Sample records for high fuel economy

  1. High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information ACE060 High Fuel Economy Heavy Duty Truck Engine Overview Timeline October 2007 - October 2011 Barriers...

  2. Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department is investing in groundbreaking research that will make cars weigh less, drive further and consume less fuel.

  3. Very High Fuel Economy, Heavy Duty Truck, Narrow Range Speed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy Duty Truck, Narrow Range Speed Engine, Optimized Via Unique Energy Recovery Turbines and Facilitated by High Efficiency Continuously Variable Drivetrain Very High Fuel...

  4. Car buyers and fuel economy?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Tom; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    corporate average fuel economy standards. Economic InquiryAll rights reserved. Keywords: Fuel economy; Fuel ef?ciency;improvement in the fuel economy of an SUV they have designed

  5. High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii CleanHeatinHigh Efficiency|Fuel Economy

  6. Fuel Economy: What Drives Consumer Choice?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Tom; Kurani, Kenneth; Heffner, Rusty

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Car Buyers and Fuel Economy? ” Energy Policy, vol. 35, 2007.Fuel Economy: What Drives Consumer Choice? BY TOMyou think about fuel economy? ” Rather, we listened closely

  7. Fuel Economy: What Drives Consumer Choice?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Tom; Kurani, Kenneth S; Heffner, Reid R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Car Buyers and Fuel Economy? ” Energy Policy, vol. 35, 2007.Fuel Economy: What Drives Consumer Choice? BY TOMyou think about fuel economy? ” Rather, we listened closely

  8. 2012 Fuel Economy of New Vehicles Sets Record High: EPA | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehiclesTankless or Demand-TypeWelcome6 ProjectsEnergy 2 Fuel Economy of

  9. Moving Forward With Fuel Economy Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Council. Automotive Fuel Economy: How Far Can We Go? (Lee Schipper. Automobile Fuel. Economy and CO 2 Emissions inGraham. The Effect of Fuel Economy Standards on Automobile

  10. Fuel Economy: What Drives Consumer Choice?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Tom; Kurani, Kenneth; Heffner, Rusty

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S. Kurani, “Car Buyers and Fuel Economy? ” Energy Policy,Fuel Economy: What Drives Consumer Choice? BY TOMa car, do they think about fuel costs over time, are they

  11. Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters...

  12. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities for increasing both fuel economy and safety without compromising functionality.

  13. Very High Fuel Economy, Heavy Duty Truck, Narrow Range Speed Engine,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment of EnergyProgram2-26TheUtility-ScaleofLabReportEnergy81Arizona, Site

  14. Automobile Buyer Decisions about Fuel Economy and Fuel Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Ken; Turrentine, Thomas

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Consumer Response to Automobile Regulation and TechnologicalConsumer Discounting of Automobile Fuel Economy: ReviewingDecisions: Evidence from Automobiles” Research Report.

  15. Fact #659: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    9: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles Operating on Electricity Fact 659: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles Operating on Electricity The...

  16. Fuel Economy: What Drives Consumer Choice?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Tom; Kurani, Kenneth; Heffner, Rusty

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    decisions around cars, fuel economy, and hybrid vehiclesfuel-ef?cient compact cars. The hybrid buyers in this studycar models are often small. So it’s unsurprising that even hybrid

  17. Fuel Economy: What Drives Consumer Choice?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Tom; Kurani, Kenneth S; Heffner, Reid R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    decisions around cars, fuel economy, and hybrid vehiclesfuel-ef?cient compact cars. The hybrid buyers in this studycar models are often small. So it’s unsurprising that even hybrid

  18. Fuel Prices and New Vehicle Fuel Economy in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klier, Thomas

    This paper evaluates the effect of fuel prices on new vehicle fuel economy in the eight largest European markets. The analysis spans the years 2002–2007 and uses detailed vehicle registration and specification data to ...

  19. Fuel Economy With the price of gasoline at over $3.50 a gallon the fuel economy of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carriquiry, Alicia

    Fuel Economy With the price of gasoline at over $3.50 a gallon the fuel economy of vehicles proposed raising the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÉ) standard for cars and trucks. In 2004, American cars needed to achieve an average fuel economy of 27.5 miles per gallon (MPG) while light trucks needed

  20. Fuel Economy Comparisons of Series, Parallel and HMT Hydraulic Hybrid Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    Fuel Economy Comparisons of Series, Parallel and HMT Hydraulic Hybrid Architectures Zhekang Du, Kai and do not require costly batteries, they have the potential to achieve high fuel economy and performance and effectiveness in engine management. This paper compares the fuel economies and performance

  1. Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving cycles and interstate roads Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving...

  2. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy...

  3. Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions: globalchange@mit.edu Website: http://globalchange.mit.edu/ #12;Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions constraint? Implications for energy and climate

  4. A G E N D A Fuel Economy &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    A G E N D A Fuel Economy & Idle Reduction Seminar SPEAKERS Rich Cregar, Wake Technical Program Jonathan Overly 8:4510:15 ­ Fuel Economy & Idle Reduction Technologies & Practices Rich Cregar 10:1510:30 ­ Break 10:3010:55 ­ FuelEconomy.gov & increasing Fuel Efficiency Robert

  5. Fact #692: September 12, 2011 Fuel Economy Distribution for New...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (MY) 1975 had combined highwaycity fuel economy of 15 miles per gallon (mpg) or less blue shading. By 2010, 63% of cars had fuel economy of 25 mpg or higher green shading and...

  6. Evaluation and Adaptation of 5-Cycle Fuel Economy Testing and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adaptation of 5-Cycle Fuel Economy Testing and Calculations for HEVs and PHEVs Evaluation and Adaptation of 5-Cycle Fuel Economy Testing and Calculations for HEVs and PHEVs 2012...

  7. BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF FUEL ECONOMY POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berger, Jim

    BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF FUEL ECONOMY POTENTIAL DUE TO TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENTS by Richard W. Andrews in the engineering assessment phase of this project: N.T. Barnes, B. Beeson, R.C. Belaire, W.C. Follmer, R.J. Genik, R.C. Heathfield, T.E. Kenney, D.L. Kulp, J.G. LaFond, J.D. Medrick, N.M. Novelli, G. Pietron, N

  8. Fuel Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-Electric/Diesel Powertrain...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-ElectricDiesel Powertrain in a Class 4 Parcel Delivery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-ElectricDiesel Powertrain in a Class 4...

  9. Prospects on fuel economy improvements for hydrogen powered vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rousseau, A.; Wallner, T.; Pagerit, S.; Lohse-Bush, H. (Energy Systems)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cell vehicles are the subject of extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and the demand for hydrogen is therefore limited, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. Despite its lower cost, the hydrogen-fueled ICE offers, for a similar amount of onboard hydrogen, a lower driving range because of its lower efficiency. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen-fueled vehicles to their conventional gasoline counterparts. To take uncertainties into account, the current and future status of both technologies were considered. Although complete data related to port fuel injection were provided from engine testing, the map for the direct-injection engine was developed from single-cylinder data. The fuel cell system data represent the status of the current technology and the goals of FreedomCAR. For both port-injected and direct-injected hydrogen engine technologies, power split and series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) configurations were considered. For the fuel cell system, only a series HEV configuration was simulated.

  10. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy without sacrificing safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ford delays plans to boost fuel economy of its SUVs. WallImproving safety without impacting fuel economy. Honda MotorCompany, October 4. SIPPING FUEL AND SAVING LIVES / 24

  11. Impact of Vehicle Air-Conditioning on Fuel Economy, Tailpipe Emissions, and Electric Vehicle Range: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, R.; Rugh, J.

    2000-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Vehicle air-conditioning can significantly impact fuel economy and tailpipe emissions of conventional and hybrid electric vehicles and reduce electric vehicle range. In addition, a new US emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure, has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the US. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. Current air-conditioning systems can reduce the fuel economy of high fuel-economy vehicles by about 50% and reduce the fuel economy of today's mid-sized vehicles by more than 20% while increasing NOx by nearly 80% and CO by 70%.

  12. Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - A Fuel Economy Solution for The US Turbocharged SIDI is the most promising advanced gasoline technology; combines existing & proven technologies in a synergistic manner, offers...

  13. Fact #589: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    national standards for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE). The standards would apply to model year 2012 - 2016 passenger cars and light...

  14. The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Read the 2014 Fuel Economy Guide to inform your new car purchase this year. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.comThomasEyeDesign Read the 2014 Fuel Economy Guide to inform your...

  15. Automobile Prices, Gasoline Prices, and Consumer Demand for Fuel Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Automobile Prices, Gasoline Prices, and Consumer Demand for Fuel Economy Ashley Langer University evidence that automobile manufacturers set vehicle prices as if consumers respond to gasoline prices. We consumer preferences for fuel efficiency. Keywords: automobile prices, gasoline prices, environmental

  16. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S.; Glaser, R.; Richardson, J.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CAROB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4 %, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6 %. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CAROB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  17. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S., LLNL

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  18. Automobile Fuel; Economy and CO2 Emissions in Industrialized Countries: Troubling Trends through 2005/6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K. , 1993b, Fuel Prices and Economy: Factors Effecting LandCar Test and Actual Fuel Economy: Yet Another Gap? Transportof automobile fuel economy in Europe. Energy Policy 34 14.

  19. Fact #813: January 20, 2014 New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy Continues...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    3: January 20, 2014 New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy Continues to Rise Fact 813: January 20, 2014 New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy Continues to Rise The sales-weighted fuel economy...

  20. Analysis of the Relationship Between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety, and Implications for Federal Fuel Economy Regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenzel, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Federal Fuel Economy Regulation Final Report preparedand have higher fuel economy, and safer than conventionaland have higher fuel economy, without sacrificing safety. 1.

  1. Heavy-Duty Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

  2. Fact #833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle Attribute Fact 833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle Attribute A 2014 survey...

  3. Evaluation of the Fuel Economy Impacts of Low Temperature Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuel Economy Impacts of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) using Engine-in-the-Loop 2013 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review May 15, 2013 Neeraj Shidore...

  4. Global Fuel Economy Initiative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,OpenBusGEF Jump to:Risk

  5. Fuel Economy Coach | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URIFrontier, North Dakota:Coach Jump to: navigation,

  6. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.M.; Wang, M.Q.; Vyas, A.D.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents estimates of the full cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into reductions in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns, particularly under the High Market Share Scenario.

  7. Fuel Economy Valentines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergy FrozenNovember 10, 2014EnergyNEACClass

  8. Chapter 4. Fuel Economy, Consumption and Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,998 10,64397 272 522

  9. Fuel Economy Fact and Fiction | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdf Flash2010-72.pdfAccomplishments |Activities | DepartmentFuelSiCFuel Economy

  10. Fact #594: October 26, 2009 Fuel Economy and Annual Fuel Cost...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    graph below shows the range of the lowest and highest fuel economy for each vehicle class, along with the lowest and highest annual fuel cost (in parentheses). For example, the...

  11. Since 1975, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Since 1975, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, established during the energy crises of the 1970s. Calls to increase fuel economy are usually met by a fierce debate on the effectiveness of the CAFE standards

  12. Demonstration of the fuel economy potential associated with M85-fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, J.W.; Huff, S.P. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)] [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gasoline-fueled 1988 Chevrolet Corsica was converted to operate on M85 to demonstrate that the characteristics of methanol fuels can be exploited to emphasize vehicle fuel economy rather than vehicle performance. The results of the tests performed indicated fuel economy improvements of up to 21% at steady highway speeds, and almost 20% on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s federal test procedure city and highway cycles.

  13. Automobile Fuel; Economy and CO2 Emissions in Industrialized Countries: Troubling Trends through 2005/6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use, Energy Policy 21. (M. , Dolan, K. , 1993b, Fuel Prices and Economy: Factors1994. New Car Test and Actual Fuel Economy: Yet Another Gap?

  14. Development of Test Methodology for Evaluation of Fuel Economy in Motorcycle Engines.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michlberger, Alexander

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Rising fuel costs and concerns over fossil fuel emissions have resulted in more stringent fuel economy and emissions standards globally. As a result, motor vehicle… (more)

  15. Very High Fuel Economy, Heavy Duty, Constant Speed, Truck Engine Optimized Via Unique Energy Recovery Turbines and Facilitated High Efficiency Continuously Variable Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahman Habibzadeh

    2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The project began under a corporative agreement between Mack Trucks, Inc and the Department of Energy starting from September 1, 2005. The major objective of the four year project is to demonstrate a 10% efficiency gain by operating a Volvo 13 Litre heavy-duty diesel engine at a constant or narrow speed and coupled to a continuously variable transmission. The simulation work on the Constant Speed Engine started on October 1st. The initial simulations are aimed to give a basic engine model for the VTEC vehicle simulations. Compressor and turbine maps are based upon existing maps and/or qualified, realistic estimations. The reference engine is a MD 13 US07 475 Hp. Phase I was completed in May 2006 which determined that an increase in fuel efficiency for the engine of 10.5% over the OICA cycle, and 8.2% over a road cycle was possible. The net increase in fuel efficiency would be 5% when coupled to a CVT and operated over simulated highway conditions. In Phase II an economic analysis was performed on the engine with turbocompound (TC) and a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). The system was analyzed to determine the payback time needed for the added cost of the TC and CVT system. The analysis was performed by considering two different production scenarios of 10,000 and 60,000 units annually. The cost estimate includes the turbocharger, the turbocompound unit, the interstage duct diffuser and installation details, the modifications necessary on the engine and the CVT. Even with the cheapest fuel and the lowest improvement, the pay back time is only slightly more than 12 months. A gear train is necessary between the engine crankshaft and turbocompound unit. This is considered to be relatively straight forward with no design problems.

  16. TRB 05-1336 The Effect of Fuel Economy on Automobile Safety: A Reexamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TRB 05-1336 The Effect of Fuel Economy on Automobile Safety: A Reexamination November 16, 2004 Word of 1975. The program requires automobile producers to meet fleet average fuel economy standards set

  17. How Does Your Fuel Economy Compare to the Test Ratings on Fueleconomy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    How Does Your Fuel Economy Compare to the Test Ratings on Fueleconomy.gov? How Does Your Fuel Economy Compare to the Test Ratings on Fueleconomy.gov? November 12, 2009 - 8:36am...

  18. Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower This page contains information on the...

  19. Multi-Mode RCCI Has Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multi-Mode RCCI Has Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Diesel Engines Multi-Mode RCCI Has Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Diesel Engines...

  20. Fact #680: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When Buying a Vehicle Fact 680: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When Buying a Vehicle A June 2011 survey asked the...

  1. Project Information Form Project Title Reducing Truck Emissions and Improving Truck Fuel Economy via ITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Project Information Form Project Title Reducing Truck Emissions and Improving Truck Fuel Economy new traffic flow and traffic light control concepts with respect to emissions and fuel economy. Some

  2. Examining new fuel economy standards for the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After decades of futile attempts to increase U.S. fuel economy standards for passenger cars, which have remained unchanged since enactment of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards in Title V of the 1975 Energy Policy Conservation Act, it seems increasingly likely that new and tougher standards will be enacted in the near future - especially after the Senate's 21 June passage of energy efficiency bill H.R. 6. As this magazine went to press, the bill, which calls for a 40 percent increase in vehicle fuel economy by 2020 among other efficiency and alternative energy goals, was headed to the House of Representatives for more debate. Congress has seen proposals like this since the 1980s, but this is the first time that one of them has passed in the Senate. The Bush administration has also weighed in with a proposal to increase new vehicle fuel economy by 4 percent per year from 2011 to 2017, and the administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has asked Congress to grant the Secretary of Transportation the authority to restructure and increase CAFE standards for cars, a power denied by the original CAFE legislation. A confluence of events has led to this change of political climate, including: the failure of world oil production and refining capacity to keep pace with rapidly growing demand, especially from China and other emerging economies, which has led to the highest oil prices since the 1980s and growing fears that world production of conventional oil may be close to its peak and rapid decline; the escalating influence of oil resources on geopolitics as China seeks to guarantee its future access to supplies, enhanced revenues from the higher prices, which prop up authoritarian regimes in Iran, Venezuela, Russia, and elsewhere and allow them increasing freedom of action; the enhancement of the role of climate change in political decision making by new reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), with much strengthened language about the probability and severity of climate change and man's influence on it, and a recent Supreme Court decision rejecting the Environmental Protection Agency's assertion that it has no authority to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. New fuel economy standards will represent an ambitious and expensive undertaking on the part of the automobile industry and the nation, and proposals for new standards deserve careful congressional and public scrutiny.

  3. 2009 Fuel Economy Guide and FuelEconomy.gov | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energyon ArmedWaste and Materials Disposition#EnergyFaceoff1 1Electricity

  4. Fuel Economy of Vehicles Made in 2004 Description of the sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carriquiry, Alicia

    Fuel Economy of Vehicles Made in 2004 Description of the sample: A random sample of 36 cars and light trucks was obtained from all the vehicle models made in 2004. The combined fuel economy estimate the vehicles got 22 MPG or less. There was a good deal of variability in the fuel economy of the 36 cars

  5. A fuel economy optimization system with applications in vehicles with human drivers and autonomous vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Changxu (Sean)

    A fuel economy optimization system with applications in vehicles with human drivers and autonomous University of New York, Buffalo, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Vehicle fuel economy Eco-driving Human developed and validated a new fuel-economy optimization system (FEOS), which receives input from vehicle

  6. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenzel, Thomas P

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on occupant safety than fuel economy standards that arethe automobile fuel economy standards program, NHTSA docketCorporate Average Fuel Economy Standards Docket No. NHTSA–

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - average fuel economy Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Analysis Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization 10 Automobile Buyer Decisions about Fuel Economy and Fuel Efficiency Summary: , will higher income...

  8. Automobile Fuel; Economy and CO2 Emissions in Industrialized Countries: Troubling Trends through 2005/6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use, Energy Policy 21. (1995. Determinants of Automobile Energy Use and Energythe baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe.

  9. Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haring, Ben

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynasty. (Davies 1943: pl. XXIX). Economy, Haring, UEE 2009J OHN B AINES Short Citation: Haring, 2009, Economy. UEE.Citation: Haring, Ben, 2009, Economy. In Elizabeth Frood and

  10. The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  11. Measuring and Reporting Fuel Economy of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Simpson, A.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews techniques used to characterize plug-in hybrid electric vehicle fuel economy, discussing their merits, limitations, and best uses.

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - automobile fuel economy Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: automobile fuel economy Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 BERKELEY CATALYSIS CENTER November 11, 2005...

  13. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project goals. Several flex-fuel demonstration vehicles were designed and built for carrying out calibration development and final testing to quantify the technology merits. Based on the extensive test results collected from dynamometer and vehicle testing, the fuel economy benefits of cooled EGR from the intended level of turbocharger technology were quantified. When combined with turbo downsizing, the FE benefits are considered large enough for E0 fuel as well as for E85 fuel to warrant further development of the technology beyond the current proof-of-concept level to a level that can meet production driveability quality and durability requirements in order to meet customers’ expectations. Cold-start cart test results from the emissions segment of the project were positive, confirming the assumption of faster thermal response of turbo exhaust system for emissions reductions for both E0 and E85 fuels. Vehicle emissions test results directionally correlated to the cold-start cart findings. The limited number of test runs did demonstrate the potentials of meeting stringent emission standards, however, they did not comprehend the factors such as hardware variability and long-term durability, 3 which are essential for mass production to satisfy customers’ expectations. It is therefore recommended, moving forward, durability concerns over turbocharger, EGR system and aftertreatment system, which would likely impact production viability, should be addressed. The data moreover suggested that further FE increase is likely with turbocharger technology advancement.

  14. Combining a New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combining a New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: Energy and Economic established research centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;Combining a New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy

  15. Fact #793: August 19, 2013 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    economy by 5 mpg does not translate to a constant fuel savings amount. Trading a low-mpg car or truck for one with just slightly better mpg will save more fuel than trading a...

  16. Gasoline-fueled hybrid vs. conventional vehicle emissions and fuel economy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.

    1999-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses the relative fuel economy and emissions behavior, both measured and modeled, of technically comparable, contemporary hybrid and conventional vehicles fueled by gasoline, in terms of different driving cycles. Criteria pollutants (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides) are discussed, and the potential emissions benefits of designing hybrids for grid connection are briefly considered. In 1997, Toyota estimated that their grid-independent hybrid vehicle would obtain twice the fuel economy of a comparable conventional vehicle on the Japan 10/15 mode driving cycle. This initial result, as well as the fuel economy level (66 mpg), made its way into the U.S. press. Criteria emissions amounting to one-tenth of Japanese standards were cited, and some have interpreted these results to suggest that the grid-independent hybrid can reduce criteria emissions in the U.S. more sharply than can a conventional gasoline vehicle. This paper shows that the potential of contemporary grid-independent hybrid vehicle technology for reducing emissions and fuel consumption under U.S. driving conditions is less than some have inferred. The importance (and difficulty) of doing test and model assessments with comparable driving cycles, comparable emissions control technology, and comparable performance capabilities is emphasized. Compared with comparable-technology conventional vehicles, grid-independent hybrids appear to have no clear criteria pollutant benefits (or disbenefits). (Such benefits are clearly possible with grid-connectable hybrids operating in zero emissions mode.) However, significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., fuel consumption) are possible with hybrid vehicles when they are used to best advantage.

  17. Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Vehicle Equipped with an Aftermarket Flexible-Fuel Conversion Kit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grants Certificates of Conformity for alternative fuel conversion systems and also offers other forms of premarket registration of conversion kits for use in vehicles more than two model years old. Use of alternative fuels such as ethanol, natural gas, and propane are encouraged by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) produce emissions-certified vehicles capable of using alternative fuels, and several alternative fuel conversion system manufacturers produce EPA-approved conversion systems for a variety of alternative fuels and vehicle types. To date, only one manufacturer (Flex Fuel U.S.) has received EPA certifications for ethanol fuel (E85) conversion kits. This report details an independent evaluation of a vehicle with a legal installation of a Flex Fuel U.S. conversion kit. A 2006 Dodge Charger was baseline tested with ethanol-free certification gasoline (E0) and E20 (gasoline with 20 vol % ethanol), converted to flex-fuel operation via installation of a Flex Box Smart Kit from Flex Fuel U.S., and retested with E0, E20, E50, and E81. Test cycles included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP or city cycle), the highway fuel economy test (HFET), and the US06 test (aggressive driving test). Averaged test results show that the vehicle was emissions compliant on E0 in the OEM condition (before conversion) and compliant on all test fuels after conversion. Average nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions exceeded the Tier 2/Bin 5 intermediate life NO{sub X} standard with E20 fuel in the OEM condition due to two of three test results exceeding this standard [note that E20 is not a legal fuel for non-flexible-fuel vehicles (non-FFVs)]. In addition, one E0 test result before conversion and one E20 test result after conversion exceeded the NOX standard, although the average result in these two cases was below the standard. Emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde increased with increasing ethanol, while nonmethane organic gas and CO emissions remained relatively unchanged for all fuels and cycles. Higher fraction ethanol blends appeared to decrease NO{sub X} emissions on the FTP and HFET (after conversion). As expected, fuel economy (miles per gallon) decreased with increasing ethanol content in all cases.

  18. Ris Energy Report 3 Interest in the hydrogen economy and in fuel cells has

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2 Risø Energy Report 3 Interest in the hydrogen economy and in fuel cells has increased used for natural gas. Existing fuel cells can convert hydrogen efficiently into electric power. Emerging fuel cell technologies can do the same for other hydrogen-rich fuels, while generating little

  19. Emissions and fuel economy of a prechamber diesel engine with natural gas dual fuelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, X.; Hill, P.G.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A four-cylinder turbocharged prechamber diesel engine (Caterpillar 3304) was operated with natural gas and pilot diesel fuel ignition over a wide range of load and speed. Measurements were made of fuel consumption and the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and the oxides of nitrogen. Improvements in fuel economy and emissions were found to be affected by the diesel fuel-gas fraction, and by air restriction and fuel injection timing. Boundaries of unstable, inefficient and knocking operation were defined and the importance of gas-air equivalance ratio was demonstrated in its effect on economy, emissions and stability of operation.

  20. Vehicle fuel economy benefit and aftertreatment requirement of an HCCI-SI engine system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardy, AliciA Jillian Jackson, 1978-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This body of work dimensions the HCCI fuel economy benefits and required aftertreatment performance for compliance with emissions regulations in North America and Europe. The following parameters were identified as key ...

  1. Fuel economy regulations and efficiency technology improvements in U.S. cars since 1975

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacKenzie, Donald Warren

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light-duty vehicles account for 43% of petroleum consumption and 23% of green- house gas emissions in the United States. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards are the primary policy tool addressing petroleum ...

  2. Fuel Economy Standards for New Light Trucks (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In March 2006, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) finalized Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards requiring higher fuel economy performance for light-duty trucks in model year (MY) 2008 through 2011. Unlike the proposed CAFE standards discussed in Annual Energy Outlook 2006, which would have established minimum fuel economy requirements by six footprint size classes, the final reformed CAFE standards specify a continuous mathematical function that determines minimum fuel economy requirements by vehicle footprint, defined as the wheelbase (the distance from the front axle to the center of the rear axle) times the average track width (the distance between the center lines of the tires) of the vehicle in square feet.

  3. DOE SuperTruck utilizes ORNL technology to boost fuel economy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Media Relations 865.574.4165 DOE SuperTruck utilizes ORNL technology to boost fuel economy DOE SuperTruck DOE SuperTruck (hi-res image) Listen to the audio The Department of...

  4. Correlations of fuel economy, exhaust hydro-carbon concentrations, and vehicle performance efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, Philip Douglas

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CORRELATIONS OF FUEL ECONOMY, EXHAUST HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATIONS, AND VEHICLE PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY A Thesis by PHILIP DOUGLAS BAUMANN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Civil Engineering CORRELATIONS OF FUEL ECONOMY, EXHAUST HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATIONS, AND VEHICLE PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY A Thesis by PHILIP DOUGLAS BAUMANN Approved as to style and content by...

  5. What is the Viability of Cellulosic Ethanol as an Alternative to Fossil Fuels in today's Economy?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    What is the Viability of Cellulosic Ethanol as an Alternative to Fossil Fuels in today's Economy. Assessing the viability of cellulosic ethanol as an alternative to fossil fuels in today's and future the world. The consequences from anthropogenic burning of fossil fuels experienced over the last few decades

  6. FreedomCAR and Fuel Cells: Toward the Hydrogen Economy?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    best to deliver hydrogen to the fuel cell on the vehicle.to simply deliver hydrogen to a fuel cell via another typefor selling fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen, and consumers

  7. Biomass Fueling America's Growing Clean Energy Economy | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top Five EEREDepartmentFebruary 4, 2014Biogas and FuelCookstoves

  8. 2011 Fuel Economy Guide Now Available | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustionImprovement Awardflash2007-42attachment1.pdfmodule(EE) | DepartmentFeedstockConference2011 Fuel

  9. Fuel Economy.gov - Mobile | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power Basics (TheEtelligence (SmartHomeFremont,using Renewable Fuels

  10. Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis of the number of stations and vehicles necessary to achieve future goals for sales of ethanol fuel (E85) is presented. Issues related to the supply of ethanol, which may turn out to be of even greater concern, are not analyzed here. A model of consumers decisions to purchase E85 versus gasoline based on prices, availability, and refueling frequency is derived, and preliminary results for 2010, 2017, and 2030 consistent with the president s 2007 biofuels program goals are presented. A limited sensitivity analysis is carried out to indicate key uncertainties in the trade-off between the number of stations and fuels. The analysis indicates that to meet a 2017 goal of 26 billion gallons of E85 sold, on the order of 30% to 80% of all stations may need to offer E85 and that 125 to 200 million flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) may need to be on the road, even if oil prices remain high. These conclusions are tentative for three reasons: there is considerable uncertainty about key parameter values, such as the price elasticity of choice between E85 and gasoline; the future prices of E85 and gasoline are uncertain; and the method of analysis used is highly aggregated it does not consider the potential benefits of regional strategies or the possible existence of market segments predisposed to purchase E85. Nonetheless, the preliminary results indicate that the 2017 biofuels program goals are ambitious and will require a massive effort to produce enough FFVs and ensure widespread availability of E85.

  11. Fuel Economy on the Fly | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergy FrozenNovember 10,

  12. Fueling South Carolina's Clean Energy Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergyQuality Challenges

  13. EPA-Fuel Economy Guide | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power Basics (The followingDirectLow Carbon TransitionENERGYEnvironmental

  14. EPA-Fuel Economy Guide | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power Basics (The followingDirectLow Carbon TransitionENERGYEnvironmentalGuide

  15. Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyTheTwoVulnerabilities | DepartmentReactive Barrierof| Department

  16. The Economic, Energy, and GHG Emissions Impacts of Proposed 2017–2025 Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karplus, Valerie

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Increases in the U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards for 2017 to 2025 model year light-duty vehicles are currently under consideration. This analysis uses an economy-wide model with detail in the passenger ...

  17. Fuel Economy on the Fly | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAX POLICIES7.pdfFuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle BasicsValentineson the Fly

  18. BioFacts: Fueling a stronger economy, Biodiesel. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel is a substitute for or an additive to diesel fuel that is derived from the oils and fats of plants. It is an alternative fuel that can be used in diesel engines and provides power similar to conventional diesel fuel. It is a biodegradable transportation fuel that contributes little, if any, net carbon dioxide or sulfur to the atmosphere, and is low in particulate emission. It is a renewable, domestically produced liquid fuel that can help reduce US dependence on foreign oil imports. This overview presents the resource potential, history, processing techniques, US DOE programs cost and utilization potential of biodiesel fuels.

  19. 2004 FUEL ECONOMY GUIDE BEST IN CLASS | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment( Sample of Shipment Notice)1021STATE ENERGY3 Commercial andof4 FUEL

  20. Real-World PHEV Fuel Economy Prediction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartment ofList? |EnergyDepartmentMilestoneFiltersPHEV Fuel

  1. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress,

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |EnergyonSupport Maine WindFLASH2011-6-OPAMFY2012 EERE CongressionalConsider Fuel1978-2014 -

  2. Vehicle Mass Impact on Vehicle Losses and Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  3. FUEL ECONOMY AND CO2 EMISSIONS STANDARDS, MANUFACTURER PRICING STRATEGIES, AND FEEBATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Changzheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL] [ORNL; Bunch, Dr David S. [University of California, Davis] [University of California, Davis

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and CO2 emissions standards for 2012 to 2016 have significantly increased the stringency of requirements for new light-duty vehicle fuel efficiency. This study investigates the role of technology adoption and pricing strategies in meeting new standards, as well as the impact of feebate policies. The analysis is carried out by means of a dynamic optimization model that simulates manufacturer decisions with the objective of maximizing social surplus while simultaneously considering consumer response and meeting CAFE and emissions standards. The results indicate that technology adoption plays the major role and that the provision of compliance flexibility and the availability of cost-effective advanced technologies help manufacturers reduce the need for pricing to induce changes in the mix of vehicles sold. Feebates, when implemented along with fuel economy and emissions standards, can bring additional fuel economy improvement and emissions reduction, but the benefit diminishes with the increasing stringency of the standards.

  4. Comparison of Different Load Road Implementation Strategies on Fuel Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth Codestheat TwoDepartment ofComparison of Cleanof USPS

  5. 2010 Annual Fuel Economy Guide Now Available | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustionImprovement Awardflash2007-42attachment1.pdfmodule 4 module51:11|ofConference9 National90 -2010

  6. Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyThe EnergyDepartment7DepartmentEnergy TurbineTurboThe US |

  7. New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards Will Continue to Inspire Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy HealthCommentsAugustNationalMarketsMillion DOE Award |Department

  8. Energy Department and Environmental Protection Agency Release Fuel Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: TopEnergyIDIQBusinessin Jamaica, N.Y. | Department of EnergyClean

  9. International Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in the Economy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andofIan KalinResearch, Development,CoP)Builders'NEDO,

  10. Natural Gas Pathways and Fuel Economy Guide Comparison | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOETowardExecutive Summary In0|ExportsLogistical

  11. www.steps.ucdavis.edu How vehicle fuel economy improvements can

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    from Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles · Role of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) · Relative are very cost- effective Fuel savings more than pays for fuel economy improvements in light-duty vehicles Fuelsavings #12;7 Some cost/benefit estimates FE Improvement, hybrids, PEVs v. a base ICE vehicle over time

  12. Data Collection for Class-8 Long-Haul Operations and Fuel Economy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Data Collection for Class-8 Long-Haul Operations and Fuel Economy Analysis A s part of a long Research Company ­ Michelin), have collected data and information related to Class-8 heavy truck long-haul-world data for the heavy-truck research community. An initial fuel efficiency study was conducted with regard

  13. Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietipDepartment of EnergyDepartment ofPhotoDepartmentMake sure

  14. Figure ES6. Fuel Economy Effects on Annual Energy Growth

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 6221,2372003ofDec. 31ES5 Figure ES5.

  15. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy andExsolutionFES6FYRANDOM DRUG TESTING The

  16. SEP Success Story: Fueling South Carolina's Clean Energy Economy |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists' Research |Regulation Services2014 Update |Department of Energy Pure Power, LLC

  17. Economic Impact Report Discovery Science Fuels Economy, Technology, Education

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed NewcatalystNeutronEnvironmentZIRKLE FRUITYear 1 Winners Announced!Tri Cities Economic

  18. NREL: Transportation Research - Emissions and Fuel Economy Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andData and ResourcesOtherForecastingAlternativeVehicle

  19. Lightweighting Impacts on Fuel Economy, Cost, and Component Losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooker, A. D.; Ward, J.; Wang, L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is the U.S. Department of Energy's high-level vehicle powertrain model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It uses a time versus speed drive cycle to estimate the powertrain forces required to meet the cycle. It simulates the major vehicle powertrain components and their losses. It includes a cost model based on component sizing and fuel prices. FASTSim simulated different levels of lightweighting for four different powertrains: a conventional gasoline engine vehicle, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and a battery electric vehicle (EV). Weight reductions impacted the conventional vehicle's efficiency more than the HEV, PHEV and EV. Although lightweighting impacted the advanced vehicles' efficiency less, it reduced component cost and overall costs more. The PHEV and EV are less cost effective than the conventional vehicle and HEV using current battery costs. Assuming the DOE's battery cost target of $100/kWh, however, the PHEV attained similar cost and lightweighting benefits. Generally, lightweighting was cost effective when it costs less than $6/kg of mass eliminated.

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by General Motors LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the application of high...

  1. Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdf Flash2006-53.pdf0.pdfCost Savings |Safety, Codes and07-01-3994 Fuel Economy and

  2. Review of alternate automotive engine fuel economy. Final report January-October 78

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, D.; Bolt, J.A.; Huber, P.; Taylor, T. Jr.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assessed the potential of alternate automotive engines to meet the fuel economy goals and emission levels of the 1980-1990 period. As part of NHTSA's continuing research in support of the Department of Transportation fuel economy activities, this study reviewed those developments offering viable substitutes for the current spark ignition engine systems. Categories assessed included stratified charge, diesels, turbo charging, rotary/Wankel engines, and the developmental gas turbine and Stirling cycle engines. Results of past and on-going research through 1978 were reviewed along with the development and production status of various alternate engine technologies proposed for automobiles and light trucks through the 1980s. Assessment was then made of the potential fuel economy improvement as a percentage of 1978 baseline data.

  3. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  4. Fuel Economy of the Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. fleet of light-duty vehicles consists of cars and light trucks, including minivans, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and trucks with gross vehicle weight less than 8,500 pounds. The fuel economy of light-duty vehicles is regulated by the (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) CAFE standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Currently, the CAFE standard is 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for cars and 20.7 mpg for light trucks. The most recent increase in the CAFE standard for cars was in 1990, and the most recent increase in the CAFE standard for light trucks was in 1996.

  5. Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models Released | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergy Cooperation |South42.2 (April 2012) 1Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models Released

  6. Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection ? A Fuel Economy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    8 DEER Conference, August 5 th 2009 Showing The Potential Of Turbocharged SIDI AVL- Turbo SIDI Demonstrator GDI-Turbo Concept Car for low Fuel Consumption 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0...

  7. Leveraging Intelligent Vehicle Technologies to Maximize Fuel Economy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancements in vehicle electronics, along with communication and sensing technologies, have led to a growing number of intelligent vehicle applications. Example systems include those for advanced driver information, route planning and prediction, driver assistance, and crash avoidance. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is exploring ways to leverage intelligent vehicle systems to achieve fuel savings. This presentation discusses several potential applications, such as providing intelligent feedback to drivers on specific ways to improve their driving efficiency, and using information about upcoming driving to optimize electrified vehicle control strategies for maximum energy efficiency and battery life. The talk also covers the potential of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and related technologies to deliver significant fuel savings in addition to providing safety and convenience benefits.

  8. Fuel Economy Improvement Potential of a Heavy Duty Truck using V2x Communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Verma, Rajeev [Eaton Corporation; Norris, Sarah [Eaton Corporation; Cochran, Robert [Eaton Corporation

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we introduce an intelligent driver assistance system to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty vehicles irrespective of the driving style of the driver. We specifically study the potential of V2I and V2V communications to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty trucks. Most ITS communications today are oriented towards vehicle safety, with communications strategies and hardware that tend to focus on low latency. This has resulted in technologies emerging with a relatively limited range for the communications. For fuel economy, it is expected that most benefits will be derived with greater communications distances, at the scale of many hundred meters or several kilometers, due to the large inertia of heavy duty vehicles. It may therefore be necessary to employ different communications strategies for ITS applications aimed at fuel economy and other environmental benefits than what is used for safety applications in order to achieve the greatest benefits.

  9. Comparison Study of SPEA2+, SPEA2, and NSGA-II in Diesel Engine Emissions and Fuel Economy Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    Comparison Study of SPEA2+, SPEA2, and NSGA-II in Diesel Engine Emissions and Fuel Economy Problem@mail.doshisha.ac.jp Abstract- Recently, the technology that can control NOx and Soot values of diesel engines by changing between fuel economy and NOx values. Therefore, the diesel engines that can change their characteristics

  10. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  11. Global Economy and IT IT: Recovery and Growth Government and IT IT and Society Strengthening Economies Innovation in information technology (IT) has fueled unprecedented economic gains in the last 30

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    Global Economy and IT IT: Recovery and Growth Government and IT IT and Society Strengthening Economies Innovation in information technology (IT) has fueled unprecedented economic gains in the last 30-term stimulus to local economies but also position both developed and developing economies to compete

  12. Some evidence on determinants of fuel economy as a function of driving cycle and test type

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Statistical methods are used with 107 vehicles whose fuel economy was presented and reported for five test types in a single publication by Consumers Union (CU) for 1986--1988 vehicles. Standard loglinear statistical formulations (i.e., multiplicative models of interactions) are used with data from this and supplementary sources to develop coefficients estimating the percent fuel economy gain per percent change in engine/vehicle design characteristic. The coefficients are developed for the five different test conditions evaluated by CU and are compared with each other on the basis of attributes of the tests. The insights of engineering models are used to develop expectations regarding the shift in size of coefficients as driving cycles change. In both the engineering models and the statistical model, the effect of weight is estimated to be higher in urban driving than in highway driving. For two test categories -- field tests and dynamometer tests -- the benefits of weight reduction are statistically estimated to be greatest in urban driving conditions. The effect on idle fuel flow rate of designing vehicles to hold performance roughly constant by maintaining power per kilogram and/or displacement per kilogram is examined, and its implication for the size of the weight effect is simply approximated from Sovran`s 1983 engineering model results. The fuel-economy-decreasing effect of the desire for performance is estimated to be somewhat larger in the statistical analysis than in the NAS study, when engine technology is held constant.

  13. Proposed Revisions to Light Truck Fuel Economy Standard (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In August 2005, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published proposed reforms to the structure of CAFE standards for light trucks and increases in light truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for model years 2008 through 201. Under the proposed new structure, NHTSA would establish minimum fuel economy levels for six size categories defined by the vehicle footprint (wheelbase multiplied by track width), as summarized in Table 3. For model years 2008 through 2010, the new CAFE standards would provide manufacturers the option of complying with either the standards defined for each individual footprint category or a proposed average light truck fleet standard of 22.5 miles per gallon in 2008, 23.1 miles per gallon in 2009, and 23.5 miles per gallon in 2010. All light truck manufacturers would be required to meet an overall standard based on sales within each individual footprint category after model year 2010.

  14. US Department of Energy Hybrid Vehicle Battery and Fuel Economy Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Karner; J.E. Francfort

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August, 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and research and development programs. The AVTA has tested over 200 advanced technology vehicles including full size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and hydrogen internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Currently, the AVTA is conducting significant tests of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This testing has included all HEVs produced by major automotive manufacturers and spans over 1.3 million miles. The results of all testing are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory. Through the course of this testing, the fuel economy of HEV fleets has been monitored and analyzed to determine the "real world" performance of their hybrid energy systems, particularly the battery. While the initial "real world" fuel economy of these vehicles has typically been less than that evaluated by the manufacturer and varies significantly with environmental conditions, the fuel economy and, therefore, battery performance, has remained stable over vehicle life (160,000 miles).

  15. The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next Fuel-Efficient

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of Energy StrainClientDesignOffice

  16. Global Fuel Economy Initiative Auto Fuel Efficiency ToolSet | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power BasicsGermany: Energy Resources Jump

  17. New Automobile Regulations: Double the Fuel Economy, Half the CO2 Emissions, and Even Automakers Like It

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nic

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-Time: The Case of US Automobile Greenhouse Gas EmissionNew Automobile Regulations Double the Fuel Economy, Half thephysics of the modern automobile involve an uphill battle to

  18. The Effect of Diesel Fuel Properties on Emissions-Restrained Fuel Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of Energy StrainClientDesignOfficeTheDepartmentAgreement |TheTechnology

  19. Fact #594: October 26, 2009 Fuel Economy and Annual Fuel Cost Ranges for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY 2011 Report1: March 9,3:DepartmentVehicle

  20. Fact #684: July 18, 2011 Fuel Economy versus Fuel Savings | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY 20112: July 19,Department4: MayEnergy 4:

  1. Fact #772: March 25, 2013 Fuel Economy by Speed: Slow Down to Save Fuel |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY 20112:of EnergyLast Five Years |in

  2. The effect of standard ambient conditions used for the determination of road load to predict vehicle fuel economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Love, Michael Lee

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF STANDARD AN1BIENT CONDITIONS USED FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ROAD LOAD TO PREDICT VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY A Thesis by Michael Lee Love Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 198Z Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE EFFECT OF STANDARD AMBIENT CONDITIONS USED FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ROAD LOAD TO PREDICT VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY A Thesis by Michael Lee Love Approved...

  3. The role of fuel in determining the high load limit of controlled auto-ignition engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maria, Amir Gamal

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) engines have the potential to increase fuel economy while lowering nitrogen oxide and soot emissions. One hurdle that is currently being faced is the engine's inability to operate at high ...

  4. 1994 U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Plan: Fueling a Competitive Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None,

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy has a rich heritage of meeting important national goals in the areas of energy, national security, science, and technology. The end of the Cold War, and the election of President Clinton, have given us a new national agenda. Through a comprehensive strategic planning process, we have determined that the Department must now unleash its extraordinary scientific and technical talent and resources on new and more sharply focused goals: fueling a competitive economy, improving the environment through waste management and pollution prevention, and reducing the nuclear danger.

  5. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  6. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakwani, R. M.; Winsor, R. E.; Ryan, III, T. W.; Schwalb, J. A.; Wahiduzzaman, S.; Wilson, Jr., R. P.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this program are to study combustion feasibility by running Series 149 engine tests at high speeds with a fuel injection and combustion system designed for coal-water-slurry (CWS). The following criteria will be used to judge feasibility: (1) engine operation for sustained periods over the load range at speeds from 600 to 1900 rpm. The 149 engine for mine-haul trucks has a rated speed of 1900 rpm; (2) reasonable fuel economy and coal burnout rate; (3) reasonable cost of the engine design concept and CWS fuel compared to future oil prices.

  7. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014

  8. Fact #848: November 24, 2014 Nearly Three-Fourths of New Cars have Fuel Economy above 25 Miles per Gallon- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #848: November 24, 2014 Nearly Three-Fourths of New Cars have Fuel Economy above 25 Miles per Gallon

  9. Testing hybrid electric vehicle emissions and fuel economy at the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duoba, M.; Quong, S.; LeBlanc, N.; Larsen, R.P.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From June 12--20, 1994, an engineering design competition called the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge was held in Southfield, Michigan. This collegiate-level competition, which involved 36 colleges and universities from across North America, challenged the teams to build a superior HEV. One component of this comprehensive competition was the emissions event. Special HEV testing procedures were developed for the competition to find vehicle emissions and correct for battery state-of-charge while fitting into event time constraints. Although there were some problems with a newly-developed data acquisition system, they were able to get a full profile of the best performing vehicles as well as other vehicles that represent typical levels of performance from the rest of the field. This paper will explain the novel test procedures, present the emissions and fuel economy results, and provide analysis of second-by-second data for several vehicles.

  10. Engineering-economic analyses of automotive fuel economy potential in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; DeCicco, J.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past 25 years more than 20 major studies have examined the technological potential to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks in the US. The majority has used technology/cost analysis, a combination of analytical methods from the disciplines of economics and automotive engineering. In this paper the authors describe the key elements of this methodology, discuss critical issues responsible for the often widely divergent estimates produced by different studies, review the history of its use, and present results from six recent assessments. Whereas early studies tended to confine their scope to the potential of proven technology over a 10-year time period, more recent studies have focused on advanced technologies, raising questions about how best to include the likelihood of technological change. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research.

  11. Voluntary Truck and Bus Fuel-Economy-Program marketing plan. Final technical report, September 29, 1980-January 29, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the program is to improve the utilization of fuel by commercial trucks and buses by updating and implementing specific approaches for educating and monitoring the trucking industry on methods and means of conserving fuels. The following outlines the marketing plan projects: increase use of program logo by voluntary program members and others; solicit trade publication membership and support; brief Congressional delegations on fuel conservation efforts; increase voluntary program presence before trade groups; increase voluntary program presence at truck and trade shows; create a voluntary program display for use at trade shows and in other areas; review voluntary program graphics; increase voluntary program membership; and produce placemats carrying fuel conservation messages; produce a special edition of Fuel Economy News, emphasizing the driver's involvement in fuel conservation; produce posters carrying voluntary program fuel conservation message. Project objectives, activities, and results for each project are summarized.

  12. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  13. Table of Contents Page 2National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and Its Forecasted Impact on the Florida Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Impact on the Florida Economy History and Evaluation of the Economic Impact of the Magnet Lab Forecasted Impact on the Florida Economy The National Science Foundation (NSF) awarded the National High generated by Magnet Lab activities across the broader statewide economy. Since 1990, the Magnet Lab has

  14. High-Level Functional and Operational Requirements for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facilty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Park

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-Level Functional & Operational Requirements for the AFCF -This document describes the principal functional and operational requirements for the proposed Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). The AFCF is intended to be the world's foremost facility for nuclear fuel cycle research, technology development, and demonstration. The facility will also support the near-term mission to develop and demonstrate technology in support of fuel cycle needs identified by industry, and the long-term mission to retain and retain U.S. leadership in fuel cycle operations. The AFCF is essential to demonstrate a more proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and make long-term improvements in fuel cycle effectiveness, performance and economy.

  15. High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Breakout Session 1C-Fostering...

  16. The effect of carburetor refurbishing on emissions, performance, and fuel economy in a classic pickup tested using real-world tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes, Jacklyn (Jacklyn A.)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project investigated how refurbishing the carburetor of a 1952 Chevrolet Pickup would affect emissions, performance, and fuel economy. The test used were real-world tests that anyone, with or without access to a ...

  17. Combining a New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: Energy and Economic Impact in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karplus, V.J.

    The United States has adopted fuel economy standards that require increases in the on-road efficiency of new passenger vehicles, with the goal of reducing petroleum use, as well as (more recently) greenhouse gas (GHG) ...

  18. Quantifying the Effects of Idle-Stop Systems on Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Wishart; Matthew Shirk

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vehicles equipped with idle-stop (IS) systems are capable of engine shut down when the vehicle is stopped and rapid engine re-start for the vehicle launch. This capability reduces fuel consumption and emissions during periods when the engine is not being utilized to provide propulsion or to power accessories. IS systems are a low-cost and fast-growing technology in the industry-wide pursuit of increased vehicle efficiency, possibly becoming standard features in European vehicles in the near future. In contrast, currently there are only three non-hybrid vehicle models for sale in North America with IS systems and these models are distinctly low-volume models. As part of the United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, ECOtality North America has tested the real-world effect of IS systems on fuel consumption in three vehicle models imported from Europe. These vehicles were chosen to represent three types of systems: (1) spark ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; (2) compression ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; and (3) direct-injection spark ignition, with 12-V belt alternator starter/combustion restart. The vehicles have undergone both dynamometer and on-road testing; the test results show somewhat conflicting data. The laboratory data and the portion of the on-road data in which driving is conducted on a prescribed route with trained drivers produced significant fuel economy improvement. However, the fleet data do not corroborate improvement, even though the data show significant engine-off time. It is possible that the effects of the varying driving styles and routes in the fleet testing overshadowed the fuel economy improvements. More testing with the same driver over routes that are similar with the IS system-enabled and disabled is recommended. There is anecdotal evidence that current Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy test procedures do not capture the fuel economy gains that IS systems produce in real-world driving. The program test results provide information on the veracity of these claims.

  19. Economies of Size on Irrigated Cotton Farms of the Texas High Plains.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madden, J. Patrick; Davis, Bob

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Economies of Size on Irrigated Cotton Farms of the Texas High Plains TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. E. Patterson, Director, College Station, Texas In cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture B-1037... June 1965 The study analyzed the economies of size available to irrigated cotton farms in the Texas High Plains. The findings show that the one-man farm with adequate capital can be as efficient as any larger size of farm. In fact, a 440-acre farm...

  20. Simulated fuel economy and emissions performance during city and interstate driving for a heavy-duty hybrid truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.

  1. Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High 3M (3M) Temperature Fuel Cells John B. Kerr Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Collaborators: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). February 13, 2007 This...

  2. High Temperature BOP and Fuel Processing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  3. Diesel NOx-PM Reduction with Fuel Economy Increase by IMET-OBC-DPF +

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  4. 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehiclesTankless or Demand-TypeWelcome6ResidentialEnergy

  5. Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  6. DOE and EPA Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

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  7. Fact #696: October 10, 2011 Top Ten "Real World" Fuel Economy Leaders |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY 20112: July| Department of

  8. Fact #826: June 23, 2014 The Effect of Tire Pressure on Fuel Economy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFYOxide Emission Standards, Model Years

  9. Fact #833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFYOxide Emission Standards, Modeland Canada

  10. Multi-Mode RCCI Has Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy in Light-Duty

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |EnergyonSupport0.pdf5 OPAM SEMIANNUAL REPORTMAMayCrossColoradoMotion to Withdraw

  11. Vehicle Mass Impact on Vehicle Losses and Fuel Economy | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  12. Journal of Power Sources, Vol.165, issue 2, March 2007, pp.819-832. Abstract--Power management strategy is as significant as component sizing in achieving optimal fuel economy of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    Management and Design Optimization of Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Vehicles #12;Journal of Power Sources, Vol.165 strategy is as significant as component sizing in achieving optimal fuel economy of a fuel cell hybrid management strategy and component sizing affect vehicle performance and fuel economy considerably in hybrid

  13. Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAX POLICIES7.pdfFuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle BasicsValentines

  14. Fuel Economy Sticker Revs Up Used Car Sales | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG | Department of Energy Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P.Fuel CellResearchFuel

  15. Fact #659: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles Operating on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  16. EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: TopEnergy DOEDealingVehicle1:EnergyDecemberof Energy87: PreserveStates |of

  17. Fuel Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-Electric/Diesel Powertrain in a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergy FrozenNovember 10, 2014EnergyNEACClass 4

  18. Policy Discussion - Heavy-Duty Truck Fuel Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  19. The Road to Improved Heavy Duty Fuel Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyThe Energy DepartmentCategory 2 NuclearThe Road to HiroshimaThe

  20. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyThe EnergyDepartment of Energy The U.S. and China

  1. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyThe EnergyDepartment of Energy The U.S. and ChinaEmissions in

  2. Fact #586: August 31, 2009 New Vehicle Fuel Economies by Vehicle Type |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY 2011 Report1: March 9,3: June0:

  3. Fact #587: September 7, 2009 Cash for Clunkers Program - Fuel Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY 2011 Report1: March 9,3: June0:Improvement |

  4. Fact #588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY 2011 Report1: March 9,3: June0:Improvement

  5. Fact #589: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY 2011 Report1: March 9,3:

  6. Fact #591: October 5, 2009 Consumer Reports Tests Vehicle Fuel Economy by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY 2011 Report1: March 9,3:Department ofSpeed |

  7. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY 2011 Report1:Energy 2:DepartmentYears

  8. Fact #626: June 7, 2010 Fuel Economy for Light and Heavy Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY 2011 Report1:EnergyDepartment of

  9. Fact #629: June 28, 2010 Top Ten Misconceptions about Fuel Economy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY 2011 Report1:EnergyDepartmentDepartment of

  10. Fact #630: July 5, 2010 Fuel Economy vs. Weight and Performance |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY 2011 Report1:EnergyDepartmentDepartment

  11. Fact #692: September 12, 2011 Fuel Economy Distribution for New Cars and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  12. Fact #730: June 4, 2012 Fuel Economy of New Light Vehicles is Up 19% from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  13. Fact #773: April 1, 2013 Fuel Economy Penalty at Higher Speeds | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  14. Fact #793: August 19, 2013 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  15. Fact #813: January 20, 2014 New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy Continues to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  16. Fact #818: April 21, 2014 The Effect of Winter Weather on Fuel Economy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  17. EHRS Impact on Engine Warm-up and Fuel Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  18. AVTA: Quantifying the Effects of Idle Stop Systems on Fuel Economy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment of Energy 601Department ofEnergy PHEV Demand and

  19. Evaluation and Adaptation of 5-Cycle Fuel Economy Testing and Calculations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  20. EPA, DOE Release 2015 Fuel Economy Guide for Car Buyers | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office of Audit| Department of EnergyProgramMeeting at OMB - ATI10635ofEPA'sEnergy

  1. Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel Economy and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  2. Heavy-Duty Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii CleanHeat PumpDutyEnergy 0Department of

  3. Global Fuel Economy Initiative: 50by50 Prospects and Progress | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to: navigation,GigaCrete Inc JumpGland,GlenrockGlobalInformation

  4. Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems - Fact Sheet, 2011 Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems - Fact Sheet, 2011 FuelCell...

  5. Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems - Fact Sheet, 2014 Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems - Fact Sheet, 2014 FuelCell...

  6. DOE and EPA Release 2011 Annual Fuel Economy Guide | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA, GA - U.S. Department ofThe U.S.D.C. -Affordable |

  7. DOE and EPA Release 2012 Annual Fuel Economy Guide | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA, GA - U.S. Department ofThe U.S.D.C. -Affordable |WASHINGTON, D.C. -

  8. "Table 11. Fuel Economy, Selected Survey Years (Miles Per Gallon)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesWyoming" "Item","Value","Rank" "Primary Energy

  9. How Does Your Fuel Economy Compare to the Test Ratings on Fueleconomy.gov?

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA,Fermi National AcceleratorMemoranda andEnergy andIt goesLast week,|

  10. We Can't Wait: Driving Forward with New Fuel Economy Standards |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen Owned SmallOf The 2012NuclearBradleyBudget Water Power

  11. What Steps Do You Take to Improve Your Fuel Economy? | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen Owned SmallOf TheViolations | Department of Energy Westinghouse Pays

  12. 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergy Cooperation |South Valley ResponsibleSubmissionof Energy 5 QuestionsDepartment of

  13. Figure ES7. Adjusted Annual Energy Growth - No Fuel Economy Effects

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 6221,2372003ofDec. 31ES5 Figure ES5.ES7

  14. DOE SuperTruck utilizes ORNL technology to boost fuel economy | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases onOrganization FYBeau Newmango!Department ofStrategic HumanField

  15. Federal Express CleanFleet Final Report Volume 4: Fuel Economy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibility of SF(STEO)  EIA expects that theDepartmentPolicy4

  16. EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.Program - LibbyofThisStatement ||MoreThisDepartment of Energy To accessof

  17. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmasSandy-Nor'easter SituationHybridVehicles

  18. EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA, GA -NationaltoDepartment ofMarch 7,Thein EnergyEnergy The.States

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - automotive fuel economy Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    proposed hydrogen tax credit supports the market introduction of hydrogen for use... in fuel cells and internal combustion engines in nearer-term applications, including forklifts,...

  20. Neutronics Design and Fuel Cycle Analysis of a High Conversion BWR with Pu-Th Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yunlin; Downar, T.J. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906-1290 (United States); Takahashi, H.; Rohatgi, U.S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI), a 'Generation IV' high conversion Boiling Water Reactor design is being investigated at Purdue University and Brookhaven National Laboratory. One of the primary innovative design features of the core proposed here is the use of Thorium as fertile material. In addition to the advantageous nonproliferation and waste characteristics of thorium fuel cycles, the use of thorium is particularly important in a tight pitch, high conversion lattice in order to insure a negative void coefficient throughout the operating life of the reactor. The principal design objective of a high conversion light water reactor is to substantially increase the conversion ratio (fissile atoms produced per fissile atoms consumed) of the reactor without compromising the safety performance of the plant. Since existing LWRs have a relatively low conversion ratio they require relatively frequent refueling which limits the economic efficiency of the plant. Also, the high volume of spent fuel can pose a burden for waste storage and the accumulation of plutonium in the uranium fuel cycle can become a materials proliferation issue. The development of Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) as an alternative technology to alleviate some of these concerns has been delayed for various reasons. An intermediate solution has been to examine tight pitch light water reactors which can provide significant improvements in the fuel cycle performance of the existing LWRs by taking advantage of the increased conversion ratios from the harder neutron spectrum in the tight pitch lattice, as well as the by taking advantage of the waste and nonproliferation benefits of the thorium fuel cycle. Several High Conversion BWR designs have been proposed by researchers in Japan and elsewhere during the past several years. One of the more promising HCR designs is the Reduced Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) proposed by JAERI [1]. Their design was based on a uranium fuel cycle and showed significant improvements in the fuel cycle performance compared to conventional BWRs. However, one of the drawbacks of their design was the potential for a positive void coefficient. In order to insure a negative void coefficient, the JAERI researchers designed a 'flat core' and introduced void tube assemblies in order to enhance neutron leakage in the event of core voiding. The use of thorium in the Purdue/BNL HCBWR design proposed here obviates the need for void tubes and makes it possible to increase the core height and improve neutron economy without the risk of a positive void coefficient. The principal reason for the improvement in the void coefficient is because Th-232 has a smaller fast fission cross section and resonance integral than U-238. In the design proposed here, it is possible to eliminate the void tubes in the RMWR design and replace the axial blanket with active fuel to increase the core height and further improve neutron economy. The core analyses in the work here was performed with the Purdue Fuel Management Code System [2] which is based on the Studsvik/Scandpower lattice physics code HELIOS, and the U.S. NRC core neutronics simulator, PARCS, which is coupled to the thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5. All these codes have been well assessed and benchmarked for analysis of light water reactor systems. (authors)

  1. Trends and drivers of the performance : fuel economy tradeoff in new automobiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacKenzie, Donald Warren

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cars sold in the United States have steadily become more fuel-efficient since the 1970s, and assessments of emerging technologies demonstrate a significant potential for continued evolutionary improvements. However, historic ...

  2. BioFacts: Fueling a stronger economy, Thermochemical conversion of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A primary mission of the US DOE is to stimulate the development, acceptance, and use of transportation fuels made from plants and wastes called biomass. Through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Doe is developing and array of biomass conversion technologies that can be easily integrated into existing fuel production and distribution systems. The variety of technology options being developed should enable individual fuel producers to select and implement the most cost-effective biomass conversion process suited to their individual needs. Current DOE biofuels research focuses on the separate and tandem uses of biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. This overview specifically addresses NREL`s thermochemical conversion technologies, which are largely based on existing refining processes.

  3. Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; Walkowicz, K.; Duran, A.; Sindler, P.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In-use and laboratory-derived fuel economies were analyzed for a medium-duty hybrid electric drivetrain with 'engine off at idle' capability and a conventional drivetrain in a typical commercial package delivery application. Vehicles studied included eleven 2010 Freightliner P100H hybrids in service at a United Parcel Service facility in Minneapolis during the first half of 2010. The hybrids were evaluated for 18 months against eleven 2010 Freightliner P100D diesels at the same facility. Both vehicle groups use the same 2009 Cummins ISB 200-HP engine. In-use fuel economy was evaluated using UPS's fueling and mileage records, periodic ECM image downloads, and J1939 CAN bus recordings during the periods of duty cycle study. Analysis of the in-use fuel economy showed 13%-29% hybrid advantage depending on measurement method, and a delivery route assignment analysis showed 13%-26% hybrid advantage on the less kinetically intense original diesel route assignments and 20%-33% hybrid advantage on the more kinetically intense original hybrid route assignments. Three standardized laboratory drive cycles were selected that encompassed the range of real-world in-use data. The hybrid vehicle demonstrated improvements in ton-mi./gal fuel economy of 39%, 45%, and 21% on the NYC Comp, HTUF Class 4, and CARB HHDDT test cycles, respectively.

  4. HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE OWNERSHIP AND FUEL ECONOMY ACROSS TEXAS: AN APPLICATION OF SPATIAL MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    and environmental policies (Koo et al. 2012). While EV sales (including both HEVs and PEVs) have risen considerably significant. If households registering more fuel- efficient vehicles, including hybrid EVs, are also more inclined to purchase plug-in EVs, these #12;findings can assist in spatial planning of charging

  5. Effect of Weight and Roadway Grade on the Fuel Economy of Class-8 Frieght Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2006-08, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with several industry partners, collected real-world performance and situational data for long-haul operations of Class-8 trucks from a fleet engaged in normal freight operations. Such data and information are useful to support Class-8 modeling of combination truck performance, technology evaluation efforts for energy efficiency, and to provide a means of accounting for real-world driving performance within combination truck research and analyses. The present study used the real-world information collected in that project to analyze the effects that vehicle speed and vehicle weight have on the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks. The analysis focused on two type of terrains, flat (roadway grades ranging from -1% to 1%) and mild uphill terrains (roadway grades ranging from 1% to 3%), which together covered more than 70% of the miles logged in the 2006-08 project (note: almost 2/3 of the distance traveled on mild uphill terrains was on terrains with 1% to 2% grades). In the flat-terrain case, the results of the study showed that for light and medium loads, fuel efficiency decreases considerably as speed increases. For medium-heavy and heavy loads (total vehicle weight larger than 65,000 lb), fuel efficiency tends to increase as the vehicle speed increases from 55 mph up to about 58-60 mph. For speeds higher than 60 mph, fuel efficiency decreases at an almost constant rate with increasing speed. At any given speed, fuel efficiency decreases and vehicle weight increases, although the relationship between fuel efficiency and vehicle weight is not linear, especially for vehicle weights above 65,000 lb. The analysis of the information collected while the vehicles were traveling on mild upslope terrains showed that the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks decreases abruptly with vehicle weight ranging from light loads up to medium-heavy loads. After that, increases in the vehicle weight only decrease fuel efficiency slightly. Fuel efficiency also decreases significantly with speed, but only for light and medium loads. For medium-heavy and heavy, FE is almost constant for speeds ranging from 57 to about 66 mph. For speeds higher than 66 mph, the FE decreases with speed, but at a lower rate than for light and medium loads. Statistical analyses that compared the fuel efficiencies obtained when the vehicles were traveling at 59 mph vs. those achieved when they were traveling at 65 mph or 70 mph indicated that the former were, on average, higher than the latter. This result was statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level (note: the Type II error i.e., the probability of failing to reject the null hypothesis when the alternative hypothesis is true was 18% and 6%, respectively).

  6. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift, Clean Cities, Fleet Experiences, April 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean Cities helped Boston, San Antonio, and Cambridge create hybrid taxi programs. The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids. Program leaders have learned some important lessons other cities can benefit from including learning a city's taxi structure, relaying benefits to drivers, and understanding the needs of owners.

  7. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

  8. Simulating Study of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Light-Duty Diesel Fuel Economy and Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We utilize the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) combined with transient engine and aftertreatment component models to simulate the impact of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) on the fuel economy and emissions of light-duty (LD) diesel-powered conventional and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Our simulated aftertreatment train consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), lean NOx trap (LNT), and catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The results indicate that utilizing PCCI combustion significantly reduces fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions for the conventional diesel-powered vehicle with NOx and particulate emissions controls. These benefits result from a favorable engine speed-load distribution over the cycle combined with a corresponding reduction in the need to regenerate the LNT and DPF. However, the current PCCI technology appears to offer less potential benefit for diesel HEVs equipped with similar emissions controls. This is because PCCI can only be activated over a relatively small part of the drive cycle. Thus we conclude that future utilization of PCCI in diesel HEVs will require significant extension of the available speed-load range for PCCI and revision of current HEV engine management strategies before significant benefits can be realized.

  9. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, M.L.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

  10. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New...

  11. Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency...

  12. Assessing Strategies for Fuel and Electricity Production in a California Hydrogen Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    plants, natural gas-based gas turbine plants operate atnatural gas-based gas turbine plants are still operating,from natural gas-based gas turbines, compared to the High

  13. Manufacturing for the Hydrogen Economy Manufacturing Research & Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to coordinate and leverage the current federal efforts focused on manufacturability issues such as low-cost of the hydrogen and fuel cell technologies needed to move the United States toward a future hydrogen economy of a hydrogen energy economy, moving from today's laboratory-scale fabrication technologies to high

  14. Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that produce electricity without combustion. Due to their high efficiency and minimal emissions, fuel cells are an attractive option for distributed power...

  15. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ma, Zhiwen (Sandy Hook, CT); Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan (New Milford, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT)

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  16. NSTX High Field Side Gas Fueling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.W. Kugel; M. Anderson; G. Barnes; M. Bell; W. Blanchard; L. Dudek; D. Gates; R. Gernhardt; R. Maingi; D. Mueller; T. Provost; R. Raman; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Winston

    2003-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Fueling National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas with gas injected from the high field side (HFS) has produced earlier, more reliable transitions to the H-mode, longer H-mode durations, higher toroidal rotation, and higher edge electron temperature compared with similar discharges using the low field side (LFS) gas fueling injectors. The HFS gas fueling system consists of a Center Stack midplane injector, and an injector at the inner, upper corner of the Center Stack. The challenging design and installation constraints for the HFS gas system involved placing the control components as close as possible to the machine-vacuum interface, devising a special feed-through flange, traversing through vessel regions whose temperatures during bake-out range from 150 to 350 degrees Centigrade, adapting the gas transport tubing size and route to the small instrumentation wire channels behind the existing graphite plasma facing component tiles on the Center Stack, and providing output orifices shielded from excessive plasma power depositions while concentrating the output flow to facilitate fast camera viewing and analysis. Design, recent performance, and future upgrades will be presented.

  17. High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D Workshop...

  18. High power density solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  19. Fabrication of high exposure nuclear fuel pellets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frederickson, James R. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for making a fuel pellet for a nuclear reactor. A mixture is prepared of PuO.sub.2 and UO.sub.2 powders, where the mixture contains at least about 30% PuO.sub.2, and where at least about 12% of the Pu is the Pu.sup.240 isotope. To this mixture is added about 0.3 to about 5% of a binder having a melting point of at least about 250.degree. F. The mixture is pressed to form a slug and the slug is granulated. Up to about 4.7% of a lubricant having a melting point of at least about 330.degree. F. is added to the granulated slug. Both the binder and the lubricant are selected from a group consisting of polyvinyl carboxylate, polyvinyl alcohol, naturally occurring high molecular weight cellulosic polymers, chemically modified high molecular weight cellulosic polymers, and mixtures thereof. The mixture is pressed to form a pellet and the pellet is sintered.

  20. High Temperature Fuel Cells in the European Union

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High Temperature Fuel Cells in the European Union to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  1. Development of Advanced High Temperature Fuel Cell Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Development of Advanced High Temperature Fuel Cell Membranes to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  2. 2008 Annual Merit Review Results Summary - 10. Fuels Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    enable high fuel economy, deliver lower emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement. Activities aim to identify advanced petroleum- and non-petroleum-based...

  3. LOW COST, HIGH EFFICIENCY REVERSIBLE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    common hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., natural gas, propane, and bio-derived fuel) as well as hydrogenLOW COST, HIGH EFFICIENCY REVERSIBLE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS Dr. Christopher E. Milliken, Materials Group Boulevard Cleveland, Ohio 44108 216-541-1000 Abstract Fuel cell technologies are described in the 2001 DOE

  4. Premixer Design for High Hydrogen Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin P. Lacy; Keith R. McManus; Balachandar Varatharajan; Biswadip Shome

    2005-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This 21-month project translated DLN technology to the unique properties of high hydrogen content IGCC fuels, and yielded designs in preparation for a future testing and validation phase. Fundamental flame characterization, mixing, and flame property measurement experiments were conducted to tailor computational design tools and criteria to create a framework for predicting nozzle operability (e.g., flame stabilization, emissions, resistance to flashback/flame-holding and auto-ignition). This framework was then used to establish, rank, and evaluate potential solutions to the operability challenges of IGCC combustion. The leading contenders were studied and developed with the most promising concepts evaluated via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and using the design rules generated by the fundamental experiments, as well as using GE's combustion design tools and practices. Finally, the project scoped the necessary steps required to carry the design through mechanical and durability review, testing, and validation, towards full demonstration of this revolutionary technology. This project was carried out in three linked tasks with the following results. (1) Develop conceptual designs of premixer and down-select the promising options. This task defined the ''gap'' between existing design capabilities and the targeted range of IGCC fuel compositions and evaluated the current capability of DLN pre-mixer designs when operated at similar conditions. Two concepts (1) swirl based and (2) multiple point lean direct injection based premixers were selected via a QFD from 13 potential design concepts. (2) Carry out CFD on chosen options (1 or 2) to evaluate operability risks. This task developed the leading options down-selected in Task 1. Both a GE15 swozzle based premixer and a lean direct injection concept were examined by performing a detailed CFD study wherein the aerodynamics of the design, together with the chemical kinetics of the combustion process, were analyzed to evaluate the performance of the different concepts. Detailed 1-D analysis was performed to provide 1-step NOx and 1-step combustion models that could be utilized in CFD to provide more accurate estimates of NOx for more complicated combustion designs. The swozzle results identified potential problems with flame holding, flashback and with adequate mixing. Flame holding issues were further evaluated with laboratory testing to determine under what conditions a jet in cross flow would flame hold. Additional CFD analysis was also performed on fuel injection from a peg to simulate fuel injection off a vane's trailing edge. This task was concluded with a Conceptual Design Review of the two selected design concepts. (3) Optimize design and re-evaluate operability risks. This task extended the analysis of LDI concepts and increased understanding of the optimal design configuration. Designs were selected for subscale combustion laboratory testing and then modeled using CFD to validate CFD methodology. CFD provided a good qualitative match and reasonable quantitative match with the test results. Tests and CFD modeling indicated a path to low NOx combustion with no diluent addition. Different swirler designs were also evaluated and the most promising, a counter rotating swirler, was selected for further evaluation. CFD modeling was performed and the design was optimized to improve mixing. CFD modeling indicated the potential for low NOx combustion without diluent addition. CFD was validated against cold flow testing on a swirler using helium injection in place of hydrogen. Further validation work is still needed to ensure the ability to accurately model the mixing of swirling flows. Entitlement testing was performed on a perfectly premixed H2/N2/air mixture. Results showed that low NOx could be obtained at the temperatures of interest (7FB conditions) with no diluent addition. Results also showed that further NOx reductions might be possible by taking advantage of the very rapid H2 reaction to reduce combustor length and hence residence time. These results also in

  5. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development. Annual technical progress report, October 1990--September 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this program are to study combustion feasibility by running Series 149 engine tests at high speeds with a fuel injection and combustion system designed for coal-water-slurry (CWS). The following criteria will be used to judge feasibility: (1) engine operation for sustained periods over the load range at speeds from 600 to 1900 rpm. The 149 engine for mine-haul trucks has a rated speed of 1900 rpm; (2) reasonable fuel economy and coal burnout rate; (3) reasonable cost of the engine design concept and CWS fuel compared to future oil prices.

  6. High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii CleanHeatinHighMetal Removalcost

  7. On the use of high performance annular fuel in PWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Bo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, MIT's Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems developed a new high burnup annular fuel that features both internal and external cooling. Implementation of this fuel design in current pressurized water reactors ...

  8. Molten salt fuels with high plutonium solubility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moir, Ralph W; Turchi, Patrice E.A.; Shaw, Henry F; Kaufman, Larry

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes a composition of LiF--ThF.sub.4--UF.sub.4--PuF.sub.3 for use as a fuel in a nuclear engine.

  9. An Innovative High Thermal Conductivity Fuel Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamil A. Khan

    2009-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity of the fuel in today's Light Water Reactors, Uranium dioxide, can be improved by incorporating a uniformly distributed heat conducting network of a higher conductivity material, Silicon Carbide. The higher thermal conductivity of SiC along with its other prominent reactor-grade properties makes it a potential material to address some of the related issues when used in UO2 [97% TD]. This ongoing research, in collaboration with the University of Florida, aims to investigate the feasibility and develop a formal methodology of producing the resultant composite oxide fuel. Calculations of effective thermal conductivity of the new fuel as a function of %SiC for certain percentages and as a function of temperature are presented as a preliminary approach. The effective thermal conductivities are obtained at different temperatures from 600K to 1600K. The corresponding polynomial equations for the temperature-dependent thermal conductivities are given based on the simulation results. Heat transfer mechanism in this fuel is explained using a finite volume approach and validated against existing empirical models. FLUENT 6.1.22 was used for thermal conductivity calculations and to estimate reduction in centerline temperatures achievable within such a fuel rod. Later, computer codes COMBINE-PC and VENTURE-PC were deployed to estimate the fuel enrichment required, to maintain the same burnup levels, corresponding to a volume percent addition of SiC.

  10. Evaluation of the Fuel Economy Impacts of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) using Engine-in-the-Loop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  11. Fact #680: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When Buying a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY 20112: July 19,Department4: May 9,|Vehicle |

  12. High Performance Fuel Desing for Next Generation Pressurized Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

    2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of internally and externally cooled annular fule rods for high power density Pressurized Water Reactors is assessed. The assessment included steady state and transient thermal conditions, neutronic and fuel management requirements, mechanical vibration issues, fuel performance issues, fuel fabrication methods and econmic assessment. The investigation was donducted by a team from MIT, Westinghouse, Gamma Engineering, Framatome ANP, and AECL. The analyses led to the conclusion that raising the power density by 50% may be possible with this advanced fuel. Even at the 150% power level, the fuel temperature would be a few hundred degrees lower than the current fuel temperatre. Significant economic and safety advantages can be obtained by using this fuel in new reactors. Switching to this type of fuel for existing reactors would yield safety advantages, but the economic return is dependent on the duration of plant shutdown to accommodate higher power production. The main feasiblity issue for the high power performance appears to be the potential for uneven splitting of heat flux between the inner and outer fuel surfaces due to premature closure of the outer fuel-cladding gap. This could be overcome by using a very narrow gap for the inner fuel surface and/or the spraying of a crushable zirconium oxide film at the fuel pellet outer surface. An alternative fuel manufacturing approach using vobropacking was also investigated but appears to yield lower than desirable fuel density.

  13. Low Cost, High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Cost, High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Systems DE-FC36-99GO-10455 POC: Doug Hooker Dr Approach: System Concept Fuel Cell Subsystem Battery Subsystem Converter Electrolyzer Subsystem Inverter, -- (216) 541(216) 541--10001000 Slide 5 Approach: Challenges ·Electrolyzer Subsystem Efficiency ·Fuel Cell

  14. PSO project: 4760 High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PSO project: 4760 High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Final report - Public part - #12;Project, Technical University of Denmark Partners: IRD Fuel Cells A/S Danish Power Systems Aps DONG Energy Authors, and a steady reduction of production cost is also desired (as in general for fuel cells). However, during

  15. New Vehicle Choices, Fuel Economy and Vehicle Incentives: An Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and Gasoline Tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Elliot William

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    7: Change in Sales of Hybrid Vehicles Due to Federal Taxof alternative fuels and hybrid vehicles. A primary policythe federal level to hybrid vehicles. This policy, begun in

  16. New Vehicle Choice, Fuel Economy and Vehicle Incentives: An Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and the Gasoline Tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Elliott William

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    7: Change in Sales of Hybrid Vehicles Due to Federal Taxof alternative fuels and hybrid vehicles. A primary policythe federal level to hybrid vehicles. This policy, begun in

  17. Hydrothermal processing of high-lipid biomass to fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Michael C., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-lipid algae are potential sources of biofuels. Lipids in this biomass provide a straightforward chemical route to hydrocarbon-based high energy-density fuels needed for diesel and jet engines. However, current schemes ...

  18. As the world economy continues to expand the demand for petroleum based fuel increases and the price of these fuels rises

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2Argonne National4ArtificialAs summer

  19. High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii CleanHeatinHigh Efficiency| Department of

  20. High Temperature BOP and Fuel Processing | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietip sheetK-4In 2013 many| Department HIGH PERFORMANCE andHigh

  1. Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  2. Hidden Innovation: A Reconsideration of An 'Old Economy' Industry in a 'New Economy' Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiang, Lifang

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2002). Globalization and a high-tech economy: California,economies. Attention has instead focused on globalization andEconomy” .13 2.3 Historical Perspectives on Manufacturing Matters16 2.4 The Globalization

  3. Hidden Innovation: A Reconsideration of An 'Old Economy' Industry in a 'New Economy' Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiang, Lifang

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and a high-tech economy: California, the United States andWho gets ahead in the global economy? Industrial upgrading,T. (2004). Designing the economy: a profile of Ontario's

  4. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to provide experimental combustion data of our target fuels at gas turbine conditions. Based on an initial assessment of premixer design requirements and challenges, the most promising sub-scale premixer concepts were evaluated both experimentally and computationally. After comprehensive screening tests, two best performing concepts were scaled up for further development. High pressure single nozzle tests were performed with the scaled premixer concepts at target gas turbine conditions with opportunity fuels. Single-digit NOx emissions were demonstrated for syngas fuels. Plasma-assisted pilot technology was demonstrated to enhance ignition capability and provide additional flame stability margin to a standard premixing fuel nozzle. However, the impact of plasma on NOx emissions was observed to be unacceptable given the goals of this program and difficult to avoid.

  5. Fuel Cell Assembly Process Flow for High Productivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, David A.

    Fuel Cell Assembly Process Flow for High Productivity Problem Presenter Ram Ramanan Bloom Energy: Introduction Bloom Energy manufactures power modules based on fuel cell technology. These are built up their possible placement within a cell assembly. Currently, these rules for assembling the basic components

  6. Development of ultrafast computed tomography of highly transient fuel sprays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Sol M.

    , such as automotive fuel injection systems. As the worldwide demand for energy grows rapidly, the technologies capable , Sol M. Grunera, b a Department of Physics and b Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell-intake port. Due to the ability to precisely control the injection rate, timing, and combustion of the fuel

  7. Cost and Pecuniary Economies in Cotton Production and Marketing: A Study of Texas Southern High Plains Cotton Producers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, E.G.; Richardson, J.W.; Knutson, R.D.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. Clarke, Director The Texas A&M University System, College Station, Texas CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Objectives 1 Cost of Production or Economies of Size Studies 2 ECONOMIES OF SIZE 3 Methodology 4 Study Area 4 Procedure 5 INPUT ECONOMIES... of Marketing Economies for Farm Structure 17 TOTAL BENEFITS BY FARM SIZE 17 CONCLUSIONS 19 REFERENCES SUMMARY In recent years, the "family farm" and its chances for survival has emerged as one of the major agricultural policy issues. The decline in farm...

  8. Innovative fuel designs for high power density pressurized water reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Dandong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the ways to lower the cost of nuclear energy is to increase the power density of the reactor core. Features of fuel design that enhance the potential for high power density are derived based on characteristics of ...

  9. High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell configurations and interconnections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature fuel cell configurations and interconnections are made including annular cells having a solid electrolyte sandwiched between thin film electrodes. The cells are electrically interconnected along an elongated axial outer surface.

  10. Fuel Cells - The Reality of a High Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuttica, J. J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell power plant is an energy conversion device which can continuously transform the chemical energy of natural gas into utility grade electricity and usable heat. The characteristics of high electrical conversion efficiencies (40 to 55...

  11. Simulating the Impact of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Light-Duty Diesel Fuel Economy and Emissions of Particulates and NOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We utilize the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) combined with transient engine and aftertreatment component models implemented in Matlab/Simulink to simulate the effect of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) on the fuel economy and emissions of light-duty diesel-powered conventional and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Our simulated engine is capable of both conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) over real transient driving cycles. Our simulated aftertreatment train consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), lean NOx trap (LNT), and catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The results demonstrate that, in the simulated conventional vehicle, PCCI can significantly reduce fuel consumption and emissions by reducing the need for LNT and DPF regeneration. However, the opportunity for PCCI operation in the simulated HEV is limited because the engine typically experiences higher loads and multiple stop-start transients that are outside the allowable PCCI operating range. Thus developing ways of extending the PCCI operating range combined with improved control strategies for engine and emissions control management will be especially important for realizing the potential benefits of PCCI in HEVs.

  12. Divorce Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2006-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: Is divorce good for the economy? Some market analysts in South Korea would answer with a resounding "geu rum yo!" That's "Yes!" in Korean. Korea's rapidly rising divorce rate seems to have softened the stigma attached...

  13. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurney, Kevin R.; Mendoza, Daniel L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L.; Miller, Chris C.; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of {approx}100 km{sup 2} and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the 'Vulcan' inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km{sup 2} and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product, completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. Comparison to the global 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach.

  14. High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Sanderson, R.A. [Sanderson (Robert) and Associates, Wethersfield, CT (United States)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hybrid power cycle studies were conducted to identify a high efficiency, economically competitive system. A hybrid power cycle which generates power at an LHV efficiency > 70% was identified that includes an atmospheric pressure direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine, and a steam cycle. In this cycle, natural gas fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for reforming fuel. The mixed gas then flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell which generates about 70% of the power. The portion of the anode exhaust which is not recycled is burned and heat transferred through a heat exchanger (HX) to the compressed air from a gas turbine. The heated compressed air is then heated further in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 15% of the power. Half the exhaust from the turbine provides air for the anode exhaust burner. All of the turbine exhaust eventually flows through the fuel cell cathodes providing the O2 and CO2 needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the cathodes flows to a steam system (heat recovery steam generator, staged steam turbine generating 15% of the cycle power). Simulation of a 200 MW plant with a hybrid power cycle had an LHV efficiency of 72.6%. Power output and efficiency are insensitive to ambient temperature, compared to a gas turbine combined cycle; NOx emissions are 75% lower. Estimated cost of electricity for 200 MW is 46 mills/kWh, which is competitive with combined cycle where fuel cost is > $5.8/MMBTU. Key requirement is HX; in the 200 MW plant studies, a HX operating at 1094 C using high temperature HX technology currently under development by METC for coal gassifiers was assumed. A study of a near term (20 MW) high efficiency direct carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle has also been completed.

  15. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has trace contaminants (primarily carbon monoxide) that are detrimental to precious metal catalyzed fuel cells, as is now recognized by many of the world's largest automobile companies. Thermochemical hydrogen will not contain carbon monoxide as an impurity at any level. Electrolysis, the alternative process for producing hydrogen using nuclear energy, suffers from thermodynamic inefficiencies in both the production of electricity and in electrolytic parts of the process. The efficiency of electrolysis (electricity to hydrogen) is currently about 80%. Electric power generation efficiency would have to exceed 65% (thermal to electrical) for the combined efficiency to exceed the 52% (thermal to hydrogen) calculated for one thermochemical cycle. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles have been studied, at various levels of effort, for the past 35 years. They were extensively studied in the late 70s and early 80s but have received little attention in the past 10 years, particularly in the U.S. While there is no question about the technical feasibility and the potential for high efficiency, cycles with proven low cost and high efficiency have yet to be developed commercially. Over 100 cycles have been proposed, but substantial research has been executed on only a few. This report describes work accomplished during a three-year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first phase was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most three) for further detailed consideration. During Phase 1, an exhaustive literature search was performed to locate all cycles previously proposed. The cycles located were screened using objective criteria to determine which could benefit, in terms of efficien

  16. High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, M.L. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

  17. Operational considerations for high level blast furnace fuel injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poveromo, J.J. [Quebec Cartier Mining Co., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection levels of over 400 lbs/NTHM for coal, over 250 lbs/NTHM for natural gas and over 200 lbs/NTHM for oil have been achieved. Such high levels of fuel injection has a major impact on many aspects of blast furnace operation. In this paper the author begins by reviewing the fundamentals of fuel injection with emphasis on raceway thermochemical phenomena. The operational impacts which are generic to high level injection of any injectant are then outlined. The author will then focus on the particular characteristics of each injectant, with major emphasis on coal and natural gas. Operational considerations for coping with these changes and methods of maximizing the benefits of fuel injection will be reviewed.

  18. Fuel reforming for fuel cell application.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hung, Tak Cheong

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Fossil fuels, such as natural gas, petroleum, and coal are currently the primary source of energy that drives the world economy. However, fossil fuel is… (more)

  19. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development. Final report, September 28, 1990--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakwani, R.M.; Winsor, R.E.; Ryan, T.W. III; Schwalb, J.A.; Wahiduzzaman, S.; Wilson, R.P. Jr.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this program was to study the feasibility of operating a Detroit Diesel Series 149 engine at high speeds using a Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) fuel. The CWS-fueled 149 engine is proposed for the mine-haul off-highway truck and work boat marine markets. Economic analysis studies indicate that, for these markets, the use of CWS fuel could have sufficient operating cost savings, depending upon the future diesel fuel price, emission control system capital and operating costs, and maintenance and overhaul costs. A major portion of the maintenance costs is expected to be due to lower life and higher cost of the CWS injectors. Injection and combustion systems were specially designed for CWS, and were installed in one cylinder of a Detroit Diesel 8V-149TI engine for testing. The objective was to achieve engine operation for sustained periods at speeds up to 1,900 rpm with reasonable fuel economy and coal burnout rate. A computer simulation predicted autoignition of coal fuel at 1,900 rpm would require an average droplet size of 18 microns and 19:1 compression ratio, so the injection system, and pistons were designed accordingly. The injection system was capable of supplying the required volume of CWS/injection with a duration of approximately 25 crank angle degrees and peak pressures on the order of 100 mpa. In addition to the high compression ratio, the combustion system also utilized hot residual gases in the cylinder, warm inlet air admission and ceramic insulated engine components to enhance combustion. Autoignition of CWS fuel was achieved at 1900 rpm, at loads ranging from 20--80 percent of the rated load of diesel-fuel powered cylinders. Limited emissions data indicates coal burnout rates in excess of 99 percent. NO{sub x} levels were significantly lower, while unburned hydrocarbon levels were higher for the CWS fueled cylinder than for corresponding diesel-fuel powered cylinders.

  20. Study of CANDU Thorium-based Fuel Cycles by Deterministic and Monte Carlo Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    an excellent neutron economy and consequently a high fissile conversion ratio [7]. For these reasons, we try, slightly enriched uranium) and fuel spatial distribution. In particular, we compare Th/Pu fuel performance

  1. High pressure low heat rate phosphoric acid fuel cell stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wertheim, R.J.

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high pressure phosphoric acid fuel cell stack assembly is described comprising: (a) a stack of fuel cells for producing electricity, the stack including cathode means, anode means, and heat exchange means; (b) means for delivering pressurized air to the cathode means; (c) means for delivering a hydrogen rich fuel gas to the anode means for electrochemically reacting with oxygen in the pressurized air to produce electricity and water; (d) first conduit means connected to the cathode means for exhausting a mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water from the cathode means; (e) second conduit means connected to the first conduit means for delivering a water fog to the first conduit means for entrainment in the mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water to form a two phase coolant having a gaseous air phase and an entrained water droplet phase; (f) means for circulating the coolant to the heat exchange means to cool the stack solely through vaporization of the water droplet phase in the heat exchange means whereby a mixed gas exhaust of air and water vapor is exhausted from the heat exchange means; and (g) means for heating the mixed gas exhaust and delivering the heated mixed gas exhaust at reformer reaction temperatures to an autothermal reformer in the stack assembly for autothermal reaction with a raw fuel to form the hydrogen rich fuel.

  2. Is Wisconsin Becoming a Low-Wage Economy? Employment Growth in Low, Middle, and High

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    ' Occupational Employment Statistics (OES), we calculate the number of Wisconsin jobs in occupations paying low? Employment Growth in Low, Middle, and High Wage Occupations: 2000 of "middle skill" (and middle wage) jobs accompanied by employment growth at the lower and upper ends

  3. Smart Onboard Inspection of High Pressure Gas Fuel Cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshears, D.L.; Starbuck, J.M.

    1999-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel in automotive applications is not widespread primarily because of the high cost and durability of the composite storage tanks. Tanks manufactured using carbon fiber are desirable in weight critical passenger vehicles because of the low density of carbon fiber. The high strength of carbon fiber also translates to a weight reduction because thinner wall designs are possible to withstand the internal pressure loads. However, carbon fiber composites are prone to impact damage that over the life of the storage tank may lead to an unsafe condition for the vehicle operator. A technique that potentially may be a reliable indication of developing hazardous conditions in composite fuel tanks is imbedded fiber optics. The applicability of this technique to onboard inspection is discussed and results from preliminary lab testing indicate that fiber optic sensors can reliably detect impact damage.

  4. High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Thermal Spray of Fe-Based Amorphous Alloy: a Numerical and Experimental Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ajdelsztajn, L.; Dannenberg, J.; Lopez, J.; Yang, N.; Farmer, J.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Thermal Spray of Fe-Basedusing a high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray processstructure. [12] High velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal

  5. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N. (Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center) [Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center; Pollard, M. (Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center) [Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-level goal of this multi-year effort was to facilitate the Advanced Combustion Engine goal of 20% improvement (compared to 2009 baseline) of commercial engine efficiency by 2015. A sub-goal is to increase the reliability of diesel fuel injectors by investigating modelbased scenarios that cannot be achieved by empirical, trial and error methodologies alone. During this three-year project, ORNL developed the methodology to evaluate origins and to record the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks emanating from holes that were electrodischarge machined (EDM), the method used to form spray holes in fuel injector tips. Both x-ray and neutron-based methods for measuring residual stress at four different research facilities were evaluated to determine which, if any, was most applicable to the fuel injector tip geometry. Owing to the shape and small volumes of material involved in the sack area, residual stress data could only be obtained in the walls of the nozzle a few millimeters back from the tip, and there was a hint of only a small compressive stress. This result was consistent with prior studies by Caterpillar. Residual stress studies were suspended after the second year, reserving the possibility of pursuing this in the future, if and when methodology suitable for injector sacks becomes available. The smooth specimen fatigue behavior of current fuel injector steel materials was evaluated and displayed a dual mode initiation behavior. At high stresses, cracks started at machining flaws in the surface; however, below a critical threshold stress of approximately 800 MPa, cracks initiated in the bulk microstructure, below the surface. This suggests that for the next generation for high-pressure fuel injector nozzles, it becomes increasingly important to control the machining and finishing processes, especially if the stress in the tip approaches or exceeds that threshold level. Fatigue tests were also conducted using EDM notches in the gage sections. Compared to the smooth specimens, EDM notching led to a severe reduction in total fatigue life. A reduction in fatigue life of nearly four orders of magnitude can occur at an EDM notch the approximate size of fuel injector spray holes. Consequently, the initiation and propagation behavior of cracks from small spray holes is relevant for generation of design quality data for the next generation diesel fuel injection devices. This is especially true since the current design methodologies usually rely on the less conservative smooth specimen fatigue testing results, and since different materials can have varying levels of notch fatigue resistance.

  6. From Hydrogen Fuel Cells to High-Altitude-Pilot Protection Suits...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    From Hydrogen Fuel Cells to High-Altitude-Pilot Protection Suits- Mound Science and Energy Museum Programs Cover a Wide Range of Topics From Hydrogen Fuel Cells to...

  7. High Energy Absorption Top Nozzle For A Nuclaer Fuel Assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sparrow, James A. (Irmo, SC); Aleshin, Yuriy (Columbia, SC); Slyeptsov, Aleksey (Columbia, SC)

    2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A high energy absorption top nozzle for a nuclear fuel assembly that employs an elongated upper tubular housing and an elongated lower tubular housing slidable within the upper tubular housing. The upper and lower housings are biased away from each other by a plurality of longitudinally extending springs that are restrained by a longitudinally moveable piston whose upward travel is limited within the upper housing. The energy imparted to the nozzle by a control rod scram is mostly absorbed by the springs and the hydraulic affect of the piston within the nozzle.

  8. Upgrading of biorenewables to high energy density fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Weizhong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Currier, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dirmyer, Matthew R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; John, Kevin D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Jin K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keith, Jason [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pierpont, Aaron W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Silks Ill, L. A. "" Pete [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smythe, Mathan C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sutton, Andrew D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taw, Felicia L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trovitch, Ryan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vasudevan, Kalyan V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waidmann, Christopher R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, Ruilian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, R. Thomas [UNIV OF OTTAWWA; Schlaf, Marcel [UNIV OF GUELPH

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    According to a recent report, lignocellulose is the most abundant renewable biological resource on earth, with an annual production of {approx} 200 x 10{sup 9} tons. Conversion of lignocellulosics derived from wood, agricultural wastes, and woody grasses into liquid fuels and value-added chemical feedstocks is an active area of research that has seen an explosion of effort due to the need to replace petroleum based sources. The carbohydrates D-glucose (C{sub 6}), L-arabinose (C{sub 5}), and D-xylose (C{sub 5}) are readily obtained from the hydrolysis of lignocellulose and constitute the most abundant renewable organic carbon source on the planet. Because they are naturally produced on such a large scale, these sugars have the greatest potential to displace petrochemical derived transportation fuel. Recent efforts in our laboratories aimed towards the production of high energy density transportation fuels from carbohydrates have been structured around the parameters of selective carbohydrate carbon chain extension chemistries, low reaction temperatures, and the desired use of water or neat substrate as the solvent. Some of our efforts in this regard will be presented.

  9. Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities and Challenges *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A hydrogen economy, the long-term goal of many nations, can potentially provide energy security, along with environmental and economic benefits. However, the transition from a conventional petroleum-based energy system to a hydrogen economy involves many uncertainties, such as the development of efficient fuel cell technologies, problems in hydrogen production and distribution infrastructure, and the response of petroleum markets. This study uses the U.S. MARKAL model to simulate the impacts of hydrogen technologies on the U.S. energy system and identify potential impediments to a successful transition. Preliminary findings identify potential market barriers facing the hydrogen economy, as well as opportunities in new R&D and product markets for bioproducts. Quantitative analysis also offers insights on policy options for promoting hydrogen technologies. The objective of this paper is to study the transition from a petroleum-based energy system to a hydrogen economy, and ascertain the consequent opportunities and

  10. High resolution neutron imaging of water in PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimal water management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells is critical to improving the performance and durability of fuel cell systems especially during transient, start-up and shut-down operations. For example, while a high water content is desirable for improved membrane and catalyst ionomer conductivity, high water content can also block gas access to the triple-phase boundary resulting in lowered performance due to catalyst and gas diffusion layer (GDL) flooding. Visualizing liquid water by neutron imaging has been used over the past decade to study the water distribution inside operating fuel cells. In this paper, the results from our imaging at NIST using their recently installed higher resolution ({approx} 25 mm) Microchannel Plate (MCP) detector with a pixel pitch of 14.7 mm are presented. This detector is capable of quantitatively imaging the water inside the MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly)/GDL (Gas Diffusion Layer) of working fuel cells and can provide the water profiles within these various components in addition to the channel water. Specially designed fuel cells (active area = 2.25 cm{sup 2}) have been used in order to take advantage of the full detector resolution. The cell design is illustrated in a figure where one of the current collector/end plates is shown. The serpentine pattern was machined into a block of aluminum and plated with nickel and then gold to form the flow field. The measurements were performed using beam no. 1 and aperture no. 2 with a fluence rate of 1.9 x 10{sup 6} neutrons cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. The cells were assembled with Gore{sup TM} Primea{sup R} MEAs and SGL Sigracet {sup R} 24 series GDLs (PRIMEA, GORE-SELECT and GORE are trademarks of W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc). All the cells were tested at 80 {sup o}C with 1.2 stoichiometry H{sub 2} and 2.0 stoichiometry air flows.

  11. The design of high power density annular fuel for LWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Yi, 1975-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel performance models have been developed to assess the performance of internally and externally cooled LWR annular fuel. Such fuel may be operated at 30-50% higher core power density than the current operating LWRs, and ...

  12. Energy Economy

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997Environment > Voluntary826Industrythe UnitedAdam

  13. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August, 2000 - July 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.C.

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August 2000 - July 2001. Currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process is available for commercialization nor has such a process been identified. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. The benefits of this work will include the generation of a low-polluting transportable energy feedstock in an efficient method that has little or no implication for greenhouse gas emissions from a primary energy source whose availability and sources are domestically controlled. This will help to ensure energy for a future transportation/energy infrastructure that is not influenced/controlled by foreign governments. This report describes work accomplished during the second year (Phase 2) of a three year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first year (Phase 1) was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water, in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most, three) for further detailed consideration. Phase 1 met its goals and did select one process, the sulfur-iodine process, for investigation in Phases 2 and 3. The combined goals of Phases 2 and 3 were to select the advanced nuclear reactor best suited to driving the selected thermochemical process and to define the selected reactor and process to the point that capital costs, operating costs and the resultant cost of hydrogen can be estimated. During original contract negotiation, it was necessary to reduce work scope to meet funding limits. As a result, the reactor interface and process will not be iterated to the point that only hydrogen is produced. Rather, hydrogen and electricity will be co-generated and the hydrogen cost will be stated as a function of the electricity sales price.

  14. The Methanol Economy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olah, George; Prakash, G.K.

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO{sub 2} capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO{sub 2} and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields. ? Direct electrophilic bromination of methane to methyl bromide followed by hydrolysis to yield methanol was investigated on a wide variety of catalyst systems, but hydrolysis proved impractical for large-scale industrial application. ? Bireforming the correct ratio of methane, CO{sub 2}, and water on a NiO / MgO catalyst yielded the right proportion of H{sub 2}:CO (2:1) and proved to be stable for at least 250 hours of operation at 400 psi (28 atm). ? CO{sub 2} capture utilizing supported polyethyleneimines yielded a system capable of adsorbing CO{sub 2} from the air and release at nominal temperatures with negligible amine leaching. ? CO{sub 2} electrolysis to formate and syngas showed considerable increases in rate and selectivity by performing the reaction in a high pressure flow electrolyzer. ? Formic acid was shown to decompose selectively to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} using either Ru or Ir based homogeneous catalysts. ? Direct formic acid fuel cells were also investigated and showed higher than 40% voltage efficiency using reduced loadings of precious metals. A technoeconomic analysis was conducted to assess the viability of taking each of these processes to the industrial scale by applying the data gathered during the experiments to approximations based on currently used industrial processes. Several of these processes show significant promise for industrial scale up and use towards improving our nation’s energy independence.

  15. Bio-Fuel Production Assisted with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Michael McKellar

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two hybrid energy processes that enable production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure are presented. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), these two hybrid energy processes have the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce dependence on imported oil. The first process discusses a hydropyrolysis unit with hydrogen addition from HTSE. Non-food biomass is pyrolyzed and converted to pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is upgraded with hydrogen addition from HTSE. This addition of hydrogen deoxygenates the pyrolysis oil and increases the pH to a tolerable level for transportation. The final product is synthetic crude that could then be transported to a refinery and input into the already used transportation fuel infrastructure. The second process discusses a process named Bio-Syntrolysis. The Bio-Syntrolysis process combines hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier that yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid synthetic crude. Conversion of syngas to liquid synthetic crude, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier.

  16. E000308 economic development and the environment Economic development in low-income economies is initially highly resource-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coxhead, Ian

    E000308 economic development and the environment Economic development in low-income economies sources of emissions that contribute to global climate change. Economic development depends on sustained drawdowns, may affect economic development in a dynamic interaction. This feedback is hard to quantify

  17. Update on US High Density Fuel Fabrication Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.R. Clark; G.A. Moore; J.F. Jue; B.H. Park; N.P. Hallinan; D.M. Wachs; D.E. Burkes

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Second generation uranium molybdenum fuel has shown excellent in-reactor irradiation performance. This metallic fuel type is capable of being fabricated at much higher loadings than any presently used research reactor fuel. Due to the broad range of fuel types this alloy system encompasses—fuel powder to monolithic foil and binary fuel systems to multiple element additions—significant amounts of research and development have been conducted on the fabrication of these fuels. This paper presents an update of the US RERTR effort to develop fabrication techniques and the fabrication methods used for the RERTR-9A miniplate test.

  18. Performance and endurance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell operated on methanol reformate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    Performance and endurance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell operated on methanol reformate Samuel September 2014 Available online xxx Keywords: High temperature PEM Fuel cell Methanol Impedance spectroscopy]. The report forecasts even more success for fuel cells in the near future. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel

  19. Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of EnergyDevelopment AccidentEnergy Objective:11 DOE Hydrogen20102011 DOE

  20. Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of EnergyDevelopment AccidentEnergy Objective:11 DOE Hydrogen2010201110

  1. Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of EnergyDevelopment AccidentEnergy Objective:11 DOE Hydrogen201020111009

  2. Fracture behavior of high-burnup spent-fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, H.M.; Yaggee, F.L.; Kassner, T.F.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PCI-like, brittle-type failures, characterized by pseudocleavage-plus-fluting features in the fracture surface, branching cracks, and small diametral strain, were observed to occur at 292 to 325/sup 0/C in some batches of spent power-reactor fuel-cladding tubes under internal gas-pressurization and expanding-mandrel loading conditions in which the tests were not influenced by fission product simulants. Fractographic characteristics per se do not provide evidence for a PCI failure mechanism but should be deemed only as cooroborative in nature. Evaluation of TEM thin-foil specimens, obtained from regions adjacent to the brittle-type fracture sites, characteristically revealed extensive amounts of Zr/sub 3/O precipitates and a lack of slip dislocations. The precipitation of the Zr/sub 3/O phase appears to be enhanced by a high density of irradiation-induced defects. The brittle-type failure produced in the spent-fuel cladding tubes appears to be associated with segregation of oxygen to dislocation substructures and irradiation-induced defects, which leads to the formation of an ordered zirconium-oxygen phase of Zr/sub 3/O, an immobilization of dislocations, and minimal plastic deformation in the cladding material.

  3. Developing a High Thermal Conductivity Fuel with Silicon Carbide Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald baney; James Tulenko

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to increase the thermal conductivity of uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) without significantly impacting its neutronic properties. The concept is to incorporate another high thermal conductivity material, silicon carbide (SiC), in the form of whiskers or from nanoparticles of SiC and a SiC polymeric precursor into UO{sub 2}. This is expected to form a percolation pathway lattice for conductive heat transfer out of the fuel pellet. The thermal conductivity of SiC would control the overall fuel pellet thermal conductivity. The challenge is to show the effectiveness of a low temperature sintering process, because of a UO{sub 2}-SiC reaction at 1,377°C, a temperature far below the normal sintering temperature. Researchers will study three strategies to overcome the processing difficulties associated with pore clogging and the chemical reaction of SiC and UO{sub 2} at temperatures above 1,300°C:

  4. DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 3: HIGH...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 3: HIGH TEMP (SOFC) SYSTEM AND BOP DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 3: HIGH TEMP (SOFC) SYSTEM AND...

  5. Fossil Fuels Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecordFederal7.pdfFlash_2010_-24.pdfOverviewPlansBuildings and MajorFuels

  6. High specific power, direct methanol fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold with an integral flow restrictor to the outlet manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  7. Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't32 Master EM Project Definition RatingHCCI Engines Materials

  8. Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems - Fact

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: AlternativeEnvironment, SafetyWaterMary Landrieu About Us MaryThru 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

  9. Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d FNEPA/309 Reviewers | Department of Energy PollutionEnergy

  10. New Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S iPartnership Program | Departmentof Energy Polyelectrolyte

  11. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S iPartnershipEnergy University57Department1| Departmentof

  12. FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and fuel cells) required for implementation of a hydrogen economy. Technical teams for each for a hydrogen economy will need to compete against an existing fuel infrastructure that is well understood Section 1: Analyzing Hydrogen Fuel Pathways..........................................5 Section 2

  13. Modular, High-Volume Fuel Cell Leak-Test Suite and Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ru Chen; Ian Kaye

    2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cell stacks are typically hand-assembled and tested. As a result the manufacturing process is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The fluid leakage in fuel cell stacks may reduce fuel cell performance, damage fuel cell stack, or even cause fire and become a safety hazard. Leak check is a critical step in the fuel cell stack manufacturing. The fuel cell industry is in need of fuel cell leak-test processes and equipment that is automatic, robust, and high throughput. The equipment should reduce fuel cell manufacturing cost.

  14. Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Roadmap Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Roadmap Workshop In his 2003 State of the Union Address of the hydrogen and fuel cell technologies needed to move the U.S. toward a future hydrogen economy. While many-volume commercial manufacturing has been identified as one potential showstopper to a future hydrogen economy

  15. APPLICATION OF CERAMICS TO HIGH PRESSURE FUEL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandler, Jr., William F.

    2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel fuel systems are facing increased demands as engines with reduced emissions are developed. Injection pressures have increased to provide finer atomization of fuel for more efficient combustion, Figure 1. This increases the mechanical loads on the system and requires tighter clearances between plungers and bores to prevent leakage. At the same time, fuel lubricity has decreased as a byproduct of reducing the sulfur levels in fuel. Contamination of fuel by water and debris is an ever-present problem. For oil-lubricated fuel system components, increased soot loading in the oil results in increased wear rates. Additionally, engine manufacturers are lengthening warranty periods for engines and systems. This combination of factors requires the development of new materials to counteract the harsher tribological environment.

  16. Regulatory Perspective on Potential Fuel Reconfiguration and Its Implication to High Burnup Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation - 13042

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhian; Rahimi, Meraj; Tang, David; Aissa, Mourad; Flaganan, Michelle [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission - NRC, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States)] [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission - NRC, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States); Wagner, John C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent experiments conducted by Argonne National Laboratory on high burnup fuel cladding material property show that the ductile to brittle transition temperature of high burnup fuel cladding is dependent on: (1) cladding material, (2) irradiation conditions, and (3) drying-storage histories (stress at maximum temperature) [1]. The experiment results also show that the ductile to brittle temperature increases as the fuel burnup increases. These results indicate that the current knowledge in cladding material property is insufficient to determine the structural performance of the cladding of high burnup fuel after it has been stored in a dry cask storage system for some time. The uncertainties in material property and the elevated ductile to brittle transition temperature impose a challenge to the storage cask and transportation packaging designs because the cask designs may not be able to rely on the structural integrity of the fuel assembly for control of fissile material, radiation source, and decay heat source distributions. The fuel may reconfigure during further storage and/or the subsequent transportation conditions. In addition, the fraction of radioactive materials available for release from spent fuel under normal condition of storage and transport may also change. The spent fuel storage and/or transportation packaging vendors, spent fuel shippers, and the regulator may need to consider this possible fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the packages' ability to meet the safety requirements of Part 72 and Part 71 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is working with the scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assess the impact of fuel reconfiguration on the safety of the dry storage systems and transportation packages. The NRC Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation has formed a task force to work on the safety and regulatory concerns in relevance to high burnup fuel storage and transportation. This paper discusses the staff's preliminary considerations on the safety implication of fuel reconfiguration with respect to nuclear safety (subcriticality control), radiation shielding, containment, the performance of the thermal functions of the packages, and the retrievability of the contents from regulatory perspective. (authors)

  17. Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    over a range of dilutions & injection pressures - Significant fuel effects observed (data analysis is in progress) 2. Showed that raw liquids from the fast pyrolysis of woody...

  18. Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    tools for understanding fuel-property effects on - Combustion - Engine efficiency optimization - Emissions Partners Project lead: Sandia (C.J. Mueller, PI) 15 industry, 6...

  19. Next-generation nuclear fuel withstands high-temperature accident

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andDataNationalNewport News Business55NewsNext

  20. Safeguards Guidance for Prismatic Fueled High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the Review of theOFFICE OF CIVIL to Mod 0099 datedMod0/%2A2 *31)5)

  1. Highly Efficient, Scalable Microbial Fuel Cell - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmas in theinPlastics -␤,of

  2. High Performance Alkaline Fuel Cell Membranes > Research Highlights >

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. TheEPSCIResearchGulfCenterHeavy Ions|

  3. German Pebble Bed Research Reactor Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr Flickr Editor'sshortGeothermal Heat PumpsChad Simmons Gerdenis Kodis

  4. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAbout »Lab (NewportSuccess Stories T ECapture Turbulence

  5. Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping the Nanoscale LandscapeImportsBG4, 2012 1:00 -22-01-2049 Measured

  6. Graphenesponges as high-performance low-cost anodes for microbial fuel Xing Xie,ab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Graphene­sponges as high-performance low-cost anodes for microbial fuel cells Xing Xie,ab Guihua Yu February 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2ee03583a A high-performance microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode was con- structed. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the metabolism of exoelec- trogens, microorganisms that mediate

  7. Electrochimica Acta 52 (2007) 49424946 High-performance microfluidic vanadium redox fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brolo, Alexandre G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vanadium redox fuel cell Erik Kjeanga,c, Brenton T. Proctora,c, Alexandre G. Brolob,c, David A. Harringtonb a new microfluidic fuel cell design with high-surface area porous carbon electrodes and high aspect ratio channel, using soluble vanadium redox species as fuel and oxidant. The device exhibits a peak

  8. High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii HIGH PERFORMANCE and SUSTAINABLEIssues |

  9. Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on transition metal oxide catalysts for high temperature fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La O', Gerardo Jose Cordova

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with its high energy conversion efficiency, low emissions, silent operation and its ability to utilize commercial fuels has the potential to create a large impact on the energy landscape. ...

  10. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas Success story about using waste water...

  11. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Optical-Engine and Surrogate-Fuels Research for an Improved Understanding of Fuel Effects on...

  12. NEUTRONIC AND THERMAL HYDRAULIC DESIGNS OF ANNULAR FUEL FOR HIGH POWER DENSITY BWRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morra, P.

    As a promising new fuel for high power density light water reactors, the feasibility of using annular fuel for BWR services is explored from both thermal hydraulic and neutronic points of view. Keeping the bundle size ...

  13. An integrated performance model for high temperature gas cooled reactor coated particle fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jing, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of coated fuel particles is essential for the development and deployment of High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) systems for future power generation. Fuel performance modeling is indispensable for understanding ...

  14. An evolutionary fuel assembly design for high power density BWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karahan, Aydin

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evolutionary BWR fuel assembly design was studied as a means to increase the power density of current and future BWR cores. The new assembly concept is based on replacing four traditional assemblies and large water gap ...

  15. High power density fuel cell comprising an array of microchannels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopchak, David A; Morse, Jeffrey D; Upadhye, Ravindra S; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell according to one embodiment includes an array of microchannels defined by a porous electrolyte support structure extending between bottom and upper support layers, the microchannels including fuel and oxidant microchannels; fuel electrodes formed along some of the microchannels; and air electrodes formed along other of the microchannels. A method of making a phosphoric acid fuel cell according to one embodiment includes etching an array of microchannels in a substrate, thereby forming walls between the microchannels; processing the walls to make the walls porous, thereby forming a porous electrolyte support structure; forming anode electrodes along some of the walls; forming cathode electrodes along other of the walls; and filling the porous electrolyte support structure with a phosphoric acid electrolyte. Additional embodiments are also disclosed.

  16. The Effect of Diesel Fuel Properties on Emissions-Restrained...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Effect of Diesel Fuel Properties on Emissions-Restrained Fuel Economy at Mid-Load Conditions The Effect of Diesel Fuel Properties on Emissions-Restrained Fuel Economy at...

  17. Development of a 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Power Pack : Fuel Cell S. Andreasen, M. Bang, A. Korsgaard, M. Nielsen, S. Kr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Development of a 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Power Pack : Fuel Cell Stack Test S, containing about 8 times more energy by volume. Fuelling NaÃ?on based low temperature PEM (LTPEM) fuel cells]. PBI (polybenzoemidazole) based high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells can operate stable at much

  18. Ecology or Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2007-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: File this under "Statistics to the Rescue". Economy or ecology? Ecology or economy? Tough choice. Especially for China which is barreling recklessly ahead in its quest to become top consumer nation. A recent release from...

  19. High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering deposition of Pt inside fuel cell electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering deposition of Pt inside fuel cell electrodes S Cuynet1 as a cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. An increase of 80 % at 0.65 V of the PEMFC power density) 272001" #12;2 Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) have the potential to provide

  20. Estimation of CO concentration in high temperature PEM fuel cells using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Estimation of CO concentration in high temperature PEM fuel cells using electrochemical impedance (Numbers are presented in Tian et al. (2010)) and cost effectiveness (Price development for Fuel Cells / grid during the test. Efforts have been made in increasing operating temperatures of PEM fuel cells

  1. Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) it reduces the fuel efficiency (methanol is reacted without producing electrical current). We canChapter 50 Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells C. E The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has become a lead- ing contender to replace the lithium-ion (Li

  2. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Project Kick-active-area fuel cells, to be made available for DOE testing Reduce catalyst cost while achieving the required · Subcontractors: ­ Technical University of Berlin ­ Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells ­ Massachusetts Institute

  3. High Performance Plasma Sputtered Fuel Cell Electrodes with Ultra Low catalytic metal Loadings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to be reached between 2010 and 2015 are clear: the catalyst of a fuel cell can cost no more than 4 per kilowatt1 High Performance Plasma Sputtered Fuel Cell Electrodes with Ultra Low catalytic metal Loadings C in plasma fuel cell deposition devices. Pt loadings lower than 0.01 mg cm-2 have been realized. The Pt

  4. High Performance Plasma Sputtered PdPt Fuel Cell Electrodes with Ultra Low Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : the catalyst of a fuel cell can cost no more than 5/3 per kilowatt [1]. If the catalyst is platinum (~40 g-1High Performance Plasma Sputtered PdPt Fuel Cell Electrodes with Ultra Low Loading M. Mougenot1, 2 potential for the fuel cell technology to overcome the upcoming energy and resources issues in our society

  5. Candidate Fuels for Vehicle Fuel Cell Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Petroleum, HEV Gasoline, Petroleum, ICEV Energy, MJ/mi Vehicle: Petroleum Vehicle: Other Fossil Fuel Vehicle: Non Fossil Fuel Fuel Chain: Petroleum Fuel Chain: Other Fossil Fuel Fuel Chain: Non Fossil Fuel price premium · Subsidies/taxes · Supply chain (natural gas, materials) · Fuel economy · FCV and fueling

  6. High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii HIGH PERFORMANCE andHigh Risk PlanD D

  7. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii HIGH PERFORMANCE andHigh Risk PlanD

  8. Fuel-disruption experiments under high-ramp-rate heating conditions. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, S.A.; Worledge, D.H.; Cano, G.L.; Mast, P.K.; Briscoe, F.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This topical report presents the preliminary results and analysis of the High Ramp Rate fuel-disruption experiment series. These experiments were performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the timing and mode of fuel disruption during the prompt-burst phase of a loss-of-flow accident. High-speed cinematography was used to observe the timing and mode of the fuel disruption in a stack of five fuel pellets. Of the four experiments discussed, one used fresh mixed-oxide fuel, and three used irradiated mixed-oxide fuel. Analysis of the experiments indicates that in all cases, the observed disruption occurred well before fuel-vapor pressure was high enough to cause the disruption. The disruption appeared as a rapid spray-like expansion and occurred near the onset of fuel melting in the irradiated-fuel experiments and near the time of complete fuel melting in the fresh-fuel experiment. This early occurrence of fuel disruption is significant because it can potentially lower the work-energy release resulting from a prompt-burst disassembly accident.

  9. Method to fabricate high performance tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Jin, Chao

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The method further includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic layer on a surface of the asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The tube is co-sintered to form a structure having a first porous layer, a second porous layer, and a dense layer positioned therebetween.

  10. Turbocharging of small internal combustion engine as a means of improving engine/application system fuel economy-further turbocharger improvements. Final report Oct 80-Feb 82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arvin, J.R.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improvements to a small diesel engine turbocharger were made based on data gathered during a previous Army contract. The improved turbocharger was fabricated and tested on a small, four cylinder, 239 CID diesel engine. Engine dynamometer test data revealed a 2 to 9 percent reduction in fuel consumption at all points over the operating envelope. A turbocharger was operated for 1011 hours at speeds between 70000 and 78000 rpm without incident. The ball bearings were in excellent condition at the end of the test. A math model of the engine and turbocharger was generated. The model was used to estimate 13 Mode Federal Diesel Emissions Cycle, the LA4 driving cycle and the application of the variable area turbine nozzle (VATN) turbocharger to a diesel engine driven generator set. A recommendation was made to build a gen set demo unit. A fuel savings of 8 to 10 percent was estimated for a 30KW DED generator set.

  11. New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  12. NREL Team Creates High-Activity, Durable Platinum Extended Surface Catalyst for Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers with NREL's Fuel Cell team showed that platinum can replace copper nanowires in such a way that high-surface-area and high-specific-activity catalysts are produced, potentially allowing for lower-cost catalysts.

  13. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  14. Low-Enriched Fuel Design Concept for the Prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor Core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterbentz, James W

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new non-TRISO fuel and clad design concept is proposed for the prismatic, heliumcooled Very High Temperature Reactor core. The new concept could substantially reduce the current 10-20 wt% TRISO uranium enrichments down to 4-6 wt% for both initial and reload cores. The proposed fuel form would be a high-temperature, high-density uranium ceramic, for example UO2, configured into very small diameter cylindrical rods. The small diameter fuel rods significantly increase core reactivity through improved neutron moderation and fuel lumping. Although a high-temperature clad system for the concept remains to be developed, recent success in tube fabrication and preliminary irradiation testing of silicon carbide (SiC) cladding for light water reactor applications offers good potential for this application, and for future development of other carbide clad designs. A high-temperature ceramic fuel, together with a high-temperature clad material, could also lead to higher thermal safety margins during both normal and transient reactor conditions relative to TRISO fuel. The calculated neutronic results show that the lowenrichment, small diameter fuel rods and low thermal neutron absorbing clad retain the strong negative Doppler fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity that ensures inherent safe operation of the VHTR, and depletion studies demonstrate that an 18-month power cycle can be achieved with the lower enrichment fuel.

  15. Tribological behavior of near-frictionless carbon coatings in high- and low-sulfur diesel fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alzoubi, M. F.; Ajayi, O. O.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Ozturk, O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.

    2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The sulfur content in diesel fuel has a significant effect on diesel engine emissions, which are currently subject to environmental regulations. It has been observed that engine particulate and gaseous emissions are directly proportional to fuel sulfur content. With the introduction of low-sulfur fuels, significant reductions in emissions are expected. The process of sulfur reduction in petroleum-based diesel fuels also reduces the lubricity of the fuel, resulting in premature failure of fuel injectors. Thus, another means of preventing injector failures is needed for engines operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels. In this study, the authors evaluated a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coating (developed at Argonne National Laboratory) as a possible solution to the problems associated with fuel injector failures in low-lubricity fuels. Tribological tests were conducted with NFC-coated and uncoated H13 and 52100 steels lubricated with high- and low- sulfur diesel fuels in a high-frequency reciprocating test machine. The test results showed that the NFC coatings reduced wear rates by a factor of 10 over those of uncoated steel surfaces. In low-sulfur diesel fuel, the reduction in wear rate was even greater (i.e., by a factor of 12 compared to that of uncoated test pairs), indicating that the NFC coating holds promise as a potential solution to wear problems associated with the use of low-lubricity diesel fuels.

  16. Microstructural Characterization of High Burn-up Mixed Oxide Fast Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melissa C. Teague; Brian P. Gorman; Steven L. Hayes; Douglas L. Porter; Jeffrey King

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High burn-up mixed oxide fuel with local burn-ups of 3.4–23.7% FIMA (fissions per initial metal atom) were destructively examined as part of a research project to understand the performance of oxide fuel at extreme burn-ups. Optical metallography of fuel cross-sections measured the fuel-to-cladding gap, clad thickness, and central void evolution in the samples. The fuel-to-cladding gap closed significantly in samples with burn-ups below 7–9% FIMA. Samples with burn-ups in excess of 7–9% FIMA had a reopening of the fuel-to-cladding gap and evidence of joint oxide-gain (JOG) formation. Signs of axial fuel migration to the top of the fuel column were observed in the fuel pin with a peak burn-up of 23.7% FIMA. Additionally, high burn-up structure (HBS) was observed in the two highest burn-up samples (23.7% and 21.3% FIMA). The HBS layers were found to be 3–5 times thicker than the layers found in typical LWR fuel. The results of the study indicate that formation of JOG and or HBS prevents any significant fuel-cladding mechanical interaction from occurring, thereby extending the potential life of the fuel elements.

  17. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air PEM fuel cell systems fuelled by steam reformed methanol. Various fuel cell system solutions exist, they mainly differ depending on the desired fuel used. High temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells offer

  18. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, Stephen; Mountz, David; He, Wensheng; Zhang, Tao

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct methanol fuel cell membranes were developed using blends of different polyelectrolytes with PVDF. The membranes showed complex relationships between polyelectrolyte chemistry, morphology, and processing. Although the PVDF grade was found to have little effect on the membrane permselectivity, it does impact membrane conductivity and methanol permeation values. Other factors, such as varying the polyelectrolyte polarity, using varying crosslinking agents, and adjusting the equivalent weight of the membranes impacted methanol permeation, permselectivity, and areal resistance. We now understand, within the scope of the project work completed, how these inter-related performance properties can be tailored to achieve a balance of performance.

  19. High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell with ceramic electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marchant, David D. (Richland, WA); Bates, J. Lambert (Richland, WA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell is described having a central electrolyte comprised of a HfO.sub.2 or ZrO.sub.2 ceramic stabilized and rendered ionically conductive by the addition of Ca, Mg, Y, La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy Er, or Yb. The electrolyte is sandwiched between porous electrodes of a HfO.sub.2 or ZrO.sub.2 ceramic stabilized by the addition of a rare earth and rendered electronically conductive by the addition of In.sub.2 O.sub.3. Alternatively, the anode electrode may be made of a metal such as Co, Ni, Ir Pt, or Pd.

  20. Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L. (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, Brian E. (Pocoima, CA); Benander, Robert E. (Pacoima, CA)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's). Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, a thin coating of nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made, for example, of reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  1. Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L. (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, Brian E. (Pacoima, CA); Benander, Robert E. (Pacoima, CA)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  2. Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  3. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan Sheppard; Bruce Woodrow; Paul Kilmurray; Simon Thwaite

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi phase program was undertaken with the stated goal of using advanced design and development tools to create a unique combination of existing technologies to create a powertrain system specification that allowed minimal increase of volumetric fuel consumption when operating on E85 relative to gasoline. Although on an energy basis gasoline / ethanol blends typically return similar fuel economy to straight gasoline, because of its lower energy density (gasoline ~ 31.8MJ/l and ethanol ~ 21.1MJ/l) the volume based fuel economy of gasoline / ethanol blends are typically considerably worse. This project was able to define an initial engine specification envelope, develop specific hardware for the application, and test that hardware in both single and multi-cylinder test engines to verify the ability of the specified powertrain to deliver reduced E85 fuel consumption. Finally, the results from the engine testing were used in a vehicle drive cycle analysis tool to define a final vehicle level fuel economy result. During the course of the project, it was identified that the technologies utilized to improve fuel economy on E85 also enabled improved fuel economy when operating on gasoline. However, the E85 fueled powertrain provided improved vehicle performance when compared to the gasoline fueled powertrain due to the improved high load performance of the E85 fuel. Relative to the baseline comparator engine and considering current market fuels, the volumetric fuel consumption penalty when running on E85 with the fully optimized project powertrain specification was reduced significantly. This result shows that alternative fuels can be utilized in high percentages while maintaining or improving vehicle performance and with minimal or positive impact on total cost of ownership to the end consumer. The justification for this project was two-fold. In order to reduce the US dependence on crude oil, much of which is imported, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) under the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The RFS specifies targets for the amount of renewable fuel to be blended into petroleum based transportation fuels. The goal is to blend 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels into transportation fuels by 2022 (9 billion gallons were blended in 2008). The RFS also requires that the renewable fuels emit fewer greenhouse gasses than the petroleum fuels replaced. Thus the goal of the EPA is to have a more fuel efficient national fleet, less dependent on petroleum based fuels. The limit to the implementation of certain technologies employed was the requirement to run the developed powertrain on gasoline with minimal performance degradation. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuels improves the fuels octane rating and increases the fuels evaporative cooling. Both of these fuel property enhancements make gasoline / ethanol blends more suitable than straight gasoline for use in downsized engines or engines with increased compression ratio. The use of engine downsizing and high compression ratios as well as direct injection (DI), dual independent cam phasing, external EGR, and downspeeding were fundamental to the fuel economy improvements targeted in this project. The developed powertrain specification utilized the MAHLE DI3 gasoline downsizing research engine. It was a turbocharged, intercooled, DI engine with dual independent cam phasing utilizing a compression ratio of 11.25 : 1 and a 15% reduction in final drive ratio. When compared to a gasoline fuelled 2.2L Ecotec engine in a Chevrolet HHR, vehicle drive cycle predictions indicate that the optimized powertrain operating on E85 would result in a reduced volume based drive cycle fuel economy penalty of 6% compared to an approximately 30% penalty for current technology engines.

  4. Design of annular fuel for high power density BWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morra, Paolo

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enabling high power density in the core of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) is economically profitable for existing or new reactors. In this work, we examine the potential for increasing the power density in BWR plants by ...

  5. Establishing Specifications for Low Enriched Uranium Fuel Operations Conducted Outside the High Flux Isotope Reactor Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinkston, Daniel [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Renfro, David G [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has funded staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from the current, high enriched uranium fuel to low enriched uranium fuel. The LEU fuel form is a metal alloy that has never been used in HFIR or any HFIR-like reactor. This report provides documentation of a process for the creation of a fuel specification that will meet all applicable regulations and guidelines to which UT-Battelle, LLC (UTB) the operating contractor for ORNL - must adhere. This process will allow UTB to purchase LEU fuel for HFIR and be assured of the quality of the fuel being procured.

  6. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  7. Dispersed concentration of high-tech jobs in the new economy : the paradox of new information and communication technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Myoung-Gu, 1970-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More high-tech firms are conducting their business over long distances due to the use of new information and communication technologies (ICT). However, regional scientists articulate that geographic proximity is still ...

  8. Direct fired reciprocating engine and bottoming high temperature fuel cell hybrid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A. (New Alexandria, PA); Holcombe, Norman T. (McMurray, PA)

    2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A system of a fuel cell bottoming an internal combustion engine. The engine exhaust gas may be combined in varying degrees with air and fed as input to a fuel cell. Reformer and oxidizers may be combined with heat exchangers to accommodate rich and lean burn conditions in the engine in peaking and base load conditions without producing high concentrations of harmful emissions.

  9. Binary inorganic salt mixtures as high conductivity liquid electrolytes for .100 uC fuel cells{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen

    Binary inorganic salt mixtures as high conductivity liquid electrolytes for .100 uC fuel cells cations (e.g. ammonium) as electrolytes in fuel cells operating in the temperature range 100­200 uC, where cell operating with optimized electrodes in the same temperature range, while open circuit voltages

  10. Fuel cells as a backup energy source for high availability network servers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humphrey, Daniel Alan

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis proposes an uninterruptible power supply, UPS for high availability servers with fuel cells as its back up energy source. The system comprises a DC to DC converter designed to accommodate the fuel cellâ s wide output voltage range. A...

  11. Energy and the economy: Soaring development in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Thailand's economy is one of the fastest growing in the world. Spectacular economic growth has brought a number of growing pains, energy being one of the many notables. Thailand's growth campaign has been fueled by oil, and as the economy shows little sign of slowing, energy use continues to grow. The government must balance a surging economy while scrambling to maintain sufficient energy supplies and infrastructure.

  12. Analysis of spent, highly enriched reactor fuel by delayed neutron interrogation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piper, T.C.; Kirkham, R.J. (Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Eccleston, G.W.; Menlove, H.O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1989-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Design aspects are given of a neutron shuffler designed to measure fissile material content of spent, highly enriched reactor fuel. The mode of operation used, results of analyzing 176 fuel packages and recommended system improvements are also discussed. Four measurements were made on each of the fuel packages with the mean of the 176 standard deviations being 1.7 percent of value. The maximum individual standard deviation was 6.3%. Use of a stronger neutron source, an improved neutron source shuffler, an improved fuel package motion system and modernized computer system should permit significant improvement of present performance. 2 refs.

  13. High Performance Mica-based Compressive Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmas in the Madison SymmetricHigh Carbon|1-3, mthe

  14. Green Economy Toolbox | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to:Photon Place: Golden, COIndiana JumpGrayIncentivesGreen Economy

  15. High Performance Fuel Design for Next Generation PWRs 2nd Annual Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballinger, Ronald G.

    The overall objective of this NERI project is to examine the potential for a high performance advanced fuel design for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), which would accommodate a substantial increase of core power density ...

  16. Development of a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor TRISO-coated particle fuel chemistry model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diecker, Jane T

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first portion of this work is a comprehensive analysis of the chemical environment in a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor TRISO fuel particle. Fission product inventory versus burnup is calculated. Based on those ...

  17. High Performance Fuel Design for Next Generation PWRs: 11th Quarterly Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazimi, Mujid S.

    I. Technical Narrative: The overall objective of this NERI project is to examine the potential for a high performance advanced fuel for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), which would accommodate a substantial increase of ...

  18. High-frequency transformer isolated power conditioning system for fuel cells to utility interface.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathore, Akshay Kumar

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis presents interfacing of fuel cells to a single-phase utility line using a high-frequency transformer isolated power converter. This research contributes towards selecting a… (more)

  19. Design strategies for optimizing high burnup fuel in pressurized water reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Zhiwen, 1975-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is focused on the strategy for utilizing high-burnup fuel in pressurized water reactors (PWR) with special emphasis on the full array of neutronic considerations. The historical increase in batch-averaged discharge ...

  20. Combined Catalysis and Optical Screening for High Throughput Discovery of Solar Fuels Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faraon, Andrei

    Combined Catalysis and Optical Screening for High Throughput Discovery of Solar Fuels Catalysts J,b a Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA b Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720

  1. Analysis and design of high frequency link power conversion systems for fuel cell power conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Yu Jin

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation, new high frequency link power conversion systems for the fuel cell power conditioning are proposed to improve the performance and optimize the cost, size, and weight of the power conversion systems. The first study proposes a...

  2. CATALYSTS FOR HIGH CETANE ETHERS AS DIESEL FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; James G.C. Shen; Qisheng Ma

    2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel 1,2-ethanediol, bis(hydrogen sulfate), disodium salt precursor-based solid acid catalyst with a zirconia substrate was synthesized and demonstrated to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) or isobutene from methanol-isobutanol mixtures. The precursor salt was synthesized and provided by Dr. T. H. Kalantar of the M.E. Pruitt Research Center, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI 48674. Molecular modeling of the catalyst synthesis steps and of the alcohol coupling reaction is being carried out. A representation of the methyl transfer from the surface activated methanol molecule (left) to the activated oxygen of the isobutanol molecule (right) to form an ether linkage to yield MIBE is shown.

  3. CATALYSTS FOR HIGH CETANE ETHERS AS DIESEL FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Heock-Hoi Kwon; James G. C. Shen; Qisheng Ma; Robert A. Hunsicker; Andrew P. Butler; Scott J. Bollinger

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tungstena-zirconia (WZ) catalyst has been investigated for coupling methanol and isobutanol to unsymmetrical ethers, i.e. methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and compared with earlier studied sulfated-zirconia (SZ) and Nafion-H catalysts. In all cases, the ether synthesis mechanism is a dual site S{sub N}2 process involving competitive adsorption of reactants on proximal acid sites. At low reaction temperatures, methylisobutylether (MIBE) is the predominant product. However, at temperatures >135 C the WZ catalyst is very good for dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The surface acid sites of the WZ catalyst and a Nafion-H catalyst were diagnosed by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of N 1s shifts after adsorption of amines. Using pyridine, ethylenediamine, and triethylamine, it is shown that WZ has heterogeneous strong Broensted acid sites. Theoretical study located the transition state of the alcohol coupling reaction on proximal Broensted acid sites and accounted well for XPS core-level shifts upon surface acid-base interactions. While computations have not been carried out with WZ, it is shown that the SZ catalyst is a slightly stronger acid than CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}H (a model for Nafion-H) by 1.3-1.4 kcal/mol. A novel sulfated zirconia catalyst having proximal strong Broensted acid sites was synthesized and shown to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing MIBE or isobutene from methanol/isobutanol mixtures. The catalyst was prepared by anchoring 1,2-ethanediol bis(hydrogen sulfate) salt precursor onto zirconium hydroxide, followed by calcination to remove the -(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2})- bridging residues.

  4. California's Green Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Number of workers in green or clean product manufacturing and/or services Number of businesses that haveCalifornia's Green Economy California Green Workforce Coalition July 9, 2010 Bonnie Graybill Employment Development Department Labor Market Information Division #12;Understanding the Green Economy What

  5. Potential Roles of Ammonia in a Hydrogen Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potential Roles of Ammonia in a Hydrogen Economy A Study of Issues Related to the Use Ammonia economy, particularly with regard to the viability of ammonia as an on-board hydrogen carrier for fuel for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage U.S. Department of Energy #12;#12;Primary Authors: George Thomas1

  6. High-Energy Fuel Ion Diagnostics on ITER Derived from Neutron Emission Spectroscopy Measurements on JET DT Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-Energy Fuel Ion Diagnostics on ITER Derived from Neutron Emission Spectroscopy Measurements on JET DT Plasmas

  7. Establishing a Cost Basis for Converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor from High Enriched to Low Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Primm, Trent [ORNL; Guida, Tracey [University of Pittsburgh

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the auspices of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program, the National Nuclear Security Administration /Department of Energy (NNSA/DOE) has, as a goal, to convert research reactors worldwide from weapons grade to non-weapons grade uranium. The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) is one of the candidates for conversion of fuel from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). A well documented business model, including tasks, costs, and schedules was developed to plan the conversion of HFIR. Using Microsoft Project, a detailed outline of the conversion program was established and consists of LEU fuel design activities, a fresh fuel shipping cask, improvements to the HFIR reactor building, and spent fuel operations. Current-value costs total $76 million dollars, include over 100 subtasks, and will take over 10 years to complete. The model and schedule follows the path of the fuel from receipt from fuel fabricator to delivery to spent fuel storage and illustrates the duration, start, and completion dates of each subtask to be completed. Assumptions that form the basis of the cost estimate have significant impact on cost and schedule.

  8. Test plan for high-burnup fuel cladding behavior under loss-of- coolant accident conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, H.M.; Neimark, L.A.; Kassner, T.F.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Excessive oxidation, hydriding, and extensive irradiation damage occur in high-burnup fuel cladding, and as result, mechanical properties of high-burnup fuels are degraded significantly. This may influence the current fuel cladding failure limits for loss-of- coolant-accident (LOCA) situations, which are based on fuel cladding behavior for zero burnup. To avoid cladding fragmentation and fuel dispersal during a LOCA, 10 CFR 50.46 requires that peak cladding temperature shall not exceed 1204 degrees C (2200 degrees F) and that total oxidation of the fuel cladding nowhere exceeds 0.17 times total cladding thickness before oxidation. Because of the concern, a new experimental program to investigate high-burnup fuel cladding behavior under LOCA situations has been initiated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A hot-cell test plan to investigate single-rod behavior under simulated LOCA conditions is described in this paper. In the meantime, industry fuel design and operating conditions are expected to undergo further changes as more advanced cladding materials are developed. Under these circumstances, mechanical properties of high-burnup fuel cladding require further investigation so that results from studies on LOCA, reactivity- initiated-accident (RIA), operational transient, and power-ramping situations, can be extrapolated to modified or advanced cladding materials and altered irradiation conditions without repeating major integral experiments in test reactors. To provide the applicable data base and mechanistic understanding, tests will be conducted to determine dynamic and static fracture toughness and tensile properties. Background and rationale for selecting the specific mechanical properties tests are also described.

  9. HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

    2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the environment, reducing the amount of fuel consumed and, for energy intensive manufacturers, boosting their profits (by reducing energy expenses). Compared to conventional power generation technologies such as internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and coal plants, fuel cells are extremely clean and more efficient, particularly at smaller scales.

  10. Pipe Insulation Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, R. E.

    PIPE INSULATION ECONOMIES Robert E. Schilling, P.E. Eaton Corporation Aurora, Ohio ABSTRACT Pipe Insulation Economies is a computer pro gram written in IBM basic to simplify the economic insulation thickness for an insulated pipe. Many... ECONOMIES" 30 LOCATE 10,29:PRINT"ROBERT E. SCHILLING,P.E." 40 LOCATE l2,3l:PRINT"EATON CORPORATION" 50 LOCATE l3,26:PRINT"119 Q SOUTH CHILLICOTHE ROAD" 598 ESL-IE-86-06-97 Proceedings from the Eighth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference...

  11. Analysis of high-burnup fuel performance during load-follow operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, T.; Fukuya, K.; Kinoshita, M.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Japan, an objective of the burnup extension of nuclear fuel is to raise the licensing limit of burnup from 39 to 48 GWd/t for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in the near future. Because of an increasing ratio of nuclear power generation, the necessity of the load-follow operation, which responds flexibly to changing power demands, is more apparent. To evaluate accurately the mechanical integrity of PWR fuel at high burnup during a load-follow operation, the FEMAXI-III code, originally developed for analyses of fuel experiments, was modified, improving submodels to evaluate PWR fuel; the new code was named IRON. The results of verification work on the code using data on PWR fuel covering wide ranges of burnup and linear heat rate show that it has good predictability and, therefore, that the improvement was confirmed as effective.

  12. Roadmap for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles in California: A Transition Strategy through 2017

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogden, J; Cunningham, Joshua M; Nicholas, Michael A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vehicle component costs (for fuel cells and hydrogenand cost issues for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles, andFuel economy: • Fuel cell system cost: % of DOE 2015 Target

  13. Final Technical Report, Oct 2004 - Nov. 2006, High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed for the program entitled “High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell” under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14351 for the U. S. Department of Energy. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a single modular stack that generates electricity from a variety of fuels (hydrogen and other fuels such as biomass, distributed natural gas, etc.) and when operated in the reverse mode, produces hydrogen from steam. This project has evaluated and selected baseline cell materials, developed a set of materials for oxygen and hydrogen electrodes, and optimized electrode microstructures for reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs); and demonstrated the feasibility and operation of a RSOFC multi-cell stack. A 10-cell reversible SOFC stack was operated over 1000 hours alternating between fuel cell (with hydrogen and methane as fuel) and steam electrolysis modes. The stack ran very successfully with high power density of 480 mW/cm2 at 0.7V and 80% fuel utilization in fuel cell mode and >6 SLPM hydrogen production in steam electrolysis mode using about 1.1 kW electrical power. The hydrogen generation is equivalent to a specific capability of 2.59 Nm3/m2 with electrical energy demand of 3 kWh/Nm3. The performance stability in electrolysis mode was improved vastly during the program with a degradation rate reduction from 8000 to 200 mohm-cm2/1000 hrs. This was accomplished by increasing the activity and improving microstructure of the oxygen electrode. Both cost estimate and technology assessment were conducted. Besides the flexibility running under both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode, the reversible SOFC system has the potentials for low cost and high efficient hydrogen production through steam electrolysis. The cost for hydrogen production at large scale was estimated at ~$2.7/kg H2, comparing favorably with other electrolysis techology.

  14. Real-World PHEV Fuel Economy Prediction

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    data - Cleansed data freely available for download - Controlled access to detailed spatial data * User application process * Software tools available through secure web...

  15. Moving Forward With Fuel Economy Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and $1.85 a gallon. Crude oil prices in early 2009 werethe oil we consume. The price of crude oil in early 1973 was

  16. Moving Forward With Fuel Economy Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    $1.85 a gallon. Crude oil prices in early 2009 were stillBut in light of fluctuating oil prices and concerns aboutwhen the inevitable rise in oil prices occurs with economic

  17. Fuel Economy: What Drives Consumer Choice?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Tom; Kurani, Kenneth; Heffner, Rusty

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    behavior much in response to gasoline price changes on thereally think about and respond to gasoline prices? Dohow much they spend on gasoline over the course of a year,

  18. The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    prices hurt the economy), then natural gas is said to have aNatural Gas Policy – Fueling the Demands of a Growing Economy.Natural Gas Policy – Fueling the Demands of a Growing Economy.

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE GLOBAL ECONOMY How to decarbonise the global economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLIMATE CHANGE · GLOBAL ECONOMY How to decarbonise the global economy Today's report on deep efforts of independent experts from 15 countries to find national pathways to making economies based-zero emissions sometime in the second half of this century. This deep cut should occur in a growing world economy

  20. Purdue Agricultural Economics Report Page 1 Since 2008 the general economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purdue Agricultural Economics Report Page 1 Since 2008 the general economy in the U.S. has generally had weak performance and the agricultural economy has driven to record highs. Those trends seem to be reversing in 2014 as the U.S. and world economies move toward better footing, but the agricultural economy

  1. Analysis of Class 8 Hybrid-Electric Truck Technologies Using Diesel, LNG, Electricity, and Hydrogen, as the Fuel for Various Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    trucks can increase fuel economy by 3-6% over the long haultrucks can increase fuel economy by 3-6% over the long haul

  2. A thermally self-sustained micro solid-oxide fuel-cell stack with high power density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Sossina M.

    A thermally self-sustained micro solid-oxide fuel-cell stack with high power density Zongping Shao1 for portable power generation1,2 . Accordingly, polymer-electrolyte direct- methanol fuel cells design challenges and cannot operate with hydrocarbon fuels of higher energy density. Solid-oxide fuel

  3. Options for treating high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel for repository disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lotts, A.L.; Bond, W.D.; Forsberg, C.W.; Glass, R.W.; Harrington, F.E.; Micheals, G.E.; Notz, K.J.; Wymer, R.G.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the options that can reasonably be considered for disposal of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel in a repository. The options include whole-block disposal, disposal with removal of graphite (either mechanically or by burning), and reprocessing of spent fuel to separate the fuel and fission products. The report summarizes what is known about the options without extensively projecting or analyzing actual performance of waste forms in a repository. The report also summarizes the processes involved in convert spent HTGR fuel into the various waste forms and projects relative schedules and costs for deployment of the various options. Fort St. Vrain Reactor fuel, which utilizes highly-enriched {sup 235}U (plus thorium) and is contained in a prismatic graphite block geometry, was used as the baseline for evaluation, but the major conclusions would not be significantly different for low- or medium-enriched {sup 235}U (without thorium) or for the German pebble-bed fuel. Future US HTGRs will be based on the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) fuel form. The whole block appears to be a satisfactory waste form for disposal in a repository and may perform better than light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. From the standpoint of process cost and schedule (not considering repository cost or value of fuel that might be recycled), the options are ranked as follows in order of increased cost and longer schedule to perform the option: (1) whole block, (2a) physical separation, (2b) chemical separation, and (3) complete chemical processing.

  4. High-energy-density solid and liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report, July 1987-December 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchand, A.P.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of new high-energy hydrocarbon fuels for use in air-breathing missiles has been the objective of a number of investigations which have received support during the past decade through programs sponsored by the Air Force Systems Command and/or the Naval Air Systems Command. The key characteristics which must be met by potential cruise missile fuels have been described by Burdette and coworkers. A primary requirement in this regard is that candidate fuels must possess high net volumetric heat of combustion (preferably greater than 160,000 BTU/gallon). In order to meet the primary requirement of high net volumetric heat of combustion, hydrocarbon systems have been sought which maximize the ratio of carbon-atom to hydrogen-atom content have been sought that maximize the ratio n/m.(JES)

  5. An Integrated Assessment of the Impacts of Hydrogen Economy on Transportation, Energy Use, and Air Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Loughlin, Daniel H.; Shay, Carol; Gage, Cynthia

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economy on Transportation, Energy Use, and Air Emissions fossil fuel imports such as natural gas.Economy on Transportation, Energy Use, and Air Emissions penetration of H 2 -FCVs could increase the use of natural gasEconomy on Transportation, Energy Use, and Air Emissions With the most cost-effective sources of hydrogen likely to be natural gas

  6. Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shropshire, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

    2004-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the fuel-cycle and nuclear material disposition issues associated with high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This paper reviews the nuclear fuel cycles supporting early and present day gas reactors, and identifies challenges for the advanced fuel cycles and waste management systems supporting the next generation of HTGRs, including the Very High Temperature Reactor, which is under development in the Generation IV Program. The earliest gas-cooled reactors were the carbon dioxide (CO2)-cooled reactors. Historical experience is available from over 1,000 reactor-years of operation from 52 electricity-generating, CO2-cooled reactor plants that were placed in operation worldwide. Following the CO2 reactor development, seven HTGR plants were built and operated. The HTGR came about from the combination of helium coolant and graphite moderator. Helium was used instead of air or CO2 as the coolant. The helium gas has a significant technical base due to the experience gained in the United States from the 40-MWe Peach Bottom and 330-MWe Fort St. Vrain reactors designed by General Atomics. Germany also built and operated the 15-MWe Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) and the 300-MWe Thorium High-Temperature Reactor (THTR) power plants. The AVR, THTR, Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain all used fuel containing thorium in various forms (i.e., carbides, oxides, thorium particles) and mixtures with highly enriched uranium. The operational experience gained from these early gas reactors can be applied to the next generation of nuclear power systems. HTGR systems are being developed in South Africa, China, Japan, the United States, and Russia. Elements of the HTGR system evaluated included fuel demands on uranium ore mining and milling, conversion, enrichment services, and fuel fabrication; fuel management in-core; spent fuel characteristics affecting fuel recycling and refabrication, fuel handling, interim storage, packaging, transportation, waste forms, waste treatment, decontamination and decommissioning issues; and low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) disposal.

  7. Fact #587: September 7, 2009 Cash for Clunkers Program - Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Federal rebate money for consumers who traded old vehicles with an EPA combined fuel economy of 18 miles per gallon or less for brand new vehicles with improved fuel economy. The...

  8. Fact #591: October 5, 2009 Consumer Reports Tests Vehicle Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Seven vehicles were tested by Consumer Reports recently to determine the fuel economy of the vehicles at a given speed. For these vehicles, the decline in fuel economy from a speed...

  9. Towards A Hydrogen Economy, 3. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The report provides a study of the movement towards using hydrogen as a key energy carrier in the future and takes a high-level look at the current state of hydrogen and addresses the infrastructure requirements needed to make the hydrogen economy a reality. The report offers a detailed look at the move to a hydrogen economy by: identifying the current status of hydrogen production and use; discussing the key business drivers of the move towards hydrogen; discussing the barriers to implementation that stand in the way of a transition; providing a critical look at whether the hydrogen economy can succeed; describing the options that exist for a hydrogen infrastructure; identifying the key government initiatives making the hydrogen economy a reality; providing company-by-company profiles of automobile manufacturer efforts to develop and commercialize hydrogen vehicles; and, providing profiles of key hydrogen infrastructure manufacturers.

  10. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from High Ethanol Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D.; Bardon, M.; Pucher, G.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study determined the flammability of fuel tank headspace vapors as a function of ambient temperature for seven E85 fuel blends, two types of gasoline, and denatured ethanol at a low tank fill level.

  11. Processing and utilizing high heat value, low ash alternative fuels from urban solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.L. [M.L. Smith Environmental and Associates, Tinley Park, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The history of technologies in the US that recover energy from urban solid waste is relatively short. Most of the technology as we know it evolved over the past 25 years. This evolution led to the development of about 100 modern mass burn and RDF type waste-to-energy plants and numerous small modular combustion systems, which collectively are handling about 20%, or about 40 million tons per year, of the nations municipal solid waste. Technologies also evolved during this period to co-fire urban waste materials with other fuels or selectively burn specific waste streams as primary fuels. A growing number of second or third generation urban waste fuels projects are being developed. This presentation discusses new direction in the power generating industry aimed at recovery and utilization of clean, high heat value, low ash alternative fuels from municipal and industrial solid waste. It reviews a spectrum of alternative fuels for feasible recovery and reuse, with new opportunities emerging for urban fuels processors providing fuels in the 6,000--15,000 BTU/LB range for off premises use.

  12. Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  13. Vortex combustor for low NOx emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C. (Woodinville, WA); Edmonds, Ryan G. (Renton, WA); Williams, Joseph T. (Kirkland, WA); Baldwin, Stephen P. (Winchester, MA)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  14. High conversion Th-U{sup 233} fuel assembly for current generation of PWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldova, D.; Fridman, E. [Reactor Safety Div., Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, POB 510119, Dresden, 01314 (Germany)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a preliminary design of a high conversion Th-U{sup 233} fuel assembly applicable for current generation of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWRs). The considered fuel assembly has a typical 17 x 17 PWR lattice. However in order to increase the conversion of Th{sup 232} to U{sup 233}, the assembly was subdivided into the two regions called seed and blanket. The central seed region has a higher than blanket U{sup 233} content and acts as a neutron source for the peripheral blanket region. The latest acts as a U{sup 233} breeder. While the seed fuel pins have a standard dimensions the blanket fuel radius was increased in order to reduce the moderation and to facilitate the resonance neutron absorption in blanket Th{sup 232}. The U{sup 233} content in the seed and blanket regions was optimized to achieve maximal initial to discharged fissile inventory ratio (FIR) taking into account the target fuel cycle length of 12 months with 3-batch reloading scheme. In this study the neutronic calculations were performed on the fuel assembly level using Helios deterministic lattice transport code. The fuel cycle length and the core k{sub eff} were estimated by applying the Non Linear Reactivity Model. The applicability of the HELIOS code for the analysis of the Th-based high conversion designs was confirmed with the help of continuous-energy Monte-Carlo code SERPENT. The results of optimization studies show that for the heterogeneous seed and blanket (SB) fuel assembly the FIR of about 0.95 can be achieved. (authors)

  15. Potential of Thermoelectrics forOccupant Comfort and Fuel Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Caterpillar Diesel Racing: Yesterday & Today Thermoelectric Conversion of...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Electricity generation at high ionic strength in microbial fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Baolin

    ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Electricity generation at high ionic strength in microbial fuel cell organic matter using elec- trochemically active bacteria as catalysts to generate electrical energy of the most exciting applications of MFCs is their use as benthic unattended generators to power electrical

  17. Full-length high-temperature severe fuel damage test No. 2. Final safety analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesson, G.M.; Lombardo, N.J.; Pilger, J.P.; Rausch, W.N.; King, L.L.; Hurley, D.E.; Parchen, L.J.; Panisko, F.E.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hazardous conditions associated with performing the Full-Length High- Temperature (FLHT). Severe Fuel Damage Test No. 2 experiment have been analyzed. Major hazards that could cause harm or damage are (1) radioactive fission products, (2) radiation fields, (3) reactivity changes, (4) hydrogen generation, (5) materials at high temperature, (6) steam explosion, and (7) steam pressure pulse. As a result of this analysis, it is concluded that with proper precautions the FLHT- 2 test can be safely conducted.

  18. High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Task 1, Proof of principle testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, M.L.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

  19. R and D of Oxide Dispersion Strengthening Steels for High Burn-up Fuel Claddings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, A.; Cho, H.S.; Lee, J.S.; Kasada, R. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Ukai, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai (Japan); Fujiwara, M. [Kobelco, Ltd, Takatsukadai, Nishi-ku, Kobe (Japan)

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research and development of fuel clad materials for high burn-up operation of light water reactor and super critical water reactor (SCPWR) will be shown with focusing on the effort to overcome the requirements of material performance as the fuel clad. Oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) steels are well known as a high temperature structural material. Recent irradiation experiments indicated that the steels were quite highly resistant to neutron irradiation embrittlement, showing hardening without accompanying loss of ductility. High Cr ODS steels whose chromium concentration was in the range from 15 to 19 wt% showed high resistance to corrosion in supercritical pressurized water (SCPW). As for the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of ODS steels, the critical hydrogen concentration required to hydrogen embrittlement is ranging 10{approx}12 wppm that is approximately one order of magnitude higher value than that of 9Cr reduced activation ferritic (RAF) steel. In the ODS steels, the fraction of helium desorption by bubble migration mechanism was smaller than that in the RAF steel, indicating that the ODS steels are also resistant to helium He bubble-induced embrittlement. Finally, it is demonstrated that the ODS steels are very promising for the fuel clad material for high burn-up operation of water-cooling reactors. (authors)

  20. Preventing fuel failure for a beyond design basis accident in a fluoride salt cooled high temperature reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minck, Matthew J. (Matthew Joseph)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) combines high-temperature coated-particle fuel with a high-temperature salt coolant for a reactor with unique market and safety characteristics. This combination can ...

  1. Development of High Fidelity, Fuel-Like Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Nuclear Systems Branch/ER24, MSFC, AL 25812 (United States); Dixon, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Decision Applications Division, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Kapernick, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Decision Applications Division, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity thermal simulators that not only match the static power profile that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor, but also match the dynamic fuel pin performance during feasible transients. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being developed are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. Static and dynamic fuel pin performances for a proposed reactor design have been determined using SINDA/FLUINT thermal analysis software, and initial comparison has been made between the expected nuclear performance and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs. Through a series of iterative analysis, a conceptual high fidelity design will be developed, followed by engineering design, fabrication, and testing to validate the overall design process. Although the resulting thermal simulator will be designed for a specific reactor concept, establishing this rigorous design process will assist in streamlining the thermal simulator development for other reactor concepts. This paper presents the current status of high fidelity thermal simulator design relative to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power.

  2. Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Policy makers and program designers in the U.S. and abroad are deeply concerned with the question of how to scale up energy efficiency to a level that is commensurate both to the scale of the energy and climate challenges we face, and to the potential for energy savings that has been touted for decades. When policy makers ask what energy efficiency can do, the answers usually revolve around the technical and economic potential of energy efficiency - they rarely hone in on the element of energy demand that matters most for changing energy usage in existing homes: the consumer. A growing literature is concerned with the behavioral underpinnings of energy consumption. We examine a narrower, related subject: How can millions of Americans be persuaded to divert valued time and resources into upgrading their homes to eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy? With hundreds of millions of public dollars flowing into incentives, workforce training, and other initiatives to support comprehensive home energy improvements, it makes sense to review the history of these programs and begin gleaning best practices for encouraging comprehensive home energy improvements. Looking across 30 years of energy efficiency programs that targeted the residential market, many of the same issues that confronted past program administrators are relevant today: How do we cost-effectively motivate customers to take action? Who can we partner with to increase program participation? How do we get residential efficiency programs to scale? While there is no proven formula - and only limited success to date with reliably motivating large numbers of Americans to invest in comprehensive home energy improvements, especially if they are being asked to pay for a majority of the improvement costs - there is a rich and varied history of experiences that new programs can draw upon. Our primary audiences are policy makers and program designers - especially those that are relatively new to the field, such as the over 2,000 towns, cities, states, and regions who are recipients of American Reinvestment and Recovery Act funds for clean energy programs. This report synthesizes lessons from first generation programs, highlights emerging best practices, and suggests methods and approaches to use in designing, implementing, and evaluating these programs. We examined 14 residential energy efficiency programs, conducted an extensive literature review, interviewed industry experts, and surveyed residential contractors to draw out these lessons.

  3. A rational minor actinide (MA) recycling concept based on innovative oxide fuel with high AM content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Kenya; Sato, Isamu; Ishii, Tetsuya; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Asaga, Takeo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, O-arai-machi, Higasiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 311-1393 (Japan); Kurosaki, Ken [Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rational MA recycle concept based on high Am content fuel has been proposed. A design study of an Am- MOX fabrication plant, which is a key facility for the MA recycle concept, has been done and the facility concept was clarified from the viewpoint of basic process viability. Preliminary cost estimation suggested that the total construction cost of the MA recycle facilities including Am-MOX, Np-MOX and MA recovery could be comparable with that of the large scale LWR-MOX fabrication plant required for plutonium in LWR fuel cycle. (authors)

  4. Open economy politics: A critical review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lake, David A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    brain. New Political Economy. forthcoming. Zysman, J. , & D’Press. Bates, R. H. (1997). Open-economy politics:The political economy of the world coffee trade. Princeton,

  5. Comparative economics: evolution and the modern economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermeij, Geerat J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparison of primate economies. Journal of Bioeconomics,1999). Complexity and the economy. Science, 284, 107–109.evolution and the modern economy Ghabrial, A. S. , &

  6. RUSSIAN-ORIGIN HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SHIPMENT FROM BULGARIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly Cummins; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Tihomir Apostolov; Ivaylo Dimitrov

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In July 2008, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the IRT 2000 research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria, operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped 6.4 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Russian Federation. The shipment, which resulted in the removal of all HEU from Bulgaria, was conducted by truck, barge, and rail modes of transport across two transit countries before reaching the final destination at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. This paper describes the work, equipment, organizations, and approvals that were required to complete the spent fuel shipment and provides lessons learned that might assist other research reactor operators with their own spent nuclear fuel shipments.

  7. High Thermal Conductivity UO2-BeO Nulcear Fuel: Neutronic Performance Assessments and Overview of Fabrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naramore, Michael J

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to evaluate a new high conductivity nuclear fuel form. Uranium dioxide (UO2) is a very effective nuclear fuel, but it’s performance is limited by its low thermal conductivity. The fuel concept considered here is a...

  8. Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) results from subprompt critical experiments with uranyl fluoride fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappiello, C.C.; Butterfield, K.B.; Sanchez, R.G. [and others

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) was originally constructed during 1980 and was designed to be a clean free-field geometry, right-circular, cylindrically symmetric critical assembly employing U(5%)O{sub 2}F{sub 2} solution as fuel. A second version of SHEBA, employing the same fuel but equipped with a fuel pump and shielding pit, was commissioned in 1993. This report includes data and operating experience for the 1993 SHEBA only. Solution-fueled benchmark work focused on the development of experimental measurements of the characterization of SHEBA; a summary of the results are given. A description of the system and the experimental results are given in some detail in the report. Experiments were designed to: (1) study the behavior of nuclear excursions in a low-enrichment solution, (2) evaluate accidental criticality alarm detectors for fuel-processing facilities, (3) provide radiation spectra and dose measurements to benchmark radiation transport calculations on a low-enrichment solution system similar to centrifuge enrichment plants, and (4) provide radiation fields to calibrate personnel dosimetry. 15 refs., 37 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass feedstocks were utilized to identify optimized process conditions and selective HDO catalyst for high yield production of hydrocarbons from biomass. In addition to these experimental efforts, in Tasks D and E, we have developed a mathematical optimization framework to identify carbon and energy efficient biomass-to-liquid fuel process designs that integrate the use of different primary energy sources along with biomass (e.g. solar, coal or natural gas) for liquid fuel production. Using this tool, we have identified augmented biomass-to-liquid fuel configurations based on the fast-hydropyrolysis/HDO pathway, which was experimentally studied in this project. The computational approach used for screening alternative process configurations represents a unique contribution to the field of biomass processing for liquid fuel production.

  10. Ideas Economy: Innovation Forum 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Matthew P.

    Ideas Economy: Innovation Forum 2013 Guy Wollaert Senior vice-president, chief technical officer, and innovate fastenough to compete in the 21stcentury? Join us at the Ideas Economy: Innovation Forum

  11. Instructions for use Second Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tachizawa, Kazuya

    Instructions for use #12;- 123 - No. 582011 1969­1988 * 1969­1988 Second Economy 1 Gregory Grossman 2 4 4 4 4 3 07-712 2 1 Horst Brezinski, "The Second Economies­33; Michael Alexeev, "Russian Underground Economy in Transition," in Owen Lippert and Michael Walker, eds

  12. The Political Economy of Inter-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landweber, Laura

    The Political Economy of Inter- national Relations Robert Gilpin After the end of World War II by the creative use of power in the support of an institutional framework that created a world economy. Gilpin's exposition of the influence of politics on the interna- tional economy was a model of clarity, making

  13. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurney, Kevin R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    interannual variations in fossil fuel emissions. J. Geophys.Treat CO 2 from fossil fuel burning: global distribution ofdioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement

  14. High resolution neutron imaging of water in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Makundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, D S [NIST; Jacobson, D L [NIST; Arif, M [NIST

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water transport in the ionomeric membrane, typically Nafion{reg_sign}, has profound influence on the performance of the polymer electrolyte fuel cell, in terms of internal resistance and overall water balance. In this work, high resolution neutron imaging of the Nafion{reg_sign} membrane is presented in order to measure water content and through-plane gradients in situ under disparate temperature and humidification conditions.

  15. Law as Economy: Convention, Corporation, Currency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    1015 Law as Economy: Convention, Corporation, Currency Ritu Birla* I. Law as Economy: Nomos. Law Inside/Outside Economy of an orthodox faith in economy as universal law, that is, in the free market as the law of the universe

  16. Transforming America's Energy Economy Transforming America's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Transforming America's Energy Economy Transforming America's Energy Economy This document #12;Transforming America's Energy Economy A. Introduction: A Call for Action B. Envisioning the Future.5 Energy Efficiency C. Charting the Path Forward 1 #12;Transforming America's Energy Economy

  17. Neutronic Analysis of an Advanced Fuel Design Concept for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xoubi, Ned [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Maldonado, G. Ivan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents the neutronic analysis of an advanced fuel design concept for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) that could significantly extend the current fuel cycle length under the existing design and safety criteria. A key advantage of the fuel design herein proposed is that it would not require structural changes to the present HFIR core, in other words, maintaining the same rated power and fuel geometry (i.e., fuel plate thickness and coolant channel dimensions). Of particular practical importance, as well, is the fact that the proposed change could be justified within the bounds of the existing nuclear safety basis. The simulations herein reported employed transport theory-based and exposure-dependent eigenvalue characterization to help improve the prediction of key fuel cycle parameters. These parameters were estimated by coupling a benchmarked three-dimensional MCNP5 model of the HFIR core to the depletion code ORIGEN via the MONTEBURNS interface. The design of an advanced HFIR core with an improved fuel loading is an idea that evolved from early studies by R. D. Cheverton, formerly of ORNL. This study contrasts a modified and increased core loading of 12 kg of 235U against the current core loading of 9.4 kg. The simulations performed predict a cycle length of 39 days for the proposed fuel design, which represents a 50% increase in the cycle length in response to a 25% increase in fissile loading, with an average fuel burnup increase of {approx}23%. The results suggest that the excess reactivity can be controlled with the present design and arrangement of control elements throughout the core's life. Also, the new power distribution is comparable or even improved relative to the current power distribution, displaying lower peak to average fission rate densities across the inner fuel element's centerline and bottom cells. In fact, the fission rate density in the outer fuel element also decreased at these key locations for the proposed design. Overall, it is estimated that the advanced core design could increase the availability of the HFIR facility by {approx}50% and generate {approx}33% more neutrons annually, which is expected to yield sizeable savings during the remaining life of HFIR, currently expected to operate through 2014. This study emphasizes the neutronics evaluation of a new fuel design. Although a number of other performance parameters of the proposed design check favorably against the current design, and most of the core design features remain identical to the reference, it is acknowledged that additional evaluations would be required to fully justify the thermal-hydraulic and thermal-mechanical performance of a new fuel design, including checks for cladding corrosion performance as well as for industrial and economic feasibility.

  18. Autoignition of toluene reference fuels at high pressures modeled with detailed chemical kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrae, J.C.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Shell Global Solutions, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom); Bjoernbom, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Cracknell, R.F.; Kalghatgi, G.T. [Shell Global Solutions, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed chemical kinetic model for the autoignition of toluene reference fuels (TRF) is presented. The toluene submechanism added to the Lawrence Livermore Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) mechanism was developed using recent shock tube autoignition delay time data under conditions relevant to HCCI combustion. For two-component fuels the model was validated against recent high-pressure shock tube autoignition delay time data for a mixture consisting of 35% n-heptane and 65% toluene by liquid volume. Important features of the autoignition of the mixture proved to be cross-acceleration effects, where hydroperoxy radicals produced during n-heptane oxidation dramatically increased the oxidation rate of toluene compared to the case when toluene alone was oxidized. Rate constants for the reaction of benzyl and hydroperoxyl radicals previously used in the modeling of the oxidation of toluene alone were untenably high for modeling of the mixture. To model both systems it was found necessary to use a lower rate and introduce an additional branching route in the reaction between benzyl radicals and O{sub 2}. Good agreement between experiments and predictions was found when the model was validated against shock tube autoignition delay data for gasoline surrogate fuels consisting of mixtures of 63-69% isooctane, 14-20% toluene, and 17% n-heptane by liquid volume. Cross reactions such as hydrogen abstractions between toluene and alkyl and alkylperoxy radicals and between the PRF were introduced for completion of chemical description. They were only of small importance for modeling autoignition delays from shock tube experiments, even at low temperatures. A single-zone engine model was used to evaluate how well the validated mechanism could capture autoignition behavior of toluene reference fuels in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The model could qualitatively predict the experiments, except in the case with boosted intake pressure, where the initial temperature had to be increased significantly in order to predict the point of autoignition. (author)

  19. THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY A non-technical review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Distribution and Storage 11 Fuel Cells for Mobile and Stationary Uses 14 Carbon Capture and Storage 17-makers, environmental organisations, energy analysts and industry leaders that hydrogen is the fuel of the futureTHE HYDROGEN ECONOMY A non-technical review UNITEDNATIONSENVIRONMENTPROGRAMME #12;Copyright

  20. Assessment of high-burnup LWR fuel response to reactivity-initiated accidents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Wenfeng, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The economic advantages of longer fuel cycle, improved fuel utilization and reduced spent fuel storage have been driving the nuclear industry to pursue higher discharge burnup of Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel. A design ...

  1. ACS Div of Fuel Chem Preprints 44:4, 1016-1019 (August, 1999) KINETICS OF HIGH PRESSURE CHAR OXIDATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Thomas H.

    ACS Div of Fuel Chem Preprints 44:4, 1016-1019 (August, 1999) KINETICS OF HIGH PRESSURE CHAR) by devolatilizing Pittsburgh #8 coal at #12;ACS Div of Fuel Chem Preprints 44:4, 1016-1019 (August, 1999) high

  2. Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.; Mosey, G.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria. First, this report outlines what these criteria are, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels--electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, which includes steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.

  3. Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Targets: Meeting the targets below relies heavily on predictive engine models for optimization of engine design: * Fuel economy improvement of 25 and 40% for gasolinediesel by...

  4. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1997-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was designed to evaluate the combustion performance of and emissions from a fluidized bed combustor during the combustion of mixtures of high sulfur and/or high chlorine coals and municipal solid waste (MSW). The project included four major tasks, which were as follows: (1) Selection, acquisition, and characterization of raw materials for fuels and the determination of combustion profiles of combination fuels using thermal analytical techniques; (2) Studies of the mechanisms for the formation of chlorinated organics during the combustion of MSW using a tube furnace; (3) Investigation of the effect of sulfur species on the formation of chlorinated organics; and (4) Examination of the combustion performance of combination fuels in a laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor. Several kinds of coals and the major combustible components of the MSW, including PVC, newspaper, and cellulose were tested in this project. Coals with a wide range of sulfur and chlorine contents were used. TGA/MS/FTIR analyses were performed on the raw materials and their blends. The possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organics during combustion was investigated by conducting a series of experiments in a tube furnace. The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation of molecular chlorine during combustion processes was examined in this study.

  5. Models for the Configuration and Integrity of Partially Oxidized Fuel Rod Cladding at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefken, L.J.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models were designed to resolve deficiencies in the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.2 calculations of the configuration and integrity of hot, partially oxidized cladding. These models are expected to improve the calculations of several important aspects of fuel rod behavior. First, an improved mapping was established from a compilation of PIE results from severe fuel damage tests of the configuration of melted metallic cladding that is retained by an oxide layer. The improved mapping accounts for the relocation of melted cladding in the circumferential direction. Then, rules based on PIE results were established for calculating the effect of cladding that has relocated from above on the oxidation and integrity of the lower intact cladding upon which it solidifies. Next, three different methods were identified for calculating the extent of dissolution of the oxidic part of the cladding due to its contact with the metallic part. The extent of dissolution effects the stress and thus the integrity of the oxidic part of the cladding. Then, an empirical equation was presented for calculating the stress in the oxidic part of the cladding and evaluating its integrity based on this calculated stress. This empirical equation replaces the current criterion for loss of integrity which is based on temperature and extent of oxidation. Finally, a new rule based on theoretical and experimental results was established for identifying the regions of a fuel rod with oxidation of both the inside and outside surfaces of the cladding. The implementation of these models is expected to eliminate the tendency of the SCDAP/RELAP5 code to overpredict the extent of oxidation of the upper part of fuel rods and to underpredict the extent of oxidation of the lower part of fuel rods and the part with a high concentration of relocated material. This report is a revision and reissue of the report entitled, Improvements in Modeling of Cladding Oxidation and Meltdown.

  6. High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus’ process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

  7. Discussing spent nuclear fuel in high school classrooms: addressing public fears through early education

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkel, S. [Deep River Science Academy, 20 Forest Ave. P.O. Box 600, Deep River, Ontario K0J 1P0 (Canada); Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Sullivan, J.; Jones, S.; Sullivan, K. [Deep River Science Academy, 20 Forest Ave. P.O. Box 600, Deep River, Ontario K0J 1P0 (Canada); Hyland, B.; Pencer, J.; Colton, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Inreach program combines the Deep River Science Academy (DRSA) 'learning through research' approach with state of the art communication technology to bring scientific research to high school classrooms. The Inreach program follows the DRSA teaching model where a university student tutor works on a research project with scientific staff at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. Participating high school classes are located across Canada. The high school students learn about the ongoing research activities via weekly web conferences. In order to engage the students and encourage participation in the conferences, themed exercises linked to the research project are provided to the students. The DRSA's Inreach program uses a cost-effective internet technology to reach a wide audience, in an interactive setting, without anyone leaving their desks or offices. An example Inreach research project is presented here: an investigation of the potential of the Canadian supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) concept to burn transuranic elements (Np, Pu, Am, Cm) to reduce the impact of used nuclear fuel. During this project a university student worked with AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) researchers on technical aspects of the project, and high school students followed their progress and learned about the composition, hazards, and disposition options for used nuclear fuel. Previous projects included the effects of tritium on cellular viability and neutron diffraction measurement of residual stresses in automobile engines.

  8. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible CO, HC, or NOx and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at lower temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued, not the least of which is reduced cost. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (>0.05 S cm{sup -1} at 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of bismuth oxide on the air side and ceria on the fuel side. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal. We have previously demonstrated that this concept works, that a bismuth oxide/ceria bilayer electrolyte provides near theoretical open circuit potential (OCP) and is stable for 1400 h of fuel cell operation under both open circuit and maximum power conditions. More recently, we developed a computer model to determine the defect transport in this bilayer and have found that a bilayer comprised primarily of the more conductive component (bismuth oxide) is stable for 500 C operation. In this first year of the project we are obtaining necessary thermochemical data to complete the computer model as well as initial SOFC results based on thick 1-2 mm single and bilayer ceria/bismuth oxide electrolytes. We will use the computer model to obtain the optimum relative layer thickness as a function of temperature and air/fuel conditions. SOFCs will be fabricated with 1-2 mm single and bilayer electrolytes based on the modeling results, tested for OCP, conductivity, and stability and compared against the predictions. The computer modeling is a continuation of previous work under support from GRI and the student was available at the inception of the contract. However, the experimental effort was delayed until the beginning of the Spring Semester because the contract was started in October, 2 months after the start of our Fall Semester, and after all of the graduate students were committed to other projects. The results from both of these efforts are described in the following two sections: (1) Experimental; and (2) Computer Modeling.

  9. Proposed subcritical measurements for fresh and spent highly enriched plate type fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zino, J.F.; Williamson, T.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Mihalczo, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A collaborative experimental research program has been established between industry and university partners to evaluate the subcritical behavior of fresh and spent highly enriched fuel assemblies at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR). This proposed program will involve a series of subcritical measurements using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed {sup 252}Cf source-driven noise technique. Measurements evaluating the subcritical behavior of simple arrays of fresh MURR assemblies will be performed for evaluating the spectral effects of materials typically found in shipping casks such as lead, steel, aluminum, and boron. Also, measurements will be performed on spent assemblies to characterize physics parameters which may be useful in determining the subcritical behavior of fuels for reactivity credit of actinide burnup and fission product poisoning.

  10. Analysis of Class 8 Hybrid-Electric Truck Technologies Using Diesel, LNG, Electricity, and Hydrogen, as the Fuel for Various Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    various powertrains and alternative fuel options have beenthe corresponding breakeven alternative fuel price needed totruck, hybridization, alternative, fuel cell, fuel economy,

  11. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  12. A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

    2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was found that the ground pellets could be used as an effective NOx control agent for pulverized-coal-fired systems. NOx emissions reductions up to 63% were recorded, when using AFP as a NOx control agent. In addition to performance benefits, economic analyses showed the good economic benefits of AFP fuel. Using equipment manufacturer inputs, and reasonable values for biomass, biosolids and coal fines costs, it was determined that an AFP plant would have good profitability. For cases where biosolids contents were in the range of 50%, the after tax Internal Rates of Return were in the range of 40% to 50%. These are very attractive returns. Besides the baseline analysis for the various AFP formulations tested at pilot scale, sensitivity analysis showed the impact of important parameters on return. From results, it was clear that returns are excellent for a range of parameters that could be expected in practice. Importantly, these good returns are achieved even without incentives related to the emissions control benefits of biomass.

  13. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Design with Two-Dimensional Grading for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An engineering design study of the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel is ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The computational models developed during fiscal year 2010 to search for an LEU fuel design that would meet the requirements for the conversion and the results obtained with these models are documented and discussed in this report. Estimates of relevant reactor performance parameters for the LEU fuel core are presented and compared with the corresponding data for the currently operating HEU fuel core. The results obtained indicate that the LEU fuel design would maintain the current performance of the HFIR with respect to the neutron flux to the central target region, reflector, and beam tube locations under the assumption that the operating power for the reactor fueled with LEU can be increased from the current value of 85 MW to 100 MW.

  14. ADONIS, high count-rate HP-Ge {gamma} spectrometry algorithm: Irradiated fuel assembly measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pin, P. [AREVA NC La Hague - Nuclear Measurement Team, 50444 Beaumont-Hague Cedex (France); Barat, E.; Dautremer, T.; Montagu, T. [CEA - Saclay, LIST, Electronics and Signal Processing Laboratory, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Normand, S. [CEA - Saclay, LIST, Sensors and Electronic Architectures Laboratory, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ADONIS is a digital system for gamma-ray spectrometry, developed by CEA. This system achieves high count-rate gamma-ray spectrometry with correct dynamic dead-time correction, up to, at least, more than an incoming count rate of 3.10{sup 6} events per second. An application of such a system at AREVA NC's La Hague plant is the irradiated fuel scanning facility before reprocessing. The ADONIS system is presented, then the measurement set-up and, last, the measurement results with reference measurements. (authors)

  15. US Department of Energy Storage of Spent Fuel and High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandra M Birk

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) storage management. Like commercial reactor fuel, DOE's SNF and HLW were destined for the Yucca Mountain repository. In March 2010, the DOE filed a motion with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to withdraw the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain. A new repository is now decades away. The default for the commercial and DOE research reactor fuel and HLW is on-site storage for the foreseeable future. Though the motion to withdraw the license application and delay opening of a repository signals extended storage, DOE's immediate plans for management of its SNF and HLW remain the same as before Yucca Mountain was designated as the repository, though it has expanded its research and development efforts to ensure safe extended storage. This paper outlines some of the proposed research that DOE is conducting and will use to enhance its storage systems and facilities.

  16. Assessment of innovative fuel designs for high performance light water reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, David Michael

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To increase the power density and maximum allowable fuel burnup in light water reactors, new fuel rod designs are investigated. Such fuel is desirable for improving the economic performance light water reactors loaded with ...

  17. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies ProgramHydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Program Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    For The Hydrogen Economy President Bush "Hydrogen fuel cells represent one of the most encouraging, innovative for the Hydrogen Economy Hydrogen is America's clean energy choice. Hydrogen is flexible, affordable, safe Calls for "International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy" April 28, 2003 Secretary of Energy

  18. Development of Novel Nanomaterials for High-Performance and Low-Cost Fuel Cell Applications.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Shuhui

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are promising energy converting technologies to generate electricity by mainly using hydrogen as a fuel, producing water as the… (more)

  19. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

    2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible hydrocarbons, CO, or NO{sub x} and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at low to intermediate temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued. At low temperatures, in particular, it becomes feasible to use ferritic steel for interconnects instead of expensive and brittle ceramic materials such as those based on LaCrO{sub 3}. In addition, sealing the fuel cell becomes easier and more reliable; rapid startup is facilitated; thermal stresses (e.g., those caused by thermal expansion mismatches) are reduced; radiative losses ({approx}T{sup 4}) become minimal; electrode sintering becomes negligible and (due to a smaller thermodynamic penalty) the SOFC operating cycle (heating from ambient) would be more efficient. Combined, all these improvements further result in reduced initial and operating costs. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (> 0.05 S cm{sup -1} at {le} 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of a layer of erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide (ESB) on the oxidizing side and a layer of SDC or GDC on the reducing side, see Fig. 1. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal. In this arrangement, the ceria layer protects the bismuth oxide layer from decomposing by shielding it from very low P{sub O{sub 2}}'s and the ESB layer serves to block electronic flux through the electrolyte. This arrangement has two significant advantages over the YSZ/SDC bilayers investigated by others [1, 2]. The first advantage is that SDC is conductive enough to serve as an intermediate temperature SOFC electrolyte. Moreover, ESB is conductive enough to serve as a low temperature electrolyte. Consequently, at worst an SDC/ESB bilayered SOFC should have the conductivity of SDC but with improved efficiency due to the electronic flux barrier provided by ESB. The second advantage is that small (dopant) concentrations of SDC in ESB or ESB in SDC, have been found to have conductivities comparable to the host lattice [3, 4]. Therefore, if solid solutioning occurs at the SDC-ESB interface, it should not be detrimental to the performance of the bilayer. In contrast, solid solutions of SDC and YSZ have been found to be significantly less conductive than SDC or YSZ. Thus, it bears emphasizing that, at this time, only SDC/ESB electrolytes have potential in low temperature SOFC applications.

  20. Foreign programs for the storage of spent nuclear power plant fuels, high-level waste canisters and transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, K.M.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The various national programs for developing and applying technology for the interim storage of spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and TRU wastes are summarized. Primary emphasis of the report is on dry storage techniques for uranium dioxide fuels, but data are also provided concerning pool storage.

  1. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

  2. High Purity Americium-241 for Fuel Cycle R&D Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Paul A. Lessing

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previously the U.S. Department of Energy released Am-241 for various applications such as smoke detectors and Am-Be neutron sources for oil wells. At this date there is a shortage of usable, higher purity Am-241 in metal and oxide form available in the United States. Recently, the limited source of Am-241 has been from Russia with production being contracted to existing customers. The shortage has resulted in the price per gram rising dramatically over the last few years. DOE-NE currently has need for high purity Am-241 metal and oxide to fabricate fuel pellets for reactor testing in the Fuel Cycle R&D program. All the available high purity americium has been gathered from within the DOE system of laboratories. However, this is only a fraction of the projected needs of FCRD over the next 10 years. Therefore, FCR&D has proposed extraction and purification concepts to extract Am-241 from a mixed AmO2-PuO2 feedstock stored at the Savannah River Site. The most simple extraction system is based upon high temperature reduction using lanthanum metal with concurrent evaporation and condensation to produce high purity Am metal. Metallic americium has over a four order of magnitude higher vapor pressure than plutonium. Results from small-scale reduction experiments are presented. These results confirm thermodynamic predictions that at 1000 deg C metallic lanthanum reduces both PuO2 and AmO2. Faster kinetics are expected for temperatures up to about 1500 deg C.

  3. Tar-free fuel gas production from high temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Leguan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Zhiquan; Liu, Shiming, E-mail: Zhangping101@yeah.net; Cheng, Gong; He, Piwen; Sun, Lei

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • High temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge was efficient for producing tar-free fuel gas. • Complete tar removal and volatile matter release were at elevated temperature of 1300 °C. • Sewage sludge was converted to residual solid with high ash content. • 72.60% of energy conversion efficiency for gas production in high temperature pyrolysis. • Investment and costing for tar cleaning were reduced. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of sewage sludge was studied in a free-fall reactor at 1000–1400 °C. The results showed that the volatile matter in the sludge could be completely released to gaseous product at 1300 °C. The high temperature was in favor of H{sub 2} and CO in the produced gas. However, the low heating value (LHV) of the gas decreased from 15.68 MJ/N m{sup 3} to 9.10 MJ/N m{sup 3} with temperature increasing from 1000 °C to 1400 °C. The obtained residual solid was characterized by high ash content. The energy balance indicated that the most heating value in the sludge was in the gaseous product.

  4. Generating Potable Water from Fuel Cell Technology Juan E. Tibaquir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arturo A.

    with hydrogen economy scenario. 4. Research Approach and Results Survey of fuel cell water ASU lab fuel cell Capacity (kW) 5 ­ 150 5 ­ 250 5 50 ­ 1100 100 ­ 2000 100 ­ 250 PEM Fuel cell Oxygen (From air) Hydrogen Implications of Using water from Fuel Cells in a Hydrogen Economy · Hydrogen as an energy and water carrier

  5. Current status of the development of high density LEU fuel for Russian research reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatulin, A.; Dobrikova, I.; Suprun, V.; Trifonov, Y. [Federal State Unitary Enterprise, A.A. Bochvar All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), 123060 Rogov 5a, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kartashev, E.; Lukichev, V. [Federal State Unitary Enterprise RDIPE, 101000 P.O. Box 788, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the main directions of the Russian RERTR program is to develop U-Mo fuel and fuel elements/FA with this fuel. The development is carried out both for existing reactors, and for new advanced designs of reactors. Many organizations in Russia, i.e. 'TVEL', RDIPE, RIAR, IRM, NPCC participate in the work. Two fuels are under development: dispersion and monolithic U-Mo fuel, as well two types of FA to use the dispersion U-Mo fuel: with tubular type fuel elements and with pin type fuel elements. The first stage of works was successfully completed. This stage included out-pile, in-pile and post irradiation examinations of U-Mo dispersion fuel in experimental tubular and pin fuel elements under parameters similar to operation conditions of Russian design pool-type research reactors. The results received both in Russia and abroad enabled to go on to the next stage of development which includes irradiation tests both of full-scale IRT pin-type and tube-type fuel assemblies with U-Mo dispersion fuel and of mini-fuel elements with modified U-Mo dispersion fuel and monolithic fuel. The paper gives a generalized review of the results of U-Mo fuel development accomplished by now. (author)

  6. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Conversion Activities for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renfro, David G [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Griffin, Frederick P [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes progress made during FY11 in ORNL activities to support converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum (UMo) alloy. With both radial and axial contouring of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current levels achieved with HEU fuel. Studies are continuing to demonstrate that the fuel thermal safety margins can be preserved following conversion. Studies are also continuing to update other aspects of the reactor steady state operation and accident response for the effects of fuel conversion. Technical input has been provided to Oregon State University in support of their hydraulic testing program. The HFIR conversion schedule was revised and provided to the GTRI program. In addition to HFIR conversion activities, technical support was provided directly to the Fuel Fabrication Capability program manager.

  7. Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of EnergyDevelopment AccidentEnergy Objective: DevelopMaterials|

  8. DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Deliciouscritical_materials_workshop_presentations.pdf MoreProgramofContracttoAugust 05,0-1March 22,L.__

  9. High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health and Productivity Questionnaire (HPQ)DepartmentLaboratory |of

  10. Developing Low-Cost, Highly Efficient Heat Recovery for Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: TopEnergy DOEDealingVehicle Battery PlantDetermineDetroitMicrochannel

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri High School Students Get Hands-On

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAreSmartWayElectricityAlternative FuelsTraining With

  12. Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis of Fuel/Matrix Interaction Layers in Highly-Irradiated U–Mo Dispersion Fuel Plates with Al and Al–Si Alloy Matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Brandon D. Miller; Jian Gan; Adam B. Robinson; Pavel Medvedev; James Madden; Dan Wachs; Mitch Meyer

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to investigate how the microstructure of fuel/matrix-interaction (FMI) layers change during irradiation, different U–7Mo dispersion fuel plates have been irradiated to high fission density and then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Specifially, samples from irradiated U–7Mo dispersion fuel elements with pure Al, Al–2Si and AA4043 (~4.5 wt.%Si) matrices were SEM characterized using polished samples and samples that were prepared with a focused ion beam (FIB). Features not observable for the polished samples could be captured in SEM images taken of the FIB samples. For the Al matrix sample, a relatively large FMI layer develops, with enrichment of Xe at the FMI layer/Al matrix interface and evidence of debonding. Overall, a significant penetration of Si from the FMI layer into the U–7Mo fuel was observed for samples with Si in the Al matrix, which resulted in a change of the size (larger) and shape (round) of the fission-gas bubbles. Additionally, solid-fission-product phases were observed to nucleate and grow within these bubbles. These changes in the localized regions of the microstructure of the U–7Mo may contribute to changes observed in the macroscopic swelling of fuel plates with Al–Si matrices.

  13. Modeling Investment Strategies in the Transition to a Hydrogen Transportation Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    economy" personal vehicles will be powered by either fuel cells or hydrogen fueled internal combustion in hydrogen fueling stations. An investigation focusing on the driver agents and how they drive the demand for hydrogen fuel was reported at the 2008 NHA Conference. In this report we shift the focus to the investor

  14. Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpIncMAKGalway Bay(Held &InformationWind Farm Jump to:Economies

  15. Namibia-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocus AreaDataBus Jump to:NSTARNamibia-UNEP Green Economy

  16. Clean Economy Network-Rockies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin:EnergyWisconsin: Energy Resources JumpSouth Dakota:Clean Air ActDieselEconomy

  17. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2011-2015 MYPP Goals (cross-cut w Advanced Combustion Engines) - By 2015, improve the fuel economy of light-duty gasoline vehicles by 25% and of light-duty diesel vehicles by 40%...

  18. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2011-1015 MYPP Goals (cross-cut w Advanced Combustion Engines) - By 2015, improve the fuel economy of light-duty gasoline vehicles by 25% and of light-duty diesel vehicles by 40%...

  19. Consideration of critically when directly disposing highly enriched spent nuclear fuel in unsaturated tuff: Bounding estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rechard, R.P.; Tierney, M.S.; Sanchez, L.C.; Martell, M.-A.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents one of 2 approaches (bounding calculations) which were used in a 1994 study to examine the possibility of a criticality in a repository. Bounding probabilities, although rough, point to the difficulty of creating conditions under which a critical mass could be assembled (container corrosion, separation of neutron absorbers from fissile material, collapse or precipitation of fissile material) and how significant the geochemical and hydrologic phenomena are. The study could not conceive of a mechanism consistent with conditions under which an atomic explosion could occur. Should a criticality occur in or near a container in the future, boundary consequence calculations showed that fissions from one critical event (<10{sup 20} fissions, if similar to aqueous and metal accidents and experiments) are quite small compared to the amount of fissions represented by the spent fuel itself. If it is assumed that the containers necessary to hold the highly enriched spent fuel went critical once per day for 1 million years, creating an energy release of about 10{sup 20} fissions, the number of fissions equals about 10{sup 28}, which corresponds to only 1% of the fission inventory in a repository containing 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal, the expected size for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  20. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing High Flux Isotope Reactor fuel elements - 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.W.; Morin, R.A.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The original fabrication procedures written in 1968 delineated the manufacturing procedures at that time. Since 1968, there have been a number of procedural changes. This rewrite of the fabrication procedures incorporates these changes. The entire fuel core of this reactor is made up of two fuel elements. Each element consists of one annular array of fuel plates. These annuli are identified as the inner and outer fuel elements, since one fits inside the other. The inner element consists of 171 identical fuel plates, and the outer element contains 369 identical fuel plates differing slightly from those in the inner element. Both sets of fuel plates contain U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder as the fuel, dispersed in an aluminum powder matrix and clad with aluminum. Procedures for manufacturing and inspection of the fuel elements are described and illustrated.

  1. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Quarterly report, October - December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, W.-P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the effect of S0{sub 2} on the formation of chlorine during combustion processes was examined. To simulate the conditions used in the AFBC system, experiments were conducted in a quartz tube in an electrically heated furnace. The principle analytical technique used for identification of the products from this study was GC/MS. The evolved gas was trapped by an absorbent and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The preliminary results indicate an inhibiting effect of S0{sub 2} on the Deacon Reaction. Secondly, information on the evolution of chlorine, sulfur and organic compounds from coals 95031 and 95011 were studied with the AFBC system. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Method of Fabrication of High Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O(LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  3. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergyQuality ChallengesFueling U.S.Engines |

  4. Uranium Transport in a High-Throughput Electrorefiner for EBR-II Blanket Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Hua, Thanh Q.; Vaden, DeeEarl [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

    2004-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique high-throughput Mk-V electrorefiner is being used in the electrometallurgical treatment of the metallic sodium-bonded blanket fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. Over many cycles, it transports uranium back and forth between the anodic fuel dissolution baskets and the cathode tubes until, because of imperfect adherence of the dendrites, it all ends up in the product collector at the bottom. The transport behavior of uranium in the high-throughput electrorefiner can be understood in terms of the sticking coefficients for uranium adherence to the cathode tubes in the forward direction and to the dissolution baskets in the reverse direction. The sticking coefficients are inferred from the experimental voltage and current traces and are correlated in terms of a single parameter representing the ratio of the cell current to the limiting current at the surface acting as the cathode. The correlations are incorporated into an engineering model that calculates the transport of uranium in the different modes of operation. The model also uses the experimentally derived electrorefiner operating maps that describe the relationship between the cell voltage and the cell current for the three principal transport modes. It is shown that the model correctly simulates the cycle-to-cycle variation of the voltage and current profiles. The model is used to conduct a parametric study of electrorefiner throughput rate as a function of the principal operating parameters. The throughput rate is found to improve with lowering of the basket rotation speed, reduction of UCl{sub 3} concentration in salt, and increasing the maximum cell current or cut-off voltage. Operating conditions are identified that can improve the throughput rate by 60 to 70% over that achieved at present.

  5. Depletion Analysis of Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Loaded with LEU/Thorium Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonat Sen; Gilles Youinou

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thorium based fuel has been considered as an option to uranium-based fuel, based on considerations of resource utilization (Thorium is more widely available when compared to Uranium). The fertile isotope of Thorium (Th-232) can be converted to fissile isotope U-233 by neutron capture during the operation of a suitable nuclear reactor such as High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). However, the fertile Thorium needs a fissile supporter to start and maintain the conversion process such as U-235 or Pu-239. This report presents the results of a study that analyzed the thorium utilization in a prismatic HTGR, namely Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) that was designed by General Atomics (GA). The collected for the modeling of this design come from Chapter 4 of MHTGR Preliminary Safety Information Document that GA sent to Department of Energy (DOE) on 1995. Both full core and unit cell models were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1 and Serpent 1.1.18. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were set to match the spectral index between unit cell and full core domains. It was found that for the purposes of this study an adjusted unit cell model is adequate. Discharge isotopics and one-group cross-sections were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations

  6. Workforce Development in the Global Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, David

    Workforce Development in the Global Economy: LINKING SKILLS AND CAPABILITIES Phil Psilos & Competitiveness Duke University INTRODUCTION NOVEMBER 2011 #12;Workforce Development in the Global Economy competitiveness, and innovation in the knowledge economy. Duke CGGC works with a network of researchers

  7. The California Economy: Singing the Housing Blues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thornberg, Christopher

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE CALIFORNIA ECONOMY: SINGING THE HOUSING  BLUES Many  parts  of  the  economy  are  doing  better  than towards 2007 the entire economy is being threatened by the 

  8. System-of-Systems Framework for the Future Hydrogen-Based Transportation Economy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From a supply chain view, this paper traces the flow of transportation fuels through required systems and addresses the current petroleum-based economy, DOE's vision for a future hydrogen-based transportation economy, and the challenges of a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  9. The use of auxiliary ignition devices to improve combustion of low centane-high volatility fuels in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stroia, B.L.; Abata. D.L.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of auxiliary ignition devices to improve the combustion of low cetane-high volatility fuels in a Diesel engine is described. Previous combustion with a low cetane-high volatility fuel (with a spark plug located at the periphery of the cylinder) resulted in engine knock at heavy loads and poor engine operation at light loads. In the present investigation, several new ignition devices were used to ignite the fuel in the center of the cylinder, to allow combustion to be controlled by rate of injection. The devices used were an extended spark electrode, a fuel spray deflector, a nozzle glow ring, and a nozzle fuel cage. High speed photography and heat release were used to characterize the ignition and combustion process of the low cetane fuel in conjunction with the ignition devices. Combustion with all of the ignition devices was initiated in the center of the cylinder, significantly reducing engine knock. The use of the auxiliary ignition devices to ignite the fuel in the center of the chamber demonstrated extended operation of the Diesel engine for all of the devices tested.

  10. Evaluation of high power density annular fuel application in the Korean OPR-1000 reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Liang, Ph. D.. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compared to the traditional solid fuel geometry for PWRs, the internally and externally cooled annular fuel offers the potential to increase the core power density while maintaining or increasing safety margins. It is ...

  11. Assessment of helical-cruciform fuel rods for high power density LWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conboy, Thomas M

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to significantly increase the power density of Light Water Reactors (LWRs), the helical-cruciform (HC) fuel rod assembly has been proposed as an alternative to traditional fuel geometry. The HC assembly is a ...

  12. High-temperature microfluidic systems for thermally-efficient fuel processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arana, Leonel R

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Miniaturized fuel cell systems have the potential to outperform batteries in powering a variety of portable electronics. The key to this technology is the ability to efficiently process an easily-stored, energy-dense fuel. ...

  13. Design of high-ionic conductivity electrodes for direct methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrauth, Anthony J

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon-supported porous electrodes are used in low-temperature fuel cells to provide maximum catalyst surface area, while taking up little volume and using minimum catalyst material. In Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs), ...

  14. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.-H. Percival [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology called cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB). Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq) + 7 H2O (l) 12 H2 (g) + 6 CO2 (g) (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456). Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from PEM fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  15. MODELING THE PERFORMANCE OF HIGH BURNUP THORIA AND URANIA PWR FUEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Y.

    Fuel performance models have been developed to assess the performance of ThO[subscript 2]-UO[subscript 2]

  16. Open economy politics: A critical review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lake, David A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    political economy of the tariff cycle. American Politicalpolitical economy of U.S. tariffs: An empirical analysis.of political choice: Canada’s tariff structure. Canadian

  17. Essays on Political Economy of Religion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigoriadis, Theocharis Nikolaou

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2000; Roland Gérard. “The Political Economy of Transition”,Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms inand R. Somanathan. “The political economy of public goods:

  18. HYBRID ENERGY-ECONOMY MODELS AND ENDOGENOUS TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , etc.) from any fossil fuel source in- cluding unconventional oil and gas, oil sands, orimulsion that include economy-wide emissions charges and technology-specific regulations and subsidies. Recent of renewable energy and nuclear power could satisfy global energy needs almost single-handedly. Even fossil

  19. Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergy FrozenNovemberDepartment of Energy

  20. Locations of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't Happen toLeveragingLindsey GeislerEnergy