI Infrastructure Alex Berryman, Prasad to advanced manufacturing communities are exciting prospects due to the growth of the global marketplace

  1. Applying the logic of sample surveys to qualitative case studies: The case cluster method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClintock, Charles C.; Brannon, Diane; Maynard-Moody, Steven

    1986-03-01

    . Likewise, if one intends to quantify variables the initial codes will evolve (although one would want to minimize this). The highly in- teractive nature of these processes distinguishes the case cluster method from the standard sample survey. THREE FEATURES... statistics for categorial variables (e.g.. Bishop, Fien- berg, and Holland, 1975) could be of substantial benefit to the qualitative case study that employed the case cluster method. The term secondary analysis has several meanings each of which poses...

  2. Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive CompensationEnergyGetDepartment1Sustained Pumping at2009ofGrowth

  3. Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and Developing New Growth Engines Jump to: navigation, search Name Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change...

  4. Coastal and Waterfront Smart Growth and Hazard Mitigation Roundtable Report Coastal and Waterfront Smart Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Coastal and Waterfront Smart Growth and Hazard Mitigation Roundtable Report Coastal and Waterfront Smart Growth and Hazard Mitigation Roundtable Report Achieving Hazard-Resilient Coastal & Waterfront Smart Growth #12;2 Achieving Hazard-Resilient Coastal & Waterfront Smart Growth www

  5. High Penetration Solar Deployment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    24.7 million to fund six projects to increase the growth of grid-tied solar photovoltaic systems. Part of the SunShot Systems Integration efforts, the goal of the High...

  6. A Case for Climate Neutrality: Case Studies on Moving Towards...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A Case for Climate Neutrality: Case Studies on Moving Towards a Low Carbon Economy Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: A Case for Climate Neutrality: Case...

  7. Institutional Traps and Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gradstein, Mark

    (ydt) = µt + bt?t2; for example, under full democracy, bt = 0, the median income voter, ymt, is decisive (see Benabou, 2000, for a more complete derivation in a related context). First, the voters determine whether to democratize – in which case future... we focus on internal solutions. 21 post level of institutional quality for the median income voter, yit = ymt, from (17), is the maximal one, Qt+1 = 1. In this case, we calculate the equilibrium values: kit+1 = ?yit/(1+?), rit+1 = 0, cit = yit...

  8. Platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor beta synergistically potentiate inflammatory mediator synthesis by fibroblast-like synoviocytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosengren, Sanna; Corr, Maripat; Boyle, David L

    2010-01-01

    et al. , Platelet-derived growth factor and transformingactivated by platelet-derived growth factor. Clin Expmesylate inhibits platelet derived growth factor stimulated

  9. On the origin of radiation growth of hcp crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golubov, Stanislav I; Barashev, Aleksandr; Stoller, Roger E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present work is to study theoretically the radiation growth (RG) of hcp-type materials with a particular focus on the effect of one-dimensionally (1-D) migrating clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), which are steadily produced in displacement cascades under neutron or heavy-ion irradiation. A reaction-diffusion model is developed for the description of RG in single hcp-type metallic crystals. The model reproduces all RG stages observed in neutron-irradiated annealed samples of pure Zr and Zr alloys, such as high strain rate at low, strain saturation at intermediate and breakaway growth at relatively high irradiation doses. In addition, it accounts for the striking observations of negative strains in prismatic directions and coexistence of vacancy- and SIA-type prismatic loops. The role of cold work in RG behavior and alignment of the vacancy-type loops along basal planes are revealed and the maximum strain rate is estimated.

  10. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G.; MacDonald, M.

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  11. Analysis of kicker noise induced beam emittance growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Ahrens, L.; Blacker, I.M.; Brennan, M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Huang, H.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Marr, G.; Mernick, K.; Mi, J.; Minty, M.; Naylor, C.; Roser, T.; Shrey, T.; van Kuik, B.; Zelenski, A.

    2012-05-20

    Over the last few years, physicists have occasionally observed the presence of noise acting on the RHIC beams leading to emittance growth at high beam energies. While the noise was sporadic in the past, it became persistent during the Run-11 setup period. An investigation diagnosed the source as originating from the RHIC dump kicker system. Once identified the issue was quickly resolved. We report in this paper the investigation result, circuit analysis, measured and simulated waveforms, solutions, and future plans.

  12. Existing Homes Retrofit Case Study: SMUD's 32nd Avenue Remodel Demonstration Program, Sacramento, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-03-01

    This case study describes a retrofit project between SMUD and Building America to create a high-performance home.

  13. Au impact on GaAs epitaxial growth on GaAs (111){sub B} substrates in molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Hong-Yi; Guo, Ya-Nan; Sun, Wen; Zhang, Zhi; Yang, Lei; Lu, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Ping-Ping; Lu, Wei; Zou, Jin; Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072

    2013-02-11

    GaAs growth behaviour under the presence of Au nanoparticles on GaAs {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub B} substrate is investigated using electron microscopy. It has been found that, during annealing, enhanced Ga surface diffusion towards Au nanoparticles leads to the GaAs epitaxial growth into {l_brace}113{r_brace}{sub B} faceted triangular pyramids under Au nanoparticles, governed by the thermodynamic growth, while during conventional GaAs growth, growth kinetics dominates, resulting in the flatted triangular pyramids at high temperature and the epitaxial nanowires growth at relatively low temperature. This study provides an insight of Au nanoparticle impact on GaAs growth, which is critical for understanding the formation mechanisms of semiconductor nanowires.

  14. CASE STUDY: STORMWATER FUNDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    pollutants to our surface waters: Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, Fecal 1996 aerial of Burnt Bridge Creek #12 aerial of Burnt Bridge Creek #12;Stormwater Management Strategies and Plans · Grows community assets Tree Guide: Benefits, Costs and Strategic Planting Environmental Protection Agency: Using Smart Growth

  15. Rate-Dependent Morphology of Li2O2 Growth in Li-O2 Batteries Birger Horstmann,1, 2, 3, 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    Rate-Dependent Morphology of Li2O2 Growth in Li-O2 Batteries Birger Horstmann,1, 2, 3, 4 Betar continuum model for the growth of Li2O2 crystals in lithium-oxygen batteries with organic electrolytes-ion batteries. As in the case of lithium insertion in phase-separating LiFePO4 nanoparticles, the theory

  16. The growth of structure in interacting dark energy models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldera-Cabral, Gabriela; Maartens, Roy; Schaefer, Bjoern Malte E-mail: roy.maartens@port.ac.uk

    2009-07-01

    If dark energy interacts with dark matter, there is a change in the background evolution of the universe, since the dark matter density no longer evolves as a{sup ?3}. In addition, the non-gravitational interaction affects the growth of structure. In principle, these changes allow us to detect and constrain an interaction in the dark sector. Here we investigate the growth factor and the weak lensing signal for a new class of interacting dark energy models. In these models, the interaction generalises the simple cases where one dark fluid decays into the other. In order to calculate the effect on structure formation, we perform a careful analysis of the perturbed interaction and its effect on peculiar velocities. Assuming a normalization to today's values of dark matter density and overdensity, the signal of the interaction is an enhancement (suppression) of both the growth factor and the lensing power, when the energy transfer in the background is from dark matter to dark energy (dark energy to dark matter)

  17. Controlled epitaxial graphene growth within removable amorphous carbon corrals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, James; Hu, Yike; Hankinson, John; Guo, Zelei; Heer, Walt A. de; Kunc, Jan; Berger, Claire

    2014-07-14

    We address the question of control of the silicon carbide (SiC) steps and terraces under epitaxial graphene on SiC and demonstrate amorphous carbon (aC) corrals as an ideal method to pin SiC surface steps. aC is compatible with graphene growth, structurally stable at high temperatures, and can be removed after graphene growth. For this, aC is first evaporated and patterned on SiC, then annealed in the graphene growth furnace. There at temperatures above 1200?°C, mobile SiC steps accumulate at the aC corral that provide effective step flow barriers. Aligned step free regions are thereby formed for subsequent graphene growth at temperatures above 1330?°C. Atomic force microscopy imaging supports the formation of step-free terraces on SiC with the step morphology aligned to the aC corrals. Raman spectroscopy indicates the presence of good graphene sheets on the step-free terraces.

  18. Differential growth of wrinkled biofilms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espeso, D R; Einarsson, B

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are antibiotic-resistant bacterial aggregates that grow on moist surfaces and can trigger hospital-acquired infections. They provide a classical example in biology where the dynamics of cellular communities may be observed and studied. Gene expression regulates cell division and differentiation, which affect the biofilm architecture. Mechanical and chemical processes shape the resulting structure. We gain insight into the interplay between cellular and mechanical processes during biofilm development on air-agar interfaces by means of a hybrid model. Cellular behavior is governed by stochastic rules informed by a cascade of concentration fields for nutrients, waste and autoinducers. Cellular differentiation and death alter the structure and the mechanical properties of the biofilm, which is deformed according to Foppl-Von Karman equations informed by cellular processes and the interaction with the substratum. Stiffness gradients due to growth and swelling produce wrinkle branching. We are able to repr...

  19. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  20. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D. (Richmond, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  1. High Performance Bulk Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Zhifeng

    2013-03-31

    Over 13 plus years, we have carried out research on electron pairing symmetry of superconductors, growth and their field emission property studies on carbon nanotubes and semiconducting nanowires, high performance thermoelectric materials and other interesting materials. As a result of the research, we have published 104 papers, have educated six undergraduate students, twenty graduate students, nine postdocs, nine visitors, and one technician.

  2. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  3. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power Generation Modules Home Author: T. Hogan, A. Downey, J. Short, S. D. Mahanti, H. Schock, E. Case Year: 2007...

  4. Graphene Growth on Low Carbon Solubility Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wofford, Joseph Monroe

    2012-01-01

    graphene is both a semimetal and a zero bandgap semiconductorgraphene growth. Ge wafers are also available with the exceptional surface qualities common to semiconductor

  5. "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dr. Bryan Czech, resident, Center for the Advancement of the Steady State of the Economy Presentation: Presentation Abstract: Abstract Conflict Between Economic Growth and...

  6. Shaping metal nanocrystals through epitaxial seeded growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habas, Susan E.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Radmilovic, Velimir; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2008-01-01

    Structural Evolution in Metal Oxide/Semiconductor Colloidalasymmetric one-sided metal-tipped semiconductor nanocrystalGrowth of Magnetic-Metal- Functionalized Semiconductor Oxide

  7. The Very Long Run Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Lemin

    2013-01-01

    Growth before the Industrial Revolution. ” Journal of Law2001. “ Was an Industrial Revolution Inevitable? EconomicThe British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective. ”

  8. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Case study...

  9. Case No. VWZ-0009

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    09 March 12, 1999 DECISION AND ORDER OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Motion to Dismiss Name of Petitioner: Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Date of Filing: March 8, 1999 Case...

  10. Case No. VWR-0003

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    VWR-0003 September 20, 1999 DECISION AND ORDER OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Motion for Reconsideration Name of Petitioner: Linda D. Gass Date of Filing: September 3, 1999 Case...

  11. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction beam-induced structural and property changes on WO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Y., E-mail: yingge.du@pnnl.gov; Varga, T. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Zhang, K. H. L.; Chambers, S. A. [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    Reduction of transition metal oxides can greatly change their physical and chemical properties. Using deposition of WO{sub 3} as a case study, we demonstrate that reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), a surface-sensitive tool widely used to monitor thin-film deposition processes, can significantly affect the cation valence and physical properties of the films through electron-beam induced sample reduction. The RHEED beam is found to increase film smoothness during epitaxial growth of WO{sub 3}, as well as change the electronic properties of the film through preferential removal of surface oxygen.

  12. Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural and Property Changes on WO3 Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Yingge; Zhang, Hongliang; Varga, Tamas; Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-08-08

    Reduction of transition metal oxides can greatly change their physical and chemical properties. Using deposition of WO3 as a case study, we demonstrate that reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), a surface-sensitive tool widely used to monitor thin-film deposition processes, can significantly affect the cation valence and physical properties of the films through electron-beam induced sample reduction. The RHEED beam is found to increase film smoothness during epitaxial growth of WO3, as well as change the electronic properties of the film through preferential removal of surface oxygen.

  13. Upscaling Calcite Growth Rates From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N [ORNL; Stack, Andrew G [ORNL; Steefel, Carl I [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative prediction of mineral reaction rates in the subsurface remains a daunting task partly because a key parameter for macroscopic models, the reactive site density, is poorly constrained. Here we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the calcite surface of monomolecular step densities, treated as equivalent to the reactive site density, as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index. Data for the obtuse step orientation are combined with existing step velocity measurements to generate a model that predicts overall macroscopic calcite growth rates. The model is quantitatively consistent with several published macroscopic rates under a range of alkaline solution conditions, particularly for two of the most comprehensive data sets without the need for additional fit parameters. The model reproduces peak growth rates and its functional form is simple enough to be incorporated into reactive transport or other macroscopic models designed for predictions in porous media. However, it currently cannot model equilibrium, pH effects, and may overestimate rates at high aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratios. The discrepancies in rates at high calcium-to-carbonate ratios may be due to differences in pre-treatment, such as exposing the seed material to SI 1.0 to generate/develop growth hillocks, or other factors.

  14. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of GaAs on (631) Oriented Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz Hernandez, Esteban; Rojas Ramirez, Juan-Salvador; Contreras Hernandez, Rocio; Lopez Lopez, Maximo; Pulzara Mora, Alvaro; Mendez Garcia, Victor H.

    2007-02-09

    In this work, we report the study of the homoepitaxial growth of GaAs on (631) oriented substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We observed the spontaneous formation of a high density of large scale features on the surface. The hilly like features are elongated towards the [-5, 9, 3] direction. We show the dependence of these structures with the growth conditions and we present the possibility of to create quantum wires structures on this surface.

  15. Increasing plant growth by modulating omega-amidase expression in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2015-06-30

    The present disclosure relates to compositions and methods for increasing the leaf-to-root ratio of the signal metabolite 2-oxoglutaramate and related proline molecules in plants by modulating levels of .omega.-amidase to increase nitrogen use efficiency, resulting in enhanced growth, faster growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields.

  16. Vapor Trapping Growth of Single-Crystalline Graphene Flowers: Synthesis, Morphology, and Electronic Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    lobes has been achieved by varying the growth pressure and the methane to hydrogen ratio. Surprisingly-grain single-crystalline graphene synthesis for potential high- performance graphene-based electronics the disadvantage of small-scale production of graphene using mechanical exfoliation of highly orientated polymeric

  17. Graphene Growth on Low Carbon Solubility Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wofford, Joseph Monroe

    2012-01-01

    preparation of Cu substrates will lead to larger grapheneGraphene Growth on Cu(100), Cu(111), and Au(111) Substrate selection and preparationGraphene Growth on Cu(100), Cu(111), and Au(111) 3.1 Substrate selection and preparation

  18. SMOOTHING SPLINE GROWTH CURVES WITH COVARIATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #11;ect growth curves. Due to the repeated measurement structure of his model, he is able to determine adapt the interactive spline model of Wahba to growth curves with covariates. The smoothing spline smoothing spline models (Ch. 10, Wahba (1990)). In this brief article, we adapt interactive spline models

  19. Limiting Abnormal Mold Growth in Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, C. W.

    2002-01-01

    in wood, or rusting and corrosion of metals. Abnormal mold or fungal growth, then, can create major problems for building owners. Moisture is the key factor that building designers and owners can manage in order to limit mold growth. This paper introduces...

  20. Export Growth and Credit Constraints Tibor Besedes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Export Growth and Credit Constraints Tibor Besedes Byung-Cheol Kim Volodymyr Lugovskyy§ May 14, 2014 Abstract We investigate the effect of credit constraints on the growth of exports at the micro of exporting, but not in later stages. Our empirical results using product level data on exports to twelve

  1. Communications CVD Growth of Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in dense thickets on and about nickel boride catalyst particles at 1100 °C. The BN nanotubes resemble thoseCommunications CVD Growth of Boron Nitride Nanotubes Oleg R. Lourie, Carolyn R. Jones, Bart M Manuscript Received May 9, 2000 We describe BN-nanotube growth by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using

  2. Economic Growth, Physical Limits and Liveability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economic Growth, Physical Limits and Liveability: Can Metro Vancouver Achieve all Three? by Jeremy of Thesis: Economic Growth, Physical Limits and Liveability: Can Metro Vancouver Achieve all Three. The Local Energy scenario adds a local energy limit. For each scenario I assume continuous economic

  3. Fish production: integrating growth, mortality, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limburg, Karin E.

    1 Fish production: integrating growth, mortality, and population density K. Limburg lecture notes, Fisheries Science Outline: 1. Biological production ­ a critical ecological parameter 2. How to compute production from a simple biomass model 3. Production:biomass ratios 4. Growth: mortality ratios Reading

  4. Structural Controls on Growth Stratigraphy in Contractional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connors, Christopher D.

    Structural Controls on Growth Stratigraphy in Contractional Fault-related Folds John H. Shaw Dept stratigraphy. An understanding of this interplay between local deformation and dep- osition helps us infer on growth stratigraphy in contractional fault-related folds, in K. R. McClay, ed., Thrust tectonics

  5. A model of chloroplast growth regulation in mesophyll cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly M. Paton; Lisa Anderson; Pauline Flottat; Eric N. Cytrynbaum

    2015-09-02

    Chloroplasts regulate their growth to optimize photosynthesis. Quantitative data shows that the ratio of total chloroplast area to mesophyll cell area is constant across different cells within a single species, and also across species. Wild-type chloroplasts exhibit little scatter around this trend; highly irregularly-shaped mutant chloroplasts exhibit more scatter. Here we propose a model motivated by a bacterial quorum-sensing model consisting of a switch-like signalling network that turns off chloroplast growth. We calculated the dependence of the location of the relevant saddle-node bifurcation on the geometry of the chloroplasts. Our model exhibits a linear trend, with linearly growing scatter dependent on chloroplast shape, consistent with the data. When modelled chloroplasts are of a shape that grows with a constant area to volume ratio (disks, cylinders) we find a linear trend with minimal scatter. Chloroplasts with area and volume that do not grow proportionally (spheres) exhibit a linear trend with additional scatter.

  6. Chemical beam epitaxy growth of III–V semiconductor nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohummed Noori, Farah T. [University of Baghdad , College of science, Physics department , Jadiriya ,Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-12-16

    Indium- Arsenide (InAs) nanowires were grown in a high vacuum chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) unit on InAs(111) wafers substrates at 425–454°C. Two types of nanogold were used as orientation catalyst, 40nm and 80nm. The measurements were performed using scanning electron microscopy showed that uniform nanowires. The nanowires orient vertically in the InAs nanowire scanning electron microscopy of an array 80nm diameter InAs nanowire with length is in the range 0.5–1 ?m and of an array 40nm diameter with length is in the range 0.3–0.7?m. The nanowire length with growth time shows that the linear increase of nanowires start to grow as soon as TMIn is available. The growth rate with temperature was studied.

  7. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Li-jun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rupich, Martin W. [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Xiaoping [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Qiang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  8. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

    2014-09-20

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  9. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.

  10. FIRST HISTOLOGICAL AND SKELETOCHRONOLOGICAL DATA ON TEMNOSPONDYL GROWTH; PALAEOECOLOGICAL AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steyer, Sébastien

    rue Buffon, F-75005 Paris, tel 00 33 1 40 79 30 42, fax 00 33 1 40 79 35 80, steyer@mnhn.fr 2. Equipe " Formations squelettiques ", UMR 8570 CNRS, Université Paris 6-7, case 7077, 2 Place Jussieu, F-75251 Paris and Heyler, 1983, p.628) in the Argana Basin, Western High Atlas. Ten femora, sampled from sub

  11. High speed flywheel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGrath, Stephen V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1991-01-01

    A flywheel for operation at high speeds utilizes two or more ringlike coments arranged in a spaced concentric relationship for rotation about an axis and an expansion device interposed between the components for accommodating radial growth of the components resulting from flywheel operation. The expansion device engages both of the ringlike components, and the structure of the expansion device ensures that it maintains its engagement with the components. In addition to its expansion-accommodating capacity, the expansion device also maintains flywheel stiffness during flywheel operation.

  12. CASES-97 : Diurnal variation of the fair-weather PBL.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulter, R. L.; Grossman, R. L.; Hicks, B.; Horst, T.; Klazura, G.; LeMone, M. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; McMillen, R.; Oncley, S.

    1997-11-18

    The CASES-97 dataset, supplemented by data from the surrounding area and from satellite, will enable us to isolate the effects of soil moisture on boundary layer evolution.Our initial approach will be to use the integrated dataset to determine (a) the factors that contribute to PBL growth, and (b) the factors that determine the wind, temperature, and wind profiles in the growing PBL. This process will help us to consolidate the dataset and tease out remaining inconsistencies. As soon as reasonable, we want to use the dataset in mesoscale numerical models, to test and refine our conclusions. Further detail on the CASES-97 field program can be found at the World Wide Web site at: http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/cases/cases.html.

  13. Nearly Exclusive Growth of Small Diameter Semiconducting Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes from Organic Chemistry Synthetic End-Cap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    spectroscopic characterization, electrical transport measurements, and density functional theory calculations for Energy and Resources, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, Australia WPI to achieve high-efficiency metal-free growth of nearly pure SWCNT semiconductors, as supported by extensive

  14. The Case for Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    land Press, 1995 TESTING ELECTRIC VEHICLE DEMAND IN " HYBRIDThe Case for Electric Vehicles DanieI Sperlmg Reprint UCTCor The Case for Electric Vehicles Darnel Sperling Institute

  15. Geothermal Case Studies

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Young, Katherine

    2014-09-30

    database.) In fiscal year 2015, NREL is working with universities to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough dataset to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  16. Geothermal Case Studies

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Young, Katherine

    database.) In fiscal year 2015, NREL is working with universities to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough dataset to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  17. Selection of optimal measures of growth and reproduction for the sublethal Leptocheirus plumulosus sediment bioassay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, B.R.; Wright, R.B.; Duke, B.M.; Farrar, J.D. [AScI Corp., Vicksburg, MS (United States); Emery, V.L. Jr.; Brandon, D.L.; Moore, D.W. [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Waterways Experiment Station

    1998-11-01

    This article describes the selection process used to identify optimal measures of growth and reproduction for the proposed 28-d sublethal sediment bioassay with the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus. The authors used four criteria (relevance of each measure to its respective endpoint, signal-to-noise ratio, redundancy relative to other measures of the same endpoint, and cost) to evaluate nine growth and seven reproductive measures. Optimal endpoint measures were identified as those receiving relatively high scores for all or most criteria. Measures of growth scored similarly on all criteria, except for cost. The cost of the pooled (female plus male) growth measures was substantially lower than the cost of the female and male growth measures because the latter required more labor (by approx. 25 min per replicate). Pooled dry weight was identified as the optimal growth measure over pooled length because the latter required additional labor and nonstandard software and equipment. Embryo and neonate measures of reproduction exhibited wide differences in labor costs but yielded similar scores for other criteria. In contrast, brooding measures of reproduction scored relatively low on endpoint relevance, signal-to-noise ratio, and redundancy criteria. The authors recommend neonates/survivor as the optimal measure of L. plumulosus reproduction because it exhibited high endpoint relevance and signal-to-noise ratios, was redundant to other reproductive measures, and required minimal time.

  18. Hypersonic Measurements of Roughness-Induced Transient Growth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharp, Nicole Susanne

    2014-04-17

    The effects of surface roughness on boundary-layer disturbance growth and laminar-to-turbulent transition are not well understood, especially in hypersonic boundary layers. The transient growth mechanism that produces algebraic growth of stream wise...

  19. Indium Growth and Island Height Control on Si Submonolayer Phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jizhou

    2009-05-09

    Nanotechnology refers any technique that involves about object with nanoscale (10{sup -9} m) or even smaller. It has become more and more important in recently years and has changed our world dramatically. Most of modern electronic devices today should thanks to the miniaturizing driven by development of nanotechnology. Recent years, more and more governments are investing huge amount of money in research related to nanotechnology. There are two major reasons that nanostructure is so fascinate. The first one is the miniaturizing. It is obvious that if we can make products smaller without losing the features, we can save the cost and increase the performance dramatically. For an example, the first computer in the world, ENIAC, which occupied several rooms, is less powerful than the cheapest calculator today. Today's chips with sizes of less than half an inch contain millions of basic units. All these should thank to the development of nanotechnology. The other reason is that when we come to nanoscale, there are many new effects due to the quantum effect which can't be found in large systems. For an example, quantum dots (QDs) are systems which sizes are below 1{micro}m(10{sup -6}m) and restricted in three dimensions. There are many interesting quantum effects in QDs, including discrete energy levels, and interdot coupling. Due to these properties and their small sizes, QDs have varies potential applications such as quantum computing, probe, light emitting device, solar cells, and laser. To meet the requirement of the nanoelectrical applications, the QDs must be grown highly uniformly because their property is highly dependent on their sizes. The major methods to grow uniform QDs include epitaxial, and lithograph. Lithography is a process to make patterns on a thin film by selectively removing certain parts of the film. Using this method, people have good control over size, location and spacing of QDs. For an example, the Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) have a wave length of 13.4nm so it can curve on the surface of an sample to make structure as small as the order of 10nm. however, lithograph usually causes permanent damages to the surface and in many cases the QDs are damaged during the lithograph and therefore result in high percentage of defects. Quantum size effect has attracted more and more interests in surface science due to many of its effects. One of its effects is the height preference in film growing and the resulting possibility of uniformly sized self-assemble nanostructure. The experiment of Pb islands on In 4x1 phase shows that both the height and the width can be controlled by proper growth conditions, which expands the growth dimensions from 1 to 2. This discover leads us to study the In/Pb interface. In Ch.3, we found that the Pb islands growing on In 4x1-Si(111) surface which have uniform height due to QSE and uniform width due to the constriction of In 4x1 lattice have unexpected stability. These islands are stable in even RT, unlike usual nanostructures on Pb/Si surface which are stable only at low temperature. Since similar structures are usually grown at low temperature, this discovery makes the grown structures closer to technological applications. It also shows the unusual of In/Pb interface. Then we studied the In islands grown on Pb-{alpha}-{radical}3x{radical}3-Si(111) phase in Ch.4. These islands have fcc structure in the first few layers, and then convert to bct structure. The In fcc islands have sharp height preference due to QSE like Pb islands. However, the preferred height is different (7 layer for Pb on Si 7x7 and 4 layer for Pb on In 4x1), due to the difference of interface. The In islands structure prefers to be bct than fcc with coverage increase. It is quantitatively supported by first-principle calculation. Unexpectedly, the In islands grown on various of In interfaces didn't show QSE effects and phase transition from fcc and bct structures as on the Pb-{alpha} interface (Ch.6). In g(s) curve there is no clear oscillations in the g(s) curve as the In on Pb-{alpha} phase. This

  20. Emittance growth of an nonequilibrium intense electron beam in a transport channel with discrete focusing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsten, B.E.

    1997-02-01

    The author analyzes the emittance growth mechanisms for a continuous, intense electron beam in a focusing transport channel, over distances short enough that the beam does not reach equilibrium. The emittance grows from the effect of nonlinear forces arising from (1) current density nonuniformities, (2) energy variations leading to nonlinearities in the space-charge force even if the current density is uniform, (3) axial variations in the radial vector potential, (4) an axial velocity shear along the beam, and (5) an energy redistribution of the beam as the beam compresses or expands. The emittance growth is studied analytically and numerically for the cases of balanced flow, tight focusing, and slight beam scalloping, and is additionally studied numerically for an existing 6-MeV induction linear accelerator. Rules for minimizing the emittance along a beamline are established. Some emittance growth will always occur, both from current density nonuniformities that arise along the transport and from beam radius changes along the transport.

  1. Reallocating innovative resources around growth bottlenecks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bresnahan, Timothy

    Economy-wide increasing returns to scale embodied in a general purpose technology (GPT) and its applications are often a key source of long-run growth. Yet the successful exploitation of increasing returns calls for ...

  2. Unlocking Growth Opportunities for Minority Businesses Through...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    around 80,000 a year and 5.4 million of economic growth. At the Energy Innovation Portal, the Department's hub for technology transfer resources, minority owned firms and...

  3. Geothermal Energy Growth Continues, Industry Survey Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A survey released by the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) shows continued growth in the number of new geothermal power projects under development in the United States, a 20% increase since January of this year.

  4. Nanoscale Surface Topography to Guide Bone Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanoscale Surface Topography to Guide Bone Growth P R O J E C T L E A D E R : Jirun Sun (American T S Designed and fabricated devices with nanoscale surface topography. Controlled cell alignment by varying

  5. Modeling plant growth and development Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    Modeling plant growth and development Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz Department of Computer Science plant models or "virtual plants" are increasingly seen as a useful tool for comprehending complex relationships between gene function, plant physiology, plant development, and the resulting plant form

  6. Selective anisotropic growth of zeolite crystals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Tasha April

    2013-02-22

    Precise control over particle size and morphology is emerging as a critical issue in the design of nanostructured materials. The explosive growth of nanoparticle synthesis is a good example of this. As material chemists have developed the ability...

  7. GROWTH OF SOUTH AFRICAN AFRICA' ~-' ,, I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GROWTH OF SOUTH AFRICAN FISHERIES -SQUTH-: WEST .-' AFRICA' ~-' ,, I I , I :--. .,' UN I .............................................. Regrouping of Interests ······························ Fisheries Development Corporation of South Africa, Ltd and the trawling interests, respectively. The quasi-official Fisheries Develop- ment Corporation of South Africa

  8. Introduction: California's Growth: An Uncertain Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teitz, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    s Growth: An Uncertain Future BY MICHAEL B. TEITZ Editor'shave to be California’s future? Clearly, not so. This ofat the issue of accommodating future tions within them, for

  9. Graphene Growth on Low Carbon Solubility Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wofford, Joseph Monroe

    2012-01-01

    growth. LEEM micrographs and LEED patterns showing thespecies of sp 2 bonded C. LEED from a large region of aof rotational variants. LEED from a R0 oriented domain of

  10. Multicriteria high-speed rail route selection: application to Malaysia's high-speed rail corridor prioritization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    Multicriteria high-speed rail route selection: application to Malaysia's high-speed rail corridor on multicriteria decision analysis in transportation and provides a case study of high-speed rail (HSR) corridor. Keywords: high-speed rail; route selection; multicriteria analysis; Malaysia Introduction High-speed rail

  11. Growth mechanism of graphene on platinum: Surface catalysis and carbon segregation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jie Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August; Nam, Youngwoo; Cole, Matthew T.; Teo, Kenneth B. K.; Woo Park, Yung

    2014-04-14

    A model of the graphene growth mechanism of chemical vapor deposition on platinum is proposed and verified by experiments. Surface catalysis and carbon segregation occur, respectively, at high and low temperatures in the process, representing the so-called balance and segregation regimes. Catalysis leads to self-limiting formation of large area monolayer graphene, whereas segregation results in multilayers, which evidently “grow from below.” By controlling kinetic factors, dominantly monolayer graphene whose high quality has been confirmed by quantum Hall measurement can be deposited on platinum with hydrogen-rich environment, quench cooling, tiny but continuous methane flow and about 1000?°C growth temperature.

  12. The Effect Of Electronic Energy Loss On Irradiation-induced Grain Growth In Nanocrystalline Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Varga, Tamas; Moll, Sandra; Edmondson, Philip D.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Jin, Ke; Ostrouchov, Christopher N.; Weber, William J.

    2014-03-03

    Grain growth of nanocrystalline materials is generally thermally activated, but can also be driven by irradiation at much lower temperature. In nanocrystalline ceria and zirconia, energetic ions deposit their energy to both atomic nuclei and electrons. Our experimental results have shown that irradiationinduced grain growth is dependent on the total energy deposited, where electronic energy loss and elastic collisions between atomic nuclei both contribute to the production of disorder and grain growth. Our atomistic simulations reveal that a high density of disorder near grain boundaries leads to locally rapid grain movement. The additive effect from both electronic excitation and atomic collision cascades on grain growth demonstrated in this work opens up new possibilities for controlling grain sizes to improve functionality of nanocrystalline materials.

  13. The Effect of Eectronic Energy Loss on Irradiation-Induced Grain Growth in Nanocrystalline Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Varga, Tamas; Moll, Sandra; Edmondson, P. D.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Jin, Ke; Ostrouchov, Christopher N.; Weber, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Grain growth of nanocrystalline materials is generally thermally activated, but can also be driven by irradiation at much lower temperature. In nanocrystalline ceria and zirconia, contributions from both displacement damage and ionization to the grain growth are identified. Our atomistic simulations have revealed fast grain boundary (GB) movements due to the high density of disorder near GBs. Our experimental results have shown that irradiation-induced grain growth is a function of total energy deposited, where the excitation of target electrons and displacement of lattice atoms both contribute to the overall disorder and both play important roles in grain growth. The coupling of energy deposition to the electronic and lattice structures should both be taken into consideration when engineering nanostructural materials.

  14. Physics of Substorm Growth Phase, Onset, and Dipolarization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.Z. Cheng

    2003-10-22

    A new scenario of substorm growth phase, onset, and depolarization during expansion phase and the corresponding physical processes are presented. During the growth phase, as a result of enhanced plasma convection, the plasma pressure and its gradient are continued to be enhanced over the quiet-time values in the plasma sheet. Toward the late growth phase, a strong cross-tail current sheet is formed in the near-Earth plasma sheet region, where a local magnetic well is formed, the plasma beta can reach a local maximum with value larger than 50 and the cross-tail current density can be enhanced to over 10nA/m{sup 2} as obtained from 3D quasi-static magnetospheric equilibrium solutions for the growth phase. The most unstable kinetic ballooning instabilities (KBI) are expected to be located in the tailward side of the strong cross-tail current sheet region. The field lines in the most unstable KBI region map to the transition region between the region-1 and region-2 currents in the ionosphere, which is consistent with the observed initial brightening location of the breakup arc in the intense proton precipitation region. The KBI explains the AMPTE/CCE observations that a low-frequency instability with a wave period of 50-75 seconds is excited about 2-3 minutes prior to substorm onset and grows exponentially to a large amplitude at the onset of current disruption (or current reduction). At the current disruption onset higher frequency instabilities are excited so that the plasma and electromagnetic field fluctuations form a strong turbulent state. Plasma transport takes place due to the strong turbulence to relax the ambient plasma pressure profile so that the plasma pressure and current density are reduced and the ambient magnetic field intensity increases by more than a factor of 2 in the high-beta(sub)eq region and the field line geometry recovers from tail-like to dipole-like dipolarization.

  15. Growth of Quantum Wires on Step-Bunched Substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Feng

    2005-02-01

    This proposal initiates a combined theoretical and experimental multidisciplinary research effort to explore a novel approach for growing metallic and magnetic nanowires on step-bunched semiconductor and dielectric substrates, and to lay the groundwork for understanding the growth mechanisms and the electronic, electrical, and magnetic properties of metallic and magnetic nanowires. The research will focus on four topics: (1) fundamental studies of step bunching and self-organization in a strained thin film for creating step-bunched substrates. (2) Interaction between metal adatoms (Al,Cu, and Ni) and semiconductor (Si and SiGe) and dielectric (CaF2) surface steps. (3) growth and characterization of metallic and magnetic nanowires on step-bunched templates. (4) fabrication of superlattices of nanowires by growing multilayer films. We propose to attack these problems at both a microscopic and macroscopic level, using state-of-the-art theoretical and experimental techniques. Multiscale (electronic-atomic-continuum) theories will be applied to investigate growth mechanisms of nanowires: mesoscopic modeling and simulation of step flow growth of strained thin films, in particular, step bunching and self-organization will be carried out within the framework of continuum linear elastic theory; atomistic calculation of interaction between metal adatoms and semiconductor and dielectric surface steps will be done by large-scale computations using first-principles total-energy methods. In parallel, thin films and nanowires will be grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and the resultant structure and morphology will be characterized at the atomic level up to micrometer range, using a combination of different surface/interface probes, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM, atomic resolution), atomic force microscopy (AFM, nanometer resolution), low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM, micrometer resolution), reflectance high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and x-ray diffraction. Finally, the electronic, electrical, and magnetic properties of the thin films and nanowires will be explored by both theory and experiment.

  16. Case History Imaging permafrost velocity structure using high resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramachandran, Kumar

    horizontal and vertical checkerboard tests confirm the robustness of the velocity model in detailing small the permafrost velocity structure in lateral and vertical directions. It is inferred from the velocity model reflection data. More specifically, geothermal heterogeneities within the permafrost are associated

  17. Technology Solutions Case Study: High-Performance Ducts in Hot...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation) to solicit builder...

  18. Technology Solutions Case Study: High-Performance Ducts in Hot...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the conditioned thermal envelope. To support this activity, in 2013 the Pacific Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building...

  19. A TWP-ICE High-Level Cloud Case Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries PrintA New SolarA PresentFilm Alloys -AAAA

  20. MINING VENTILATION CONTROL: A NEW INDUSTRIAL CASE FOR WIRELESS AUTOMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MINING VENTILATION CONTROL: A NEW INDUSTRIAL CASE FOR WIRELESS AUTOMATION E. Witrant1, A. D- scribe a new industrial case on wireless automation, for a large scale system with high environmental- provements. Indeed, one of the first objectives of mod- ern mining industry is to fulfill ecological

  1. Measuring Test Case Similarity to Support Test Suite Understanding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaidman, Andy

    Measuring Test Case Similarity to Support Test Suite Understanding Michaela Greiler, Arie van.e.zaidman}@tudelft.nl Abstract. In order to support test suite understanding, we investigate whether we can automatically derive relations between test cases. In par- ticular, we search for trace-based similarities between (high

  2. Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure Development Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure Development Presented at...

  3. Vietnam-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth in Developing Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth in Developing Asia AgencyCompany Organization Asian...

  4. Suppression of Grain Boundaries in Graphene Growth on Superstructured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Suppression of Grain Boundaries in Graphene Growth on Superstructured Mn-Cu(111) Surface Prev Next Title: Suppression of Grain Boundaries in Graphene Growth on...

  5. Atomistic surface erosion and thin film growth modelled over...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atomistic surface erosion and thin film growth modelled over realistic time scales Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atomistic surface erosion and thin film growth...

  6. Enhancing Plant Growth and Stress Tolerance through Use of Fungi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhancing Plant Growth and Stress Tolerance through Use of Fungi and Bacteria that Comprise Plant Microbiomes Enhancing Plant Growth and Stress Tolerance through Use of Fungi and...

  7. Agricultural Productivity Growth in China: Farm Level versus National Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Colin A.; Chen, Jing; Chu, Baojin

    1999-01-01

    bias any measurement of agricultural productivity, becauseProductivity Growth in China: Farm Level versus National MeasurementProductivity Growth in China: Farm Level versus National Measurement

  8. Growth Mode and Substrate Symmetry Dependent Strain in Epitaxial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Growth Mode and Substrate Symmetry Dependent Strain in Epitaxial Graphene. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Growth Mode and Substrate Symmetry Dependent Strain in...

  9. Structural Reliability: Assessing the Condition and Reliability of Casing in Compacting Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chantose, Prasongsit

    2012-02-14

    Casing has a higher risk of failure in a compacting reservoir than in a typical reservoir. Casing fails when reservoir compaction induces compression and shear stresses onto it. They compact as reservoir pressure depletes during production. High...

  10. Evaluating managerial adjustment to farm firm growth: an aplication to investments in sealed storage systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greathouse, Gregory John

    1976-01-01

    sources of managerial adjustment to investment in sealed storage systemst 2)to empirically measure the timing and magnitude of these adjustment factors~ 3)to evaluate the implications of these measures of firm growth and resulting liquidity position... with the sealed storage system included~ 1) labo~ savings, 2)reduced field losses, 3)milk production 'ncrease in about one-half of the cases, 4)increase in multiple fillings through time, 5)machinery changes, 6)different forage crops, 7)different forage...

  11. Apparatus for silicon web growth of higher output and improved growth stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Charles S. (Penn Hills, PA); Piotrowski, Paul A. (Monroeville, PA)

    1989-01-01

    This disclosure describes an apparatus to improve the web growth attainable from prior web growth configurations. This apparatus modifies the heat loss at the growth interface in a manner that minimizes thickness variations across the web, especially regions of the web adjacent to the two bounding dendrites. In the unmodified configuration, thinned regions of web, adjacent to the dendrites, were found to be the origin of crystal degradation which ultimately led to termination of the web growth. According to the present invention, thinning adjacent to the dendrites is reduced and the incidence of crystal degradation is similarly reduced.

  12. Causality between financial development and economic growth: a case study on selected middle eastern countries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alrayes, Massa Waddah

    2005-08-29

    ............................................................................................................................27 Algeria..........................................................................................................................32 Jordan............................................................................30 5. A. Summary Statistics - Algeria.....................................................................33 5. B. Unit Root Tests - Algeria ..........................................................................33 5. C. Granger Causality...

  13. The transition of urban growth in China : a case study of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Mingzheng, 1965-

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese government announced new economic reform policies in December of 1978. The announcement included an urban distribution policy that emphasized small cities and towns for rural urbanization as a means to achieve ...

  14. Can general purpose technology theory explain economic growth? Electrical power as a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ristuccia, Cristiano Andrea; Solomou, Solomos

    2014-06-03

    was due to the relative cheapness of thermal generation in the US, owing to the low price of the natural resources (oil and coal) employed. This hypothesis can be evaluated using census data for Britain and the US. In 1935 the British manufacturing... in the early 1930s. The UK Census of Production for 1935 is one of the few historical sources outside the US that provide extensive disaggregated data on output, labour input and electricity consumption by industry. On the basis of this data we observe...

  15. Early growth technology analysis : case studies in solar energy and geothermal energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaya Firat, Ayse

    2010-01-01

    Public and private organizations try to forecast the future of technological developments and allocate funds accordingly. Based on our interviews with experts from MIT's Entrepreneurship Center, Sloan School of Management, ...

  16. Geothermal Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Katherine

    2014-09-30

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessment (Williams et al., 2009) outlined a mean 30GWe of undiscovered hydrothermal resource in the western US. One goal of the Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) is to accelerate the development of this undiscovered resource. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) Blue Ribbon Panel (GTO, 2011) recommended that DOE focus efforts on helping industry identify hidden geothermal resources to increase geothermal capacity in the near term. Increased exploration activity will produce more prospects, more discoveries, and more readily developable resources. Detailed exploration case studies akin to those found in oil and gas (e.g. Beaumont, et al, 1990) will give operators a single point of information to gather clean, unbiased information on which to build geothermal drilling prospects. To support this effort, the National Renewable Energy laboratory (NREL) has been working with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a template for geothermal case studies on the Geothermal Gateway on OpenEI. In fiscal year 2013, the template was developed and tested with two case studies: Raft River Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Raft_River_Geothermal_Area) and Coso Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Coso_Geothermal_Area). In fiscal year 2014, ten additional case studies were completed, and additional features were added to the template to allow for more data and the direct citations of data. The template allows for: Data - a variety of data can be collected for each area, including power production information, well field information, geologic information, reservoir information, and geochemistry information. Narratives ? general (e.g. area overview, history and infrastructure), technical (e.g. exploration history, well field description, R&D activities) and geologic narratives (e.g. area geology, hydrothermal system, heat source, geochemistry.) Exploration Activity Catalog - catalog of exploration activities conducted in the area (with dates and references.) NEPA Analysis ? a query of NEPA analyses conducted in the area (that have been catalogued in the OpenEI NEPA database.) In fiscal year 2015, NREL is working with universities to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough dataset to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  17. ECO and RESOLVE: Galaxy Disk Growth in Environmental Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffett, Amanda J; Berlind, Andreas A; Eckert, Kathleen D; Stark, David V; Hendel, David; Norris, Mark A; Grogin, Norman A

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationships between galaxy environments and galaxy properties related to disk (re)growth, considering two highly complete samples that are approximately baryonic mass limited into the high-mass dwarf galaxy regime, the Environmental COntext (ECO) catalog (data release herein) and the B-semester region of the REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local VolumE (RESOLVE) survey. We quantify galaxy environments using both group identification and smoothed galaxy density field methods. We use by-eye and quantitative morphological classifications plus atomic gas content measurements and estimates. We find that blue early-type (E/S0) galaxies, gas-dominated galaxies, and UV-bright disk host galaxies all become distinctly more common below group halo mass ~10^11.5 Msun, implying that this low group halo mass regime may be a preferred regime for significant disk growth activity. We also find that blue early-type and blue late-type galaxies inhabit environments of similar group halo mass at fixed baryonic mass, con...

  18. Transient growth of droplet instabilities in a stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalaal, M., E-mail: mazi@mech.ubc.ca, E-mail: m-jalaal@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Mehravaran, K. [School of Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada)] [School of Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Droplet deformation is the first stage of all aerodynamically induced-breakups, considerably affecting the characteristics of the atomization. In the present study, using an adaptive volume of fluid method, two and three-dimensional direct numerical simulations have been performed to understand droplet deformation. A high Reynolds number and a range of relatively high Weber numbers are chosen, addressing the shear breakup of droplets in a stream. The study is focused on the initiation and growth of instabilities over the droplet. The role of Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in wave formation and azimuthal transverse modulation are shown and the obtained results for the most amplified wave-numbers are compared with instability theories for zero and non-zero vorticity layers. The present results for the most amplified wave-numbers and deformation topologies are in good agreement with the previous experimental results.

  19. Flow-Solution-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires: A Novel Approach for Controlled Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Palaniappan, Kumaranand; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan; Smith, Nickolaus A.; Dickerson, Robert M.; Casson, Joanna L.; Baldwin, Jon K.

    2012-06-07

    Semiconductor nanowires (SC-NWs) have potential applications in diverse technologies from nanoelectronics and photonics to energy harvesting and storage due to their quantum-confined opto-electronic properties coupled with their highly anisotropic shape. Here, we explore new approaches to an important solution-based growth method known as solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth. In SLS, molecular precursors are reacted in the presence of low-melting metal nanoparticles that serve as molten fluxes to catalyze the growth of the SC-NWs. The mechanism of growth is assumed to be similar to that of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth, with the clear distinctions of being conducted in solution in the presence of coordinating ligands and at relatively lower temperatures (<300 C). The resultant SC-NWs are soluble in common organic solvents and solution processable, offering advantages such as simplified processing, scale-up, ultra-small diameters for quantum-confinement effects, and flexible choice of materials from group III-V to groups II-VI, IV-VI, as well as truly ternary I-III-VI semiconductors as we recently demonstrates. Despite these advantages of SLS growth, VLS offers several clear opportunities not allowed by conventional SLS. Namely, VLS allows sequential addition of precursors for facile synthesis of complex axial heterostructures. In addition, growth proceeds relatively slowly compared to SLS, allowing clear assessments of growth kinetics. In order to retain the materials and processing flexibility afforded by SLS, but add the elements of controlled growth afforded by VLS, we transformed SLS into a flow based method by adapting it to synthesis in a microfluidic system. By this new method - so-called 'flow-SLS' (FSLS) - we have now demonstrated unprecedented fabrication of multi-segmented SC-NWs, e.g., 8-segmented CdSe/ZnSe defined by either compositionally abrupt or alloyed interfaces as a function of growth conditions. In addition, we have studied growth rates as a function of catalyst size/SC-NW diameter and shown for the first time that SLS is governed by Gibbs-Thomson effects. Lastly, from an applications standpoint, we report growth of SC-NWs from a range of substrates, including ITO-coated glass for fabrication of hybrid photovoltaic devices, comparing these to their quasi zero-dimensional quantum-dot counterparts.

  20. Software Certification: Is There a Case against Safety Cases?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawford, Mark

    Software Certification: Is There a Case against Safety Cases? Alan Wassyng , Tom Maibaum , Mark Lawford , and Hans Bherer McMaster Centre for Software Certification Faculty of Engineering Mc that have to be safe. Prior to their use in software certification, safety cases were already in use

  1. Product Efficiency Cases

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidential PermitDAYSDepartment ofconducted aproduct-efficiency-cases

  2. EMGeo Case Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HAB PacketDieselAbsorptionPowering6106 Total NumberEMGeo Case Study

  3. Rate Case Elements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | Careers |

  4. Case No. VWA-0039

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a lCarib Energy (USA)civilEnergy Water Heaters FurnacesCase

  5. Growth Kinetics and Modeling of Direct Oxynitride Growth with NO-O2 Gas Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everist, Sarah; Nelson, Jerry; Sharangpani, Rahul; Smith, Paul Martin; Tay, Sing-Pin; Thakur, Randhir

    1999-05-03

    We have modeled growth kinetics of oxynitrides grown in NO-O2 gas mixtures from first principles using modified Deal-Grove equations. Retardation of oxygen diffusion through the nitrided dielectric was assumed to be the dominant growth-limiting step. The model was validated against experimentally obtained curves with good agreement. Excellent uniformity, which exceeded expected walues, was observed.

  6. Growth of the NGV Market:Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons LearnedLessons Learned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Growth of the NGV Market:Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons LearnedLessons Learned Roadmap NGVAmerica #12;""Roadmap For Development ofRoadmap For Development of NGV Fueling InfrastructureNGV FuelingData Collection Section · Report defines underlying problem with current data ­ Lack of fuel consumption and NGV

  7. Journal of Crystal Growth 307 (2007) 302308 Equilibrium analysis of zirconium carbide CVD growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Journal of Crystal Growth 307 (2007) 302­308 Equilibrium analysis of zirconium carbide CVD growth analysis; A3. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition; A3. Zirconium carbide 1. Introduction Zirconium, is not straightforward particularly by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Although atmospheric halide CVD using zirconium

  8. Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production@nmsu.edu #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth i Disclaimer This report States Government or any agency thereof. #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic

  9. CSTI high capacity power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  10. Vectorial Growth of Metallic and Semiconducting Single-Wall Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joselevich, Ernesto

    obstacles toward nanotube-based electronic technology. Vectorial growth of SWNTs is a new approach wherebyVectorial Growth of Metallic and Semiconducting Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Ernesto Joselevich growth of single-wall carbon nanotube arrays is presented. The origin of growth is defined by patterning

  11. Bayou Cogeneration Plant- A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bray, M. E.; Mellor, R.; Bollinger, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    PLANT - A CASE STUDY Michael E. Bray Roy Mellor Joseph M. Bollinger ABSTRACT The Bayou Cogeneration Plant is a prime example of the high fuel efficiency and consequent energy savings an industrial company can realize from cogeneration. A joint..., General Electric was responsible for the entire project from cycle engineering through start up and is currently operating and maintain ing the plant. This paper describes the factors which led Big Three Industries to build a cogeneration power plant...

  12. High PRF high current switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Stuart L. (Fredericksburg, VA); Hutcherson, R. Kenneth (College Park, MD)

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  13. The "Pinch Analysis": Special Cases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bitowft, B.; Tripathi, P.

    1989-01-01

    A method for determining the efficiency and scope for improvement of a process plant's energy consumption, based on pinch technology, is reviewed. While this is a generic approach that applies in most cases, there are certain cases where the results...

  14. SEP CASE STUDY WEBINAR: HARBEC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Measurement and Verification Case Study webinar is the second in a series of case study webinars to highlight the successes of facilities that have achieved Superior Energy Performance (SEP)...

  15. SEP Case Study Webinar: Cummins

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Measurement and Verification Case Study webinar is the third in a series of case study webinars to highlight the successes of facilities that have achieved Superior Energy Performance (SEP)...

  16. Security Cases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Security Cases Security Cases RSS June 19, 2015 PSH-15-0011 - In the Matter of Personnel Security Hearing On June 19, 2015, an OHA Administrative Judge (AJ) issued a decision in...

  17. SEP CASE STUDY WEBINAR: MEDIMMUNE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Measurement and Verification Case Study webinar is the first in a series of case study webinars to highlight the successes of facilities that have achieved Superior Energy Performance (SEP)...

  18. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Chen, Jin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Energy Plant Research Lab., Dept. of Computer Science; Anozie, Fransisca C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Morales, Alejandro [Wageningen Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Center for Crop Systems Analysis; Weise, Sean E. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Sharkey, Thomas D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    2015-04-09

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growth analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.

  19. Role of nucleation in nanodiamond film growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lifshitz, Y.; Lee, C.H.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, W.J.; Bello, I.; Lee, S.T.

    2006-06-12

    Nanodiamond films were deposited using different microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition schemes following several nucleation pretreatment methods. The nucleation efficiency and the films structure were investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. C{sub 2} dimer growth (CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} in 90% Ar) cannot nucleate diamond and works only on existing diamond surfaces. The methyl radical process (up to 20% CH{sub 4} in H{sub 2}) allows some nucleation probability on appropriate substrates. Prolonged bias enhanced nucleation initiates both diamond nucleation and growth. C{sub 2} dimer growth results in pure nanodiamond free of amorphous carbon, while prolonged bias enhanced nucleation forms an amorphous carbon/nanodiamond composite.

  20. Efg Crystal Growth Apparatus And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackintosh, Brian H. (Concord, MA); Ouellette, Marc (Nashua, NH)

    2003-05-13

    An improved mechanical arrangement controls the introduction of silicon particles into an EFG (Edge-defined Film-fed Growth) crucible/die unit for melt replenishment during a crystal growth run. A feeder unit injects silicon particles upwardly through a center hub of the crucible/die unit and the mechanical arrangement intercepts the injected particles and directs them so that they drop into the melt in a selected region of the crucible and at velocity which reduces splashing, whereby to reduce the likelihood of interruption of the growth process due to formation of a solid mass of silicon on the center hub and adjoining components. The invention also comprises use of a Faraday ring to alter the ratio of the electrical currents flowing through primary and secondary induction heating coils that heat the crucible die unit and the mechanical arrangement.

  1. Patent Litigation for High Technology and Life Sciences Companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamos, Michael I.

    Patent Litigation for High Technology and Life Sciences Companies #12;© 2005 Fenwick & West LLP Corporate (emerging growth, financings, securities, mergers & acquisitions) n Intellectual Property (patent, copyright, licensing, trademark) n Litigation (patent and other IP, securities, antitrust, employment

  2. Thin film growth and characterization of Potassium-Tantalate-Niobate room temperature ferroelectric 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muntha, Nageswara Rao Venkat

    1995-01-01

    as electro-optical and nonlinear optical coefficients can be observed. Bulk KTN single crystals synthesized from high temperature melts have limited device utility due to the occurence of lamellar growth, twins, etc. For these reasons thin films of KTN find...

  3. Growth and characterization of single crystal rocksalt LaAs using LuAs barrier layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    ) Light-management in ultra-thin polythiophene films using plasmonic monopole nanoantennas Appl. Phys of other LaAs phases, interfacial reactions between GaAs and LaAs, and polycrystalline LaAs growth. Examples include high- performance tunnel junctions for multijunction solar cells,4 epitaxial transparent

  4. Influence of Hydrocarbons Exposure on Survival, Growth and Condition of Juvenile Flatfish: A Mesocosm Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Influence of Hydrocarbons Exposure on Survival, Growth and Condition of Juvenile Flatfish experiments were conducted to determine whether short (24 h) but high exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons (1 to petroleum hydro- carbons and in particular Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are regarded

  5. Development and operation of research-scale IIIV nanowire growth reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    ,300,000.18­20 Unfortu- nately, the cost of commercial reactors presents a high barrier of entry into semiconductor,a A. M. Bergman, and J. R. Pettab Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey at the nanometer scale. However, the costs associated with commercial nanowire growth reactors are prohibitive

  6. Growth of AlN lms using hydrazidoalane single-source precursors Younsoo Kima

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Bongsoo

    previously [10]. A stainless steel high vacuum chamber was used for the growth of AlN thin ®lms. The stainless steel chamber was roughed with a mechanical pump and evacuated with an oil diffusion pump]. The substrates were annealed at 8508C by resistive heating for about 15 min prior to deposition. The deposition

  7. EFFECT OF VISCOUS GRAIN BRIDGING ON CYCLIC FATIGUE-CRACK GROWTH IN MONOLITHIC CERAMICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    EFFECT OF VISCOUS GRAIN BRIDGING ON CYCLIC FATIGUE-CRACK GROWTH IN MONOLITHIC CERAMICS AT ELEVATED crack under cyclic loading conditions at elevated temperatures in high-toughness, monolithic ceramics the frequency and temperature sensitivity not gen- erally observed in ceramics at room temperature. Solutions

  8. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Triplett, Eric W. (Middleton, WI); Kaeppler, Shawn M. (Oregon, WI); Chelius, Marisa K. (Greeley, CO)

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  9. Low-temperature growth and orientational control in RuO{sub 2} thin films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, G.R.; Wang, A.; Foster, C.M.; Vetrone, J.; Patel, J.; Wu, X.

    1996-08-01

    For growth temperatures in the range of 275 C to 425 C, highly conductive RuO{sub 2} thin films with either (110)- or (101)-textured orientations have been grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on both SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) and Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrates. Both the growth temperature and growth rate were used to control the type and degree of orientational texture of the RuO{sub 2} films. In the upper part of this growth temperature range ({approximately} 350 C) and at a low growth rate (< 30 {angstrom}/min.), the RuO{sub 2} films favored a (110)-textured. In contrast, at the lower part of this growth temperature range ({approximately} 300 C) and at a high growth rate (> 30 {angstrom}/min.), the RuO{sub 2} films favored a (101)-textured. In contrast, a higher growth temperatures (> 425 C) always produced randomly-oriented polycrystalline films. For either of these low-temperature growth processes, the films produced were crack-free, well-adhered to the substrates, and had smooth, specular surfaces. Atomic force microscopy showed that the films had a dense microstructure with an average grain size of 50--80 nm and a rms. surface roughness of {approximately} 3--10 nm. Four-probe electrical transport measurements showed that the films were highly conductive with resistivities of 34--40 {micro}{Omega}-cm ({at} 25 C).

  10. 2011 Fall : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkle, Tom

    Distinguished Beidler Katilyn V. Highly Distinguished Belanger Brett Russell Highly Distinguished Bell Lauren Ashley Highly Distinguished Bennett Caitlin Renee Highly Distinguished Berdusco Ann Marie Highly Highly Distinguished Bertel Jeffrey Robert Highly Distinguished Bettendorf Caitlin Marie Highly

  11. Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading Medical Campus - Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-03-29

    Case study of Thermal Energy Corporation (TECO) demonstrating a high-efficiency combined heat and power (CHP) system at Texas Medical Center in Houston, Texas

  12. Existing Homes Retrofit Case Study: SMUD's Jean Avenue Remodel Demonstration Program, Sacramento, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-03-01

    This case study describes how SMUD teamed with Building America partners to retrofit aging, foreclosed homes into high-performance homes.

  13. Contribution of radicals and ions in catalyzed growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes from low-temperature plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marvi, Z.; Xu, S.; Foroutan, G.; Ostrikov, K.

    2015-01-15

    The growth kinetics of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a low-temperature, low-pressure reactive plasma is investigated using a multiscale numerical simulation, including the plasma sheath and surface diffusion modules. The plasma-related effects on the characteristics of SWCNT growth are studied. It is found that in the presence of reactive radicals in addition to energetic ions inside the plasma sheath area, the effective carbon flux, and the growth rate of SWCNT increase. It is shown that the concentration of atomic hydrogen and hydrocarbon radicals in the plasma plays an important role in the SWCNT growth. The effect of the effective carbon flux on the SWCNT growth rate is quantified. The dependence of the growth parameters on the substrate temperature is also investigated. The effects of the plasma sheath parameters on the growth parameters are different in low- and high-substrate temperature regimes. The optimum substrate temperature and applied DC bias are estimated to maximize the growth rate of the single-walled carbon nanotubes.

  14. Towards Availability Benchmarks: A Case Study of Software RAID Systems Aaron Brown and David A. Patterson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Towards Availability Benchmarks: A Case Study of Software RAID Systems Aaron Brown and David A neglected the areas of availability, maintainability, and evolutionary growth, areas that have recently introduce a general methodology for bench- marking the availability of computer systems. Our methodology

  15. Bioclimatology Water deficits during reproductive growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) constantly maintained at > 50% of soil available water. The treatment drought periods were: 0I) from R1 to R4 greater dry matter production than 0I and 10, and these 2 treatments produced more dry matter than 00Bioclimatology Water deficits during reproductive growth of soybeans. l. Their effects on dry

  16. Spectroscopic studies of metal growth on oxides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Kai

    2000-01-01

    of metal clusters on well-defined oxide surfaces. In this work, the nucleation and growth modes of Ag on TiO?(110)(1x1) and (1x2) surfaces, Ag on ultra-thin Al?O? films, and Au on ultra-thin SiO? films were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM...

  17. MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS MARTIN BURGER , VINCENZO CAPASSO , AND LIVIO-Kolmogorov relations for the degree of crystallinity. By relating the computation of expected values to mesoscale averaging, we obtain a suitable description of the process at the mesoscale. We show how the variance

  18. Growth Of Oriented Crystals At Polymerized Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charych, Deborah H. (Albany, CA), Berman, Amir (Ben-Shiva, IL)

    2000-01-25

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the growth and alignment of crystals at biopolymeric films. The methods and compositions of the present invention provide means to generate a variety of dense crystalline ceramic films, with totally aligned crystals, at low temperatures and pressures, suitable for use with polymer and plastic substrates.

  19. Economic Growth and Inequality: Drawing the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    and policies in later sessions #12;Economic Growth and Inequality: The Famous Kuznets Curve #12;Income Inequality #12;The New Kuznets Curve #12;Income Inequality #12;From Income Inequality to Health #12;Percent the Channels) #12;Kuznets Curves for Socially Determined Health Outcomes David Bishai, MD,MPH, PhD Professor

  20. Eucalyptus fuelwood growth rate improves with age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eucalyptus fuelwood growth rate improves with age Dean R. Donaldson 0 Richard B. Standiford I n The two species of Eucalyptus were the fastest growing of the five tree spe- cies evaluated at Grant Street (table 1). Manna gum, Eucalyptus viminalis, al- though about a year younger, is signifi- cantly

  1. Emittance growth from electron beam modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2009-12-01

    In linac ring colliders like MeRHIC and eRHIC a modulation of the electron bunch can lead to a modulation of the beam beam tune shift and steering errors. These modulations can lead to emittance growth. This note presents simple formulas to estimate these effects which generalize some previous results.

  2. Melt dumping in string stabilized ribbon growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachs, Emanuel M. (42 Old Middlesex Rd., Belmont, MA 02178)

    1986-12-09

    A method and apparatus for stabilizing the edge positions of a ribbon drawn from a melt includes the use of wettable strings drawn in parallel up through the melt surface, the ribbon being grown between the strings. A furnace and various features of the crucible used therein permit continuous automatic growth of flat ribbons without close temperature control or the need for visual inspection.

  3. ECONOMIC GROWTH WHILE PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    -8875 #12;Abstract This paper reviews the historical development of the energy sector in India as background to consideration of how India might develop its energy sector in the future to ensure economic growth and limit. It is estimated that India may account for 21% of the increase in energy-related carbon emissions from developing

  4. JELLYFISH BLOOMS The growth of jellyfishes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauly, Daniel

    JELLYFISH BLOOMS The growth of jellyfishes M. L. D. Palomares Æ D. Pauly Published online: 15, Consequences, and Recent Advances M. L. D. Palomares (&) Á D. Pauly The Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 e-mail: m.palomares

  5. Revisiting BGP Churn Growth Ahmed Elmokashfi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Revisiting BGP Churn Growth Ahmed Elmokashfi Simula Research Laboratory ahmed@simula.no Amogh protocol. The focus was on update churn (the number of routing protocol messages that are exchanged when the network undergoes routing changes) and whether churn was grow- ing too fast for routers to handle. Recent

  6. A molecular dynamics study of the graphitization ability of transition metals for catalysis of carbon nanotube growth via chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, James

    of carbon nanotube growth via chemical vapor deposition Yasushi Shibuta a,*, James A. Elliott b a Department for carbon nanotube growth via chemical vapor deposition has been investigated via classical molecular and graphene sheet was found to be higher than for clusters comprising cobalt or nickel, since the high energy

  7. Growth of HgTe Quantum Wells for IR to THz Detectors S. DVORETSKY,1,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganichev, Sergey

    on this research, high-quality (013)-grown HgTe QW structures can be used for all-electric detection of radiation. Detection was demon- strated for various low-power continuous-wave (CW) lasers and high-power THz pulsed laser systems. Key words: Growth, HgTe, HgCdTe, quantum wells (QWs), ellipsometric parameters, MBE, far

  8. Energy scarcity and economic growth reconsidered

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uri, N.D. [Economics Research Service, Washington, DC (United States). National Resources and Environment Div.

    1995-05-01

    This analysis is concerned with the effect of energy scarcity on economic growth in the US. After defining the notion of scarcity and introducing two measures of scarcity, namely unit costs and relative energy price, changes in the trend in resource scarcity are investigated for natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil over the most recent three decades. Each of the energy resources became significantly more scarce during the decade of the 1970s in the Malthusian stock scarcity and Malthusian flow scarcity sense. Unit costs exhibit a similar change for natural gas and crude oil but not for bituminous coal and anthracite coal. The situation reversed itself during the 1980s. Natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil all became significantly less scarce during the 1980s than the 1970s. That is, the increase in scarcity as measured by relative energy prices observed during the 1970s was not reversed completely during the 1980s for natural gas and crude oil. Unit costs for natural gas and crude oil demonstrate analogous patterns and test results. Given that change has take place, it has implications for future economic growth to the extent that resource scarcity and economic growth are interrelated. To see whether this is a relevant concern, subsequent to the examination of changing trends in resource scarcity, an objective effort is made to identify a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy scarcity and economic growth. Relying on cointegration techniques, only for crude oil is there a suggestion that resource scarcity has affected economic growth in the US over the period 1889--1992. 56 refs.

  9. Improved Growth Methods for LaBr3 Scintillation Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGregor, Douglas S

    2011-05-01

    The objective is to develop advanced materials for deployment as high-resolution gamma ray detectors. Both LaBr3 and CeBr3 are advanced scintillation materials, and will be studied in this research. Prototype devices, in collaboration Sandia National Laboratories, will be demonstrated along with recommendations for mass production and deployment. It is anticipated that improved methods of crystal growth will yield larger single crystals of LaBr3 for deployable room-temperature operated gamma radiation spectrometers. The growth methods will be characterized. The LaBr3 and CeBr3 scintillation crystals will be characterized for light yield, spectral resolution, and for hardness.

  10. Epitaxial growth of aligned AlGalnN nanowires by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, Jung (Woodbridge, CT); Su, Jie (New Haven, CT)

    2008-08-05

    Highly ordered and aligned epitaxy of III-Nitride nanowires is demonstrated in this work. <1010> M-axis is identified as a preferential nanowire growth direction through a detailed study of GaN/AlN trunk/branch nanostructures by transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographic selectivity can be used to achieve spatial and orientational control of nanowire growth. Vertically aligned (Al)GaN nanowires are prepared on M-plane AlN substrates. Horizontally ordered nanowires, extending from the M-plane sidewalls of GaN hexagonal mesas or islands demonstrate new opportunities for self-aligned nanowire devices, interconnects, and networks.

  11. 2012 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkle, Tom

    Distinguished Bell Lauren Ashley Highly Distinguished Benjamin Abigail Highly Distinguished Benson Alexandrea Hannah Elizabeth Highly Distinguished Bishop Anna Laurel Highly Distinguished Black Caitlin Emily Highly

  12. 2014 Fall : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkle, Tom

    Morgan Highly Distinguished Beech Kaylie Schaefer Highly Distinguished Bell Brandi Lakeisha Highly Distinguished Billard Caitlin Rose Highly Distinguished Birk Christian Gustave Highly Distinguished Birkhead

  13. The St. Petersburg Paradox and the Crash of High-Tech Stocks in 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, Donald St. P.

    . P. RICHARDS During the late 1990s high technology growth stock prices were raised to unprecedented in which the valuation of growth stocks is related to the St. Petersburg paradox. Our conclusion- ball team; Fair game of chance; Geometric distribution; High technology stocks; Irrational exuberance

  14. Tests and analyses for fully plastic fracture mechanics of plane strain mode I crack growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClintock, F.A.; Parks, D.M.; Kim, Y.J.

    1995-12-31

    Under monotonic loading, structures should ideally be ductile enough to provide continued resistance during crack growth. For fully plastic crack growth in low strength alloys, existing asymptotic solutions for elastic-plastic growing cracks are not applicable because they reach the fracture strain only in regions small compared to the inhomogeneities of the actual fracture process. For the limiting case of non-hardening fully-plastic plane strain crack growth, in a number of geometries and loadings the near-tip fields are characterized in terms of three parameters: an effective angle 2{theta}{sub s} between a pair of slip planes, and the normal stress {sigma}{sub s} and the increment of displacement {delta}u{sub s} across the planes. This three-parameter characterization is in contrast to the one- or two-parameter (K or J and T or Q) characterization in linear or non-linear elastic fracture mechanics. These {theta}{sub s}, {sigma}{sub s}, and {delta}u{sub s} parameters are found form the far-field geometries and loadings through slip line fields or least upper bound analyses based on circular arcs. The resulting crack growth, in terms of the crack tip opening angle (CTOA), is a function of {theta}{sub s}, {sigma}{sub s}, and the material. The geometry of the crack growing between two moving slip planes emanating from its tip reduces this function to the critical fracture shear strain left behind the slip planes, {gamma}f, as a function of {sigma}{sub s}. {gamma}f({sigma}{sub s}) is found theoretically from a hole initiation and growth model. It is also found from preliminary fully plastic crack growth experiments on unequally grooved specimens with fixed-grip extension or 4-point bending of a 1018 CF steel.

  15. Ultrafast visualization of crystallization and grain growth in shock-compressed SiO2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gleason, A. E.; Bolme, C. A.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Galtier, E.; Milathianaki, D.; Hawreliak, J.; Kraus, R. G.; Eggert, J. H.; Fratanduono, D. E.; et al

    2015-09-04

    Pressure- and temperature-induced phase transitions have been studied for more than a century but very little is known about the non-equilibrium processes by which the atoms rearrange. Shock compression generates a nearly instantaneous propagating high-pressure/temperature condition while in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) probes the time-dependent atomic arrangement. Here we present in situ pump–probe XRD measurements on shock-compressed fused silica, revealing an amorphous to crystalline high-pressure stishovite phase transition. Using the size broadening of the diffraction peaks, the growth of nanocrystalline stishovite grains is resolved on the nanosecond timescale just after shock compression. At applied pressures above 18 GPa the nuclueationmore »of stishovite appears to be kinetically limited to 1.4±0.4 ns. The functional form of this grain growth suggests homogeneous nucleation and attachment as the growth mechanism. As a result, these are the first observations of crystalline grain growth in the shock front between low- and high-pressure states via XRD.« less

  16. OLEDWORKS DEVELOPS INNOVATIVE HIGH-PERFORMANCE DEPOSITION TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MANUFACTURING COST OF OLED LIGHTING

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The high manufacturing cost of OLED lighting is a major barrier to the growth of the emerging OLED lighting industry. OLEDWorks is developing high-performance deposition technology that addresses...

  17. EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow April 1, 2009 - 11:35am Addthis The growth of...

  18. Can we predict long-run economic growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    For those concerned with the long-term value of their accounts, it can be a challenge to plan in the present for inflation-adjusted economic growth over coming decades. Here, I argue that there exists an economic constant that carries through time, and that this can help us to anticipate the more distant future: global economic wealth has a fixed link to civilization's overall rate of energy consumption from all sources; the ratio of these two quantities has not changed over the past 40 years that statistics are available. Power production and wealth rise equally quickly because civilization, like any other system in the universe, must consume and dissipate its energy reserves in order to sustain its current size. One perspective might be that financial wealth must ultimately collapse as we deplete our energy reserves. However, we can also expect that highly aggregated quantities like global wealth have inertia, and that growth rates must persist. Exceptionally rapid innovation in the two decades following 19...

  19. High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels Natural Gas Vehicle Cylinder Safety, Training and Inspection Project The Compelling Case for Natural Gas Vehicles...

  20. Highlighting High Performance: Twenty River Terrace: Battery Park City, New York. Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Brochure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2002-08-01

    Case study on high performance building features of the Twenty River Terrace, Battery Park City building.

  1. Technology Deployment Case Studies | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Deployment Technology Deployment Case Studies Technology Deployment Case Studies These case studies describe evaluations of energy-efficient technologies being used in federal...

  2. Institutional Change for Sustainability Case Studies | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Institutional Change for Sustainability Case Studies Institutional Change for Sustainability Case Studies These case studies show examples of institutional change successfully...

  3. Effect of enhanced C{sub 2} growth chemistry on nanodiamond film deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teii, Kungen; Ikeda, Tomohiro

    2007-03-12

    A route to high-purity nanocrystalline diamond films from C{sub 2} dimers and related mechanisms have been investigated by enhancing C{sub 2} growth chemistry in Ar-rich microwave plasmas. Efficient C{sub 2} production by direct dissociation from acetylene causes the micro- to nanocrystal transition with a low threshold Ar concentration of {approx}70% and produces films of {approx}20 nm grains with a distinct visible-Raman peak of diamond. C{sub 2} grows nanodiamond on diamond surfaces but rarely initiates nucleation on foreign surfaces. The phase purity can be improved by increasing the dominance of nanodiamond growth from C{sub 2} over nondiamond growth from CH{sub x}(x=0-3) and large radicals.

  4. Non-ferromagnetic overburden casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX)

    2010-09-14

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one system for electrically insulating an overburden portion of a heater wellbore is described. The system may include a heater wellbore located in a subsurface formation and an electrically insulating casing located in the overburden portion of the heater wellbore. The casing may include at least one non-ferromagnetic material such that ferromagnetic effects are inhibited in the casing.

  5. Graphene Layer Growth Chemistry: Five-Six-Ring Flip Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitesides, R.; Domin, D.; Salomon-Ferrer, R.; Lester Jr., W.A.; Frenklach, M.

    2007-12-01

    Reaction pathways are presented for hydrogen-mediated isomerization of a five and six member carbon ring complex on the zigzag edge of a graphene layer. A new reaction sequence that reverses orientation of the ring complex, or 'flips' it, was identified. Competition between the flip reaction and 'ring separation' was examined. Ring separation is the reverse of the five and six member ring complex formation reaction, previously reported as 'ring collision'. The elementary steps of the pathways were analyzed using density-functional theory (DFT). Rate coefficients were obtained by solution of the energy master equation and classical transition state theory utilizing the DFT energies, frequencies, and geometries. The results indicate that the flip reaction pathway dominates the separation reaction and should be competitive with other pathways important to the graphene zigzag edge growth in high temperature environments.

  6. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sood, Shantanu [State Univ., of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kisslinger, Kim [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gouma, Perena [State Univ., of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stable growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.

  7. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stablemore »growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.« less

  8. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stable growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.

  9. Reactive arthritis – two different cases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brzezinski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    syndrome asso- ciated with psoriasis - case report. Actacutaneous lesions of psoriasis (Hg. 3). Fig. 1. BalanitisII. Comparison between psoriasis, reactive arthritis and

  10. FAQ for Case Study Authors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reviews FAQ for Case Study Authors Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops Science Requirements Reviews Network Requirements Reviews Documents and Background...

  11. The effects of orientation angle, subcooling, heat flux, mass flux, and pressure on bubble growth and detachment in subcooled flow boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugrue, Rosemary M

    2012-01-01

    The effects of orientation angle, subcooling, heat flux, mass flux, and pressure on bubble growth and detachment in subcooled flow boiling were studied using a high-speed video camera in conjunction with a two-phase flow ...

  12. Case for Scientific Realism 9 A Case for Scientific Realism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitelson, Branden

    Case for Scientific Realism 9 A Case for Scientific Realism Ernan McMullin When Galileo argued as central to scientific explanati&. In a'retroduction, the scientist proposes a model whose properties allow to believe that the world actually contains entities corresponding to them. The near-invincible belief

  13. Epitaxial growth of silicon for layer transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M

    2015-03-24

    Methods of preparing a thin crystalline silicon film for transfer and devices utilizing a transferred crystalline silicon film are disclosed. The methods include preparing a silicon growth substrate which has an interface defining substance associated with an exterior surface. The methods further include depositing an epitaxial layer of silicon on the silicon growth substrate at the surface and separating the epitaxial layer from the substrate substantially along the plane or other surface defined by the interface defining substance. The epitaxial layer may be utilized as a thin film of crystalline silicon in any type of semiconductor device which requires a crystalline silicon layer. In use, the epitaxial transfer layer may be associated with a secondary substrate.

  14. Fast Fermi Acceleration and Entropy Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiago Pereira; Dmitry Turaev

    2015-03-13

    Fermi acceleration is the process of energy transfer from massive objects in slow motion to light objects that move fast. The model for such process is a time-dependent Hamiltonian system. As the parameters of the system change with time, the energy is no longer conserved, which makes the acceleration possible. One of the main problems is how to generate a sustained and robust energy growth. We show that the non-ergodicity of any chaotic Hamiltonian system must universally lead to the exponential growth of energy at a slow periodic variation of parameters. We build a model for this process in terms of a Geometric Brownian Motion with a positive drift and relate it to the entropy increase.

  15. Pattern formation and nonlocal logistic growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadav M. Shnerb

    2004-03-25

    Logistic growth process with nonlocal interactions is considered in one dimension. Spontaneous breakdown of translational invariance is shown to take place at some parameter region, and the bifurcation regime is identified for short and long range interactions. Domain walls between regions of different order parameter are expressed as soliton solutions of the reduced dynamics for nearest neighbor interactions. The analytic results are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  16. On the dangers of using the growth equation on large scales in the Newtonian gauge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James B. Dent; Sourish Dutta

    2009-02-20

    We examine the accuracy of the growth equation $\\ddot{\\delta} + 2H\\dot{\\delta} - 4\\pi G\\rho\\delta = 0$, which is ubiquitous in the cosmological literature, in the context of the Newtonian gauge. By comparing the growth predicted by this equation to a numerical solution of the linearized Einstein equations in the $\\Lambda$CDM scenario, we show that while this equation is a reliable approximation on small scales ($k\\gtrsim $h Mpc$^{-1}$), it can be disastrously inaccurate ($\\sim 10^4% $) on larger scales in this gauge. We propose a modified version of the growth equation for the Newtonian gauge, which while preserving the simplicity of the original equation, provides considerably more accurate results. We examine the implications of the failure of the growth equation on a few recent studies, aimed at discriminating general relativity from modified gravity, which use this equation as a starting point. We show that while the results of these studies are valid on small scales, they are not reliable on large scales or high redshifts, if one works in the Newtonian gauge. Finally, we discuss the growth equation in the synchronous gauge and show that the corrections to the Poisson equation are exactly equivalent to the difference between the overdensities in the synchronous and Newtonian gauges.

  17. Abbreviated epitaxial growth mode (AGM) method for reducing cost and improving quality of LEDs and lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tansu, Nelson; Chan, Helen M; Vinci, Richard P; Ee, Yik-Khoon; Biser, Jeffrey

    2013-09-24

    The use of an abbreviated GaN growth mode on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrates, which utilizes a process of using 15 nm low temperature GaN buffer and bypassing etch-back and recovery processes during epitaxy, enables the growth of high-quality GaN template on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire. The GaN template grown on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire by employing abbreviated growth mode has two orders of magnitude lower threading dislocation density than that of conventional GaN template grown on planar sapphire. The use of abbreviated growth mode also leads to significant reduction in cost of the epitaxy. The growths and characteristics of InGaN quantum wells (QWs) light emitting diodes (LEDs) on both templates were compared. The InGaN QWs LEDs grown on the nano-patterned AGOG sapphire demonstrated at least a 24% enhancement of output power enhancement over that of LEDs grown on conventional GaN templates.

  18. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2015-04-09

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growthmore »analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.« less

  19. Growth process for gallium nitride porous nanorods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wildeson, Isaac Harshman; Sands, Timothy David

    2015-03-24

    A GaN nanorod and formation method. Formation includes providing a substrate having a GaN film, depositing SiN.sub.x on the GaN film, etching a growth opening through the SiN.sub.x and into the GaN film, growing a GaN nanorod through the growth opening, the nanorod having a nanopore running substantially through its centerline. Focused ion beam etching can be used. The growing can be done using organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The nanopore diameter can be controlled using the growth opening diameter or the growing step duration. The GaN nanorods can be removed from the substrate. The SiN.sub.x layer can be removed after the growing step. A SiO.sub.x template can be formed on the GaN film and the GaN can be grown to cover the SiO.sub.x template before depositing SiN.sub.x on the GaN film. The SiO.sub.x template can be removed after growing the nanorods.

  20. Theoretical priors on modified growth parametrisations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Yong-Seon; Hollenstein, Lukas; Caldera-Cabral, Gabriela; Koyama, Kazuya E-mail: Lukas.Hollenstein@unige.ch E-mail: Kazuya.Koyama@port.ac.uk

    2010-04-01

    Next generation surveys will observe the large-scale structure of the Universe with unprecedented accuracy. This will enable us to test the relationships between matter over-densities, the curvature perturbation and the Newtonian potential. Any large-distance modification of gravity or exotic nature of dark energy modifies these relationships as compared to those predicted in the standard smooth dark energy model based on General Relativity. In linear theory of structure growth such modifications are often parameterised by virtue of two functions of space and time that enter the relation of the curvature perturbation to, first, the matter over- density, and second, the Newtonian potential. We investigate the predictions for these functions in Brans-Dicke theory, clustering dark energy models and interacting dark energy models. We find that each theory has a distinct path in the parameter space of modified growth. Understanding these theoretical priors on the parameterisations of modified growth is essential to reveal the nature of cosmic acceleration with the help of upcoming observations of structure formation.

  1. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Thursday, 24 April 2014 09:46 Lithium-ion...

  2. The Phase of Iron Catalyst Nanoparticles during Carbon Nanotube Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirth, Christoph T.; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Gamalski, Andrew D.; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Weatherup, Robert S.; Ducati, Caterina; Baehtz, Carsten; Robertson, John; Hofmann, Stephan

    2012-11-28

    growth modes occur upon hydrocarbon exposure: For ?-rich Fe nanoparticle distributions, metallic Fe is the active catalyst phase, implying that carbide formation is not a prerequisite for nanotube growth. For ?-rich catalyst mixtures, Fe3C formation more...

  3. Distributed Wind Market Report: Small Turbines Lead to Big Growth...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Distributed Wind Market Report: Small Turbines Lead to Big Growth in Exports Distributed Wind Market Report: Small Turbines Lead to Big Growth in Exports August 18, 2014 - 12:13pm...

  4. Home Performance with ENERGY STAR -- 10 Years of Continued Growth...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ENERGY STAR -- 10 Years of Continued Growth Home Performance with ENERGY STAR -- 10 Years of Continued Growth Provides an overview of the HPwES program, HPwES successes, and...

  5. Continuum-scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Continuum-scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth in Metals Continuum-scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth in Metals Presentation from the 34th Tritium...

  6. Engineering design of a hypobaric plant growth chamber 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purswell, Joseph Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    This system was developed to measure the effects of low-atmospheric pressure on the growth and function of plants for applications in Advanced Life Support systems research. The system is composed of six independent growth vessels...

  7. High Rate Deposition of High Quality ZnO:Al by Filtered Cathodic Arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Lim, S.H.N.; Milliron, D.J.; Anders, Andre

    2010-11-18

    High quality ZnO:Al (AZO) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by direct current filtered cathodic arc deposition. Substrate temperature was varied from room temperature to 425oC, and samples were grown with and without the assistance of low power oxygen plasma (75W). For each growth condition, at least 3 samples were grown to give a statistical look at the effect of the growth environment on the film properties and to explore the reproducibility of the technique. Growth rate was in the 100-400 nm/min range but was apparently random and could not be easily traced to the growth conditions explored. For optimized growth conditions, 300-600 nm AZO films had resistivities of 3-6 x 10-4 ?Omega cm, carrier concentrations in the range of 2-4 x 1020 cm3, Hall mobility as high as 55 cm2/Vs, and optical transmittance greater than 90percent. These films are also highly oriented with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate and a surface roughness of 2-4 nm.

  8. Numerical Modeling of Cased-hole Instability in High Pressure and High Temperature Wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Zheng 1983-

    2012-11-12

    Down-hole damages such as borehole collapse, circulation loss and rock tensile/compressive cracking in the open-hole system are well understood at drilling and well completion stages. However, less effort has been made to understand the instability...

  9. Growth and nonlinearity. Final project report, April 1, 1985--January 1, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sander, L.M.; Savit, R.

    1998-05-01

    This research had three major themes: Fractal growth, pattern formation and the analysis of complexity; that is, the effects of random processes in creating hidden order in statistical system, the interplay between this hidden order and macroscopic order, and the analysis of these complex systems. For example, a dendritic crystal such as a snowflake has a complicated and beautiful pattern with much evidence of the underlying six-fold symmetry of ice. It is a pattern forming system. However, in a disordered environment (such as growth on a rough or dirty surface) this order is replaced by a new order, the fractal or scaling symmetry of a disordered crystal. In this case every part of the crystal is similar on the average to the whole (up to a change in scale). The description of these new kinds of order may require the introduction of new analytic and numerical methods.

  10. Surfactant assisted growth of MgO films on GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, E. A.; Shelton, T. C.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z.; Maria, J.-P.; Christen, H. M.; Biegalski, M. D.; Mita, S.

    2012-08-27

    Thin epitaxial films of <111> oriented MgO on [0001]-oriented GaN were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and pulsed laser deposition using the assistance of a vapor phase surfactant. In both cases, surfactant incorporation enabled layer-by-layer growth and a smooth terminal surface by stabilizing the {l_brace}111{r_brace} rocksalt facet. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly 100 Multiplication-Sign reduction in leakage current density for the surfactant-assisted samples. These data verify numerous predictions regarding the role of H-termination in regulating the habit of rocksalt crystals.

  11. Water growth on metals and oxides: binding, dissociation and role of hydroxyl groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmeron, M.; Bluhm, H.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Ketteler, G.; Shimizu, T.K.; Mugarza, A.; Deng, Xingyi; Herranz, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Nilsson, A.

    2008-09-01

    The authors discuss the role of the presence of dangling H bonds from water or from surface hydroxyl species on the wetting behavior of surfaces. Using Scanning Tunneling and Atomic Force Microscopies, and Photoelectron Spectroscopy, they have examined a variety of surfaces, including mica, oxides, and pure metals. They find that in all cases, the availability of free, dangling H-bonds at the surface is crucial for the subsequent growth of wetting water films. In the case of mica electrostatic forces and H-bonding to surface O atoms determine the water orientation in the first layer and also in subsequent layers with a strong influence in its wetting characteristics. In the case of oxides like TiO{sub 2}, Cu{sub 2}O, SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, surface hydroxyls form readily on defects upon exposure to water vapor and help nucleate the subsequent growth of molecular water films. On pure metals, such as Pt, Pd, and Ru, the structure of the first water layer and whether or not it exhibits dangling H bonds is again crucial. Dangling H-bonds are provided by molecules with their plane oriented vertically, or by OH groups formed by the partial dissociation of water. By tying the two II atoms of the water molecules into strong H-bonds with pre-adsorbed O on Ru can also quench the wettability of the surface.

  12. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2013-10-22

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics.

  13. The 1994 Net Ban Constitutional Amendment: a case study of marine fisheries management in Florida 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimes, Shepherd Russell

    1996-01-01

    by Lindblom (1959) and Behn (1988) predict case events? Ostensibly, the issue of significantly restricting commercial harvest did not appear to have been very high on the administration's agenda. If this was the case, then how did it become so high...

  14. Algebraic recognizability? The word case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weil, Pascal

    Outline Algebraic recognizability? The word case How do we extend algebraic recognizability beyond words? Posets, trees and graphs Algebraic Recognizability of Languages Pascal Weil LaBRI, Universit Algebraic recognizability? The word case How do we extend algebraic recognizability beyond words? Posets

  15. BasaltBasalt Cased interval

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BasaltBasalt Rock units Cased interval Well completion Slotted casing Submersible pump Water level bls. Submersible pump intake near 262 ft bls; depth to water is 245.24 taken October 2, 2014. #12;GAM. Submersible pump intake near 604 ft bls. Depth to water is 600.32 taken October 9, 2014. #12;GAM(NAT) 0 75API

  16. A STOCHASTIC MODEL FOR COMPETING GROWTH ON R d

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Häggström, Olle

    A STOCHASTIC MODEL FOR COMPETING GROWTH ON R d Maria Deijfen # Olle HË?aggstrË?om + Jonathan Bagley # March 2003 Abstract A stochastic model, describing the growth of two competing infections on R d , is introduced. The growth is driven by outbursts in the infected region, an outburst in the type 1 (2) infected

  17. Coexistence in a two-type continuum growth model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Häggström, Olle

    Coexistence in a two-type continuum growth model Maria Deijfen #3; Olle Haggstrom y April 2004 Abstract We consider a stochastic model, describing the growth of two com- peting infections on R d . The growth takes place by way of spherical outbursts in the infected region, an outburst in the type 1 (2

  18. Internet growth: Myth and reality, use and abuse Andrew Odlyzko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odlyzko, Andrew M.

    Internet growth: Myth and reality, use and abuse Andrew Odlyzko AT&T Labs - Research amo@research.att.com http://www.research.att.com/ amo Abstract Actual Internet traffic growth rates of 100 percent per year to Internet growth claim astronomical rates of increase; the usual phrase is that "Internet traffic

  19. Climate and Sockeye Salmon Climate effects on growth, phenology, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinch, Scott G.

    Climate and Sockeye Salmon Climate effects on growth, phenology, and survival of sockeye salmon in peer-reviewed studies that link sockeye salmon growth, phenology, and survival to climate variables 2. State the known knowledge in regards to effects of climate variables on growth, phenology, and survival

  20. Growth of Cloud Droplets in a Turbulent Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lian-Ping

    Growth of Cloud Droplets in a Turbulent Environment Wojciech W. Grabowski1 and Lian-Ping Wang2 1 Keywords condensational growth, turbulent collision-coalescence, particle-laden flow, cloud microphysical concerning the growth of cloud droplets by water-vapor diffu- sion and by collision

  1. Analysis of Restricted Natural Gas Supply Cases

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    The four cases examined in this study have progressively greater impacts on overall natural gas consumption, prices, and supply. Compared to the Annual Energy Outlook 2004 reference case, the no Alaska pipeline case has the least impact; the low liquefied natural gas case has more impact; the low unconventional gas recovery case has even more impact; and the combined case has the most impact.

  2. Fast and slow crystal growth kinetics in glass-forming melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orava, J.; Greer, A. L., E-mail: alg13@cam.ac.uk [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan and Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-07

    Published values of crystal growth rates are compared for supercooled glass-forming liquids undergoing congruent freezing at a planar crystal-liquid interface. For the purposes of comparison pure metals are considered to be glass-forming systems, using data from molecular-dynamics simulations. For each system, the growth rate has a maximum value U{sub max} at a temperature T{sub max} that lies between the glass-transition temperature T{sub g} and the melting temperature T{sub m}. A classification is suggested, based on the lability (specifically, the propensity for fast crystallization), of the liquid. High-lability systems show “fast” growth characterized by a high U{sub max}, a low T{sub max}?/?T{sub m}, and a very broad peak in U vs. T?/?T{sub m}. In contrast, systems showing “slow” growth have a low U{sub max}, a high T{sub max}?/?T{sub m}, and a sharp peak in U vs. T?/?T{sub m}. Despite the difference of more than 11 orders of magnitude in U{sub max} seen in pure metals and in silica, the range of glass-forming systems surveyed fit into a common pattern in which the lability increases with lower reduced glass-transition temperature (T{sub g}?/?T{sub m}) and higher fragility of the liquid. A single parameter, a linear combination of T{sub g}?/?T{sub m} and fragility, can show a good correlation with U{sub max}. For all the systems, growth at U{sub max} is coupled to the atomic/molecular mobility in the liquid. It is found that, across the diversity of glass-forming systems, T{sub max}?/?T{sub g} = 1.48 ± 0.15.

  3. Growth kinetics of Al–Fe intermetallic compounds during annealing treatment of friction stir lap welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Movahedi, M., E-mail: m_movahedi@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kokabi, A.H., E-mail: kokabi@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seyed Reihani, S.M., E-mail: reihani@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, H., E-mail: hossein.najafi@epfl.ch [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics (ICMP), EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Farzadfar, S.A., E-mail: seyed-amir.farzadfar@mail.mcgill.ca [McGill University, Department of Materials Engineering, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Cheng, W.J., E-mail: d9603505@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, C.J., E-mail: cjwang@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we explored the growth kinetics of the Al–Fe intermetallic (IM) layer at the joint interface of the St-12/Al-5083 friction stir lap welds during post-weld annealing treatment at 350, 400 and 450 °C for 30 to 180 min. Optical microscope (OM), field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed to investigate the structure of the weld zone. The thickness and composition of the IM layers were evaluated using image analysis system and electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD), respectively. Moreover, kernel average misorientation (KAM) analysis was performed to evaluate the level of stored energy in the as-welded state. The results showed that the growth kinetics of the IM layer was not governed by a parabolic diffusion law. Presence of the IM compounds as well as high stored energy near the joint interface of the as-welded sample was recognized to be the origin of the observed deviation from the parabolic diffusion law. - Highlights: • This work provided a new insight into growth kinetics of Al–Fe IM thickness. • The growth kinetics of IM layer was not governed by a parabolic diffusion law. • IM near the joint interface was the origin of deviation from the parabolic law. • High stored energy at joint interface was origin of deviation from parabolic law.

  4. GaAs buffer layer technique for vertical nanowire growth on Si substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xiaoqing Parizi, Kokab B.; Huo, Yijie; Kang, Yangsen; Philip Wong, H.-S.; Li, Yang

    2014-02-24

    Gold catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid method is widely applied to III–V nanowire (NW) growth on Si substrate. However, the easy oxidation of Si, possible Si contamination in the NWs, high defect density in the NWs, and high sensitivity of the NW morphology to growth conditions largely limit its controllability. In this work, we developed a buffer layer technique by introducing a GaAs thin film with predefined polarity as a template. It is found that samples grown on these buffer layers all have high vertical NW yields in general, due to the single-orientation of the buffer layers. Low temperature buffer with smoother surface leads to highest yield of vertical NWs, while high temperature (HT) buffer with better crystallinity results in perfect NW quality. The defect-free property we observed here is very promising for optoelectronic device applications based on GaAs NW. Moreover, the buffer layers can eliminate Si contamination by preventing Si-Au alloy formation and by increasing the thickness of the Si diffusion barrier, thus providing more flexibility to vertical NW growth. The buffer layer technique we demonstrated here could be easily extended to other III-V on Si system for electronic and photonic applications.

  5. Growth of geologic fractures into large-strain populations: review of nomenclature, subcritical crack growth, and some implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    crack growth, and some implications for rock engineering R.A. Schultz* Geomechanics-Rock Fracture Group

  6. Preparation to teach agricultural mechanics: a qualitative case study of expert agricultural science and technology teachers in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Richard Kirby

    2006-04-12

    Since federal legislation in 1917 and the widespread program growth in the 1930?s, agricultural mechanics has been a major part of the high school agricultural science and technology curriculum. Local programs integrated ...

  7. Technology Regimes and Productivity Growth in Europe and the United States: A Comparative and Historical Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Ark, Bart; Smits, Jan Pieter

    2005-01-01

    Productivity Growth, Netherlands, Technology Regime PeriodSteam as a General Purpose Technology: A Growth Accountingeds. , Productivity, Technology, and Economic Growth, Kluwer

  8. IRRADIATION GROWTH IN ZIRCONIUM AT LOW TEMPERATURES BY DIRECT ATHERMAL DEPOSITION OF VACANCIES AT EXTENDED SINKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    IRRADIATION GROWTH IN ZIRCONIUM AT LOW TEMPERATURES BY DIRECT ATHERMAL DEPOSITION OF VACANCIES, which can contribute to the observed growth strains. 1. Introduction Irradiation growth of zirconium

  9. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on (001) ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovyov, VF; Wu, LJ; Rupich, MW; Sathyamurthy, S; Li, XP; Li, Q

    2014-12-15

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2 nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 mu m long nano-rods with an average diameter of approximate to 20 nm. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A kinetic model of tumor growth and its radiation response with an application to Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watanabe, Yoichi; Leder, Kevin Z; Hui, Susanta K

    2015-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model to simulate the growth of tumor volume and its response to a single fraction of high dose irradiation. We made several key assumptions of the model. Tumor volume is composed of proliferating (or dividing) cancer cells and non-dividing (or dead) cells. Tumor growth rate (or tumor volume doubling time, Td) is proportional to the ratio of the volumes of tumor vasculature and the tumor. The vascular volume grows slower than the tumor by introducing the vascular growth retardation factor, theta. Upon irradiation the proliferating cells gradually die over a fixed time period after irradiation. Dead cells are cleared away with cell clearance time, Tcl. The model was applied to simulate pre-treatment growth and post-treatment radiation response of rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumor and metastatic brain tumors of five patients who were treated by Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS). By selecting appropriate model parameters, we showed the temporal variation of the tumors for both th...

  11. ZrN coatings deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purandare, Yashodhan Ehiasarian, Arutiun; Hovsepian, Papken; Santana, Antonio

    2014-05-15

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings were deposited on 1??m finish high speed steel and 316L stainless steel test coupons. Cathodic Arc (CA) and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) + Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering (UBM) techniques were utilized to deposit coatings. CA plasmas are known to be rich in metal and gas ions of the depositing species as well as macroparticles (droplets) emitted from the arc sports. Combining HIPIMS technique with UBM in the same deposition process facilitated increased ion bombardment on the depositing species during coating growth maintaining high deposition rate. Prior to coating deposition, substrates were pretreated with Zr{sup +} rich plasma, for both arc deposited and HIPIMS deposited coatings, which led to a very high scratch adhesion value (L{sub C2}) of 100 N. Characterization results revealed the overall thickness of the coatings in the range of 2.5??m with hardness in the range of 30–40?GPa depending on the deposition technique. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and tribological experiments such as dry sliding wear tests and corrosion studies have been utilized to study the effects of ion bombardment on the structure and properties of these coatings. In all the cases, HIPIMS assisted UBM deposited coating fared equal or better than the arc deposited coatings, the reasons being discussed in this paper. Thus H+U coatings provide a good alternative to arc deposited where smooth, dense coatings are required and macrodroplets cannot be tolerated.

  12. Journal of Crystal Growth 308 (2007) 105109 The effect of growth time on the morphology of ZnO structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Journal of Crystal Growth 308 (2007) 105­109 The effect of growth time on the morphology of ZnO structures deposited on Si (1 0 0) by the aqueous chemical growth technique D. Vernardoua,b,c,Ã, G. Katsarakisa,b,i a Center of Materials Technology and Laser, School of Applied Technology, Technological

  13. Logistic Growth Logistic growth is a simple model for predicting the size y(t) of a population as a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, Joel

    Logistic Growth Logistic growth is a simple model for predicting the size y(t) of a population the differential equation y (t) = by(t) Logistic growth adds one more wrinkle to this model. It assumes available to each member decreases. This in turn causes the net birth rate b to decrease. In the logistic

  14. Percolation model for growth rates of aggregates and its application for business firm growth Dongfeng Fu,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buldyrev, Sergey

    Percolation model for growth rates of aggregates and its application for business firm growth of business firm growth, we develop a dynamic percolation model which captures some of the features of the economical system--i.e., merging and splitting of business firms-- represented as aggregates on a d

  15. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubic, Jr., William L.

    2014-05-25

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  16. Growth histories in bimetric massive gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Marcus; Buchberger, Igor; Enander, Jonas; Mörtsell, Edvard; Sjörs, Stefan E-mail: igor.buchberger@kau.se E-mail: edvard@fysik.su.se

    2012-12-01

    We perform cosmological perturbation theory in Hassan-Rosen bimetric gravity for general homogeneous and isotropic backgrounds. In the de Sitter approximation, we obtain decoupled sets of massless and massive scalar gravitational fluctuations. Matter perturbations then evolve like in Einstein gravity. We perturb the future de Sitter regime by the ratio of matter to dark energy, producing quasi-de Sitter space. In this more general setting the massive and massless fluctuations mix. We argue that in the quasi-de Sitter regime, the growth of structure in bimetric gravity differs from that of Einstein gravity.

  17. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo

    2014-10-06

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal.

  18. Career Growth | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the t-) S/,,5 'a C | NationalBenefitsDiamondCTBT |Growth

  19. #MarketGrowth | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (UtilityMichigan)data bookresult formatswind powering#MarketGrowth Home

  20. Tests of Sapphire Crystals Produced with Different Growth Processes for Ultra-stable Microwave Oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giordano, Vincent; Grop, Serge; Dubois, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    We present the characterization of 8-12 GHz whispering gallery mode resonators machined in high-quality sapphire crystals elaborated with different growth techniques. These microwave resonators are intended to constitute the reference frequency of ultra-stable Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators. We conducted systematic tests near 4 K on these crystals to determine the unloaded Q-factor and the turnover temperature for whispering gallery modes in the 8-12 GHz frequency range. These characterizations show that high quality sapphire crystals elaborated with the Heat Exchange or the Kyropoulos growth technique are both suitable to meet a fractional frequency stability better than 1x10-15 for 1 s to 10.000 s integration times.

  1. Acquisition of Single Crystal Growth and Characterization Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maple, M. Brian; Zocco, Diego A.

    2008-12-09

    Final Report for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER46178 'Acquisition of Single Crystal Growth and Characterization Equipment'. There is growing concern in the condensed matter community that the need for quality crystal growth and materials preparation laboratories is not being met in the United States. It has been suggested that there are too many researchers performing measurements on too few materials. As a result, many user facilities are not being used optimally. The number of proficient crystal growers is too small. In addition, insufficient attention is being paid to the enterprise of finding new and interesting materials, which is the driving force behind much of condensed matter research and, ultimately, technology. While a detailed assessment of this situation is clearly needed, enough evidence of a problem already exists to compel a general consensus that the situation must be addressed promptly. This final report describes the work carried out during the last four years in our group, in which a state-of-the-art single crystal growth and characterization facility was established for the study of novel oxides and intermetallic compounds of rare earth, actinide and transition metal elements. Research emphasis is on the physics of superconducting (SC), magnetic, heavy fermion (HF), non-Fermi liquid (NFL) and other types of strongly correlated electron phenomena in bulk single crystals. Properties of these materials are being studied as a function of concentration of chemical constituents, temperature, pressure, and magnetic field, which provide information about the electronic, lattice, and magnetic excitations at the root of various strongly correlated electron phenomena. Most importantly, the facility makes possible the investigation of material properties that can only be achieved in high quality bulk single crystals, including magnetic and transport phenomena, studies of the effects of disorder, properties in the clean limit, and spectroscopic and scattering studies through efforts with numerous collaborators. These endeavors will assist the effort to explain various outstanding theoretical problems, such as order parameter symmetries and electron-pairing mechanisms in unconventional superconductors, the relationship between superconductivity and magnetic order in certain correlated electron systems, the role of disorder in non-Fermi liquid behavior and unconventional superconductivity, and the nature of interactions between localized and itinerant electrons in these materials. Understanding the mechanisms behind strongly correlated electron behavior has important technological implications.

  2. CRACK GROWTH ANALYSIS OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-10-01

    Defects and Flaws control the structural and functional property of ceramics. In determining the reliability and lifetime of ceramics structures it is very important to quantify the crack growth behavior of the ceramics. In addition, because of the high variability of the strength and the relatively low toughness of ceramics, a statistical design approach is necessary. The statistical nature of the strength of ceramics is currently well recognized, and is usually accounted for by utilizing Weibull or similar statistical distributions. Design tools such as CARES using a combination of strength measurements, stress analysis, and statistics are available and reasonably well developed. These design codes also incorporate material data such as elastic constants as well as flaw distributions and time-dependent properties. The fast fracture reliability for ceramics is often different from their time-dependent reliability. Further confounding the design complexity, the time-dependent reliability varies with the environment/temperature/stress combination. Therefore, it becomes important to be able to accurately determine the behavior of ceramics under simulated application conditions to provide a better prediction of the lifetime and reliability for a given component. In the present study, Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) of 9.6 mol% Yttria composition was procured in the form of tubes of length 100 mm. The composition is of interest as tubular electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Rings cut from the tubes were characterized for microstructure, phase stability, mechanical strength (Weibull modulus) and fracture mechanisms. The strength at operating condition of SOFCs (1000 C) decreased to 95 MPa as compared to room temperature strength of 230 MPa. However, the Weibull modulus remains relatively unchanged. Slow crack growth (SCG) parameter, n = 17 evaluated at room temperature in air was representative of well studied brittle materials. Based on the results, further work was planned to evaluate the strength degradation, modulus and failure in more representative environment of the SOFCs.

  3. The growth mechanism of grain boundary carbide in Alloy 690

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hui; Xia, Shuang; Zhou, Bangxin; Peng, Jianchao

    2013-07-15

    The growth mechanism of grain boundary M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides in nickel base Alloy 690 after aging at 715 °C was investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The grain boundary carbides have coherent orientation relationship with only one side of the matrix. The incoherent phase interface between M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and matrix was curved, and did not lie on any specific crystal plane. The M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide transforms from the matrix phase directly at the incoherent interface. The flat coherent phase interface generally lies on low index crystal planes, such as (011) and (111) planes. The M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide transforms from a transition phase found at curved coherent phase interface. The transition phase has a complex hexagonal crystal structure, and has coherent orientation relationship with matrix and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}: (111){sub matrix}//(0001){sub transition}//(111){sub carbide}, <112{sup ¯}>{sub matrix}//<21{sup ¯}10>{sub transition}//<112{sup ¯}>{sub carbide}. The crystal lattice constants of transition phase are c{sub transition}=?(3)×a{sub matrix} and a{sub transition}=?(6)/2×a{sub matrix}. Based on the experimental results, the growth mechanism of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and the formation mechanism of transition phase are discussed. - Highlights: • A transition phase was observed at the coherent interfaces of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and matrix. • The transition phase has hexagonal structure, and is coherent with matrix and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. • The M{sub 23}C{sub 6} transforms from the matrix directly at the incoherent phase interface.

  4. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  5. High-Tech Means High-Efficiency: The Business Case for Energy Management in High-Tech Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamshoian, Gary; Blazek, Michele; Naughton, Phil; Seese, Robert S.; Mills, Evan; Tschudi, William

    2005-01-01

    100-times as much energy per square foot as a typical officeuses far more energy and water per square foot than thewhole-building energy savings ($3.60 per square foot annual

  6. Size and composition-controlled fabrication of VO2 nanocrystals by terminated cluster growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Slack, Jonathan

    2013-05-14

    A physical vapor deposition-based route for the fabrication of VO2 nanoparticles is demonstrated, consisting of reactive sputtering and vapor condensation at elevated pressures. The oxidation of vanadium atoms is an efficient heterogeneous nucleation method, leading to high nanoparticle throughtput. Fine control of the nanoparticle size and composition is obtained. Post growth annealing leads to crystalline VO2 nanoparticles with optimum thermocromic and plasmonic properties.

  7. A Statistical Physics Perspective on Web Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. L. Krapivsky; S. Redner

    2002-06-07

    Approaches from statistical physics are applied to investigate the structure of network models whose growth rules mimic aspects of the evolution of the world-wide web. We first determine the degree distribution of a growing network in which nodes are introduced one at a time and attach to an earlier node of degree k with rate A_ksim k^gamma. Very different behaviors arise for gamma1. We also analyze the degree distribution of a heterogeneous network, the joint age-degree distribution, the correlation between degrees of neighboring nodes, as well as global network properties. An extension to directed networks is then presented. By tuning model parameters to reasonable values, we obtain distinct power-law forms for the in-degree and out-degree distributions with exponents that are in good agreement with current data for the web. Finally, a general growth process with independent introduction of nodes and links is investigated. This leads to independently growing sub-networks that may coalesce with other sub-networks. General results for both the size distribution of sub-networks and the degree distribution are obtained.

  8. Case Study: Goose Creek CISD 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, D.

    2014-01-01

    GOOSE CREEK CISD FINANCIALS • $4,866,124 project • $600k annual savings • 5,954,383 kWh annual savings IMPROVEMENTS • Lighting and water efficiency, computer power management, HVAC, controls redesign case study McKinstry first worked with Goose... • $693,866 project • $87k annual savings • 682,228 kWh annual savings IMPROVEMENTS • HVAC, lighting and water efficiency, computer power management case study Lake Dallas ISD was interested in improving the energy efficiency and aging infrastructure...

  9. Productivity Growth in the 1990s: Technology, Utilization, or Adjustment? Susanto Basu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    Productivity Growth in the 1990s: Technology, Utilization, or Adjustment? Susanto Basu University (SRB-9617437). #12;ABSTRACT Productivity Growth in the 1990s: Technology, Utilization, or Adjustment in technological change. Cyclical utilization raised measured productivity growth relative to technology growth

  10. Title: Modelling in vitro growth of dense root networks Running head: Modelling Growth of Hairy Roots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bastian, Peter

    in chemotherapy. To optimize the6 production of valuable secondary metabolites it is necessary to understand7 applications to5 describe e.g. secondary metabolite production.6 keywords: growth model, nutrient uptake, hairy camptothecin (Camptotheca acuminata)3 used in chemotherapy, are secondary metabolites that are not essential

  11. A Quantitative Analysis of Branching, Growth Cone Turning, and Directed Growth in Zebrafish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodhill, Geoffrey J.

    in Goodhill and Richards, 1999; McLaughlin and O'Leary, 2005; Feldheim and O'Leary, 2010). Studies these maps (McLaughlin and O'Leary, 2005). In chicks and rodents, serial histology at different developmental their targets (Nakamura and O'Leary, 1989; Simon and O'Leary, 1992; Yates et al., 2001). Pri- mary axon growth

  12. Precision growth index using the clustering of cosmic structures and growth data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pouri, Athina; Basilakos, Spyros; Plionis, Manolis E-mail: svasil@academyofathens.gr

    2014-08-01

    We use the clustering properties of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) and the growth rate data provided by the various galaxy surveys in order to constrain the growth index ?) of the linear matter fluctuations. We perform a standard ?{sup 2}-minimization procedure between theoretical expectations and data, followed by a joint likelihood analysis and we find a value of ?=0.56± 0.05, perfectly consistent with the expectations of the ?CDM model, and ?{sub m0} =0.29± 0.01, in very good agreement with the latest Planck results. Our analysis provides significantly more stringent growth index constraints with respect to previous studies, as indicated by the fact that the corresponding uncertainty is only ? 0.09 ?. Finally, allowing ? to vary with redshift in two manners (Taylor expansion around z=0, and Taylor expansion around the scale factor), we find that the combined statistical analysis between our clustering and literature growth data alleviates the degeneracy and obtain more stringent constraints with respect to other recent studies.

  13. A systematic review and meta-analysis to revise the Fenton growth chart for preterm infants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenton, Tanis R; Kim, Jae H

    2013-01-01

    growth chart with the new World Health Organization (WHO)growth chart, harmonized with the World Health Organization

  14. Surfactant assisted growth of MgO films on GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, Elisibeth A.; Shelton, T C; Mita, S; Gaddy, Brian E.; Irving, D L; Christen, Hans M; Sitar, Z; Biegalski, Michael D; Maria, Jon Paul

    2012-01-01

    Thin epitaxial films of <111> oriented MgO on [0001]-oriented GaN were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using the assistance of a vapor phase surfactant. In both cases, surfactant incorporation enabled layer-by-layer growth and a smooth terminal surface due to stabilizing the {111} rocksalt facet. MBE growth of MgO in water terminates after several monolayers, and is attributed to saturation of surface active sites needed to facilitate the Mg oxidation reaction. MgO films prepared by PLD grow continuously, this occurs due to the presence of excited oxidizing species in the laser plasma eliminate the need for catalytic surface sites. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly two order of magnitude reduction in leakage current density for the smoother surfactant-assisted samples. Collectively, these data verify numerous predictions and calculations regarding the role of H-termination in regulating the habit of MgO crystals.

  15. Global latitudinal-asymmetric vegetation growth trends and their driving mechanisms: 1982-2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E; Hoffman, Forrest M; Zhu, Zaichun; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    Using a recent Leaf Area Index (LAI) dataset and the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4), we investigate percent changes and controlling factors of global vegetation growth for the period 1982 to 2009. Over that 28-year period, both the remote-sensing estimate and model simulation show a significant increasing trend in annual vegetation growth. Latitudinal asymmetry appeared in both products, with small increases in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and larger increases at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The south-to-north asymmetric land surface warming was assessed to be the principal driver of this latitudinal asymmetry of LAI trend. Heterogeneous precipitation functioned to decrease this latitudinal LAI gradient, and considerably regulated the local LAI change. CO2 fertilization during the last three decades, was simulated to be the dominant cause for the enhanced vegetation growth. Our study, though limited by observational and modeling uncertainties, adds further insight into vegetation growth trends and environmental correlations. These validation exercises also provide new quantitative and objective metrics for evaluation of land ecosystem process models at multiple spatio-temporal scales.

  16. A pathway for the growth of core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Yang, Xiaofan; Li, Chen; Pennycook, Stephen J; Lupini, Andrew R

    2015-10-12

    In this study, the aging of both Pt-Pd nanoparticles and core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles has been reported to result in alloying of Pt with Pd. In comparison to monometallic Pt catalysts, the growth of Pd-Pt bimetallics is slower; however, the mechanism of growth of particles and the mechanism by which Pd improves the hydrothermal durability of bimetallic Pd-Pt particles remains uncertain. In our work on hydrothermal aging of core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles, synthesized by solution methods, with varying Pd:Pt ratio of 1:4, 1:1, and 4:1, we compare the growth of core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles and find that particles grow by migrating and joiningmore »together. The unique feature of the observed growth is that Pd shells from both particles open up and join, allowing the cores to merge. At high temperatures, alloying occurs in good agreement with reports by other workers.« less

  17. Enhancement of neurite outgrowth in neuron cancer stem cells by growth on 3-D collagen scaffolds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chih-Hao [Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China) [Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kuo, Shyh Ming [Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Guei-Sheung [Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne (Australia)] [Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne (Australia); Chen, Wan-Nan U. [Department of Biological Science and Technology, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Biological Science and Technology, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chuang, Chin-Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Li-Feng, E-mail: liulf@isu.edu.tw [Department of Biological Science and Technology, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Biological Science and Technology, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuron cancer stem cells (NCSCs) behave high multiply of growth on collagen scaffold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancement of NCSCs neurite outgrowth on porous collagen scaffold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-D collagen culture of NCSCs shows an advance differentiation than 2-D culture. -- Abstract: Collagen is one component of the extracellular matrix that has been widely used for constructive remodeling to facilitate cell growth and differentiation. The 3-D distribution and growth of cells within the porous scaffold suggest a clinical significance for nerve tissue engineering. In the current study, we investigated proliferation and differentiation of neuron cancer stem cells (NCSCs) on a 3-D porous collagen scaffold that mimics the natural extracellular matrix. We first generated green fluorescence protein (GFP) expressing NCSCs using a lentiviral system to instantly monitor the transitions of morphological changes during growth on the 3-D scaffold. We found that proliferation of GFP-NCSCs increased, and a single cell mass rapidly grew with unrestricted expansion between days 3 and 9 in culture. Moreover, immunostaining with neuronal nuclei (NeuN) revealed that NCSCs grown on the 3-D collagen scaffold significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth. Our findings confirmed that the 80 {mu}m porous collagen scaffold could enhance attachment, viability and differentiation of the cancer neural stem cells. This result could provide a new application for nerve tissue engineering and nerve regeneration.

  18. Determination of the specific growth of molds on semi-solid cultures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrizalez, V.; Rodriguez, H.; Sardina, I.

    1981-02-01

    The determination of growth constants of Aspergillus niger were obtained for semisolid cultures on cassava flour, Manihot esculenta, as a sole carbon source. As a consequence, a technique was developed that consisted of the use of a packed-bed microfermentor with a working volume of 16 cubic centimetres. The bed consisted of gelatinized and granulated cassava flour containing material nutrients and mold spores. The carbon dioxide produced during the respiration was drawn off with a current of air and then absorbed in a solution of sodium hydroxide. The absorption of CO/sub 2/, P, was correlated with the specific growth rate mu by means of the equation P equals Kemut, where t is time and K is a constant. Ammonium nitrogen was used as a limiting substrate and its concentration was varied from 0.039 to 2.5% in dry base. The maximum growth rate, mu maximum, and the saturation constant, Ks, were 0.31/hour and 0.065 mmol (N/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4//g total dry solids. The proposed method is highly recommended for the evaluation of the semisolid fermentation of molds and for strictly aerobic bacteria and yeasts. It can be used especially in the evaluation of the growth of microorganisms on peanut shells, coffee residues, sugar cane bagasse, and other agricultural wastes.

  19. Supermassive Black Hole Growth and Merger Rates from Cosmological N-body Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miroslav Micic; Kelly Holley-Bockelmann; Steinn Sigurdsson; Tom Abel

    2007-03-20

    Understanding how seed black holes grow into intermediate and supermassive black holes (IMBHs and SMBHs, respectively) has important implications for the duty-cycle of active galactic nuclei (AGN), galaxy evolution, and gravitational wave astronomy. Most studies of the cosmological growth and merger history of black holes have used semianalytic models and have concentrated on SMBH growth in luminous galaxies. Using high resolution cosmological N-body simulations, we track the assembly of black holes over a large range of final masses -- from seed black holes to SMBHs -- over widely varying dynamical histories. We used the dynamics of dark matter halos to track the evolution of seed black holes in three different gas accretion scenarios. We have found that growth of Sagittarius A* - size SMBH reaches its maximum mass M_{SMBH}~10^6Msun at z~6 through early gaseous accretion episodes, after which it stays at near constant mass. At the same redshift, the duty-cycle of the host AGN ends, hence redshift z=6 marks the transition from an AGN to a starburst galaxy which eventually becomes the Milky Way. By tracking black hole growth as a function of time and mass, we estimate that the IMBH merger rate reaches a maximum of R_{max}=55 yr^-1 at z=11. From IMBH merger rates we calculate N_{ULX}=7 per Milky Way type galaxy per redshift in redshift range 2

  20. Grain growth and phase stability of nanocrystalline cubic zirconia under ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Jiang, Weilin; Wang, Chong M.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Edmondson, Philip D.; Zhu, Zihua; Gao, Fei; Lian, Jie; Weber, William J.

    2010-11-10

    Grain growth, oxygen stoichiometry and phase stability of nanostructurally-stabilized zirconia (NSZ) in pure cubic phase are investigated under 2 MeV Au ion bombardment at 160 and 400 K to doses up to 35 displacements per atom (dpa). The NSZ films are produced by ion-beam-assisted deposition technique at room temperature with an average grain size of 7.7 nm. The grain size increases with dose, and follows a power law (n=6) to a saturation value of ~30 nm that decreases with temperature. Slower grain growth is observed under 400 K irradiations, as compared to 160 K irradiations, indicating that thermal grain growth is not activated and defect-stimulated grain growth is the dominating mechanism. While cubic phase is perfectly retained and no new phases are identified after the high-dose irradiations, reduction of oxygen in the irradiated NSZ films is detected. The ratio of O to Zr decreases from ~2.0 for the as-deposited films to ~1.65 after irradiation to ~35 dpa. Significant increase of oxygen vacancies in nanocrystalline zirconia suggests substantially enhanced oxygen diffusion under ion irradiation, a materials behavior far from equilibrium. The oxygen deficiency may be essential in stabilizing cubic phase to larger grain sizes.