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Sample records for high fuel economy

  1. 2012 Fuel Economy of New Vehicles Sets Record High: EPA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reported that model year 2012 vehicles achieved an all-time high fuel economy average of 23.6 miles per gallon.

  2. 2012 Fuel Economy of New Vehicles Sets Record High: EPA | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2012 Fuel Economy of New Vehicles Sets Record High: EPA 2012 Fuel Economy of New Vehicles Sets Record High: EPA December 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis The U.S. Environmental...

  3. Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department is investing in groundbreaking research that will make cars weigh less, drive further and consume less fuel.

  4. Fuel Economy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Fuel Economy Ltd. Place: United Kingdom Product: Fuel Economy Ltd is perhaps better known by their core product 'Savastat', the highly...

  5. Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

  6. High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  7. Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

  8. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  9. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  10. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  11. Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  12. Model Year 2007 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  13. Model Year 2010 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-14

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  14. Model Year 2009 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  15. Model Year 2005 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  16. Model Year 2008 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  17. Model Year 2006 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  18. Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  19. Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  20. 2009 Fuel Economy Guide and FuelEconomy.gov | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2009 Fuel Economy Guide and FuelEconomy.gov 2009 Fuel Economy Guide and FuelEconomy.gov October 24, 2008 - 4:00am Addthis Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program With energy costs looming as winter approaches, saving money is on everyone's minds these days. Fortunately, improving your vehicle's fuel economy is both economically and environmentally smart. In the winter, one of the easiest ways to decrease gasoline consumption is to warm up your engine for no more than

  1. Global Fuel Economy Initiative Auto Fuel Efficiency ToolSet ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Efficiency ToolSet Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Fuel Economy Initiative Auto Fuel Efficiency ToolSet AgencyCompany Organization: FIA...

  2. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities for increasing both fuel economy and safety without compromising functionality.

  3. Fact #684: July 18, 2011 Fuel Economy versus Fuel Savings | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 4: July 18, 2011 Fuel Economy versus Fuel Savings Fact #684: July 18, 2011 Fuel Economy versus Fuel Savings An increase in fuel economy by 5 miles per gallon (mpg) does not translate to a constant fuel savings amount. Thus, trading a low-mpg car or truck for one with just slightly better mpg will save more fuel than trading a high-mpg car or truck for one that is even higher. For example, trading a truck that gets 15 mpg for a new one that gets 20 mpg will save 16.7 gallons of fuel

  4. Fueling the Economy | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fueling the Economy Argonne helps make the United States a front-runner in the production of materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries used in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and other applications. PDF icon fueling_the_economy

  5. 2004 FUEL ECONOMY GUIDE BEST IN CLASS | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A chart describing the 2004 fuel economy best in class vehicles. 2004 FUEL ECONOMY GUIDE BEST IN CLASS More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - Document1 2010 Vehicle...

  6. The Road to Improved Heavy Duty Fuel Economy | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Road to Improved Heavy Duty Fuel Economy Heavy duty diesel engine fuel economy is improved by lowering the viscosity of engine lubricant, especially when engine speed is ...

  7. EPA-Fuel Economy Guide | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EPA-Fuel Economy Guide Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Fuel Economy Guide AgencyCompany Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency...

  8. Global Fuel Economy Initiative: 50by50 Prospects and Progress...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentglobal-fuel-economy-initiative-50by50 Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: "Fuel Efficiency Standards,Mandates...

  9. Fuel Economy.gov - Mobile | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Economy.gov - Mobile Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Fuel Economy.gov - Mobile AgencyCompany Organization: United States Department of Energy Sector:...

  10. Fuel Economy Valentines | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Valentines Fuel Economy Valentines February 14, 2012 - 10:05am Addthis Amanda McAlpin What's more romantic this Valentine's Day than taking a drive with your sweetheart? In fact, for most people this holiday, the plans will include some kind of travel, to a restaurant, show, or weekend getaway. Anytime spent on the road can be a great time to track your vehicle's fuel economy, and fueleconomy.gov has a tool to help you do just that! Once you enter the Your MPG tool and select the make and model

  11. Fact #594: October 26, 2009 Fuel Economy and Annual Fuel Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fuel efficiency in the 2010 model year. Fuel Economy and Annual Fuel Cost Ranges for Vehicle Classes, 2010 model year Graph showing the fuel economy and annual fuel cost...

  12. 2010 Annual Fuel Economy Guide Now Available | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 Annual Fuel Economy Guide Now Available 2010 Annual Fuel Economy Guide Now Available October 15, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy today unveiled the 2010 Fuel Economy Guide, which gives consumers important information about estimated fuel costs and mileage standards for model year 2010 vehicles. "Every year, consumers use the Fuel Economy Guide to find clean, efficient, cost-effective vehicles that meets their

  13. NREL: Transportation Research - Emissions and Fuel Economy Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emissions and Fuel Economy Analysis Photo of a man hooking up test instruments to an engine mounted on an engine dynamometer. An NREL engineer maintains an engine fuel economy and...

  14. Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold February 25, 2014 - 9:49am Addthis Make sure your car is ready for spring snowstorms. | Photo...

  15. Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold February 25, 2014 - 9:49am Addthis Make sure your car is ready for spring snowstorms....

  16. 2016 Fuel Economy Guide Highlights Fuel-Efficient Vehicles | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy 2016 Fuel Economy Guide Highlights Fuel-Efficient Vehicles 2016 Fuel Economy Guide Highlights Fuel-Efficient Vehicles November 5, 2015 - 1:07am Addthis Photo by Kristy Keel-Blackmon of East Tennessee Clean Fuels Photo by Kristy Keel-Blackmon of East Tennessee Clean Fuels Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program The 2016 Fuel Economy Guide is now available. It provides fuel economy, greenhouse gas emission, and projected fuel cost information on model year

  17. Fact #659: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 659: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles Operating on Electricity The Environmental Protection Agency has developed a new methodology for determining how fuel ...

  18. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  19. SEP Success Story: Fueling South Carolina's Clean Energy Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fueling South Carolina's Clean Energy Economy SEP Success Story: Fueling South Carolina's ... SEP Success Story: "Idle Free Systems" Does Not Stand Idly by Carolers sing in front of ...

  20. Prospects on fuel economy improvements for hydrogen powered vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rousseau, A.; Wallner, T.; Pagerit, S.; Lohse-Bush, H.

    2008-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles are the subject of extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and the demand for hydrogen is therefore limited, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. Despite its lower cost, the hydrogen-fueled ICE offers, for a similar amount of onboard hydrogen, a lower driving range because of its lower efficiency. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen-fueled vehicles to their conventional gasoline counterparts. To take uncertainties into account, the current and future status of both technologies were considered. Although complete data related to port fuel injection were provided from engine testing, the map for the direct-injection engine was developed from single-cylinder data. The fuel cell system data represent the status of the current technology and the goals of FreedomCAR. For both port-injected and direct-injected hydrogen engine technologies, power split and series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) configurations were considered. For the fuel cell system, only a series HEV configuration was simulated.

  1. Chapter 11. Fuel Economy: The Case for Market Failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; German, John; Delucchi, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of energy using durable goods, from automobiles to home air conditioners, is not only a key determinant of economy-wide energy use but also of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, climate change and energy insecurity. Energy analysts have long noted that consumers appear to have high implicit discount rates for future fuel savings when choosing among energy using durable goods (Howarth and Sanstad, 1995). In modeling consumers choices of appliances, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has used discount rates of 30 percent for heating systems, 69 percent for choice of refrigerator and up to 111 percent for choice of water heater (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1996). Several explanations have been offered for this widespread phenomenon, including asymmetric information, bounded rationality and transaction costs. This chapter argues that uncertainty combined with loss aversion by consumers is sufficient to explain the failure to adopt cost effective energy efficiency improvements in the market for automotive fuel economy, although other market failures appear to be present as well. Understanding how markets for energy efficiency function is crucial to formulating effective energy policies (see Pizer, 2006). Fischer et al., (2004), for example, demonstrated that if consumers fully value the discounted present value of future fuel savings, fuel economy standards are largely redundant and produce small welfare losses. However, if consumers value only the first three years of fuel savings, then fuel economy standards can significantly increase consumer welfare. The nature of any market failure that might be present in the market for energy efficiency would also affect the relative efficacy of energy taxes versus regulatory standards (CBO, 2003). If markets function efficiently, energy taxes would generally be more efficient than regulatory standards in increasing energy efficiency and reducing energy use. If markets are decidedly inefficient, standards would likely be more effective. The chapter explores the roles of uncertainty and loss-aversion in the market for automotive fuel economy. The focus is on the determination of the technical efficiency of the vehicle rather than consumers choices among vehicles. Over the past three decades, changes in the mix of vehicles sold has played little if any role in raising the average fuel economy of new light-duty vehicles from 13 miles per gallon (mpg) in 1975 to 21 mpg today (Heavenrich, 2006). Over that same time period, average vehicle weight is up 2 percent, horsepower is up 60 percent, passenger car interior volume increased by 2 percent and the market share of light trucks grew by 31 percentage points. Historically, at least, increasing light-duty vehicle fuel economy in the United States has been a matter of manufacturers decisions to apply technology to increase the technical efficiency of cars and light trucks. Understanding how efficiently the market determines the technical fuel economy of new vehicles would seem to be critical to formulating effective policies to encourage future fuel economy improvement. The central issue is whether or not the market for fuel economy is economically efficient. Rubenstein (1998) lists the key assumptions of the rational economic decision model. The decision maker must have a clear picture of the choice problem he or she faces. He should be fully aware of the set of alternatives from which to choose and have the skill necessary to make complicated calculations needed to discover the optimal course of action. Finally, the decision maker should have the unlimited ability to calculate and be indifferent to alternatives and choice sets.

  2. Fact #626: June 7, 2010 Fuel Economy for Light and Heavy Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 6: June 7, 2010 Fuel Economy for Light and Heavy Vehicles Fact #626: June 7, 2010 Fuel Economy for Light and Heavy Vehicles In the next few years it is expected that fuel economy standards will be imposed on new medium and heavy trucks sold in the U.S. Currently, the estimates of the medium and heavy truck population range from a high of 15 miles per gallon (mpg) for class 2b trucks to a low of 2.5 mpg for class 8a trucks. The chart below shows the range of fuel economy

  3. Fuel Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-Electric/Diesel Powertrain...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-ElectricDiesel Powertrain in a Class 4 Parcel Delivery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-ElectricDiesel Powertrain in a Class 4...

  4. Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The US | Department of Energy Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for The US Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for The US Turbocharged SIDI is the most promising advanced gasoline technology; combines existing & proven technologies in a synergistic manner, offers double digit fuel economy benefits, much lower cost than diesel or hybrid. PDF icon deer09_whitaker.pdf More Documents & Publications E85 Optimized Engine

  5. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1978-2014 | Department of Energy 70: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is the sales-weighted harmonic mean fuel economy of a manufacturer's fleet of new cars or light trucks in a certain model year (MY). First enacted by Congress in 1975, the standards for cars began in MY 1978 and for light trucks in MY 1979. In general, the average of all

  6. Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower This page contains information on the recently released BioPower engines. PDF icon analysis_saab2007.pdf More Documents & Publications Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet) The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending

  7. Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models Released

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Energy Department released the 2014 Fuel Economy Guide that provides consumers with a resource to identify and choose the most fuel efficient and low greenhouse gas emitting vehicles.

  8. Fact #594: October 26, 2009 Fuel Economy and Annual Fuel Cost Ranges for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Classes | Department of Energy 4: October 26, 2009 Fuel Economy and Annual Fuel Cost Ranges for Vehicle Classes Fact #594: October 26, 2009 Fuel Economy and Annual Fuel Cost Ranges for Vehicle Classes The graph below shows the range of the lowest and highest fuel economy for each vehicle class, along with the lowest and highest annual fuel cost (in parentheses). For example, the two-seater model with the lowest fuel economy gets 10 miles per gallon (MPG) with an estimated annual fuel

  9. Analysis of In-Use Fuel Economy Shortfall Based on Voluntarily Reported MPG Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; Goeltz, Rick; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Tworek, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    The usefulness of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) passenger car and light truck fuel economy estimates has been the subject of debate for the past three decades. For the labels on new vehicles and the fuel economy information given to the public, the EPA adjusts dynamometer test results downward by 10% for the city cycle and 22% for the highway cycle to better reflect real world driving conditions. These adjustment factors were developed in 1984 and their continued validity has repeatedly been questioned. In March of 2005 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and EPA's fuel economy information website, www.fueleconomy.gov, began allowing users to voluntarily share fuel economy estimates. This paper presents an initial statistical analysis of more than 3,000 estimates submitted by website users. The analysis suggests two potentially important results: (1) adjusted, combined EPA fuel economy estimates appear to be approximately unbiased estimators of the average fuel economy consumers will experience in actual driving, and (2) the EPA estimates are highly imprecise predictors of any given individual's in-use fuel economy, an approximate 95% confidence interval being +/-7 MPG. These results imply that what is needed is not less biased adjustment factors for the EPA estimates but rather more precise methods of predicting the fuel economy individual consumers will achieve in their own driving.

  10. Advanced Aerodynamic Technologies for Improving Fuel Economy in Ground

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles | Department of Energy Aerodynamic Technologies for Improving Fuel Economy in Ground Vehicles Advanced Aerodynamic Technologies for Improving Fuel Economy in Ground Vehicles Low-Cost Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Devices for Tractor-Trailer Trucks Reduce Fuel Consumption Heavy vehicles lose a tremendous amount of energy from wind resistance, braking, and rolling resistance. Such non-engine losses can account for about a 45% decrease in efficiency. The need for technologies to reduce

  11. Real-World PHEV Fuel Economy Prediction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PHEV Fuel Economy Prediction Real-World PHEV Fuel Economy Prediction 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon vss047_gonder_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Light Duty Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Systems Analysis Defining Real World Drive Cycles to Support APRF Technology Evaluations Analysis of maximizing the Synergy between PHEVs/EVs and PV

  12. Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_crane.pdf More Documents & Publications Potential of Thermoelectrics forOccupant Comfort and Fuel Efficiency Gains in Vehicle Applications Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites, TAGS, PbTe

  13. Energy Department and Environmental Protection Agency Release Fuel Economy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tool for Used Vehicles | Department of Energy Environmental Protection Agency Release Fuel Economy Tool for Used Vehicles Energy Department and Environmental Protection Agency Release Fuel Economy Tool for Used Vehicles September 12, 2013 - 9:00am Addthis News Media Contact DOE: (202) 586-4940 EPA: (202) 564-4355 WASHINGTON - As part of the Obama Administration's ongoing efforts to increase fuel efficiency, reduce carbon pollution and address climate change, the U.S. Energy Department and

  14. New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards Will Continue to Inspire Innovation |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards Will Continue to Inspire Innovation New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards Will Continue to Inspire Innovation July 29, 2011 - 1:48pm Addthis President Barack Obama delivers remarks on fuel efficiency standards for 2017-2025 model year cars and light-duty trucks during an event at the Washington Convention Center in Washington, D.C., July 29, 2011. Seated behind the President are at left are auto industry executives and Transportation Secretary

  15. Heavy-Duty Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Cummins Inc. Heavy-Duty Truck Engine Program PDF icon 2004_deer_nelson.pdf More Documents & Publications High Engine Efficiency at 2010 Emissions Achieving High Efficiency at 2010 Emissions Technology Development for High Efficiency Clean Diesel Engines and a Pathway to 50%

  16. New Find-a-Car App Brings Fuel Economy Right to Your Phone | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Find-a-Car App Brings Fuel Economy Right to Your Phone New Find-a-Car App Brings Fuel Economy Right to Your Phone February 12, 2016 - 2:45pm Addthis New Find-a-Car App Brings Fuel Economy Right to Your Phone New Find-a-Car App Brings Fuel Economy Right to Your Phone New Find-a-Car App Brings Fuel Economy Right to Your Phone New Find-a-Car App Brings Fuel Economy Right to Your Phone New Find-a-Car App Brings Fuel Economy Right to Your Phone New Find-a-Car App Brings Fuel Economy Right

  17. The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next Fuel-Efficient

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Vehicle | Department of Energy The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next Fuel-Efficient Vehicle The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next Fuel-Efficient Vehicle January 8, 2014 - 1:10pm Addthis Read the 2014 Fuel Economy Guide to inform your new car purchase this year. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/Thomas_EyeDesign Read the 2014 Fuel Economy Guide to inform your new car purchase this year. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/Thomas_EyeDesign Jason

  18. Fueling South Carolina's Clean Energy Economy | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fueling South Carolina's Clean Energy Economy Fueling South Carolina's Clean Energy Economy June 6, 2012 - 4:15pm Addthis Pure Power, LLC makes products that allow truck engines to reduce emissions and improve fuel economy. The company has increased their energy efficiency and hired new employees. | Photo courtesy of <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/clatiek/47587765/">Flickr user ClatieK</a>. Pure Power, LLC makes products that allow truck engines to reduce emissions

  19. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in fuel economy with increasing restriction. However, the level of restriction required to cause a substantial (10-15%) decrease in fuel economy (such as that cited in the literature) was so severe that the vehicle was almost undrivable. Acceleration performance on all vehicles was improved with a clean air filter. Once it was determined how severe the restriction had to be to affect the carbureted vehicle fuel economy, the 2007 Buick Lucerne was retested in a similar manner. We were not able to achieve the level of restriction that was achieved with the 1972 Pontiac with the Lucerne. The Lucerne's air filter box would not hold the filter in place under such severe conditions. (It is believed that this testing exceeded the design limits of the air box.) Tests were conducted at a lower restriction level (although still considerably more severe than the initial clogged filter testing), allowing the air filter to stay seated in the air box, and no significant change was observed in the Lucerne's fuel economy or the AFR over the HFET cycle. Closed-loop control in modern fuel injected vehicle applications is sophisticated enough to keep a clogged air filter from affecting the vehicle fuel economy. However for older, open-loop, carbureted vehicles, a clogged air filter can affect the fuel economy. For the vehicle tested, the fuel economy with a new air filter improved as much as 14% over that with a severely clogged filter (in which the filter was so clogged that drivability was impacted). Under a more typical state of clog, the improvement with a new filter ranged from 2 to 6%.

  20. 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy December 4, 2012 - 12:06pm Addthis Lightweight materials, such as high-strength steel, aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber can help improve fuel economy in future vehicles. This is a carbon fiber from microwave-assisted plasma unit -- a unit that is part of the process to transform precursor fibers into carbon fibers that can be used in vehicles. | Photo courtesy

  1. Fuel economy and emissions evaluation of BMW hydrogen 7 mono-fuel demonstration vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallner, T.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Gurski, S.; Duoba, M.; Thiel, W.; Martin, D.; Korn, T.; Energy Systems; BMW Group Munich Germany; BMW Group Oxnard USA

    2008-12-01

    This article summarizes the testing of two BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles are derived from the BMW Hydrogen 7 bi-fuel vehicles and based on a BMW 760iL. The mono-fuel as well as the bi-fuel vehicle(s) is equipped with cryogenic hydrogen on-board storage and a gaseous hydrogen port fuel injection system. The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles were tested for fuel economy as well as emissions on the Federal Test Procedure FTP-75 cold-start test as well as the highway test. The results show that these vehicles achieve emissions levels that are only a fraction of the Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (SULEV) standard for nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. For non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions the cycle-averaged emissions are actually 0 g/mile, which require the car to actively reduce emissions compared to the ambient concentration. The fuel economy numbers on the FTP-75 test were 3.7 kg of hydrogen per 100 km, which, on an energy basis, is equivalent to a gasoline fuel consumption of 17 miles per gallon (mpg). Fuel economy numbers for the highway cycle were determined to be 2.1 kg of hydrogen per 100 km or 30 miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE). In addition to cycle-averaged emissions and fuel economy numbers, time-resolved (modal) emissions as well as air/fuel ratio data is analyzed to further investigate the root causes of the remaining emissions traces. The BMW Hydrogen 7 vehicles employ a switching strategy with lean engine operation at low engine loads and stoichiometric operation at high engine loads that avoids the NO{sub x} emissions critical operating regime with relative air/fuel ratios between 1 < {lambda} < 2. The switching between these operating modes was found to be a major source of the remaining NO{sub x} emissions. The emissions results collected during this period lead to the conclusion that the BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles are likely the cleanest combustion engine vehicles ever tested at Argonne's APRF.

  2. The Effect of Diesel Fuel Properties on Emissions-Restrained Fuel Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    at Mid-Load Conditions | Department of Energy The Effect of Diesel Fuel Properties on Emissions-Restrained Fuel Economy at Mid-Load Conditions The Effect of Diesel Fuel Properties on Emissions-Restrained Fuel Economy at Mid-Load Conditions Statistical models developed from designed esperiments (varying fuel properties and engine control parameters) were used to optimize fuel consumption subject to emissions and engine performance constraints. PDF icon deer08_kumar.pdf More Documents &

  3. Biomass Fueling America’s Growing Clean Energy Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Biomass is the most abundant biological material on the planet. It is renewable; it grows almost everywhere; and it provides fuel, power, chemicals, and many other products. Find out how biomass is helping grow America's clean energy economy.

  4. "Table 11. Fuel Economy, Selected Survey Years (Miles Per Gallon...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy, Selected Survey Years (Miles Per Gallon)" ,"Survey Years" ,1983,1985,1988,1991,1994,2001 "Total",15.1,16.1,18.3,19.3,19.8,20.2 "Household Characteristics" "Census...

  5. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in March 2010. Under this rule, each light vehicle model...

  6. Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compares simulated fuel economy and emissions fro conventional and hybrid Class 8 heavy trucks PDF icon p-12gao.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced HD Engine Systems and ...

  7. 2011 Fuel Economy Guide Now Available | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    will provide additional fuel economy information online as more 2011 vehicles, including electric and plug-in hybrid cars, become available. You can view the guide either on the...

  8. New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards Will Continue to Inspire Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    sets aggressive new fuel-economy standards for cars and light-duty trucks. A number of Energy Department projects and investments are unleashing innovation that will create jobs...

  9. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.M.; Wang, M.Q.; Vyas, A.D.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents estimates of the full cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into reductions in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns, particularly under the High Market Share Scenario.

  10. Research Shows Ventilated Auto Seats Improve Fuel Economy, Comfort - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL Research Shows Ventilated Auto Seats Improve Fuel Economy, Comfort March 2, 2006 Golden, Colo. - The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has demonstrated that ventilated automotive seats not only can improve passenger comfort but also a vehicle's fuel economy. That's because ventilated seats keep drivers and passengers cooler, so they need less air conditioning to be comfortable. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction team has been

  11. Chapter 4. Fuel Economy, Consumption and Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    national concerns about dependence on foreign oil and the deleterious effect on the environment of fossil fuel combustion, residential vehicle fleet fuel consumption was...

  12. Fuel Economy on the Fly | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    on the Fly Fuel Economy on the Fly January 18, 2011 - 1:45pm Addthis Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program With the North American International Auto Show in Detroit kicking off the auto-show circuit last week, manufacturers are unveiling their future models. If you're inspired and in the market for a new car, FuelEconomy.gov can help you pick the most fuel-efficient vehicle for your needs. Although most people don't bring their computer with them to the dealership,

  13. Fuel Economy Sticker Revs Up Used Car Sales | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Economy Sticker Revs Up Used Car Sales Fuel Economy Sticker Revs Up Used Car Sales May 1, 2014 - 2:29pm Addthis FuelEconomy.gov’s newest tool -- the Used Car Fuel Economy Label -- makes it easier for consumers to compare used cars, select the most fuel-efficient model and save money at the pump. | Photo by the Energy Department. FuelEconomy.gov's newest tool -- the Used Car Fuel Economy Label -- makes it easier for consumers to compare used cars, select the most fuel-efficient model

  14. Fact #772: March 25, 2013 Fuel Economy by Speed: Slow Down to Save Fuel |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 2: March 25, 2013 Fuel Economy by Speed: Slow Down to Save Fuel Fact #772: March 25, 2013 Fuel Economy by Speed: Slow Down to Save Fuel A recent study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory shows that the fuel economy of cars and light trucks in the study decreases rapidly at speeds above 50 miles per hour (mph). The study of 74 light vehicles included two-seaters, sedans, station wagons, sport utility vehicles, pickup trucks, and minivans for model years (MY) ranging from

  15. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  16. Global Fuel Economy Initiative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    & North America, Europe, Latin America & Caribbean, Africa & Middle East Related Tools Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center - Fleet Experiences Turn Down the...

  17. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel-economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M. M.; Vyas, A. D.; Wang, M. Q.

    1997-12-18

    This paper presents estimates of the fill fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low-sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. Results were obtained for three scenarios: a Reference Scenario without PNGVs, a High Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for 60% of new light-duty vehicle sales by 2030, and a Low Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for half as many sales by 2030. Under the higher of these two, the fuel-efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into a nearly 50% reduction in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sulfur oxide, (SO{sub x}), and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM{sub 10}) for most of the engine-fuel combinations examined. The key exceptions were diesel- and ethanol-fueled vehicles for which PM{sub 10} emissions increased.

  18. Feebates and Fuel Economy Standards: Impacts on Fuel Use in Light-Duty Vehicles and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential impacts of a national feebate system, a market-based policy that consists of graduated fees on low-fuel-economy (or high-emitting) vehicles and rebates for high-fuel-economy (or lowemitting) vehicles. In their simplest form, feebate systems operate under three conditions: a benchmark divides all vehicles into two categories-those charged fees and those eligible for rebates; the sizes of the fees and rebates are a function of a vehicle's deviation from its benchmark; and placement of the benchmark ensures revenue neutrality or a desired level of subsidy or revenue. A model developed by the University of California for the California Air Resources Board was revised and used to estimate the effects of six feebate structures on fuel economy and sales of new light-duty vehicles, given existing and anticipated future fuel economy and emission standards. These estimates for new vehicles were then entered into a vehicle stock model that simulated the evolution of the entire vehicle stock. The results indicate that feebates could produce large, additional reductions in emissions and fuel consumption, in large part by encouraging market acceptance of technologies with advanced fuel economy, such as hybrid electric vehicles.

  19. Comparison of Different Load Road Implementation Strategies on Fuel Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of USPS Step Vans | Department of Energy Different Load Road Implementation Strategies on Fuel Economy of USPS Step Vans Comparison of Different Load Road Implementation Strategies on Fuel Economy of USPS Step Vans An alternative form of measuring road loads, instead of using a chassis dynamometer and a method described in 40 CFR section 86.1229-85, was conducted on on-road coastdowns, and regression analysis was used to determine the characteristics of the two U.S. Postal Service step vans,

  20. Fuel Economy Fact and Fiction | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fact and Fiction Fuel Economy Fact and Fiction April 4, 2011 - 1:01pm Addthis Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program With gas prices soaring higher than ever, there's a lot of information-true and false-floating around about fuel economy. From well-intentioned friends to salespeople trying to make a buck, everyone has an opinion on how you can use less gas. Thankfully, the Department of Energy has solid facts based on data that will help you sort out the reality from

  1. Fact #629: June 28, 2010 Top Ten Misconceptions about Fuel Economy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 9: June 28, 2010 Top Ten Misconceptions about Fuel Economy Fact #629: June 28, 2010 Top Ten Misconceptions about Fuel Economy The Fuel Economy Guide Web site, sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, displays a list of misconceptions about fuel economy. Knowing the facts on fuel economy can help reduce oil consumption and save money at the pump. Top Ten Misconceptions about Fuel Economy Misconception The Facts 1. You have

  2. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 4, fuel economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    Fuel economy estimates are provided for the CleanFleet vans operated for two years by FedEx in Southern California. Between one and three vehicle manufacturers (Chevrolet, Dodge, and Ford) supplied vans powered by compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85), and unleaded gasoline as a control. Two electric G-Vans, manufactured by Conceptor Corporation, were supplied by Southern California Edison. Vehicle and engine technologies are representative of those available in early 1992. A total of 111 vans were assigned to FedEx delivery routes at five demonstration sites. The driver and route assignments were periodically rotated within each site to ensure that each vehicle would experience a range of driving conditions. Regression analysis was used to estimate the relationships between vehicle fuel economy and factors such as the number of miles driven and the number of delivery stops made each day. The energy adjusted fuel economy (distance per energy consumed) of the alternative fuel vans operating on a typical FedEx duty cycle was between 13 percent lower and 4 percent higher than that of control vans from the same manufacturer. The driving range of vans operating on liquid and gaseous alternative fuels was 1 percent to 59 percent lower than for vans operating on unleaded gasoline. The driving range of the electric G-Vans was less than 50 miles. These comparisons are affected to varying degrees by differences in engine technology used in the alterative fuel and control vehicles. Relative fuel economy results from dynamometer emissions tests were generally consistent with those obtained from FedEx operations.

  3. New Methodology for Estimating Fuel Economy by Vehicle Class

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin, Shih-Miao; Dabbs, Kathryn; Hwang, Ho-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Office of Highway Policy Information to develop a new methodology to generate annual estimates of average fuel efficiency and number of motor vehicles registered by vehicle class for Table VM-1 of the Highway Statistics annual publication. This paper describes the new methodology developed under this effort and compares the results of the existing manual method and the new systematic approach. The methodology developed under this study takes a two-step approach. First, the preliminary fuel efficiency rates are estimated based on vehicle stock models for different classes of vehicles. Then, a reconciliation model is used to adjust the initial fuel consumption rates from the vehicle stock models and match the VMT information for each vehicle class and the reported total fuel consumption. This reconciliation model utilizes a systematic approach that produces documentable and reproducible results. The basic framework utilizes a mathematical programming formulation to minimize the deviations between the fuel economy estimates published in the previous year s Highway Statistics and the results from the vehicle stock models, subject to the constraint that fuel consumptions for different vehicle classes must sum to the total fuel consumption estimate published in Table MF-21 of the current year Highway Statistics. The results generated from this new approach provide a smoother time series for the fuel economies by vehicle class. It also utilizes the most up-to-date and best available data with sound econometric models to generate MPG estimates by vehicle class.

  4. How Does Your Fuel Economy Compare to the Test Ratings on Fueleconomy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    track your own fuel economy and compare it to that of other users and to the test ratings. ... How does your fuel economy compare to the test ratings on Fueleconomy.gov? Each Thursday, ...

  5. Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower This page contains information on the...

  6. Diesel NOx-PM Reduction with Fuel Economy Increase by IMET-OBC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx-PM Reduction with Fuel Economy Increase by IMET-OBC-DPF + Hydrated-EGR System for Retrofit of In-Use Trucks Diesel NOx-PM Reduction with Fuel Economy Increase by...

  7. Multi-Mode RCCI Has Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mode RCCI Has Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Diesel Engines Multi-Mode RCCI Has Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Diesel Engines February ...

  8. 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy December 4, 2012 - 12:06pm Addthis Lightweight...

  9. Fact #591: October 5, 2009 Consumer Reports Tests Vehicle Fuel Economy by Speed

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Seven vehicles were tested by Consumer Reports recently to determine the fuel economy of the vehicles at a given speed. For these vehicles, the decline in fuel economy from a speed of 55 miles per...

  10. DOE and EPA Release 2011 Annual Fuel Economy Guide | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 Annual Fuel Economy Guide DOE and EPA Release 2011 Annual Fuel Economy Guide November 3, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) today released the 2011 Fuel Economy Guide, providing consumers with information about estimated mileage and fuel costs for model year 2011 vehicles. Choosing the most fuel efficient vehicle in a class will save consumers money and reduce carbon pollution. "Increasing fuel efficiency

  11. Fact #587: September 7, 2009 Cash for Clunkers Program - Fuel Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improvement | Department of Energy 7: September 7, 2009 Cash for Clunkers Program - Fuel Economy Improvement Fact #587: September 7, 2009 Cash for Clunkers Program - Fuel Economy Improvement The Car Allowance Rebate System (CARS), also known as the Cash for Clunkers Program, provided Federal rebate money for consumers who traded old vehicles with an EPA combined fuel economy of 18 miles per gallon or less for brand new vehicles with improved fuel economy. The program was active from July 1

  12. Fact #659: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles Operating on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity | Department of Energy 9: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles Operating on Electricity Fact #659: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles Operating on Electricity The Environmental Protection Agency has developed a new methodology for determining how fuel economy information will be displayed on the window sticker of a vehicle that operates on electricity. The fuel economy will be displayed in miles per gallon equivalent (MPGequivalent), so that

  13. Examining new fuel economy standards for the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-01

    After decades of futile attempts to increase U.S. fuel economy standards for passenger cars, which have remained unchanged since enactment of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards in Title V of the 1975 Energy Policy Conservation Act, it seems increasingly likely that new and tougher standards will be enacted in the near future - especially after the Senate's 21 June passage of energy efficiency bill H.R. 6. As this magazine went to press, the bill, which calls for a 40 percent increase in vehicle fuel economy by 2020 among other efficiency and alternative energy goals, was headed to the House of Representatives for more debate. Congress has seen proposals like this since the 1980s, but this is the first time that one of them has passed in the Senate. The Bush administration has also weighed in with a proposal to increase new vehicle fuel economy by 4 percent per year from 2011 to 2017, and the administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has asked Congress to grant the Secretary of Transportation the authority to restructure and increase CAFE standards for cars, a power denied by the original CAFE legislation. A confluence of events has led to this change of political climate, including: the failure of world oil production and refining capacity to keep pace with rapidly growing demand, especially from China and other emerging economies, which has led to the highest oil prices since the 1980s and growing fears that world production of conventional oil may be close to its peak and rapid decline; the escalating influence of oil resources on geopolitics as China seeks to guarantee its future access to supplies, enhanced revenues from the higher prices, which prop up authoritarian regimes in Iran, Venezuela, Russia, and elsewhere and allow them increasing freedom of action; the enhancement of the role of climate change in political decision making by new reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), with much strengthened language about the probability and severity of climate change and man's influence on it, and a recent Supreme Court decision rejecting the Environmental Protection Agency's assertion that it has no authority to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. New fuel economy standards will represent an ambitious and expensive undertaking on the part of the automobile industry and the nation, and proposals for new standards deserve careful congressional and public scrutiny.

  14. Very High Fuel Economy, Heavy Duty, Constant Speed, Truck Engine Optimized Via Unique Energy Recovery Turbines and Facilitated High Efficiency Continuously Variable Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahman Habibzadeh

    2010-01-31

    The project began under a corporative agreement between Mack Trucks, Inc and the Department of Energy starting from September 1, 2005. The major objective of the four year project is to demonstrate a 10% efficiency gain by operating a Volvo 13 Litre heavy-duty diesel engine at a constant or narrow speed and coupled to a continuously variable transmission. The simulation work on the Constant Speed Engine started on October 1st. The initial simulations are aimed to give a basic engine model for the VTEC vehicle simulations. Compressor and turbine maps are based upon existing maps and/or qualified, realistic estimations. The reference engine is a MD 13 US07 475 Hp. Phase I was completed in May 2006 which determined that an increase in fuel efficiency for the engine of 10.5% over the OICA cycle, and 8.2% over a road cycle was possible. The net increase in fuel efficiency would be 5% when coupled to a CVT and operated over simulated highway conditions. In Phase II an economic analysis was performed on the engine with turbocompound (TC) and a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). The system was analyzed to determine the payback time needed for the added cost of the TC and CVT system. The analysis was performed by considering two different production scenarios of 10,000 and 60,000 units annually. The cost estimate includes the turbocharger, the turbocompound unit, the interstage duct diffuser and installation details, the modifications necessary on the engine and the CVT. Even with the cheapest fuel and the lowest improvement, the pay back time is only slightly more than 12 months. A gear train is necessary between the engine crankshaft and turbocompound unit. This is considered to be relatively straight forward with no design problems.

  15. Vehicle Mass Impact on Vehicle Losses and Fuel Economy | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Mass Impact on Vehicle Losses and Fuel Economy Vehicle Mass Impact on Vehicle Losses and Fuel Economy 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon vss074_francfort_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Mass Impact on Vehicle Losses and Fuel Economy Vehicle Mass and Fuel Efficiency Impact Testing Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Vehicle Testing & Evaluation

  16. Fact #692: September 12, 2011 Fuel Economy Distribution for New Cars and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Trucks | Department of Energy 2: September 12, 2011 Fuel Economy Distribution for New Cars and Light Trucks Fact #692: September 12, 2011 Fuel Economy Distribution for New Cars and Light Trucks Nearly 64% of new cars sold in model year (MY) 1975 had combined highway/city fuel economy of 15 miles per gallon (mpg) or less [blue shading]. By 2010, 63% of cars had fuel economy of 25 mpg or higher [green shading and up]. Light trucks, which typically have lower fuel economy than cars, show

  17. Fact #818: April 21, 2014 The Effect of Winter Weather on Fuel Economy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 8: April 21, 2014 The Effect of Winter Weather on Fuel Economy Fact #818: April 21, 2014 The Effect of Winter Weather on Fuel Economy Winter driving conditions and cold temperatures can have a significant effect on a vehicle's fuel economy. For a conventional gasoline-powered vehicle, fuel economy at 20°F is about 12% lower than at 77°F for short-trip city driving. For very short trips of just 3 to 4 miles, fuel economy can drop by as much as 22%. For more information

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel Economy Information Project- Research, Data Validation, and Technical Assistance Related to Collecting, Analyzing, and Disseminating Accurate Fuel Economy Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fuel economy...

  19. Fact #588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 8: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content Fact #588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content The fuel economy of a vehicle is dependent on many things, one of which is the fuel used in the vehicle. Two National Laboratories recently studied the effects that ethanol blends have on the fuel economy of light vehicles. The results are not surprising, since a gallon of ethanol does not have as much energy as a gallon of gasoline.

  20. Fact #813: January 20, 2014 New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy Continues to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rise | Department of Energy 3: January 20, 2014 New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy Continues to Rise Fact #813: January 20, 2014 New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy Continues to Rise The sales-weighted fuel economy average of all light vehicles sold in model year (MY) 2013 was 1.6 miles per gallon (mpg) higher than MY 2011. This increase brings the new light vehicle fuel economy average to 24 mpg for the first time since the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began recording new vehicle fuel

  1. Fact #793: August 19, 2013 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles Yield the Greatest Fuel Savings | Department of Energy 3: August 19, 2013 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles Yield the Greatest Fuel Savings Fact #793: August 19, 2013 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles Yield the Greatest Fuel Savings The relationship between gallons used over a given distance and miles per gallon (mpg) is not linear. Thus, an increase in fuel economy by 5 mpg does not translate to a constant fuel savings amount. Trading a low-mpg car

  2. The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  3. NREL Shows Heavy Duty Hybrid Trucks Deliver on Fuel Economy - News Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | NREL NREL Shows Heavy Duty Hybrid Trucks Deliver on Fuel Economy September 11, 2012 A performance evaluation of Class 8 hybrid electric tractor trailers compared with similar conventional vehicles by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) shows significant improvements in fuel economy. "During our 13-month study, the hybrid tractors demonstrated 13.7 percent higher fuel economy than the conventional tractors, resulting in a 12 percent

  4. NREL Study: Hybrid Delivery Vans Show Nearly 20 Percent Higher Fuel Economy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL Study: Hybrid Delivery Vans Show Nearly 20 Percent Higher Fuel Economy September 28, 2012 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)'s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently completed a performance evaluation report that showed significant fuel economy benefits of hybrid electric delivery vans compared to similar conventional vans. "During the on-road portion of our study, the hybrid vans demonstrated a 13 to 20 percent higher fuel economy than the

  5. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuels characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the projects objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project goals. Several flex-fuel demonstration vehicles were designed and built for carrying out calibration development and final testing to quantify the technology merits. Based on the extensive test results collected from dynamometer and vehicle testing, the fuel economy benefits of cooled EGR from the intended level of turbocharger technology were quantified. When combined with turbo downsizing, the FE benefits are considered large enough for E0 fuel as well as for E85 fuel to warrant further development of the technology beyond the current proof-of-concept level to a level that can meet production driveability quality and durability requirements in order to meet customers expectations. Cold-start cart test results from the emissions segment of the project were positive, confirming the assumption of faster thermal response of turbo exhaust system for emissions reductions for both E0 and E85 fuels. Vehicle emissions test results directionally correlated to the cold-start cart findings. The limited number of test runs did demonstrate the potentials of meeting stringent emission standards, however, they did not comprehend the factors such as hardware variability and long-term durability, 3 which are essential for mass production to satisfy customers expectations. It is therefore recommended, moving forward, durability concerns over turbocharger, EGR system and aftertreatment system, which would likely impact production viability, should be addressed. The data moreover suggested that further FE increase is likely with turbocharger technology advancement.

  6. Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle Fuel Economy and Emissions Estimates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vehicle systems simulations using experimental data demonstrate improved modeled fuel economy of 15% for passenger vehicles solely from powertrain efficiency relative to a 2009 PFI gasoline baseline.

  7. Clean Cities Strategic Planning White Paper: Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saulsbury, Bo; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Greene, David; Gibson, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Increasing the energy efficiency of motor vehicles is critical to achieving national energy goals of reduced petroleum dependence, protecting the global climate, and promoting continued economic prosperity. Even with fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions standards and various economic incentives for clean and efficient vehicles, providing reliable and accurate fuel economy information to the public is important to achieving these goals. This white paper reviews the current status of light-duty vehicle fuel economy in the United States and the role of the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Cities Program in disseminating fuel economy information to the public.

  8. Measuring and Reporting Fuel Economy of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Simpson, A.

    2006-11-01

    This paper reviews techniques used to characterize plug-in hybrid electric vehicle fuel economy, discussing their merits, limitations, and best uses.

  9. Fact #586: August 31, 2009 New Vehicle Fuel Economies by Vehicle Type |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 6: August 31, 2009 New Vehicle Fuel Economies by Vehicle Type Fact #586: August 31, 2009 New Vehicle Fuel Economies by Vehicle Type The average fuel economy for new cars climbed to over 30 miles per gallon (mpg) in 2008 while the average for new pickup trucks stayed around 20 mpg. For new vans and sport utility vehicles (SUVs) the average fuel economy has noticeably increased in the last few years. These data are weighted by the number of vehicles sold. New Vehicle

  10. Fact #773: April 1, 2013 Fuel Economy Penalty at Higher Speeds | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 3: April 1, 2013 Fuel Economy Penalty at Higher Speeds Fact #773: April 1, 2013 Fuel Economy Penalty at Higher Speeds Each vehicle reaches an optimal fuel economy at a different speed or range of speeds. A recent study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory illustrates that point with a wide range of data collected on 74 light vehicles. The figure below shows that from 50 to 60 miles per hour (mph) 26 of the vehicles experienced an 11-13% decrease in fuel economy, but one vehicle only

  11. How Does Your Fuel Economy Compare to the Test Ratings on Fueleconomy.gov?

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    | Department of Energy Does Your Fuel Economy Compare to the Test Ratings on Fueleconomy.gov? How Does Your Fuel Economy Compare to the Test Ratings on Fueleconomy.gov? November 12, 2009 - 8:36am Addthis On Monday, you read about the resources on Fueleconomy.gov and how they can help you compare the fuel economy of vehicles. Fueleconomy.gov also offers a tool called Your MPG, where you can track your own fuel economy and compare it to that of other users and to the test ratings. Many factors

  12. Fact #793: August 19, 2013 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    between gallons used over a given distance and miles per gallon (mpg) is not linear. Thus, an increase in fuel economy by 5 mpg does not translate to a constant fuel...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Improve Fuel Economy through Formulation Design and Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Ashland Inc. at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about improve fuel economy through...

  14. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in March 2010. Under this rule, each light vehicle model produced for sale in the United States will have a fuel...

  15. DOE and EPA Release 2012 Annual Fuel Economy Guide | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2 Annual Fuel Economy Guide DOE and EPA Release 2012 Annual Fuel Economy Guide November 16, 2011 - 2:37pm Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are releasing the 2012 Fuel Economy Guide, providing consumers with information that can help them choose a more efficient new vehicle that saves them money and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. While fuel efficient vehicles come in a variety of fuel types, classes, and sizes, many

  16. Examining the potential for voluntary fuel economy standards in the United States and Canada.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S.; Greene, D.; Duleep, K.

    2003-03-19

    This report is designed to assist the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. government in general, and Natural Resources Canada with understanding the potential for voluntary fuel economy standards designed to increase the fuel economy of the North American fleet of light-duty vehicles (LDVs-passenger cars and light trucks) within a 10-15-year timeframe. The approach of this study has been: First, to examine and evaluate recent fuel economy initiatives taken in Japan and Europe; Second, to review the technologies available to improve fuel economy in the U.S. (and Canadian) fleets, focusing on their costs and fuel economy improvement potential; Third, to identify and broadly evaluate some alternatives to the current U.S. and Canadian Corporate Average Fuel Economy system of specifying uniform fuel economy targets (27.5 mpg for cars, 20.7 mpg for light trucks) for individual companies; and Fourth, to try to determine an approximate level of fuel economy increase and form of company agreements that would be conducive to a voluntary agreement, based on the assumption that an acceptable voluntary standard would impose an equitable burden on each manufacturer and would be approximately cost-effective from consumers' private perspectives.

  17. Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    driving cycles and interstate roads | Department of Energy economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving cycles and interstate roads Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving cycles and interstate roads Compares simulated fuel economy and emissions fro conventional and hybrid Class 8 heavy trucks PDF icon p-12_gao.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced HD Engine Systems and Emissions Control Modeling and Analysis

  18. Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Vehicle Equipped with an Aftermarket Flexible-Fuel Conversion Kit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grants Certificates of Conformity for alternative fuel conversion systems and also offers other forms of premarket registration of conversion kits for use in vehicles more than two model years old. Use of alternative fuels such as ethanol, natural gas, and propane are encouraged by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) produce emissions-certified vehicles capable of using alternative fuels, and several alternative fuel conversion system manufacturers produce EPA-approved conversion systems for a variety of alternative fuels and vehicle types. To date, only one manufacturer (Flex Fuel U.S.) has received EPA certifications for ethanol fuel (E85) conversion kits. This report details an independent evaluation of a vehicle with a legal installation of a Flex Fuel U.S. conversion kit. A 2006 Dodge Charger was baseline tested with ethanol-free certification gasoline (E0) and E20 (gasoline with 20 vol % ethanol), converted to flex-fuel operation via installation of a Flex Box Smart Kit from Flex Fuel U.S., and retested with E0, E20, E50, and E81. Test cycles included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP or city cycle), the highway fuel economy test (HFET), and the US06 test (aggressive driving test). Averaged test results show that the vehicle was emissions compliant on E0 in the OEM condition (before conversion) and compliant on all test fuels after conversion. Average nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions exceeded the Tier 2/Bin 5 intermediate life NO{sub X} standard with E20 fuel in the OEM condition due to two of three test results exceeding this standard [note that E20 is not a legal fuel for non-flexible-fuel vehicles (non-FFVs)]. In addition, one E0 test result before conversion and one E20 test result after conversion exceeded the NOX standard, although the average result in these two cases was below the standard. Emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde increased with increasing ethanol, while nonmethane organic gas and CO emissions remained relatively unchanged for all fuels and cycles. Higher fraction ethanol blends appeared to decrease NO{sub X} emissions on the FTP and HFET (after conversion). As expected, fuel economy (miles per gallon) decreased with increasing ethanol content in all cases.

  19. DOE and EPA Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models | Department

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy and EPA Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models DOE and EPA Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models December 6, 2012 - 5:00pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are releasing the 2013 Fuel Economy Guide, giving consumers clear and easy-to-read information to help them choose the most fuel efficient and low greenhouse gas emitting vehicles that meet their

  20. EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models December 3, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are releasing the 2014 Fuel Economy Guide, providing consumers with a valuable resource to identify and choose the most fuel efficient and low greenhouse gas emitting vehicles that meet their needs. The 2014

  1. EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models December 3, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are releasing the 2014 Fuel Economy Guide, providing consumers with a valuable resource to identify and choose the most fuel efficient and low greenhouse gas-emitting vehicles that meet their needs. The 2014 models include efficient and

  2. EPA, DOE Release 2015 Fuel Economy Guide for Car Buyers | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy EPA, DOE Release 2015 Fuel Economy Guide for Car Buyers EPA, DOE Release 2015 Fuel Economy Guide for Car Buyers November 6, 2014 - 12:07pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT 202-586-4940 The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) today released the 2015 Fuel Economy Guide, providing consumers with a valuable resource to help them choose the most fuel-efficient and low greenhouse gas emitting vehicles that meet their needs. In comparison to previous

  3. Fact #868: April 13, 2015 Automotive Technology Has Improved Performance and Fuel Economy of New Light Vehicles Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Automotive Technology Has Improved Performance and Fuel Economy of New Light Vehicles

  4. Evaluation and Adaptation of 5-Cycle Fuel Economy Testing and Calculations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for HEVs and PHEVs | Department of Energy Adaptation of 5-Cycle Fuel Economy Testing and Calculations for HEVs and PHEVs Evaluation and Adaptation of 5-Cycle Fuel Economy Testing and Calculations for HEVs and PHEVs 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon vss065_lohsebusch_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications HEV, PHEV, EV Test Standard Development and Validation Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab

  5. EERE Success Story-FCA and Partners Achieve 25% Fuel Economy Improvement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Light-Duty Advanced Technology Powertrain | Department of Energy FCA and Partners Achieve 25% Fuel Economy Improvement in Light-Duty Advanced Technology Powertrain EERE Success Story-FCA and Partners Achieve 25% Fuel Economy Improvement in Light-Duty Advanced Technology Powertrain March 7, 2016 - 10:57am Addthis EERE Success Story—FCA and Partners Achieve 25% Fuel Economy Improvement in Light-Duty Advanced Technology Powertrain EERE Success Story—FCA and Partners Achieve 25%

  6. Fact #630: July 5, 2010 Fuel Economy vs. Weight and Performance |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 0: July 5, 2010 Fuel Economy vs. Weight and Performance Fact #630: July 5, 2010 Fuel Economy vs. Weight and Performance From 1980 to 2009, there have been significant gains made in automotive technology, but those advancements have been applied toward improved performance and safety rather than fuel economy. Horsepower has more than doubled, top speed has climbed from 107 miles per hour to 139 miles per hour, and "0-to-60" times have dropped from 14.3 seconds

  7. Fact #696: October 10, 2011 Top Ten "Real World" Fuel Economy Leaders |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 6: October 10, 2011 Top Ten "Real World" Fuel Economy Leaders Fact #696: October 10, 2011 Top Ten "Real World" Fuel Economy Leaders The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fuel economy ratings on the window stickers of new cars are based on strict test cycles conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. These official EPA estimates do not reflect all the varied conditions encountered in real world driving such as congestion, terrain, weather,

  8. Fact #730: June 4, 2012 Fuel Economy of New Light Vehicles is Up 19% from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1980 to 2011 | Department of Energy 0: June 4, 2012 Fuel Economy of New Light Vehicles is Up 19% from 1980 to 2011 Fact #730: June 4, 2012 Fuel Economy of New Light Vehicles is Up 19% from 1980 to 2011 In addition to a 120% increase in horsepower and 35% decrease in 0-60 time from 1980 to 2011, the fuel economy of vehicles improved nearly 19%. All of these data series are sales-weighted averages that have been indexed to 1980, showing the relative relationship among the years since 1980. In

  9. Fact #826: June 23, 2014 The Effect of Tire Pressure on Fuel Economy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 6: June 23, 2014 The Effect of Tire Pressure on Fuel Economy Fact #826: June 23, 2014 The Effect of Tire Pressure on Fuel Economy Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently conducted a study that measured the effect of tire pressure on fuel economy at speeds ranging from 40 to 80 miles per hour. The figure below shows the results of a 2009 Toyota Corolla tested with all four tires at the recommended pressure (Black line), then at 75% of the recommended

  10. Fact #833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Attribute | Department of Energy 3: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle Attribute Fact #833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle Attribute A 2014 survey asked a sample of the U.S. population the question "Which one of the following attributes would be MOST important to you in your choice of your next vehicle?" The choices were fuel economy, dependability, low price, quality, and safety. This same question was asked in

  11. Multi-Mode RCCI Has Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy in Light-Duty

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Engines | Department of Energy Mode RCCI Has Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Diesel Engines Multi-Mode RCCI Has Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Diesel Engines February 26, 2015 - 11:47am Addthis Multi-mode RCCI (Reactivity-Controlled Compression Ignition), a promising advanced combustion process, has the potential to improve fuel economy of passenger cars by at least 15%, according to a recent study performed by a team at Oak Ridge National

  12. Fuel Economy Standards for New Light Trucks (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    In March 2006, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) finalized Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards requiring higher fuel economy performance for light-duty trucks in model year (MY) 2008 through 2011. Unlike the proposed CAFE standards discussed in Annual Energy Outlook 2006, which would have established minimum fuel economy requirements by six footprint size classes, the final reformed CAFE standards specify a continuous mathematical function that determines minimum fuel economy requirements by vehicle footprint, defined as the wheelbase (the distance from the front axle to the center of the rear axle) times the average track width (the distance between the center lines of the tires) of the vehicle in square feet.

  13. Policy Discussion - Heavy-Duty Truck Fuel Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Policy Discussion - Heavy-Duty Truck Fuel Economy Policy Discussion - Heavy-Duty Truck Fuel Economy 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presesntation: National Commission on Energy Policy PDF icon 2004_deer_kodjak.pdf More Documents & Publications 21st Century Truck Partnership Roadmap Roadmap and Technical White Papers - 21CTP-0003, December 2006 The Energy Efficiency Potential of Global Transport to 2050 Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DOE's Effort to

  14. Fact #589: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Standards | Department of Energy 9: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards Fact #589: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards On September 15, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) jointly announced a proposal to establish national standards for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and Corporate Average

  15. Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel Economy and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Reduction over Transient Driving Cycles | Department of Energy Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emissions Reduction over Transient Driving Cycles Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emissions Reduction over Transient Driving Cycles In conventional vehicles, most engine operating points over a UDDS driving cycle stay within PCCI operation limits but PCCI in HEVs is limited because of higher loads and many

  16. DOE Announces Webinars on H-Prize Safety Guidelines, Fuel Economy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Resources, and More | Department of Energy H-Prize Safety Guidelines, Fuel Economy Resources, and More DOE Announces Webinars on H-Prize Safety Guidelines, Fuel Economy Resources, and More August 6, 2015 - 8:30am Addthis EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free; however, advanced registration is typically required. You can also watch

  17. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L. ); Duleep, K.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  18. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Duleep, K.G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  19. Vehicle Mass Impact on Vehicle Losses and Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  20. Predicting Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy as a Function of Highway Speed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Hwang, Ho-Ling; West, Brian H; Huff, Shean P

    2013-01-01

    The www.fueleconomy.gov website offers information such as window label fuel economy for city, highway, and combined driving for all U.S.-legal light-duty vehicles from 1984 to the present. The site is jointly maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and also offers a considerable amount of consumer information and advice pertaining to vehicle fuel economy and energy related issues. Included with advice pertaining to driving styles and habits is information concerning the trend that as highway cruising speed is increased, fuel economy will degrade. An effort was undertaken to quantify this conventional wisdom through analysis of dynamometer testing results for 74 vehicles at steady state speeds from 50 to 80 mph. Using this experimental data, several simple models were developed to predict individual vehicle fuel economy and its rate of change over the 50-80 mph speed range interval. The models presented require a minimal number of vehicle attributes. The simplest model requires only the EPA window label highway mpg value (based on the EPA specified estimation method for 2008 and beyond). The most complex of these simple model uses vehicle coast-down test coefficients (from testing prescribed by SAE Standard J2263) known as the vehicle Target Coefficients, and the raw fuel economy result from the federal highway test. Statistical comparisons of these models and discussions of their expected usefulness and limitations are offered.

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by General Motors LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the application of high...

  2. High Octane Fuels Can Make Better use of Renewable Transportation Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wagner, 062111 High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Presented by Brian West Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biomass 2014 Washington, DC July 29-30, 2014 Work supported by DOE Biomass Energy Technology Office and Vehicle Technologies Office 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Three Major Challenges Facing the Transportation Industry Over the Next Decade Transportation Industry Fuel Economy

  3. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy. [Hydrocarbon (HC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  4. Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    E85 Optimized Engine Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels ...

  5. EERE Success Story- Chrysler and Partners Achieve 25% Fuel Economy Improvement in Light-Duty Advanced Technology Powertrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Internal combustion engines have the potential to become substantially more efficient, with laboratory tests indicating that new technologies could increase passenger vehicle fuel economy by more...

  6. Fact #850: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed the Fuel Economy Gap with Manual Transmissions- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #850: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed the Fuel Economy Gap with Manual Transmissions

  7. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  8. Review of alternate automotive engine fuel economy. Final report January-October 78

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, D.; Bolt, J.A.; Huber, P.; Taylor, T. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    This study assessed the potential of alternate automotive engines to meet the fuel economy goals and emission levels of the 1980-1990 period. As part of NHTSA's continuing research in support of the Department of Transportation fuel economy activities, this study reviewed those developments offering viable substitutes for the current spark ignition engine systems. Categories assessed included stratified charge, diesels, turbo charging, rotary/Wankel engines, and the developmental gas turbine and Stirling cycle engines. Results of past and on-going research through 1978 were reviewed along with the development and production status of various alternate engine technologies proposed for automobiles and light trucks through the 1980s. Assessment was then made of the potential fuel economy improvement as a percentage of 1978 baseline data.

  9. Lightweighting Impacts on Fuel Economy, Cost, and Component Losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooker, A. D.; Ward, J.; Wang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is the U.S. Department of Energy's high-level vehicle powertrain model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It uses a time versus speed drive cycle to estimate the powertrain forces required to meet the cycle. It simulates the major vehicle powertrain components and their losses. It includes a cost model based on component sizing and fuel prices. FASTSim simulated different levels of lightweighting for four different powertrains: a conventional gasoline engine vehicle, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and a battery electric vehicle (EV). Weight reductions impacted the conventional vehicle's efficiency more than the HEV, PHEV and EV. Although lightweighting impacted the advanced vehicles' efficiency less, it reduced component cost and overall costs more. The PHEV and EV are less cost effective than the conventional vehicle and HEV using current battery costs. Assuming the DOE's battery cost target of $100/kWh, however, the PHEV attained similar cost and lightweighting benefits. Generally, lightweighting was cost effective when it costs less than $6/kg of mass eliminated.

  10. Fuel Economy of the Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. fleet of light-duty vehicles consists of cars and light trucks, including minivans, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and trucks with gross vehicle weight less than 8,500 pounds. The fuel economy of light-duty vehicles is regulated by the (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) CAFE standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Currently, the CAFE standard is 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for cars and 20.7 mpg for light trucks. The most recent increase in the CAFE standard for cars was in 1990, and the most recent increase in the CAFE standard for light trucks was in 1996.

  11. We Can't Wait: Driving Forward with New Fuel Economy Standards |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Can't Wait: Driving Forward with New Fuel Economy Standards We Can't Wait: Driving Forward with New Fuel Economy Standards November 16, 2011 - 4:04pm Addthis The Vehicle Cost Calculator helps consumers go beyond the sticker price of a vehicle and determine the lifetime cost when they head to the car lot. | Photo by Kino Praxis. The Vehicle Cost Calculator helps consumers go beyond the sticker price of a vehicle and determine the lifetime cost when they head to the car

  12. What Steps Do You Take to Improve Your Fuel Economy? | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Shannon told you some facts about fuel economy and how you can use less gas and save money at the pump. What steps do you take to improve your fuel economy? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. Please e-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles How Do You Save Energy at Home While on Vacation? How Do You Make Greener Transportation Choices?

  13. Fuel Economy Improvement Potential of a Heavy Duty Truck using V2x Communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaClair, Tim J; Verma, Rajeev; Norris, Sarah; Cochran, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an intelligent driver assistance system to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty vehicles irrespective of the driving style of the driver. We specifically study the potential of V2I and V2V communications to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty trucks. Most ITS communications today are oriented towards vehicle safety, with communications strategies and hardware that tend to focus on low latency. This has resulted in technologies emerging with a relatively limited range for the communications. For fuel economy, it is expected that most benefits will be derived with greater communications distances, at the scale of many hundred meters or several kilometers, due to the large inertia of heavy duty vehicles. It may therefore be necessary to employ different communications strategies for ITS applications aimed at fuel economy and other environmental benefits than what is used for safety applications in order to achieve the greatest benefits.

  14. National Labs Work to Settle PHEV Fuel Economy Conundrum - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL National Labs Work to Settle PHEV Fuel Economy Conundrum NREL-developed methodology shows promise for estimating real-world energy use September 28, 2009 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently joined forces with researchers from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to take the lead in developing and testing a new method for predicting the real-world fuel and electricity consumption of plug-in hybrid

  15. Fact #813: January 20, 2014 New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy Continues...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy, 1975-2013 Model Year Miles per Gallon 1975 13.1 1976 14.2 1977 15.1 1978 15.8 1979 15.9 1980 19.2 1981 20.5 1982 21.1 1983 21.0 1984 21.0 1985 21.3 ...

  16. ETA-HITP03 - Implementation of SAE J1634 May93 Fuel Economy Testing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Revision 0 Effective November 1, 2004 Implementation of SAE J1634 May93 Fuel Economy Testing Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: _______________________________ Date: ________ Garrett Beauregard Approved by: _________________________________________________ Date: ____________ Donald Karner ETA-HITP03 Revision 0 i ©2004 Electric Transportation Application All rights Reserved TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Objectives 1 2. Purpose 1 3. Documentation Support 1 4. Initial

  17. ETA-HITP04 - HICE Vehicle Constant Speed Fuel Economy Tests

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Revision 0 Effective November 1, 2004 HICE Vehicle Constant Speed Fuel Economy Tests Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: _______________________________ Date:_________ Garrett Beauregard Approved by: _________________________________________________ Date: _______________ Donald Karner Procedure ETA-HITP04 Revision 0 © 2004 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Objectives 1 2. Purpose 1 3. Documentation 1 4. Initial Conditions

  18. Leveraging Intelligent Vehicle Technologies to Maximize Fuel Economy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.

    2011-11-01

    Advancements in vehicle electronics, along with communication and sensing technologies, have led to a growing number of intelligent vehicle applications. Example systems include those for advanced driver information, route planning and prediction, driver assistance, and crash avoidance. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is exploring ways to leverage intelligent vehicle systems to achieve fuel savings. This presentation discusses several potential applications, such as providing intelligent feedback to drivers on specific ways to improve their driving efficiency, and using information about upcoming driving to optimize electrified vehicle control strategies for maximum energy efficiency and battery life. The talk also covers the potential of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and related technologies to deliver significant fuel savings in addition to providing safety and convenience benefits.

  19. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E; Franzese, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  20. Fuel Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-Electric/Diesel Powertrain in a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Class 4 Parcel Delivery Vehicle | Department of Energy Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-Electric/Diesel Powertrain in a Class 4 Parcel Delivery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-Electric/Diesel Powertrain in a Class 4 Parcel Delivery Vehicle The goal of this project is to provide data to help bridge the gap between R&D and the commercial availability of advanced vehicle technologies that reduce petroleum use in the U.S. and improve air quality. PDF icon p-13_thornton.pdf

  1. Deriving In-Use PHEV Fuel Economy Predictions from Standardized Test Cycle Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Richard "Barney" Carlson; Jeff Gonder; Aaron Brooker

    2009-09-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have potential to reduce or eliminate the U.S. dependence on foreign oil. Quantifying the amount of petroleum each uses, however, is challenging. To estimate in-use fuel economy for conventional vehicles the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducts chassis dynamometer tests on standard historic drive cycles and then adjusts the resulting raw fuel economy measurements downward. Various publications, such as the forthcoming update to the SAE J1711 recommended practice for PHEV fuel economy testing, address the challenges of applying standard test procedures to PHEVs. This paper explores the issue of how to apply an adjustment method to such raw PHEV dynamometer test results in order to more closely estimate the in-use fuel and electricity consumption characteristics of these vehicles. The paper discusses two possible adjustment methods, and evaluates one method by applying it to dynamometer data and comparing the result to in-use fleet data (on an aftermarket conversion PHEV). The paper will also present the methodologies used to collect the data needed for this comparison.

  2. Fact #680: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When Buying a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle | Department of Energy 0: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When Buying a Vehicle Fact #680: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When Buying a Vehicle A June 2011 survey asked the question "Which one of the following attributes would be MOST important to you in your choice of your next vehicle?" The choices were fuel economy, dependability, low price, quality, and safety. This same question was asked in previous surveys and the

  3. Proposed Revisions to Light Truck Fuel Economy Standard (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    In August 2005, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published proposed reforms to the structure of CAFE standards for light trucks and increases in light truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for model years 2008 through 201. Under the proposed new structure, NHTSA would establish minimum fuel economy levels for six size categories defined by the vehicle footprint (wheelbase multiplied by track width), as summarized in Table 3. For model years 2008 through 2010, the new CAFE standards would provide manufacturers the option of complying with either the standards defined for each individual footprint category or a proposed average light truck fleet standard of 22.5 miles per gallon in 2008, 23.1 miles per gallon in 2009, and 23.5 miles per gallon in 2010. All light truck manufacturers would be required to meet an overall standard based on sales within each individual footprint category after model year 2010.

  4. Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    07-01-3994 Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol- Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower Brian H. West, Alberto J. López, Timothy J. Theiss, Ronald L. Graves, John M. Storey and Samuel A. Lewis Oak Ridge National Laboratory ABSTRACT Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp (112 kW) on

  5. Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian H; Lopez Vega, Alberto; Theiss, Timothy J; Graves, Ronald L; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the BioPower vehicle's gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles. Regulated and unregulated emissions measurements on the FTP and the US06 aggressive driving test (part of the supplemental FTP) show that despite the lack of any certification testing requirement in Europe on E85 or on the U.S. cycles, the BioPower is within Tier 2, Bin 5 emissions levels (note that full useful life emissions have not been measured) on the FTP, and also within the 4000 mile US06 emissions limits. Emissions of hydrocarbon-based hazardous air pollutants are higher on Federal Certification Gasoline while ethanol and aldehyde emissions are higher on ethanol fuel. The advertised power increase on E85 was confirmed through acceleration tests on the chassis dyno as well as on-road.

  6. The Evaluation of Developing Vehicle Technologies on the Fuel Economy of Long-Haul Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.; Daw, C. Stuart; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Kaul, Brian C.; Domingo, Norberto; Parks, II, James E.; Jones, Perry T.

    2015-12-01

    We present fuel savings estimates resulting from the combined implementation of multiple advanced energy management technologies in both conventional and parallel hybrid class 8 diesel trucks. The energy management technologies considered here have been specifically targeted by the 21st Century Truck Partnership (21 CTP) between the U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. industry and include advanced combustion engines, waste heat recovery, and reductions in auxiliary loads, rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, and gross vehicle weight. Furthermore, we estimated that combined use of all these technologies in hybrid trucks has the potential to improve fuel economy by more than 60% compared to current conventional trucks, but this requires careful system integration to avoid non-optimal interactions. Major factors to be considered in system integration are discussed.

  7. The Evaluation of Developing Vehicle Technologies on the Fuel Economy of Long-Haul Trucks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.; Daw, C. Stuart; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Kaul, Brian C.; Domingo, Norberto; Parks, II, James E.; Jones, Perry T.

    2015-12-01

    We present fuel savings estimates resulting from the combined implementation of multiple advanced energy management technologies in both conventional and parallel hybrid class 8 diesel trucks. The energy management technologies considered here have been specifically targeted by the 21st Century Truck Partnership (21 CTP) between the U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. industry and include advanced combustion engines, waste heat recovery, and reductions in auxiliary loads, rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, and gross vehicle weight. Furthermore, we estimated that combined use of all these technologies in hybrid trucks has the potential to improve fuel economy by more than 60% compared tomore » current conventional trucks, but this requires careful system integration to avoid non-optimal interactions. Major factors to be considered in system integration are discussed.« less

  8. The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of vehicle. Looking for the most fuel-efficient 2014 family sedan hybrid? The 2014 Toyota Prius tops the online guide at 50 combined cityhighway MPG. Need something larger,...

  9. Fact #848: November 24, 2014 Nearly Three-Fourths of New Cars have Fuel Economy above 25 Miles per Gallon- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #848: November 24, 2014 Nearly Three-Fourths of New Cars have Fuel Economy above 25 Miles per Gallon

  10. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014

  11. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Domagala, Robert F.; Thresh, Henry R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  12. Engineering-economic analyses of automotive fuel economy potential in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; DeCicco, J.

    2000-02-01

    Over the past 25 years more than 20 major studies have examined the technological potential to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks in the US. The majority has used technology/cost analysis, a combination of analytical methods from the disciplines of economics and automotive engineering. In this paper the authors describe the key elements of this methodology, discuss critical issues responsible for the often widely divergent estimates produced by different studies, review the history of its use, and present results from six recent assessments. Whereas early studies tended to confine their scope to the potential of proven technology over a 10-year time period, more recent studies have focused on advanced technologies, raising questions about how best to include the likelihood of technological change. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research.

  13. High Burnup Fuel Behavior Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jahingir, M.; Rand, R.; Stachowski, R.; Miles, B.; Kusagaya, K.

    2007-07-01

    This paper discusses the development and qualification of the PRIME03 code to address high burnup mechanisms and to improve uranium utilization in current and new reactor designs. Materials properties and behavioral models have been updated from previous thermal-mechanical codes to reflect the effects of burnup on fuel pellet thermal conductivity, Zircaloy creep, fuel pellet relocation, and fission gas release. These new models are based on results of in-pool and post irradiation examination (PIE) of commercial boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel rods at high burnup and results from international experimental programs. The new models incorporated into PRIME03 also address specific high burnup effects associated with formation of pellet rim porosity at high exposure. The PRIME03 code is qualified by comparison of predicted and measured fuel performance parameters for a large number of high, low, and moderate burnup test and commercial reactor rod. The extensive experimental qualification of the PRIME03 prediction capabilities confirms that it is a reliable best-estimate predictor of fuel rod thermal-mechanical performance over a wide range of design and operating conditions. (authors)

  14. High-Level Functional and Operational Requirements for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facilty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Park

    2006-12-01

    High-Level Functional & Operational Requirements for the AFCF -This document describes the principal functional and operational requirements for the proposed Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). The AFCF is intended to be the world's foremost facility for nuclear fuel cycle research, technology development, and demonstration. The facility will also support the near-term mission to develop and demonstrate technology in support of fuel cycle needs identified by industry, and the long-term mission to retain and retain U.S. leadership in fuel cycle operations. The AFCF is essential to demonstrate a more proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and make long-term improvements in fuel cycle effectiveness, performance and economy.

  15. The Effect of Driving Intensity and Incomplete Charging on the Fuel Economy of a Hymotion Prius PHEV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Barney Carlson

    2009-10-01

    On-road testing was conducted on a Hymotion Prius plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) at the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation in Phoenix, Arizona. The tests were comprised of on-road urban and highway driving during charge-depleting and charge-sustaining operation. Determining real-world effectiveness of PHEVs at reducing petroleum consumption in real world driving was the main focus of the study. Throughout testing, several factors that affect fuel consumption of PHEVs were identified. This report discusses two of these factors: driving intensity (i.e., driving aggressiveness) and battery charging completeness. These two factors are unrelated, yet both significantly impact the vehicles fuel economy. Driving intensity was shown to decrease fuel economy by up to half. Charging completeness, which was affected by human factors and ambient temperature conditions, also showed to have great impact on fuel economy for the Hymotion Prius. These tests were performed for the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, part of the U.S. Department of Energys Vehicle Technology Program, is conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation.

  16. Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopp, Sean; Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-13

    Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are then unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no climb or descent requirements. Additionally, existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations. Drive-cycles are matched with vocation-specific vehicle models and simulated with and without grade. Fuel use due to grade is presented, and variation in fuel consumption due to drive cycle and vehicle characteristics is explored through graphical and statistical comparison. The results of this study suggest that road grade accounts for 1%-9% of fuel use in commercial vehicles on average and up to 40% on select routes.

  17. Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2-01-2049 Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Published Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for 09/24/2012 Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles Michael P. Lammert, Kevin Walkowicz, Adam Duran and Petr Sindler National Renewable Energy Laboratory ABSTRACT This research project compares the in-use and laboratory- derived fuel economy of a medium-duty hybrid electric drivetrain with "engine off at idle" capability to a conventional drivetrain in a typical

  18. Simulated fuel economy and emissions performance during city and interstate driving for a heavy-duty hybrid truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart; Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E; LaClair, Tim J; Pihl, Josh A; Edwards, Kevin Dean

    2013-01-01

    We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.

  19. Quantifying the Effects of Idle-Stop Systems on Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Wishart; Matthew Shirk

    2012-12-01

    Vehicles equipped with idle-stop (IS) systems are capable of engine shut down when the vehicle is stopped and rapid engine re-start for the vehicle launch. This capability reduces fuel consumption and emissions during periods when the engine is not being utilized to provide propulsion or to power accessories. IS systems are a low-cost and fast-growing technology in the industry-wide pursuit of increased vehicle efficiency, possibly becoming standard features in European vehicles in the near future. In contrast, currently there are only three non-hybrid vehicle models for sale in North America with IS systems and these models are distinctly low-volume models. As part of the United States Department of Energys Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, ECOtality North America has tested the real-world effect of IS systems on fuel consumption in three vehicle models imported from Europe. These vehicles were chosen to represent three types of systems: (1) spark ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; (2) compression ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; and (3) direct-injection spark ignition, with 12-V belt alternator starter/combustion restart. The vehicles have undergone both dynamometer and on-road testing; the test results show somewhat conflicting data. The laboratory data and the portion of the on-road data in which driving is conducted on a prescribed route with trained drivers produced significant fuel economy improvement. However, the fleet data do not corroborate improvement, even though the data show significant engine-off time. It is possible that the effects of the varying driving styles and routes in the fleet testing overshadowed the fuel economy improvements. More testing with the same driver over routes that are similar with the IS system-enabled and disabled is recommended. There is anecdotal evidence that current Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy test procedures do not capture the fuel economy gains that IS systems produce in real-world driving. The program test results provide information on the veracity of these claims.

  20. New Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells New Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE ...

  1. Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems - Fact Sheet, 2014 Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems - Fact Sheet, 2014 FuelCell ...

  2. High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues High Pressure Fuel ... Lessons Learned from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels The ...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel Economy Guide and fueleconomy.gov Website

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the fuel...

  4. High Temperature BOP and Fuel Processing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BOP and Fuel Processing High Temperature BOP and Fuel Processing Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D Workshop in Washington, DC, August 11-12, 2011. PDF icon High Temperature BOP and Fuel Processing More Documents & Publications Biogas Impurities and Cleanup for Fuel Cells Fuel Quality Issues in Stationary Fuel Cell Systems Advanced Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Integrated Boosting and Hybridization for Extreme Fuel Economy and Downsizing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Eaton at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about integrated boosting and hybridization...

  6. EERE Success Story-FCA and Partners Achieve 25% Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Internal combustion engines have the potential to become substantially more efficient, with laboratory tests indicating that new technologies could increase passenger vehicle fuel ...

  7. Deriving In-Use PHEV Fuel Economy Predictions from Standardized Test Cycle Results: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Carlson, R.; Smart, J.

    2009-08-01

    Explores the issue of how to apply an adjustment method to raw plug-in hybrid vehicle dynamometer test results to better estimate PHEVs' in-use fuel and electricity consumption.

  8. Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; Walkowicz, K.; Duran, A.; Sindler, P.

    2012-10-01

    In-use and laboratory-derived fuel economies were analyzed for a medium-duty hybrid electric drivetrain with 'engine off at idle' capability and a conventional drivetrain in a typical commercial package delivery application. Vehicles studied included eleven 2010 Freightliner P100H hybrids in service at a United Parcel Service facility in Minneapolis during the first half of 2010. The hybrids were evaluated for 18 months against eleven 2010 Freightliner P100D diesels at the same facility. Both vehicle groups use the same 2009 Cummins ISB 200-HP engine. In-use fuel economy was evaluated using UPS's fueling and mileage records, periodic ECM image downloads, and J1939 CAN bus recordings during the periods of duty cycle study. Analysis of the in-use fuel economy showed 13%-29% hybrid advantage depending on measurement method, and a delivery route assignment analysis showed 13%-26% hybrid advantage on the less kinetically intense original diesel route assignments and 20%-33% hybrid advantage on the more kinetically intense original hybrid route assignments. Three standardized laboratory drive cycles were selected that encompassed the range of real-world in-use data. The hybrid vehicle demonstrated improvements in ton-mi./gal fuel economy of 39%, 45%, and 21% on the NYC Comp, HTUF Class 4, and CARB HHDDT test cycles, respectively.

  9. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift -Clean Cities Fleet Experiences -

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-01

    The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids.

  10. Effect of Weight and Roadway Grade on the Fuel Economy of Class-8 Frieght Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzese, Oscar; Davidson, Diane

    2011-11-01

    In 2006-08, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with several industry partners, collected real-world performance and situational data for long-haul operations of Class-8 trucks from a fleet engaged in normal freight operations. Such data and information are useful to support Class-8 modeling of combination truck performance, technology evaluation efforts for energy efficiency, and to provide a means of accounting for real-world driving performance within combination truck research and analyses. The present study used the real-world information collected in that project to analyze the effects that vehicle speed and vehicle weight have on the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks. The analysis focused on two type of terrains, flat (roadway grades ranging from -1% to 1%) and mild uphill terrains (roadway grades ranging from 1% to 3%), which together covered more than 70% of the miles logged in the 2006-08 project (note: almost 2/3 of the distance traveled on mild uphill terrains was on terrains with 1% to 2% grades). In the flat-terrain case, the results of the study showed that for light and medium loads, fuel efficiency decreases considerably as speed increases. For medium-heavy and heavy loads (total vehicle weight larger than 65,000 lb), fuel efficiency tends to increase as the vehicle speed increases from 55 mph up to about 58-60 mph. For speeds higher than 60 mph, fuel efficiency decreases at an almost constant rate with increasing speed. At any given speed, fuel efficiency decreases and vehicle weight increases, although the relationship between fuel efficiency and vehicle weight is not linear, especially for vehicle weights above 65,000 lb. The analysis of the information collected while the vehicles were traveling on mild upslope terrains showed that the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks decreases abruptly with vehicle weight ranging from light loads up to medium-heavy loads. After that, increases in the vehicle weight only decrease fuel efficiency slightly. Fuel efficiency also decreases significantly with speed, but only for light and medium loads. For medium-heavy and heavy, FE is almost constant for speeds ranging from 57 to about 66 mph. For speeds higher than 66 mph, the FE decreases with speed, but at a lower rate than for light and medium loads. Statistical analyses that compared the fuel efficiencies obtained when the vehicles were traveling at 59 mph vs. those achieved when they were traveling at 65 mph or 70 mph indicated that the former were, on average, higher than the latter. This result was statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level (note: the Type II error i.e., the probability of failing to reject the null hypothesis when the alternative hypothesis is true was 18% and 6%, respectively).

  11. High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Breakout Session 1C-Fostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane ...

  12. High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D Presented at the NREL ... DC, August 11-12, 2011. PDF icon High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) ...

  13. Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells This presentation, which focuses on polyelectrolyte materials ...

  14. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New...

  15. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hybrid drivetrains have shown signifcant promise as part of an overall petroleum reduction feet strategy [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. Hybrid drivetrains consist of an energy storage device and a motor integrated into a traditional powertrain and offer the potential fuel savings by capturing energy normally lost during deceleration through the application of regenerative braking. Because hybrid technologies, especially hydraulic hybrids, have low adoption rates in the medium-duty vehicle segment and

  16. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift, Clean Cities, Fleet Experiences, April 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Clean Cities helped Boston, San Antonio, and Cambridge create hybrid taxi programs. The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids. Program leaders have learned some important lessons other cities can benefit from including learning a city's taxi structure, relaying benefits to drivers, and understanding the needs of owners.

  17. Development of a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP System Development of a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP System Part of a 100 million fuel cell award ...

  18. Effects of High Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; West, Brian H; Huff, Shean P

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance improvement was measured for this vehicle, which achieved near volumetric fuel economy parity on the aggressive US06 drive cycle, demonstrating the potential for improved fuel economy in forthcoming downsized, downsped engines with high-octane fuels.

  19. Heavy-Duty Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty Truck Engine Program PDF icon 2004deernelson.pdf More Documents & Publications High Engine Efficiency at 2010 Emissions Achieving High Efficiency at 2010 Emissions ...

  20. Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that produce electricity without combustion. Due to their high efficiency and minimal emissions, fuel cells are an attractive option for distributed power...

  1. Developing Low-Cost, Highly Efficient Heat Recovery for Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Introduction Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that produce electricity without combustion. Due to their high effciency and minimal emissions, fuel cells are an attractive ...

  2. Federal Express CleanFleet Final Report Volume 4: Fuel Economy

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    4 F u e l E c o n o m y December 1995 This information was prepared by Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus Operations, through sponsorship by various companies and associations, the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District), and the California Energy Commission (Commission). Battelle has endeavored to produce a high quality study consistent with its contract commitments. However, because of the research and/or experimental nature of this work, the District or Commission, Battelle,

  3. Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon pm021_blau_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems Fuel injector Holes (Fabrication of Micro-Orifices for Fuel Injectors)

  4. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ma, Zhiwen (Sandy Hook, CT); Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan (New Milford, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT)

    2008-10-07

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  5. National labs team to develop better, cheaper fuel cells | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel cell technologies can significantly benefit the nation's energy security, the environment and economy - offering reduced oil consumption and highly reliable grid-support,...

  6. Fossil Fuels Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fuels Study Guide - High School Fossil Fuels Study Guide - High School PDF icon Fossil Fuels Study Guide - High School More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide for Elementary School Coal Study Guide - Middle School Secondary Energy Infobook and Secondary Infobook Activities (19 Activities)

  7. Development of Modified Pag (Polyalkylene Glycol) High VI High Fuel Efficient Lubricant for LDV Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangopadhyay, Arup; McWatt, D. G.; Zdrodowski, R. J.; Liu, Zak; Elie, Larry; Simko, S. J.; Erdemir, Ali; Ramirez, Giovanni; Cuthbert, J.; Hock, E. D.

    2015-09-30

    Engine oils play a critical role in friction reduction. Improvements in engine oil technology steadily improved fuel economy as the industry moved through ILSAC GF-1 to GF-5 specifications. These improvements were influenced by changes in base oil chemistry, development of new friction modifiers and their treat levels, and the total additive package consisting of various other components. However, the improvements are incremental and further fuel consumption reduction opportunities are becoming more challenging. Polyalkylene glycol (PAG) based engine oils are being explored as a step forward for significant fuel consumption reduction. Although PAG fluids are used in many industrial applications, its application as an engine oil has been explored in a limited way. The objective of this project is to deep dive in exploring the applicability of PAG technology in engine oil, understanding the benefits, and limitations, elucidating the mechanism(s) for friction benefits, if any, and finally recommending how to address any limitations. The project was designed in four steps, starting with selection of lubricant technology, followed by friction and wear evaluations in laboratory bench tests which are relatively simple and inexpensive and also served as a screener for further evaluation. Selected formulations were chosen for more complex engine component level tests i.e., motored valvetrain friction and wear, piston ring friction using a motored single cylinder, and motored engine tests. A couple of formulations were further selected based on component level tests for engine dyno tests i.e., Sequence VID (ASTM D6709) for fuel economy, Sequence IVA (ASTM D6891) for valvetrain wear, and Sequence VG (ASTM D6593) for sludge and varnish protection. These are some of the industry standard tests required for qualifying engine oils. Out of these tests, a single PAG oil was selected for chassis roll dynamometer tests for fuel economy and emission measurements using FTP (Federal Test Procedure) metro/highway cycles. Five different PAG chemistries were selected by varying the starting alcohol, the oxide monomers (ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, or butylene oxide), capped or uncapped, homopolymer or random copolymer. All formulations contained a proprietary additive package and one which contained additional antiwear and friction modifier additives. Laboratory bench tests (Pin-on-Disk, High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR), Block-on-Ring, Mini-Traction Machine (MTM) identified formulations having friction, wear, and load carrying characteristics similar to or better than baseline GF-5 SAE 5W-20 oil. Motored valvetrain and motored piston ring friction tests showed nearly 50% friction reduction for some of the PAG formulations compared to GF-5 SAE 5W-20 oil. Motored engine tests showed up to 15% friction benefit over GF-5 SAE 5W-20 oil. It was observed that friction benefits are more related to PAG base oil chemistry than their lower viscosity compared to GF-5 SAE 5W-20 oil. Analysis of wear surfaces from laboratory bench tests and bucket tappets from motored valvetrain tests confirmed the presence of PAG molecules. The adsorption of these polar molecules is believed to be reason for friction reduction. However, the wear surfaces also had thin tribo-film derived from additive components. The tribo-film consisting of phosphates, sulfides, and molybdenum disulfide (when molybdenum additive was present) were observed for both GF-5 SAE 5W-20 and PAG fluids. However, when using PAG fluids, motored valvetrain tests showed high initial wear, which is believed to be due to delay in protective tribo-film formation. After the initial wear, the wear rate of PAG fluids was comparable to GF-5 SAE 5W-20 oil. The PAG oil containing additional antiwear and friction reducing additives showed low initial wear as expected. However, when this oil was evaluated in Sequence IVA test, it showed initially low wear comparable to GF-5 oil but wear accelerated with oil aging indicating rapid deterioration of additive components. ASTM Sequence VG test showed good sludge protection capability but failed to meet varnish rating for GF-5 requirement. Chassis roll dynamometer tests with PAG oil 15-1 showed about 1% fuel economy benefit over GF-5 SAE 5W-20 oil in EPA city cycles only and when the oil was slightly aged (500 miles). No fuel economy benefits could be observed in combined EPA metro/highway cycles. Also, no fuel economy benefit could be observed with continued (500- 10000 miles) oil aging. However, the emission level was comparable to the reference oil and was within EPA limits. Analysis of the PAG oil following tests showed low iron content although additive components were significantly degraded. The results indicate that PAG fluids have significant friction reduction potential but there are challenges with wear and varnish protection capabilities. These limitations are primarily because the selected additive components were chosen to provide a fluid with no metal content that forms little or no sulphated ash. Significant development work is needed to identify additive components compatible with PAG chemistry including their solubility in PAG oil. Miscibility of PAG fluids with mineral base oil is another challenge for oil change service. There is PAG chemistry (oil soluble PAG, OSP) which is soluble in mineral oils but the formulation explored in this investigation did not show significant friction reduction in motored engine tests. Again, highlighting the need for additive development for specific PAG chemistry. The thermal oxidation behavior of these oils has not been explored in this investigation and needs attention.

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2008-2009 Fuels Technologies R&D Progress Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuels Technologies subprogram supports fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement.

  9. High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1C—Fostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane Fuels High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Brian West, Deputy Director, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  10. Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon pm021_blau_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems Multi-Material Joining: Challenges and Opportunities

  11. Development of Advanced High Temperature Fuel Cell Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Development of Advanced High Temperature Fuel Cell Membranes to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  12. High Temperature Fuel Cells in the European Union

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High Temperature Fuel Cells in the European Union to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  13. NREL Develops High Speed Scanner to Monitor Fuel Cell Material...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuel cell scanner could provide effective in-line quality control in a high-volume manufacturing facility. NREL scientists have developed and built a high-throughput,...

  14. Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion ...

  15. German Pebble Bed Research Reactor Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Potential Acceptance and Disposition of German Pebble Bed Research Reactor Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Fuel Environmental Assessment Maxcine Maxted, DOE-SR Used Nuclear Fuel Program Manager June 24, 2014 Public Scoping Meeting

  16. Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Download presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Supporting a Hawaii...

  17. Evaluation of the Fuel Economy Impacts of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) using Engine-in-the-Loop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  18. High Performance Fuel Desing for Next Generation Pressurized Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

    2006-01-31

    The use of internally and externally cooled annular fule rods for high power density Pressurized Water Reactors is assessed. The assessment included steady state and transient thermal conditions, neutronic and fuel management requirements, mechanical vibration issues, fuel performance issues, fuel fabrication methods and econmic assessment. The investigation was donducted by a team from MIT, Westinghouse, Gamma Engineering, Framatome ANP, and AECL. The analyses led to the conclusion that raising the power density by 50% may be possible with this advanced fuel. Even at the 150% power level, the fuel temperature would be a few hundred degrees lower than the current fuel temperatre. Significant economic and safety advantages can be obtained by using this fuel in new reactors. Switching to this type of fuel for existing reactors would yield safety advantages, but the economic return is dependent on the duration of plant shutdown to accommodate higher power production. The main feasiblity issue for the high power performance appears to be the potential for uneven splitting of heat flux between the inner and outer fuel surfaces due to premature closure of the outer fuel-cladding gap. This could be overcome by using a very narrow gap for the inner fuel surface and/or the spraying of a crushable zirconium oxide film at the fuel pellet outer surface. An alternative fuel manufacturing approach using vobropacking was also investigated but appears to yield lower than desirable fuel density.

  19. High power density solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-10-12

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  20. Highly Efficient, Scalable Microbial Fuel Cell - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Highly Efficient, Scalable Microbial Fuel Cell University of Colorado Contact CU About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication CU2773D (Microbial Fuel Cell) Marketing Summary (129 KB) Technology Marketing Summary With present day environmental and energy concerns rising, the development of environmentally friendly energy

  1. Fission gas induced fuel swelling in low and medium burnup fuel during high temperature transients. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1980-01-01

    The behavior of light water reactor fuel elements under postulated accident conditions is being studied by the EG and G Idaho, Inc., Thermal Fuels Behavior Program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. As a part of this program, unirradiated and previously irradiated, pressurized-water-reactor type fuel rods were tested under power-cooling-mismatch (PCM) conditions in the Power Burst Facility (PBF). During these integral in-reactor experiments, film boiling was produced on the fuel rods which created high fuel and cladding temperatures. Fuel rod diameters increased in the film boiling region to a greater extent for irradiated rods than for unirradiated rods. The purpose of the study was to investigate and assess the fuel swelling which caused the fuel rod diameter increases and to evaluate the ability of an analytical code, the Gas Release and Swelling Subroutine - Steady-State and Transient (GRASS-SST), to predict the results.

  2. Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to build an efficient, microchannel-based waste heat recuperator for a high-temperature fuel cell system.

  3. Fabrication of high exposure nuclear fuel pellets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frederickson, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A method is disclosed for making a fuel pellet for a nuclear reactor. A mixture is prepared of PuO.sub.2 and UO.sub.2 powders, where the mixture contains at least about 30% PuO.sub.2, and where at least about 12% of the Pu is the Pu.sup.240 isotope. To this mixture is added about 0.3 to about 5% of a binder having a melting point of at least about 250.degree. F. The mixture is pressed to form a slug and the slug is granulated. Up to about 4.7% of a lubricant having a melting point of at least about 330.degree. F. is added to the granulated slug. Both the binder and the lubricant are selected from a group consisting of polyvinyl carboxylate, polyvinyl alcohol, naturally occurring high molecular weight cellulosic polymers, chemically modified high molecular weight cellulosic polymers, and mixtures thereof. The mixture is pressed to form a pellet and the pellet is sintered.

  4. Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Pete Devlin U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office 2 Question and Answer * Please type your question into the question box hydrogenandfuelcells.energy.gov Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Mitch Ewan Hawaii Natural Energy Institute University of Hawaii at Manoa 29 July 2014 CHALLENGES Hawaii is Most Petroleum-Dependent State in US Highest/Most Volatile Electricity Rates in US Import 90% of Energy $11Billion leaves Hawaii economy* * Based

  5. Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems - Fact

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sheet, 2014 | Department of Energy Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems - Fact Sheet, 2014 Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems - Fact Sheet, 2014 FuelCell Energy, Inc., in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Oregon State University Materials Institute, the Microproducts Breakthrough Institute, and the Oregon Nanoscience and Materials Institute, developed an efficient, microchannel-based waste heat recuperator

  6. Emissions and fuel economy of a vehicle with a spark-ignition, direct-injection engine : Mitsubishi Legnum GDI{trademark}.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R. L.; Poola, R. B.; Sekar, R.

    1999-04-08

    A 1997 Mitsubishi Legnum station wagon with a 150-hp, 1.8-L, spark-ignition, direct-injection (SIDI) engine was tested for emissions by using the FTP-75, HWFET, SC03, and US06 test cycles and four different fuels. The purpose of the tests was to obtain fuel-economy and emissions data on SIDI vehicles and to compare the measurements obtained with those of a port-fuel-injection (PFI) vehicle. The PFI vehicle chosen for the comparison was a 1995 Dodge Neon, which meets the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) emissions goals of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) less than 0.125 g/mi, carbon monoxide (CO) less than 1.7 g/mi, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} ) less than 0.2 g/mi, and particulate matter (PM) less than 0.01 g/mi. The Mitsubishi was manufactured for sale in Japan and was not certified to meet current US emissions regulations. Results show that the SIDI vehicle can provide up to 24% better fuel economy than the PFI vehicle does, with correspondingly lower greenhouse gas emissions. The SIDI vehicle as designed does not meet the PNGV goals for NMHC or NO{sub x} emissions, but it does meet the goal for CO emissions. Meeting the goal for PM emissions appears to be contingent upon using low-sulfur fuel and an oxidation catalyst. One reason for the difficulty in meeting the NMHC and NO{sub x} goals is the slow (200 s) warm-up of the catalyst. Catalyst warm-up time is primarily a matter of design. The SIDI engine produces more NMHC and NO{sub x} than the PFI engine does, which puts a greater burden on the catalyst to meet the emissions goals than is the case with the PFI engine. Oxidation of NMHC is aided by unconsumed oxygen in the exhaust when the SIDI engine operates in stratified-charge mode, but the same unconsumed oxygen inhibits chemical reduction of NO{sub x} . Thus, meeting the NO{sub x} emissions goal is likely to be the greatest challenge for the SIDI engine.

  7. Emissions and fuel economy of a Comprex pressure wave supercharged diesel. Report EPA-AA-TEB-81-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, E.A.; Burgenson, R.N.

    1980-10-01

    In order to increase public interest in vehicles equipped with diesel engines, methods of improving diesel-fueled engine performance, as compared to current gasoline-fueled counterparts, are being investigated. One method to increase performance is to supercharge or turbocharge the engine. This report details an EPA assessment of a supercharging technique previously evaluated, however, since that evaluation, specific areas of operation have been refined.

  8. Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon pmp_02_blau.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems Neutron Imaging of Advanced Engine Technologies

  9. Molten salt fuels with high plutonium solubility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moir, Ralph W; Turchi, Patrice E.A.; Shaw, Henry F; Kaufman, Larry

    2013-08-13

    The present invention includes a composition of LiF--ThF.sub.4--UF.sub.4--PuF.sub.3 for use as a fuel in a nuclear engine.

  10. High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An optimized dual-fuel PCCI concept, RCCI, is proposed. PDF icon deer10reitz.pdf More Documents & Publications Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit ...

  11. Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-09-24

    A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  12. High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion An optimized dual-fuel PCCI concept, RCCI, is proposed. PDF icon deer10_reitz.pdf More Documents & Publications Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies Comparison of Conventional Diesel and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI)

  13. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to provide experimental combustion data of our target fuels at gas turbine conditions. Based on an initial assessment of premixer design requirements and challenges, the most promising sub-scale premixer concepts were evaluated both experimentally and computationally. After comprehensive screening tests, two best performing concepts were scaled up for further development. High pressure single nozzle tests were performed with the scaled premixer concepts at target gas turbine conditions with opportunity fuels. Single-digit NOx emissions were demonstrated for syngas fuels. Plasma-assisted pilot technology was demonstrated to enhance ignition capability and provide additional flame stability margin to a standard premixing fuel nozzle. However, the impact of plasma on NOx emissions was observed to be unacceptable given the goals of this program and difficult to avoid.

  14. Thermal Analysis of ZPPR High Pu Content Stored Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles W. Solbrig; Chad Pope; Jason Andrus

    2014-09-01

    This paper estimates the temperature of high Pu content ZPPR fuel while in storage to determine the probablilty of fuel damage during storage. The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) is an experimental reactor which has been decomissioned. It ran only at extremely low power, for testing nuclear reactor designs and was operated as a criticality facility from April 18, 1969 until decommissioned in 1990. Its fuel was manufactured in 1967 and has been in storage since the reactor was decomissioned. Heat is generated in the fuel due to Pu and Am decay and is a concern for possible fuel damage. Any damage to the cladding would be expected to lead to the fuel hydriding and oxidizing over a long period of storage as was described in the analysis of the damage to the ZPPR uranium fuel resulting in the fuel becoming unuseable and a large potential source of contamination. (Ref. Solbrig, 1994). A series of computer runs were made to scope out the range of temperatures that can occur in the ZPPR fuel in storage. The maximum calculated conservative fuel temperature is high (292 degrees C [558 degrees F]) in spite of the fact that the fuel element heat generation rates seem quite low, between 35 and 10 W for containers (called clamshells) full of fuel. However, the ZPPR storage bins, built for safeguards, are very effective insulators. The calculated clamshells and the cavity doors temperatures are also high. No record exists of people receiving skin burns by touching the cavity doors or clamshells, which indicates the computed temperatures may be higher than actual. (Note, gloves are worn when handling hotter clamshells.) Given the high calculated temperatures, a cursory measurement program was conducted to calibrate the calculated results. The measurement of bin doors, cavity doors, and clamshell temperatures would be easy to make if it were not for regulations resulting from security and potential contamination. Due to conservative assumptions in the model like high heat transfer contact resistance between contact surfaces (such as between the fuel and the clamshell), the calculated temperatures are intended to be overestimated. The temperatures of the stored fuel in a particular clamshell are dependent, among other parameters, on the distribution of fuel in the surrounding storage compartments, the heat generation rate of the fuel, and the orientation of fuel in the clamshell (parallel or perpendicular to the door). The distribution of fuel in this analysis was selected to give higher temperatures than actual distributions might give. Due to possible contamination and security concerns, fuel temperatures could not be measured but the bin doors, storage sleeve doors, and clamshell temperatures could be and were measured. The comparison of these three temperatures to the calculations indicates that the temperatures calculated with conservative assumptions are higher than the actual temperatures. This implies that the calculated fuel temperatures are higher than actual also. The maximum calculated fuel temperature with the most conservative assumptions (292 degrees C, (558 degrees F)) is significantly below the no fuel failure criterion of 600 degrees C (1,112 degrees F). Some fuel failures have occurred but these results indicate that the failures are not due to high temperatures encountered in fuel storage.

  15. High Efficiency Solar Fuels Reactor Concept | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Fuels Reactor Concept High Efficiency Solar Fuels Reactor Concept This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042513_henry.pdf More Documents & Publications Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems Meeting Materials: June 12, 2012 Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency Production of Electricity

  16. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  17. HIGH ENERGY LIQUID FUELS FROM PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemethy, E. K.; Otvos, J. W.; Calvin, M.

    1980-10-01

    The heptane extract of Euphorbia lathyris has a low oxygen content and a heat valve of 42 MJ/kg which is comparable to that of crude oil (44 MJ/kg). These qualities indicate a potential for use as fuel or chemical feedstock material. Therefore we have investigated the chemical composition of this fraction in some detail. Since the amoun of the methanol fraction is quite substantial we have also identified the major components of this fraction.

  18. High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell configurations and interconnections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

    1984-01-01

    High temperature fuel cell configurations and interconnections are made including annular cells having a solid electrolyte sandwiched between thin film electrodes. The cells are electrically interconnected along an elongated axial outer surface.

  19. Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2010-041 Kick-Off Meeting for New Fuel Cell Projects CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe...

  20. FY2013 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    Annual progress report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies. The Fuel & Lubricant Technologies Program supports fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle manufacturers and users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement.

  1. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New Golden Age November 12, 2014 Contact: Julie Chao, jchao@lbl.gov, 510.486.6491 wehnerclimate2 Simulated and observed annual maximum 5 day accumulated precipitation over land points, averaged. Observations are calculated from the period 1979 to 1999. Model results are calculated from the period 1979 to 2005. Not long ago,

  2. Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency Clean Combustion Summary of advanced combustion research at Cummins to explore strategies for fuel economy improvements (PCCI and HECC) and redced engine-out NOx...

  3. High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

    2002-01-02

    Hydrogen he1 cells have been under development for a number of years and are now nearing commercial applications. Direct carbon fuel cells, heretofore, have not reached practical stages of development because of problems in fuel reactivity and cell configuration. The carbon/air fuel cell reaction (C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) has the advantage of having a nearly zero entropy change. This allows a theoretical efficiency of 100 % at 700-800 C. The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product do not change during consumption of the fuel. Consequently, the EMF is invariant; this raises the possibility of 100% fuel utilization in a single pass. (In contrast, the high-temperature hydrogen fuel cell has a theoretical efficiency of and changes in fuel activity limit practical utilizations to 75-85%.) A direct carbon fuel cell is currently being developed that utilizes reactive carbon particulates wetted by a molten carbonate electrolyte. Pure COZ is evolved at the anode and oxygen from air is consumed at the cathode. Electrochemical data is reported here for the carbon/air cell utilizing carbons derived from he1 oil pyrolysis, purified coal, purified bio-char and petroleum coke. At 800 O C, a voltage efficiency of 80% was measured at power densities of 0.5-1 kW/m2. Carbon and hydrogen fuels may be produced simultaneously at lugh efficiency from: (1) natural gas, by thermal decomposition, (2) petroleum, by coking or pyrolysis of distillates, (3) coal, by sequential hydrogasification to methane and thermal pyrolysis of the methane, with recycle of the hydrogen, and (4) biomass, similarly by sequential hydrogenation and thermal pyrolysis. Fuel production data may be combined with direct C and H2 fuel cell operating data for power cycle estimates. Thermal to electric efficiencies indicate 80% HHV [85% LHV] for petroleum, 75.5% HHV [83.4% LHV] for natural gas and 68.3% HHV [70.8% LHV] for lignite coal. Possible benefits of integrated carbon and hydrogen fuel cell power generation cycles are: (1) increased efficiency by a factor of up to 2 over many conventional fossil fuel steam plants, (2) reduced power generation cost, especially for increasing fossil fuel cost, (3) reduced CO2 emission per kWh, and (4) direct sequestration or reuse (e.g., in enhanced oil or NG recovery) of the CO{sub 2} product.

  4. High performance fuel element with end seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Gary E. (San Diego, CA); Zogg, Gordon J. (San Diego, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element comprising an elongate block of refractory material having a generally regular polygonal cross section. The block includes parallel, spaced, first and second end surfaces. The first end surface has a peripheral sealing flange formed thereon while the second end surface has a peripheral sealing recess sized to receive the flange. A plurality of longitudinal first coolant passages are positioned inwardly of the flange and recess. Elongate fuel holes are separate from the coolant passages and disposed inwardly of the flange and the recess. The block is further provided with a plurality of peripheral second coolant passages in general alignment with the flange and the recess for flowing coolant. The block also includes two bypasses for each second passage. One bypass intersects the second passage adjacent to but spaced from the first end surface and intersects a first passage, while the other bypass intersects the second passage adjacent to but spaced from the second end surface and intersects a first passage so that coolant flowing through the second passages enters and exits the block through the associated first passages.

  5. NREL: Transportation Research - Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Test & Evaluation Fuels Performance Combustion & Engines Fuel Chemistry Emissions & Fuel Economy Power Electronics & Electric Machines Sustainable Mobility Systems Analysis &...

  6. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development. Final report, September 28, 1990--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakwani, R.M.; Winsor, R.E.; Ryan, T.W. III; Schwalb, J.A.; Wahiduzzaman, S.; Wilson, R.P. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    The goal of this program was to study the feasibility of operating a Detroit Diesel Series 149 engine at high speeds using a Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) fuel. The CWS-fueled 149 engine is proposed for the mine-haul off-highway truck and work boat marine markets. Economic analysis studies indicate that, for these markets, the use of CWS fuel could have sufficient operating cost savings, depending upon the future diesel fuel price, emission control system capital and operating costs, and maintenance and overhaul costs. A major portion of the maintenance costs is expected to be due to lower life and higher cost of the CWS injectors. Injection and combustion systems were specially designed for CWS, and were installed in one cylinder of a Detroit Diesel 8V-149TI engine for testing. The objective was to achieve engine operation for sustained periods at speeds up to 1,900 rpm with reasonable fuel economy and coal burnout rate. A computer simulation predicted autoignition of coal fuel at 1,900 rpm would require an average droplet size of 18 microns and 19:1 compression ratio, so the injection system, and pistons were designed accordingly. The injection system was capable of supplying the required volume of CWS/injection with a duration of approximately 25 crank angle degrees and peak pressures on the order of 100 mpa. In addition to the high compression ratio, the combustion system also utilized hot residual gases in the cylinder, warm inlet air admission and ceramic insulated engine components to enhance combustion. Autoignition of CWS fuel was achieved at 1900 rpm, at loads ranging from 20--80 percent of the rated load of diesel-fuel powered cylinders. Limited emissions data indicates coal burnout rates in excess of 99 percent. NO{sub x} levels were significantly lower, while unburned hydrocarbon levels were higher for the CWS fueled cylinder than for corresponding diesel-fuel powered cylinders.

  7. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ...

  8. Humidifier for fuel cell using high conductivity carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.; Stinton, David P.

    2006-12-12

    A method and apparatus of supplying humid air to a fuel cell is disclosed. The extremely high thermal conductivity of some graphite foams lends itself to enhance significantly the ability to humidify supply air for a fuel cell. By utilizing a high conductivity pitch-derived graphite foam, thermal conductivity being as high as 187 W/m.dot.K, the heat from the heat source is more efficiently transferred to the water for evaporation, thus the system does not cool significantly due to the evaporation of the water and, consequently, the air reaches a higher humidity ratio.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicle Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards Vehicle manufacturers must meet fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for vehicles sold in the United States. The U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) regulates fuel economy standards, while the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates GHG emissions. NHTSA's Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program and EPA's light-duty vehicle GHG emissions

  10. Structure of high-burnup-fuel Zircaloy cladding. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, H.M.

    1983-06-01

    Zircaloy cladding from high-burnup (> 20 MWd/kg U) fuel rods in light-water reactors is characterized by a high density of irradiation-induced defects (RID), compositional changes (e.g., oxygen and hydrogen uptake) associated with in-service corrosion, and geometrical changes produced by creepdown, bowing, and irradiation-induced growth. During a reactor power transient, the cladding is subject to localized stress imposed by thermal expansion of the cracked fuel pellets and to mechanical constraints imposed by pellet-cladding friction. As part of a program to provide a better understanding of brittle-type failure of Zircaloy fuel cladding by pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) phenomenon, the stress-rupture properties and microstructural characteristics of high-burnup spent fuel cladding have been under investigation. This paper reports the results of the microstructural examinations by optical microscopy, scanning (SEM), 100-keV transmission (TEM), and 1 MeV high-voltage (HVEM) electron microscopies of the fractured spent fuel cladding with a specific empahsis on a correlation of the structural characteristics with the fracture behavior.

  11. Safeguards Guidance for Prismatic Fueled High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    5) August 2012 Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) with Prismatic Fuel INL/CON-12-26130 Revision 0 Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) With Prismatic Fuel Philip Casey Durst (INL Consultant) August 2012 DISCLAIMER This information was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes

  12. Fact #591: October 5, 2009 Consumer Reports Tests Vehicle Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    hybrid vehicle, had the greatest fuel economy decline (30%) from 55 to 75 mph, but the Toyota RAV4 had the greatest fuel economy decline from 55 to 65 mph (15%). Fuel Economy by...

  13. Operational considerations for high level blast furnace fuel injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poveromo, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Injection levels of over 400 lbs/NTHM for coal, over 250 lbs/NTHM for natural gas and over 200 lbs/NTHM for oil have been achieved. Such high levels of fuel injection has a major impact on many aspects of blast furnace operation. In this paper the author begins by reviewing the fundamentals of fuel injection with emphasis on raceway thermochemical phenomena. The operational impacts which are generic to high level injection of any injectant are then outlined. The author will then focus on the particular characteristics of each injectant, with major emphasis on coal and natural gas. Operational considerations for coping with these changes and methods of maximizing the benefits of fuel injection will be reviewed.

  14. Energy Economy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sieminski (202) 662-1624 April 2010 Energy and the Economy US EIA & JHU SAIS 2010 Energy Conference April 6, 2010 All prices are those current at the end of the previous trading session unless otherwise indicated. Prices are sourced from local exchanges via Reuters, Bloomberg and other vendors. Data is sourced from Deutsche Bank and subject companies. DISCLOSURES AND ANALYST CERTIFICATIONS ARE LOCATED IN APPENDIX 1. Adam Sieminski, CFA Chief Energy Economist adam.sieminski@db.com +1 202 662

  15. The Methanol Economy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olah, George; Prakash, G.K.

    2013-12-31

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO{sub 2} capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO{sub 2} and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields. ? Direct electrophilic bromination of methane to methyl bromide followed by hydrolysis to yield methanol was investigated on a wide variety of catalyst systems, but hydrolysis proved impractical for large-scale industrial application. ? Bireforming the correct ratio of methane, CO{sub 2}, and water on a NiO / MgO catalyst yielded the right proportion of H{sub 2}:CO (2:1) and proved to be stable for at least 250 hours of operation at 400 psi (28 atm). ? CO{sub 2} capture utilizing supported polyethyleneimines yielded a system capable of adsorbing CO{sub 2} from the air and release at nominal temperatures with negligible amine leaching. ? CO{sub 2} electrolysis to formate and syngas showed considerable increases in rate and selectivity by performing the reaction in a high pressure flow electrolyzer. ? Formic acid was shown to decompose selectively to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} using either Ru or Ir based homogeneous catalysts. ? Direct formic acid fuel cells were also investigated and showed higher than 40% voltage efficiency using reduced loadings of precious metals. A technoeconomic analysis was conducted to assess the viability of taking each of these processes to the industrial scale by applying the data gathered during the experiments to approximations based on currently used industrial processes. Several of these processes show significant promise for industrial scale up and use towards improving our nations energy independence.

  16. Next-generation nuclear fuel withstands high-temperature accident

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conditions U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY IDAHO FALLS, IDAHO, 83403 For Immediate Release: Sept. 25, 2013 Media Contacts: Teri Ehresman, 208-526-7785 teri.ehresman@inl.gov Bill Cabage (ORNL), 865-574-4399, cabagewh@ornl.gov Next-generation nuclear fuel withstands high-temperature accident conditions IDAHO FALLS - A safer and more efficient nuclear fuel is on the horizon. A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  17. Fact #724: April 23, 2012 Gas Guzzler Tax Levied on New Cars with Low Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy | Department of Energy 4: April 23, 2012 Gas Guzzler Tax Levied on New Cars with Low Fuel Economy Fact #724: April 23, 2012 Gas Guzzler Tax Levied on New Cars with Low Fuel Economy The "Gas Guzzler Tax" is collected from the public for each new car purchased with fuel economy less than 22.5 miles per gallon (mpg). The Gas Guzzler Tax does not apply to light trucks, only cars. Most of the vehicles on the model year 2011 Gas Guzzler list are high-end performance or luxury

  18. Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy Webinar | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy Webinar Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy Webinar Access the recording and download the presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy" held on December 1, 2015. PDF icon Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications Connecticut Fuel Cell Activities: Markets, Programs, and Models 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Review Presentation Transportation and Stationary

  19. Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Download presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy" held on July 29, 2014. PDF icon Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications 2010 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Global Commercialization & Development Update 2010 Smart Grid Peer Review Day One Morning Presentations Hawaii Hydrogen Energy Park

  20. Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong

    2015-05-01

    This report describes testing designed to determine the ability of high burnup (HBU) (>45 GWd/MTU) spent fuel to maintain its integrity under normal conditions of transportation. An innovative system, Cyclic Integrated Reversible-bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT), has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to test and evaluate the mechanical behavior of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under conditions relevant to storage and transportation. The CIRFT system is composed of a U-frame equipped with load cells for imposing the pure bending loads on the SNF rod test specimen and measuring the in-situ curvature of the fuel rod during bending using a set up with three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs).

  1. fuels and lubricants | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels and Lubricants The DOE Vehicle Technologies Office supports fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement. Transportation fuels are anticipated to be produced from future refinery feedstocks that may increasingly be from non-conventional sources including, but not milted to, heavy crude, oil sands, shale oil, and coal, as well as

  2. FY 2012 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stork, Kevin

    2013-06-28

    Annual progress report of the Fuel & Lubricant Technologies subprogram supporting fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement.

  3. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N.; Pollard, M.

    2011-09-30

    The high-level goal of this multi-year effort was to facilitate the Advanced Combustion Engine goal of 20% improvement (compared to 2009 baseline) of commercial engine efficiency by 2015. A sub-goal is to increase the reliability of diesel fuel injectors by investigating modelbased scenarios that cannot be achieved by empirical, trial and error methodologies alone. During this three-year project, ORNL developed the methodology to evaluate origins and to record the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks emanating from holes that were electrodischarge machined (EDM), the method used to form spray holes in fuel injector tips. Both x-ray and neutron-based methods for measuring residual stress at four different research facilities were evaluated to determine which, if any, was most applicable to the fuel injector tip geometry. Owing to the shape and small volumes of material involved in the sack area, residual stress data could only be obtained in the walls of the nozzle a few millimeters back from the tip, and there was a hint of only a small compressive stress. This result was consistent with prior studies by Caterpillar. Residual stress studies were suspended after the second year, reserving the possibility of pursuing this in the future, if and when methodology suitable for injector sacks becomes available. The smooth specimen fatigue behavior of current fuel injector steel materials was evaluated and displayed a dual mode initiation behavior. At high stresses, cracks started at machining flaws in the surface; however, below a critical threshold stress of approximately 800 MPa, cracks initiated in the bulk microstructure, below the surface. This suggests that for the next generation for high-pressure fuel injector nozzles, it becomes increasingly important to control the machining and finishing processes, especially if the stress in the tip approaches or exceeds that threshold level. Fatigue tests were also conducted using EDM notches in the gage sections. Compared to the smooth specimens, EDM notching led to a severe reduction in total fatigue life. A reduction in fatigue life of nearly four orders of magnitude can occur at an EDM notch the approximate size of fuel injector spray holes. Consequently, the initiation and propagation behavior of cracks from small spray holes is relevant for generation of design quality data for the next generation diesel fuel injection devices. This is especially true since the current design methodologies usually rely on the less conservative smooth specimen fatigue testing results, and since different materials can have varying levels of notch fatigue resistance.

  4. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has trace contaminants (primarily carbon monoxide) that are detrimental to precious metal catalyzed fuel cells, as is now recognized by many of the world's largest automobile companies. Thermochemical hydrogen will not contain carbon monoxide as an impurity at any level. Electrolysis, the alternative process for producing hydrogen using nuclear energy, suffers from thermodynamic inefficiencies in both the production of electricity and in electrolytic parts of the process. The efficiency of electrolysis (electricity to hydrogen) is currently about 80%. Electric power generation efficiency would have to exceed 65% (thermal to electrical) for the combined efficiency to exceed the 52% (thermal to hydrogen) calculated for one thermochemical cycle. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles have been studied, at various levels of effort, for the past 35 years. They were extensively studied in the late 70s and early 80s but have received little attention in the past 10 years, particularly in the U.S. While there is no question about the technical feasibility and the potential for high efficiency, cycles with proven low cost and high efficiency have yet to be developed commercially. Over 100 cycles have been proposed, but substantial research has been executed on only a few. This report describes work accomplished during a three-year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first phase was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most three) for further detailed consideration. During Phase 1, an exhaustive literature search was performed to locate all cycles previously proposed. The cycles located were screened using objective criteria to determine which could benefit, in terms of efficiency and cost, from the high-temperature capabilities of advanced nuclear reactors. The more promising cycles were then analyzed in depth as to their adaptability to advanced high-temperature nuclear reactors. As a result, the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) cycle was selected for integration into the advanced nuclear reactor system. In Phases 2 and 3, alternative flowsheets were developed and compared. This effort entailed a considerable effort into developing the solution thermodynamics pertinent to the S-I cycle.

  5. Northeast States Hydrogen Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office December 1 st , 2015 Presenter: Joel Rinebold - Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc. DOE Host: Peter Devlin- DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Question and Answer * Please type your questions into the question box 2 Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy Economic Development, Environmental Performance, Energy Reliability Joel M. Rinebold Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc. December 1,

  6. Modular, High-Volume Fuel Cell Leak-Test Suite and Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ru Chen; Ian Kaye

    2012-03-12

    Fuel cell stacks are typically hand-assembled and tested. As a result the manufacturing process is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The fluid leakage in fuel cell stacks may reduce fuel cell performance, damage fuel cell stack, or even cause fire and become a safety hazard. Leak check is a critical step in the fuel cell stack manufacturing. The fuel cell industry is in need of fuel cell leak-test processes and equipment that is automatic, robust, and high throughput. The equipment should reduce fuel cell manufacturing cost.

  7. Durability of Low Pt Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy of Low Pt Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density Durability of Low Pt Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 PDF icon cross_nuvera_durability_kickoff.pdf More Documents & Publications Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Accelerated Testing

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Fuel Technologies R&D Annual Progress

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report | Department of Energy Fuel Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Fuel Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report The Fuels Technologies subprogram supports fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement. PDF icon 2010_fuels_technologies.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle

  9. The Effect of Diesel Fuel Properties on Emissions-Restrained...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Effect of Diesel Fuel Properties on Emissions-Restrained Fuel Economy at Mid-Load Conditions The Effect of Diesel Fuel Properties on Emissions-Restrained Fuel Economy at...

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri High School Students Get Hands-On

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Training With Biodiesel Missouri High School Students Get Hands-On Training With Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri High School Students Get Hands-On Training With Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri High School Students Get Hands-On Training With Biodiesel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri High School Students Get Hands-On Training With Biodiesel on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels

  11. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2010-028 Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes

  12. Irradiation performance of AGR-1 high temperature reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; John D. Hunn; Robert N. Morris; Charles A. Baldwin; Philip L. Winston; Jason M. Harp; Scott A. Ploger; Tyler Gerczak; Isabella J. van Rooyen; Fred C. Montgomery; Chinthaka M. Silva

    2014-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment contained 72 low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts in six capsules irradiated to burnups of 11.2 to 19.5% FIMA, with zero TRISO coating failures detected during the irradiation. The irradiation performance of the fuelincluding the extent of fission product release and the evolution of kernel and coating microstructureswas evaluated based on detailed examination of the irradiation capsules, the fuel compacts, and individual particles. Fractional release of 110mAg from the fuel compacts was often significant, with capsule-average values ranging from 0.01 to 0.38. Analysis of silver release from individual compacts indicated that it was primarily dependent on fuel temperature history. Europium and strontium were released in small amounts through intact coatings, but were found to be significantly retained in the outer pyrocrabon and compact matrix. The capsule-average fractional release from the compacts was 110 4 to 510 4 for 154Eu and 810 7 to 310 5 for 90Sr. The average 134Cs release from compacts was <310 6 when all particles maintained intact SiC. An estimated four particles out of 2.98105 experienced partial cesium release due to SiC failure during the irradiation, driving 134Cs release in two capsules to approximately 10 5. Identification and characterization of these particles has provided unprecedented insight into the nature and causes of SiC coating failure in high-quality TRISO fuel. In general, changes in coating morphology were found to be dominated by the behavior of the buffer and inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC), and infrequently observed SiC layer damage was usually related to cracks in the IPyC. Palladium attack of the SiC layer was relatively minor, except for the particles that released cesium during irradiation, where SiC corrosion was found adjacent to IPyC cracks. Palladium, silver, and uranium were found in the SiC layer of irradiated particles, and characterization of these elements within the SiC microstructure is the subject of ongoing focused study.

  13. Fact #650: November 22, 2010 Diesel Fuel Prices hit a Two-Year High |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 50: November 22, 2010 Diesel Fuel Prices hit a Two-Year High Fact #650: November 22, 2010 Diesel Fuel Prices hit a Two-Year High According to the Energy Information Administration's weekly fuel price data, the price of highway diesel fuel on the week of November 17, 2010, reached a 2-year high of $3.18 per gallon. Back in 2008, the prices for gasoline and diesel fuel rose to record levels in mid-summer, but plummeted by about 50% before the end of the year. Though fuel

  14. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August, 2000 - July 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.C.

    2002-11-01

    OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August 2000 - July 2001. Currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process is available for commercialization nor has such a process been identified. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. The benefits of this work will include the generation of a low-polluting transportable energy feedstock in an efficient method that has little or no implication for greenhouse gas emissions from a primary energy source whose availability and sources are domestically controlled. This will help to ensure energy for a future transportation/energy infrastructure that is not influenced/controlled by foreign governments. This report describes work accomplished during the second year (Phase 2) of a three year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first year (Phase 1) was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water, in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most, three) for further detailed consideration. Phase 1 met its goals and did select one process, the sulfur-iodine process, for investigation in Phases 2 and 3. The combined goals of Phases 2 and 3 were to select the advanced nuclear reactor best suited to driving the selected thermochemical process and to define the selected reactor and process to the point that capital costs, operating costs and the resultant cost of hydrogen can be estimated. During original contract negotiation, it was necessary to reduce work scope to meet funding limits. As a result, the reactor interface and process will not be iterated to the point that only hydrogen is produced. Rather, hydrogen and electricity will be co-generated and the hydrogen cost will be stated as a function of the electricity sales price.

  15. Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 PDF icon johnson_gore_kickoff.pdf More Documents & Publications Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2010-041 Kick-Off Meeting for New Fuel Cell Projects CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe

  16. Fuel Grading Study on a Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Design for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, Germina; Primm, Trent

    2009-11-01

    An engineering design study that would enable the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium fuel is ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The computational models used to search for a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel design that would meet the requirements for the conversion study, and the recent results obtained with these models during FY 2009, are documented and discussed in this report. Estimates of relevant reactor performance parameters for the LEU fuel core are presented and compared with the corresponding data for the currently operating high-enriched uranium fuel core. These studies indicate that the LEU fuel design would maintain the current performance of the HFIR with respect to the neutron flux to the central target region, reflector, and beam tube locations.

  17. High Energy Absorption Top Nozzle For A Nuclaer Fuel Assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sparrow, James A. (Irmo, SC); Aleshin, Yuriy (Columbia, SC); Slyeptsov, Aleksey (Columbia, SC)

    2004-05-18

    A high energy absorption top nozzle for a nuclear fuel assembly that employs an elongated upper tubular housing and an elongated lower tubular housing slidable within the upper tubular housing. The upper and lower housings are biased away from each other by a plurality of longitudinally extending springs that are restrained by a longitudinally moveable piston whose upward travel is limited within the upper housing. The energy imparted to the nozzle by a control rod scram is mostly absorbed by the springs and the hydraulic affect of the piston within the nozzle.

  18. Segregated exhaust SOFC generator with high fuel utilization capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert; Veyo, Stephen E.; Kothmann, Richard E.

    2003-08-26

    A fuel cell generator contains a plurality of fuel cells (6) in a generator chamber (1) and also contains a depleted fuel reactor or a fuel depletion chamber (2) where oxidant (24,25) and fuel (81) is fed to the generator chamber (1) and the depleted fuel reactor chamber (2), where both fuel and oxidant react, and where all oxidant and fuel passages are separate and do not communicate with each other, so that fuel and oxidant in whatever form do not mix and where a depleted fuel exit (23) is provided for exiting a product gas (19) which consists essentially of carbon dioxide and water for further treatment so that carbon dioxide can be separated and is not vented to the atmosphere.

  19. Bio-Fuel Production Assisted with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Michael McKellar

    2012-06-01

    Two hybrid energy processes that enable production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure are presented. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), these two hybrid energy processes have the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce dependence on imported oil. The first process discusses a hydropyrolysis unit with hydrogen addition from HTSE. Non-food biomass is pyrolyzed and converted to pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is upgraded with hydrogen addition from HTSE. This addition of hydrogen deoxygenates the pyrolysis oil and increases the pH to a tolerable level for transportation. The final product is synthetic crude that could then be transported to a refinery and input into the already used transportation fuel infrastructure. The second process discusses a process named Bio-Syntrolysis. The Bio-Syntrolysis process combines hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier that yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid synthetic crude. Conversion of syngas to liquid synthetic crude, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier.

  20. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  1. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  2. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  3. California and Connecticut: National Fuel Cell Bus Programs Drive Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy Higher | Department of Energy Connecticut: National Fuel Cell Bus Programs Drive Fuel Economy Higher California and Connecticut: National Fuel Cell Bus Programs Drive Fuel Economy Higher August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In an EERE-supported study with the Federal Transit Administration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has found the fuel economy of fuel cell powered buses to be up to 2.4 times higher than conventional buses. During this study-€the National Fuel Cell Bus

  4. Alternative Fuel School Buses Earn High Marks: Reprint from Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 5, No. 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-11-01

    A two-page article on school buses that run on alternative fuels including biodiesel and compressed natural gas. Reprinted from Alternative Fuel News, published by the Clean Cities Program of DOE.

  5. Development of a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System | Department of Energy a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP System Development of a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP System Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 7_intelligent.pdf More Documents & Publications 2012 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program 2011 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and

  6. Regulatory Perspective on Potential Fuel Reconfiguration and Its Implication to High Burnup Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation - 13042

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhian; Rahimi, Meraj; Tang, David; Aissa, Mourad; Flaganan, Michelle; Wagner, John C.

    2013-07-01

    The recent experiments conducted by Argonne National Laboratory on high burnup fuel cladding material property show that the ductile to brittle transition temperature of high burnup fuel cladding is dependent on: (1) cladding material, (2) irradiation conditions, and (3) drying-storage histories (stress at maximum temperature) [1]. The experiment results also show that the ductile to brittle temperature increases as the fuel burnup increases. These results indicate that the current knowledge in cladding material property is insufficient to determine the structural performance of the cladding of high burnup fuel after it has been stored in a dry cask storage system for some time. The uncertainties in material property and the elevated ductile to brittle transition temperature impose a challenge to the storage cask and transportation packaging designs because the cask designs may not be able to rely on the structural integrity of the fuel assembly for control of fissile material, radiation source, and decay heat source distributions. The fuel may reconfigure during further storage and/or the subsequent transportation conditions. In addition, the fraction of radioactive materials available for release from spent fuel under normal condition of storage and transport may also change. The spent fuel storage and/or transportation packaging vendors, spent fuel shippers, and the regulator may need to consider this possible fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the packages' ability to meet the safety requirements of Part 72 and Part 71 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is working with the scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assess the impact of fuel reconfiguration on the safety of the dry storage systems and transportation packages. The NRC Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation has formed a task force to work on the safety and regulatory concerns in relevance to high burnup fuel storage and transportation. This paper discusses the staff's preliminary considerations on the safety implication of fuel reconfiguration with respect to nuclear safety (subcriticality control), radiation shielding, containment, the performance of the thermal functions of the packages, and the retrievability of the contents from regulatory perspective. (authors)

  7. 2013 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Fuels & Lubricants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 5. Fuels & Lubricants Technologies The Fuel and Lubricant Technologies subprogram supports research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle users with cost- competitive options that enable high fuel economy (FE) with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement. This is accomplished through exploitation of fuel-properties to enable advanced combustion, development of efficiency-improving lubricants compatible with new and existing engines and vehicles, and fit-for-service

  8. Fuel Cell Technologies Program Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Overview Richard Farmer Acting Program Manager 2010 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (7 June 2010)  Double Renewable Energy Capacity by 2012  Invest $150 billion over ten years in energy R&D to transition to a clean energy economy  Reduce GHG emissions 83% by 2050 The Administration's Clean Energy Goals 2 3 Fuel Cells Address Our Key Energy Challenges Increasing Energy Efficiency and Resource Diversity  Fuel cells offer a highly efficient way to use

  9. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  10. High specific power, direct methanol fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-05-08

    The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold with an integral flow restrictor to the outlet manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  11. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 – October 1, 2009

  12. Thermal Analysis of ZPPR High Pu Content Stored Fuel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solbrig, Charles W.; Pope, Chad L.; Andrus, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) operated from April 18, 1969, until 1990. ZPPR operated at low power for testing nuclear reactor designs. This paper examines the temperature of Pu content ZPPR fuel while it is in storage. Heat is generated in the fuel due to Pu and Am decay and is a concern for possible cladding damage. Damage to the cladding could lead to fuel hydriding and oxidizing. A series of computer simulations were made to determine the range of temperatures potentially occuring in the ZPPR fuel. The maximum calculated fuel temperature is 292°C (558°F). Conservative assumptions in themore » model intentionally overestimate temperatures. The stored fuel temperatures are dependent on the distribution of fuel in the surrounding storage compartments, the heat generation rate of the fuel, and the orientation of fuel. Direct fuel temperatures could not be measured but storage bin doors, storage sleeve doors, and storage canister temperatures were measured. Comparison of these three temperatures to the calculations indicates that the temperatures calculated with conservative assumptions are, as expected, higher than the actual temperatures. The maximum calculated fuel temperature with the most conservative assumptions is significantly below the fuel failure criterion of 600°C (1,112°F).« less

  13. Dual fuel control of a high speed turbocharged diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Few, P.C.; Sardari, P.

    1987-01-01

    The modification of a Ford 7600 turbocharged diesel engine to a dual fuel engine using methane as the supplementary fuel has been carried out. The paper describes the preliminary work of dual fuel control. Two systems are examined and their behaviour is presented.

  14. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan Sheppard; Bruce Woodrow; Paul Kilmurray; Simon Thwaite

    2011-06-30

    A multi phase program was undertaken with the stated goal of using advanced design and development tools to create a unique combination of existing technologies to create a powertrain system specification that allowed minimal increase of volumetric fuel consumption when operating on E85 relative to gasoline. Although on an energy basis gasoline / ethanol blends typically return similar fuel economy to straight gasoline, because of its lower energy density (gasoline ~ 31.8MJ/l and ethanol ~ 21.1MJ/l) the volume based fuel economy of gasoline / ethanol blends are typically considerably worse. This project was able to define an initial engine specification envelope, develop specific hardware for the application, and test that hardware in both single and multi-cylinder test engines to verify the ability of the specified powertrain to deliver reduced E85 fuel consumption. Finally, the results from the engine testing were used in a vehicle drive cycle analysis tool to define a final vehicle level fuel economy result. During the course of the project, it was identified that the technologies utilized to improve fuel economy on E85 also enabled improved fuel economy when operating on gasoline. However, the E85 fueled powertrain provided improved vehicle performance when compared to the gasoline fueled powertrain due to the improved high load performance of the E85 fuel. Relative to the baseline comparator engine and considering current market fuels, the volumetric fuel consumption penalty when running on E85 with the fully optimized project powertrain specification was reduced significantly. This result shows that alternative fuels can be utilized in high percentages while maintaining or improving vehicle performance and with minimal or positive impact on total cost of ownership to the end consumer. The justification for this project was two-fold. In order to reduce the US dependence on crude oil, much of which is imported, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) under the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The RFS specifies targets for the amount of renewable fuel to be blended into petroleum based transportation fuels. The goal is to blend 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels into transportation fuels by 2022 (9 billion gallons were blended in 2008). The RFS also requires that the renewable fuels emit fewer greenhouse gasses than the petroleum fuels replaced. Thus the goal of the EPA is to have a more fuel efficient national fleet, less dependent on petroleum based fuels. The limit to the implementation of certain technologies employed was the requirement to run the developed powertrain on gasoline with minimal performance degradation. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuels improves the fuels octane rating and increases the fuels evaporative cooling. Both of these fuel property enhancements make gasoline / ethanol blends more suitable than straight gasoline for use in downsized engines or engines with increased compression ratio. The use of engine downsizing and high compression ratios as well as direct injection (DI), dual independent cam phasing, external EGR, and downspeeding were fundamental to the fuel economy improvements targeted in this project. The developed powertrain specification utilized the MAHLE DI3 gasoline downsizing research engine. It was a turbocharged, intercooled, DI engine with dual independent cam phasing utilizing a compression ratio of 11.25 : 1 and a 15% reduction in final drive ratio. When compared to a gasoline fuelled 2.2L Ecotec engine in a Chevrolet HHR, vehicle drive cycle predictions indicate that the optimized powertrain operating on E85 would result in a reduced volume based drive cycle fuel economy penalty of 6% compared to an approximately 30% penalty for current technology engines.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Economy Test Procedures and Labeling The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for motor vehicle fuel economy testing. Manufacturers test their own vehicles and report the results to EPA. EPA reviews the results and confirms a portion of them using their own testing facilities. To aid consumers shopping for new vehicles, EPA redesigned the fuel economy window sticker posted on all new cars and light trucks starting with Model Year 2013 vehicles to be easier to read and

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annual Progress Report | Department of Energy Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report The Fuel & Lubricant Technologies subprogram supports fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement. PDF icon

  17. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  18. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  19. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels Research Team Members Key Contacts Fuels Gasification will likely be the cornerstone of future energy and chemical processes due to its flexibility to accommodate numerous feedstocks such as coal, biomass, and natural gas, and to produce a variety of products, including heat and specialty chemicals. Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle schemes require the production of clean hydrogen to fuel innovative combustion turbines and fuel cells. This research will focus on development

  20. APPLICATION OF CERAMICS TO HIGH PRESSURE FUEL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandler, Jr., William F.

    2000-08-20

    Diesel fuel systems are facing increased demands as engines with reduced emissions are developed. Injection pressures have increased to provide finer atomization of fuel for more efficient combustion, Figure 1. This increases the mechanical loads on the system and requires tighter clearances between plungers and bores to prevent leakage. At the same time, fuel lubricity has decreased as a byproduct of reducing the sulfur levels in fuel. Contamination of fuel by water and debris is an ever-present problem. For oil-lubricated fuel system components, increased soot loading in the oil results in increased wear rates. Additionally, engine manufacturers are lengthening warranty periods for engines and systems. This combination of factors requires the development of new materials to counteract the harsher tribological environment.

  1. Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean-Combustion Engines | Department of Energy Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ft004_mueller_2013_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion

  2. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engines | Department of Energy Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ft004_mueller_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Vehicle Technologies Office

  3. High power density fuel cell comprising an array of microchannels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2013-10-15

    A fuel cell according to one embodiment includes a porous electrolyte support structure defining an array of microchannels, the microchannels including fuel and oxidant microchannels; fuel electrodes formed along some of the microchannels; and oxidant electrodes formed along other of the microchannels. A method of making a fuel cell according to one embodiment includes forming an array of walls defining microchannels therebetween using at least one of molding, stamping, extrusion, injection and electrodeposition; processing the walls to make the walls porous, thereby creating a porous electrolyte support structure; forming anode electrodes along some of the microchannels; and forming cathode electrodes along other of the microchannels. Additional embodiments are also disclosed.

  4. High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D Workshop in Washington, DC, August 11-12, 2011.

  5. Locations of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Locations of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Locations of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Map of the United States of America showing the locations of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. PDF icon Slide 1 More Documents & Publications Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel End of Year 2010 SNF & HLW Inventories Evaluation of Options for Permanent

  6. Microstructural Characterization of High Burn-up Mixed Oxide Fast Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melissa C. Teague; Brian P. Gorman; Steven L. Hayes; Douglas L. Porter; Jeffrey King

    2013-10-01

    High burn-up mixed oxide fuel with local burn-ups of 3.423.7% FIMA (fissions per initial metal atom) were destructively examined as part of a research project to understand the performance of oxide fuel at extreme burn-ups. Optical metallography of fuel cross-sections measured the fuel-to-cladding gap, clad thickness, and central void evolution in the samples. The fuel-to-cladding gap closed significantly in samples with burn-ups below 79% FIMA. Samples with burn-ups in excess of 79% FIMA had a reopening of the fuel-to-cladding gap and evidence of joint oxide-gain (JOG) formation. Signs of axial fuel migration to the top of the fuel column were observed in the fuel pin with a peak burn-up of 23.7% FIMA. Additionally, high burn-up structure (HBS) was observed in the two highest burn-up samples (23.7% and 21.3% FIMA). The HBS layers were found to be 35 times thicker than the layers found in typical LWR fuel. The results of the study indicate that formation of JOG and or HBS prevents any significant fuel-cladding mechanical interaction from occurring, thereby extending the potential life of the fuel elements.

  7. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    No matter what type of fuel is used, however, fuel mileage is affected by driving habits, weather, and other factors. Standard test results for fuel economy of FFVs and their ...

  8. Tips: Buying and Driving Fuel Efficient and Alternative Fuel...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    vehicle could cut your fuel costs and help the environment. See FuelEconomy.gov's Find a Car tool for more information on buying a new fuel-efficient car or truck. Learn more about...

  9. Embrittlement and DBTT of High-Burnup PWR Fuel Cladding Alloys | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Embrittlement and DBTT of High-Burnup PWR Fuel Cladding Alloys Embrittlement and DBTT of High-Burnup PWR Fuel Cladding Alloys Structural analyses of high-burnup (HBU) fuel require cladding mechanical properties and failure limits to assess fuel behavior during long-term dry-cask storage and transportation. Pre-storage drying-transfer operations and early stage storage subject cladding to higher temperatures and pressure-induced tensile hoop stresses relative to in-reactor operation

  10. High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issues | Department of Energy Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues These slides were presented at the Onboard Storage Tank Workshop on April 29, 2010. PDF icon highpressure_fuelcylinders_ostw.pdf More Documents & Publications Lessons Learned from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels The Compelling Case for Natural Gas Vehicles U.S. Department of Energy

  11. Fuel FX International Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on development and distribution of proprietary products focused on improving fuel economy and reducing environmental emissions in diesel and gasoline engines. References: Fuel...

  12. Direct Utilization of Coal Syngas in High Temperature Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celik, Ismail B.

    2014-10-30

    This EPSCoR project had two primary goals: (i) to build infrastructure and work force at WVU to support long-term research in the area of fuel cells and related sciences; (ii) study effects of various impurities found in coal-syngas on performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). As detailed in this report the WVU research team has made significant accomplishments in both of these areas. What follows is a brief summary of these accomplishments: State-of-the-art test facilities and diagnostic tools have been built and put into use. These include cell manufacturing, half-cell and full-cell test benches, XPS, XRD, TEM, Raman, EDAX, SEM, EIS, and ESEM equipment, unique in-situ measurement techniques and test benches (Environmental EM, Transient Mass-Spectrometer-MS, and IR Optical Temperature measurements). In addition, computational capabilities have been developed culminating in a multi-scale multi-physics fuel cell simulation code, DREAM-SOFC, as well as a Beowulf cluster with 64 CPU units. We have trained 16 graduate students, 10 postdoctoral fellows, and recruited 4 new young faculty members who have actively participated in the EPSCoR project. All four of these faculty members have already been promoted to the tenured associate professor level. With the help of these faculty and students, we were able to secure 14 research awards/contracts amounting to a total of circa $5.0 Million external funding in closely related areas of research. Using the facilities mentioned above, the effects of PH3, HCl, Cl2, and H2S on cell performance have been studied in detail, mechanisms have been identified, and also remedies have been proposed and demonstrated in the laboratory. For example, it has been determined that PH3 reacts rapidly with Ni to from secondary compounds which may become softer or even melt at high temperature and then induce Ni migration to the surface of the cell changing the material and micro-structural properties of the cell drastically. It is found that the extent of steam and current load accelerate the degradation caused by PH3. A unique filtering technique has been proposed to reduce the effect of PH3. In addition, various cell materials have been proposed to reduce the rate of degradation caused by H2S. Furthermore, a three-dimensional, transient multi-physics model has been formulated to describe primary transport processes and electro-chemical reactions occurring within the cell. This model has been validated using data gathered from accelerated tests. The validated model then has been used to study the degradation rates under a range of operating conditions and impurity levels. This has resulted in a procedure that uses both experiments and simulations to predict the life-time of a cell operating with syngas with known concentration of trace impurities. Finally all the experience and knowledge gained has been disseminated via 39 journal papers and 43 presentations/posters/conference papers.

  13. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  14. High power density fuel cell comprising an array of microchannels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopchak, David A; Morse, Jeffrey D; Upadhye, Ravindra S; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T

    2014-05-06

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell according to one embodiment includes an array of microchannels defined by a porous electrolyte support structure extending between bottom and upper support layers, the microchannels including fuel and oxidant microchannels; fuel electrodes formed along some of the microchannels; and air electrodes formed along other of the microchannels. A method of making a phosphoric acid fuel cell according to one embodiment includes etching an array of microchannels in a substrate, thereby forming walls between the microchannels; processing the walls to make the walls porous, thereby forming a porous electrolyte support structure; forming anode electrodes along some of the walls; forming cathode electrodes along other of the walls; and filling the porous electrolyte support structure with a phosphoric acid electrolyte. Additional embodiments are also disclosed.

  15. Development of a high-output dual-fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, P.R. . Fairbanks Morse Engineering Division)

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a new dual-fuel engine development program. The engine is the largest commercially available in terms of power output (650 hp/cyl) and features very low emissions (1 g/hp-hr NO[sub x]) and excellent fuel consumption (43 percent thermal efficiency). A two-cylinder turbocharged prototype was designed and built for the initial development. Results from testing on 18-cylinder production versions are also reported.

  16. Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2011-03-01

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  17. Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2013-09-03

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  18. Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2010-02-23

    Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's). Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, a thin coating of nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made, for example, of reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  19. DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 3: HIGH TEMP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (SOFC) SYSTEM AND BOP | Department of Energy 3: HIGH TEMP (SOFC) SYSTEM AND BOP DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 3: HIGH TEMP (SOFC) SYSTEM AND BOP Report from Breakout Group 3 of the DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop, March 16-17, 2010 PDF icon fuelcell_pre-solicitation_wkshop_hi_temp_sofc.pdf More Documents & Publications DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 5: Long-Term Innovative Technologies Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System (SOFC)

  20. New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  1. Establishing Specifications for Low Enriched Uranium Fuel Operations Conducted Outside the High Flux Isotope Reactor Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinkston, Daniel [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Renfro, David G [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has funded staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from the current, high enriched uranium fuel to low enriched uranium fuel. The LEU fuel form is a metal alloy that has never been used in HFIR or any HFIR-like reactor. This report provides documentation of a process for the creation of a fuel specification that will meet all applicable regulations and guidelines to which UT-Battelle, LLC (UTB) the operating contractor for ORNL - must adhere. This process will allow UTB to purchase LEU fuel for HFIR and be assured of the quality of the fuel being procured.

  2. High-burnup core design using minor actinide-containing metal fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohta, Hirokazu; Ogata, Takanari; Obara, T.

    2013-07-01

    A neutronic design study of metal fuel fast reactor (FR) cores is conducted on the basis of an innovative fuel design concept to achieve an extremely high burnup and realize an efficient fuel cycle system. Since it is expected that the burnup reactivity swing will become extremely large in an unprecedented high burnup core, minor actinides (MAs) from light water reactors (LWRs) are added to fresh fuel to improve the core internal conversion. Core neutronic analysis revealed that high burnups of about 200 MWd/kg for a small-scale core and about 300 MWd/kg for a large-scale core can be attained while suppressing the burnup reactivity swing to almost the same level as that of conventional cores with normal burnup. An actinide burnup analysis has shown that the MA consumption ratio is improved to about 60% and that the accumulated MAs originating from LWRs can be efficiently consumed by the high-burnup metal fuel FR. (authors)

  3. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  4. Turbulent Flame Propagation Characteristics of High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitzman, Jerry; Lieuwen, Timothy

    2014-09-30

    This final report describes the results of an effort to better understand turbulent flame propagation, especially at conditions relevant to gas turbines employing fuels with syngas or hydrogen mixtures. Turbulent flame speeds were measured for a variety of hydrogen/carbon monoxide (H2/CO) and hydrogen/methane (H2/CH4) fuel mixtures with air as the oxidizer. The measurements include global consumption speeds (ST,GC) acquired in a turbulent jet flame at pressures of 1-10 atm and local displacement speeds (ST,LD) acquired in a low-swirl burner at atmospheric pressure. The results verify the importance of fuel composition in determining turbulent flame speeds. For example, different fuel-air mixtures having the same unstretched laminar flame speed (SL,0) but different fuel compositions resulted in significantly different ST,GC for the same turbulence levels (u'). This demonstrates the weakness of turbulent flame speed correlations based simply on u'/SL,0. The results were analyzed using a steady-steady leading points concept to explain the sensitivity of turbulent burning rates to fuel (and oxidizer) composition. Leading point theories suggest that the premixed turbulent flame speed is controlled by the flame front characteristics at the flame brush leading edge, or, in other words, by the flamelets that advance farthest into the unburned mixture (the so-called leading points). For negative Markstein length mixtures, this is assumed to be close to the maximum stretched laminar flame speed (SL,max) for the given fuel-oxidizer mixture. For the ST,GC measurements, the data at a given pressure were well-correlated with an SL,max scaling. However the variation with pressure was not captured, which may be due to non-quasi-steady effects that are not included in the current model. For the ST,LD data, the leading points model again faithfully captured the variation of turbulent flame speed over a wide range of fuel-compositions and turbulence intensities. These results provide evidence that the leading points model can provide useful predictions of turbulent flame speed over a wide range of operating conditions and flow geometries.

  5. High temperature fuel/emitter system for advanced thermionic fuel elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, Helen H.; Bremser, Albert H.; Gontar, Alexander; Fiviesky, Evgeny

    1997-01-10

    Specialists in space applications are currently focusing on bimodal power systems designed to provide both electric power and thermal propulsion (Kennedy, 1994 and Houts, 1995). Our work showed that thermionics is a viable technology for nuclear bimodal power systems. We demonstrated that materials for a thermionic fuel-emitter combination capable of performing at operating temperatures of 2473 K are not only possible but available. The objective of this work, funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Space and Defense Power Systems, was to evaluate the compatibility of fuel material consisting of an uranium carbide/tantalum carbide solid solution with an emitter material consisting of a monocrystalline tungsten-niobium alloy. The uranium loading of the fuel material was 70 mole% uranium carbide. The program was successfully accomplished by a B and W/SIA LUTCH team. Its workscope was integrated with tasks being performed at both Babcock and Wilcox, Lynchburg Research Center, Lynchburg, Virginia, and SIA LUTCH, Podolsk, Russia. Samples were fabricated by LUTCH and seven thermal tests were performed in a hydrogen atmosphere. The first preliminary test was performed at 2273 K by LUTCH, and the remaining six tests were performed At B and W. Three tests were performed at 2273 K, two at 2373 K, and the final test at 2473 K. The results showed that the fuel and emitter materials were compatible in the presence of hydrogen. No evidence of liquid formation, dissolution of the uranium carbide from the uranium carbide/tantalum carbide solid solution, or diffusion of the uranium into the monocrystalline tungsten alloy was observed. Among the highlights of the program was the successful export of the fuel samples from Russia and their import into the US by commercial transport. This paper will discuss the technical aspects of this work.

  6. Graphical and tabular summaries of decay characteristics for once-through PWR, LMFBR, and FFTF fuel cycle materials. [Spent fuel, high-level waste fuel can scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.; Liberman, M.S.; Morrison, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Based on the results of ORIGEN2 and a newly developed code called ORMANG, graphical and summary tabular characteristics of spent fuel, high-level waste, and fuel assembly structural material (cladding) waste are presented for a generic pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The characteristics include radioactivity, thermal power, and toxicity (water dilution volume). Given are graphs and summary tables containing characteristic totals and the principal nuclide contributors as well as graphs comparing the three reactors for a single material and the three materials for a single reactor.

  7. Direct fired reciprocating engine and bottoming high temperature fuel cell hybrid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A. (New Alexandria, PA); Holcombe, Norman T. (McMurray, PA)

    2006-02-07

    A system of a fuel cell bottoming an internal combustion engine. The engine exhaust gas may be combined in varying degrees with air and fed as input to a fuel cell. Reformer and oxidizers may be combined with heat exchangers to accommodate rich and lean burn conditions in the engine in peaking and base load conditions without producing high concentrations of harmful emissions.

  8. EERE Success Story-California and Connecticut: National Fuel Cell Bus

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Programs Drive Fuel Economy Higher | Department of Energy California and Connecticut: National Fuel Cell Bus Programs Drive Fuel Economy Higher EERE Success Story-California and Connecticut: National Fuel Cell Bus Programs Drive Fuel Economy Higher August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In an EERE-supported study with the Federal Transit Administration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has found the fuel economy of fuel cell powered buses to be up to 2.4 times higher than conventional

  9. Fueling Requirements for Steady State high butane current fraction discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.Raman

    2003-10-08

    The CT injector originally used for injecting CTs into 1T toroidal field discharges in the TdeV tokamak was shipped PPPL from the Affiliated Customs Brokers storage facility in Montreal during November 2002. All components were transported safely, without damage, and are currently in storage at PPPL, waiting for further funding in order to begin advanced fueling experiments on NSTX. The components are currently insured through the University of Washington. Several technical presentations were made to investigate the feasibility of the CT injector installation on NSTX. These technical presentations, attached to this document, were: (1) Motivation for Compact Toroida Injection in NSTX; (2) Assessment of the Engineering Feasibility of Installing CTF-II on NSTX; (3) Assessment of the Cost for CT Installation on NSTX--A Peer Review; and (4) CT Fueling for NSTX FY 04-08 steady-state operation needs.

  10. Shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays directly imaged by x-radiography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.; MacPhee, A.; Powell, C. F.; Yue, Y.; Narayanan, S.; Tate, M. W.; Renzi, M. J.; Ercan, A.; Fontes, E.; Gruner, S. M.; Walther, J.; Schaller, J.

    2001-12-20

    Synchrotron x-radiography and a novel fast x-ray detector are used to visualize the detailed, time-resolved structure of the fluid jets generated by a high pressure diesel-fuel injection. An understanding of the structure of the high-pressure spray is important in optimizing the injection process to increase fuel efficiency and reduce pollutants. It is shown that x-radiography can provide a quantitative measure of the mass distribution of the fuel. Such analysis has been impossible with optical imaging due to the multiple-scattering of visible light by small atomized fuel droplets surrounding the jet. In addition, direct visualization of the jet-induced shock wave proves that the fuel jets become supersonic under appropriate injection conditions. The radiographic images also allow quantitative analysis of the thermodynamic properties of the shock wave.

  11. Method to fabricate high performance tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Jin, Chao

    2013-06-18

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The method further includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic layer on a surface of the asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The tube is co-sintered to form a structure having a first porous layer, a second porous layer, and a dense layer positioned therebetween.

  12. Advanced Triso fuels with zirconium carbide for high temperature reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobach, Sergiy Y.; Knight, Travis W.; Jacob, Norman P.; Athon, Clifton E.

    2007-07-01

    There are several options for the advanced TRISO fuel: one is primarily replacement SiC with ZrC and the other is a concept involving a thin ZrC layer coating on the kernel, which is then enclosed in usual TRISO coatings. An effort at modeling, fabrication and testing of an advanced TRISO coated UO{sub 2} fuel particle design incorporating an added layer of ZrC over the fuel kernel is under investigation. The objectives of the coated particle development program are to define the essentials of a production route for the manufacture of kernels and coated particles and to identify the important process parameters that determine the particle properties. Still, the integrity of the ZrC coating is important, but not the main goal. The primary purpose of a ZrC coating examination in this study is to determine hot it serves as an oxygen getter to limit CO production and hence pressure buildup that would stress coatings leading to failure. This additional ZrC coating also aids in retaining fission products within the kernel, and carbon diffusion in the particle is limited hence kernel migration rates are slowed. The combined result being that failure rates of coated particles should decrease. (authors)

  13. High-Burnup BWR Fuel Behavior Under Simulated Reactivity-Initiated Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Kusagaya, Kazuyuki; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Uetsuka, Hiroshi

    2002-06-15

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel at 56 to 61 GWd/tonne U was pulse irradiated in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) to investigate fuel behavior under cold startup reactivity-initiated accident conditions. Current Japanese 8 x 8 type Step II BWR fuel from Fukushima Daini Unit 2 was refabricated to short segments, and thermal energy from 272 to 586 J/g (65 to 140 cal/g) was promptly inserted to the test rods. Cladding deformation of the BWR fuel by the pulse irradiation was smaller than that of pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels. However, cladding failure occurred in tests with fuel at burnup of 61 GWd/tonne U at fuel enthalpies of 260 to 360 J/g (62 to 86 cal/g) during the early stages of transients, while the cladding remained cool. The failure was comparable to the one observed in high-burnup PWR fuel tests, in which embrittled cladding with dense hydride precipitation near the outer surface was fractured due to pellet cladding mechanical interaction. Transient fission gas release by the pulse irradiation was {approx}9.6 to 17% depending on the peak fuel enthalpy.

  14. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas Success story about using waste water treatment gas for ...

  15. Converting biomass to fuels and high-value chemicals | The Ames...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Converting biomass to fuels and high-value chemicals The goal of this research is to develop low cost catalysts based on graphene-derived nanomaterials, and use them to improve the...

  16. Nuclear fuel cycle system simulation tool based on high-fidelity component modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, David E.

    2014-02-01

    The DOE is currently directing extensive research into developing fuel cycle technologies that will enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy. The task is formidable considering the numerous fuel cycle options, the large dynamic systems that each represent, and the necessity to accurately predict their behavior. The path to successfully develop and implement an advanced fuel cycle is highly dependent on the modeling capabilities and simulation tools available for performing useful relevant analysis to assist stakeholders in decision making. Therefore a high-fidelity fuel cycle simulation tool that performs system analysis, including uncertainty quantification and optimization was developed. The resulting simulator also includes the capability to calculate environmental impact measures for individual components and the system. An integrated system method and analysis approach that provides consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles was developed. A general approach was utilized allowing for the system to be modified in order to provide analysis for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the framework for simulating many different fuel cycle options is provided. Two example fuel cycle configurations were developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized waste inventories.

  17. Secretary Moniz Announces Nearly $50 Million to Advance High-Tech, Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficient American Autos | Department of Energy Nearly $50 Million to Advance High-Tech, Fuel Efficient American Autos Secretary Moniz Announces Nearly $50 Million to Advance High-Tech, Fuel Efficient American Autos January 22, 2014 - 10:29am Addthis WASHINGTON - At the Washington Auto Show today U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz announced nearly $50 million to accelerate research and development of new vehicle technologies that give drivers and businesses more transportation options and

  18. DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel October 2014 [This page left blank.] FOREWORD In January 2012, the final report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future urged the Administration to conduct a review of the current policy to dispose of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a single repository or repositories. Based on that recommendation, in January 2013, the Administration's

  19. Establishing a Cost Basis for Converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor from High Enriched to Low Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Primm, Trent; Guida, Tracey

    2010-02-01

    Under the auspices of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program, the National Nuclear Security Administration /Department of Energy (NNSA/DOE) has, as a goal, to convert research reactors worldwide from weapons grade to non-weapons grade uranium. The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) is one of the candidates for conversion of fuel from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). A well documented business model, including tasks, costs, and schedules was developed to plan the conversion of HFIR. Using Microsoft Project, a detailed outline of the conversion program was established and consists of LEU fuel design activities, a fresh fuel shipping cask, improvements to the HFIR reactor building, and spent fuel operations. Current-value costs total $76 million dollars, include over 100 subtasks, and will take over 10 years to complete. The model and schedule follows the path of the fuel from receipt from fuel fabricator to delivery to spent fuel storage and illustrates the duration, start, and completion dates of each subtask to be completed. Assumptions that form the basis of the cost estimate have significant impact on cost and schedule.

  20. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, Stephen; Mountz, David; He, Wensheng; Zhang, Tao

    2013-12-31

    Direct methanol fuel cell membranes were developed using blends of different polyelectrolytes with PVDF. The membranes showed complex relationships between polyelectrolyte chemistry, morphology, and processing. Although the PVDF grade was found to have little effect on the membrane permselectivity, it does impact membrane conductivity and methanol permeation values. Other factors, such as varying the polyelectrolyte polarity, using varying crosslinking agents, and adjusting the equivalent weight of the membranes impacted methanol permeation, permselectivity, and areal resistance. We now understand, within the scope of the project work completed, how these inter-related performance properties can be tailored to achieve a balance of performance.

  1. High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell with ceramic electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, J.L.; Marchant, D.D.

    A solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell is described having a central electrolyte comprised of a HfO/sub 2/ or ZrO/sub 2/ ceramic stabilized and rendered ionically conductive by the addition of Ca, Mg, Y, La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy Er, or Yb. The electrolyte is sandwiched between porous electrodes of a HfO/sub 2/ or ZrO/sub 2/ ceramic stabilized by the addition of a rare earth and rendered electronically conductive by the addition of In/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Alternatively, the anode electrode may be made of a metal such as Co, Ni, Ir Pt, or Pd.

  2. High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell with ceramic electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marchant, David D.; Bates, J. Lambert

    1984-01-01

    A solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell is described having a central electrolyte comprised of a HfO.sub.2 or ZrO.sub.2 ceramic stabilized and rendered ionically conductive by the addition of Ca, Mg, Y, La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy Er, or Yb. The electrolyte is sandwiched between porous electrodes of a HfO.sub.2 or ZrO.sub.2 ceramic stabilized by the addition of a rare earth and rendered electronically conductive by the addition of In.sub.2 O.sub.3. Alternatively, the anode electrode may be made of a metal such as Co, Ni, Ir Pt, or Pd.

  3. HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

    2004-07-28

    Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the environment, reducing the amount of fuel consumed and, for energy intensive manufacturers, boosting their profits (by reducing energy expenses). Compared to conventional power generation technologies such as internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and coal plants, fuel cells are extremely clean and more efficient, particularly at smaller scales.

  4. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) graphite pebble fuel: Review of technologies for reprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcwilliams, A. J.

    2015-09-08

    This report reviews literature on reprocessing high temperature gas-cooled reactor graphite fuel components. A basic review of the various fuel components used in the pebble bed type reactors is provided along with a survey of synthesis methods for the fabrication of the fuel components. Several disposal options are considered for the graphite pebble fuel elements including the storage of intact pebbles, volume reduction by separating the graphite from fuel kernels, and complete processing of the pebbles for waste storage. Existing methods for graphite removal are presented and generally consist of mechanical separation techniques such as crushing and grinding chemical techniques through the use of acid digestion and oxidation. Potential methods for reprocessing the graphite pebbles include improvements to existing methods and novel technologies that have not previously been investigated for nuclear graphite waste applications. The best overall method will be dependent on the desired final waste form and needs to factor in the technical efficiency, political concerns, cost, and implementation.

  5. FRAPCON-3: Modifications to fuel rod material properties and performance models for high-burnup application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanning, D.D.; Beyer, C.E.; Painter, C.L.

    1997-12-01

    This volume describes the fuel rod material and performance models that were updated for the FRAPCON-3 steady-state fuel rod performance code. The property and performance models were changed to account for behavior at extended burnup levels up to 65 Gwd/MTU. The property and performance models updated were the fission gas release, fuel thermal conductivity, fuel swelling, fuel relocation, radial power distribution, solid-solid contact gap conductance, cladding corrosion and hydriding, cladding mechanical properties, and cladding axial growth. Each updated property and model was compared to well characterized data up to high burnup levels. The installation of these properties and models in the FRAPCON-3 code along with input instructions are provided in Volume 2 of this report and Volume 3 provides a code assessment based on comparison to integral performance data. The updated FRAPCON-3 code is intended to replace the earlier codes FRAPCON-2 and GAPCON-THERMAL-2. 94 refs., 61 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Fact #587: September 7, 2009 Cash for Clunkers Program - Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal rebate money for consumers who traded old vehicles with an EPA combined fuel economy of 18 miles per gallon or less for brand new vehicles with improved fuel economy. ...

  7. Evaluation of fission gas release in high-burnup light water reactor fuel rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barner, J.O.; Cunningham, M.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Lanning, D.D. )

    1993-05-01

    Research to define the behavior of Zircaloy-clad light water reactor (LWR) UO[sub 2] fuel irradiated to high burnup levels was conducted as part of the High Burnup Effects Program (HBEP). The HBEP was a 12-yr program that ultimately acquired, characterized, irradiated, and examined after irradiation 82 LWR fuel rods ranging in rod-average fuel burnup from 22 to 69 MWd/kgM with a peak pellet burnup of 83 MWd/kg M. A principal emphasis of the HBEP was to evaluate the effect of high burnup on fission gas release. It was confirmed that fission gas release remained as dependent on design and irradiation history parameters at high burnup levels as at low to moderate burnup levels. One observed high-burnup effect was the development of a burnup-dependent microstructure at the fuel pellet surface when pellet-edge burnup exceeded 65 MWd/kgM. This low-temperature rim region' was characterized by a loss of optically definable grain structure, a high volume of porosity, and diffusion of fission gas from the UO[sub 2] matrix to the porosity. Although the rim region has the potential for enhanced fission gas release, it is concluded that no significant enhancement of rod-average fission gas release at high burnup levels was observed for the examined fuel rods.

  8. Used Fuel Disposition Campaign Phase I Ring Compression Testing of High

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Burnup Cladding | Department of Energy Phase I Ring Compression Testing of High Burnup Cladding Used Fuel Disposition Campaign Phase I Ring Compression Testing of High Burnup Cladding The purpose of ring compression testing is to generate data to support the development of the technical basis for extended storage and transportation of high-burnup fuel. This report highlights the results of completed Phase I testing of high-burnup M5® cladding and the revised three-year test plan. The goal

  9. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development: Task 2, Market assessment and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakwani, R. M.; Wilson, Jr., R. P.; Winsor, R. E.

    1991-12-01

    Based on the preliminary coal engine design developed, this task was conducted to identify the best opportunity(s) to enter the market with the future coal-fueled, high-speed diesel engine. The results of this market and economic feasibility assessment will be used to determine what specific heavy duty engine application(s) are most attractive for coal fuel, and also define basic economic targets for the engine to be competitive.

  10. Options for treating high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel for repository disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lotts, A.L.; Bond, W.D.; Forsberg, C.W.; Glass, R.W.; Harrington, F.E.; Micheals, G.E.; Notz, K.J.; Wymer, R.G.

    1992-02-01

    This report describes the options that can reasonably be considered for disposal of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel in a repository. The options include whole-block disposal, disposal with removal of graphite (either mechanically or by burning), and reprocessing of spent fuel to separate the fuel and fission products. The report summarizes what is known about the options without extensively projecting or analyzing actual performance of waste forms in a repository. The report also summarizes the processes involved in convert spent HTGR fuel into the various waste forms and projects relative schedules and costs for deployment of the various options. Fort St. Vrain Reactor fuel, which utilizes highly-enriched {sup 235}U (plus thorium) and is contained in a prismatic graphite block geometry, was used as the baseline for evaluation, but the major conclusions would not be significantly different for low- or medium-enriched {sup 235}U (without thorium) or for the German pebble-bed fuel. Future US HTGRs will be based on the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) fuel form. The whole block appears to be a satisfactory waste form for disposal in a repository and may perform better than light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. From the standpoint of process cost and schedule (not considering repository cost or value of fuel that might be recycled), the options are ranked as follows in order of increased cost and longer schedule to perform the option: (1) whole block, (2a) physical separation, (2b) chemical separation, and (3) complete chemical processing.

  11. HIGH-TEMPERATURE TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL GENERATOR DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.E. Veyo

    1998-09-01

    During the Westinghouse/USDOE Cooperative Agreement period of November 1, 1990 through November 30, 1997, the Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell has evolved from a 16 mm diameter, 50 cm length cell with a peak power of 1.27 watts/cm to the 22 mm diameter, 150 cm length dimensions of today's commercial prototype cell with a peak power of 1.40 watts/cm. Accompanying the increase in size and power density was the elimination of an expensive EVD step in the manufacturing process. Demonstrated performance of Westinghouse's tubular SOFC includes a lifetime cell test which ran for a period in excess of 69,000 hours, and a fully integrated 25 kWe-class system field test which operated for over 13,000 hours at 90% availability with less than 2% performance degradation over the entire period. Concluding the agreement period, a 100 kW SOFC system successfully passed its factory acceptance test in October 1997 and was delivered in November to its demonstration site in Westervoort, The Netherlands.

  12. Analysis of Experimental Data for High Burnup PWR Spent Fuel Isotopic Validation - Vandellos II Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, Germina; Gauld, Ian C

    2011-01-01

    This report is one of the several recent NUREG/CR reports documenting benchmark-quality radiochemical assay data and the use of the data to validate computer code predictions of isotopic composition for spent nuclear fuel, to establish the uncertainty and bias associated with code predictions. The experimental data analyzed in the current report were acquired from a high-burnup fuel program coordinated by Spanish organizations. The measurements included extensive actinide and fission product data of importance to spent fuel safety applications, including burnup credit, decay heat, and radiation source terms. Six unique spent fuel samples from three uranium oxide fuel rods were analyzed. The fuel rods had a 4.5 wt % {sup 235}U initial enrichment and were irradiated in the Vandellos II pressurized water reactor operated in Spain. The burnups of the fuel samples range from 42 to 78 GWd/MTU. The measurements were used to validate the two-dimensional depletion sequence TRITON in the SCALE computer code system.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Independence and Security Act of 2007 Enacted December 19, 2007 The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 (Public Law 110-140) aims to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum. EISA includes provisions to increase the supply of renewable alternative fuel sources by setting a mandatory Renewable Fuel Standard, which requires transportation fuel sold in the United States to contain a minimum of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels annually by 2022. In

  14. Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shropshire, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

    2004-10-03

    The objective of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the fuel-cycle and nuclear material disposition issues associated with high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This paper reviews the nuclear fuel cycles supporting early and present day gas reactors, and identifies challenges for the advanced fuel cycles and waste management systems supporting the next generation of HTGRs, including the Very High Temperature Reactor, which is under development in the Generation IV Program. The earliest gas-cooled reactors were the carbon dioxide (CO2)-cooled reactors. Historical experience is available from over 1,000 reactor-years of operation from 52 electricity-generating, CO2-cooled reactor plants that were placed in operation worldwide. Following the CO2 reactor development, seven HTGR plants were built and operated. The HTGR came about from the combination of helium coolant and graphite moderator. Helium was used instead of air or CO2 as the coolant. The helium gas has a significant technical base due to the experience gained in the United States from the 40-MWe Peach Bottom and 330-MWe Fort St. Vrain reactors designed by General Atomics. Germany also built and operated the 15-MWe Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) and the 300-MWe Thorium High-Temperature Reactor (THTR) power plants. The AVR, THTR, Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain all used fuel containing thorium in various forms (i.e., carbides, oxides, thorium particles) and mixtures with highly enriched uranium. The operational experience gained from these early gas reactors can be applied to the next generation of nuclear power systems. HTGR systems are being developed in South Africa, China, Japan, the United States, and Russia. Elements of the HTGR system evaluated included fuel demands on uranium ore mining and milling, conversion, enrichment services, and fuel fabrication; fuel management in-core; spent fuel characteristics affecting fuel recycling and refabrication, fuel handling, interim storage, packaging, transportation, waste forms, waste treatment, decontamination and decommissioning issues; and low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) disposal.

  15. AIR SHIPMENT OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM ROMANIA AND LIBYA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher Landers; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Stanley Moses

    2010-07-01

    In June 2009 Romania successfully completed the worlds first air shipment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. Special 20-foot ISO shipping containers and cask tiedown supports were designed to transport Russian TUK 19 shipping casks for the Romanian air shipment and the equipment was certified for all modes of transport, including road, rail, water, and air. In December 2009 Libya successfully used this same equipment for a second air shipment of HEU spent nuclear fuel. Both spent fuel shipments were transported by truck from the originating nuclear facilities to nearby commercial airports, were flown by commercial cargo aircraft to a commercial airport in Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to their final destinations at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both air shipments were performed under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Romania air shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU spent fuel from the VVR S research reactor was the last of three HEU fresh and spent fuel shipments under RRRFR that resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. Libya had previously completed two RRRFR shipments of HEU fresh fuel so the 5.2 kg of HEU spent fuel air shipped from the IRT 1 research reactor in December made Libya the 4th RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. This paper describes the equipment, preparations, and license approvals required to safely and securely complete these two air shipments of spent nuclear fuel.

  16. Core-Protected Platinum Monolayer Shell High-Stability Electrocatalysts for Fuel-Cell Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, R.R.; Sasaki, K.; Naohara, H.; Cai, Y.; Choi, Y.M.; Liu, P.; Vukmirovic, M.B.; Wang, J.X.

    2010-11-08

    More than skin deep: Platinum monolayers can act as shells for palladium nanoparticles to lead to electrocatalysts with high activities and an ultralow platinum content, but high platinum utilization. The stability derives from the core protecting the shell from dissolution. In fuel-cell tests, no loss of platinum was observed in 200?000 potential cycles, whereas loss of palladium was significant.

  17. Core-Protected Platinum Monolayer Shell High-Stability Electrocatalysts for Fuel-Cell Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K Sasaki; H Naohara; Y Cai; Y Choi; P Liu; M Vukmirovic; J Wang; R Adzic

    2011-12-31

    Platinum monolayers can act as shells for palladium nanoparticles to lead to electrocatalysts with high activities and an ultralow platinum content, but high platinum utilization. The stability derives from the core protecting the shell from dissolution. In fuel-cell tests, no loss of platinum was observed in 200,000 potential cycles, whereas loss of palladium was significant.

  18. Vortex combustor for low NOx emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C. (Woodinville, WA); Edmonds, Ryan G. (Renton, WA); Williams, Joseph T. (Kirkland, WA); Baldwin, Stephen P. (Winchester, MA)

    2009-10-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  19. Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P

    2012-11-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  20. Fuel Economy Coach | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    driving performance - green means you are doing well, yellow means you are average and red means you are being inefficient. An audible tone will be played by the app when you are...

  1. TRISO-Coated Fuel Processing to Support High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Cul, G.D.

    2002-10-01

    The initial objective of the work described herein was to identify potential methods and technologies needed to disassemble and dissolve graphite-encapsulated, ceramic-coated gas-cooled-reactor spent fuels so that the oxide fuel components can be separated by means of chemical processing. The purpose of this processing is to recover (1) unburned fuel for recycle, (2) long-lived actinides and fission products for transmutation, and (3) other fission products for disposal in acceptable waste forms. Follow-on objectives were to identify and select the most promising candidate flow sheets for experimental evaluation and demonstration and to address the needs to reduce technical risks of the selected technologies. High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) may be deployed in the next -20 years to (1) enable the use of highly efficient gas turbines for producing electricity and (2) provide high-temperature process heat for use in chemical processes, such as the production of hydrogen for use as clean-burning transportation fuel. Also, HTGR fuels are capable of significantly higher burn-up than light-water-reactor (LWR) fuels or fast-reactor (FR) fuels; thus, the HTGR fuels can be used efficiently for transmutation of fissile materials and long-lived actinides and fission products, thereby reducing the inventory of such hazardous and proliferation-prone materials. The ''deep-burn'' concept, described in this report, is an example of this capability. Processing of spent graphite-encapsulated, ceramic-coated fuels presents challenges different from those of processing spent LWR fuels. LWR fuels are processed commercially in Europe and Japan; however, similar infrastructure is not available for processing of the HTGR fuels. Laboratory studies on the processing of HTGR fuels were performed in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s, but no engineering-scale processes were demonstrated. Currently, new regulations concerning emissions will impact the technologies used in processing the fuel. Potential processing methods will be identified both by a review of the literature regarding the processing of similar fuels and by a reliance on the experience and innovation of the authors. The objective is not to generate an exhaustive list of options but rather to identify a number of potentially practical processing options. These options necessarily take into consideration the chemical characteristics of the entire fuel element and its component parts. Once the practical options are identified, a qualitative assessment of the technical merit and maturity, relative costs, and relative quantity of waste generation will be used to rank the various options. Through this form of analysis, a base-case flow sheet will be identified for further study and development. A fallback flow sheet will also be selected to reduce the overall technical risk of the development plan. To support the base-case flow sheet, a technical development plan will be used to identify the key issues for the highest-rated option(s). In this effort the technical uncertainties will be more fully articulated, and research and development activities will be recommended to reduce the technical risks.

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption and Discount New Jersey Turnpike Authority (Authority) allows qualified hybrid electric vehicles to travel in the HOV lanes located between Interchange 11 and Interchange 14 on the New Jersey Turnpike. The Authority offers a 10% discount on off-peak New Jersey Turnpike and Garden State Parkway toll rates through NJ EZ-Pass for drivers of vehicles that have a fuel economy of 45 miles per gallon or higher and meet the California Super Ultra Low Emission

  3. Thermal Behavior of Advanced UO{sub 2} Fuel at High Burnup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, E.; Lambert, T.; Silberstein, K.; Therache, B.

    2007-07-01

    To improve the fuel performance, advanced UO{sub 2} products are developed to reduce significantly Pellet-Cladding Interaction and Fission Gas Release to increase high burnup safety margins on Light Water Reactors. To achieve the expected improvements, doping elements are currently used, to produce large grain viscoplastic UO{sub 2} fuel microstructures. In that scope, AREVA NP is conducting the qualification of a new UO{sub 2} fuel pellet obtained by optimum chromium oxide doping. To assess the fuel thermal performance, especially the fuel conductivity degradation with increasing burnup and also the kinetics of fission gas release under transient operating conditions, an instrumented in-pile experiment, called REMORA, has been developed by the CEA. One segment base irradiated for five cycles in a French EDF commercial PWR ({approx} 62 GWd/tM) was consequently re-instrumented with a fuel centerline thermocouple and an advanced pressure sensor. The design of this specific sensor is based on the counter-pressure principle and avoids any drift phenomenon due to nuclear irradiation. This rodlet was then irradiated in the GRIFFONOS rig of the Osiris experimental reactor at CEA Saclay. This device, located in the periphery of the core, is designed to perform test under conditions close to those prevailing in French PWR reactor. Power variations are carried out by translating the device relatively to the core. Self - powered neutron detectors are positioned in the loop in order to monitor the power the whole time of the irradiation. The re-irradiation of the REMORA experiment consisted of a stepped ramp to power in order to point out a potential degradation of the fuel thermal conductivity with increasing burnup. During the first part of the irradiation, most of the measurements were performed at low power in order to take into account the irradiation effects on UO{sub 2} thermal conductivity at high burnup in low range of temperature. The second part of the irradiation consisted in power cycling with one steady-state at several powers (290 W/cm and 360 W/cm) to assess both the thermal conductivity at higher temperature (until 1600 deg. C) and the fission gas release kinetic. This paper summarizes and discusses the main results assessed for this advanced UO{sub 2} fuel: on the one hand, the thermal performances indicate that the fuel thermal conductivity is similar to the one of the standard UO{sub 2} fuel type (the thermal conductivity damage under irradiation can be modelling alike) and, on the other hand, the test results show low fission gas release in comparison with UO{sub 2} standard fuel. (authors)

  4. RAIL ROUTING - CURRENT PRACTICES FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTE SHIPMENTS,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    4.31 Final 7/30 RAIL ROUTING - CURRENT PRACTICES FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTE SHIPMENTS, AND A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HIGHWAY REGULATORY GUIDELINES APPLIED TO RAIL A DISCUSSION PAPER PREPARED BY THE RAIL TOPIC GROUP OF THE TRANSPORTATION EXTERNAL COORDINATION WORKING GROUP JULY 2004 1 Revision 4.31 Final 7/30 Rail Routing- Current Practices for Spent Nuclear Fuel And High-Level Waste Shipments, And a Comparative Analysis Of Highway Regulatory Guidelines Applied to Rail I.

  5. Effects of Biomass Fuels on Engine & System Out Emissions for Short Term

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Endurance | Department of Energy Biomass Fuels on Engine & System Out Emissions for Short Term Endurance Effects of Biomass Fuels on Engine & System Out Emissions for Short Term Endurance Results of an investigation into effects of biofuels on engine- and system-out emissions, specifically US 2010 EPA exhaust after-treatment system from Mack Trucks PDF icon deer11_barnum.pdf More Documents & Publications High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine A European Perspective of EURO

  6. Comparison of selected foreign plans and practices for spent fuel and high-level waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Hazelton, R.F.; Bradley, D.J.

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the major parameters for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes in selected foreign countries as of December 1989 and compares them with those in the United States. The foreign countries included in this study are Belgium, Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All the countries are planning for disposal of spent fuel and/or high-level wastes in deep geologic repositories. Most countries (except Canada and Sweden) plan to reprocess their spent fuel and vitrify the resultant high-level liquid wastes; in comparison, the US plans direct disposal of spent fuel. The US is planning to use a container for spent fuel as the primary engineered barrier. The US has the most developed repository concept and has one of the earliest scheduled repository startup dates. The repository environment presently being considered in the US is unique, being located in tuff above the water table. The US also has the most prescriptive regulations and performance requirements for the repository system and its components. 135 refs., 8 tabs.

  7. Natural Gas Utilities Options Analysis for the Hydrogen Economy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Objectives: Identify business opportunities and valuation of strategic options for the natural gas industry as hydrogen energy systems evolve. PDF icon hpwgw_natgas_ultanalysis_richards.pdf More Documents & Publications Natural Gas Utilities Options Analysis for the Hydrogen Economy Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: March 2012 State Energy Advisory Board Meeting Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 6th International Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Expo

  8. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from High Ethanol Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D.; Bardon, M.; Pucher, G.

    2008-10-01

    Study determined the flammability of fuel tank headspace vapors as a function of ambient temperature for seven E85 fuel blends, two types of gasoline, and denatured ethanol at a low tank fill level.

  9. LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

    2001-03-27

    A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

  10. Combustion rates of chars from high-volatile fuels for FBC application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masi, S.; Salatino, P.; Senneca, O.

    1997-12-31

    The fluidized bed combustion of high volatile fuels is often associated with huge occurrence of comminution phenomena. These result into in-bed generation of substantial amounts of carbon fines which further undergo competitive processes of combustion and elutriation. The small size of carbon fines generated by comminution is such that their further combustion is largely controlled by the intrinsic kinetics of carbon oxidation, alone or in combination with intraparticle diffusion. The competition between fine combustion and elutriation strongly affects the efficiency of fixed carbon conversion and calls for thorough characterization of the combustion kinetics and of residence times of fines in a fluidized bed of coarse solids. In this paper a collection of intrinsic combustion kinetic and porosimetric data for chars from three high-volatile fuels suitable for FBC application is presented. Chars from a Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), a Tyre Derived Fuel (TDF) and a biomass (Robinia Pseudoacacia) are obtained from devolatilization, in fluidized bed, of fuel samples. Thermogravimetric analysis, mercury porosimetry and helium pycnometry are used to characterize the reactivity and the pore structure of the chars. Combustion rates are characterized over a wide range of temperatures (320--850 C) and oxygen partial pressures, covering the entire range of interest in fluidized bed combustion. Analysis of thermogravimetric and porosimetric data is directed to obtaining the parameters (pre-exponential factors, reaction orders, activation energies, intraparticle diffusivities) of combustion kinetic submodels for application in fluidized bed combustor modeling.

  11. Highly Stable, Anion Conductive, Comb-Shaped Copolymers for Alkaline Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, NW; Leng, YJ; Hickner, MA; Wang, CY

    2013-07-10

    To produce an anion-conductive and durable polymer electrolyte for alkaline fuel cell applications, a series of quaternized poly(2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide)s containing long alkyl side chains pendant to the nitrogen-centered cation were synthesized using a Menshutkin reaction to form comb-shaped structures. The pendant alkyl chains were responsible for the development of highly conductive ionic domains, as confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The comb-shaped polymers having one alkyl side chain showed higher hydroxide conductivities than those with benzyltrimethyl ammonium moieties or structures with more than one alkyl side chain per cationic site. The highest conductivity was observed for comb-shaped polymers with benzyldimethylhexadecyl ammonium cations. The chemical stabilities of the comb-shaped membranes were evaluated under severe, accelerated-aging conditions, and degradation was observed by measuring IEC and ion conductivity changes during aging. The comb-shaped membranes retained their high ion conductivity in 1 M NaOH at 80 degrees C for 2000 h. These cationic polymers were employed as ionomers in catalyst layers for alkaline fuel cells. The results indicated that the C-16 alkyl side chain ionomer had a slightly better initial performance, despite its low IEC value, but very poor durability in the fuel cell. In contrast, 90% of the initial performance was retained for the alkaline fuel cell with electrodes containing the C-6 side chain after 60 h of fuel cell operation.

  12. CATALYSTS FOR HIGH CETANE ETHERS AS DIESEL FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; James G.C. Shen; Qisheng Ma

    2000-08-31

    A novel 1,2-ethanediol, bis(hydrogen sulfate), disodium salt precursor-based solid acid catalyst with a zirconia substrate was synthesized and demonstrated to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) or isobutene from methanol-isobutanol mixtures. The precursor salt was synthesized and provided by Dr. T. H. Kalantar of the M.E. Pruitt Research Center, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI 48674. Molecular modeling of the catalyst synthesis steps and of the alcohol coupling reaction is being carried out. A representation of the methyl transfer from the surface activated methanol molecule (left) to the activated oxygen of the isobutanol molecule (right) to form an ether linkage to yield MIBE is shown.

  13. Promoting a Green Economy through Clean Transportation Alternatives |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt052_ti_ebert_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Promoting a Green Economy through Clean Transportation Alternatives Promoting a Green Economy through Clean Transportation Alternatives Town of Hempstead: Project Energy, From Project Execution to Outreach & Education

  14. Promoting a Green Economy through Clean Transportation Alternatives |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt052_ti_ebert_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Promoting a Green Economy through Clean Transportation Alternatives Promoting a Green Economy through Clean Transportation Alternatives EV Community Readiness projects: Center for Transportation and the Environment (GA, AL, SC); Centralina Council of Governments (NC)

  15. Novel Gas Sensors for High-Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palitha Jayaweera; Francis Tanzella

    2005-03-01

    SRI International (SRI) is developing ceramic-based microsensors to detect exhaust gases such as NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO in advanced combustion and gasification systems under this DOE NETL-sponsored research project. The sensors detect the electrochemical activity of the exhaust gas species on catalytic electrodes attached to a solid state electrolyte and are designed to operate at the high temperatures, elevated pressures, and corrosive environments typical of large power generation exhausts. The sensors can be easily integrated into online monitoring systems for active emission control. The ultimate objective is to develop sensors for multiple gas detection in a single package, along with data acquisition and control software and hardware, so that the information can be used for closed-loop control in novel advanced power generation systems. This report details the Phase I Proof-of-Concept, research activities performed from October 2003 to March 2005. SRI's research work includes synthesis of catalytic materials, sensor design and fabrication, software development, and demonstration of pulse voltammetric analysis of NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO gases on catalytic electrodes.

  16. Energy Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy Energy Economy The clean energy economy continues to grow, creating new job opportunities for tens of thousands of Americans along the way. <a href="/node/385315">Learn more</a> about the growth of America's clean energy economy. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. The clean energy economy continues to grow, creating new job opportunities for tens of thousands of Americans along the way. Learn more about the growth of America's clean energy economy. |

  17. A rational minor actinide (MA) recycling concept based on innovative oxide fuel with high AM content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Kenya; Sato, Isamu; Ishii, Tetsuya; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Asaga, Takeo; Kurosaki, Ken

    2007-07-01

    A rational MA recycle concept based on high Am content fuel has been proposed. A design study of an Am- MOX fabrication plant, which is a key facility for the MA recycle concept, has been done and the facility concept was clarified from the viewpoint of basic process viability. Preliminary cost estimation suggested that the total construction cost of the MA recycle facilities including Am-MOX, Np-MOX and MA recovery could be comparable with that of the large scale LWR-MOX fabrication plant required for plutonium in LWR fuel cycle. (authors)

  18. Draft EA for the Acceptance and Disposition of Spent Nuclear Fuel Containing U.S.-Origin Highly Enriched

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EA for the Acceptance and Disposition of Spent Nuclear Fuel Containing U.S.-Origin Highly Enriched Uranium from the Federal Republic of Germany DOE/EA-1977 DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE ACCEPTANCE AND DISPOSITION OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL CONTAINING U.S.-ORIGIN HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM FROM THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY January 2016 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SAVANNAH RIVER OPERATIONS OFFICE AIKEN, SOUTH CAROLINA Draft EA for the Acceptance and Disposition of Spent Nuclear Fuel Containing

  19. Draft EA for the Acceptance and Disposition of Spent Nuclear Fuel Containing U.S.-Origin Highly Enriched

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EA for the Acceptance and Disposition of Spent Nuclear Fuel Containing U.S.-Origin Highly Enriched Uranium from the Federal Republic of Germany DOE/EA-1977 DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE ACCEPTANCE AND DISPOSITION OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL CONTAINING U.S.-ORIGIN HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM FROM THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY January 2016 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SAVANNAH RIVER OPERATIONS OFFICE AIKEN, SOUTH CAROLINA Draft EA for the Acceptance and Disposition of Spent Nuclear Fuel Containing

  20. Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-09-20

    Policy makers and program designers in the U.S. and abroad are deeply concerned with the question of how to scale up energy efficiency to a level that is commensurate both to the scale of the energy and climate challenges we face, and to the potential for energy savings that has been touted for decades. When policy makers ask what energy efficiency can do, the answers usually revolve around the technical and economic potential of energy efficiency - they rarely hone in on the element of energy demand that matters most for changing energy usage in existing homes: the consumer. A growing literature is concerned with the behavioral underpinnings of energy consumption. We examine a narrower, related subject: How can millions of Americans be persuaded to divert valued time and resources into upgrading their homes to eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy? With hundreds of millions of public dollars flowing into incentives, workforce training, and other initiatives to support comprehensive home energy improvements, it makes sense to review the history of these programs and begin gleaning best practices for encouraging comprehensive home energy improvements. Looking across 30 years of energy efficiency programs that targeted the residential market, many of the same issues that confronted past program administrators are relevant today: How do we cost-effectively motivate customers to take action? Who can we partner with to increase program participation? How do we get residential efficiency programs to scale? While there is no proven formula - and only limited success to date with reliably motivating large numbers of Americans to invest in comprehensive home energy improvements, especially if they are being asked to pay for a majority of the improvement costs - there is a rich and varied history of experiences that new programs can draw upon. Our primary audiences are policy makers and program designers - especially those that are relatively new to the field, such as the over 2,000 towns, cities, states, and regions who are recipients of American Reinvestment and Recovery Act funds for clean energy programs. This report synthesizes lessons from first generation programs, highlights emerging best practices, and suggests methods and approaches to use in designing, implementing, and evaluating these programs. We examined 14 residential energy efficiency programs, conducted an extensive literature review, interviewed industry experts, and surveyed residential contractors to draw out these lessons.

  1. Full-length high-temperature severe fuel damage test No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rausch, W.N.; Hesson, G.M.; Pilger, J.P.; King, L.L.; Goodman, R.L.; Panisko, F.E.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the first full-length high-temperature test (FLHT-1) performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. The test is part of a series of experiments being performed for the NRC as a part of their Severe Fuel Damage Program and is one of several planned for PNL`s Coolant Boilaway and Damage Progression Program. The report summarizes the test design and test plan. it also provides a summary and discussion of the data collected during the test and of the photos taken during the post-test examination. All objectives for the test were met. The key objective was to demonstrate that severe fuel damage tests on full-length fuel bundles can be safely conducted in the NRU reactor.

  2. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The overall objective of the program is the determination of the minimal processing requirements to produce High Energy Density Fuels (HEDF), meeting a minimal energy density of 130,000 Btu/gal (conventional jet fuels have energy densities in the vicinity of 115,000--120,000 Btu/gal) and having acceptable advanced fuel specifications in accordance with the three defined categories of HEDF. The program encompasses assessing current technology capability; selecting acceptable processing and refining schemes; and generating samples of advanced test fuels. A task breakdown structure was developed containing eight key tasks. This report summarizes the work that Amoco Oil Company (AOC), as key subcontractor, performed in the execution of Task 4, Proposed Upgrading Schemes for Advanced Fuel. The intent of the Task 4 study was to represent all the candidate processing options, that were either studied in the experimental efforts of Task 3 or were available from the prior art in the open literature, in a linear program (LP) model. The LP model would allow scaling of the bench-scale Task 3 results to commercial scale and would perform economic evaluations on any combination of the processes which might be used to make HEDF. Section 2.0 of this report summarizes the process and economic bases used. Sections 3.0 and 4.0 details the economics and processing sensitivities for HEDF production. 1 ref., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Gasification of refuse derived fuel in the Battelle high throughput gasification system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Creamer, K.S.; Tweksbury, T.L.; Taylor, D.R. )

    1989-07-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental program to demonstrate the suitability of the Battelle High Throughput Gasification Process to non-wood biomass fuels. An extensive data base on wood gasification was generated during a multi-year experimental program. This data base and subsequent design and economic analysis activities led to the discussion to study the gasification character of other fuels. The specific fuel studied was refuse derived fuel (RDF) which is a prepared municipal solid waste (MSW). The use of RDF, while providing a valuable fuel, can also provide a solution to MSW disposal problems. Gasification of MSW provides advantages over land fill or mass burn technology since a more usable form of energy, medium Btu gas, is produced. Land filling of wastes produces no usable products and mass burning while greatly reducing the volume of wastes for disposal can produce only steam. This steam must be used on site or very nearby this limiting the potential locations for mass burn facilities. Such a gas, if produced from currently available supplies of MSW, can contribute 2 quads to the US energy supply. 3 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Turning Sun and Water Into Hydrogen Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In a key step towards advancing a clean energy economy, scientists have engineered a cheap, abundant way to make hydrogen fuel from sunlight and water.

  5. Full-length high-temperature severe fuel damage test No. 2. Final safety analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesson, G.M.; Lombardo, N.J.; Pilger, J.P.; Rausch, W.N.; King, L.L.; Hurley, D.E.; Parchen, L.J.; Panisko, F.E.

    1993-09-01

    Hazardous conditions associated with performing the Full-Length High- Temperature (FLHT). Severe Fuel Damage Test No. 2 experiment have been analyzed. Major hazards that could cause harm or damage are (1) radioactive fission products, (2) radiation fields, (3) reactivity changes, (4) hydrogen generation, (5) materials at high temperature, (6) steam explosion, and (7) steam pressure pulse. As a result of this analysis, it is concluded that with proper precautions the FLHT- 2 test can be safely conducted.

  6. High-temperature Chemical Compatibility of As-fabricated TRIGA Fuel and Type 304 Stainless Steel Cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Eric Woolstenhulme; Kurt Terrani; Glenn A. Moore

    2012-09-01

    Chemical interaction between TRIGA fuel and Type-304 stainless steel cladding at relatively high temperatures is of interest from the point of view of understanding fuel behavior during different TRIGA reactor transient scenarios. Since TRIGA fuel comes into close contact with the cladding during irradiation, there is an opportunity for interdiffusion between the U in the fuel and the Fe in the cladding to form an interaction zone that contains U-Fe phases. Based on the equilibrium U-Fe phase diagram, a eutectic can develop at a composition between the U6Fe and UFe2 phases. This eutectic composition can become a liquid at around 725C. From the standpoint of safe operation of TRIGA fuel, it is of interest to develop better understanding of how a phase with this composition may develop in irradiated TRIGA fuel at relatively high temperatures. One technique for investigating the development of a eutectic phase at the fuel/cladding interface is to perform out-of-pile diffusion-couple experiments at relatively high temperatures. This information is most relevant for lightly irradiated fuel that just starts to touch the cladding due to fuel swelling. Similar testing using fuel irradiated to different fission densities should be tested in a similar fashion to generate data more relevant to more heavily irradiated fuel. This report describes the results for TRIGA fuel/Type-304 stainless steel diffusion couples that were annealed for one hour at 730 and 800C. Scanning electron microscopy with energy- and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy was employed to characterize the fuel/cladding interface for each diffusion couple to look for evidence of any chemical interaction. Overall, negligible fuel/cladding interaction was observed for each diffusion couple.

  7. Roadmap on Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy on Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Roadmap on Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Draft Roadmap on Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy prepared for public comment. PDF icon roadmap_manufacturing_hydrogen_economy.pdf More Documents & Publications Manufacturing R&D of PEM Fuel Cells Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Workshop Summary Manufacturing R&D for systems that will produce and distribute hydrogen

  8. Clean Economy Network Foundation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Economy Network Foundation Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Clean Economy Network Foundation Name: Clean Economy Network Foundation Address: 1301 Pennsylvania Ave NW, Suite...

  9. Fact #657: January 10, 2011 Record Increase for New Light Vehicle Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy | Department of Energy 7: January 10, 2011 Record Increase for New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy Fact #657: January 10, 2011 Record Increase for New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy The sales-weighted fuel economy average of all light vehicles sold in model year (MY) 2009 was 1.4 miles per gallon (mpg) higher than MY2008. This is the largest annual increase in fuel economy since the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began recording new car fuel economy data in 1975. In addition, the 22.4

  10. Fluid-Structure Interaction Modeling of High-Aspect Ratio Nuclear Fuel Plates Using COMSOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Franklin G [ORNL] [ORNL; Ekici, Kivanc [ORNL] [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Lab is in the research stage of converting its fuel from high-enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium. Due to different physical properties of the new fuel and changes to the internal fuel plate design, the current safety basis must be re-evaluated through rigorous computational analyses. One of the areas being explored is the fluid-structure interaction phenomenon due to the interaction of thin fuel plates (50 mils thickness) and the cooling fluid (water). Detailed computational fluid dynamics and fluid-structure interaction simulations have only recently become feasible due to improved numerical algorithms and advancements in computing technology. For many reasons including the already built-in fluid-structure interaction module, COMSOL has been chosen for this complex problem. COMSOL's ability to solve multiphysics problems using a fully-coupled and implicit solution algorithm is crucial in obtaining a stable and accurate solution. Our initial findings show that COMSOL can accurately model such problems due to its ability to closely couple the fluid dynamics and the structural dynamics problems.

  11. RELAP5 model of the high flux isotope reactor with low enriched fuel thermal flux profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banfield, J.; Mervin, B.; Hart, S.; Ritchie, J.; Walker, S.; Ruggles, A.; Maldonado, G. I. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) currently uses highly enriched uranium (HEU) fabricated into involute-shaped fuel plates. It is desired that HFIR be able to use low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel while preserving the current performance capability for its diverse missions in material irradiation studies, isotope production, and the use of neutron beam lines for basic research. Preliminary neutronics and depletion simulations of HFIR with LEU fuel have arrived to feasible fuel loadings that maintain the neutronics performance of the reactor. This article illustrates preliminary models developed for the analysis of the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the LEU core to ensure safe operation of the reactor. The beginning of life (BOL) LEU thermal flux profile has been modeled in RELAP5 to facilitate steady state simulation of the core cooling, and of anticipated and unanticipated transients. Steady state results are presented to validate the new thermal power profile inputs. A power ramp, slow depressurization at the outlet, and flow coast down transients are also evaluated. (authors)

  12. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass feedstocks were utilized to identify optimized process conditions and selective HDO catalyst for high yield production of hydrocarbons from biomass. In addition to these experimental efforts, in Tasks D and E, we have developed a mathematical optimization framework to identify carbon and energy efficient biomass-to-liquid fuel process designs that integrate the use of different primary energy sources along with biomass (e.g. solar, coal or natural gas) for liquid fuel production. Using this tool, we have identified augmented biomass-to-liquid fuel configurations based on the fast-hydropyrolysis/HDO pathway, which was experimentally studied in this project. The computational approach used for screening alternative process configurations represents a unique contribution to the field of biomass processing for liquid fuel production.

  13. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Design with Two-Dimensional Grading for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL

    2011-05-01

    An engineering design study of the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel is ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The computational models developed during fiscal year 2010 to search for an LEU fuel design that would meet the requirements for the conversion and the results obtained with these models are documented and discussed in this report. Estimates of relevant reactor performance parameters for the LEU fuel core are presented and compared with the corresponding data for the currently operating HEU fuel core. The results obtained indicate that the LEU fuel design would maintain the current performance of the HFIR with respect to the neutron flux to the central target region, reflector, and beam tube locations under the assumption that the operating power for the reactor fueled with LEU can be increased from the current value of 85 MW to 100 MW.

  14. Daniel Wright Junior High School Wins First Place In Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contest - News Releases | NREL Daniel Wright Junior High School Wins First Place In Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car Contest National "Battle of the Brains" continues June 23-24 at the University of Denver June 23, 2006 Photo of Daniel Wright Junior High School team members (from left) Paul Yuan, Zachary Blumenfeld, Brady Richter, Mark Savin and Kevin Malis. Daniel Wright Junior High School team members (from left) Paul Yuan, Zachary Blumenfeld, Brady Richter, Mark Savin and Kevin Malis.

  15. Implications of Low Particulate Matter Emissions on System Fuel Efficiency for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y

    2009-01-01

    Advanced diesel combustion regimes such as High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) offer the benefits of reduced engine out NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Lower PM emissions during advanced combustion reduce the demand on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and can, thereby, reduce the fuel penalty associated with DPF regeneration. In this study, a SiC DPF was loaded and regenerated on a 1.7-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes at different speed and load conditions. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a lean NOX trap (LNT) were also installed in the exhaust stream. Five steady-state speed and load conditions were weighted to estimate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) fuel efficiency. The DPF was loaded using lean-rich cycling with frequencies that resulted in similar levels of NOX emissions downstream of the LNT. The pressure drop across the DPF was measured at a standard point (1500 rpm, 5.0 bar) before and after loading, and a P rise rate was determined for comparison between conventional and advanced combustion modes. Higher PM emissions in conventional combustion resulted in a higher rate of backpressure rise across the DPF at all of the load points leading to more frequent DPF regenerations and higher fuel penalty. The fuel penalty during conventional combustion was 4.2% compared with 3.1% for a mixture of conventional and advanced modes.

  16. Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin

    2010-07-01

    Romania safely air shipped 23.7 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This was the worlds first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in a Type B(U) cask under existing international laws without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. This shipment was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in cooperation with the Romania National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), and the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom. The shipment was transported by truck to and from the respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at a secure nuclear facility in Russia where it will be converted into low enriched uranium. With this shipment, Romania became the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the work, equipment, and approvals that were required to complete this spent fuel air shipment.

  17. Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.; Mosey, G.

    2011-05-01

    Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria. First, this report outlines what these criteria are, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels--electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, which includes steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.

  18. High Performance Mica-based Compressive Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal High Performance Mica-based Compressive Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology In their work, PNNL researchers pointed to two types of leakage source: path I through the mica itself and path II via the interface between the component and mica. In their work, PNNL researchers pointed to two types of leakage source: path I through the mica itself and path II via the interface between the component and

  19. Providing Clean, Low-Cost, Onsite Distributed Generation at Very High Fuel Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Providing Clean, Low-Cost, Onsite Distributed Generation at Very High Fuel Efficiency This project integrated a gas-fred, simple-cycle 100 kilowatt (kW) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra-low nitrogen oxide (NO x ) gas-fred burner (ULNB) to develop a combined heat and power (CHP) assembly called the Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST). Introduction CHP systems can achieve signifcant

  20. MEMS Fuel Cells--Low Temp--High Power Density - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search MEMS Fuel Cells--Low Temp--High Power Density Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryRechargeable batteries presently provide limited energy density and cyclical lifetime for portable power applications, with only incremental improvements forecasted in the foreseeable future. Furthermore, recharging requires access to electrical outlets via a tethered charger. The

  1. Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Production: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security Administration Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel Production: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Reduced Registration Fee for Fuel-Efficient Vehicles A new motor vehicle with a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimated average city fuel economy of at least 40 miles per gallon (as listed at Department of Motor Vehicles website. (Reference District of Columbia Code 50-1501.03

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements When purchasing new state vehicles, the North Carolina Department of Administration must give purchase preference to vehicles with fuel economy ratings that rank among the top 15% of comparable vehicles in their class. (Reference North Carolina General Statutes 143-341(8)(i)

  4. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  5. A Correlation of Diesel Engine Performance with Measured NIR Fuel Characteristics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results indicate a strong tradeoff between maximum rate of cylinder pressure rise (which also correlates to NOx and peak cylinder pressure) and fuel economy for 21 tested fuels.

  6. Models for the Configuration and Integrity of Partially Oxidized Fuel Rod Cladding at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefken, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    Models were designed to resolve deficiencies in the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.2 calculations of the configuration and integrity of hot, partially oxidized cladding. These models are expected to improve the calculations of several important aspects of fuel rod behavior. First, an improved mapping was established from a compilation of PIE results from severe fuel damage tests of the configuration of melted metallic cladding that is retained by an oxide layer. The improved mapping accounts for the relocation of melted cladding in the circumferential direction. Then, rules based on PIE results were established for calculating the effect of cladding that has relocated from above on the oxidation and integrity of the lower intact cladding upon which it solidifies. Next, three different methods were identified for calculating the extent of dissolution of the oxidic part of the cladding due to its contact with the metallic part. The extent of dissolution effects the stress and thus the integrity of the oxidic part of the cladding. Then, an empirical equation was presented for calculating the stress in the oxidic part of the cladding and evaluating its integrity based on this calculated stress. This empirical equation replaces the current criterion for loss of integrity which is based on temperature and extent of oxidation. Finally, a new rule based on theoretical and experimental results was established for identifying the regions of a fuel rod with oxidation of both the inside and outside surfaces of the cladding. The implementation of these models is expected to eliminate the tendency of the SCDAP/RELAP5 code to overpredict the extent of oxidation of the upper part of fuel rods and to underpredict the extent of oxidation of the lower part of fuel rods and the part with a high concentration of relocated material. This report is a revision and reissue of the report entitled, Improvements in Modeling of Cladding Oxidation and Meltdown.

  7. Pebble Fuel Handling and Reactivity Control for Salt-Cooled High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Per; Greenspan, Ehud

    2015-02-09

    This report documents the work completed on the X-PREX facility under NEUP Project 11- 3172. This project seeks to demonstrate the viability of pebble fuel handling and reactivity control for fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs). The research results also improve the understanding of pebble motion in helium-cooled reactors, as well as the general, fundamental understanding of low-velocity granular flows. Successful use of pebble fuels in with salt coolants would bring major benefits for high-temperature reactor technology. Pebble fuels enable on-line refueling and operation with low excess reactivity, and thus simpler reactivity control and improved fuel utilization. If fixed fuel designs are used, the power density of salt- cooled reactors is limited to 10 MW/m3 to obtain adequate duration between refueling, but pebble fuels allow power densities in the range of 20 to 30 MW/m3. This can be compared to the typical modular helium reactor power density of 5 MW/m3. Pebble fuels also permit radial zoning in annular cores and use of thorium or graphite pebble blankets to reduce neutron fluences to outer radial reflectors and increase total power production. Combined with high power conversion efficiency, compact low-pressure primary and containment systems, and unique safety characteristics including very large thermal margins (>500C) to fuel damage during transients and accidents, salt-cooled pebble fuel cores offer the potential to meet the major goals of the Advanced Reactor Concepts Development program to provide electricity at lower cost than light water reactors with improved safety and system performance.This report presents the facility description, experimental results, and supporting simulation methods of the new X-Ray Pebble Recirculation Experiment (X-PREX), which is now operational and being used to collect data on the behavior of slow dense granular flows relevant to pebble bed reactor core designs. The X-PREX facility uses novel digital x-ray tomography methods to track both the translational and rotational motion of spherical pebbles, which provides unique experimental results that can be used to validate discrete element method (DEM) simulations of pebble motion. The validation effort supported by the X-PREX facility provides a means to build confidence in analysis of pebble bed configuration and residence time distributions that impact the neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and safety analysis of pebble bed reactor cores. Experimental and DEM simulation results are reported for silo drainage, a classical problem in the granular flow literature, at several hopper angles. These studies include conventional converging and novel diverging geometries that provide additional flexibility in the design of pebble bed reactor cores. Excellent agreement is found between the X-PREX experimental and DEM simulation results. This report also includes results for additional studies relevant to the design and analysis of pebble bed reactor cores including the study of forces on shut down blades inserted directly into a packed bed and pebble flow in a cylindrical hopper that is representative of a small test reactor.

  8. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Conversion Activities for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renfro, David G; Cook, David Howard; Freels, James D; Griffin, Frederick P; Ilas, Germina; Sease, John D; Chandler, David

    2012-03-01

    This report describes progress made during FY11 in ORNL activities to support converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum (UMo) alloy. With both radial and axial contouring of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current levels achieved with HEU fuel. Studies are continuing to demonstrate that the fuel thermal safety margins can be preserved following conversion. Studies are also continuing to update other aspects of the reactor steady state operation and accident response for the effects of fuel conversion. Technical input has been provided to Oregon State University in support of their hydraulic testing program. The HFIR conversion schedule was revised and provided to the GTRI program. In addition to HFIR conversion activities, technical support was provided directly to the Fuel Fabrication Capability program manager.

  9. Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Roadmap Workshop | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Roadmap Workshop Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Roadmap Workshop Agenda for the 2005 Manufactuirng R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Roadmap Workshop PDF icon mfg_wkshp_agenda.pdf More Documents & Publications Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Workshop Summary President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Proceedings of the National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop: Washington, DC; April 2-3, 2002

  10. Standard for the qualification of high capacity fossil fuel fired plant operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Axtman, W.

    1996-12-31

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, at the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and, in recognition of the needs and benefits associated with standard qualifications of operators of high capacity fossil fuel fired plants, established the Qualifications of High Capacity Fossil Fuel Fired Operator (QFO) Committee in 1994. The purpose of the QFO Committee is to develop and maintain such a standard for operators. This standard includes qualifications, duties, responsibilities and the certification requirements for operators as appropriate to The Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 for fossil fuel fired plants with inputs equal to or greater than 10,000 Btu/hr. This Standard does not cover the certification or validation of fossil plant operating procedures, operating practices, facility performance, nor compliance with any particular permit requirement. This standard recognizes the titles or positions to which any particular fossil plant operator may apply, will vary within a facility. Therefore, this standard does not attempt to identify the individual who is required to obtain certification in any class designation. The fossil plant owner is urged to contact the local jurisdiction in which the fossil plant is located in this regard. This standard does not in itself require certification but rather it serves as a means for complying with federal, state, and local regulations which require operators of fossil fuel fired boilers with inputs equal to or greater than 10,000,000 But/hr to be certified. Safety codes and standards are intended to enhance public health and safety. Revisions to this Standard result from committee considerations of factors such as technological advances, new data, and changing environmental and industry needs. Revisions do not imply that previous editions of this standard were inadequate.

  11. System-of-Systems Framework for the Future Hydrogen-Based Transportation Economy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01

    From a supply chain view, this paper traces the flow of transportation fuels through required systems and addresses the current petroleum-based economy, DOE's vision for a future hydrogen-based transportation economy, and the challenges of a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  12. High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-12-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

  13. High Pressure Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search High Pressure Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Hydrogen storage for transportation is one of the most important problems faced in implementing a "hydrogen economy". Hydrogen can be produced in many ways, but then must be stored for use by fuel cells. The U.S. Department of Energy's

  14. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Clean Cities The mission of Clean Cities is to advance the energy, economic, and environmental security of the United States by supporting local initiatives to adopt practices that reduce the use of petroleum in the transportation sector. Clean Cities carries out this mission through a network of nearly 100 volunteer coalitions, which develop public/private partnerships to promote alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, fuel blends, fuel economy, hybrid vehicles, and idle reduction. Clean

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel-Efficient Green Fleets Policy and Fleet Management Program Development The Alabama Green Fleets Review Committee (Committee) is establishing a Green Fleets Policy (Policy) outlining a procedure for procuring state vehicles based on criteria that includes fuel economy and life cycle costing. State fleet managers must classify their vehicle inventory for compliance with the Policy and submit annual plans for procuring fuel-efficient vehicles. These plans must reflect a 4% annual increase in

  17. Discussing spent nuclear fuel in high school classrooms: addressing public fears through early education

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkel, S.; Sullivan, J.; Jones, S.; Sullivan, K.; Hyland, B.; Pencer, J.; Colton, A.

    2013-07-01

    The Inreach program combines the Deep River Science Academy (DRSA) 'learning through research' approach with state of the art communication technology to bring scientific research to high school classrooms. The Inreach program follows the DRSA teaching model where a university student tutor works on a research project with scientific staff at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. Participating high school classes are located across Canada. The high school students learn about the ongoing research activities via weekly web conferences. In order to engage the students and encourage participation in the conferences, themed exercises linked to the research project are provided to the students. The DRSA's Inreach program uses a cost-effective internet technology to reach a wide audience, in an interactive setting, without anyone leaving their desks or offices. An example Inreach research project is presented here: an investigation of the potential of the Canadian supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) concept to burn transuranic elements (Np, Pu, Am, Cm) to reduce the impact of used nuclear fuel. During this project a university student worked with AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) researchers on technical aspects of the project, and high school students followed their progress and learned about the composition, hazards, and disposition options for used nuclear fuel. Previous projects included the effects of tritium on cellular viability and neutron diffraction measurement of residual stresses in automobile engines.

  18. An Experimental and Chemical Kinetics Study of the Combustion of Syngas and High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santoro, Robers; Dryer, Frederick; Ju, Yiguang

    2013-09-30

    An integrated and collaborative effort involving experiments and complementary chemical kinetic modeling investigated the effects of significant concentrations of water and CO2 and minor contaminant species (methane [CH4], ethane [C2H6], NOX, etc.) on the ignition and combustion of HHC fuels. The research effort specifically addressed broadening the experimental data base for ignition delay, burning rate, and oxidation kinetics at high pressures, and further refinement of chemical kinetic models so as to develop compositional specifications related to the above major and minor species. The foundation for the chemical kinetic modeling was the well validated mechanism for hydrogen and carbon monoxide developed over the last 25 years by Professor Frederick Dryer and his co-workers at Princeton University. This research furthered advance the understanding needed to develop practical guidelines for realistic composition limits and operating characteristics for HHC fuels. A suite of experiments was utilized that that involved a high-pressure laminar flow reactor, a pressure-release type high-pressure combustion chamber and a high-pressure turbulent flow reactor.

  19. US Department of Energy Storage of Spent Fuel and High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandra M Birk

    2010-10-01

    ABSTRACT This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) storage management. Like commercial reactor fuel, DOE's SNF and HLW were destined for the Yucca Mountain repository. In March 2010, the DOE filed a motion with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to withdraw the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain. A new repository is now decades away. The default for the commercial and DOE research reactor fuel and HLW is on-site storage for the foreseeable future. Though the motion to withdraw the license application and delay opening of a repository signals extended storage, DOE's immediate plans for management of its SNF and HLW remain the same as before Yucca Mountain was designated as the repository, though it has expanded its research and development efforts to ensure safe extended storage. This paper outlines some of the proposed research that DOE is conducting and will use to enhance its storage systems and facilities.

  20. PREPARING THE HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR FOR CONVERSION TO LOW ENRICHED URANIUM FUEL ? RETURN TO 100 MW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kevin Arthur [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel as a replacement for the current, high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has been under study since 2006. Reactor performance studies have been completed for conceptual plate designs and show that maintaining reactor performance while converting to LEU fuel requires returning the reactor power to 100 MW from 85 MW. The analyses required to up-rate the reactor power and the methods to perform these analyses are discussed. Comments regarding the regulatory approval process are provided along with a conceptual schedule.

  1. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies FY 2014 Budget Request Rollout to Stakeholders

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4/18/2013 eere.energy.gov Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies FY 2014 Budget Request Rollout Washington, DC April 12, 2013 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies FY 2014 Budget Request Rollout to Stakeholders Dr. Sunita Satyapal Director Fuel Cell Technologies Office U.S. Department of Energy 2 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office Source: US DOE 4/18/2013 eere.energy.gov EERE's National Mission To create American leadership in the global transition to a clean energy economy through: 1) High-impact

  2. A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

    2001-07-01

    Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was found that the ground pellets could be used as an effective NOx control agent for pulverized-coal-fired systems. NOx emissions reductions up to 63% were recorded, when using AFP as a NOx control agent. In addition to performance benefits, economic analyses showed the good economic benefits of AFP fuel. Using equipment manufacturer inputs, and reasonable values for biomass, biosolids and coal fines costs, it was determined that an AFP plant would have good profitability. For cases where biosolids contents were in the range of 50%, the after tax Internal Rates of Return were in the range of 40% to 50%. These are very attractive returns. Besides the baseline analysis for the various AFP formulations tested at pilot scale, sensitivity analysis showed the impact of important parameters on return. From results, it was clear that returns are excellent for a range of parameters that could be expected in practice. Importantly, these good returns are achieved even without incentives related to the emissions control benefits of biomass.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Advanced Vehicle Acquisition and Biodiesel Fuel Use Requirement All gasoline-powered vehicles purchased with state funds must be flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) or fuel-efficient hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Fuel-efficient HEVs are defined as automobiles or light trucks that use a gasoline or diesel engine and an electric motor to provide power and that gain at least a 20% increase in combined U.S. Environmental Protection Agency city-highway fuel economy over the equivalent or most-similar

  4. Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis of Fuel/Matrix Interaction Layers in Highly-Irradiated UMo Dispersion Fuel Plates with Al and AlSi Alloy Matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Brandon D. Miller; Jian Gan; Adam B. Robinson; Pavel Medvedev; James Madden; Dan Wachs; Mitch Meyer

    2014-04-01

    In order to investigate how the microstructure of fuel/matrix-interaction (FMI) layers change during irradiation, different U7Mo dispersion fuel plates have been irradiated to high fission density and then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Specifially, samples from irradiated U7Mo dispersion fuel elements with pure Al, Al2Si and AA4043 (~4.5 wt.%Si) matrices were SEM characterized using polished samples and samples that were prepared with a focused ion beam (FIB). Features not observable for the polished samples could be captured in SEM images taken of the FIB samples. For the Al matrix sample, a relatively large FMI layer develops, with enrichment of Xe at the FMI layer/Al matrix interface and evidence of debonding. Overall, a significant penetration of Si from the FMI layer into the U7Mo fuel was observed for samples with Si in the Al matrix, which resulted in a change of the size (larger) and shape (round) of the fission-gas bubbles. Additionally, solid-fission-product phases were observed to nucleate and grow within these bubbles. These changes in the localized regions of the microstructure of the U7Mo may contribute to changes observed in the macroscopic swelling of fuel plates with AlSi matrices.

  5. Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, J.; Confer, K.

    2011-03-01

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to explore the potential to improve the energy efficiency of spark-ignited engines operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. By taking advantage of the fuel properties of ethanol, such as high compression ratio and high latent heat of vaporization, it is possible to increase efficiency with ethanol blends. Increasing the efficiency with ethanol-containing blends aims to remove a market barrier of reduced fuel economy with E85 fuel blends, which is currently about 30% lower than with petroleum-derived gasoline. The same or higher engine efficiency is achieved with E85, and the reduction in fuel economy is due to the lower energy density of E85. By making ethanol-blends more efficient, the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85 can be reduced. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain components and subsystems as well as overcoming real-world implementation barriers. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise in non-traditional fuels and improving engine system efficiency for the next generation of internal combustion engines. Partnering to combine these knowledge bases was essential towards making progress to reducing the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, usually on a bi-weekly basis, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided substantial hardware support to the project by providing components for the single-cylinder engine experiments, engineering support for hardware modifications, guidance for operational strategies on engine research, and hardware support by providing a flexible multi-cylinder engine to be used for optimizing engine efficiency with ethanol-containing fuels.

  6. Gasoline-like Fuel Effects on High-load, Boosted HCCI Combustion Employing Negative Valve Overlap Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalaskar, Vickey B; Szybist, James P; Splitter, Derek A

    2014-01-01

    In recent years a number of studies have demonstrated that boosted operation combined with external EGR is a path forward for expanding the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation with the negative valve overlap (NVO) valve strategy. However, the effects of fuel composition with this strategy have not been fully explored. In this study boosted HCCI combustion is investigated in a single-cylinder research engine equipped with direct injection (DI) fueling, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), laboratory pressurized intake air, and a fully-variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) valve train. Three fuels with significant compositional differences are investigated: regular grade gasoline (RON = 90.2), 30% ethanol-gasoline blend (E30, RON = 100.3), and 24% iso-butanol-gasoline blend (IB24, RON = 96.6). Results include engine loads from 350 to 800 kPa IMEPg for all fuels at three engine speeds 1600, 2000, and 2500 rpm. All operating conditions achieved thermal efficiency (gross indicated efficiency) between 38 and 47%, low NOX emissions ( 0.1 g/kWh), and high combustion efficiency ( 96.5%). Detailed sweeps of intake manifold pressure (atmospheric to 250 kPaa), EGR (0 25% EGR), and injection timing are conducted to identify fuel-specific effects. The major finding of this study is that while significant fuel compositional differences exist, in boosted HCCI operation only minor changes in operational conditions are required to achieve comparable operation for all fuels. In boosted HCCI operation all fuels were able to achieve matched load-speed operation, whereas in conventional SI operation the fuel-specific knock differences resulted in significant differences in the operable load-speed space. Although all fuels were operable in boosted HCCI, the respective air handling requirements are also discussed, including an analysis of the demanded turbocharger efficiency.

  7. Development of Criteria for Flameholding Tendencies within Premixer Passages for High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Elliot; McDonell, Vincent

    2015-03-31

    Due to increasingly stringent air quality requirements stationary power gas turbines have moved to lean-premixed operation, which reduces pollutant emissions but can result in flashback. Flashback can cause serious damage to the premixer hardware. Curtailing flashback can be difficult with hydrocarbon fuels and becomes even more challenging when hydrogen is used as the fuel. The two main approaches for coping with flashback are either to design a combustor that is resistant to flashback, or to design a premixer that will not anchor a flame if flashback occurs. Even with a well-designed combustor flashback can occur under certain circumstances, thus it is necessary to determine how to avoid flameholding within the premixer passageways of a gas turbine. To this end, an experiment was designed that would determine the flameholding propensities at elevated pressures and temperatures of three different classes of geometric features commonly found in gas turbine premixers, with both natural gas and hydrogen fuel. Experiments to find the equivalence ratio at blow off were conducted within an optically accessible test apparatus with four flameholders: 0.25 and 0.50 inch diameter cylinders, a reverse facing step with a height of 0.25 inches, and a symmetric airfoil with a thickness of 0.25 inches and a chord length of one inch. Tests were carried out at temperatures between 300 K and 750 K, at pressures up to 9 atmospheres. Typical bulk velocities were between 40 and 100 m/s. The effect of airfoils angle of rotation was also investigated. Blow off for hydrogen flames was found to occur at much lower adiabatic flame temperatures than natural gas flames. Additionally it was observed that at high pressures and high turbulence intensities, reactant velocity does not have a noticeable effect on the point of blow off due in large part to corresponding increases in turbulent flame speed. Finally a semi empirical correlation was developed that predicts flame extinction for both natural gas and hydrogen flames.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maps and Data

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    driving-behavior Go Generated_thumb20130810-31804-1jtc9qa Fuel Economy at Various Driving Speeds Generated_thumb20130810-31804-1jtc9qa Trend of fuel efficiency at different speeds, grouped by vehicle age Last update April 2013 View Graph Graph Download Data Generated_thumb20140811-21276-p5mcbz Average Fuel Economy at Different Road Grades Generated_thumb20140811-21276-p5mcbz Trend of Fuel Economy and Consumption at different road grades, for various vehicle types Last update August 2014 View

  9. Achieving High Efficiency at 2010 Emissions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency at 2010 Emissions Achieving High Efficiency at 2010 Emissions Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_nelson.pdf More Documents & Publications High Engine Efficiency at 2010 Emissions Heavy-Duty Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy Exhaust Energy Recovery

  10. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

    2013-09-30

    This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

  11. Fact #850: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed the Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy Gap with Manual Transmissions | Department of Energy 0: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed the Fuel Economy Gap with Manual Transmissions Fact #850: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed the Fuel Economy Gap with Manual Transmissions Historically, manual transmissions have delivered better fuel economy than automatic transmissions. However, improvements in the efficiency of automatic transmissions have closed that gap in recent years. Improved designs

  12. FY2015 Status Report: CIRFT Testing of High-Burnup Used Nuclear Fuel Rods from Pressurized Water Reactor and BWR Environments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    High-burnup spent nuclear fuel cladding has a significant amount of microcracks and hydrides which will reduce the stress intensity required for crack growth.  Characteristics of cladding, fuel...

  13. Development and Demonstration of a New Generation High Efficiency 10kW Stationary Fuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, Thomas Russell

    2013-04-30

    The overall project objective is to develop and demonstrate a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell combined heat and power (PEMFC CHP) system that provides the foundation for commercial, mass produced units which achieve over 40% electrical efficiency (fuel to electric conversion) from 50-100% load, greater than 70% overall efficiency (fuel to electric energy + usable waste heat energy conversion), have the potential to achieve 40,000 hours durability on all major process components, and can be produced in high volumes at under $400/kW (revised to $750/kW per 2011 DOE estimates) capital cost.

  14. Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) with Silicon-Carbide-Matrix Coated-Particle Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C. W.; Terrani, Kurt A; Snead, Lance Lewis; Katoh, Yutai

    2012-01-01

    The FHR is a new reactor concept that uses coated-particle fuel and a low-pressure liquid-salt coolant. Its neutronics are similar to a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The power density is 5 to 10 times higher because of the superior cooling properties of liquids versus gases. The leading candidate coolant salt is a mixture of {sup 7}LiF and BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe) possessing a boiling point above 1300 C and the figure of merit {rho}C{sub p} (volumetric heat capacity) for the salt slightly superior to water. Studies are underway to define a near-term base-line concept while understanding longer-term options. Near-term options use graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel where the graphite is both a structural component and the primary neutron moderator. It is the same basic fuel used in HTGRs. The fuel can take several geometric forms with a pebble bed being the leading contender. Recent work on silicon-carbide-matrix (SiCm) coated-particle fuel may create a second longer-term fuel option. SiCm coated-particle fuels are currently being investigated for use in light-water reactors. The replacement of the graphite matrix with a SiCm creates a new family of fuels. The first motivation behind the effort is to take advantage of the superior radiation resistance of SiC compared to graphite in order to provide a stable matrix for hosting coated fuel particles. The second motivation is a much more rugged fuel under accident, repository, and other conditions.

  15. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-02-29

    The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coals with refuse derived fuels were two-fold. First, the effects of different experimental parameters such as temperature, flow rates and reaction times on the formation of chlorinated organic compounds were studied using the tubular furnace as a reactor followed by GC/MS analysis. Secondly, the effect of fuel/air ratio on the flue gas composition and combustion efficiency were studied with the AFBC system.

  16. Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This study presents full quantification of biodiesels impact on emissions and fuel economy with the inclusion of DPF regeneration events. PDF icon p-21williams.pdf More ...

  17. Analyzing Fuel Saving Opportunities through Driver Feedback Mechanisms...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of maximizing the Synergy between PHEVsEVs and PV Defining Real World Drive Cycles to Support APRF Technology Evaluations Real-World PHEV Fuel Economy Prediction

  18. EERE Success Story-Advancing Hydrogen Infrastructure and Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vehicles (FCEVs) by conducting coordinated technical and market analysis, and evaluating alternative fueling infrastructure that can enable cost reductions and economies of scale. ...

  19. NREL: Energy Analysis - Vehicles and Fuels Research Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis and Integration Evaluates advanced vehicle technologies to determine their impact on fuel economy, vehicle performance, exhaust emissions, and more. Transportation...

  20. INFOGRAPHIC: The Road to Fuel Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The Road to Fuel Efficiency INFOGRAPHIC: The Road to Fuel Efficiency November 27, 2012 - 11:01am Addthis This infographic takes a look at fuel economy standards and how recent improvements in these standards will benefit consumers and the U.S. economy. | Infographic by <a href="/node/379579">Sarah Gerrity</a>. This infographic takes a look at fuel economy standards and how recent improvements in these standards will benefit consumers and the U.S. economy. | Infographic by

  1. Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon deer08watson.pdf More Documents & Publications Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and Engine Wear Reducing Lubricant Ash ...

  2. Qualitative assessment of the ignition of highly flammable fuels by primary explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elischer, P.P.; De Yong, L.

    1983-06-01

    An assessment of the ignition of fuel/air mixtures and of fabrics soaked with different fuels (ethanol, n-hexane and diethyl ether) by primary explosives has been carried out.

  3. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel. Midwestern high-level radioactive waste transportation project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  4. High Burn-Up Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study 15134

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L; Scaglione, John M

    2015-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) approach to successfully demonstrate the controllable fatigue fracture on high burnup (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a normal vibration mode. CIRFT enables examination of the underlying mechanisms of SNF system dynamic performance. Due to the inhomogeneous composite structure of the SNF system, the detailed mechanisms of the pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interactions and the stress concentration effects at the pellet-pellet interface cannot be readily obtained from a CIRFT system measurement. Therefore, finite element analyses (FEAs) are used to translate the global moment-curvature measurement into local stress-strain profiles for further investigation. The major findings of CIRFT on the HBU SNF are as follows: SNF system interface bonding plays an important role in SNF vibration performance. Fuel structure contributes to SNF system stiffness. There are significant variations in stress and curvature of SNF systems during vibration cycles resulting from segment pellets and clad interactions. SNF failure initiates at the pellet-pellet interface region and appears to be spontaneous.

  5. Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis -- Complete Design Selection for the Pebble Bed Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

    2010-09-01

    The Deep-Burn (DB) concept focuses on the destruction of transuranic nuclides from used light water reactor fuel. These transuranic nuclides are incorporated into TRISO coated fuel particles and used in gas-cooled reactors with the aim of a fractional fuel burnup of 60 to 70% in fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA). This high performance is expected through the use of multiple recirculation passes of the fuel in pebble form without any physical or chemical changes between passes. In particular, the concept does not call for reprocessing of the fuel between passes. In principle, the DB pebble bed concept employs the same reactor designs as the presently envisioned low-enriched uranium core designs, such as the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR-400). Although it has been shown in the previous Fiscal Year (2009) that a PuO2 fueled pebble bed reactor concept is viable, achieving a high fuel burnup, while remaining within safety-imposed prescribed operational limits for fuel temperature, power peaking and temperature reactivity feedback coefficients for the entire temperature range, is challenging. The presence of the isotopes 239-Pu, 240-Pu and 241-Pu that have resonances in the thermal energy range significantly modifies the neutron thermal energy spectrum as compared to a standard, UO2-fueled core. Therefore, the DB pebble bed core exhibits a relatively hard neutron energy spectrum. However, regions within the pebble bed that are near the graphite reflectors experience a locally softer spectrum. This can lead to power and temperature peaking in these regions. Furthermore, a shift of the thermal energy spectrum with increasing temperature can lead to increased absorption in the resonances of the fissile Pu isotopes. This can lead to a positive temperature reactivity coefficient for the graphite moderator under certain operating conditions. The effort of this task in FY 2010 has focused on the optimization of the core to maximize the pebble discharge burnup level, while retaining its inherent safety characteristics. Using generic pebble bed reactor cores, this task will perform physics calculations to evaluate the capabilities of the pebble bed reactor to perform utilization and destruction of LWR used-fuel transuranics. The task will use established benchmarked models, and will introduce modeling advancements appropriate to the nature of the fuel considered (high TRU content and high burn-up).

  6. Local government energy management: liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as a motor vehicle fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.

    1983-10-01

    The retrofit or conversion of automotive engines to operate on liquid petroleum gas (LPG) or propane fuel is one of many potentially cost-effective strategies for reducing a local government's annual fleet operating and maintenance costs. The cost effectiveness of an LPG conversion decision is highly dependent on the initial conversion cost, vehicle type, current and projected fuel costs, vehicle fuel economy (miles per gallon), and yearly average mileage. A series of plots have been developed which indicate simple paybacks for the conversion of several vehicle types (passenger car, small and standard pickups, and two and three ton trucks) over a wide range of fuel economies and annual usage patterns. A simple payback of less than three years can be achieved for vehicles with poor fuel economy and high annual use. The figures provided in this report may be used by fleet management personnel as a screening tool to identify those passenger cars, small or standard pickups, or light duty trucks which are candidates for LPG conversion. In addition to examining the benefits of an LPG conversion, local governments should also consider the competing energy management strategies of downsizing, and the acquisition of fuel efficient, diesel powered vehicles.

  7. Green Economy Toolbox | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Economy Toolbox Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Green Economy Toolbox AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Sector:...

  8. Economy Through Product Diversity: Integrated Biorefineries ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy Through Product Diversity: Integrated Biorefineries Economy Through Product Diversity: Integrated Biorefineries Achieving national energy and climate goals will require an...

  9. Where's the Hydrogen Economy? | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Where's the Hydrogen Economy? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Where's the Hydrogen Economy? AgencyCompany Organization: Canada Library of Parliament...

  10. Use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy. One of the important requirements for Gen. IV High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) is passive safety. Currently all the HTGR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. [1] The decay heat first is transferred to core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. Similar concepts have been widely used in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs, advanced light water reactors like AP1000. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area. RVACS tends to be less expensive. However, it limits the largest achievable power level for modular HTGRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface). When the relative decay heat removal capability is reduced, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annual designs with internal reflector can mitigate this effect therefore further increase the power. Another way to increase power is to increase power density. However, it is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides safety, HTGRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor designs. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of HTGRs. Forsberg [2] pointed out other disadvantages of using RVACS such as conflicting functional requirements for the reactor vessel and scaling distortion for integral effect test of the system performance. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume based passive decay removal system, call Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS has been widely used in SFR designs and in liquid salt cooled high temperature reactors. The containment cooling system in BWR is another example of volume based decay removal systems. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one in reactor side and another is in environment side. DRACS has the benefits of increasing the power as needed (scalability) and modularity. This paper introduces the concept of using DRACS to enhance HTGRs passive safety and economy.

  11. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Quarterly report, October - December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, W.-P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-12-01

    The objectives of this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the effect of S0{sub 2} on the formation of chlorine during combustion processes was examined. To simulate the conditions used in the AFBC system, experiments were conducted in a quartz tube in an electrically heated furnace. The principle analytical technique used for identification of the products from this study was GC/MS. The evolved gas was trapped by an absorbent and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The preliminary results indicate an inhibiting effect of S0{sub 2} on the Deacon Reaction. Secondly, information on the evolution of chlorine, sulfur and organic compounds from coals 95031 and 95011 were studied with the AFBC system. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Method of Fabrication of High Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-09-09

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O(LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  13. Accelerated high-temperature tests with spent PWR and BWR fuel rods under dry storage conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porsch, G.; Fleisch, J.; Heits, B.

    1986-09-01

    Accelerated high-temperature tests on 25 intact pressurized water and boiling water reactor rods were conducted for more than 16 months at 400, 430, and 450/sup 0/C in a helium gas atmosphere. The pretest characterized rods were examined by nondestructive methods after each of the three test cycles. No cladding breaches occurred and the creep deformation remained below 1%, which was in good agreement with model calculations. The test atmospheres were analyzed for /sup 85/Kr and tritium. The /sup 85/Kr concentrations were negligible and the tritium release agreed with the theoretical predictions. It can be concluded that for Zircaloy-clad fuel, cladding temperatures up to 450/sup 0/C are acceptable for dry storage in inert cover gases.

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Cell Motor Vehicle Tax Credit NOTE: This incentive originally expired on December 31, 2014, but was retroactively extended through December 31, 2016, by H.R. 2029. A tax credit of up to $8,000 is available for the purchase of qualified light-duty fuel cell vehicles, depending on the vehicle's fuel economy. Tax credits are also available for medium- and heavy-duty fuel cell vehicles; credit amounts are based on vehicle weight. Vehicle manufacturers must follow the procedures as published in

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Excise Tax Distributors who sell or use motor fuel, including special fuels, are subject to an excise tax of $0.26 per gallon. Motor fuels that are not commonly sold or measured by the gallon and are used in motor vehicles on public highways are taxed according to their gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). The Georgia Department of Revenue may adjust tax rates annually based on vehicle fuel economy and the Consumer Price Index through July 1, 2018. A GGE of compressed natural gas (CNG) must be at

  16. Energy Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Economy Energy Economy June 24, 2015 Energy Department Issues Remaining $1.8 Billion in Loan Guarantees for Vogtle Advanced Nuclear Energy Project To further support the construction of two advanced nuclear reactors at the Alvin W. Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, the Department of Energy announced today it will issue $1.8 billion in loan guarantees to three subsidiaries of the Municipal Electric Authority of Georgia (MEAG Power). May 1, 2015 Jon Weers (left), Debbie Brodt-Giles (center), and

  17. Depletion Analysis of Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Loaded with LEU/Thorium Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonat Sen; Gilles Youinou

    2013-02-01

    Thorium based fuel has been considered as an option to uranium-based fuel, based on considerations of resource utilization (Thorium is more widely available when compared to Uranium). The fertile isotope of Thorium (Th-232) can be converted to fissile isotope U-233 by neutron capture during the operation of a suitable nuclear reactor such as High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). However, the fertile Thorium needs a fissile supporter to start and maintain the conversion process such as U-235 or Pu-239. This report presents the results of a study that analyzed the thorium utilization in a prismatic HTGR, namely Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) that was designed by General Atomics (GA). The collected for the modeling of this design come from Chapter 4 of MHTGR Preliminary Safety Information Document that GA sent to Department of Energy (DOE) on 1995. Both full core and unit cell models were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1 and Serpent 1.1.18. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were set to match the spectral index between unit cell and full core domains. It was found that for the purposes of this study an adjusted unit cell model is adequate. Discharge isotopics and one-group cross-sections were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations

  18. Uranium Transport in a High-Throughput Electrorefiner for EBR-II Blanket Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Hua, Thanh Q.; Vaden, DeeEarl

    2004-01-15

    A unique high-throughput Mk-V electrorefiner is being used in the electrometallurgical treatment of the metallic sodium-bonded blanket fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. Over many cycles, it transports uranium back and forth between the anodic fuel dissolution baskets and the cathode tubes until, because of imperfect adherence of the dendrites, it all ends up in the product collector at the bottom. The transport behavior of uranium in the high-throughput electrorefiner can be understood in terms of the sticking coefficients for uranium adherence to the cathode tubes in the forward direction and to the dissolution baskets in the reverse direction. The sticking coefficients are inferred from the experimental voltage and current traces and are correlated in terms of a single parameter representing the ratio of the cell current to the limiting current at the surface acting as the cathode. The correlations are incorporated into an engineering model that calculates the transport of uranium in the different modes of operation. The model also uses the experimentally derived electrorefiner operating maps that describe the relationship between the cell voltage and the cell current for the three principal transport modes. It is shown that the model correctly simulates the cycle-to-cycle variation of the voltage and current profiles. The model is used to conduct a parametric study of electrorefiner throughput rate as a function of the principal operating parameters. The throughput rate is found to improve with lowering of the basket rotation speed, reduction of UCl{sub 3} concentration in salt, and increasing the maximum cell current or cut-off voltage. Operating conditions are identified that can improve the throughput rate by 60 to 70% over that achieved at present.

  19. Development of High Performance Heavy Duty Engine Oils | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy of High Performance Heavy Duty Engine Oils Development of High Performance Heavy Duty Engine Oils FAME biodiesel will likely remain a part of the global diesel pool for the coming years and the use of biodiesel can lead to lubrication issues. PDF icon deer09_lauterwasser.pdf More Documents & Publications The Road to Improved Heavy Duty Fuel Economy Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Oil

  20. Fact #848: November 24, 2014 Nearly Three-Fourths of New Cars have Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy above 25 Miles per Gallon | Department of Energy 8: November 24, 2014 Nearly Three-Fourths of New Cars have Fuel Economy above 25 Miles per Gallon Fact #848: November 24, 2014 Nearly Three-Fourths of New Cars have Fuel Economy above 25 Miles per Gallon In 1975, only three percent of all new cars had a fuel economy above 25 miles per gallon (mpg), but by 2014, 73% did. Great improvements were made in the fuel economy of cars from 1975 to 1985, so that by 1985 most of the cars produced

  1. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francesco Venneri; Chang-Keun Jo; Jae-Man Noh; Yonghee Kim; Claudio Filippone; Jonghwa Chang; Chris Hamilton; Young-Min Kim; Ji-Su Jun; Moon-Sung Cho; Hong-Sik Lim; MIchael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Vincent Descotes; Brian Boer

    2010-09-01

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450MWth DB-HTRs. The TRISO fuel microanalysis covers the gas pressure buildup in a coated fuel particle including helium production, the thermo-mechanical behavior of a CFP, the failure probabilities of CFPs, the temperature distribution in a CPF, and the fission product (FP) transport in a CFP and a graphite. In Chapter VIII, it contains the core design and analysis of sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) with deep burn HTR reactor. It considers a synergistic combination of the DB-MHR and an SFR burner for a safe and efficient transmutation of the TRUs from LWRs. Chapter IX describes the design and analysis results of the self-cleaning (or self-recycling) HTR core. The analysis is considered zero and 5-year cooling time of the spent LWR fuels.

  2. Applications of high-temperature solar heat to the production of selected fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beall, S.E. Jr.; Bamberger, C.E.; Goeller, H.A.

    1981-07-01

    An attempt is made to judge whether solar heat in the 500 K to 2500 K temperature range might be economical for some important fuel- and chemical-production processes. Previous work in related areas is reviewed and the chemicals aluminum oxide (and bauxite), calcium sulfate (and gypsum), and calcium oxide (lime) chosen for detailed study. In addition to reviewing the energy needs of the more common bulk chemicals, several innovative processes requiring heat in the 1500 to 2500 K range were investigated. Hydrogen production by several thermochemical means, carbon monoxide production by thermochemical and direct thermal dissociation, and nitrogen fixation by direct thermal reaction of nitrogen and oxygen in air were considered. The engineering feasibility of the processes is discussed. The problem of matching the conventional and innovative processes to a high-temperature solar supply is studied. Some solar-thermal power plants of current designs are examined and several advanced concepts of highly concentrating systems are considered for very high-temperature applications. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations Box-type trailers that are at least 53 feet long and the heavy-duty tractors that pull these trailers must be equipped with fuel-efficient tires and aerodynamic trailer devices that improve fuel economy and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Tractors and trailers subject to the regulation must either use U.S. Environmental Protection Agency SmartWay certified tractors and trailers or retrofit existing equipment with SmartWay verified

  4. International Partnership for a Hydrogen Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Presentation summarizing the vision, mission, goals and plans for DOE's International Partnership for a Hydrogen Economy "

  5. Impact of Policy on Fuels RD&D (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gearhart, C.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview of fuel economy and emissions policy and its relationship with fuel research, development, and deployment (RD&D). Solutions explored include biofuels and increased engine efficiency.

  6. DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 3: HIGH...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pre-Solicitation Workshop, March 16-17, 2010 PDF icon fuelcellpre-solicitationwkshophitempsofc.pdf More Documents & Publications DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop -...

  7. Status and Outlook for the U.S. Non-Automotive Fuel Cell Industry: Impacts of Government Policies and Assessment of Future Opportunities

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Non-Automotive Fuel Cell Industry, Government Policy and Future Opportunities. Fuel cells (FCs)are considered essential future energy technologies by developed and developing economies alike. Several

  8. Durability of Low Platinum Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polevaya, Olga; Blanchet, Scott; Ahluwalia, Rajesh; Borup, Rod; Mukundan, Rangachary

    2014-03-19

    Understanding and improving the durability of cost-competitive fuel cell stacks is imperative to successful deployment of the technology. Stacks will need to operate well beyond todays state-of-the-art rated power density with very low platinum loading in order to achieve the cost targets set forth by DOE ($15/kW) and ultimately be competitive with incumbent technologies. An accelerated cost-reduction path presented by Nuvera focused on substantially increasing power density to address non-PGM material costs as well as platinum. The study developed a practical understanding of the degradation mechanisms impacting durability of fuel cells with low platinum loading (?0.2mg/cm2) operating at high power density (?1.0W/cm2) and worked out approaches for improving the durability of low-loaded, high-power stack designs. Of specific interest is the impact of combining low platinum loading with high power density operation, as this offers the best chance of achieving long-term cost targets. A design-of-experiments approach was utilized to reveal and quantify the sensitivity of durability-critical material properties to high current density at two levels of platinum loading (the more conventional 0.45 mgPt.cm1 and the much lower 0.2 mgPt.cm2) across several cell architectures. We studied the relevance of selected component accelerated stress tests (AST) to fuel cell operation in power producing mode. New stress tests (NST) were designed to investigate the sensitivity to the addition of electrical current on the ASTs, along with combined humidity and load cycles and, eventually, relate to the combined city/highway drive cycle. Changes in the cathode electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and average oxygen partial pressure on the catalyst layer with aging under AST and NST protocols were compared based on the number of completed cycles. Studies showed elevated sensitivity of Pt growth to the potential limits and the initial particle size distribution. The ECSA loss was correlated with the upper potential limit in the cycle tests, although the performance degradation was found to be a strong function of initial Pt loading. A large fraction of the voltage degradation was found due to increased mass transfer overpotentials, especially in the lower Pt loading cells. Increased mass transfer overpotentials were responsible for a large fraction of the voltage degradation at high current densities. Analysis of the impedance and polarization data indicated O2 diffusion in the aged electrode ionomer to be the main source of the increased mass transfer overpotentials. Results from the experimental parametric studies were used to inform and calibrate newly developed durability model, simulating lifetime performance of the fuel cell under variety of load-cycle protocols, electrode loadings and throughout wide range of operating conditions, including elevated-to-3.0A/cm2 current densities. Complete durability model included several sub-models: platinum dissolution-and-growth as well as reaction-diffusion model of cathode electrode, applied sequentially to study the lifetime predictions of ECSA and polarization performance in the ASTs and NSTs. These models establish relations between changes in overpotentials, ECSA and oxygen mass transport in fuel cell cathodes. The model was calibrated using single cells with land-channel and open flowfield architectures. The model was validated against Nuvera Orion (open flowfield) short stack data in the load cycle durability tests. The reaction-diffusion model was used to correlate the effective mass transfer coefficients for O2 diffusion in cathode ionomer and separately in gas pores with the operating conditions (pressure, temperature, gas velocity in flow field and current density), Pt loading, and ageing related growth in Pt particles and thinning of the electrode. Achievements of both modeling and experimental objectives were demonstrated in a full format, subscale stacks operating in a simulated but fully realistic ambient environment, using system-compatible operating protocols.

  9. Assessment of capital requirements for alternative fuels infrastructure under the PNGV program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stork, K.; Singh, M.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an assessment of the capital requirements of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a new Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels include two petroleum-based fuels (reformulated gasoline and low-sulfur diesel) and four alternative fuels (methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen). This study develops estimates of cumulative capital needs for establishing fuels production and distribution infrastructure to accommodate 3X vehicle fuel needs. Two levels of fuel volume-70,000 barrels per day and 1.6 million barrels per day-were established for meeting 3X-vehicle fuel demand. As expected, infrastructure capital needs for the high fuel demand level are much higher than for the low fuel demand level. Between fuel production infrastructure and distribution infrastructure, capital needs for the former far exceed those for the latter. Among the four alternative fuels, hydrogen bears the largest capital needs for production and distribution infrastructure.

  10. A Fission Gas Release Model for High-Burnup LWR ThO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Yun; Yi Yuan; Kazimi, Mujid S.; Ballinger, Ronald G.; Pilat, Edward E.

    2002-06-15

    Fission gas release in thoria-urania fuel has been investigated by creating a specially modified FRAPCON-3 code. Because of the reduced buildup of {sup 239}Pu and a flatter distribution of {sup 233}U, the new model THUPS (Thoria-Urania Power Shape) was developed to calculate the radial power distribution, including the effects of both plutonium and {sup 233}U. Additionally, a new porosity model for the rim region was introduced at high burnup. The mechanisms of fission gas release in ThO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} fuel are expected to be essentially similar to those of UO{sub 2} fuel; therefore, the general formulations of the existing fission gas release models in FRAPCON-3 were retained. However, the gas diffusion coefficient was adjusted to a lower level to account for the smaller observed release fraction in the thoria-based fuel. To model the accelerated fission gas release at high burnup properly, a new athermal fission gas release model was introduced. The modified version of FRAPCON-3 was calibrated using the measured fission gas release data from the light water breeder reactor. Using the new model to calculate the gas release in typical pressurized water reactor hot pins gives data that indicate that the ThO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} fuel will have considerably lower fission gas release above a burnup of 50 MWd/kg HM.

  11. NREL Develops High-Speed Scanner to Monitor Fuel Cell Material Defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    This highlight describes results of recent work in which polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell electrodes with intentionally introduced known defects were imaged and analyzed using a fuel cell scanner recently developed at NREL. The highlight is being developed for the September 2015 Alliance S&T Board meeting.

  12. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Characteristics on High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Kukwon; Han, Manbae; Wagner, Robert M; Sluder, Scott

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to understand fuel property effects on low temperature combustion (LTC) processes in a light-duty diesel engine. These types of combustion modes are often collectively referred to as high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). A statistically designed set of research fuels, the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE), were used for this study. Engine conditions consistent with low speed cruise (1500 rpm, 2.6 bar BMEP) were chosen for investigating fuel property effects on HECC operation in a GM 1.9-L common rail diesel engine. The FACE fuel matrix includes nine combinations of fuel properties including cetane number (30 to 55), aromatic contents (20 to 45 %), and 90 % distillation temperature (270 to 340 C). HECC operation was achieved with high levels of EGR and adjusting injection parameters, e.g. higher fuel rail pressure and single injection event, which is also known as Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. Engine performance, pollutant emissions, and details of the combustion process are discussed in this paper. Cetane number was found to significantly affect the combustion process with variations in the start of injection (SOI) timing, which revealed that the ranges of SOI timing for HECC operation and the PM emission levels were distinctively different between high cetane number (55) and low cetane number fuels (30). Low cetane number fuels showed comparable levels of regulated gas emissions with high cetane number fuels and had an advantage in PM emissions.

  13. Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Workshop Summary | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Workshop Summary Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Workshop Summary This report summarizes the results of the Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Workshop held July 13-14, 2005 in Washington, D.C. PDF icon manufacturing_workshop_summary.pdf More Documents & Publications Manufacturing R&D of PEM Fuel Cells Breakout Group 2: Membrane Electrode Assemblies Breakout Group 3: Water Management

  14. A High-Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System A High-Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat Introduction In order for metal products to have desired properties, most metal is thermally processed at a high temperature one or more times under a controlled atmosphere. Many different thermal operations are used including oxide reduction, annealing, brazing, sintering, and carburizing. A mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen gas often provides a reducing

  15. Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) With Pebble Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip Casey Durst; Mark Schanfein

    2012-08-01

    The following is a guidance document from a series prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), to assist facility designers and operators in implementing international Safeguards-by-Design (SBD). SBD has two main objectives: (1) to avoid costly and time consuming redesign work or retrofits of new nuclear fuel cycle facilities and (2) to make the implementation of international safeguards more effective and efficient at such facilities. In the long term, the attainment of these goals would save industry and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) time, money, and resources and be mutually beneficial. This particular safeguards guidance document focuses on pebble fuel high temperature gas reactors (HTGR). The purpose of the IAEA safeguards system is to provide credible assurance to the international community that nuclear material and other specified items are not diverted from peaceful nuclear uses. The safeguards system consists of the IAEAs statutory authority to establish safeguards; safeguards rights and obligations in safeguards agreements and additional protocols; and technical measures implemented pursuant to those agreements. Of foremost importance is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the IAEA, concluded pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). According to a 1992 IAEA Board of Governors decision, countries must: notify the IAEA of a decision to construct a new nuclear facility as soon as such decision is taken; provide design information on such facilities as the designs develop; and provide detailed design information based on construction plans at least 180 days prior to the start of construction, and on "as-built" designs at least 180 days before the first receipt of nuclear material. Ultimately, the design information will be captured in an IAEA Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ), prepared by the facility operator, typically with the support of the facility designer. The IAEA will verify design information over the life of the project. This design information is an important IAEA safeguards tool. Since the main interlocutor with the IAEA in each country is the State Regulatory Authority/SSAC (or Regional Regulatory Authority, e.g. EURATOM), the responsibility for conveying this design information to the IAEA falls to the State Regulatory Authority/SSAC.

  16. REGIONAL BINNING FOR CONTINUED STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Lee Poe, Jr

    1998-10-01

    In the Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR) (Reference 1), DOE decided to analyze the environmental consequences of continuing to store the commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at 72 commercial nuclear power sites and DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at five Department of Energy sites by region rather than by individual site. This analysis assumes that three commercial facilities pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine-Mile Point, and Dresden and Moms--share common storage due to their proximity to each other. The five regions selected for this analysis are shown on Figure 1. Regions 1, 2, and 3 are the same as those used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in their regulatory oversight of commercial power reactors. NRC Region 4 was subdivided into two regions to more appropriately define the two different climates that exist in NRC Region 4. A single hypothetical site in each region was assumed to store all the SNF and HLW in that region. Such a site does not exist and has no geographic location but is a mathematical construct for analytical purposes. To ensure that the calculated results for the regional analyses reflect appropriate inventory, facility and material degradation, and radionuclide transport, the waste inventories, engineered barriers, and environmental conditions for the hypothetical sites were developed from data for each of the existing sites within the given region. Weighting criteria to account for the amount and types of SNF and HLW at each site were used in the development of the environmental data for the regional site, such that the results of the analyses for the hypothetical site were representative of the sum of the results of each actual site if they had been modeled independently. This report defines the actual site data used in development of this hypothetical site, shows how the individual site data was weighted to develop the regional site, and provides the weighted data used in the CSAR analysis. It is divided into Part 1 that defines time-dependent releases from each regional site, Part 2 that defines transport conditions through the groundwater, and Part 3 that defines transport through surface water and populations using the surface waters for drinking.

  17. Turning Bacteria into Fuel: Cyanobacteria Designed for Solar-Powered Highly Efficient Production of Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is engineering a type of photosynthetic bacteria that efficiently produce fatty acidsa fuel precursor for biofuels. This type of bacteria, called Synechocystis, is already good at converting solar energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) into a type of fatty acid called lauric acid. ASU has modified the organism so it continuously converts sunlight and CO2 into fatty acidsoverriding its natural tendency to use solar energy solely for cell growth and maximizing the solar-to-fuel conversion process. ASUs approach is different because most biofuels research focuses on increasing cellular biomass and not on excreting fatty acids. The project has also identified a unique way to convert the harvested lauric acid into a fuel that can be easily blended with existing transportation fuels.

  18. High-Areal-Density Fuel Assembly in Direct-Drive Cryogenic Implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangster, T.C.; Goncharov, V.N.; Radha, P.B.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Betti, R.; Craxton, R.S.; Delettrez, J.A.; Edgell, D.H.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Harding, D.R.; Jacobs-Perkins, D.; Knauer, J.P.; Marshall, F.J.; McCrory, R.L.; McKenty, P.W.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Regan, S.P.; Seka, W.; Short, R.W.; Skupsky, S.; Soures, J.M.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.

    2008-05-27

    The first observation of ignition-relevant areal-density deuterium from implosions of capsules with cryogenic fuel layers at ignition-relevant adiabats is reported. The experiments were performed on the 60-beam, 30-kJUV OMEGA Laser System [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Neutron-averaged areal densities of 202+-7 mg/cm^2 and 182+-7 mg/cm^2 (corresponding to estimated peak fuel densities in excess of 100 g/cm^3) were inferred using an 18-kJ direct-drive pulse designed to put the converging fuel on an adiabat of 2.5. These areal densities are in good agreement with the predictions of hydrodynamic simulations indicating that the fuel adiabat can be accurately controlled under ignition-relevant conditions.

  19. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Success story about using waste water treatment gas for hydrogen production at UC Irvine. Presented by Jack Brouwer, UC Irvine, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  20. Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) results from subprompt critical experiments with uranyl fluoride fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappiello, C.C.; Butterfield, K.B.; Sanchez, R.G.; Bounds, J.A.; Kimpland, R.H.; Damjanovich, R.P.; Jaegers, P.J.

    1997-08-01

    Experiments were performed to measure a variety of parameters for SHEBA: behavior of the facility during transient and steady-state operation; characteristics of the SHEBA fuel; delayed-critical solution height vs solution temperature; initial reactor period and reactivity vs solution height; calibration of power level vs reactor power instrumentation readings; flux profile in SHEBA; radiation levels and neutron spectra outside the assembly for code verification and criticality alarm and dosimetry purposes; and effect on reactivity of voids in the fuel.

  1. Impacts of a high-burnup spent fuel on a geological disposal system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, D.K.; Lee, Y.; Lee, J.Y.; Choi, H.J.; Choi, J.W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon-city (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The influence of a burnup increase of a spent nuclear fuel on a deep geological disposal system was evaluated in this study. First, the impact of a burnup increase on each aspect related to thermal and nuclear safety concerns was quantified. And then, the tunnel length, excavation volume, and the raw materials for a cast insert, copper, bentonite, and backfill needed to constitute a disposal system were comprehensively analyzed based on the spent fuel inventory to generate 1 Terawatt-year (TWa), to establish the overall effects and consequences on a geological disposal. As a result, impact of a burnup increase on the criticality safety and radiation shielding was shown to be negligible. The disposal area, however, is considerably affected because of a higher thermal load. And, it is reasonable to use a canister such as the Korean Reference Disposal Canister (KDC-1) containing 4 spent fuels up to 50 GWD/MtU, and to use a canister containing 3 spent fuels beyond 50 GWD/MtU. Although a considerable increased, 33 % in the tunnel length and 30 % in the excavation volume, was observed as the burnup increases from 50 to 60 GWD/MtU, because a decrease in the canister needs can offset an increase in the excavation volume, it can be concluded that a burnup increase of a spent fuel is not a critical concern for a geological disposal of a spent fuel. (authors)

  2. Fuel additives: Excluding aviation fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning compositions, applications and performance of additives in fuels. Evaluations and environmental testing of additives in automotive, diesel, and boiler fuels are discussed. Additive effects on air pollution control, combustion stability, fuel economy and fuel storage are presented. Aviation fuel additives are covered in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Fuel additives: Excluding aviation fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning compositions, applications and performance of additives in fuels. Evaluations and environmental testing of additives in automotive, diesel, and boiler fuels are discussed. Additive effects on air pollution control, combustion stability, fuel economy and fuel storage are presented. Aviation fuel additives are covered in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 231 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Program Update Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update Discusses hardware and system development activities to achieve in-vehicle fuel economy and emissions performance improvements compared to a production baseline vehicle. PDF icon deer12_confer.pdf More Documents & Publications Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle

  5. High Temperature Fuel Cell Performance High Temperature Fuel Cell Performance of of Sulfonated Sulfonated Poly(phenylene Poly(phenylene) Proton) Proton Conducting Conducting Polymers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Sandia National Laboratories to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Honolulu, Hawaii October 8, 2004.

  6. Expected environments in high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel repositories in salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Rickertsen, L.D., Graham, R.F.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the expected environments associated with high-level waste (HLW) and spent fuel (SF) repositories in salt formations. These environments include the thermal, fluid, pressure, brine chemistry, and radiation fields predicted for the repository conceptual designs. In this study, it is assumed that the repository will be a room and pillar mine in a rock-salt formation, with the disposal horizon located approx. 2000 ft (610 m) below the surface of the earth. Canistered waste packages containing HLW in a solid matrix or SF elements are emplaced in vertical holes in the floor of the rooms. The emplacement holes are backfilled with crushed salt or other material and sealed at some later time. Sensitivity studies are presented to show the effect of changing the areal heat load, the canister heat load, the barrier material and thickness, ventilation of the storage room, and adding a second row to the emplacement configuration. The calculated thermal environment is used as input for brine migration calculations. The vapor and gas pressure will gradually attain the lithostatic pressure in a sealed repository. In the unlikely event that an emplacement hole will become sealed in relatively early years, the vapor space pressure was calculated for three scenarios (i.e., no hole closure - no backfill, no hole closure - backfill, and hole closure - no backfill). It was assumed that the gas in the system consisted of air and water vapor in equilibrium with brine. A computer code (REPRESS) was developed assuming that these changes occur slowly (equilibrium conditions). The brine chemical environment is outlined in terms of brine chemistry, corrosion, and compositions. The nuclear radiation environment emphasized in this report is the stored energy that can be released as a result of radiation damage or crystal dislocations within crystal lattices.

  7. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakan Yilmaz; Mark Christie; Anna Stefanopoulou

    2010-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a true Flex Fuel Vehicle capable of running on any blend of ethanol from 0 to 85% with reduced penalty in usable vehicle range. A research and development program, targeting 10% improvement in fuel economy using a direct injection (DI) turbocharged spark ignition engine was conducted. In this project a gasoline-optimized high-technology engine was considered and the hardware and configuration modifications were defined for the engine, fueling system, and air path. Combined with a novel engine control strategy, control software, and calibration this resulted in a highly efficient and clean FFV concept. It was also intended to develop robust detection schemes of the ethanol content in the fuel integrated with adaptive control algorithms for optimized turbocharged direct injection engine combustion. The approach relies heavily on software-based adaptation and optimization striving for minimal modifications to the gasoline-optimized engine hardware system. Our ultimate objective was to develop a compact control methodology that takes advantage of any ethanol-based fuel mixture and not compromise the engine performance under gasoline operation.

  8. Ionic liquids and ionic liquid acids with high temperature stability for fuel cell and other high temperature applications, method of making and cell employing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Wu; Belieres, Jean-Philippe; Yoshizawa, Masahiro

    2011-01-11

    Disclosed are developments in high temperature fuel cells including ionic liquids with high temperature stability and the storage of inorganic acids as di-anion salts of low volatility. The formation of ionically conducting liquids of this type having conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems is described. The stability of the di-anion configuration is shown to play a role in the high performance of the non-corrosive proton-transfer ionic liquids as high temperature fuel cell electrolytes. Performance of simple H.sub.2(g) electrolyte/O.sub.2(g) fuel cells with the new electrolytes is described. Superior performance both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200.degree. C. are achieved. Both neutral proton transfer salts and the acid salts with HSO.sup.-.sub.4 anions, give good results, the bisulphate case being particularly good at low temperatures and very high temperatures. The performance of all electrolytes is improved by the addition of a small amount of involatile base of pK.sub.a value intermediate between those of the acid and base that make the bulk electrolyte. The preferred case is the imidazole-doped ethylammonium hydrogensulfate which yields behavior superior in all respects to that of the industry standard phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  9. Feasibility analyses for HEU to LEU fuel conversion of the LAUE Langivin Institute (ILL) High Flux Reactor (RHF).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, J.; Tentner. A.; Bergeron, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-08-19

    The High Flux Reactor (RHF) of the Laue Langevin Institute (ILL) based in Grenoble, France is a research reactor designed primarily for neutron beam experiments for fundamental science. It delivers one of the most intense neutron fluxes worldwide, with an unperturbed thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}/s in its reflector. The reactor has been conceived to operate at a nuclear power of 57 MW but currently operates at 52 MW. The reactor currently uses a Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context, most worldwide research and test reactors have already started a program of conversion to the use of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on a mixture of uranium and molybdenum (UMo) is expected to allow the conversion of compact high performance reactors like the RHF. This report presents the results of reactor design, performance and steady state safety analyses for conversion of the RHF from the use of HEU fuel to the use of UMo LEU fuel. The objective of this work was to show that is feasible, under a set of manufacturing assumptions, to design a new RHF fuel element that could safely replace the HEU element currently used. The new proposed design has been developed to maximize performance, minimize changes and preserve strong safety margins. Neutronics and thermal-hydraulics models of the RHF have been developed and qualified by benchmark against experiments and/or against other codes and models. The models developed were then used to evaluate the RHF performance if LEU UMo were to replace the current HEU fuel 'meat' without any geometric change to the fuel plates. Results of these direct replacement analyses have shown a significant degradation of the RHF performance, in terms of both neutron flux and cycle length. Consequently, ANL and ILL have collaborated to investigate alternative designs. A promising candidate design has been selected and studied, increasing the total amount of fuel without changing the external plate dimensions by relocating the burnable poison. In this way, changes required in the fuel element are reasonably small. With this new design, neutronics analyses have shown that performance could be maintained at a high level: 2 day decrease of cycle length (to 47.5 days at 58.3 MW) and 1-2% decrease of brightness in the cold and hot sources in comparison to the current typical operation. In addition, studies have shown that the thermal-hydraulic and shutdown margins for the proposed LEU design would satisfy technical specifications.

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maps and Data

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    system-efficiency Go Generated_thumb20140708-12454-1nsa79k U.S. Light-Duty Fuel Consumption and Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) Generated_thumb20140708-12454-1nsa79k Trend of per capita VMT and fuel use in U.S. light-duty vehicles from 1970-2012 Last update July 2014 View Graph Graph Download Data Generated_thumb20141209-960-hxf1gg Clean Cities Petroleum Savings by Fuel Economy and VMT Reductions Generated_thumb20141209-960-hxf1gg Trend of displacement by fuel economy improvement and VMT reduction

  11. Azerbaijan-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Azerbaijan-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Azerbaijan-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services Name Azerbaijan-UNEP Green Economy Advisory...

  12. China-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services Jump to: navigation, search Logo: China-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services Name China-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services AgencyCompany...

  13. NEUTRALIZATIONS OF HIGH ALUMINUM LOW URANIUM USED NUCLEAR FUEL SOLUTIONS CONTAINING GADOLINIUM AS A NEUTRON POISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2011-06-08

    H-Canyon will begin dissolving High Aluminum - Low Uranium (High Al/Low U) Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) following approval by DOE which is anticipated in CY2011. High Al/Low U is an aluminum/enriched uranium UNF with small quantities of uranium relative to aluminum. The maximum enrichment level expected is 93% {sup 235}U. The High Al/Low U UNF will be dissolved in H-Canyon in a nitric acid/mercury/gadolinium solution. The resulting solution will be neutralized and transferred to Tank 39H in the Tank Farm. To confirm that the solution generated could be poisoned with Gd, neutralized, and discarded to the Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste (HLW) system without undue nuclear safety concerns the caustic precipitation of simulant solutions was examined. Experiments were performed with three simulant solutions representative of the H-Canyon estimated concentrations in the final solutions after dissolution. The maximum U, Gd, and Al concentration were selected for testing from the range of solution compositions provided. Simulants were prepared in three different nitric acid concentrations, ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 M. The simulant solutions were neutralized to four different endpoints: (1) just before a solid phase was formed (pH 3.5-4), (2) the point where a solid phase was obtained, (3) 0.8 M free hydroxide, and (4) 1.2 M free hydroxide, using 50 wt % sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The settling behavior of the neutralized solutions was found to be slower compared to previous studies, with settling continuing over a one week period. Due to the high concentration of Al in these solutions, precipitation of solids was observed immediately upon addition of NaOH. Precipitation continued as additional NaOH was added, reaching a point where the mixture becomes almost completely solid due to the large amount of precipitate. As additional NaOH was added, some of the precipitate began to redissolve, and the solutions neutralized to the final two endpoints mixed easily and had expected densities of typical neutralized waste. Based on particle size and scanning electron microscopy analyses, the neutralized solids were found to be homogeneous and less than 20 microns in size. The majority of solids were less than 4 microns in size. Compared to previous studies, a larger percentage of the Gd was found to precipitate in the partially neutralized solutions (at pH 3.5-4). In addition the Gd:U mass ratio was found to be at least 1.0 in all of the solids obtained after partial or full neutralization. The hydrogen to U (H:U) molar ratios for two accident scenarios were also determined. The first was for transient neutralization and agitator failure. Experimentally this scenario was determined by measuring the H:U ratio of the settled solids. The minimum H:U molar ratio for solids from fully neutralized solutions was 388:1. The second accident scenario is for the solids drying out in an unagitiated pump box. Experimentally, this scenario was determined by measuring the H:U molar ratio in centrifuged solids. The minimum H:U atom ratios for centrifuged precipitated solids was 250:1. It was determined previously that a 30:1 H:Pu atom ratio was sufficient for a 1:1 Gd:Pu mass ratio. Assuming a 1:1 equivalence with {sup 239}Pu, the results of these experiments show Gd is a viable poison for neutralizing U/Gd solutions with the tested compositions.

  14. Constructing a Cleaner Economy Info Graphic

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An overview of the impact that the clean energy economy is having on the U.S. construction industry.

  15. Solar Thermal Energy Storage Device: Hybrid Nanostructures for High-Energy-Density Solar Thermal Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-09

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a thermal energy storage device that captures energy from the sun; this energy can be stored and released at a later time when it is needed most. Within the device, the absorption of sunlight causes the solar thermal fuels photoactive molecules to change shape, which allows energy to be stored within their chemical bonds. A trigger is applied to release the stored energy as heat, where it can be converted into electricity or used directly as heat. The molecules would then revert to their original shape, and can be recharged using sunlight to begin the process anew. MITs technology would be 100% renewable, rechargeable like a battery, and emissions-free. Devices using these solar thermal fuelscalled Hybrisolcan also be used without a grid infrastructure for applications such as de-icing, heating, cooking, and water purification.

  16. Accident source terms for light-water nuclear power plants using high-burnup or MOX fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salay, Michael; Gauntt, Randall O.; Lee, Richard Y.; Powers, Dana Auburn; Leonard, Mark Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Representative accident source terms patterned after the NUREG-1465 Source Term have been developed for high burnup fuel in BWRs and PWRs and for MOX fuel in a PWR with an ice-condenser containment. These source terms have been derived using nonparametric order statistics to develop distributions for the timing of radionuclide release during four accident phases and for release fractions of nine chemical classes of radionuclides as calculated with the MELCOR 1.8.5 accident analysis computer code. The accident phases are those defined in the NUREG-1465 Source Term - gap release, in-vessel release, ex-vessel release, and late in-vessel release. Important differences among the accident source terms derived here and the NUREG-1465 Source Term are not attributable to either fuel burnup or use of MOX fuel. Rather, differences among the source terms are due predominantly to improved understanding of the physics of core meltdown accidents. Heat losses from the degrading reactor core prolong the process of in-vessel release of radionuclides. Improved understanding of the chemistries of tellurium and cesium under reactor accidents changes the predicted behavior characteristics of these radioactive elements relative to what was assumed in the derivation of the NUREG-1465 Source Term. An additional radionuclide chemical class has been defined to account for release of cesium as cesium molybdate which enhances molybdenum release relative to other metallic fission products.

  17. Assessment for advanced fuel cycle options in CANDU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morreale, A.C.; Luxat, J.C. [McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W. Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Friedlander, Y. [AMEC-NSS Ltd., 700 University Ave. 4th Floor, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X6 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The possible options for advanced fuel cycles in CANDU reactors including actinide burning options and thorium cycles were explored and are feasible options to increase the efficiency of uranium utilization and help close the fuel cycle. The actinide burning TRUMOX approach uses a mixed oxide fuel of reprocessed transuranic actinides from PWR spent fuel blended with natural uranium in the CANDU-900 reactor. This system reduced actinide content by 35% and decreased natural uranium consumption by 24% over a PWR once through cycle. The thorium cycles evaluated used two CANDU-900 units, a generator and a burner unit along with a driver fuel feedstock. The driver fuels included plutonium reprocessed from PWR, from CANDU and low enriched uranium (LEU). All three cycles were effective options and reduced natural uranium consumption over a PWR once through cycle. The LEU driven system saw the largest reduction with a 94% savings while the plutonium driven cycles achieved 75% savings for PWR and 87% for CANDU. The high neutron economy, online fuelling and flexible compact fuel make the CANDU system an ideal reactor platform for many advanced fuel cycles.

  18. Webinar: "Upgrading Renewable and Sustainable Carbohydrates for the Production of High Energy Density Fuels"

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BIOMASS PROGRAM Webinar: "Upgrading Renewable and Sustainable Carbohydrates For the Production of High Energy Density Fuels" December 12, 2012 Biomass Program Overview: Lindsay Southerland, BCS, Incorporated, representing DOE Hydrocarbon Presentation: Pete Silks and John Gordon, LANL 2 | Biomass Program eere.energy.gov Biomass Program Vision, Mission, and Strategic Goal A viable, sustainable domestic biomass industry that: * Produces renewable biofuels,

  19. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to Aromatic Fuels and High Value Chemicals Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Upgrading of Thermochemical Intermediates to Hydrocarbons: Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to Aromatic Fuels and High Value Chemicals 25 March, 2015 Technology Area Review: Thermochemical Conversion Randy Cortright PhD Virent, Inc WBS: 2.3.1.406 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information © Virent 2015 - Virent Slide 2 Goal Statement Project Goal -Develop and demonstrate integration of Virent's lignocellulosic biomass

  20. Aid for electrical contacting of high-temperature fuel cells and method for production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Ines; Schillig, Cora

    2014-03-18

    A double-sided adhesive metal-based tape for use as contacting aid for SOFC fuel cells is provided. The double-sided metal-based adhesive tape is suitable for simplifying the construction of cell bundles. The double-sided metal-based adhesive tape is used for electrical contacting of the cell connector with the anode and for electrical contacting of the interconnector of the fuel cells with the cell connector. A method for producing the double-sided adhesive metal-base tape is also provided.