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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

A high sensitivity fiber optic macro-bend based gas flow rate transducer for low flow rates: Theory, working principle, and static calibration  

SciTech Connect

A novel fiber optic macro-bend based gas flowmeter for low flow rates is presented. Theoretical analysis of the sensor working principle, design, and static calibration were performed. The measuring system consists of: an optical fiber, a light emitting diode (LED), a Quadrant position sensitive Detector (QD), and an analog electronic circuit for signal processing. The fiber tip undergoes a deflection in the flow, acting like a cantilever. The consequent displacement of light spot center is monitored by the QD generating four unbalanced photocurrents which are function of fiber tip position. The analog electronic circuit processes the photocurrents providing voltage signal proportional to light spot position. A circular target was placed on the fiber in order to increase the sensing surface. Sensor, tested in the measurement range up to 10 l min{sup -1}, shows a discrimination threshold of 2 l min{sup -1}, extremely low fluid dynamic resistance (0.17 Pa min l{sup -1}), and high sensitivity, also at low flow rates (i.e., 33 mV min l{sup -1} up to 4 l min{sup -1} and 98 mV min l{sup -1} from 4 l min{sup -1} up to 10 l min{sup -1}). Experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. The high sensitivity, along with the reduced dimension and negligible pressure drop, makes the proposed transducer suitable for medical applications in neonatal ventilation.

Schena, Emiliano; Saccomandi, Paola; Silvestri, Sergio [Center for Integrated Research, Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentation, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Rome (Italy)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Spatially resolved measurements of kinematics and flow-induced birefringence in worm-like micellar solutions undergoing high rate deformations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Worm-like micellar solutions are model non-Newtonian systems on account of their well understood linear viscoelastic behavior. Their high deformation rate, non-linear rheological response, however, remains inadequately ...

Ober, Thomas J. (Thomas Joseph)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Historical river flow rates for dose calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Annual average river flow rates are required input to the LADTAP Computer Code for calculating offsite doses from liquid releases of radioactive materials to the Savannah River. The source of information on annual river flow rates used in dose calculations varies, depending on whether calculations are for retrospective releases or prospective releases. Examples of these types of releases are: Retrospective - releases from routine operations (annual environmental reports) and short term release incidents that have occurred. Prospective - releases that might be expected in the future from routine or abnormal operation of existing or new facilities (EIS`s, EID`S, SAR`S, etc.). This memorandum provides historical flow rates at the downstream gauging station at Highway 301 for use in retrospective dose calculations and derives flow rate data for the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water treatment plants.

Carlton, W.H.

1991-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

4

High Redshift Supernova Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a sample of 42 supernovae detected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on-board the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey to measure the rate of core collapse supernovae to z~0.7 and type Ia supernovae to z~1.6. This significantly increases the redshift range where supernova rates have been estimated from observations. The rate of core collapse supernovae can be used as an independent probe of the cosmic star formation rate. Based on the observations of 17 core collapse supernovae, we measure an increase in the core collapse supernova rate by a factor of 1.6 in the range 0.3rate. The increase in the rate in this redshift range in consistent with recent measurements of the star formation rate derived from UV-luminosity densities and IR datasets. Based on 25 type Ia supernovae, we find a SN Ia rate that is a factor 3-5 higher at z~1 compared to earlier estimates at lower redshifts (zrate traces a higher star formation rate at redshifts z>1 compared to low redshift. At higher redshift (z>1), we find a suggested decrease in the type Ia rate with redshift. This evolution of the Ia rate with redshift is consistent with a type Ia progenitor model where there is a substantial delay between the formation of the progenitor star and the explosion of the supernova. Assuming that the type Ia progenitor stars have initial main sequence masses 3-8 M_Sun, we find that 5-7% of the available progenitors explode as type Ia supernovae.

Tomas Dahlen; Louis-Gregory Strolger; Adam G. Riess; Bahram Mobasher; Ranga-Ram Chary; Christopher J. Conselice; Henry C. Ferguson; Andrew S. Fruchter; Mauro Giavalisco; Mario Livio; Piero Madau; Nino Panagia; John L. Tonry

2004-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

5

Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steel. Part 2, Water flow rate effects in high sulfur plate steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a high- sulfur ASTM A302-B plate steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 22.8--27.3 mm, and depths of 10.5--14.1 mm. The experiments were initiated in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O{sub 2} < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243{degrees}C, under loading conditions ({Delta}K, R, cyclic frequency) conducive to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) under quasi-stagnant conditions. Following fatigue testing under quasi-stagnant conditions where EAC was observed, the specimens were then fatigue tested under conditions where active water flow of either 1.7 m/sec. or 4.7 m/sec. was applied parallel to the crack. Earlier experiments on unclad surface-cracked specimens of the same steel exhibited EAC under quasi- stagnant conditions, but water flow rates at 1.7 m/sec. and 5.0 m/sec. parallel to the crack mitigated EAC. In the present experiments on clad specimens, water flow at approximately the same as the lower of these velocities did not mitigate EAC, and a free stream velocity approximately the same as the higher of these velocities resulted in sluggish mitigation of EAC. The lack of robust EAC mitigation was attributed to the greater crack surface roughness in the cladding interfering with flow induced within the crack cavity. An analysis employing the computational fluid dynamics code, FIDAP, confirmed that frictional forces associated with the cladding crack surface roughness reduced the interaction between the free stream and the crack cavity.

James, L.A; Lee, H.B.; Wire, G.L.; Novak, S.R. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States); Cullen, W.H. [Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

High compression rate text summarization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis focuses on methods for condensing large documents into highly concise summaries, achieving compression rates on par with human writers. While the need for such summaries in the current age of information overload ...

Branavan, Satchuthananthavale Rasiah Kuhan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Foolproof completions for high rate production wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Operators, especially those managing production from deepwater reservoirs, are striving to produce hydrocarbons at higher and higher rates without exposing the wells to completion failure risk. To avoid screen failures, recent studies have favored gravel pack (GP) and high rate water pack (HRWP) completions over high-permeability fracturing (HPF), known in the vernacular as a frac&pack (FP) for very high rate wells. While a properly designed GP completion may prevent sand production, it does not stop formation fines migration, and, over time, fines accumulation in the GP will lead to increasing completion skin. Although, and not always, the skin can be removed by acidizing, it is not practical to perform repeated acid treatments on deepwater wells, particularly those with subsea wellheads, and the alternative has been to subject the completion to increasingly high drawdown, accepting a high skin effect. A far better solution is to use a HPF completion. Of course the execution of a successful HPF is not a trivial exercise, and frequently, there is a steep learning curve for such a practice. This work explains the importance to HPF completions of the well trajectory through the interval to be hydraulically fractured, for production, not execution, reasons. A new model quantifies the effect of the well inclination on the connectivity between the fracture and the well via perforations. Guidelines based on the maximum target production rate, including forecasts of multiphase flow, are provided to size the HPF completion to avoid common completion failures that may result from high fluid rate and/or fines movement. Skin model will be developed for both vertical and deviated wells. Once the HPF is properly designed and executed, the operators should end up with a long term low skin good completion quality well. The well will be safely produced at the maximum flow rates, with no need for well surveillance and monitoring.

Tosic, Slavko

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Onset Mechanism of Strain-Rate-Induced Flow Stress Upturn  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The strain-rate response of flow stress in a plastically deforming crystal is formulated through a stress-sensitive dislocation mobility model that can be evaluated by atomistic simulation. For the flow stress of a model ...

Fan, Yue

9

Single chamber fuel cells: Flow geometry, rate and composition considerations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Four different single chamber fuel cell designs were compared using propane-air gas mixtures. Gas flow around the electrodes has a significant influence on the open circuit voltage and the power density of the cell. The strong influence of flow geometry is likely due to its effect on gas composition, particularly on the oxygen chemical potential at the two electrodes as a result of gas mixing. The chamber design which exposes the cathode first to the inlet gas was found to yield the best performance at lower flow rates, while the open tube design with the electrodes equally exposed to the inlet gas worked best at higher flow rates.

Stefan, Ionel C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2003-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

10

High differential pressure, radial flow characteristics of gun perforations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tubing conveyed completion techniques are being utilized more frequently than in the past, because of the apparent advantages derived from underbalanced perforating. These advantages include cleaner perforations, reductions of additional stimulation treatments and reduced completion times. This paper presents the results of a laboratory study of gun perforations made under high differential pressure, radial flow conditions. In this study, Berea sandstone cores, modified to permit radial flow, are used to determine the relationship between perforation characteristics and the time-dependent pressure differential between pore pressure (i.e. formation pressure) and ''well bore'' pressure during the completion process. The primary perforation characteristic investigated (Radial Flow Ratio) is defined as the ratio of the perforated flow rate to the flow rate of the unperforated core under identical conditions. The perforated flow rate is measured in radial flow after the perforation has been made under various time-dependent pressure differentials.

Regalbuto, J.A.; Riggs, R.S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Property:FirstWellFlowRate | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Property Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Property:FirstWellFlowRate Jump to: navigation, search Property Name FirstWellFlowRate Property Type Quantity Use this type to express a quantity of flow rate by mass. The default unit is kilogram per second (kg/s). Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Kilogram per second - 1 kg/s,kilogram per second Kilogram per minute - 60 kg/min,kilogram per minute Kilogram per hour - 3600 kg/hour,kilogram per hour,kg/h Kilogram per day - 86400 kg/day,kilogram per day Liter per second - 1.0000000001 L/s,l/s,liters per second,l/sec,L/sec,liters/sec,Liters/sec Gallon per minute - 15.85032 gal/min,gallons per minute,gpm,gallons/min,Gallons/min Barrel per minute - 0.00839 bar/min,barrels per minute,barrel/min,barrels/min,Barrels/min

12

Monitoring downhole pressures and flow rates critical for underbalanced drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

True underbalanced drilling, and not just flow drilling, requires thorough engineering and monitoring of downhole pressures and flow rates to ensure the formations are drilled without formation damage. Underbalanced drilling involves intentionally manipulating the bottom hole circulating pressure so that it is less than static reservoir pressure. This underbalanced pressure condition allows reservoir fluids to enter the well bore while drilling continues, preventing fluid loss and many causes of formation damage. Applied correctly, this technology can address problems of formation damage, lost circulation, and poor penetration rates. Another important benefit of drilling underbalanced is the ability to investigate the reservoir in real time. The paper discusses the reasons for under balanced drilling, creating underbalance, well site engineering, fluids handling, rotating flow divertor injection gas, survey techniques, data acquisition, operations, maintaining under-balance, routine drilling, rate of penetration, misconceptions, and economics.

Butler, S.D.; Rashid, A.U.; Teichrob, R.R. [Flow Drilling Engineering Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

13

Available Technologies: Super High Rate Sputter Deposition  

Andre’ Anders of Berkeley Lab has developed a very high deposition rate magnetron sputtering wherein the surface of a target and the race track zone area of the ...

14

High precision high flow range control valve  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluid control valve is described having a valve housing having first and second valve housing openings for the ingress and egress of fluid through the control valve. Disposed within a void formed by the control valve is a sleeve having at least one sleeve opening to permit the flow of fluid therethrough. A flow restricter travels within the sleeve to progressively block off the sleeve opening and thereby control flow. A fluid passageway is formed between the first valve housing opening and the outer surface of the sleeve. A second fluid passageway is formed between the inside of the sleeve and the second valve housing opening. Neither fluid passageway contains more than one 90.degree. turn. In the preferred embodiment only one of the two fluid passageways contains a 90.degree. turn. In another embodiment, the control valve housing is bifurcated by a control surface having control surface opening disposed therethrough. A flow restricter is in slidable contact with the control surface to restrict flow of fluid through the control surface openings.

McCray, John A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Method and apparatus for determining quality and mass flow rate of flowing steam  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for determining the quality and the two-phase mass flow rate of steam containing both liquid and vapor components and flowing in an orifice-containing steam line. The apparatus consists of: steam sampling means for drawing off through an orifice-containing sample conduit from the steam line a sample of the steam having substantially the same quality as the line steam, means for measuring the temperature in the sample conduit, means for measuring the static pressure in the sample conduit, means for measuring the differential pressure across the sample conduit orifice, means connected to the sample conduit for measuring the two-phase mass flow rate of the drawn off sample of steam, such that the sample steam quality may be determined by means of an equation relating the measured sample conduit temperature, static pressure, differential pressure, and two-phase mass flow rate, the determined sample steam quality being substantially the same as the desired line steam quality, means for measuring the temperature in the steam line, means for measuring the static pressure in the steam line, and means for measuring the differential pressure across the steam line orifice, such that the line steam two-phase mass flow rate may be determined by means of an equation relating the measured steam line temperature, static pressure, and differential pressure, and the line steam quality which is substantially the same as the determined sample steam quality.

Huang, W.-S.; Mims, D.S.; Allen, R.S.

1986-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

16

Predicting enhanced mass flow rates in gas microchannels using nonkinetic models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Different nonkinetic approaches are adopted in this paper towards theoretically predicting the experimentally observed phenomenon of enhanced mass flow rates accompanying pressure-driven rarefied gas flows through ...

Dadzie, S. Kokou

17

Collision Rates of Cloud Droplets in Turbulent Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct numerical simulations of an evolving turbulent flow field have been performed to explore how turbulence affects the motion and collisions of cloud droplets. Large numbers of droplets are tracked through the flow field and their positions, ...

Charmaine N. Franklin; Paul A. Vaillancourt; M. K. Yau; Peter Bartello

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Method and apparatus for controlling the flow rate of mercury in a flow system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for increasing the mercury flow rate to a photochemical mercury enrichment utilizing an entrainment system comprises the steps of passing a carrier gas over a pool of mercury maintained at a first temperature T1, wherein the carrier gas entrains mercury vapor; passing said mercury vapor entrained carrier gas to a second temperature zone T2 having temperature less than T1 to condense said entrained mercury vapor, thereby producing a saturated Hg condition in the carrier gas; and passing said saturated Hg carrier gas to said photochemical enrichment reactor.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (Reading, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Protected Loss of Flow Transient Simulation (Quicktime format, High  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering Analysis > Videos Engineering Analysis > Videos Engineering Analysis: Protected Loss of Flow Transient Simulation Quicktime format Quicktime Format - High Bandwidth | Size: 25.94 MB | Bit Rate: 1148 kbps Keywords: flow transient, plot, EBR-II, SAS4A, SASSYS-1, passive safety, protected loss of flow, PLOF, shutdown heat removal test, SHRT-17, SHRT17 Elevation plot showing detailed top of core temperatures in experimental assembly XX09 during a protected loss of flow transient in EBR-II. Surrounding assemblies are depicted using fuel average temperatures. Results show excellent decay heat removal capability of sodium through natural circulation and exceptionally low transient temperatures with metallic fuel. :: Please wait until video loads completely :: Closed Captioning Transcript

20

High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics. 4 figs.

Hardt, D.E.; Lee, S.G.

1996-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Performance assessment of mass flow rate measurement capability in a large scale transient two-phase flow test system  

SciTech Connect

Mass flow is an important measured variable in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Large uncertainties in mass flow measurements in the LOFT piping during LOFT coolant experiments requires instrument testing in a transient two-phase flow loop that simulates the geometry of the LOFT piping. To satisfy this need, a transient two-phase flow loop has been designed and built. The load cell weighing system, which provides reference mass flow measurements, has been analyzed to assess its capability to provide the measurements. The analysis consisted of first performing a thermal-hydraulic analysis using RELAP4 to compute mass inventory and pressure fluctuations in the system and mass flow rate at the instrument location. RELAP4 output was used as input to a structural analysis code SAPIV which is used to determine load cell response. The computed load cell response was then smoothed and differentiated to compute mass flow rate from the system. Comparison between computed mass flow rate at the instrument location and mass flow rate from the system computed from the load cell output was used to evaluate mass flow measurement capability of the load cell weighing system. Results of the analysis indicate that the load cell weighing system will provide reference mass flows more accurately than the instruments now in LOFT.

Nalezny, C.L.; Chapman, R.L.; Martinell, J.S.; Riordon, R.P.; Solbrig, C.W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

High-rate capable organic radical cathodes for lithium rechargeable...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-rate capable organic radical cathodes for lithium rechargeable batteries Title High-rate capable organic radical cathodes for lithium rechargeable batteries Publication Type...

23

Overcharge Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Overcharge Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates and Low Temperature Title Overcharge Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates and Low Temperature...

24

Overcharge Protection for Lihium Batteries at High Rates and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Overcharge Protection for Lihium Batteries at High Rates and Low Termperatures Title Overcharge Protection for Lihium Batteries at High Rates and Low Termperatures Publication Type...

25

Numerical models for high beta magnetohydrodynamic flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fundamentals of numerical magnetohydrodynamics for highly conducting, high-beta plasmas are outlined. The discussions emphasize the physical properties of the flow, and how elementary concepts in numerical analysis can be applied to the construction of finite difference approximations that capture these features. The linear and nonlinear stability of explicit and implicit differencing in time is examined, the origin and effect of numerical diffusion in the calculation of convective transport is described, and a technique for maintaining solenoidality in the magnetic field is developed. Many of the points are illustrated by numerical examples. The techniques described are applicable to the time-dependent, high-beta flows normally encountered in magnetically confined plasmas, plasma switches, and space and astrophysical plasmas. 40 refs.

Brackbill, J.U.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Filters for High Rate Pulse Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce a filter-construction method for pulse processing that differs in two respects from that in standard optimal filtering, in which the average pulse shape and noise-power spectral density are combined to create a convolution filter for estimating pulse heights. First, the proposed filters are computed in the time domain, to avoid periodicity artifacts of the discrete Fourier transform, and second, orthogonality constraints are imposed on the filters, to reduce the filtering procedure's sensitivity to unknown baseline height and pulse tails. We analyze the proposed filters, predicting energy resolution under several scenarios, and apply the filters to high-rate pulse data from gamma-rays measured by a transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeter.

B. K. Alpert; R. D. Horansky; D. A. Bennett; W. B. Doriese; J. W. Fowler; A. S. Hoover; M. W. Rabin; J. N. Ullom

2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

27

Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report, summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns.

Information Center

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Perturbations in high-velocity gas flow  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High velocity explosive products or other low-density gases are often used to accelerate metal plates to high velocities. Perturbations in otherwise uniform flow configurations are sometimes sufficient to cause interactions that can rapidly destroy the integrity of the plates. In this study perturbations were introduced in uniform gas flows of detonated HE products and strongly shocked polyethylene, CH{sub 2}. The primary diagnostics were smear-camera records obtained when these gases impinged on layers of plexiglas separated by small argon-filled gaps. These records show shock-arrival times at various levels and thus determine not only the size of the perturbation but also its strength. Perturbations in HE gases running into H{sub 2} and in CH{sub 2} into H{sub 2} have been studied. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations are in excellent agreement with the experiments, and enable one to study details of the flow not possible from experimental results. 1 ref., 5 figs.

Harvey, W.B.; McQueen, R.G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Flow Rate Measurement Using {sup 99m}Tc Radiotracer Method in a Pipe Installation  

SciTech Connect

Flow rate is a significant parameter for managing processes in chemical processing plants and water processing facility. Accurate measurement of the flow rate allows engineers to monitor the delivery of process material, which in turn impacts a plant's capacity to produce their products. One of the available methods for determining the flow rate of a process material is by introducing a radiotracer to the system that mimics the material's flow pattern. In this study, a low activity Technetium-99m radioisotope was injected into a water piping setup and the 2'' x 2'' NaI (Tl) detectors were calibrated to detect spectrum peaks at specific points of the pipe installation. Using pulse velocity method, water flow rate was determined to be 11.3 litres per minute. For the sampling method, at different pump capacity, the flow rate was 15.0 litres per minute.

Sipaun, S. M.; Bakar, A. Q. Abu; Othman, N.; Shaari, M. R.; Adnan, M. A. K. [Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Bangi (Malaysia); Yusof, J. Mohd; Demanah, R. [Waste and Environmental Technology Divison, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Bangi (Malaysia)

2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

30

High resolution, high rate x-ray spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It is an object of the invention to provide a pulse processing system for use with detected signals of a wide dynamic range which is capable of very high counting rates, with high throughput, with excellent energy resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. It is a further object to provide a pulse processing system wherein the fast channel resolving time is quite short and substantially independent of the energy of the detected signals. Another object is to provide a pulse processing system having a pile-up rejector circuit which will allow the maximum number of non-interfering pulses to be passed to the output. It is also an object of the invention to provide new methods for generating substantially symmetrically triangular pulses for use in both the main and fast channels of a pulse processing system.

Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.

1983-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

31

PERFORMANCE OF A SINGLE-ROW HEAT EXCHANGER AT LOW IN-TUBE FLOW RATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PERFORMANCE OF A SINGLE-ROW HEAT EXCHANGER AT LOW IN-TUBE FLOW RATES A Thesis Submitted April 1995 #12;PERFORMANCE OF A SINGLE-ROW HEAT EXCHANGER AT LOW IN-TUBE FLOW RATES by Xiangwei Zhao Abstract The steady and time-dependentbehavior of a single-row heat exchanger with water and air in the in

Sen, Mihir

32

Acoustic measurement of the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well flow rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On May 31, 2010, a direct acoustic measurement method was used to quantify fluid leakage rate from the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well prior to removal of its broken riser. This method utilized an acoustic imaging sonar and ...

Camilli, Richard

33

The effect of water flow rate upon the environmentally-assisted cracking response of a low-alloy steel  

SciTech Connect

Effect of water flow rate on the environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) response of a high-sulfur ferritic steel was studied at 243C. In contrast to earlier studies with compact-type specimens, this study employed relatively large tight semi-elliptical surface cracks tested under generally linear-elastic conditions. Flow velocities parallel to the crack as low as 1.68 {minus} 1.84 m/s were effective in mitigating EAC.

James, L.A.; Wire, G.L. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., West Mifflin, PA (United States). Bettis Atomic Power Lab.; Cullen, W.H. [Materials Engineering Associates, Lanham, MD (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Dynamic Behavior of Polymer at High Strain Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Measurement and Modeling of High Strain-rate Deformation. Presentation Title ...

35

High Rate Performing lithium-ion Batteries - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Nanostructured Materials for Rechargeable Batteries and for Supercapacitors, II. Presentation Title, High Rate Performing lithium-ion Batteries.

36

High Heating Rate Thermal Desorption for Molecular Surface ...  

High Heating Rate Thermal Desorption for Molecular Surface Sampling Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing ...

37

An optical transducer measuring low gas flow rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An optical transducer was developed and tested for measuring the rate of biogas production in the range of 0 to 400 ml min/sup -1/ with an average absolute accuracy of 4.6% for 12.75 mm tube and 2.2% for the 22.2 mm diameter tube. In a comparison test of the optical transducer with a displacement gasometer, biogas measurements agreed within 2%.

Fischer, J.R.; Potter, J.H.; Iannotti, E.L.; Hulse, M.M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

D0 Silicon Upgrade: Calculating Mass Flow Rates at Sub-Sonic Conditions Trhough Venturis (FT-4052-H & FT-4053-H) and an Orifice Plate (F)-2019-H)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this engineering note is to explain the method involved in calculating the mass flow rates through venturis and orifice plates at sub-sonic conditions. In particular, the mass flow rate calculations are required for two FLOW-DYNE venturi flow meters, serial no. 35821 and no. 35822, and an orifice plate flow meter, serial no. 35823. The two venturis, FT-4052-H and FT-4053-H, are located in the D-Zero VLPC valve box at the refrigerator and the orifice plate, FO-2019-H, is on the high pressure helium supply line in the assembly building.

Zaczek, Mauiusz; /Fermilab

1996-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells  

SciTech Connect

Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

Sasaki, Dennis T. (Mountain View, CA); Van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA); Buckie, Anne-Marie (Margate, GB)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

Sasaki, D.T.; Van den Engh, G.J.; Buckie, A.M.

1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Evolving artificial neural network and imperialist competitive algorithm for prediction oil flow rate of the reservoir  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiphase flow meters (MPFMs) are utilized to provide quick and accurate well test data in numerous numbers of oil production applications like those in remote or unmanned locations topside exploitations that minimize platform space and subsea applications. ... Keywords: Artificial neural network, Evolutionary algorithms, Fuzzy logic, Hybrid, Imperialist competitive optimization, Oil flow rate

Mohammad Ali Ahmadi; Mohammad Ebadi; Amin Shokrollahi; Seyed Mohammad Javad Majidi

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Rate of flow of leachate through clay soil liners  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research was to measure the time of travel (TOT) of inorganic solutes through laboratory columns of compacted clay, to determine the physical and geochemical parameters that controlled solute transport through the soil columns, and to compare measured and predicted TOT's. Two clay soils were used: kaolinite (a low-plasticity, commercially-produced clay) and Lufkin clay (a highly plastic, naturally-occurring clay soil). Anionic tracers were chloride and bromide; potassium and zinc were the cationic tracers. Diffusion cells were designed, constructed, and used to measure the effective diffusion coefficient of the tracers in the two soils. Diffusion coefficients for anions were typically 0.000002 to 0.000007 sq cm/s; somewhat lower values were determined for cations. Column tests showed that the effective porosity ratio (defined as effective divided by total porosity) increased with increasing hydraulic gradient in kaolinite from a low of about 0.25 at a gradient of 1 to a high of 1 at a gradient of 20. With Lufkin clay, the effective porosity ratio was between 0.02 and 0.16. Breakthrough times were controlled much more by the low effective porosities than by molecular diffusion. The computer program SOILINER predicted times of travel that were larger than actual TOT's by a factor of up to 52. The failure to account for effective porosity ratios less than 1 was the cause for the poor predictions from SOILINER.

Daniel, D.E.; Shackelford, C.D.; Liao, W.P.; Liljestrand, H.M.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Intermediate-to-High-Rate Material Behavior - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 19, 2011 ... High-Strain-Rate & Shock Response of Lightweight Materials: How Dynamic Properties Influence the Future Design Landscape for ...

45

Multidimensional Signal Modulation Method for High Data-Rate ...  

Multidimensional Signal Modulation Method for High Data-Rate Transmission Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

46

Probing Ultrafast Solvation Dynamics with High Repetition-Rate...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Highlights rss feed Probing Ultrafast Solvation Dynamics with High Repetition-Rate LaserX-ray Methodologies FEBRUARY 11, 2012 Bookmark and Share X-ray absorption, emission...

47

Overcharge Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates ...  

Overcharge Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates ... chloroform and casting the solution onto a stainless steel mesh cur- ... Thermotron Industries, Inc. .

48

Influence of gas flow rate on liquid distribution in trickle-beds using perforated plates as liquid distributors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Influence of gas flow rate on liquid distribution in trickle- beds using perforated plates devices and a liquid collector were used to study the influence of the gas flow rate on liquid in liquid distribution were evidenced. Indeed, the obtained results show that the influence of gas flow rate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

49

An investigation of the effect of pore scale flow on average geochemical reaction rates using direct numerical simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The scale-dependence of geochemical reaction rates hinders their use in continuum scale models intended for the interpretation and prediction of chemical fate and transport in subsurface environments such as those considered for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Processes that take place at the pore scale, especially those involving mass transport limitations to reactive surfaces, may contribute to the discrepancy commonly observed between laboratory-determined and continuum-scale or field rates. Here, the dependence of mineral dissolution rates on the pore structure of the porous media is investigated by means of pore scale modeling of flow and multicomponent reactive transport. The pore scale model is comprised of high performance simulation tools and algorithms for incompressible flow and conservative transport combined with a general-purpose multicomponent geochemical reaction code. The model performs direct numerical simulation of reactive transport based on an operator-splitting approach to coupling transport and reactions. The approach is validated with a Poiseuille flow single-pore experiment and verified with an equivalent 1D continuum-scale model of a capillary tube packed with calcite spheres. Using the case of calcite dissolution as an example, the high resolution model is used to demonstrate that non-uniformity in the flow field at the pore scale has the effect of decreasing the overall reactivity of the system, even when systems with identical reactive surface area are considered. The effect becomes more pronounced as the heterogeneity of the reactive grain packing increases, particularly where the flow slows sufficiently such that the solution approaches equilibrium locally and the average rate becomes transport-limited.

Rafa, S. Molins; Trebotich, D.; Steefel, C. I.; Shen, C.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

High data-rate atom interferometer for measuring acceleration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate a high data-rate light-pulse atom interferometer for measuring acceleration. The device is optimized to operate at rates between 50 Hz to 330 Hz with sensitivities of 0.57{mu}g/{radical}(Hz) to 36.7{mu}g/{radical}(Hz), respectively. Our method offers a dramatic increase in data rate and demonstrates a path to applications in highly dynamic environments. The performance of the device can largely be attributed to the high recapture efficiency of atoms from one interferometer measurement cycle to another.

McGuinness, Hayden J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Rakholia, Akash V.; Biedermann, Grant W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87131 (United States)

2012-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

51

Importance of considering intraborehole flow in solute transport modeling under highly dynamic flow conditions  

SciTech Connect

Correct interpretation of tracer test data is critical for understanding transport processes in the subsurface. This task can be greatly complicated by the presence of intraborehole flows in a highly dynamic flow environment. At a new tracer test site (Hanford IFRC) a dynamic flow field created by changes in the stage of the adjacent Columbia River, coupled with a heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity distribution, leads to considerable variations in vertical hydraulic gradients. These variations, in turn, create intraborehole flows in fully-screened (6.5 m) observation wells with frequently alternating upward and downward movement. This phenomenon, in conjunction with a highly permeable aquifer formation and small horizontal hydraulic gradients, makes modeling analysis and model calibration a formidable challenge. Groundwater head data alone were insufficient to define the flow model boundary conditions, and the movement of the tracer was highly sensitive to the dynamics of the flow field. This study shows that model calibration can be significantly improved by explicitly considering (a) dynamic flow model boundary conditions and (b) intraborehole flow. The findings from this study underscore the difficulties in interpreting tracer tests and understanding solute transport under highly dynamic flow conditions.

Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Tonkin, Matthew J.; Zachara, John M.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

The effect of flow rate on the in-situ gelation of a chrome/redox/polyacrylamide system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents experimental data on the gelation of a polyacrylamide/thiourea/Cr(VI) gel system in unconsolidated sandpacks at flow rates typical of those encountered beyond the immediate vicinity of a wellbore. At these low rates, in-situ gelation during flow was characterized by an abrupt increase in flow resistance that occurred over a short distance at a specific location along the sandpack. The location of this region was a function of flow rate, and its distance from the inlet increased as flow rate increased. Filtration of gel aggregates appears to be the mechanism causing this behavior.

Marty, L.; Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P. (University of Kansas (US))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Picosecond to Nanosecond Measurements at High Repetition Rate...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Picosecond to Nanosecond Measurements at High Repetition Rate Since FY2012, SSRL is now scheduling three to four three-day periods each year dedicated to running SPEAR3 in hybrid...

54

Homogeneous Nucleation Rate for Highly Supercooled Cirrus Cloud Droplets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mixed-phase hydrometer growth model has been applied to determining the nucleation mode and rate responsible for the glaciation of a highly supercooled liquid cloud studied jointly by ground-based polarization lidar and aircraft in situ probes. ...

Kenneth Sassen; Gregory C. Dodd

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

High Rate Resistive Plate Chamber for LHC detector upgrades  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The limitation of the detection rate of standard bakelite resistive plate chambers (RPC) used as muon detectors in the LHC experiments has prevented the use of such detectors in the high rate regions in both CMS and ATLAS detectors. One alternative to these detectors are RPCs made with low resistivity glass plates ($10^{10} {\\rm \\Omega .cm}$), a beam test at DESY has shown that such detectors can operate at few thousand Hz/cm$^2$ with high efficiency(> 90%)

Y. Haddad; G. Grenier; I. Laktineh; N. Lumb; S. Cauwenbergh

2012-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

56

Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

NONE

1995-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

57

Evolution of Massive Protostars with High Accretion Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Formation of massive stars by accretion requires a high accretion rate of > 10^-4 M_sun/yr to overcome the radiation pressure barrier of the forming stars. Here, we study evolution of protostars accreting at such high rates, by solving the structure of the central star and the inner accreting envelope simultaneously. The protostellar evolution is followed starting from small initial cores until their arrival at the stage of the Zero-Age Main Sequence (ZAMS) stars. An emphasis is put on evolutionary features different from those with a low accretion rate of 10^-5 M_sun/yr, which is presumed in the standard scenario for low-mass star formation. With the high accretion rate of 10^-3 M_sun/yr, the protostellar radius becomes very large and exceeds 100 R_sun. It is not until the stellar mass reaches 40 M_sun that hydrogen burning begins and the protostar reaches the ZAMS phase, and this ZAMS arrival mass increases with the accretion rate. At a very high accretion rate of > 3 x 10^-3 M_sun/yr, the total luminosity of the protostar becomes so high that the resultant radiation pressure inhibits the growth of the protostars under steady accretion before reaching the ZAMS stage. Therefore, the evolution under the critical accretion rate 3 x 10^-3 M_sun/yr gives the upper mass limit of possible pre-main-sequence stars at 60 M_sun. The upper mass limit of MS stars is also set by the radiation pressure onto the dusty envelope under the same accretion rate at 250 M_sun. We also propose that the central source enshrouded in the Orion KL/BN nebula has effective temperature and luminosity consistent with our model, and is a possible candidate for such protostars growing under the high accretion rate. (abridged)

Takashi Hosokawa; Kazuyuki Omukai

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

58

Ambient aerosol sampling inlet for flow rates of 100 and 400 l/min  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New bioaerosol sampling inlets were designed and tested that have nominal exhaust flow rates of 100 L/min to 400 L/min, and which have internal fractionators and screens to scalp large, unwanted particles and debris from the transmitted size distribution. These units consist of the same aspiration section, which is a 100 L/min Bell Shaped Inlet (BSI-100), and different pre-separators. The pre-separators are called the IRI-100 (Inline Real Impactor) with an exhaust flow rate of 100 L/min, the IRI-400 (exhaust flow rate of 400 L/min), the IVI-300 (Inline Virtual Impactor for a flow rate of 300 L/min) and the IVI-400. These units were tested in a wind tunnel at speeds of 2, 8, and 24 km/hr with particle sizes between 3 and 20 ?m AD (aerodynamic diameter). The units show wind independent characteristics over the range of wind speeds tested. The aspiration section of the BSI-100 has greater than 85% penetration for particle sizes ? 10 ?m AD. The IRI-100, IRI-400, IVI-300 and IVI-400, when combined with the BSI-100 all provide cutpoints of 11 ± 0.5 ?m AD.

Baehl, Michael Matthew

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Construction of high embankment dam material flow equilibrium system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As high embankment dam engineering is often large-scale, how to achieve equilibrium of material flow is a critical factor affecting the construction progress of embankment dam engineering and an important approach to save resource and reduce construction ... Keywords: Embankment dam, Material flow equilibrium, Traffic network

Yan Zhang; Guo-Ping Xia

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

High-Performance Computing and Visualization of Unsteady Turbulent Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The history of high-performance computing in turbulent flows is reviewed and their recent topics in industrial use are addressed. Special attention is paid to the validity of the method in flow visualization, and three-dimensional unsteady simulation ... Keywords: CAE, DNS, HPC, LES, turbulence

T. Kobayashi; M. Tsubokura; N. Oshima

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

High Performance Flow Simulations on Graphics Processing Units  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Performance Flow Simulations on Graphics Processing Units Speaker(s): Wangda Zuo Date: June 17, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Michael Wetter...

62

Distributed rate allocation for inelastic flows: Optimization frameworks, optimality conditions, and optimal algorithms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—A common assumption behind the recent surge in research activities on network utility maximization is that the traffic flows are elastic, which implies that the utility functions are concave and there are no hard limits on the rate allocated to each flow. These critical assumptions lead to the tractability of the analytic models of utility maximization, but also limits the applicability of the resulting rate allocation protocols. This paper focuses on inelastic flows and removes these restrictive and often invalid assumptions. We present several optimization frameworks, optimality conditions, and optimal algorithms. First we consider nonconcave utility functions, which turn utility maximization into nonconvex, constrained optimization problems that are well-known to be extremely difficult. We first show a surprising result that under certain conditions, the standard pricing algorithm for rate allocation will still converge to the globally optimal rate allocation. When the existing distributed algorithm fails, we present a new algorithm that produces the globally optimal rate allocation, with the worst case complexity being polynomial time in the number of users but exponential time in the number of links. In the second part of the paper, we provide a general problem formulation of rate allocation among time-sensitive flows from real-time and streaming applications, as well as a decomposition into subproblems coordinated by pricing. After simplifying the subproblems by leveraging the optimization structures, we highlight the difficult issues of causality and time-scale, and propose an effective pricing-based heuristics for admission control and an optimal algorithm for a special case formulation.

Mung Chiang; Shengyu Zhang; Prashanth H

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Elastic capsules in shear flow: Analytical solutions for constant and time-dependent shear rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the dynamics of microcapsules in linear shear flow within a reduced model with two degrees of freedom. In previous work for steady shear flow, the dynamic phases of this model, i.e. swinging, tumbling and intermittent behaviour, have been identified using numerical methods. In this paper, we integrate the equations of motion in the quasi-spherical limit analytically for time-constant and time-dependent shear flow using matched asymptotic expansions. Using this method, we find analytical expressions for the mean tumbling rate in general time-dependent shear flow. The capsule dynamics is studied in more detail when the inverse shear rate is harmonically modulated around a constant mean value for which a dynamic phase diagram is constructed. By a judicious choice of both modulation frequency and phase, tumbling motion can be induced even if the mean shear rate corresponds to the swinging regime. We derive expressions for the amplitude and width of the resonance peaks as a function of the modulation frequency.

Steffen Kessler; Reimar Finken; Udo Seifert

2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

64

Glow discharge deposition at high rates using disilane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research program reported makes use of the fact that amorphous silicon films can be grown faster from disilane in a glow discharge than from the traditional silane. The goal is to find a method to grow films at a high rate and with sufficiently high quality to be used in an efficient solar cell. It must also be demonstrated that the appropriate device structure can be successfully fabricated under conditions which give high deposition rates. High quality intrinsic films have been deposited at 20 A/s. Efficiency of 5.6% on steel substrates and 5.3% on glass substrates were achieved using disilane i-layers deposited at 15 A/s in a basic structure, without wide-gap doped layers or light trapping. Wide gap p-layers were deposited using disilane. Results were compared with those obtained at Vactronic using high power discharges of silane-hydrogen mixtures. (LEW)

Rajeswaran, G.; Corderman, R.R.; Kampas, F.J.; Vanier, P.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

High removal rate laser-based coating removal system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1000 ft.sup.2 /hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Mrowka, Stanley (Richmond, CA)

1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

66

Retrograde Transvenous Ethanol Embolization of High-flow Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the clinical efficiency and complications in patients treated with retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow AVMs is a technique that can be used to treat AVMs with a dominant outflow vein whenever conventional interventional procedures have proved insufficient. Methods: This is a retrospective study of the clinical effectiveness and complications of retrograde embolization in five patients who had previously undergone multiple arterial embolization procedures without clinical success. Results: Clinical outcomes were good in all patients but were achieved at the cost of serious, although transient, complications in three patients. Conclusion: Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization is a highly effective therapy for high-flow AVMs. However, because of the high complication rate, it should be reserved as a last resort, to be used after conventional treatment options have failed.

Linden, Edwin van der, E-mail: e.van.der.linden@mchaaglanden.nl [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Baalen, Jary M. van [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Pattynama, Peter M. T. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Development and evaluation of a meter for measuring return line fluid flow rates during drilling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The most costly problem routinely encountered in geothermal drilling is lost circulation, which occurs when drilling fluid is lost to the formation rather than circulating back to the surface. The successful and economical treatment of lost circulation requires the accurate measurement of drilling fluid flow rate both into and out of the well. This report documents the development of a meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates in the return line of a drilling rig. The meter employs a rolling counterbalanced float that rides on the surface of the fluid in the return line. The angle of the float pivot arm is sensed with a pendulum potentiometer, and the height of the float is calculated from this measurement. The float height is closely related to the fluid height and, therefore, the flow rate in the line. The prototype rolling float meter was extensively tested under laboratory conditions in the Wellbore Hydraulics Flow Facility; results from these tests were used in the design of the field prototype rolling float meter. The field prototype meter was tested under actual drilling conditions in August and September 1991 at the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, Ca. In addition, the performance of several other commercially available inflow and outflow meters was evaluated in the field. The tested inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flowmeters, and an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. On the return flow line, a standard paddlemeter, an acoustic level meter, and the prototype rolling float meter were evaluated for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates.

Loeppke, G.E.; Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, E.K. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

High-speed real-time multi-rate simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research has focused on developing techniques that use digital signal processors (DSPs) and field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to support real-time simulation with frame times of a few microseconds or less. These techniques can be used ... Keywords: FPGA, distributed, high-speed, multi-rate, real-time

Roy Crosbie; Dale Word; John Zenor; Richard Bednar; Wilfred Ghonsalves; Narain Hingorani

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Design considerations for high-data-rate chip interconnect systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past decade, data rates for electrical interconnects in interchip communications systems have experienced a dramatic increase from <1 Gb/s to 10 Gb/s and beyond to keep up with ever increasing demands for more I/O bandwidth from modern high-capacity ...

Troy Beukema

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a triple cell showing 10.7% stable efficiency. Figure 4-1 Schematic diagram of the Hot Wire CVD deposition. Task 7: High-rate deposition of a-Si based solar cells We have conducted extensive research using a hot1 High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells PHASE I Annual

Deng, Xunming

71

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The broad objective of this project is to obtain improved, quantitative understanding of the transient plasticity of bituminous coals under high heating rates and other reaction and pretreatment conditions of scientific and practical interest. To these ends the research plan is to measure the softening and resolidification behavior of two US bituminous coals with a rapid-heating, fast response, high-temperature coal plastometer, previously developed in this laboratory. Specific measurements planned for the project include determinations of apparent viscosity, softening temperature, plastic period, and resolidificationtime for molten coal: (1) as a function of independent variations in coal type, heating rate, final temperature, gaseous atmosphere (inert, 0{sub 2} or H{sub 2}), and shear rate; and (2) in exploratory runs where coal is pretreated (preoxidation, pyridine extraction, metaplast cracking agents), before heating. The intra-coal inventory and molecular weight distribution of pyridine extractables will also be measured using a rapid quenching, electrical screen heater coal pyrolysis reactor. The yield of extractables is representative of the intra-coal inventory of plasticing agent (metaplast) remaining after quenching. Coal plasticity kinetics will then be mathematically modeled from metaplast generation and depletion rates, via a correlation between the viscosity of a suspension and the concentration of deformable medium (here metaplast) in that suspension. Work during this reporting period has been concerned with re-commissioning the rapid heating rate plastometer apparatus.

Darivakis, G.S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Deposition Rates of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Physics and Economics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2007). R. Chistyakov, “High deposition rate sputtering,” USD. M. Mihut, and S. L. Rohde, Rate enhancement in high powerand often reduced normalized rates, it will find application

Anders, Andre

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Comparison of entropy production rates in two different types of self-organized flows: Benard convection and zonal flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two different types of self-organizing and sustaining ordered motion in fluids or plasmas--one is a Benard convection (or streamer) and the other is a zonal flow--have been compared by introducing a thermodynamic phenomenological model and evaluating the corresponding entropy production rates (EP). These two systems have different topologies in their equivalent circuits: the Benard convection is modeled by parallel connection of linear and nonlinear conductances, while the zonal flow is modeled by series connection. The ''power supply'' that drives the systems is also a determinant of operating modes. When the energy flux is a control parameter (as in usual plasma experiments), the driver is modeled by a constant-current power supply, and when the temperature difference between two separate boundaries is controlled (as in usual computational studies), the driver is modeled by a constant-voltage power supply. The parallel (series)-connection system tends to minimize (maximize) the total EP when a constant-current power supply drives the system. This minimum/maximum relation flips when a constant-voltage power supply is connected.

Kawazura, Y.; Yoshida, Z. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Mass flow rate measurements in gas-liquid flows by means of a venturi or orifice plate coupled to a void fraction sensor  

SciTech Connect

Two-phase flow measurements were carried out using a resistive void fraction meter coupled to a venturi or orifice plate. The measurement system used to estimate the liquid and gas mass flow rates was evaluated using an air-water experimental facility. Experiments included upward vertical and horizontal flow, annular, bubbly, churn and slug patterns, void fraction ranging from 2% to 85%, water flow rate up to 4000 kg/h, air flow rate up to 50 kg/h, and quality up to almost 10%. The fractional root mean square (RMS) deviation of the two-phase mass flow rate in upward vertical flow through a venturi plate is 6.8% using the correlation of Chisholm (D. Chisholm, Pressure gradients during the flow of incompressible two-phase mixtures through pipes, venturis and orifice plates, British Chemical Engineering 12 (9) (1967) 454-457). For the orifice plate, the RMS deviation of the vertical flow is 5.5% using the correlation of Zhang et al. (H.J. Zhang, W.T. Yue, Z.Y. Huang, Investigation of oil-air two-phase mass flow rate measurement using venturi and void fraction sensor, Journal of Zhejiang University Science 6A (6) (2005) 601-606). The results show that the flow direction has no significant influence on the meters in relation to the pressure drop in the experimental operation range. Quality and slip ratio analyses were also performed. The results show a mean slip ratio lower than 1.1, when bubbly and slug flow patterns are encountered for mean void fractions lower than 70%. (author)

Oliveira, Jorge Luiz Goes; Passos, Julio Cesar [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica-LEPTEN/Boiling-UFSC, Campus Universitario, Trindade, 88.040-900 Florianopolis-SC (Brazil); Verschaeren, Ruud; Geld, Cees van der [Eindhoven University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, W-hoog 2.135, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

75

High Performance Hydrogen/Bromine Redox Flow Battery for Grid-Scale Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Performance Hydrogen/Bromine Redox Flow Battery for Grid-Scale Energy High Performance Hydrogen/Bromine Redox Flow Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage Title High Performance Hydrogen/Bromine Redox Flow Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Cho, Kyu Taek, Paul L. Ridgway, Adam Z. Weber, Sophia Haussener, Vincent S. Battaglia, and Venkat Srinivasan Journal Journal of the Electrochemical Society Volume 159 Issue 11 Pagination A1806 - A1815 Date Published 01/2012 ISSN 0013-4651 Keywords hydrogen/bromine, redox flow battery Abstract The electrochemical behavior of a promising hydrogen/bromine redox flow battery is investigated for grid-scale energy-storage application with some of the best redox-flow-battery performance results to date, including a peak power of 1.4 W/cm(2) and a 91% voltaic efficiency at 0.4 W/cm(2) constant-power operation. The kinetics of bromine on various materials is discussed, with both rotating-disk-electrode and cell studies demonstrating that a carbon porous electrode for the bromine reaction can conduct platinum-comparable performance as long as sufficient surface area is realized. The effect of flow-cell designs and operating temperature is examined, and ohmic and mass-transfer losses are decreased by utilizing a flow-through electrode design and increasing cell temperature. Charge/discharge and discharge-rate tests also reveal that this system has highly reversible behavior and good rate capability.

76

High Fidelity Simulation of Complex Suspension Flow for Practical Rheometry  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A visualization of the flow of concrete, a complex suspension A visualization of the flow of concrete, a complex suspension A visualization of the flow of concrete, a complex suspension. In this snapshot of the simulation, the stress on each suspended particle is shown color-coded with its specific value drawn on its surface. Suspended particles that have a stress value below a specific threshold value are shown in outline form in order to better view those particles that are carrying the majority of the stress in the system. This image and the software used to produce it was developed by Steven Satterfield, John Hagedorn, and John Kelso of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and Marc Olano of NIST and the University of Maryland-Baltimore County. High Fidelity Simulation of Complex Suspension Flow for Practical Rheometry

77

High removal rate laser-based coating removal system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A compact laser system is disclosed that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1,000 ft{sup 2}/hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

Matthews, D.L.; Celliers, P.M.; Hackel, L.; Da Silva, L.B.; Dane, C.B.; Mrowka, S.

1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

78

Failure Rate Data Analysis for High Technology Components  

SciTech Connect

Understanding component reliability helps designers create more robust future designs and supports efficient and cost-effective operations of existing machines. The accelerator community can leverage the commonality of its high-vacuum and high-power systems with those of the magnetic fusion community to gain access to a larger database of reliability data. Reliability studies performed under the auspices of the International Energy Agency are the result of an international working group, which has generated a component failure rate database for fusion experiment components. The initial database work harvested published data and now analyzes operating experience data. This paper discusses the usefulness of reliability data, describes the failure rate data collection and analysis effort, discusses reliability for components with scarce data, and points out some of the intersections between magnetic fusion experiments and accelerators.

L. C. Cadwallader

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Electrochemical cell with high discharge/charge rate capability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fully charged positive electrode composition for an electrochemical cell includes FeS/sub 2/ and NiS/sub 2/ in about equal molar amounts along with about 2 to 20 mole % of the reaction product Li/sub 2/S. Through selection of appropriate electrolyte compositions, high power output or low operating temperatures can be obtained. The cell includes a substantially constant electrode impedance through most of its charge and discharge range. Exceptionally high discharge rates and overcharge protection are obtainable through use of the inventive electrode composition.

Redey, L.

1986-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

80

The Gamma Ray Burst Rate at High Photon Energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectra exhibit high energy tails with the highest photon energy detected at 18 GeV. The spectral slope of the high-energy tails is sufficiently flat in nu F_nu to consider the possibility of their detection at still higher energies. We calculate how many bursts can reasonably be expected above a given energy threshold for a cosmological distribution of bursts satisfying the observed apparent brightness distribution. The crucial point is that the gamma-ray absorption by pair production in the intergalactic diffuse radiation field eliminates bursts from beyond the gamma-ray horizon tau ~ 1, thus drastically reducing the number of bursts at high energies. Our results are consistent with the non-detection of bursts by current experiments in the 100 GeV to 100 TeV energy range. For the earth-bound detector array MILAGRO, we predict a maximal GRB rate of ~ 10 events per year. The Whipple Observatory can detect, under favorable conditions, ~1 event per year. The event rate for the HEGRA array is ~ 0.01 per year. Detection of significantly higher rates of bursts would severely challenge cosmological burst scenarios.

Karl Mannheim; Dieter Hartmann; Burkhardt Funk

1996-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

High Performance Flow Simulations on Graphics Processing Units  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Performance Flow Simulations on Graphics Processing Units High Performance Flow Simulations on Graphics Processing Units Speaker(s): Wangda Zuo Date: June 17, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Michael Wetter Building design and operation often requires real-time or faster-than-real-time simulations for detailed information on air distributions. However, none of the current flow simulation techniques can satisfy this requirement. To solve this problem, a Fast Fluid Dynamics (FFD) model has been developed. The FFD can solve Navier-Stokes equations at a speed of 50 times faster than Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In addition, the computing speed of the FFD program has been further enhanced up to 30 times by executing in parallel on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) instead of a Central Processing Unit (CPU). As a whole, the FFD on a GPU

82

High Dose-Rate Versus Low Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Lip Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To analyze the outcome after low-dose-rate (LDR) or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for lip cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred and three patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the lip were treated between March 1985 and June 2009 either by HDR (n = 33) or LDR brachytherapy (n = 70). Sixty-eight patients received brachytherapy alone, and 35 received tumor excision followed by brachytherapy because of positive resection margins. Acute and late toxicity was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0. Results: Median follow-up was 3.1 years (range, 0.3-23 years). Clinical and pathological variables did not differ significantly between groups. At 5 years, local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 93%, 90%, and 77%. There was no significant difference for these endpoints when HDR was compared with LDR brachytherapy. Forty-two of 103 patients (41%) experienced acute Grade 2 and 57 of 103 patients (55%) experienced acute Grade 3 toxicity. Late Grade 1 toxicity was experienced by 34 of 103 patients (33%), and 5 of 103 patients (5%) experienced late Grade 2 toxicity; no Grade 3 late toxicity was observed. Acute and late toxicity rates were not significantly different between HDR and LDR brachytherapy. Conclusions: As treatment for lip cancer, HDR and LDR brachytherapy have comparable locoregional control and acute and late toxicity rates. HDR brachytherapy for lip cancer seems to be an effective treatment with acceptable toxicity.

Ghadjar, Pirus, E-mail: pirus.ghadjar@insel.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Bojaxhiu, Beat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Simcock, Mathew [Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research Coordinating Center, Bern (Switzerland); Terribilini, Dario; Isaak, Bernhard [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Gut, Philipp; Wolfensberger, Patrick; Broemme, Jens O.; Geretschlaeger, Andreas; Behrensmeier, Frank; Pica, Alessia; Aebersold, Daniel M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Gravity Surface Wave Bifurcation in a Highly Turbulent Swirling Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gravity Surface Wave Bifurcation in a Highly Turbulent Swirling Flow Michael Baumer University Gravity Wave 2 3 Measurements 3 4 Mechanical Hardware: Problems and Solutions 5 5 Results 7 6 Conclusions investigated a free-surface gravity wave bifurcation in the large-separation regime, that is, where

Witten, Thomas A.

84

PERIODIC MOTION IN HIGH-SYMMETRIC FLOW Lennaert van Veen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is supplied by fixing the smallest wave number components of velocity. The smallest wave number corresponding to a nonzero velocity component is kf = |kf | = 11 and the energy of these fixed components is Ef = 3PERIODIC MOTION IN HIGH-SYMMETRIC FLOW Lennaert van Veen Department of Mechanical Engineering

van Veen, Lennaert

85

High rate 4. pi. beta. -. gamma. coincidence counting system  

SciTech Connect

A high count rate 4..pi.. ..beta..-..gamma.. coincidence counting system for the determination of absolute disintegration rates of short half-life radionuclides is described. With this system the dead time per pulse is minimized by not stretching any pulses beyond the width necessary to satisfy overlap coincidence requirements. The equations used to correct for the ..beta.., ..gamma.., and coincidence channel dead times and for accidental coincidences are presented but not rigorously developed. Experimental results are presented for a decaying source of /sup 56/Mn initially at 2 x 10/sup 6/ d/s and a set of /sup 60/Co sources of accurately known source strengths varying from 10/sup 3/ to 2 x 10/sup 6/ d/s. A check of the accidental coincidence equation for the case of two independent sources with varying source strengths is presented.

Johnson, L.O.; Gehrke, R.J.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (<60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10.sup.5 counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

Hanson, James A. (Madison, WI); Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (< 60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10/sup 5/ counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

Hanson, J.A.; Kopp, M.K.

1980-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

88

Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

1981-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

89

High Rate Laser Pitting Technique for Solar Cell Texturing  

SciTech Connect

High rate laser pitting technique for solar cell texturing Efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells can be improved by creating a texture on the surface to increase optical absorption. Different techniques have been developed for texturing, with the current state-of-the-art (SOA) being wet chemical etching. The process has poor optical performance, produces surfaces that are difficult to passivate or contact and is relatively expensive due to the use of hazardous chemicals. This project shall develop an alternative process for texturing mc-Si using laser micromachining. It will have the following features compared to the current SOA texturing process: -Superior optical surfaces for reduced front-surface reflection and enhanced optical absorption in thin mc-Si substrates -Improved surface passivation -More easily integrated into advanced back-contact cell concepts -Reduced use of hazardous chemicals and waste treatment -Similar or lower cost The process is based on laser pitting. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a high rate laser pitting process which will exceed the rate of former laser texturing processes by a factor of ten. The laser and scanning technologies will be demonstrated on a laboratory scale, but will use inherently technologies that can easily be scaled to production rates. The drastic increase in process velocity is required for the process to be implemented as an in-line process in PV manufacturing. The project includes laser process development, development of advanced optical systems for beam manipulation and cell reflectivity and efficiency testing. An improvement of over 0.5% absolute in efficiency is anticipated after laser-based texturing. The surface textures will be characterized optically, and solar cells will be fabricated with the new laser texturing to ensure that the new process is compatible with high-efficiency cell processing. The result will be demonstration of a prototype process that is suitable for scale-up to a production tool and process. The developed technique will have an reducing impact on product pricing. As efficiency has a substantial impact on the economics of solar cell production due to the high material cost content; in essence, improved efficiency through cost-effective texturing reduces the material cost component since the product is priced in terms of $/W. The project is a collaboration between Fraunhofer USA, Inc. and a c-Si PV manufacturer.

Hans J. Herfurth; Henrikki Pantsar

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

90

High performance in low-flow solar domestic hot water systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Low-flow solar hot water heating systems employ flow rates on the order of 1/5 to 1/10 of the conventional flow. Low-flow systems are of interest because the reduced flow rate allows smaller diameter tubing, which is less costly to install. Further, low-flow systems result in increased tank stratification. Lower collector inlet temperatures are achieved through stratification and the useful energy produced by the collector is increased. The disadvantage of low-flow systems is the collector heat removal factor decreases with decreasing flow rate. Many solar domestic hot water systems require an auxiliary electric source to operate a pump in order to circulate fluid through the solar collector. A photovoltaic driven pump can be used to replace the standard electrical pump. PV driven pumps provide an ideal means of controlling the flow rate, as pumps will only circulate fluid when there is sufficient radiation. Peak performance was always found to occur when the heat exchanger tank-side flow rate was approximately equal to the average load flow rate. For low collector-side flow rates, a small deviation from the optimum flow rate will dramatically effect system performance.

Dayan, M.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

91

High Rate Plasticity under Pressure using a Windowed Pressure-Shear Impact Experiment  

SciTech Connect

An experimental technique has been developed to study the strength of materials under conditions of moderate pressures and high shear strain rates. The technique is similar to the traditional pressure-shear plate-impact experiments except that window interferometry is used to measure both the normal and transverse particle velocities at a sample-window interface. Experimental and simulation results on vanadium samples backed with a sapphire window show the utility of the technique to measure the flow strength under dynamic loading conditions. The results show that the strength of the vanadium is 600 MPa at a pressure of 4.5 GPa and a plastic strain of 1.7%.

Florando, J N; Jiao, T; Grunschel, S E; Clifton, R J; Ferranti, L; Becker, R C; Minich, R W; Bazan, G

2009-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

92

Advanced Laser Diagnostics Development for the Characterization of Gaseous High Speed Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The study of high-speed flows represents a challenging problem in the fluid dynamics field due to the presence of chemical reactions and non-equilibrium effects. Hypersonic flights, where speeds reach Mach 5 and above, are particularly influenced by these effects, resulting in a direct impact on the flow and consequently on the aerodynamic performance of a vehicle traveling at these speeds. The study of hypersonic flow conditions requires the experimental capability of determining local temperatures, pressures and velocities using non-intrusive techniques. Furthermore, the simultaneous measurement of two or more variables in a complex flow boosts the amount of information that is obtained since valuable correlations can be established. This research includes the design, construction and characterization of a hypersonic flow apparatus explicitly intended as a tool for advanced laser diagnostics development. This apparatus is characterized by its pulsed operation mode that translates into a significant reduction in mass flow rates and can be operated for long periods at Mach numbers ranging from 2.8 to 6.2. The flow conditions during the uniform flow time interval of each pulse vary by less than 1%, generating a flow of sufficient quality for quantitative measurements. The development of a laser diagnostic technique, the VENOM technique, which is a non-intrusive method to provide simultaneous 2-D measurements of the mean and instantaneous fluctuations in two-component velocity and temperature is also presented. This technique represents the first single diagnostic capable of instantaneous two-component velocimetry and thermometry in a gaseous flow field by combining two Nitric Oxide Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence methods: two-component Molecular Tagging Velocimetry and two-line thermometry, employing the nascent NO(v"=1) arising from the NO2 photodissociation as a molecular tracer. The VENOM technique is expected to be not only applicable to cold high-speed flows, which is the focus of the present work, but also to combustion and other reactive or high-enthalpy flow fields.

Sanchez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

High-efficiency dc electromagnetic pumps and flow couplers for LMFBRs. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective for the study reported here was to evaluate high efficiency direct current electromagnetic pump concepts for use in pool-type liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. It was concluded that the conventional direct current pump would not be practical for the high flow rates required, primarily because of the adverse high-current low-voltage supply requirements. However, a relatively new concept - the flow coupler - appears to be much more promising. In this concept, the primary and intermediate fluid flows are linked magnetically - with the intermediate fluid acting as a generator of the current that is used in a pump to drive the primary fluid. In this way the requirement for an external direct current supply and associated busbars is eliminated. Techniques to analyze such flow couplers have been developed and show that overall efficiencies in excess of 60% are attainable in relatively small volumes (3.5m in length, 2.5m in dia). This may permit a reduction in the size of the reactor vessel. Several flow coupler concepts are described which require further evaluation.

McNab, I.R.; Alexion, C.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Standard practice for measurement of the glass dissolution rate using the single-pass flow-through test method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This practice describes a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method that can be used to measure the dissolution rate of a homogeneous silicate glass, including nuclear waste glasses, in various test solutions at temperatures less than 100°C. Tests may be conducted under conditions in which the effects from dissolved species on the dissolution rate are minimized to measure the forward dissolution rate at specific values of temperature and pH, or to measure the dependence of the dissolution rate on the concentrations of various solute species. 1.2 Tests are conducted by pumping solutions in either a continuous or pulsed flow mode through a reaction cell that contains the test specimen. Tests must be conducted at several solution flow rates to evaluate the effect of the flow rate on the glass dissolution rate. 1.3 This practice excludes static test methods in which flow is simulated by manually removing solution from the reaction cell and replacing it with fresh solution. 1.4 Tests may be conducted wit...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

The status of low dose rate and future of high dose rate Cf-252 brachytherapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work describes the current status of the US low dose rate (LDR) Cf-252 brachytherapy program. The efforts undertaken towards development of a high dose rate (HDR) remotely after loaded Cf-252 source, which can accommodate 1 mg or greater Cf-252, are also described. This HDR effort is a collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), commercial remote after loader manufactures, the Gershenson Radiation Oncology Center (ROC), and Wayne State University. To achieve this goal, several advances in isotope chemistry and source preparation at ORNL must be achieved to yield a specific material source loading of greater than or equal 1 mg Cf-252 per mm3. Development work with both radioactive and non-radioactive stand-ins for Cf-252 have indicated the feasibility of fabricating such sources. As a result, the decreased catheter diameter and computer controlled source placement will permit additional sites (e.g. brain, breast, prostate, lung, parotid, etc.) to be treated effectively with Cf-252 sources. Additional work at the Radiochemical Engineering and Development Center (REDC) remains in source fabrication, after loader modification, and safe design. The current LDR Cf-252 Treatment Suite at the ROC is shielded and licensed to hold up to 1 mg of Cf-252. This was designed to maintain cumulative personnel exposure, both external to the room and in direct isotope handling, at less than 20 microSv/hr. However, cumulative exposure may be greatly decreased if a Cf-252 HDR unit is employed which would eliminate direct isotope handling and decrease treatment times from tilde 3 hours to an expected range of 3 to 15 minutes. Such a Cf-252 HDR source will also demonstrate improved dose distributions over current LDR treatments due to the ability to step the point-like source throughout the target volume and weight the dwell time accordingly.

Rivard, M.J.; Wierzbicki, J.G.; Van den Heuvel, F.; Chuba, P.J.; Fontanesi, J. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Martin, R.C.; McMahon, R.R.; Haire, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Marketing > RATES Marketing > RATES RATES Current Rates Past Rates 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rates Schedules Power CV-F13 CPP-2 Transmissions CV-T3 CV-NWT5 PACI-T3 COTP-T3 CV-TPT7 CV-UUP1 Ancillary CV-RFS4 CV-SPR4 CV-SUR4 CV-EID4 CV-GID1 Future and Other Rates SNR Variable Resource Scheduling Charge FY12-FY16 (October 1, 2012) SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on 4-27-10 (PDF - 155K) Power Action Item List (Quick links to relevant documents) Formal Process Rates Brochure (01/11/2011) (PDF - 900K) Appendix A - Federal Register Notice (01/03/2011) (PDF - 8000K) Appendix B - Central Valley Project Power Repayment Study (PDF - 22,322K) Appendix C - Development of the CVP Cost of Service Study (PDF - 2038K)

97

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Planning & Projects Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates You are here: SN Home page > Power Marketing > RATES Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current Rates Power Revenue Requirement Worksheet (FY 2014) (Oct 2013 - Sep 2014) (PDF - 30K) PRR Notification Letter (Sep 27, 2013) (PDF - 959K) FY 2012 FP% True-Up Calculations(PDF - 387K) Variable Resource Scheduling Charge FY12-FY16 (October 1, 2012) PRR Forecast FY14-FY17 (May 23, 2013) (PDF - 100K) Forecasted Transmission Rates (May 2013) (PDF - 164K) Past Rates 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Historical CVP Transmission Rates (April 2013) (PDF - 287K) Rate Schedules Power - CV-F13 - CPP-2 Transmission - CV-T3 - CV-NWT5 - PACI-T3 - COTP-T3 - CV-TPT7 - CV-UUP1 Ancillary - CV-RFS4 - CV-SPR4 - CV-SUR4 - CV-EID4 - CV-GID1 Federal Register Notices - CVP, COTP and PACI

98

ASIC for High Rate 3D Position Sensitive Detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the development of an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for 3D position sensitive detectors (3D PSD). The ASIC is designed to operate with pixelated wide bandgap sensors like Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), Mercuric Iodide (Hgl2) and Thallium Bromide (TIBr). It measures the amplitudes and timings associated with an ionizing event on 128 anodes, the anode grid, and the cathode. Each channel provides low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping with peaking time adjustable from 250 ns to 12 {micro}s, gain adjustable to 20 mV/fC or 120 mV/fC (for a dynamic range of 3.2 MeV and 530 keV in CZT), amplitude discrimination with 5-bit trimming, and positive and negative peak and timing detections. The readout can be full or sparse, based on a flag and single- or multi-cycle token passing. All channels, triggered channels only, or triggered with neighbors can be read out thus increasing the rate capability of the system to more than 10 kcps. The ASIC dissipates 330 mW which corresponds to about 2.5 mW per channel.

Vernon, E.; De Geronimo, G.; Ackley, K.; Fried, J.; He, Z.; Herman, C.; Zhang, F.

2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

99

Cryogenic, high-resolution x-ray detector with high count rate capability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryogenic, high-resolution X-ray detector with high count rate capability has been invented. The new X-ray detector is based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), and operates without thermal stabilization at or below 500 mK. The X-ray detector exhibits good resolution (.about.5-20 eV FWHM) for soft X-rays in the keV region, and is capable of counting at count rates of more than 20,000 counts per second (cps). Simple, FET-based charge amplifiers, current amplifiers, or conventional spectroscopy shaping amplifiers can provide the electronic readout of this X-ray detector.

Frank, Matthias (Oakland, CA); Mears, Carl A. (Windsor, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA); Hiller, Larry J. (Livermore, CA); Barfknecht, Andrew T. (Menlo Park, CA)

2003-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

100

U-Sr isotopic speedometer: Fluid flow and chemical weathering rates inaquifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as the infiltration rate increases, the inferred dissolutioninferred infiltration rate increases in the model, the bulkthat as infiltration rates increase in the system, the pore

Maher, Kate; DePaolo, Donald J.; Christensen, John N.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Multiphase flow calculation software  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

Use of Melt Flow Rate Test in Reliability Study of Thermoplastic Encapsulation Materials in Photovoltaic Modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Use of thermoplastic materials as encapsulants in photovoltaic (PV) modules presents a potential concern in terms of high temperature creep, which should be evaluated before thermoplastics are qualified for use in the field. Historically, the issue of creep has been avoided by using thermosetting polymers as encapsulants, such as crosslinked ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA). Because they lack crosslinked networks, however, thermoplastics may be subject to phase transitions and visco-elastic flow at the temperatures and mechanical stresses encountered by modules in the field, creating the potential for a number of reliability and safety issues. Thermoplastic materials investigated in this study include PV-grade uncured-EVA (without curing agents and therefore not crosslinked); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); and three polyolefins (PO), which have been proposed for use as PV encapsulation. Two approaches were used to evaluate the performance of these materials as encapsulants: module-level testing and a material-level testing.

Moseley, J.; Miller, D.; Shah, Q.-U.-A. S. J.; Sakurai, K.; Kempe, M.; Tamizhmani, G.; Kurtz, S.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Acceleration of the Hurricane Beta Drift by Shear Strain Rate of an Environmental Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An energetics analysis is presented to reveal the mechanisms by which the environmental flows affect hurricane beta-gyre intensity and beta-drift speed. The two-dimensional environmental flow examined in this study varies in both zonal and ...

Xiaofan Li; Bin Wang

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RATES RATES Rates Document Library SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on 4-27-10 (PDF - 155K) Power Action Item List (Quick links to relevant documents) Formal Process Rates Brochure (01/11/2011) (PDF - 900K) Appendix A - Federal Register Notice (01/03/2011) (PDF - 8000K) Appendix B - Central Valley Project Power Repayment Study (PDF - 22,322K) Appendix C - Development of the CVP Cost of Service Study (PDF - 2038K) Appendix D - Western Transmission System Facilities Map (PDF - 274K) Appendix E - Estimated FY12 FP and BR Customer (PDF - 1144K) Appendix F - Forecasted Replacements and Additions FY11 - FY16 (PDF - 491K) Appendix G - Definitions (PDF - 1758K) Appendix H - Acronyms (PDF - 720K)

105

The Effect of High Cooling Rate and Powder Composition on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coatings were deposited by applying different types of thermal spray systems. Influence of the heating and cooling rates on coating microstructure and ...

106

Figure 7. Projected Production for the High Development Rate of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... Development Rate of Technically Recoverable Oil Estimated at 5 Percent, Mean, and 95 Percent Probabilities for the ANWR Coastal Plain of the Alaska North ...

107

Predicting Crack Growth Rate of Pipeline Steel in High Ph ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modeling Internal Corrosion Rates of Pipelines which Carry Wet or Dry Natural Gas · Modeling Oxidation-Limited Lifetime of Alumina- and Chromia-Forming ...

108

Characterization of the reactive flow field dynamics in a gas turbine injector using high frequency PIV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present work details the analysis of the aerodynamics of an experimental swirl stabilized burner representative of gas turbine combustors. This analysis is carried out using High Frequency PIV (HFPIV) measurements in a reactive situation. While this information is usually available at a rather low rate, temporally resolved PIV measurements are necessary to better understand highly turbulent swirled flows, which are unsteady by nature. Thanks to recent technical improvements, a PIV system working at 12 kHz has been developed to study this experimental combustor flow field. Statistical quantities of the burner are first obtained and analyzed, and the measurement quality is checked, then a temporal analysis of the velocity field is carried out, indicating that large coherent structures periodically appear in the combustion chamber. The frequency of these structures is very close to the quarter wave mode of the chamber, giving a possible explanation for combustion instability coupling.

Barbosa, Séverine; Ducruix, Sébastien

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

High speed flow cytometer droplet formation system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A droplet forming flow cytometer system allows high speed processing without the need for high oscillator drive powers through the inclusion of an oscillator or piezoelectric crystal such as within the nozzle volume or otherwise unidirectionally coupled to the sheath fluid. The nozzle container continuously converges so as to amplify unidirectional oscillations which are transmitted as pressure waves through the nozzle volume to the nozzle exit so as to form droplets from the fluid jet. The oscillator is directionally isolated so as to avoid moving the entire nozzle container so as to create only pressure waves within the sheath fluid. A variation in substance concentration is achieved through a movable substance introduction port which is positioned within a convergence zone to vary the relative concentration of substance to sheath fluid while still maintaining optimal laminar flow conditions. This variation may be automatically controlled through a sensor and controller configuration. A replaceable tip design is also provided whereby the ceramic nozzle tip is positioned within an edge insert in the nozzle body so as to smoothly transition from nozzle body to nozzle tip. The nozzle tip is sealed against its outer surface to the nozzle body so it may be removable for cleaning or replacement.

Van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Steady State Microbunching for High Brilliance and High Repetition Rate Storage Ring-Based Light Sources  

SciTech Connect

Electron-based light sources have proven to be effective sources of high brilliance, high frequency radiation. Such sources are typically either linac-Free Electron Laser (FEL) or storage ring types. The linac-FEL type has high brilliance (because the beam is microbunched) but low repetition rate. The storage ring type has high repetition rate (rapid beam circulation) but comparatively low brilliance or coherence. We propose to explore the feasibility of a microbunched beam in a storage ring that promises high repetition rate and high brilliance. The steady-state-micro-bunch (SSMB) beam in storage ring could provide CW sources for THz, EUV, or soft X-rays. Several SSMB mechanisms have been suggested recently, and in this report, we review a number of these SSMB concepts as promising directions for high brilliance, high repetition rate light sources of the future. The trick of SSMB lies in the RF system, together with the associated synchrotron beam dynamics, of the storage ring. Considering various different RF arrangements, there could be considered a number of scenarios of the SSMB. In this report, we arrange these scenarios more or less in order of the envisioned degree of technical challenge to the RF system, and not in the chronological order of their original references. Once the stored beam is steady-state microbunched in a storage ring, it passes through a radiator repeatedly every turn (or few turns). The radiator extracts a small fraction of the beam energy as coherent radiation with a wavelength corresponding to the microbunched period of the beam. In contrast to an FEL, this radiator is not needed to generate the microbunching (as required e.g. by SASE FELs or seeded FELs), so the radiator can be comparatively simple and short.

Chao, Alex; Ratner, Daniel; /SLAC; Jiao, Yi; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

111

Fluidic assembly for an ultra-high-speed chromosome flow sorter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidic assembly for an ultra-high-speed chromosome flow sorter using a fluid drive system of high pressure in the range of 250 to 1000 psi for greater flow velocity, a nozzle with an orifice having a small ratio of length to diameter for laminar flow rates well above the critical Reynolds number for the high flow velocity, and means for vibrating the nozzle along its axis at high frequencies in a range of about 300 kHz to 800 kHz ae described. The orifice is provided with a sharp edge at its inlet, and a conical section at its outlet for a transition from a short cylindrical aperture of small length to diameter ratio to free space. Sample and sheath fluids in separte low pressure reservoirs are transferred into separate high pressure buffer reservoirs through valve means which first permit the fluids to be loaded into the buffer reservoirs under low pressure. Once loaded, the buffer reservoirs are subjected ato high pressure and valves are operated to permit the buffer reservoirs to be emptied through the nozzle under high pressure. A sensor and decision logic is positioned at the exit of the nozzle, and a charging pulse is applied to the jet when a particle reaches a position further downstream where the droplets are formed. In order to adjust the timing of charge pulses, the distance between the sensing station at the outlet of the nozzle and the droplet breakoff point is determined by stroboscopic illumination of the droplet breakoff region using a laser and a revolving lucite cylinder for breaking up the coherency of the laser, and a beam on/off modulator. The breakoff point in the region thus illuminated may then be viewed, using a television monitor.

Gray, J.W.; Alger, T.W.; Lord, D.E.

1978-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

112

High Rate and High Capacity Li-Ion Electrodes for Vehicular Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant advances in both energy density and rate capability for Li-ion batteries are necessary for implementation in electric vehicles. We have employed two different methods to improve the rate capability of high capacity electrodes. For example, we previously demonstrated that thin film high volume expansion MoO{sub 3} nanoparticle electrodes ({approx}2 {micro}m thick) have a stable capacity of {approx}630 mAh/g, at C/2 (charge/dicharge in 2 hours). By fabricating thicker conventional electrodes, an improved reversible capacity of {approx}1000 mAh/g is achieved, but the rate capability decreases. To achieve high-rate capability, we applied a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition coating to enable the high volume expansion and prevent mechanical degradation. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 C. Additionally, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 {angstrom} have been shown to allow LiCoO{sub 2} to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Capacity fade at this high voltage is generally caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte or cobalt dissolution. We have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO{sub 2} and coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. In a different approach we have employed carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) to synthesize binder-free, high-rate capability electrodes, with 95 wt.% active materials. In one case, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are employed as the active storage anode material. Recently, we have also employed this method to demonstrate improved conductivity and highly improved rate capability for a LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode material. Raman spectroscopy was employed to understand how the SWNTs function as a highly flexible conductive additive.

Dillon, A. C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Bonneville Second Powerhouse Tailrace and High Flow Outfall: ADCP and drogue release field study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Bonneville Project is one of four US Army Corps of Engineers operated dams along the Lower Columbia River. Each year thousands of smelt pass through this Project on their way to the Pacific Ocean. High flow outfalls, if specifically designed for fish passage, are thought to have as good or better smelt survival rates as spillways. To better understand the hydrodynamic flow field around an operating outfall, the Corps of Engineers commissioned measurement of water velocities in the tailrace of the Second Powerhouse. These data also are necessary for proper calibration and verification of three-dimensional numerical models currently under development at PNNL. Hydrodynamic characterization of the tailrace with and without the outfall operating was accomplished through use of a surface drogue and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). Both the ADCP and drogue were linked to a GPS (global positioning system); locating the data in both space and time. Measurements focused on the area nearest to the high flow outfall, however several ADCP transects and drogue releases were performed away from the outfall to document ambient flow field conditions when the outfall was not operating.

Cook, Chris B; Richmond, Marshall C; Guensch, Greg

2001-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

114

NUCLEAR FLUID DYNAMICS VERSUS INTRANUCLEAR CASCADE--POSSIBLE EVIDENCE FOR COLLECTIVE FLOW IN CENTRAL HIGH ENERGY NUCLEAR COLLISIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flow in Central High Energy Nuclear Collisions H. Stockera,under Contract High energy nuclear collisions offer a uniquesidewards flow·in high-energy nuclear collisions. The

Stocker, H.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Figure 7. Projected Production for the High Development Rate...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Rate of Technically Recoverable Oil Estimated at 5 Percent, Mean, and 95 Percent Probabilities for the ANWR Coastal Plain of the Alaska North Slope fig7.jpg (43335 bytes) Source...

116

Studies of the CMS tracker at high trigger rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the latter months of 2006 and the first half of 2007, the CMS Tracker was assembled and operated at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. During this period the performance of the tracker at trigger rates up to ...

Chan, M.

117

Pressure oscillations caused by momentum on shut in of a high rate well in a fractured formation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pressure transient testing techniques are an important part of reservoir and production testing procedures. These techniques are frequently used to determine practical information about underground reservoirs such as the permeability, porosity, liquid content, reservoir and liquid discontinuities and other related data. This information is valuable in helping to analyze, improve and forecast reservoir performance. This report is concerned with developing models for pressure transient well testing in high permeability, high flow rate, naturally fractured reservoirs. In the present work, a study was made of the effects of liquid inertia in the fractures and the wellbore on the pressure response obtained during a well test. The effects of turbulent flow and multi-phase flow effects such as gravitational segregation or anisotropic porous media effects were not considered. The scope of the study was limited to studying inertial effects on the pressure response of a fractured reservoir.

Bhatnagar, S.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Design and analysis of a high-rate acoustic link for underwater video transmission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A high bit rate acoustic link for underwater video transmission is examined. Currently, encoding standards support video transmission at bit rates as low as 64 kbps. While this rate is still above the limit of commercially ...

Pelekanakis, Konstantinos

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Cash Flow and Discount Rate news estimation: which method to choose?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

news 6.1 Generation of financial statements and expectationsNEWS Generation of financial statements and expectationsabout future cash flows Financial statements of the firm are

Khimich, Natalya V.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Flame stabilization by a plasma driven radical jet in a high speed flow .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In current afterburners combustion is stabilized by the high temperature, recirculating region behind bluff body flame holders, such as V-gutters. Blocking the high speed flow… (more)

Choi, Woong-Sik

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies, of which 30 are cluster members. Nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters, having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 to 525 solar masses per year. Using the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band flux, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs. This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 to 219 solar masses per year for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

Amalia K. Hicks; Richard Mushotzky

2005-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

122

DevoFlow: scaling flow management for high-performance networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OpenFlow is a great concept, but its original design imposes excessive overheads. It can simplify network and traffic management in enterprise and data center environments, because it enables flow-level control over Ethernet switching and provides global ... Keywords: data center, flow-based networking, switch design

Andrew R. Curtis; Jeffrey C. Mogul; Jean Tourrilhes; Praveen Yalagandula; Puneet Sharma; Sujata Banerjee

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

High volume tidal or current flow harnessing system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apparatus permitting the utilization of large volumes of water in the harnessing and extracting of a portion of the power generated by the rise and fall of ocean tides, ocean currents, or flowing rivers includes the provision of a dam, and a specialized single cavity chamber of limited size as compared with the water head enclosed by the dam, and an extremely high volume gating system in which all or nearly all of the water between the high and low levels on either side of the dam is cyclically gated through the single chamber from one side of the dam to the other so as to alternately provide positive air pressure and a partial vacuum within the single chamber. In one embodiment, the specialized chamber has a barrier at the bottom which divides the bottom of the chamber in half, large ports at the bottom of the chamber to permit inflow and outflow of high volumes of water, and ganged structures having a higher total area than that of corresponding ports, in which the structures form sluice gates to selectively seal off and open different sets of ports. In another embodiment, a single chamber is used without a barrier. In this embodiment, vertical sluice gates are used which may be activated automatically by pressures acting on the sluice gates as a result of ingested and expelled water.

Gorlov, A.M.

1984-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

124

Parallel pulse processing and data acquisition for high speed, low error flow cytometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A digitally synchronized parallel pulse processing and data acquisition system for a flow cytometer has multiple parallel input channels with independent pulse digitization and FIFO storage buffer. A trigger circuit controls the pulse digitization on all channels. After an event has been stored in each FIFO, a bus controller moves the oldest entry from each FIFO buffer onto a common data bus. The trigger circuit generates an ID number for each FIFO entry, which is checked by an error detection circuit. The system has high speed and low error rate.

van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Livermore, CA); Stokdijk, Willem (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Parallel pulse processing and data acquisition for high speed, low error flow cytometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A digitally synchronized parallel pulse processing and data acquisition system for a flow cytometer has multiple parallel input channels with independent pulse digitization and FIFO storage buffer. A trigger circuit controls the pulse digitization on all channels. After an event has been stored in each FIFO, a bus controller moves the oldest entry from each FIFO buffer onto a common data bus. The trigger circuit generates an ID number for each FIFO entry, which is checked by an error detection circuit. The system has high speed and low error rate. 17 figs.

Engh, G.J. van den; Stokdijk, W.

1992-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

126

The Rate of Type Ia Supernovae at High Redshift  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive the rates of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) over a wide range of redshifts using a complete sample from the IfA Deep Survey. This sample of more than 100 SNIa is the largest set ever collected from a single survey, and therefore uniquely powerful for a detailed supernova rate (SNR) calculation. Measurements of the SNR as a function of cosmological time offer a glimpse into the relationship between the star formation rate (SFR) and Type Ia SNR, and may provide evidence for the progenitor pathway. We observe a progressively increasing Type Ia SNR between redshifts z~0.3-0.8. The Type Ia SNR measurements are consistent with a short time delay (t~1 Gyr) with respect to the SFR, indicating a fairly prompt evolution of SNIa progenitor systems. We derive a best-fit value of SFR/SNR 580 h_70^(-2) M_solar/SNIa for the conversion factor between star formation and SNIa rates, as determined for a delay time of t~1 Gyr between the SFR and the Type Ia SNR. More complete measurements of the Type Ia SNR at z>1 are necessary to conclusively determine the SFR--SNR relationship and constrain SNIa evolutionary pathways.

Brian J. Barris; John L. Tonry

2005-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

127

High Strain Rate Tensile Testing of DOP-26 Iridium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The iridium alloy DOP-26 was developed through the Radioisotope Power Systems Program in the Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy. It is used for clad vent set cups containing radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) heat sources which provide electric power for spacecraft. This report describes mechanical testing results for DOP-26. Specimens were given a vacuum recrystallization anneal of 1 hour at 1375 C and tested in tension in orientations parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the sheet from which they were fabricated. The tests were performed at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1090 C and strain rates ranging from 1 x 10{sup -3} to 50 s{sup -1}. Room temperature testing was performed in air, while testing at elevated temperatures was performed in a vacuum better than 1 x 10{sup -4} Torr. The yield stress (YS) and the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing strain rate. Between 600 and 1090 C, the ductility showed a slight increase with increasing temperature. Within the scatter of the data, the ductility did not depend on the strain rate. The reduction in area (RA), on the other hand, decreased with increasing strain rate. The YS and UTS values did not differ significantly for the longitudinal and transverse specimens. The ductility and RA values of the transverse specimens were marginally lower than those of the longitudinal specimens.

Schneibel, Joachim H [ORNL; Carmichael Jr, Cecil Albert [ORNL; George, Easo P [ORNL

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Cross-layer rate control in wireless networks with lossy links: leaky-pipe flow, effective network utility maximization and hop-by-hop algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We take a cross-layer design approach to study rate control in multihop wireless networks. Due to the lossy nature of wireless links, the data rate of a given flow becomes smaller and smaller along its routing path. As a result, the data rate received ... Keywords: ENUM, cross-layer optimization, flow control, hop-by-hop algorithms, leaky-pipe model

Qinghai Gao; Junshan Zhang; Stephen V. Hanly

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

The Impact of High School Curriculum on College Enrollment Rates.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study examines how the mandated curriculum, specifically, "rigorous" curriculum, is associated with the percentage of a high school's graduating class that chooses to enroll… (more)

Blosveren, Kate R.

130

Using multi-layer models to forecast gas flow rates in tight gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The petroleum industry commonly uses single-layer models to characterize and forecast long-term production in tight gas reservoir systems. However, most tight gas reservoirs are layered systems where the permeability and porosity of each layer can vary significantly, often over several orders of magnitude. In addition, the drainage areas of each of the layers can be substantially different. Due to the complexity of such reservoirs, the analysis of pressure and production history using single-layer analyses techniques provide incorrect estimates of permeability, fracture conductivity, drainage area, and fracture half-length. These erroneous values of reservoir properties also provide the reservoir engineer with misleading values of forecasted gas recovery. The main objectives of this research project are: (1) to demonstrate the typical errors that can occur in reservoir properties when single-layer modeling methods are used to history match production data from typical layered tight gas reservoirs, and (2) to use the single-layer match to demonstrate the error that can occur when forecasting long-term gas production for such complex gas reservoirs. A finite-difference reservoir simulator was used to simulate gas production from various layered tight gas reservoirs. These synthetic production data were analyzed using single-layer models to determine reservoir properties. The estimated reservoir properties obtained from the history matches were then used to forecast ten years of cumulative gas production and to find the accuracy of gas reserves estimated for tight gas reservoirs when a single-layer model is used for the analysis. Based on the results obtained in this work, I conclude that the accuracy in reservoir properties and future gas flow rates in layered tight gas reservoirs when analyzed using a single-layer model is a function of the degree of variability in permeability within the layers and the availability of production data to be analyzed. In cases where there is an idea that the reservoir presents a large variability in ��k�, using a multi-layer model to analyze the production data will provide the reservoir engineer with more accurate estimates of long-term production recovery and reservoir properties.

Jerez Vera, Sergio Armando

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

An Energy Signature Scheme for Steam Trap Assessment and Flow Rate Estimation Using Pipe-Induced Acoustic Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The US Congress has passed legislation dictating that all government agencies establish a plan and process for improving energy efficiencies at their sites. In response to this legislation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently conducted a pilot study to explore the deployment of a wireless sensor system for a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization framework within the steam distribution system within the ORNL campus. We make assessments on the real-time status of the distribution system by observing the state measurements of acoustic sensors mounted on the steam pipes/traps/valves. In this paper, we describe a spectral-based energy signature scheme that interprets acoustic vibration sensor data to estimate steam flow rates and assess steam traps health status. Experimental results show that the energy signature scheme has the potential to identify different steam trap health status and it has sufficient sensitivity to estimate steam flow rate. Moreover, results indicate a nearly quadratic relationship over the test region between the overall energy signature factor and flow rate in the pipe. The analysis based on estimated steam flow and steam trap status helps generate alerts that enable operators and maintenance personnel to take remedial action. The goal is to achieve significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam pipes/traps/valves.

Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL; Lake, Joe E [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Impact of Dynamic Ratings, Major Power Flow Upgrades, and Green Power Integration on System Planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric power utilities around the world are undergoing a major transformation, which is redefining the utilization of existing power equipment in the electric transmission network due to limited financial incentives and lengthy licensing process for new construction. Under these circumstances, the utilities are forced to find new ways of increasing power flow quickly through existing transmission corridors with minimal investments. Increased power flows of transmission circuits can be achieved by contr...

2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

133

Analyses and applications of pressure, flow rate, and temperature measurements during a perforating run. [Measurement while perforating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perforating technology has undergone significant advances during the last decade. Tubing-conveyed perforating, underbalanced perforating, high-shot-density guns, better shaped charges, and improved gun systems have contributed to safer operations and improved productivity of the perforated completions. A recent development described in this paper is a perforating tool that makes real-time downhole measurements (including pressure, flow rate, temperature, gamma ray, casing-collar locator (CCL), and cable tension) during a perforating run and can selectively fire a number of guns at different depths or times. In addition to providing better control of the perforating process, the simultaneous downhole measurements can provide in a single trip a production log, conventional well tests before and after perforating, and a fill-up or slug test soon after perforating for underbalanced conditions. Thus, the completion can be evaluated in real time and any needed remedial reperforating can be performed while the gun is still in the hole. Other applications include limited-entry perforating, monitoring of bottomhole pressure (BHP) during minifracture jobs, better depth control with a gamma ray detector, fluid-level monitoring, and underbalance control. The applications of these measurements, with field data obtained with the Measurement While Perforating (MWP{sup SM}) tool, are the subject of this paper. Examples show the capabilities and the versatility of the MWP tool.

Tariq, S.M. (Schlumberger Perforating and Testing Center (US)); Ayestaran, L.C. (Schlumberger Well Services (US))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Influence of gas flow rate on liquid distribution in trickle-beds using perforated plates as liquid distributors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two wire mesh tomography devices and a liquid collector were used to study the influence of the gas flow rate on liquid distribution when fluids distribution on top of the reactor is ensured by a perforated plate. In opposition to most of the studies realized by other authors, conditions in which the gas has a negative impact in liquid distribution were evidenced. Indeed, the obtained results show that the influence of gas flow rate depends on the quality of the initial distribution, as the gas forces the liquid to "respect" the distribution imposed at the top of the reactor. Finally, a comparison between the two measuring techniques shows the limitations of the liquid collector and the improper conclusions to which its use could lead.

Llamas, Juan-David; Wild, Gabriel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

High rates of nonbreeding adult bald eagles in southeastern Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Present knowledge of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) demography is derived primarily from populations in environments that have been drastically altered by man. Most reproductive studies were done in the 1960's and 1970's when chemical toxins were inhibiting bald eagle productivity. Earlier, the removal of old-growth forests and decimation of anadromous fish runs by Euro-Americans may have greatly reduced bald eagle abundance from presettlement levels. Historical trends in this species are of interest because fundamental differences may exist between populations in pristine and man-altered environments. One difference may be breeding rate. Surpluses of nonbreeding adult bald eagles during the nesting season are rarely mentioned in the literature. Most surveys of reproductive success focus exclusively on eagles at nest sites, which assumes nearly all adults attempt to breed each year. The authors report that a majority of adults in the relatively pristine habitats of southeastern Alaska do not breed annually. This finding is important because if surpluses of non-breeding adults are a natural feature of the population, then hypotheses on density dependent population regulation and the evolution of delayed maturation are suggested. If, on the other hand, the abundance of nonbreeders is an artifact of recent environmental perturbations, serious population declines may occur in southeastern Alaska.

Hansen, A.J.; Hodges, J.I. Jr.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

High Performance Computing Based Methods for Simulation and Optimisation of Flow Problems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The thesis is concerned with the study of methods in high-performance computing for simulation and optimisation of flow problems that occur in the framework of… (more)

Bockelmann, Hendryk

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Cyclability Study of Si/TiN/C Composite Anode with High Rate ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Cyclability Study of Si/TiN/C Composite Anode with High Rate Capability for Lithium-Ion Batteries. Author(s), Jiguo Tu, Shuqiang Jiao, ...

138

Deposition of device quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon at high deposition rates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of fabricating device quality, thin-film a-Si:H for use as semiconductor material in photovoltaic and other devices, comprising in any order; positioning a substrate in a vacuum chamber adjacent a plurality of heatable filaments with a spacing distance L between the substrate and the filaments; heating the filaments to a temperature that is high enough to obtain complete decomposition of silicohydride molecules that impinge said filaments into Si and H atomic species; providing a flow of silicohydride gas, or a mixture of silicohydride gas containing Si and H, in said vacuum chamber while maintaining a pressure P of said gas in said chamber, which, in combination with said spacing distance L, provides a P.times.L product in a range of 10-300 mT-cm to ensure that most of the Si atomic species react with silicohydride molecules in the gas before reaching the substrate, to thereby grow a a-Si:H film at a rate of at least 50 .ANG./sec.; and maintaining the substrate at a temperature that balances out-diffusion of H from the growing a-Si:H film with time needed for radical species containing Si and H to migrate to preferred bonding sites.

Mahan, Archie Harvin (Golden, CO); Molenbroek, Edith C. (Rotterdam, NL); Gallagher, Alan C. (Louisville, CO); Nelson, Brent P. (Golden, CO); Iwaniczko, Eugene (Lafayette, CO); Xu, Yueqin (Golden, CO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

U-Sr isotopic speedometer: Fluid flow and chemical weathering rates inaquifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

zone sediment from the Hanford Reservation—RCRA boreholecontamination at the Hanford Site in Washington using high-vadose zone pore fluids at Hanford, Washington: implications

Maher, Kate; DePaolo, Donald J.; Christensen, John N.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

CFD Analysis of Core Bypass Flow and Crossflow in the Prismatic Very High Temperature Gas-cooled Nuclear Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Very High Temperature Rector (VHTR) had been designated as one of those promising reactors for the Next Generation (IV) Nuclear Plant (NGNP). For a prismatic core VHTR, one of the most crucial design considerations is the bypass flow and crossflow effect. The bypass flow occurs when the coolant flow into gaps between fuel blocks. These gaps are formed as a result of carbon expansion and shrinkage induced by radiations and manufacturing and installation errors. Hot spots may appear in the core if the large portion of the coolant flows into bypass gaps instead of coolant channels in which the cooling efficiency is much higher. A preliminary three dimensional steady-state CFD analysis was performed with commercial code STARCCM+ 6.04 to investigate the bypass flow and crossflow phenomenon in the prismatic VHTR core. The k-? turbulence model was selected because of its robustness and low computational cost with respect to a decent accuracy for varied flow patterns. The wall treatment used in the present work is two-layer all y+ wall treatment to blend the wall laws to estimate the shear stress. Uniform mass flow rate was chose as the inlet condition and the outlet condition was zero gauge pressure outlet. Grid independence study was performed and the results indicated that the discrepancy of the solution due to the mesh density was within 2% of the bypass flow fraction. The computational results showed that the bypass flow fraction was around 12%. Furthermore, the presence of the crossflow gap resulted in a up to 28% reduction of the coolant in the bypass flow gap while mass flow rate of coolant in coolant channels increased by around 5%. The pressure drop at the inlet due to the sudden contraction in area could be around 1kpa while the value was about 180 Pa around the crossflow gap region. The error analysis was also performed to evaluate the accumulated errors from the process of discretization and iteration. It was found that the total error was around 4% and the variation for the bypass flow fraction was within 1%.

Wang, Huhu 1985-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Analog Readout and Analysis Software for the Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometers are needed for Safeguards applications such as spent fuel assay and uranium hexafluoride cylinder verification. In addition, these spectrometers would be applicable to other high-rate applications such as non-destructive assay of nuclear materials using nuclear resonance fluorescence. Count-rate limitations of today's HPGe technologies, however, lead to concessions in their use and reduction in their efficacy. Large-volume, very high-rate HPGe spectrometers are needed to enable a new generation of nondestructive assay systems. The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project is developing HPGe spectrometer systems capable of operating at unprecedented rates, 10 to 100 times those available today. This report documents current status of developments in the analog electronics and analysis software.

Fast, James E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Evans, Allan T.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.; Wood, Lynn S.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Adaptive Detached Eddy Simulation of a High-Lift Wing with Active Flow  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full span view of the flow past a vertical tail assembly of a commercial aircraft with active flow control at Re=360,000. Full span view of the flow past a vertical tail assembly of a commercial aircraft with active flow control at Re=360,000. Full span view of the flow past a vertical tail assembly of a commercial aircraft with active flow control at Re=360,000. This picture highlights the root and tip vortex along with the turbulent structures in the wake of a deflected rudder through isosurface of instantaneous Q criterion colored by speed on a locally adapted unstructured finite element mesh with 1.2 billion elements. Michel Rasquin, Argonne National Laboratory Adaptive Detached Eddy Simulation of a High-Lift Wing with Active Flow Control PI Name: Kenneth Jansen PI Email: jansenke@colorado.edu Institution: University of Colorado Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF:

143

Impact of unsteady flow processes on the performance of a high speed axial flow compressor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis examines the unsteady interactions between blade rows in a high Mach number, highly-loaded compressor stage. Two straight vane/rotor configurations with different axial spacing between vane and rotor are ...

Botros, Barbara Brenda

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Mold, flow, and economic considerations in high temperature precision casting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Casting high temperature alloys that solidify through a noticeable two phase region, specifically platinum-ruthenium alloys, is a particularly challenging task due to their high melting temperature and this necessitates ...

Humbert, Matthew S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

High-rate deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films and devices  

SciTech Connect

In high-rate deposition of a-Si:H films, the effect of deposition parameters on material properties are examined when silane and disilane are the feed gases. The emphasis is on RF glow discharge, but other deposition methods are also covered. The problems of gas-phase polymerization and power formation at high rates have been overcome by modified reactor designs. Deposition rates of 1-3 nm/s are adequate for economically fabricating the intrinsic layer. Laboratory-size a-Si:H cells with greater than 10% efficiency have been achieved with both silane and disilane at rates in the 1- to 2-nm/s range.

Luft, W.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

High-rate deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films and devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the status of high-rate deposition technologies associated with amorphous silicon thin films for photovoltaic applications. The report lists (1) deposition rates for a-Si:H films according to source and method and (2) efficiencies and other parameters of a-Si:H solar cells. Two main deposition source materials, silane and disilane, are discussed, as well as effects of boron doping. The effects of various deposition parameters on film characteristics and on deposition rate are presented, as well as the effects of annealing on high-deposition-rate films. Light-induced effects are also discussed. Finally, progress and problems in this field of study are summarized.

Luft, W.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Producing ultrashort Terahertz to UV photons at high repetition rates for research into materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new THz/IR/UV photon source at Jefferson Lab is the first of a new generation of light sources based on a Energy-Recovered, (superconducting) Linac (ERL). The machine has a 160 MeV electron beam and an average current of 10 mA in 75 MHz repetition rate hundred femtosecond bunches. These electron bunches pass through a magnetic chicane and therefore emit synchrotron radiation. For wavelengths longer than the electron bunch the electrons radiate coherently a broadband THz {approx} half cycle pulse whose average brightness is > 5 orders of magnitude higher than synchrotron IR sources. Previous measurements showed 20 W of average power extracted[1]. The new facility offers simultaneous synchrotron light from the visible through the FIR along with broadband THz production of 100 fs pulses with >200 W of average power (see G. P. Williams, this conference). The FELs also provide record-breaking laser power [2]: up to 10 kW of average power in the IR from 1 to 14 microns in 400 fs pulses at up to 74.85 MHz repetition rates and soon will produce similar pulses of 300-1000 nm light at up to 3 kW of average power from the UV FEL. These ultrashort pulses are ideal for maximizing the interaction with material surfaces. The optical beams are Gaussian with nearly perfect beam quality. See www.jlab.org/FEL for details of the operating characteristics; a wide variety of pulse train configurations are feasible from 10 microseconds long at high repetition rates to continuous operation. The THz and IR system has been commissioned. The UV system is to follow in 2005. The light is transported to user laboratories for basic and applied research. Additional lasers synchronized to the FEL are also available. Past activities have included production of carbon nanotubes, studies of vibrational relaxation of interstitial hydrogen in silicon, pulsed laser vapor deposition, nitriding of metals, and energy flow in proteins. This paper will present the status of the system and discuss some of the opportunities provided by this unique light source for modifying and studying materials.

G. R. Neil; C. Behre; S. V. Benson; G. Biallas; J. Boyce; L.A. Dillon-Townes; D. Douglas; H. F. Dylla; R. Evans; A. Grippo; D. Gruber; J. Gubeli; C. Hernandez-Garcia; K. Jordan; M. J. Kelley; L. Merminga; J. Mammosser; N. Nishimori; J. Preble; R. Rimmer; Michelle D. Shinn; T. Siggins; R. Walker; G. P. Williams; and S. Zhang

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

High-Fidelity Simulation of Complex Suspension Flow for Practical Rheometry  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Fidelity Simulation of Complex Suspension Flow for Practical Rheometry High-Fidelity Simulation of Complex Suspension Flow for Practical Rheometry High-Fidelity Simulation of Complex Suspension Flow for Practical Rheometry PI Name: William George PI Email: wgeorge@nist.gov Institution: National Institute of Standards and Technology Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 22 Million Year: 2012 Research Domain: Materials Science Flow properties of large-particle suspensions, such as concrete, cannot now be measured accurately in industrial settings. Flow simulations with many thousands of particles with a wide range of sizes and shapes in a non-Newtonian fluid matrix will enable the design of rheometers that will revolutionize the use of these instruments. The project's previous three-year INCITE award, granted in 2008, gave

149

Competition among Life Insurance Companies: The Driving Force of High Policy Rates?,” Working Paper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the effect competition has on the decisions of life insurance companies. In particular, we are interested in the companies ’ choices of policy rates and investment strategies given that they have issued contracts with a minimum rate of return guarantee. Our modeling framework is a one-period Cournot model of duopoly. We find policy rates and investment strategies that sustain a Nash equilibrium. We compare the results to the cooperative solution, that is, the case where the companies operate as a monopoly company and share the profits. Our model illustrates how competition between companies drives companies to offer relatively high policy rates, in particular rates above the risk free rate of return. Special thanks to Peter Ove Christensen and Kristian Miltersen. Claus Munk, and Martin Skovgaard Hansen were highly appreciated.

Mette Hansen

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Workshop: Time Resolved X-Ray Science at High Repetition Rate | Stanford  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Time Resolved X-Ray Science at High Repetition Rate Time Resolved X-Ray Science at High Repetition Rate Saturday, October 22, 2011 - 8:30am SSRL Conference Room 137-322 In conjunction with the 2011 LCLS/SSRL User Meeting, SSRL and the APS will jointly host a two-day workshop focused on opportunities with short-pulse, high-repetition rate X-ray Science. The workshop will feature international speakers and panel experts presenting the scientific basis, preliminary results and future potential of high rep-rate picosecond x-rays beams from storage rings. The workshop will be broadly focused on topics in materials science, chemistry, biology and catalysis. The workshop agenda will also include presentations on accelerator operational modes, precision timing issues, detector challenges and the relation of storage ring science with

151

An implementation of a 5.25 GHz transceiver for high data rate wireless applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The desire for transmission of high data rate information across wireless channels has grown immensely over the past decade. Wireless devices available today including mobile phones, wireless local area networks (WLANs) ...

Matalon, Nir

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

High repetition rate mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers with complete electric field control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent advances in fully-stabilized mode-locked laser systems are enabling many applications, including optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG). In this thesis work, we describe the development of high repetition-rate ...

Sickler, Jason William, 1978-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Using Plasmas for High-Speed Flow Control and Combustion Control.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Experiments on characterization of Localized Arc Filament Plasma Actuators used for high-speed flow control, as well as experimental studies of chemiluminescence and chemi-ionization for flame… (more)

Keshav, Saurabh

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

An Enskog based Monte Carlo method for high Knudsen number non-ideal gas flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

high Knudsen number non-ideal gas flows References [1] Gad-121: [2] Bird GA. Molecular gas dynamics. Oxford: Clarendon1976. [3] Bird GA. Molecular Gas Dynamics and the Direct

Wang, Moran; Li, Zhixin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Method for establishing high permeability flow path between boreholes  

SciTech Connect

A method for linking adjacent boreholes in a subterranean formation, particularly in a coal gasification array, by firing a high velocity terradynamic projectile from one borehole to the other.

Dow, Jerome P. (Pleasanton, CA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

An evaluation of the FCT method for high-speed flows on structured overlapping grids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study considers the development and assessment of a flux-corrected transport (FCT) algorithm for simulating high-speed flows on structured overlapping grids. This class of algorithm shows promise for solving some difficult highly-nonlinear problems ... Keywords: Euler equations, Flux-corrected transport, High-resolution methods, Overlapping grids

J. W. Banks; W. D. Henshaw; J. N. Shadid

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Increased Information Flow Needs for High-Assurance Composite Evaluations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four Common Criteria Certification agencies fromFrance, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK have developeda concept of composite evaluations in which softwareevaluators would not receive the full hardware EvaluationTechnical Report (ETR), but instead ... Keywords: composite evaluation, common criteria, high assurance, smart cards, covert channels

Paul A. Karger; Helmut Kurth

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Eccentricity Fluctuations Make Flow Measurable in High Multiplicity p-p Collisions  

SciTech Connect

Elliptic flow is a hallmark of collectivity in hadronic collisions. Its measurement relies on analysis techniques which require high event multiplicity and so far can only be applied to heavy ion collisions. Here, we delineate the conditions under which elliptic flow becomes measurable in the samples of high-multiplicity (dN{sub ch}/dy>=50) p-p collisions, which will soon be collected at the LHC. We observe that fluctuations in the p-p interaction region can result in a sizable spatial eccentricity even for the most central p-p collisions. Under relatively mild assumptions on the nature of such fluctuations and on the eccentricity scaling of elliptic flow, we find that the resulting elliptic flow signal in high-multiplicity p-p collisions at the LHC becomes measurable with standard techniques.

Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Wiedemann, Urs Achim [Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

2010-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

159

Laminated metal composite formed from low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers using flow constraining elements and method of making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a laminated metal composite, comprising alternating layers of low flow stress material and high flow stress material, and formed using flow constraining elements around each low flow stress layer; and a method of making same. A composite is a combination of at least two chemically distinct materials with a distinct interface separating the two materials. A metal matrix composite (MMC) is a composite material composed of a metal and a nonmetallic reinforcing agent such as silicon carbide (SiC) or graphite in continuous or discontinuous fiber, whisker, or discrete particulate form. A laminate is a material composed of several bonded layers. It is possible to have a laminate composed of multi-layers of a single type of material bonded to each other. However, such a laminate would not be considered to be a composite. The term {open_quotes}laminated metal composite{close_quotes} (LMC), as used herein, is intended to include a structural material composed of: (1) layers of metal or metal alloys interleaved with (2) a different metal, a metal alloy, or a metal matrix composite (MMC) containing strengthening agents.

Syn, C.K.; Lesuer, D.R.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

160

High-Resolution Simulations of Gas-Solids Jet Penetration Into a High Density Riser Flow  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution simulations of a gas-solids jet in a 0.3 m diameter and 15.9 m tall circulating fluidized bed (CFB) riser were conducted with the open source software-MFIX. In the numerical simulations, both gas and solids injected through a 1.6 cm diameter radial-directed tube 4.3 m above the bottom distributor were tracked as tracers, which enable the analysis of the characteristics of a two-phase jet. Two jetting gas velocities of 16.6 and 37.2 m/s were studied with the other operating conditions fixed. Reasonable flow hydrodynamics with respect to overall pressure drop, voidage, and solids velocity distributions were predicted. Due to the different dynamic responses of gas and particles to the crossflow, a significant separation of gas and solids within the jet region was predicted for both cases. In addition, the jet characteristics based on tracer concentration and tracer mass fraction profiles at different downstream levels are discussed. Overall, the numerical predictions compare favorably to the experimental measurements made at NETL.

Li, Tingwen

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Carbon Surface Layers on a High-Rate LiFePO4  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to image particles of a high-rate LiFePO4 sample containing a small amount of in situ carbon. The particle morphology is highly irregular, with a wide size distribution. Nevertheless, coatings, varying from about 5-10 nm in thickness, could readily be detected on surfaces of particles as well as on edges of agglomerates. Elemental mapping using Energy Filtered TEM (EFTEM) indicates that these very thin surface layers are composed of carbon. These observations have important implications for the design of high-rate LiFePO4 materials in which, ideally, a minimal amount of carbon coating is used.

Gabrisch, Heike; Wilcox, James D.; Doeff, Marca M.

2005-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

162

High performance hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells made at a high deposition rate by glow discharge of disilane  

SciTech Connect

The deposition rate, electronic and optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films prepared from rf glow discharge decomposition of disilane (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/) diluted in helium have been measured. These films show excellent electrical and optical properties and, most importantly, a high deposition rate coupled with satisfactory solar cell application was realized for the first time. At a deposition rate of 11 A/s, 5.47% and 6.5% conversion efficiencies were obtained with a first trial of n-i-p type solar cells deposited on SnO/sub 2//ITO glass and metal substrates, respectively.

Ohashi, Y.; Kenne, J.; Konagai, M.; Takahashi, K.

1983-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

Hydrogen generation rates in Savannah River Site high-level nuclear waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-level nuclear waste (HLW) is stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as alkaline, high-nitrate slurries in underground carbon steel tanks. Hydrogen is continuously generated in the waste tanks as a result of the radiolysis of water. Hydrogen generation rates have recently been measured in several waste tanks containing different types of waste. The measured rates ranged from 1.1 to 6.7 cubic feet per million Btu of decay heat. The measured rates are consistent with laboratory data which show that the hydrogen generation rate depends on the nitrate concentration and the decay heat content of the waste. Sampling at different locations indicated that the hydrogen is uniformly distributed radially within the tank.

Hobbs, D.T.; Norris, P.W.; Pucko, S.A.; Bibler, N.E.; Walker, D.D.; d'Entremont, P.D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

High deposition rate preparation of amorphous silicon solar cells by rf glow discharge decomposition of disilane  

SciTech Connect

The optical and electrical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films produced by rf glow discharge decomposition of disilane diluted in helium (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6//He = 1/9) have been studied while systematically varying the film deposition rate. The properties and composition of the films were monitored by measuring the optical band gap, IR vibrational spectrum, dark conductivity, and the photoconductivity as a function of the deposition rate. The photoluminescence of the high deposition rate films gave a peak at 1.33 eV. These films, whose properties are rather similar to those of the conventional a-Si:H films prepared from monosilane, have been used to fabricate nip-type a-Si:H solar cells. At a deposition rate of 11 A/sec, a conversion efficiency of 6.86% was obtained. This high efficiency shows that disilane is applicable for mass production fabrication of a-Si:H solar cells.

Kenne, J.; Ohashi, Y.; Matsushita, T.; Konagai, M.; Takahashi, K.

1984-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Deflagration Rate Measurements of Three Insensitive High Explosives: LLM-105, TATB, and DAAF  

SciTech Connect

The pressure dependent deflagration rates of LLM-105, DAAF and TATB based formulations were measured in the LLNL high pressure strand burner. The role of binder amount, explosive type, and thermal damage and their effects on the deflagration rate will be discussed. One DAAF formulation, two different formulations of LLM-105, and four formulations of TATB were studied; results indicate that binder amount and type play a minor role in the deflagration behavior. This is in sharp contrast to the HMX based formulations which strongly depend on binder amount and type. The effect of preheating these samples was considerably more dramatic. In the case of LLM-105, preheating the sample appears to have little effect on the deflagration rate. In contrast, preheating DAAF and TATB formulations causes the deflagration rate to accelerate. The thermal and mechanical properties of these formulations will be discussed in the context of their pressure and temperature dependent deflagration rates.

Glascoe, E A; Maienschein, J L; Lorenz, K T; Tan, N; Koerner, J G

2010-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

166

Plasmon-enhanced photocathode for high brightness and high repetition rate x-ray sources  

SciTech Connect

High brightness electron sources are at the heart of anew generation of x-ray sources based on the Free ElectronLaser (FEL) as well as in Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) and Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) sources.The source of electrons consists of a photoinjector, comprised of a laser-driven photocathode in a high gradient electric field produced by an rf cavity. The function of the rf cavity is to provide a field sufficient for acceleration of electrons to relativistic velocity over a small distance, thus minimizing effects of the space-charge. Even so, the dense electron beam required for high brightness suffers from a space charge field that chirps and reshapes the electron pulse increasing beam emittance and thus reducing the overall brightness. This emittance growth can be avoided if the initial distribution of electrons is pancake shaped, with a semicircular transverse intensity profile. In this case, the electron distribution develops under its space charge field from a pancake into a uniformly filled ellipsoidal beam. This condition, referred to as the blowout regime, requires ultrashort pulses less than 100 fs long and has been successfully demonstrated recently in a high gradient photoinjector.

Polyakov, Aleksandr; Senft, Christoph; Thompson, K. F.; Feng, J.; Cabrini, S.; Schuck, P. J.; Padmore, Howard; Peppernick, Samuel J.; Hess, Wayne P.

2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

167

Separator Design for Use in High GVF Multiphase Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The requirement of bringing an outside coolant source to run through the seals of a multiphase pump has always been a costly endeavor. Using a separator to extract liquid from the exhaust of the pump to use as a coolant is often more expensive than providing an outside source of coolant. This research proposes a cost effective separator design which efficiently separates the liquid from gas, while maintaining a high enough residence time to remove any gas entrainment, and separates only the seal flush requirement by letting any excess liquids carryover with the gas. Conventional multiphase separators operate by substantially decreasing the velocity of the mixture, which reduces the drag force put forth by the gasses and allows gravity to force the liquids downward. Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclones (GLCCs) operate by increasing the velocity of the mixture, using radial force to separate liquids and gasses. This technique requires a smaller diameter vessel to achieve separation. The separator in this research uses gravity as the separation force while maintaining a pipe diameter similar to the GLCC. This way, only standard pipe and pipe fittings are used. The effectiveness of this design is measured two ways. First, efficiency is studied at varying gas volume fractions (GVFs), velocities, pressures, and pipe diameters. Second, the length of air entrainment (LAE) is measured at the same varying conditions. The efficiency and air entrainment studies provide design recommendations to accommodate seal flush requirements and size limitations. The following investigation also offers further areas of research to improve the understanding and modeling of using standard pipe and pipe fittings to create more effective design equations.

Cihak, Daniel

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Observations of a Drainage Flow Event on a High-Altitude Simple Slope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of a drainage flow event on a high-altitude simple slope were made for a few hours during a five-day field study that was otherwise characterized by high and gusty winds blowing across the face of the slope believed due to the ...

William E. Clements; Carmen J. Nappo

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

High rate chemical vapor deposition of carbon films using fluorinated gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high rate, low temperature deposition of amorphous carbon films is produced by PE-CVD in the presence of a fluorinated or other halide gas. The deposition can be 5 performed at less than 100C, including ambient room temperature, with a radio frequency plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition process. With less than 6.5 at% fluorine incorporated into the amorphous carbon film, the characteristics of the carbon film, including index of 10 refraction, mass density, optical clarity, and chemical resistance are within 15% of those characteristics for pure amorphous carbon films, but the deposition rates are high.

Stafford, B.L.; Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.; Nelson, A.J.

1991-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

High rate chemical vapor deposition of carbon films using fluorinated gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high rate, low-temperature deposition of amorphous carbon films is produced by PE-CVD in the presence of a fluorinated or other halide gas. The deposition can be performed at less than 100.degree. C., including ambient room temperature, with a radio frequency plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition process. With less than 6.5 atomic percent fluorine incorporated into the amorphous carbon film, the characteristics of the carbon film, including index of refraction, mass density, optical clarity, and chemical resistance are within fifteen percent (15%) of those characteristics for pure amorphous carbon films, but the deposition rates are high.

Stafford, Byron L. (Arvada, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Nelson, Arthur J. (Longmont, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

High-repetition-rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator–amplifier system near 3 mm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An ultrafast laser system for the chemically important 3-mm spectral region has been constructed by means of noncritically phased-matched KTiOPO4 optical parametric gain elements. An optical parametric oscillator, synchronously pumped by a mode-locked Ti:sapphire oscillator, generates high-quality seed pulses for an optical parametric amplifier. The optical parametric amplifier, pumped by a high-repetition-rate Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier, amplifies the seed pulses by a factor of 520. Pulses with an energy of 550 nJ and a pulse width of 160 fs are produced at a 250-kHz repetition rate in the 3-mm region. 1.

Gary R. Holtom; Robert A. Crowell; X. Sunney Xie

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF CROSS-FLOW FILTRATION FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing cross-flow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was included in those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Cross-flow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate slurries. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the cross-flow filter axial flowrate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and cross-flow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several tests to demonstrate increases in filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions and filter enhancers, filter flow rates can be increased over rates currently realized today.

Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

173

A flexible high-rate USB2 data acquisition system for PET and SPECT imaging  

SciTech Connect

A new flexible data acquisition system has been developed to instrument gamma-ray imaging detectors designed by the Jefferson Lab Detector and Imaging Group. Hardware consists of 16-channel data acquisition modules installed on USB2 carrier boards. Carriers have been designed to accept one, two, and four modules. Application trigger rate and channel density determines the number of acquisition boards and readout computers used. Each channel has an independent trigger, gated integrator and a 2.5 MHz 12-bit ADC. Each module has an FPGA for analog control and signal processing. Processing includes a 5 ns 40-bit trigger time stamp and programmable triggering, gating, ADC timing, offset and gain correction, charge and pulse-width discrimination, sparsification, event counting, and event assembly. The carrier manages global triggering and transfers module data to a USB buffer. High-granularity time-stamped triggering is suitable for modular detectors. Time stamped events permit dynamic studies, complex offline event assembly, and high-rate distributed data acquisition. A sustained USB data rate of 20 Mbytes/s, a sustained trigger rate of 300 kHz for 32 channels, and a peak trigger rate of 2.5 MHz to FIFO memory were achieved. Different trigger, gating, processing, and event assembly techniques were explored. Target applications include >100 kHz coincidence rate PET detectors, dynamic SPECT detectors, miniature and portable gamma detectors for small-animal and clinical use.

J. Proffitt, W. Hammond, S. Majewski, V. Popov, R.R. Raylman, A.G. Weisenberger, R. Wojcik

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Scalable DNS code for high Reynolds number channel flow simulation on BG/Q  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scalable Scalable DNS code for high Reynolds number channel flow simulation on BG/Q MyoungKyu Lee mk@ices.utexas.edu Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Texas at Austin MiraCon Mar, 2013 M.K. Lee (Univ of Texas, Austin) DNS code for high Re flow on BG/Q MiraCon Mar, 2013 1 / 35 Contents Project Overview Performance Optimization Early Result Conclusion M.K. Lee (Univ of Texas, Austin) DNS code for high Re flow on BG/Q MiraCon Mar, 2013 2 / 35 Project Overview Project Title ◮ Petascale Direct Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Channel Flow Goal ◮ Expand our understand of wall-bounded turbulence Personnel ◮ P.I. : Robert Moser ◮ Primary Developer : M.K.Lee ◮ Software Engineering Support : Nicholas Malaya ◮ Catalyst : Ramesh Balakrishnan M.K. Lee (Univ of Texas, Austin) DNS code for high Re flow on BG/Q MiraCon Mar, 2013 3 / 35 Overlap Region Connection between near-wall

175

High-Resolution Large-Eddy Simulations of Scalar Transport in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flow over Complex Terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents high-resolution numerical simulations of the atmospheric flow and concentration fields accompanying scalar transport and diffusion from a point source in complex terrain. Scalar dispersion is affected not only by mean flow, ...

Takenobu Michioka; Fotini Katopodes Chow

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

The Displacement of Hydrogen-Deuterium at High Flow Rate in Palladium Particle Bed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Isotope Separation / Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Tritium Science and Technology Tsukuba, Japan November 12-16, 2001

Li Gan; Lu Guangda; Jiang Guoqiang

177

High-repetition-rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium niobate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-repetition-rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium periodically poled lithium niobate is described. This optical parametric oscillator is continuously tunable American Institute of Physics. S0003-6951 97 04325-8 Periodically poled lithium niobate PPLN has emerged

Fejer, Martin M.

178

Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid System for High-Rate Pulsed Load Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid System for High-Rate Pulsed Load Applications Donghwa Shin, Younghyun layer capacitors, or simply supercapacitors, have extremely low internal resistance, and a battery-supercapacitor architecture comprising a simple parallel connection does not perform well when the supercapacitor capacity

Pedram, Massoud

179

Progress towards a low-cost high-speed real-time multi-rate simulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research has focused on developing techniques that use field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to support real-time simulation with frame times of a few microseconds or less. These techniques can be used to simulate, for example, modern power electronic ... Keywords: FPGA, distributed, high-speed, multi-rate, real-time

John Zenor; Dale Word; Richard Bednar; Roy Crosbie; Narain Hingorani

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

A method to quench and recharge avalanche photo diodes for use in high rate situations  

SciTech Connect

We present a new method of using Avalanche Photo Diodes (APDS) for low level light detection in Geiger mode in high rate situations such as those encountered at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The new technique is readily adaptable to implementation in CMOS VLSI.

Regan, T.O.; Fenker, H.C.; Thomas, J. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Oliver, J. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). High Energy Physics Lab.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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181

A ?/4-shifted differential 8PSSK modulation for high data rate WBAN system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a new modulation scheme for high data rate WBAN in-body communication systems. We propose a ?/4-shifted differential 8-PSSK scheme that includes its architectures for the transmitter and receiver. Simulation results are presented ... Keywords: PSSK, QPSK, WBAN, component

Jung-Yeol Oh; Jae-Hwan Kim; Hyung-Soo Lee; Jae-Young Kim

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

High counting rates of x-ray photon detection using APD detectors on synchrotron machines  

SciTech Connect

In this work we show the results of 10 x 10 mm{sup 2} Si-APD detector's test with guard ring detecting x-rays. The result of mapping surface is also exhibited. We show and discuss the difficulty of single photon detection in high counting rate experiments in synchrotrons machines.

Kakuno, E. M.; Giacomolli, B. A.; Scorzato, C. R. [Universidade Federal do Pampa - UNIPAMPA-Bage, 96413-170 (Brazil); Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron - LNLS, 13086-100 (Brazil)

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

183

Improved understanding and control of high-speed jet interaction flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A numerical study of the flow field generated by injection through diamondshaped orifices into a high-speed flow is presented in this document. Jet interaction flows have a wide range of applications in the field of engineering. These applications include the use of jets for fuel injection in scramjets, for reaction control of high-speed aerodynamic bodies and as cooling jets for skins of high-speed vehicles. A necessary requirement in the use of transverse jets for these and other applications is a thorough understanding of the physics of the interaction between the jet and freestream. This interaction generates numerous flow structures that include multiple shocks, vortices, recirculation regions and shear layers. This study involves diamond-shaped orifices that have the advantage of generating weaker or attached interaction shocks as compared to circular injectors. These injectors also negate the effects due to the recirculation region that is formed upstream of the injector. This study was undertaken in order to gain further understanding of the flow features generated by diamond-shaped injectors in a high-speed flow. Numerical simulations were performed using two different levels of turbulence models. Reynolds? Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations were performed using the GASP flow solver while Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES) runs were performed using the Cobalt flow solver. A total of fifteen diamond injector simulations were performed using the RANS model for a 15 half-angle diamond injector. The fifteen simulations spanned over five different injection angles and three jet total pressures. In addition to these, two circular injector simulations were also performed. In addition, low pressure normal injection through diamond and circular orifices simulations were performed using DES. Results obtained from CFD were compared to available experimental data. The resulting flow structure and the turbulent properties of the flow were examined in detail. The normal injection case through the diamond-shaped orifice at the lowest jet total pressure was defined as the baseline case and is presented in detail. In order to study the effect of different components of the vorticity transport equation, an in-house code was used post-process the results from the RANS runs.

Srinivasan, Ravichandra

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Facile synthesized nanorod structured vanadium pentoxide for high-rate lithium batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nano-structured vanadium oxide (V2O5) is fabricated via facile thermal-decomposition of a vanadium precursor and vanadyl oxalate produced by reacting micro-sized V2O5 with oxalic acid. The V2O5 nanorods produced by this method exhibit much better electrochemical performance than commercial micro-sized V2O5. The optimized-nanorod electrodes with a high density of (001) planar defects give the best specific discharge capacities of 270 mAh g-1 at C/2 (147 mA g-1) coupled with good cycle stability with only 0.32% fading per cycle. Even at a high rate of 4C (1176 mA g-1), the nanorod electrode still delivers 198 mAh g-1. These results suggest that the nanostructured V2O5 is a good cathode for high-rate, lithium-ion battery applications.

Pan, Anqiang; Zhang, Jiguang; Nie, Zimin; Cao, Guozhong H.; Arey, Bruce W.; Li, Guosheng; Liang, Shu-quan; Liu, Jun

2010-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

185

High-Strain-Rate Forming of Aluminum and Steel Sheets for Automotive Applications  

SciTech Connect

The formability of aluminum alloy AA5182-O and DP600 steel sheets at high-strain-rates was investigated using an electrohydraulic forming (EHF) setup. Test sheets, ~150 mm diameter x 1 mm thick, were clamped around their circumference and subjected to a pressure-pulse (several 100 ?s duration) generated by a high-energy (up to ~34 kJ) under-water electrical discharge. The real-time strain and strain-rate of the deforming sheets were quantified by the digital image correlation (DIC) technique using a pair of high-speed cameras (~15 ?s per frame). Strain-rate amplification was observed when the sheets were deformed into a conical die, with the maximum in-plane strain-rate and strain for aluminum measured as ~1200 /s and ~0.2, respectively. The deformation behavior of the sheets was modeled using ABAQUS/finite element explicit code and better correlation, between the predicted and the experimental sheet deformation behavior, was observed when an alternate pressure-profile was used instead of the one available from the literature.

Rohatgi, Aashish; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Soulami, Ayoub; Davies, Richard W.; Smith, Mark T.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Ultrashort pulse high repetition rate laser system for biological tissue processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus is disclosed for fast, efficient, precise and damage-free biological tissue removal using an ultrashort pulse duration laser system operating at high pulse repetition rates. The duration of each laser pulse is on the order of about 1 fs to less than 50 ps such that energy deposition is localized in a small depth and occurs before significant hydrodynamic motion and thermal conduction, leading to collateral damage, can take place. The depth of material removed per pulse is on the order of about 1 micrometer, and the minimal thermal and mechanical effects associated with this ablation method allows for high repetition rate operation, in the region 10 to over 1000 Hertz, which, in turn, achieves high material removal rates. The input laser energy per ablated volume of tissue is small, and the energy density required to ablate material decreases with decreasing pulse width. The ablation threshold and ablation rate are only weakly dependent on tissue type and condition, allowing for maximum flexibility of use in various biological tissue removal applications. The use of a chirped-pulse amplified Titanium-doped sapphire laser is disclosed as the source in one embodiment.

Neev, Joseph (Laguna Beach, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Glinsky, Michael E. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Feit, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Rubenchik, Alexander M. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Identifying the effect of monetary policy shocks on exchange rates using high-frequency data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper proposes a new approach to identifying the effects of monetary policy shocks in an international vector autoregression.Using high-frequency data on the prices of Fed Funds futures contracts,we measure the impact of the surprise component of the FOMC-day Federal Reserve policy decision on financial variables, such as the exchange rate and the foreign interest rate. We show how this information can be used to achieve identification without having to make the usual strong assumption of a recursive ordering.

Jon Faust; John H. Rogers; Eric Swanson; Jonathan H. Wright

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Experimental and Analytic Study on the Core Bypass Flow in a Very High Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Core bypass flow has been one of key issues in the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design for securing core thermal margins and achieving target temperatures at the core exit. The bypass flow in a prismatic VHTR core occurs through the control element holes and the radial and axial gaps between the graphite blocks for manufacturing and refueling tolerances. These gaps vary with the core life cycles because of the irradiation swelling/shrinkage characteristic of the graphite blocks such as fuel and reflector blocks, which are main components of a core's structure. Thus, the core bypass flow occurs in a complicated multidimensional way. The accurate prediction of this bypass flow and counter-measures to minimize it are thus of major importance in assuring core thermal margins and securing higher core efficiency. Even with this importance, there has not been much effort in quantifying and accurately modeling the effect of the core bypass flow. The main objectives of this project were to generate experimental data for validating the software to be used to calculate the bypass flow in a prismatic VHTR core, validate thermofluid analysis tools and their model improvements, and identify and assess measures for reducing the bypass flow. To achieve these objectives, tasks were defined to (1) design and construct experiments to generate validation data for software analysis tools, (2) determine the experimental conditions and define the measurement requirements and techniques, (3) generate and analyze the experimental data, (4) validate and improve the thermofluid analysis tools, and (5) identify measures to control the bypass flow and assess its performance in the experiment.

Richard Schultz

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Numerical simulation of flow distribution for pebble bed high temperature gas cooled reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The premise of the work presented here is to use a common analytical tool, Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD), along with a difference turbulence models. Eddy viscosity models as well as state-of-the-art Large Eddy Simulation (LES) were used to study the flow past bluff bodies. A suitable CFD code (CFX5.6b) was selected and implemented. Simulation of turbulent transport for the gas through the gaps of the randomly distributed spherical fuel elements (pebbles) was performed. Although there are a number of numerical studies () on flows around spherical bodies, none of them use the necessary turbulence models that are required to simulate flow where strong separation exists. With the development of high performance computers built for applications that require high CPU time and memory; numerical simulation becomes one of the more effective approaches for such investigations and LES type of turbulence models can be used more effectively. Since there are objects that are touching each other in the present study, a special approach was applied at the stage of building computational domain. This is supposed to be a considerable improvement for CFD applications. Zero thickness was achieved between the pebbles in which fission reaction takes place. Since there is a strong pressure gradient as a result of high Reynolds Number on the computational domain, which strongly affects the boundary layer behavior, heat transfer in both laminar and turbulent flows varies noticeably. Therefore, noncircular curved flows as in the pebble-bed situatio n, in detailed local sense, is interesting to be investigated. Since a compromise is needed between accuracy of results and time/cost of effort in acquiring the results numerically, selection of turbulence model should be done carefully. Resolving all the scales of a turbulent flow is too costly, while employing highly empirical turbulence models to complex problems could give inaccurate simulation results. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method would achieve the requirements to obtain a reasonable result. In LES, the large scales in the flow are solved and the small scales are modeled. Eddy viscosity and Reynolds stress models were also be used to investigate the applicability of these models for this kind of flow past bluff bodies at high Re numbers.

Yesilyurt, Gokhan

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

High Temperature, Large Sample Volume, Constant Flow Magic Angle Spinning NMR Probe for a 11  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Temperature, Large Sample Volume, Constant Flow Magic Angle Spinning NMR Probe for a High Temperature, Large Sample Volume, Constant Flow Magic Angle Spinning NMR Probe for a 11.7 T Magnetic Field for In Situ Catalytic Reaction Characterization Project start date: April 1, 2007 EMSL Lead Investigator: Joseph Ford, EMSL High Field Magnetic Resonance Facility Co-investigators: Jian Zhi Hu, Macromolecular Structure and Dynamics, Biological Science Division, FCSD Jesse Sears and David W. Hoyt, EMSL High Field Magnetic Resonance Facility Detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in a catalytic reaction requires identification of the nature of the active sites and the temporal evolution of reaction intermediates. Although optical methods such as UV-visible and infrared (IR) spectroscopies can be used for some types of reactions, these do not

191

Coupled force-balance and particle-occupation rate equations for high-field electron transport  

SciTech Connect

It is pointed out that in the framework of balance-equation approach, the coupled force-balance and particle-occupation rate equations can be used as a complete set of equations to determine the high-field transport of semiconductors in both strong and weak electron-electron interaction limits. We call to attention that the occupation rate equation conserves the total particle number and maintains the energy balance of the relative electron system, and there is no need to introduce any other term in it. The addition of an energy-drift term in the particle-occupation rate equation [Phys. Rev. B 71, 195205 (2005)] is physically inadequate for the violation of the total particle-number conservation and the energy balance. It may lead to a substantial unphysical increase of the total particle number by the application of a dc electric field.

Lei, X. L. [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

Preliminary Report from the WHOI Flow Rate Measurement Group Prepared by Team Leader Richard Camilli, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

estimate. The flow may contain gases, fluids, and solids including but not limited to natural gas site to obtain composite horizontal cross sectional areas. 3. The flow velocity and area estimates were; this represents the higher bound estimate. 3. A comprehensive understanding of the source composition (e

Whitcomb, Louis L.

193

THERMAL DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR LOW FLOW RATE SINGLE-PHASE AND TWO-PHASE MICRO-CHANNEL HEAT SINKS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Engine Cooling Systems,'' Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics, and Thermodynamics 1997, June 1997, ``A Correlation for Boiling Heat Transfer to Saturated Fluids in Convective Flow,'' Ind. Eng. Chem the engines in automotive applications. Heat is transferred essentially under subcooled flow boiling

Qu, Weilin

194

Shock tube measurements of high temperature rate constants for OH with cycloalkanes and methylcycloalkanes  

SciTech Connect

High temperature experiments were performed with the reflected shock tube technique using multi-pass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. The present experiments span a wide T-range, 801-1347 K, and represent the first direct measurements of the title rate constants at T>500 K for cyclopentane and cyclohexane and the only high temperature measurements for the corresponding methyl derivatives. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length {proportional_to}4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high [OH] detection sensitivity permitted unambiguous analyses for measuring the title rate constants. The experimental rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=(1.90{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1705{+-}56 K/T) (813-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=(1.86{+-}0.24) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1513{+-}123 K/T) (801-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=(2.02{+-}0.19) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1799{+-}96 K/T) (859-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=(2.55{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1824{+-}114 K/T) (836-1273 K). These results and lower-T experimental data were used to obtain three parameter evaluations of the experimental rate constants for the title reactions over an even wider T-range. These experimental three parameter fits to the rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, are k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=1.390 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.779}exp(97 K/T)cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (209-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=3.169 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.679}exp(119 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (225-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=6.903 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.148}exp(536 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=2.341 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.325}exp(602 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1273 K). High level electronic structure methods were used to characterize the first three reactions in order to provide reliable extrapolations of the rate constants from 250-2000 K. The results of the theoretical predictions for OH + cyclohexane and OH + methylcyclopentane were sufficient to make a theoretical prediction for OH + methylcyclohexane. The present recommended rate expressions for OH with cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane, give rate constants that are 15-25% higher (over the T-range 800-1300 K) than the rate constants utilized in recent modeling efforts aimed at addressing the oxidation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The current measurements reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for the primary cycloalkane consumption channel in a high temperature oxidation environment. (author)

Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J.V. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, D-193, Bldg. 200, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

195

Shock tube measurements of high temperature rate constants for OH with cycloalkanes and methylcycloalkanes.  

SciTech Connect

High temperature experiments were performed with the reflected shock tube technique using multi-pass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. The present experiments span a wide T-range, 801-1347 K, and represent the first direct measurements of the title rate constants at T>500 K for cyclopentane and cyclohexane and the only high temperature measurements for the corresponding methyl derivatives. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length 4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high [OH] detection sensitivity permitted unambiguous analyses for measuring the title rate constants. The experimental rate constants in units, cm3 molecule-1 s-1, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as k{sub OH+Cyclopentane} = (1.90 {+-} 0.30) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1705 {+-} 156 K/T) (813-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane} = (1.86 {+-} 0.24) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1513 {+-} 123 K/T) (801-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane} = (2.02 {+-} 0.19) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1799 {+-} 96 K/T) (859-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane} = (2.55 {+-} 0.30) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1824 {+-} 114 K/T) (836-1273 K). These results and lower-T experimental data were used to obtain three parameter evaluations of the experimental rate constants for the title reactions over an even wider T-range. These experimental three parameter fits to the rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, are k{sub OH+Cyclopentane} = 1.390 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.779} exp(97 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (209-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane} = 3.169 x 10{sup -16} T{sup 1.679} exp(119 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (225-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane} = 6.903 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.148} exp(536 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (296-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane} = 2.341 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.325} exp(602 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (296-1273 K). High level electronic structure methods were used to characterize the first three reactions in order to provide reliable extrapolations of the rate constants from 250-2000 K. The results of the theoretical predictions for OH + cyclohexane and OH + methylcyclopentane were sufficient to make a theoretical prediction for OH + methylcyclohexane. The present recommended rate expressions for OH with cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane, give rate constants that are 15-25% higher (over the T-range 800-1300 K) than the rate constants utilized in recent modeling efforts aimed at addressing the oxidation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The current measurements reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for the primary cycloalkane consumption channel in a high temperature oxidation environment.

Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J. V.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

TWINNING AND DYNAMIC STRENGTH OF COPPER DURING HIGH?RATE STRAIN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented of a study of the conditions under which microstructural changes involving the formation of complex bi?periodic twin structures occurs in copper during shock wave and high strain rate (??>10 7 ? s ?1 ) shock?less loading. We have observed that the formation of these bi?periodic twin structures results in an initial loss of shear strength that is significant over a time period of about 0.2 to 0.4 ?s.

O. N. Aprelkov; O. N. Ignatova; V. V. Igonin; A. I. Lebedev; S. S. Nadezhin; A. M. Podurets; V. A. Raevsky; V. P. Solovyev; G. A. Salishchev; M. A. Zocher; A. M. Kaul; J. M. McNaney; B. A. Remington

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Addendum to High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of a small follow-on study, the burn rate of the ammonium perchlorate (AP) based material TAL-1503 was studied at a relatively mild pressure. The goal of this final experiment was to burn TAL-1503 at the lowest pressures possible using the LLNL High Pressure Strand Burner (LLNL-HPSB). The following is a description of the experiment and the results with a brief discussion of data and a comparison to the higher pressure data. This is not meant to be a stand-alone report and readers should refer to the main report for experimental details and discussion. High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique AP/HTPB based material (TAL-1503) were performed using the LLNL high pressure strand burner apparatus. The material burns in a well behaved, laminar fashion between 20 and 300 MPa with a burn law of B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} that was calculated based on the best data available from the experiments. In the pressure range of 2 and 10 MPa the material burned laminarly with a burn law of B = (2.0 {+-} 0.2) x P{sup (0.66{+-}0.05)}. In these results, B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Comparison of the TAL-1503 results with similar propellants that contain micrometer sized aluminum indicate that the burn rates are relatively unaffected by the aluminum. However, the pressure change is significantly larger when aluminum is present, most likely due to the high temperatures achieved from burning aluminum.

Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

198

Nuclear reaction rates and energy in stellar plasmas : The effect of highly damped modes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of the highly damped modes in the energy and reaction rates in a plasma are discussed. These modes, with wavenumbers $k \\gg k_{D}$, even being only weakly excited, with less than $k_{B}T$ per mode, make a significant contribution to the energy and screening in a plasma. When the de Broglie wavelength is much less than the distance of closest approach of thermal electrons, a classical analysis of the plasma can

Merav Opher; Luis O. Silva; Dean E. Dauger; Viktor K. Decyk; John M. Dawson

2001-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

199

Grain growth behavior and high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility of iridium alloy DOP-26  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes results of studies conducted to date under the Iridium Alloy Characterization and Development subtask of the Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program to characterize the properties of the new-process iridium-based DOP-26 alloy used for the Cassini space mission. This alloy was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the early 1980`s and is currently used by NASA for cladding and post-impact containment of the radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) heat sources which provide electric power for interplanetary spacecraft. Included within this report are data generated on grain growth in vacuum or low-pressure oxygen environments; a comparison of grain growth in vacuum of the clad vent set cup material with sheet material; effect of grain size, test temperature, and oxygen exposure on high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility; and grain growth in vacuum and high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility of welded DOP-26. The data for the new-process material is compared to available old-process data.

McKamey, C.G.; Gubbi, A.N.; Lin, Y.; Cohron, J.W.; Lee, E.H.; George, E.P.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

MELT RATE ENHANCEMENT FOR HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS FORMULATION FINAL REPORT 08R1360-1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the development and testing of new glass formulations for high aluminum waste streams that achieve high waste loadings while maintaining high processing rates. The testing was based on the compositions of Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) with limiting concentrations of aluminum specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP). The testing identified glass formulations that optimize waste loading and waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts and small scale melt rate screening tests. The results were used to select compositions for subsequent testing in a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) system. These tests were used to determine processing rates for the selected formulations as well as to examine the effects of increased glass processing temperature, and the form of aluminum in the waste simulant. Finally, one of the formulations was selected for large-scale confirmatory testing on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200), which is a one third scale prototype of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW melter and off-gas treatment system. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy (DOE) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same high-aluminum waste composition used in the present work and other Hanford HLW compositions. The scope of this study was outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the WTP is about 13,500 (equivalent to 40,500 MT glass). This estimate is based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and glass melting rate. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of {approx}1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HLW waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150 C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product. Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage. The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet WTP Contract terms. The WTP's overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulfur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in wasteloading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. It is expected that these higher waste loading glasses will reduce the HLW canister production requirement by about 25% or more.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT W; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I; BARDAKCI T; GAN H; GONG W; CHAUDHURI M

2010-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

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201

STANFORD IN-SITU HIGH RATE YBCO PROCESS: TRANSFER TO METAL TAPES AND PROCESS SCALE UP  

SciTech Connect

Executive Summary The materials science understanding of high rate low cost processes for Coated Conductor will benefit the application to power utilities for low loss energy transportation and power generation as well for DOD applications. The research in this program investigated several materials processing approaches that are new and original, and are not being investigated elsewhere. This work added to the understanding of the material science of high rate PVD growth of HTSC YBCO assisted by a liquid phase. A new process discovered uses amorphous glassy precursors which can be made at high rate under flexible conditions of temperature and oxygen, and later brought to conditions of oxygen partial pressure and temperature for rapid conversion to YBCO superconductor. Good critical current densities were found, but further effort is needed to optimize the vortex pinning using known artificial inclusions. A new discovery of the physics and materials science of vortex pinning in the HTSC system using Sm in place of Y came at growth at unusually low oxygen pressure resulting in clusters of a low or non superconducting phase within the nominal high temperature phase. The driving force for this during growth is new physics, perhaps due to the low oxygen. This has the potential for high current in large magnetic fields at low cost, applicable to motors, generators and transformers. The technical demands of this project were the motivation for the development of instrumentation that could be essential to eventual process scale up. These include atomic absorption based on tunable diode lasers for remote monitoring and control of evaporation sources (developed under DARPA support), and the utility of Fourier Transform Infrared Reflectivity (FTIR) for aid in the synthesis of complex thin film materials (purchased by a DURIP-AFOSR grant).

Malcolm R. Beasley; Robert H.Hammond

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

202

Large-Scale Flow Patterns and Their Influence on the Intensification Rates of Western North Pacific Tropical Storms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data are used to identify large-scale environmental flow patterns around western North Pacific tropical storms with the goal of finding a signal for those most favorable for rapid intensification, based on the hypothesis that ...

Justin D. Ventham; Bin Wang

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Dynamic compressive behavior of Pr-Nd alloy at high strain rates and temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on compressive tests, static on 810 material test system and dynamic on the first compressive loading in split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests for Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens at high strain rates and temperatures, this study determined a J-C type [G. R. Johnson and W. H. Cook, in Proceedings of Seventh International Symposium on Ballistics (The Hague, The Netherlands, 1983), pp. 541-547] compressive constitutive equation of Pr-Nd alloy. It was recorded by a high speed camera that the Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens fractured during the first compressive loading in SHPB tests at high strain rates and temperatures. From high speed camera images, the critical strains of the dynamic shearing instability for Pr-Nd alloy in SHPB tests were determined, which were consistent with that estimated by using Batra and Wei's dynamic shearing instability criterion [R. C. Batra and Z. G. Wei, Int. J. Impact Eng. 34, 448 (2007)] and the determined compressive constitutive equation of Pr-Nd alloy. The transmitted and reflected pulses of SHPB tests for Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens computed with the determined compressive constitutive equation of Pr-Nd alloy and Batra and Wei's dynamic shearing instability criterion could be consistent with the experimental data. The fractured Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens of compressive tests were investigated by using 3D supper depth digital microscope and scanning electron microscope.

Wang Huanran; Cai Canyuan; Chen Danian [Mechanics and Materials Science Research Center, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Ma Dongfang [Mechanics and Materials Science Research Center, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); School of Civil Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan 454000 (China)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Implementation of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Androgen Deprivation in Patients With Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate outcome (overall survival [OS], the actuarial 5-year cancer-specific survival [CSS], disease-free survival [DFS], biochemical failure-free survival [BFS]), complications and morbidity in patients treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) boost and hormonal treatment with curative aims. Methods: Between 2004 and 2009, 275 prospectively followed pN0/N0M0 patients were included: 19 patients (7%) with T2, Gleason score 7 and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <10 and 256 patients (93%) with T3 or Gleason score 8-10 or PSA >20 received multimodal treatment with conformal four-field radiotherapy (prostate/vesiculae 2 Gy Multiplication-Sign 25) combined with HDR-BT (iridium 192; prostate 10 Gy Multiplication-Sign 2) with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Results: After a median observation time of 44.2 months (range, 10.4-90.5 months) 12 patients had relapsed clinically and/or biochemically and 10 patients were dead, of which 2 patients died from prostate cancer. Five-year estimates of BFS, CSS, DFS, and OS rates were 98.5%, 99.3%, 95.6%, and 96.3%, respectively. None of the patients with either Gleason score <8 or with intermediate risk profile had relapsed. The number of HDR-BT treatments was not related to outcome. Despite of age (median, 65.7 years; range, 45.7-77 years) and considerable pretreatment comorbidity in 39 of 275 patients, Genitourinary treatment-related morbidity was moderate with long-lasting Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 2 voiding problems in 26 patients (9.5%) and occasionally mucous discharge in 20 patients (7%), none with Grade >2 for gastrointestinal at follow-up. Complications during implantations were related to pubic arch interference (4 patients) and lithotomy time, causing 2 patients to develop compartment syndrome. Conclusion: Despite still preliminary observations, our 5-year outcome estimates favor the implementation of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in high-risk patients combined with conformal external radiotherapy and long-term ADT. High-quality implants can be achieved by a trained specialized team at a high-turnover center using transrectal ultrasound-based treatment plans with acceptable morbidity and complication rates.

Lilleby, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.lilleby@ous-hf.no [Cancer Clinic, Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radiumhospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Oslo (Norway); Tafjord, Gunnar; Raabe, Nils K. [Cancer Clinic, Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radiumhospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Oslo (Norway)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density and Viscosity Ratios  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density and Viscosity Ratios Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density and Viscosity Ratios Seckin Gokaltun, Dwayne McDaniel and David Roelant Florida International University, Miami, FL Background As a result of atomic weapons production, millions of gallons of radioactive waste was generated and stored in underground tanks at various U.S. Department of Energy sites. Department of Energy is currently in the process of transferring the waste from single shell tanks to double shell tanks. Various waste retrieval and processing methods are employed during the transfer of the waste. One such method, pulsed-air mixing, involves injection of discrete pulses of compressed air or inert gas at the bottom of the tank to produce large bubbles that rise due to buoyancy and mix the waste in the tank

206

Computational Flow Predictions for the Lower Plenum of a High-Temperature, Gas-Cooled Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advanced gas-cooled reactors offer the potential advantage of higher efficiency and enhanced safety over present day nuclear reactors. Accurate simulation models of these Generation IV reactors are necessary for design and licensing. One design under consideration by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) program is a modular, prismatic gas-cooled reactor. In this reactor, the lower plenum region may experience locally high temperatures that can adversely impact the plant’s structural integrity. Since existing system analysis codes cannot capture the complex flow effects occurring in the lower plenum, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are being employed to model these flows [1]. The goal of the present study is to validate the CFD calculations using experimental data.

Donna Post Guillen

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Laser driven quasi-isentropic compression experiments (ICE) for dynamically loading materials at high strain rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate the recently developed technique of laser driven isentropic compression (ICE) for dynamically compressing Al samples at high loading rates close to the room temperature isentrope and up to peak stresses above 100GPa. Upon analysis of the unloading profiles from a multi-stepped Al/LiF target a continuous path through Stress-Density space may be calculated. For materials with phase transformations ramp compression techniques reveals the location of equilibrium phase boundaries and provide information on the kinetics of the lattice re-ordering.

Smith, R; Eggert, J; Celliers, P; Jankowski, A; Lorenz, T; Moon, S; Edwards, M J; Collins, G

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

208

High Growth Rate of Epitaxial Silicon-Carbon Alloys by High-Order Silane Precursor and Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rates typically achieved by disilane and silane, respectively, at 575o C. The rate at present is limited precursor HOS than disilane in CVD, even at lower temperatures. Our current growth rates of Si1-yCy alloys

209

flow_measurements_cryogenic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A dynamic weighing system is used to measure ... using liquid nitrogen at flow rates of 1 ... For volumetric flow rate measurement, the uncertainty in fluid ...

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

210

Characteristics of the high-rate discharge capability of a nickel/metal hydride battery electrode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high rate discharge capability of the negative electrode in a Ni/MH battery is mainly determined by the charge transfer process at the interface between the metal hydride (MH) alloy powder and the electrolyte, and the mass transfer process in the bulk MH alloy powder. In this study, the anodic polarization curves of a MH electrode were measured and analyzed. An alloy of nominal composition Mm{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}Ni{sub 3.85}Co{sub 0.45}Mn{sub 0.35}Al{sub 0.35} was used as the negative electrode material. With increasing number of charge/discharge cycles, the MH alloy powders microcrack into particles several micrometers in diameter. The decrease in the MH alloy particle size results in an increase in both the activation surface area and the exchange current density of the MH alloy electrode. The electrode overpotentials of the MH electrode decreases with increasing number of cycles at a large value of anodic polarization current. The decrease in electrode overpotential leads to an increase in the high rate discharge capability of the MH electrode. By using the limiting current, the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in the MH alloy was estimated to be 1.2 x 10{sup {minus}11}cm{sup 2}s{sup {minus}1} assuming an average particle radius of 5 {micro}m.

Geng, M.; Han, J.; Feng, F.; Northwood, D.O.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Design philosophy for high-resolution rate and throughput spectroscopy systems  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the philosophy behind the design of a pulse processing system used in a semiconductor detector x-ray spectrometer to be used for plasma diagnostics at the Princeton TFTR facility. This application presents the unusual problems of very high counting rates and a high-energy neutron background while still requiring excellent resolution. To meet these requirements three specific new advances are included in the design: (i) A symmetrical triangular pulse shape is employed in the main pulse-processing channel. A new simple method of generating a close approximation to the symmetrical triangle has been developed. (ii) To cope with the very wide dynamic range of signals while maintaining a constant fast resolving time, approximately symmetical triangular pulse shaping is also used in the fast pulse pile-up inspection channel. (iii) The demand for high throughput has resulted in a re-examination of the operation of pile-up rejectors and pulse stretchers. As a result a technique has been developed that, for a given total pulse shaping time, permits approximately a 40% increase in throughput in the system. Performance results obtained using the new techniques are presented.

Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.; Madden, N.W.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

213

Microstructural evolution in adiabatic shear bands of copper at high strain rates: Electron backscatter diffraction characterization  

SciTech Connect

The microstructural evolution of adiabatic shear bands in annealed copper with different large strains at high strain rates has been investigated by electron backscatter diffraction. The results show that mechanical twinning can occur with minimal contribution to shear localization under dynamic loading. Elongated ultrafine grains with widths of 100-300 nm are observed during the evolution of the adiabatic shear bands. A rotational dynamic recrystallization mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of the elongated ultrafine grains. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microstructural evolution of ASB is studied by electron backscatter diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Twinning can occur in ASB while the contribution to shear localization is slight. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elongated ultrafine grains are observed during the evolution process of ASB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A possible mechanism is proposed to explain the microstructure evolution of ASB.

Tang Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen Zhiyong, E-mail: czysh@netease.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhan Congkun; Yang Xuyue; Liu Chuming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Cai Hongnian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Force interaction of high pressure glow discharge with fluid flow for active separation control  

SciTech Connect

Radio frequency based discharges at atmospheric pressures are the focus of increased interest in aerodynamics because of the wide range of potential applications including, specifically, actuation in flows at moderate speeds. Recent literature describing promising experimental observations, especially on separation control, has spurred efforts in the development of parallel theoretical modeling to lift limitations in the current understanding of the actuation mechanism. The present effort demonstrates higher fidelity first-principle models in a multidimensional finite-element framework to predict surface discharge-induced momentum exchange. The complete problem of a dielectric barrier discharge at high pressure with axially displaced electrodes is simulated in a self-consistent manner. Model predictions for charge densities, the electric field, and gas velocity distributions are shown to mimic trends reported in the experimental literature. Results show that a residual of electrons remains deposited on the dielectric surface downstream of the exposed powered electrode for the entire duration of the cycle and causes a net electric force in the direction from the electrode to the downstream surface. For the first time, results document the mitigation process of a separation bubble formed due to flow past a flat plate inclined at 12 degree sign angle of attack. This effort sets the basis for extending the formulation further to include polyphase power input in multidimensional settings, and to apply the simulation method to flows past common aerodynamic configurations.

Roy, Subrata; Gaitonde, Datta V. [Computational Plasma Dynamics Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan 48504 (United States); Computational Sciences Branch, Air Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

Bubble confinement in flow boiling of FC-72 in a ''rectangular'' microchannel of high aspect ratio  

SciTech Connect

Boiling in microchannels remains elusive due to the lack of full understanding of the mechanisms involved. A powerful tool in achieving better comprehension of the mechanisms is detailed imaging and analysis of the two-phase flow at a fundamental level. Boiling is induced in a single microchannel geometry (hydraulic diameter 727 {mu}m), using a refrigerant FC-72, to investigate the effect of channel confinement on bubble growth. A transparent, metallic, conductive deposit has been developed on the exterior of the rectangular microchannel, allowing simultaneous uniform heating and visualisation to be achieved. The data presented in this paper is for a particular case with a uniform heat flux applied to the microchannel and inlet liquid mass flowrate held constant. In conjunction with obtaining high-speed images and videos, sensitive pressure sensors are used to record the pressure drop across the microchannel over time. Bubble nucleation and growth, as well as periodic slug flow, are observed in the microchannel test section. The periodic pressure fluctuations evidenced across the microchannel are caused by the bubble dynamics and instances of vapour blockage during confined bubble growth in the channel. The variation of the aspect ratio and the interface velocities of the growing vapour slug over time, are all observed and analysed. We follow visually the nucleation and subsequent both 'free' and 'confined' growth of a vapour bubble during flow boiling of FC-72 in a microchannel, from analysis of our results, images and video sequences with the corresponding pressure data obtained. (author)

Barber, Jacqueline [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, The King's Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom); Aix-Marseille Universite (UI, UII) - CNRS Laboratoire IUSTI, UMR 6595, 5 Rue Enrico Fermi, Marseille 13453 (France); Brutin, David; Tadrist, Lounes [Aix-Marseille Universite (UI, UII) - CNRS Laboratoire IUSTI, UMR 6595, 5 Rue Enrico Fermi, Marseille 13453 (France); Sefiane, Khellil [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, The King's Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

216

1240 IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 15, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2007 Distributed Rate Allocation for Inelastic Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1240 IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 15, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2007 Distributed Rate Allocation modeled as smooth, Manuscript received November 30, 2005; revised September 17, 2006; approved by IEEE/ACM (NSF) Grants CCF-0440443, CNS-0417607, and CNS-0427677, in part by the Air Force Office of Scientific

Chiang, Mung

217

Relationships between Radar Properties at High Elevations and Surface Rain Rate: Potential Use for Spaceborne Rainfall Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground-based radar data have been used to investigate the relationship between reflectivity at high elevations and surface rain rates. Such relations are useful for rainfall measurements by spaceborne radars at attenuating wavelength such as the ...

Eyal Amitai

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

A Comparative Study of the Rates of Development of Potential Graupel and Hail Embryos in High Plains Storms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rates of development of graupel and hail in High Plains storms are calculated based on mechanisms for the growth of particles of various types. In the first part of this study, planar crystals, aggregates, graupel particles and frozen drops ...

Andrew J. Heymsfield

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Fluidic assembly for an ultra-high-speed chromosome flow sorter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidic assembly for an ultra-high-speed chromosome flow sorter using a fluid drive system, a nozzle with an orifice having a small ratio of length to diameter, and mechanism for vibrating the nozzle along its axis at high frequencies. The orifice is provided with a sharp edge at its inlet, and a conical section at its outlet for a transition from a short cylindrical aperture of small length to diameter ratio to free space. Sample and sheath fluids in separate low pressure reservoirs are transferred into separate high pressure buffer reservoirs through a valve arrangement which first permit the fluids to be loaded into the buffer reservoirs under low pressure. Once loaded, the buffer reservoirs are subjected to high pressure and valves are operated to permit the buffer reservoirs to be emptied through the nozzle under high pressure. A sensor and decision logic is positioned at the exit of the nozzle, and a charging pulse is applied to the jet when a particle reaches a position further downstream where the droplets are formed. In order to adjust the timing of charge pulses, the distance between the sensing station at the outlet of the nozzle and the droplet breakoff point is determined by stroboscopic illumination of the droplet breakoff region using a laser and a revolving lucite cylinder, and a beam on/off modulator. The breakoff point in the region thus illuminated may then be viewed, using a television monitor.

Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Livermore, CA); Lord, David E. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Molten Salt Synthesis and High Rate Performance of the ‘‘Desert-Rose’’ form of LiCoO2  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of a novel nanostructure of LiCoO{sub 2}, and its performance as a cathode for a high-rate lithium ion battery, is described. The LiCoO{sub 2} nanostructure resembles the morphology of a known natural mineral: 'desert rose' gypsum. A range of measurement techniques are used to investigate the growth mechanism of this structure and the origin of its high rate charge/discharge properties.

H Chen; C Grey

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The impact of school facilities on student achievement, attendance, behavior, completion rate and teacher turnover rate in selected Texas high schools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to explore the possible relationship between school facility conditions and school outcomes such as student academic achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate. School facility condition for the participating schools was determined by the Total Learning Environment Assessment (TLEA) as completed by the principal or principal's designee on high school campuses in Texas with enrollments between 1,000 and 2000 and economically disadvantaged enrollments less than 40%. Each school in the study population was organized by grades nine through twelve. Data for achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate were collected through the Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS) managed by the Texas Education Agency. Student achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate and their relation to school facilities were investigated using multiple regression models to compare sections and subsections of the TLEA with each of the five dependent variables. Major research findings of this study included the following: first, student achievement, attendance and completion rate measures were not found to be statistically significant in relation to school facility conditions as measured by the TLEA at the 0.05 level; second, discipline, or behavior, was found to be significantly related to the TLEA. This indicates that the subsections of the TLEA could be used to predict discipline factors for schools in the study population; third, teacher turnover rate was found to be related to the TLEA subsections of Specialized Learning Space and Support Space, with the correlation to Support Space being indirect. Literature from prior studies infers that relationships do exist between all five of the study's dependent variables. However, this study only yielded significant findings in the areas of student discipline and teacher turnover. The researchers recommendations based upon this study include the following: administrators and designers should take into account factors such as interior environment and academic learning space when planning schools to positively impact student discipline; school design and construction should focus on specialized learning spaces and other academic areas more than administrative support spaces when striving to increase teacher satisfaction with physical working conditions.

McGowen, Robert Scott

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

The impact of school facilities on student achievement, attendance, behavior, completion rate and teacher turnover rate in selected Texas high schools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to explore the possible relationship between school facility conditions and school outcomes such as student academic achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate. School facility condition for the participating schools was determined by the Total Learning Environment Assessment (TLEA) as completed by the principal or principal’s designee on high school campuses in Texas with enrollments between 1,000 and 2000 and economically disadvantaged enrollments less than 40%. Each school in the study population was organized by grades nine through twelve. Data for achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate were collected through the Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS) managed by the Texas Education Agency. Student achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate and their relation to school facilities were investigated using multiple regression models to compare sections and subsections of the TLEA with each of the five dependent variables. Major research findings of this study included the following: first, student achievement, attendance and completion rate measures were not found to be statistically significant in relation to school facility conditions as measured by the TLEA at the 0.05 level; second, discipline, or behavior, was found to be significantly related to the TLEA. This indicates that the subsections of the TLEA could be used to predict discipline factors for schools in the study population; third, teacher turnover rate was found to be related to the TLEA subsections of Specialized Learning Space and Support Space, with the correlation to Support Space being indirect. Literature from prior studies infers that relationships do exist between all five of the study’s dependent variables. However, this study only yielded significant findings in the areas of student discipline and teacher turnover. The researchers recommendations based upon this study include the following: administrators and designers should take into account factors such as interior environment and academic learning space when planning schools to positively impact student discipline; school design and construction should focus on specialized learning spaces and other academic areas more than administrative support spaces when striving to increase teacher satisfaction with physical working conditions.

McGowen, Robert Scott

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Utility of Bromide and Heat Tracers for Aquifer Characterization Affected by Highly Transient Flow Conditions  

SciTech Connect

A tracer test using both bromide and heat tracers conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Hanford 300 Area (300A), Washington, provided an instrument for evaluating the utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization. The bromide tracer data were critical to improving the calibration of the flow model complicated by the highly dynamic nature of the flow field. However, most bromide concentrations were obtained from fully screened observation wells, lacking depth-specific resolution for vertical characterization. On the other hand, depth-specific temperature data were relatively simple and inexpensive to acquire. However, temperature-driven fluid density effects influenced heat plume movement. Moreover, the temperature data contained “noise” caused by heating during fluid injection and sampling events. Using the hydraulic conductivity distribution obtained from the calibration of the bromide transport model, the temperature depth profiles and arrival times of temperature peaks simulated by the heat transport model were in reasonable agreement with observations. This suggested that heat can be used as a cost-effective proxy for solute tracers for calibration of the hydraulic conductivity distribution, especially in the vertical direction. However, a heat tracer test must be carefully designed and executed to minimize fluid density effects and sources of noise in temperature data. A sensitivity analysis also revealed that heat transport was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and porosity, less sensitive to thermal distribution factor, and least sensitive to thermal dispersion and heat conduction. This indicated that the hydraulic conductivity remains the primary calibration parameter for heat transport.

Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zachara, John M.; Tonkin, Matthew J.

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

224

Design of a high activity and selectivity alcohol catalyst. [Design of a flow microreactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research on the design of a high selectivity alcohol catalyst continued. During the first quarter of this project, our goals have been to overhaul key experimental equipment used in the previous project, plan and design new equipment and to identify a person to carry out the research program. The flow microreactor, previously assembled, has been reactivated and major improvements have been made both to the reactor and its attendant analytical instrumentation. This equipment is described later in this report. In addition to this, a state-of-the-art hydrogen chemisorption instrument has been designed and the components for its construction have been ordered. Additionally, four recent publications by the principal investigators on the subject of this project have appeared. 3 figs.

Foley, H.C.; Mills, G.A.

1990-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

225

WATER ICE IN HIGH MASS-LOSS RATE OH/IR STARS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate water-ice features in spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of high mass-loss rate OH/IR stars. We use a radiative transfer code which can consider multiple components of dust shells to make model calculations for various dust species including water ice in the OH/IR stars. We find that the model SEDs are sensitively dependent on the location of the water-ice dust shell. For two sample stars (OH 127.8+0.0 and OH 26.5+0.6), we compare the detailed model results with the infrared observational data including the spectral data from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For the two sample stars, we reproduce the crystalline water-ice features (absorption at 3.1 {mu}m and 11.5 {mu}m; emission at 44 and 62 {mu}m) observed by ISO using a separate component of the water-ice dust shell that condensed at about 84-87 K (r {approx} 1500-1800 AU) as well as the silicate dust shell that condensed at about 1000 K (r {approx} 19-25 AU). For a sample of 1533 OH/IR stars, we present infrared two-color diagrams (2CDs) using the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and AKARI data compared with theoretical model results. We find that the theoretical models clearly show the effects of the crystalline water-ice features (absorption at 11.5 {mu}m and emission at 62 {mu}m) on the 2CDs.

Suh, Kyung-Won; Kwon, Young-Joo, E-mail: kwsuh@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju-City 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju-City 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

226

Non-darcy flow behavior mean high-flux injection wells in porous and fractured formations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phase and Multiphase Non-Darcy Flow in Porous and FracturedFormulation A multiphase system in a porous or fracturedand multiphase non-Darcy flow in multidimensional porous and

Wu, Yu-Shu

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

A High-Resolution Numerical Simulation of the Wind Flow in the Ross Island Region, Antarctica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A detailed description of the characteristics of the three-dimensional wind flow for the Ross Island region of Antarctica is presented. This region of Antarctica has complex topographic features, and the wind flow is dependent on the topography ...

Mark W. Seefeldt; Gregory J. Tripoli; Charles R. Stearns

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

High temperature ultrasonic gas flow sensor based on lead free piezoelectric material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are satisfied by flow meters with multiple ultrasonic measurement paths, typically supplied as a spool piece and used in custody transfer applications such as natural gas pipelines. With respect to flow metering in general, a substantial and key body of work... and ?T is the differential temperature. The disadvantages of thermal mass flow meters are discussed at length by Baker [11] and Miller [10]. The response of the instrument to changes in flow velocity is typically slow due to the thermal inertia...

Krsmanovic, Dalibor

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

229

Characterizing the impact of end-system affinities on the end-to-end performance of high-speed flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multi-core end-systems use Receive Side Scaling (RSS) to parallelize protocol processing. RSS uses a hash function on the standard flow descriptors and an indirection table to assign incoming packets to receive queues which are pinned to specific cores. ... Keywords: 40 Gbps network, ESnet, RFS, RPS, application affinity, end-system performance, flow affinity, high-speed network, multi-core affinization

Nathan Hanford, Vishal Ahuja, Mehmet Balman, Matthew K. Farrens, Dipak Ghosal, Eric Pouyoul, Brian Tierney

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

High-Rate Quantum Key Distribution with Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate the potential for 1.85 Mbit/s secure key rates over 101 km of fiber, >100 times faster than previously demonstrated, using the differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol and superconducting ...

Spellmeyer, Neal W.

231

a-Si:H Grown by Hot-Wire CVD at Ultra-High Deposition Rates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We increase the deposition rate of growing hydrogenated amorphous-silicon (a-Si:H) by the hot-wire chemical vapor depositon (HWCVD) technique by adding filaments (two) and decreasing the filament(s) to substrate distance.

Xu, Y.; Nelson, B. P.; Mahan, A. H.; Williamson, D. L.; Crandall, R. S.; Iwaniczko, E.; Wang, Q.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Improved Fluid Flow Measurements: Feedwater Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the combined results of a utility survey and site visits concerning feedwater flow measurement in fossil-fueled power plants. In addition, a summary is provided of the technologies available to measure the volumetric feedwater flow rate in plants. This volumetric flow rate can be converted to a mass flow rate by knowing the pressure and temperature of the flow media. Velocity meters, differential pressure meters, and other closed-conduit flowmeters are discussed along with ...

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

233

Dual-chamber plasma deposition of A-Si:H solar cells at high rates using disilane  

SciTech Connect

The use of a separated chamber deposition system for the fabrication of a-Si:H solar cells from disilane at high deposition rates results in a substantial improvement in short circuit current compared to that obtained from a single-chamber system. The spectral responses of cells fabricated in the dual-chamber mode are compared to those made in the single-chamber mode. The results are interpreted by assuming that the rate of removal of boron contaminants from the chamber is independent of deposition rate.

Rajeswaran, G.; Vanier, P.E.; Corderman, R.R.; Kampas, F.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Oxidation of automotive primary reference fuels in a high pressure flow reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Automotive engine knock limits the maximum operating compression ratio and ultimate thermodynamic efficiency of spark-ignition (SI) engines. In compression-ignition (CI) or diesel cycle engines the premixed urn phase, which occurs shortly after injection, determines the time it takes for autoignition to occur. In order to improve engine efficiency and to recommend more efficient, cleaner-burning alternative fuels, we must understand the chemical kinetic processes which lead to autoignition in both SI and CI engines. These engines burn large molecular-weight blended fuels, a class to which the primary reference fuels (PRF), n-heptane and isooctane belong. In this study, experiments were performed under engine-like conditions in a high pressure flow reactor using both the pure PRF fuels and their mixtures in the temperature range 550-880 K and at 12.5 atm pressure. These experiments not only provide information on the reactivity of each fuel but also identify the major intermediate products formed during the oxidation process. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is used to simulate these experiments and comparisons of experimentally measures and model predicted profiles for O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and temperature rise are presented. Intermediates identified in the flow reactor are compared with those present in the computations, and the kinetic pathways leading to their formation are discussed. In addition, autoignition delay times measured in a shock tube over the temperature range 690- 1220 K and at 40 atm pressure were simulated. Good agreement between experiment and simulation was obtained for both the pure fuels and their mixtures. Finally, quantitative values of major intermediates measured in the exhaust gas of a cooperative fuels research engine operating under motored engine conditions are presented together with those predicted by the detailed method.

Curran, H.J.; Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Callahan, C.V.; Dryer, F.L. [Princeton Univ., Areospace Engineering. NJ (United States)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Relics of Minijets amid Anisotropic Flows in High-energy Heavy-ion Collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two dimensional low-$p_T$ dihadron correlations in azimuthal angle $\\phi$ and pseudo-rapidity $\\eta$ in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are investigated within both the HIJING Monte Carlo model and an event-by-event (3+1)D ideal hydrodynamic model. Without final-state interaction and collective expansion, dihadron correlations from HIJING simulations have a typical structure from minijets that contains a near-side two-dimensional peak and an away-side ridge along the $\\eta$-direction. In contrast, event-by-event (3+1)D ideal hydrodynamic simulations with fluctuating initial conditions from the HIJING+AMPT model produce a strong dihadron correlation that has an away-side as well as a near-side ridge. Relics of intrinsic dihadron correlation from minijets in the initial conditions still remain as superimposed on the two ridges. By varying initial conditions from HIJING+AMPT, we study effects of minijets, non-vanishing initial flow and longitudinal fluctuation on the final state dihadron correlations. With a large rapidity gap, one can exclude near-side correlations from minijet relics and dihadron correlations can be described by the superposition of harmonic flows up to the 6th order. When long-range correlations with a large rapidity gap are subtracted from short-range correlations with a small rapidity gap, the remaining near-side dihadron correlations result solely from relics of minijets. Low transverse momentum hadron yields per trigger ($p_T^{\\rm trig} <4$ GeV/$c$, $p_T^{\\rm asso}<2$ GeV/$c$) in central heavy-ion collisions are significantly enhanced over that in p+p collisions while widths in azimuthal angle remain the same, in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

Longgang Pang; Qun Wang; Xin-Nian Wang

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

236

Molecular dynamics simulation of high strain-rate void nucleation and growth in copper  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Isotropic tension is simulated in nanoscale polycrystalline copper with 10 nm grain size using large-scale molecular dynamics. The nanocrystalline copper is fabricated on the computer by growing randomly oriented grains from seed sites in simulations cell. Constant volume strain rates of 10-8 to 10-10 are considered for systems ranging from 10-5 to 10-6 atoms using EAM interatomic potential for copper. The spacing between voids for room temperature single crystal simulations is found to scale approximately as l{approximately}0. 005 Cs/gamma, where Cs is the sound speed and gamma is the strain rate. Below strain rates of about 10-9, only one void is observed to nucleate and grow in the 10 nm polycrystalline simulation cell. The growth of small voids is simulated by cutting a void out of the simulation cell and repeating the isotropic expansion.

Belak, J.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Delta-Sigma digital-RF modulation for high data rate transmitters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A low power, wideband wireless transmitter utilizing [Delta]-[Sigma] direct digital modulation of an RF carrier is presented. The transmitter architecture replaces high dynamic range analog circuits with high speed digital ...

Jerng, Albert

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Low-Cost, High-Performance Hybrid Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries - Hongxing Hu, Amsen Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DESIGN © 2008 DESIGN © 2008 www.PosterPresentations.com Low-Cost, High-Performance Hybrid Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries Hongxing Hu, Amsen Technologies LLC DOE SBIR Project, Program Manager at DOE: Dr. Imre Gyuk Objectives and Technical Approach Objectives: This SBIR project aims to develop low-cost, high performance hybrid polymeric PEMs for redox flow batteries (RFBs). Such membranes shall have high chemical stability in RFB electrolytes, high proton conductivity, low permeability of vanadium ions, along with high dimensional stability, high mechanical strength and durability, and lower cost than Nafion membranes. Approach: * Hybrid membranes of sulfonated polymers * Balance between different types of polymers for proton conductivity and chemical stability

239

Applications and source development for high-repetition rate x-ray lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many applications in material science, chemistry, and atomic physics require an x-ray source that has a repetition rate of 1 Hz to a few kHz. In these fields, a very wide range of photon energies is of interest. One application is time-resolved surface photoelectron spectroscopy and microscopy where low energy (energies below 100 eV are very good with higher energy capabilities expected in the future. In addition, prospects of table-top size x-ray lasers with kHz repetition rates are presented.

Eder, D.C.; Amendt, P.; Bolton, P.R. [and others

1993-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

240

Domain Decomposition Methods in Optimal Flow Control for High Performance Computing.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis is concerned with linear and non-linear optimal flow control problems which are modeled by systems of partial differential equations. The numerical treatment of… (more)

Ketelaer, Eva

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Periodic Flow Gas Turbine for Distributed Energy Generation  

SciTech Connect

The proposed effort served as a feasibility study for an innovative, low-cost periodic flow gas turbine capable of realizing efficiencies in the 39-48% range.

Dr. Adam London

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

242

ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE STAR FORMATION RATE, SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATE, AND THE PRESENCE OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FOR HIGH STELLAR MASS AND LOW STELLAR MASS GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

Using two volume-limited main galaxy samples of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 (SDSS DR8), we explore the environmental dependence of the star formation rate (SFR), specific star formation rate (SSFR), and the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for high stellar mass (HSM) and low stellar mass (LSM) galaxies. It is found that the environmental dependence of the SFR and SSFR for luminous HSM galaxies and faint LSM ones remains very strong: galaxies in the lowest density regime preferentially have higher SFR and SSFR than galaxies in the densest regime, while the environmental dependence of the SFR and SSFR for luminous LSM galaxies is substantially reduced. Our result also shows that the fraction of AGNs in HSM galaxies decreases as a function of density, while the one in LSM galaxies depends very little on local density. In the faint LSM galaxy sample, the SFR and SSFR of galaxies strongly decrease with increasing density, but the fraction of AGNs depends very little on local density. Such a result can rule out that AGNs are fueled by the cold gas in the disk component of galaxies that is also driving the star formation of those galaxies.

Deng Xinfa; Song Jun; Chen Yiqing; Jiang Peng; Ding Yingping [School of Science, Nanchang University, Jiangxi 330031 (China)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

243

This work addresses the high-rate session scheduling problem in Fractional Lambda Switching (FS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiplexing (such as SONET/SDH) and Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM). Yet, Non-Immediate Forwarding (NIF-rate NIF session. An efficient scheduling algorithm, eSSM, is proposed to explore all possibilities in two modes: (1) immediate forwarding (IF) or (2) non-immediate forwarding (NIF). NIF is more

Baldi, Mario

244

Self-Constructive High-Rate System Energy Modeling for Battery-Powered Mobile Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Lin Zhong Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University 6100 Main St., TX 77005 for the great diversity in the hardware and usage of mobile systems. Moreover, existing system energy models intervals of at least 10 ms, or at a rate no lower than 100 Hz. Per-application energy accounting is useful

Zhong, Lin

245

INTERNATIONAL STUDIES OF ENHANCED WASTE LOADING AND IMPROVED MELT RATE FOR HIGH ALUMINA CONCENTRATION NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to determine the impacts of glass compositions with high aluminum concentrations on melter performance, crystallization and chemical durability for Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford waste streams. Glass compositions for Hanford targeted both high aluminum concentrations in waste sludge and a high waste loading in the glass. Compositions for SRS targeted Sludge Batch 5, the next sludge batch to be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which also has a relatively high aluminum concentration. Three frits were selected for combination with the SRS waste to evaluate their impact on melt rate. The glasses were melted in two small-scale test melters at the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute. The results showed varying degrees of spinel formation in each of the glasses. Some improvements in melt rate were made by tailoring the frit composition for the SRS feeds. All of the Hanford and SRS compositions had acceptable chemical durability.

Fox, K; David Peeler, D; James Marra, J

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

246

Simulations of the Neutral-beam-induced Rotation, Radial Electric Field, and Flow Shearing Rate in Next-step Burning Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Toroidal rotation of plasmas in present tokamaks is beneficial for increasing the stability to wall-induced MHD and appears to reduce the anomalous transport associated with micro-turbulence. This paper calculates the toroidal rotation expected from neutral-beam injection in the proposed FIRE and ITER-FEAT tokamak reactors. Self-consistent burning plasmas for these tokamaks have been constructed using the TRANSP plasma analysis code. Neutral-beam injection has been proposed for FIRE and ITER-FEAT. The neutral-beam-induced torques are computed, and assumptions for the anomalous transport of toroidal angular momentum are used to calculate the toroidal rotation profiles. The central Mach numbers are about 3-8%. The ratio of the rotation speed to the Alfvin speed is less than 1%. Assuming neoclassical poloidal rotation and force balance, the radial electric field and flow shearing rate are calculated. Peak shearing rates near the outboard edge are in the 10-100 krad/s range.

R.V. Budny

2002-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

247

High Strain Rate Shear Zone Properties in an Inertia Friction Weld  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Explosive Bonding of 316L to C18150 CuCrZr Alloy for ITER Applications · Failure Mechanisms of Dissimilar Metal Welds During High Temperature Service.

248

High Rate Oxygen Reduction in Non-aqueous Electrolytes with the Addition of Perfluorinated Additives  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The discharge rate capability of Li-air batteries is substantially increased by using perfluorinated compounds as oxygen carriers. The solubility of oxygen in a non-aqueous electrolyte can be significantly increased by the introduction of such compounds, which leads to the increase in the diffusion-limited current of oxygen reduction on the gas diffusion electrode in a Li-air battery. The perfluorinated compound is found to be stable within the electrochemical window of the electrolyte. A powder microelectrode and a rotating disk electrode were used to study the gas diffusion-limited current together with a rotating disk electrode. A 5 mA cm{sup -2} discharge rate is demonstrated in a lab Li-O{sub 2} cell.

Wang, Y.; Yang, X.; Zheng, D.; Qu, D.

2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

249

Relativistic calculation of the two-photon decay rate of highly-excited ionic states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on quantum electrodynamics, we reexamine the two-photon decay of one-electron atoms. Special attention is paid to the calculation of the (two-photon) total decay rates which can be viewed as the imaginary part of the two-loop self-energy. We argue that our approach can easily be applied to the cases with a virtual state having an intermediate energy between the initial and the final state of the decay process leading, thus, to the resonance peaks in the two-photon energy distribution. In order to illustrate our approach, we obtain fully relativistic results, resolved into electric and magnetic multipole components, for the two-photon decay rates of the 3S_{1/2} -> 1S_{1/2} transition in neutral hydrogen as well as in various hydrogen-like ions.

Jentschura, Ulrich D

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Analysis of an open non-Markovian GI -- (GI| ?)K queueing network with high-rate renewal arrival process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze an open non-Markovian queueing network with high-rate renewal arrival process, Markovian routing, arbitrary service policy, and unlimited number of servers at nodes. We obtain mean values for the number of busy servers at nodes of the queueing ...

A. A. Nazarov; A. N. Moiseev

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Tunas are apex predators renowned for their thunniform swimming mode, high metabolic rates and ability to conserve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

881 Tunas are apex predators renowned for their thunniform swimming mode, high metabolic rates such as yellowfin tuna maintain only a small elevation above ambient temperatures while young and mature bluefin al., 2001). Measurements of metabolic performance in vivo have been made in tropical tunas

Block, Barbara A.

252

High slip rate for a low seismicity along the Palu-Koro active fault in central Sulawesi (Indonesia)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High slip rate for a low seismicity along the Palu-Koro active fault in central Sulawesi (Indonesia, Indonesia Introduction Sulawesi Island, eastern Indonesia, is at the triple junction of the Paci®c (through- ABSTRACT In eastern Indonesia, the Central Sulawesi fault system consists of complex left-lateral strike

Vigny, Christophe

253

Acceleration of the rate of ethanol fermentation by addition of nitrogen in high tannin grain sorghum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this communication, the authors show that accelerated rates of ethanol production, comparable to sorghum varieties containing low levels of tannins and to corn, can occur without the removal of the tannins. The basis of the inhibition appears to be a lack of sufficient nitrogen in the mash for protein synthesis required to support an accelerated fermentative metabolism in Saccharomyces. No inhibition of the enzymes used for starch hydrolysis was found.

Mullins, J.T.; NeSmith, C.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Advanced Flow Battery Electrodes: Low-cost, High-Performance 50-Year Electrode  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: Primus Power is developing zinc-based, rechargeable liquid flow batteries that could produce substantially more energy at lower cost than conventional batteries. A flow battery is similar to a conventional battery, except instead of storing its energy inside the cell it stores that energy for future use in chemicals that are kept in tanks that sit outside the cell. One of the most costly components in a flow battery is the electrode, where the electrochemical reactions actually occur. Primus Power is investigating and developing mixed-metal materials for their electrodes that could ultimately reduce the lifetime cost of flow batteries because they are more durable and long-lasting than electrodes found in traditional batteries. Using these electrodes, Primus Power’s flow batteries can be grouped together into robust, containerized storage pods for use by utilities, renewable energy developers, businesses, and campuses.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Low Cost and Highly Selective Composite Membrane for Redox Flow Batteries - Fei Wang, EIC Laboratories  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low Cost and Highly Selective Composite Membrane for Redox Flow Batteries Low Cost and Highly Selective Composite Membrane for Redox Flow Batteries Fei Wang, Dharmasena Peramunage, James M. Sylvia, and Monsy M. Jocob EIC Laboratories, Inc. 111 Downey Street, Norwood, MA 02062. www.eiclabs.com Identification of the Problem and Technical Approach Redox flow batteries (RFB) hold great promise for large scale electrochemical energy storage. A critical component of RFB is the membrane which separates anode and cathode compartments. The current state-of-the-art membrane, NAFION is too expensive, lacks selectivity, permitting leakage between anode and cathode electrolyte compartments. EIC is developing a novel bilayer, interpenetrating network membrane. Thin Nafion layer for anode side protection providing oxidative stability. The bulk part of the membrane consists of a block

256

A High-Rate, Heterogeneous Data Set from the Darpa Urban Challenge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a data set collected by MIT’s autonomous vehicle Talos during the 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge. Data from a high-precision navigation system, five cameras, 12 SICK planar laser range scanners, and a ...

Huang, Albert S.

257

Noisy matrix decomposition via convex relaxation: Optimal rates in high dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze a class of estimators based on convex relaxation for solving high-dimensional matrix decomposition problems. The observations are noisy realizations of a linear transformation [bar through "X" symbol] of the sum ...

Agarwal, Alekh

258

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. First technical progress report for the fourth quarter 1989  

SciTech Connect

The broad objective of this project is to obtain improved, quantitative understanding of the transient plasticity of bituminous coals under high heating rates and other reaction and pretreatment conditions of scientific and practical interest. To these ends the research plan is to measure the softening and resolidification behavior of two US bituminous coals with a rapid-heating, fast response, high-temperature coal plastometer, previously developed in this laboratory. Specific measurements planned for the project include determinations of apparent viscosity, softening temperature, plastic period, and resolidificationtime for molten coal: (1) as a function of independent variations in coal type, heating rate, final temperature, gaseous atmosphere (inert, 0{sub 2} or H{sub 2}), and shear rate; and (2) in exploratory runs where coal is pretreated (preoxidation, pyridine extraction, metaplast cracking agents), before heating. The intra-coal inventory and molecular weight distribution of pyridine extractables will also be measured using a rapid quenching, electrical screen heater coal pyrolysis reactor. The yield of extractables is representative of the intra-coal inventory of plasticing agent (metaplast) remaining after quenching. Coal plasticity kinetics will then be mathematically modeled from metaplast generation and depletion rates, via a correlation between the viscosity of a suspension and the concentration of deformable medium (here metaplast) in that suspension. Work during this reporting period has been concerned with re-commissioning the rapid heating rate plastometer apparatus.

Darivakis, G.S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

High-Rate Oxygen Reduction in Mixed Nonaqueous Electrolyte Containing Acetonitrile  

SciTech Connect

A mixed nonaqueous electrolyte that contains acetonitrile and propylene carbonate (PC) was found to be suitable for a LiO2 battery with a metallic Li anode. Both the concentration and diffusion coefficient for the dissolved O2 are significantly higher in the mixed electrolyte than those in the pure PC electrolyte. A powder microelectrode was used to investigate the O2 solubility and diffusion coefficient. A 10 mA?cm-2 discharge rate on a gas-diffusion electrode is demonstrated by using the mixed electrolyte in a LiO2 cell.

Zheng D.; Yang X.; Qu D.

2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

260

High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, 1 September 2001--6 March 2005  

SciTech Connect

The objectives for the University of Toledo are to: (1) establish a transferable knowledge and technology base for fabricating high-efficiency triple-junction a-Si-based solar cells, and (2) develop high-rate deposition techniques for the growing a-Si-based and related alloys, including poly-Si, c-Si, a-SiGe, and a-Si films and photovoltaic devices with these materials.

Deng, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Self-constructive high-rate system energy modeling for battery-powered mobile systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

System energy models are important for energy optimization and management in mobile systems. However, existing system energy models are built in a lab setting with the help from a second computer. Not only are they labor-intensive; but also they do not adequately account for the great diversity in the hardware and usage of mobile systems. Moreover, existing system energy models are intended for energy estimation for time intervals of one second or longer; they do not provide the required rate for fine-grain use such as per-application energy accounting. In this work, we study a self-modeling paradigm in which a mobile system automatically generates its energy model without any external assistance. Our solution, Sesame, leverages the possibility of self power measurement through the smart battery interface and employs a suite of novel techniques to achieve accuracy and rate much higher than that of the smart battery interface. We report the implementation and evaluation of Sesame on a laptop and a smartphone. The experiment results show that Sesame is able to generate system energy models of 95 % accuracy at one estimation per second and of 88 % accuracy at one estimation per 10 ms, without any external assistance. Two fiveday field studies with four laptop and four smartphones users further demonstrate the effectiveness, efficiency, and noninvasiveness of Sesame.

Mian Dong; Lin Zhong

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

A Small, Low Flow, High Sensitivity Reaction Vessel for NO Chemiluminescence Detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Details of a reaction vessel suitable for atmospheric measurements of nitric oxide at parts per trillion mixing ratios using the chemiluminescent reaction with ozone are provided. It is designed to operate at an ambient air flow of 1 standard ...

B. A. Ridley; F. E. Grahek

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Film boiling of saturated liquid flowing upward through a heated tube : high vapor quality range  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Film boiling of saturated liquid flowing upward through a uniformly heated tube has been studied for the case in which pure saturated liquid enters the tube and nearly saturated vapor is discharged. Since a previous study ...

Laverty, W. F.

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

A high-resolution mapped grid algorithm for compressible multiphase flow problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a simple mapped-grid approach for the efficient numerical simulation of compressible multiphase flow in general multi-dimensional geometries. The algorithm uses a curvilinear coordinate formulation of the equations that is derived for the ... Keywords: 35L60, 58J45, 65M06, 65M50, 65Y15, Compressible multiphase flow, Fluid-mixture model, Mapped grids, Stiffened gas equation of state, Wave-propagation method

K. -M. Shyue

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Instantaneous Rainfall Rate: Its Measurement and Its Influence on High-Voltage Transmission Lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When a high-voltage transmission line is exposed to rain there is generally a small amount of corona activity at the surface of the conductors. This activity usually results in a power loss and the generation of audible and radio noise. While the ...

Harold Kirkham

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Coupled urban wind flow and indoor natural ventilation modelling on a high-resolution grid: A case study for the Amsterdam ArenA stadium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wind flow in urban environments is an important factor governing the dispersion of heat and pollutants from streets, squares and buildings. This paper presents a coupled CFD modelling approach for urban wind flow and indoor natural ventilation. A specific ... Keywords: Air exchange rate, Air quality, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Cross-ventilation, Full-scale measurements, Grid generation technique, Integrated model, Model validation and solution verification, Numerical simulation, Outdoor and indoor air flow, Sports stadium

T. van Hooff; B. Blocken

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Systematic Method for Evaluating Extraction and Injection Flow Rates for 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit Pump-and-Treat Interim Actions for Hydraulic Containment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document describes a systematic method to develop flow rate recommendations for Pump-and-Treat (P&T) extraction and injection wells in 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Units (OU) of the Hanford Site. Flow rate recommendations are developed as part of ongoing performance monitoring and remedy optimization of the P&T interim actions to develop hydraulic contairnnent of the dissolved chromium plume in groundwater and protect the Columbia River from further discharges of groundwater from inland. This document details the methodology and data required to infer the influence of individual wells near the shoreline on hydraulic containment and river protection and develop flow rate recommendations to improve system performance and mitigate potential shortcomings of the system configuration in place.

Spiliotopoulos, Alexandros A.

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

268

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Low Cost, High Performance and Long Life Flow Battery Electrodes - Tom Stepien, Primus Power  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

With ARPA-E we optimized With ARPA-E we optimized * Adhesion * Current density * Duration * Catalytic coatings * Voltaic performance Goals * Cost-effectiveness * High-efficiency * Uniformity EnergyPod Low Cost, High Performance and Long Life Flow Battery Electrodes TM A Breakthrough In Distributed, Grid Scale Energy Storage ARPA-E has enabled Primus Power to create an innovative and technically advanced electrode Electrode Zinc Plating This, combined with our other advances has enabled us to create a unique flow battery system with ...  Low cost electrodes  Long life  High efficiency  Flexibility For...  Ubiquitous  Dispatchable  Cost effective ... grid-scale electrical energy storage to: * Accelerate renewable

269

A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

Low cost, high performance redox flow batteries are highly demanded for up to multi-megawatt levels of renewable and grid energy storage. Here, we report a new vanadium redox flow battery with a significant improvement over the current technologies. This new battery utilizes a sulfate-chloride mixed solution, which is capable of dissolving more than 2.5 M vanadium or about a 70% increase in the energy storage capacity over the current vanadium sulfate system. More importantly, the new electrolyte remains stable over a wide temperature range of -5 to 60oC, potentially eliminating the need of active heat management. Its high energy density, broad operational temperature window, and excellent electrochemical performance would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of energy storage, thus accelerating its market penetration.

Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Vijayakumar, M.; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang; Hu, Jian Z.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

HyperCP: A high-rate spectrometer for the study of charged hyperon and kaon decays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The HyperCP experiment (Fermilab E871) was designed to search for rare phenomena in the decays of charged strange particles, in particular CP violation in $\\Xi$ and $\\Lambda$ hyperon decays with a sensitivity of $10^{-4}$. Intense charged secondary beams were produced by 800 GeV/c protons and momentum-selected by a magnetic channel. Decay products were detected in a large-acceptance, high-rate magnetic spectrometer using multiwire proportional chambers, trigger hodoscopes, a hadronic calorimeter, and a muon-detection system. Nearly identical acceptances and efficiencies for hyperons and antihyperons decaying within an evacuated volume were achieved by reversing the polarities of the channel and spectrometer magnets. A high-rate data-acquisition system enabled 231 billion events to be recorded in twelve months of data-taking.

HyperCP collaboration; R. A. Burnstein; A. Chakravorty; A. Chan; Y. C. Chen; W. -S. Choong; K. Clark; E. C. Dukes; C. Durandet; J. Felix; R. Fuzesy; G. Gidal; P. Gu; H. R. Gustafson; C. Ho; T. Holmstrom; M. Huang; C. James; C. M. Jenkins; T. D. Jones; D. M. Kaplan; L. M. Lederman; N. Leros; M. J. Longo; F. Lopez; L. C. Lu; W. Luebke; K. -B. Luk; K. S. Nelson; H. K. Park; J. -P. Perroud; D. Rajaram; H. A. Rubin; P. K. Teng; B. Turko; J. Volk; C. G. White; S. L. White; P. Zyla

2004-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

271

Reproducible Preparation of Au/TS-1 with High Reaction Rate for Gas Phase Epoxidation of Propylene  

SciTech Connect

A refined and reliable synthesis procedure for Au/TS-1(Si/Ti molar ratio {approx}100) with high reaction rate for the direct gas phase epoxidation of propylene has been developed by studying the effects of pH of the gold slurry solution, mixing time, and preparation temperature for deposition precipitation (DP) of Au on TS-1 supports. Au/TS-1 catalysts prepared at optimal DP conditions (pH {approx} 7.3, mixing for 9.5 h, room temperature) showed an average PO rate {approx} 160 g{sub PO} h{sup -1} kg{sub Cat}{sup -1} at 200 C at 1 atm. A reproducibility better than {+-}10% was demonstrated by nine independent samples prepared at the same conditions. These are the highest rates yet reported at 200 C. No visible gold particles were observed by the HRTEM analysis in the fresh Au/TS-1 with gold loading up to {approx}0.1 wt%, indicating that the gold species were smaller than 1 nm. Additionally, the rate per gram of Au and the catalyst stability increased as the Au loading decreased, giving a maximum value of 500 g{sub PO} h{sup -1} g{sub Au}{sup -1}, and Si/Ti molar ratios of {approx}100 gave the highest rates.

Lee W. S.; Stach E.; Akatay, M.C.; Ribeiro, F.H.; Delgass, N.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Dynamic response of Cu4Zr54 metallic glass to high strain rate shock loading: plasticity, spall and atomic-level structures  

SciTech Connect

We investigate dynamic response of Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 54} metallic glass under adiabatic planar shock wave loading (one-dimensional strain) wjth molecular dynamics simulations, including Hugoniot (shock) states, shock-induced plasticity and spallation. The Hugoniot states are obtained up to 60 CPa along with the von Mises shear flow strengths, and the dynamic spall strength, at different strain rates and temperatures. The spall strengths likely represent the limiting values achievable in experiments such as laser ablation. For the steady shock states, a clear elastic-plastic transition is identified (e.g., in the shock velocity-particle velocity curve), and the shear strength shows strain-softening. However, the elastic-plastic transition across the shock front displays transient stress overshoot (hardening) above the Hugoniot elastic limit followed by a relatively sluggish relaxation to the steady shock state, and the plastic shock front steepens with increasing shock strength. The local von Mises shear strain analysis is used to characterize local deformation, and the Voronoi tessellation analysis, the corresponding short-range structures at various stages of shock, release, tension and spallation. The plasticity in this glass is manifested as localized shear transformation zones and of local structure rather than thermal origin, and void nucleation occurs preferentially at the highly shear-deformed regions. The Voronoi and shear strain analyses show that the atoms with different local structures are of different shear resistances that lead to shear localization (e.g., the atoms indexed with (0,0,12,0) are most shear-resistant, and those with (0,2,8,1) are highly prone to shear flow). The dynamic changes in local structures are consistent with the observed deformation dynamics.

Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arman, Bedri [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cagin, Tahir [TEXAS A& M UNIV

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Spinel LiMn(2)O(4)/Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid for High Rate Lithium Ion Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A well-crystallized and nano-sized spinel LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide hybrid cathode material for high rate lithium-ion batteries has been successfully synthesized via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method at 200 C for 30 min without any post heat-treatment. The nano-sized LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles were evenly dispersed on the reduced graphene oxide template without agglomeration, which allows the inherent high active surface area of individual LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the hybrid. These unique structural and morphological properties of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} on the highly conductive reduced graphene oxide sheets in the hybrid enable achieving the high specific capacity, an excellent high rate capability and stable cycling performance. An analysis of the cyclic voltammogram data revealed that a large surface charge storage contribution of the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide hybrid plays an important role in achieving faster charge/discharge.

Bak, S.M.; Nam, K.; Lee, C.-W.; Kim, K.-H.; Jung, H.-C.; Yang, X-Q.; Kim, K.-B.

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

274

Automated high-throughput flow-through real-time diagnostic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automated real-time flow-through system capable of processing multiple samples in an asynchronous, simultaneous, and parallel fashion for nucleic acid extraction and purification, followed by assay assembly, genetic amplification, multiplex detection, analysis, and decontamination. The system is able to hold and access an unlimited number of fluorescent reagents that may be used to screen samples for the presence of specific sequences. The apparatus works by associating extracted and purified sample with a series of reagent plugs that have been formed in a flow channel and delivered to a flow-through real-time amplification detector that has a multiplicity of optical windows, to which the sample-reagent plugs are placed in an operative position. The diagnostic apparatus includes sample multi-position valves, a master sample multi-position valve, a master reagent multi-position valve, reagent multi-position valves, and an optical amplification/detection system.

Regan, John Frederick

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

275

High Strain-Rate Mechanical Behaviour of a Copper Matrix Composite for Nuclear Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aim of this work is the investigation of mechanical behaviour of an alumina dispersion strengthened copper, known by the trade name GLIDCOP®, subjected to dynamic loads: it is a composite material with a copper matrix strengthened with aluminium oxide ceramic particles. Since the particle content is quite small the material keeps the OFE copper physical properties, such as thermal and electrical conductivity, but with a higher yield strength, like a mild-carbon steel. Besides, with the addition of aluminium oxide, the good mechanical properties are retained also at high temperatures and the resistance to thermal softening is increased: the second phase blocks the dislocation movement preventing the grain growth. Thanks to these properties GLIDCOP® finds several applications in particle accelerator technologies, where problems of thermal management, combined with structural requirements, play a key role. Currently, it is used for the construction of structural and functional parts of the particle beam collim...

Peroni, L

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Flow fields and heat transfer of liquid falling film on horizontal cylinders.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A liquid film flowing over horizontal cylinders is of great importance as a high rate of heat transfer exists between the falling liquid film and… (more)

Jafar, Farial A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Formation flow channel blocking  

SciTech Connect

A method is claimed for selectively blocking high permeability flow channels in an underground hydrocarbon material bearing formation having flow channels of high permeability and having flow channels of lesser permeability. The method includes the following steps: introducing a blocking material fluid comprising a blocking material in a carrier into the flow channels through an injection well in communication with the formation; introducing a buffer fluid into the formation through the injection well for the buffer fluid to displace the blocking material fluid away from the injection well; allowing the blocking material to settle in the channels to resist displacement by fluid flowing through the channels; introducing a quantity of an activating fluid into the channels through the injection well at a sufficient rate for the activating fluid to displace the buffer fluid and finger into the high permeability channels to reach the blocking material in the high permeability channels without reaching the blocking material in the low permeability channels, the activating fluid being adapted to activate the blocking material which it reaches to cause blocking of the high permeability channels.

Kalina, A.I.

1982-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

278

NANOSECOND PULSE NONEQUILIBRIUM DISCHARGES FOR HIGH SPEED FLOW CONTROL AND PLASMA ASSISTED COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

their poten tial for engineering applications such as plasma assisted combustion, highspeed flow con trol by RNSPD and compared with kinetic model ing. The results show that ignition in a uniform plasma occurs Engi neering from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and a Ph.D. in Chemical Physics from OSU

Shyy, Wei

279

Three-Dimensional Effects in High-Drag-State Flows over Long Ridges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of nonrotating flow with uniform basic wind and stability past long three-dimensional (3D) ridges are compared to the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) limit to reveal the importance of 3D effects. For mountain heights ...

Craig C. Epifanio; Dale R. Durran

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

AIR FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN A HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL Helmut E. Feustel and Richard C. Diamond  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Washington DC, 1996 Feustel, H.E. and A. Raynor-Hooson. 1990. "Fundamentals of the Multizone Air Flow Model, Washington DC, 1992. Shapiro-Baruch, Ian. 1993. "Evaluation of Ventilation in Multifamily Dwellings," New-pane windows and sliding balcony doors. The building has a mechanical ventilation system, with kitchen

Diamond, Richard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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281

Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow over Two-Dimensional Obstacles: High Drag States and Mixing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional large-eddy simulation (LES) model was used to examine how stratified flow interacts with bottom obstacles in the coastal ocean. Bottom terrain representing a 2D ridge was modeled using a finite-volume approach with ridge ...

Eric D. Skyllingstad; Hemantha W. Wijesekera

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

High magnetic shear gain in a liquid sodium stable couette flow experiment A prelude to an alpha - omega dynamo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The {Omega}-phase of the liquid sodium {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo experiment at NMIMT in cooperation with LANL has successfully demonstrated the production of a high toroidal field, B{sub {phi}} {approx_equal} 8 x B{sub r} from the radial component of an applied poloidal magnetic field, B{sub r}. This enhanced toroidal field is produced by rotational shear in stable Couette Row within liquid sodium at Rm {approx_equal} 120. The small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette Row is caused by Ekman Row where ({delta}v/v){sup 2} {approx} 10{sup -3}. This high {Omega}-gain in low turbulence flow contrasts with a smaller {Omega}-gain in higher turbulence, Helmholtz-unstable shear flows. This result supports the ansatz that large scale astrophysical magnetic fields are created within semi-coherent large scale motions in which turbulence plays a diffusive role that enables magnetic flux linkage.

Colgate, Stirling [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Jui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Finn, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pariev, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beckley, Howard [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH; Si, Jiahe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Martinic, Joe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westpfahl, David [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Slutz, James [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westrom, Zeb [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Klein, Brianna [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.

2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

283

Use of a high repetition rate neutron generator for in vivo body composition measurements via neutron inelastic scattering  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A small D-T neutron generator with a high pulse rate is used for the in vivo measurement of body carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. The core of the neutron generator is a 13 cm-long Zetatron tube pulsed at a rate of 10 kHz delivering 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 4/ neutrons per pulse. A target-current feedback system regulates the source of the accelerator to assure constant neutron output. Carbon is measured by detecting the 4.44 MeV ..gamma..-rays from inelastic scattering. The short half-life of the 4.44 MeV state of carbon requires detection of the ..gamma..-rays during the 10 ..mu..s neutron pulse. Generators with low pulsing rate were found inappropriate for carbon measurements because of their low duty-cycle (high neutron output during the pulse). In vivo measurements were performed with normal volunteers using a scanning bed facility for a dose less than 25 mrem. This technique offers medical as well as general bulk analysis applications. 8 refs., 5 figs.

Kehayias, J.J.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.; Weinlein, J.H.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

Butcher, Thomas A. (Port Jefferson, NY); Celebi, Yusuf (Middle Island, NY); Fisher, Leonard (Colrain, MA)

2000-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Nanoporous Polytetrafluoroethylene/Silica Composite Separator as a High-Performance All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Membrane  

SciTech Connect

Driven by the motivation of searching for low-cost membrane alternatives, a novel nanoporous polytetrafluoroethylene/silica composite separator has been prepared and evaluated for its use in all-vanadium mixed-acid redox flow battery. This separator consisting of silica particles enmeshed in a polytetrafluoroethylene fibril matrix has no ion exchange capacity and is featured with unique nanoporous structures, which function as the ion transport channels in redox flow battery operation, with an average pore size of 38nm and a porosity of 48%. This separator has produced excellent electrochemical performance in the all-vanadium mixed-acid system with energy efficiency delivery comparable to Nafion membrane and superior rate capability and temperature tolerance. The separator also demonstrates an exceptional capacity retention capability over extended cycling, offering additional operational latitude towards conveniently mitigating the capacity decay that is inevitable for Nafion. Because of the inexpensive raw materials and simple preparation protocol, the separator is particularly low-cost, estimated to be at least an order of magnitude more inexpensive than Nafion. Plus the proven chemical stability due to the same backbone material as Nafion, this separator possesses a good combination of critical membrane requirements and shows great potential to promote market penetration of the all-vanadium redox flow battery by enabling significant reduction of capital and cycle costs.

Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Luo, Qingtao; Li, Bin; Chen, Baowei; Simmons, Kevin L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

2013-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

286

Power Flow Management in a High Penetration Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power System with Short-Term Energy Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is intended as an introduction to some of the control challenges faced by developers of high penetration wind-diesel systems, with a focus on the management of power flows in order to achieve precise regulation of frequency and voltage in the face of rapidly varying wind power input and load conditions. The control algorithms presented herein are being implemented in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) high penetration wind-diesel system controller that will be installed in the village of Wales, Alaska, in early 2000.

Drouilhet, S. M.

1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

287

Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

Pollock, G.G.

1997-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

288

Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

Pollock, George G. (San Ramon, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

A high-performance lattice Boltzmann implementation to model flow in porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the problem of simulating single and multiphase flow in porous medium systems at the pore scale using the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method. The LB method is a powerful approach, but one which is also computationally demanding; the resolution needed to resolve fundamental phenomena at the pore scale leads to very large lattice sizes, and hence substantial computational and memory requirements that necessitate the use of massively parallel computing approaches. Common LB implementations for simulating flow in porous media store the full lattice, making parallelization straightforward but wasteful. We investigate a two-stage implementation consisting of a sparse domain decomposition stage and a simulation stage that avoids the need to store and operate on lattice points located within a solid phase. A set of five domain decomposition approaches are investigated for single and multiphase flow through both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous medium systems on di#erent parallel computing platforms. An orthogonal recursive bisection method yields the best performance of the methods investigated, showing near linear scaling and substantially less storage and computational time than the traditional approach.

Chongxun Pan; Jan F. Prins; Cass T. Miller; Chongxun Pan Jan F. Prins

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

'In vivo' Dose Measurements in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Treatments for Cervical Cancer: A Project Proposal  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this thesis project is to compare doses calculated from the treatment planning system using computed tomography images, with those measured 'in vivo' by using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at different regions of the rectum and bladder of a patient during high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy treatment of uterine cervical carcinoma. The experimental dosimeters characterisation and calibration have concluded and the protocol to carry out the 'in vivo' measurements has been established. In this work, the calibration curves of two types of thermoluminescent dosimeters (rods and chips) are presented, and the proposed protocol to measure the 'in vivo' dose is fully described.

Reynoso Mejia, C. A.; Buenfil Burgos, A. E.; Ruiz Trejo, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, 01000, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Mota Garcia, A.; Trejo Duran, E.; Rodriguez Ponce, M. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando 22, Tlalpan, 4080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

291

Unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock related to high-level waste repositories; Final report, Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

Research results are summarized for a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission contract with the University of Arizona focusing on field and laboratory methods for characterizing unsaturated fluid flow and solute transport related to high-level radioactive waste repositories. Characterization activities are presented for the Apache Leap Tuff field site. The field site is located in unsaturated, fractured tuff in central Arizona. Hydraulic, pneumatic, and thermal characteristics of the tuff are summarized, along with methodologies employed to monitor and sample hydrologic and geochemical processes at the field site. Thermohydrologic experiments are reported which provide laboratory and field data related to the effects conditions and flow and transport in unsaturated, fractured rock. 29 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs.

Evans, D.D.; Rasmussen, T.C. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Hydrology and Water Resources

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

High-nitrogen-metal complexes as burning-rate modifiers for the aluminum-water propellant system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reactions of electropositive metals, such as aluminum, with water have long been utilized in explosive and propellant formulations, but until recently this has mostly been limited to the water formed as a product gas from the decomposition of another energetic system . Recently, however, with the increased availability of nano-particulate materials, the direct reaction of nano-aluminum (nAl) with water as an oxidizer has been investigated as a propellant system due to high reaction temperatures and the production of hydrogen as the primary gaseous species. This system could be useful for intra-planetary travel where non-terrestrial water is harvested for the oxidizer. Here we present the study of nAl, mixed at a stoichiometric ratio with water ({Phi} = 1) with the highly water soluble metal complexes of bis(tetrazolato)amine (BTA) added at 5, 15,30 and 50 wt% in the case of FeBTA and 5 and 15 wt% in the case of NiBTA and CoBTA. The basic structure of the BTA complexes is shown below where M = Fe, Ni or Co, and x = 3 for Fe and Co and x = 2 for Ni. The particle size of nAl studied was primarily 38 nm with various studies with the particle size of 80 nm. The FeBT A at a loading of 15 wt% gave the highest burning rate enhancement (4.6x at {approx}6.8 MPa), while retaining a low pressure exponent (0.21 compared to 0.24 for nA/H{sub 2}O). At 15 wt% the Ni and Co increased the burning rate, but also increased the pressure exponents. The burning rate of the FeBTA modified material with 80 nm Al decreased as the weight percent of FeBTA was increased, which also tracked decrease in the calculated specific impulse of the mixtures.

Tappan, Bryce C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Benjamin A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Application of direct-fitting, mass-integral, and multi-rate methods to analysis of flowing fluid electric conductivity logs from Horonobe, Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

traces of drilling mud) and formation fluid flowing into theof drilling mud in the wellbore may impact fluid logging twodrilling mud itself is presumably significantly denser than formation fluid,

Doughty, C.; Tsang, C.-F.; Hatanaka, K.; Yabuuchi, S.; Kurikami, H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Ice shelf-ocean interactions in a general circulation model : melt-rate modulation due to mean flow and tidal currents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interactions between the ocean circulation in sub-ice shelf cavities and the overlying ice shelf have received considerable attention in the context of observed changes in flow speeds of marine ice sheets around Antarctica. ...

Dansereau, Véronique

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Application of discrete element method to the analysis of free-flow outlet of coal from high coals at underground coal mining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mathematical model is developed on the basis of the Discrete Elements Method for investigation of processes of gravitational flow of the granular materials. The problem about free-flow outlet of coal from high coals in sublevel caving systems is ... Keywords: discrete element modeling, granular medium, numerical simulation, powered support, rock massif, underground coal mining

Vladimir I. Klishin; Sergey V. Klishin

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Portable wastewater flow meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

297

Portable wastewater flow meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Flow-Through Microfluidic Device for High-Efficiency Transfection of Mammalian Cells through Combined Microelectroporation and Sonoporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study we are presenting a proof-of-concept microfluidic device that simultaneously applies the conditions required for microelectroporation and micro-sonoporation in a flow-through fashion that allows for high throughput, high efficiency transfection of mammalian cells. During the design stage, we developed a low-cost, high-resolution polymer microfabrication technique termed laser stenciling. While few other electro-sonoporation protocols have been reported, to the best of our knowledge, we are the first to incorporate microelectroporation, which has been well established in literature to be advantageous to conventional electroporation, with flow-through micro-sonoporation. When comparing transfection efficiency for our electro-sonoporation method to that of sonoporation or microelectroporation alone, we observed single batch improvements up to 20 percent and 17 percent, respectively. The average improvement in efficiency was approximately 15 percent greater than achieved with sonoporation and 10 percent greater than that of electroporation. Importantly, there was little difference in short term cell viability between the three methods (maintained at > 90 percent). The average transfection efficiency for electro-sonoporation was 81.25 percent and cell viability was 91.56 percent. Overall, we have presented a device and electro-sonoporation method that meets or outperforms the transfection efficiency and cell viability standards for HeLa cells set by other reported electroporation and sonoporation methods.

Longsine, Whitney Leigh

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

High Growth Rate Deposition of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Films and Devices Using ECR-PECVD  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium films (a-SiGe:H) and devices have been extensively studied because of the tunable band gap for matching the solar spectrum and mature the fabrication techniques. a-SiGe:H thin film solar cells have great potential for commercial manufacture because of very low cost and adaptability to large-scale manufacturing. Although it has been demonstrated that a-SiGe:H thin films and devices with good quality can be produced successfully, some issues regarding growth chemistry have remained yet unexplored, such as the hydrogen and inert-gas dilution, bombardment effect, and chemical annealing, to name a few. The alloying of the SiGe introduces above an order-of-magnitude higher defect density, which degrades the performance of the a-SiGe:H thin film solar cells. This degradation becomes worse when high growth-rate deposition is required. Preferential attachment of hydrogen to silicon, clustering of Ge and Si, and columnar structure and buried dihydride radicals make the film intolerably bad. The work presented here uses the Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECR-PECVD) technique to fabricate a-SiGe:H films and devices with high growth rates. Helium gas, together with a small amount of H{sub 2}, was used as the plasma species. Thickness, optical band gap, conductivity, Urbach energy, mobility-lifetime product, I-V curve, and quantum efficiency were characterized during the process of pursuing good materials. The microstructure of the a-(Si,Ge):H material was probed by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. They found that the advantages of using helium as the main plasma species are: (1) high growth rate--the energetic helium ions break the reactive gas more efficiently than hydrogen ions; (2) homogeneous growth--heavy helium ions impinging on the surface promote the surface mobility of the reactive radicals, so that heteroepitaxy growth as clustering of Ge and Si, columnar structure are reduced; (3) surface hydrogen removal--heavier and more energetic helium ions break the Si-H much easier than hydrogen ions. The preferential attachment of Si-H to Ge-H is reduced. They also found that with the small amount of hydrogen put into the plasma, the superior properties of a-(Si,Ge):H made from pure hydrogen dilution plasma were still maintained. These hydrogen ions help to remove the subsurface weakly bonded hydrogen and buried hydrogen. They also help to passivate the Ge-dangling bond.

Yong Liu

2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

High Performance Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries with Optimized Electrode Configuration and Membrane Selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of a vanadium flow battery with no-gap architecture was significantly improved via several techniques. Specifically, gains arising from variation of the overall electrode thickness, membrane thickness, and electrode thermal treatment were studied. There is a trade-off between apparent kinetic losses, mass transfer losses, and ionic resistance as the electrode thickness is varied at the anode and cathode. Oxidative thermal pretreatment of the carbon paper electrode increased the peak power density by 16%. Results of the pretreatment in air showed greater improvement in peak power density compared to that obtained with pretreatment in an argon environment. The highest peak power density in a VRB yet published to the author s knowledge was achieved at a value of 767 mW cm 2 with optimized membrane and electrode engineering. 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.051208jes] All rights reserved.

Liu, Q. H. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Grim, G. M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Papandrew, A [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Turhan, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zawodzinski, Thomas A [ORNL; Mench, Matthew M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Simplified Configuration for the Combustor of an oil Burner using a low Pressure, high flow air-atomizing Nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The inventors have devised a fuel burner that uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle. The improved fuel burner does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design.

Butcher, Thomas; Celebi, Yusuf; Fisher, Leonard

1998-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

302

Size-based Scheduling with Differentiated Services to Improve Response Time of Highly Varying Flow Sizes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sizes of Internet objects are known to be highly varying. We evaluate an M/G/1 queue under foreground background N (FBN ) scheduling policy for job size distributions with varying coefficient of variability (CoV) to analyze the impact of variability of job sizes to the performance of the policy. We find that FBN is very efficient in reducing the response time and minimizing the number of jobs that are penalized (i.e., have a higher response time under FBN than under processor sharing (PS)) when job sizes have a high CoV. We also propose and analyze variants of FBN called fixed priority FBN (FP \\Gamma FBN ) and differential FBN (DF \\Gamma FBN ), which introduce service differentiation by classifying jobs into high priority and low priority and then servicing the high priority before low priority jobs in an FBN related order. The numerical analysis conducted for highly varying job sizes reveals that FP \\Gamma FBN achieves a perfect service differentiation at the expense of a high penalty for the low priority small jobs. While DF \\Gamma FBN offers acceptable service differentiation, it does not penalize small jobs with low priority at all. Moreover, FP \\Gamma FBN and DF \\Gamma FBN can guarantee the service of high priority jobs even under overload.

Idris A. Rai; Guillaume Urvoy-keller; Ernst W. Biersack

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

High rate mesophilic, thermophilic, and temperature phased anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge: A pilot scale study  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High temperatures were tested in single and two-stage anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The increased temperature demonstrated the possibility of improving typical yields of the conventional mesophilic process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature phased anaerobic digestion process (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) showed the best performances with yields of 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia and phosphate released from solids destruction determined the precipitation of struvite in the reactor. - Abstract: The paper reports the findings of a two-year pilot scale experimental trial for the mesophilic (35 Degree-Sign C), thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) and temperature phased (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. During the mesophilic and thermophilic runs, the reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 20 days. In the temperature phased run, the first reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 15 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 2 days while the second reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 18 days (20 days for the whole temperature phased system). The performance of the reactor improved with increases in temperature. The COD removal increased from 35% in mesophilic conditions, to 45% in thermophilic conditions, and 55% in the two stage temperature phased system. As a consequence, the specific biogas production increased from 0.33 to 0.45 and to 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed} at 35, 55, and 65 + 55 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The extreme thermophilic reactor working at 65 Degree-Sign C showed a high hydrolytic capability and a specific yield of 0.33 gCOD (soluble) per gVS{sub fed}. The effluent of the extreme thermophilic reactor showed an average concentration of soluble COD and volatile fatty acids of 20 and 9 g/l, respectively. Acetic and propionic acids were the main compounds found in the acids mixture. Because of the improved digestion efficiency, organic nitrogen and phosphorus were solubilised in the bulk. Their concentration, however, did not increase as expected because of the formation of salts of hydroxyapatite and struvite inside the reactor.

Bolzonella, David, E-mail: david.bolzonella@univr.it [University of Verona, Department of Biotechnology, Strada Le Grazie, 15, 37134 Verona (Italy); Cavinato, Cristina, E-mail: cavinato@unive.it [University of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Computer Science and Statistics, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Fatone, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.fatone@univr.it [University of Verona, Department of Biotechnology, Strada Le Grazie, 15, 37134 Verona (Italy); Pavan, Paolo, E-mail: pavan@unive.it [University of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Computer Science and Statistics, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Cecchi, Franco, E-mail: franco.cecchi@univr.it [University of Verona, Department of Biotechnology, Strada Le Grazie, 15, 37134 Verona (Italy)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Dynamics of long flexible cylinders at high-mode number in uniform and sheared flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary objective of this thesis is to characterize the response of risers at high-mode numbers in sheared and uniform ocean currents. As part of this thesis work, three separate experiments have been planned and ...

Swithenbank, Susan B. (Susan Brenda)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

High-Resolution Large-Eddy Simulations of Flow in a Steep Alpine Valley. Part II: Flow Structure and Heat Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the three-dimensional flow structure and the heat budget in a typical medium-sized and steep Alpine valley—the Riviera Valley in southern Switzerland. Aircraft measurements from the Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP)-Riviera ...

Andreas P. Weigel; Fotini K. Chow; Mathias W. Rotach; Robert L. Street; Ming Xue

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (12) Evaluations of Spatial Distributions of Flow and Heat Transfer in Steam Injector  

SciTech Connect

Next-generation nuclear reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. One of the innovative technologies is the supersonic steam injector, which has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation nuclear reactor. The steam injector has functions of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery and a high efficiency heat exchanger. The performances of the supersonic steam injector as a pump and a heat exchanger are dependent on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. In previous studies of the steam injector, there are studies about the operating characteristics of steam injector and about the direct contact condensation between static water pool and steam in atmosphere. However, there is a little study about the turbulent heat transfer and flow behavior under the great shear stress. In order to examine the heat transfer and flow behavior in supersonic steam injector, it is necessary to measure the spatial temperature distribution and velocity in detail. The present study, visible transparent supersonic steam injector is used to obtain the axial pressure distributions in the supersonic steam injector, as well as high speed visual observation of water jet and steam interface. The experiments are conducted with and without non-condensable gas. The experimental results of the interfacial flow behavior between steam and water jet are obtained. It is experimentally clarified that an entrainment exists on the water jet surface. It is also clarified that discharge pressure is depended on the steam supply pressure, the inlet water flow rate, the throat diameter and non-condensable flow rate. Finally a heat flux is estimated about 19 MW/m{sup 2} without non-condensable gas condition in steam. (authors)

Yutaka Abe; Yujiro Kawamoto [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Chikako Iwaki [Toshiba Corporation (Japan); Tadashi Narabayashi [Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo (Japan); Michitsugu Mori; Shuichi Ohmori [Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Submesoscale Coastal Ocean Flows Detected by Very High Frequency Radar and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over a 29-day time series in July 1999, an ocean surface current radar (OSCR) in very high frequency (VHF) mode mapped the surface velocity field at 250-m resolution at 700 cells off Fort Lauderdale, Florida. During the experiment, autonomous ...

Lynn K. Shay; Thomas M. Cook; P. Edgar An

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Jet Formation in Highly Variable Accretion Flow Tomoyuki Hanawa, Koji Nobuta, & Satoshi Kawaguchi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

waves form when the gas tori bounce near the black hole owing to the centrifugal force. The shock waves. Torus K.E. 3. 1st Shock Wave 5. High Pressure Gas 6. Jets 4. 2nd Shock Wave centrifugal barrier 2: #12. The accretion ow has two components, less dense gas having a low speci#12;c angular momentum and dense gas

Enomoto, Ryoji

309

High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as a Monotherapy for Favorable-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Phase II Trial  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: There are multiple treatment options for favorable-risk prostate cancer. High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as a monotherapy is appealing, but its use is still investigational. A Phase II trial was undertaken to explore the value of such treatment in low-to-intermediate risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This was a single-institution, prospective study. Eligible patients had low-risk prostate cancer features but also Gleason scores of 7 (51% of patients) and stage T2b to T2c cancer. Treatment with HDR brachytherapy with a single implant was administered over 2 days. One of four fractionation schedules was used in a dose escalation study design: 3 fractions of 10, 10.5, 11, or 11.5 Gy. Patients were assessed with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 2.0 for urinary toxicity, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scoring schema for rectal toxicity, and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaire to measure patient-reported health-related quality of life. Biochemical failure was defined as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir plus 2 ng/ml. Results: Between 2003 and 2008, 79 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 39.5 months, biochemical relapse occurred in 7 patients. Three- and 5-year actuarial biochemical control rates were 88.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78.0-96.2%) and 85.1% (95% CI, 72.5-94.5%), respectively. Acute grade 3 urinary toxicity was seen in only 1 patient. There was no instance of acute grade 3 rectal toxicity. Rates of late grade 3 rectal toxicity, dysuria, hematuria, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence were 0%, 10.3%, 1.3%, 9.0%, and 0%, respectively. No grade 4 or greater toxicity was recorded. Among the four (urinary, bowel, sexual, and hormonal) domains assessed with the EPIC questionnaire, only the sexual domain did not recover with time. Conclusions: HDR brachytherapy as a monotherapy for favorable-risk prostate cancer, administered using a single implant over 2 days, is feasible and has acceptable acute and late toxicities. Further follow-up is still required to better evaluate the efficacy of such treatment.

Barkati, Maroie [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Williams, Scott G., E-mail: scott.williams@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Foroudi, Farshad; Tai, Keen Hun; Chander, Sarat [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Dyk, Sylvia van [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); See, Andrew [Ballarat Austin Radiation Oncology Centre, Ballarat (Australia); Duchesne, Gillian M. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

High velocity continuous-flow reactor for the production of solar grade silicon. Second quarterly report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective is to determine the feasibility of a high volume-high velocity continuous reduction reactor as an economical means for producing solar grade polycrystalline silicon. Preheated streams of hydrogen and bromosilanes are used as feed to the reduction reactor. Nucleation and deposition sites are provided by the additional feed of preheated silicon particles to the reactor. The effort has been directed at studying the chemistry taking place in the reactor, determining the factors which influence its course, and making necessary reactor modifications as dictated by observed results. The initial reactor design has been extensively changed. Energy losses due to gas expansion in the nozzle/mixer section of the reactor dictated these design changes. A ''Tee'' configuration, in which the two preheated gas streams are merged at right angles without any expansion, has replaced the nozzle/mixer. Results of the hydrogen reduction of tetrabromosilane with and without the use of silicon deposition substrate particles are analyzed.

Woerner, L.

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Laser-based diagnostics for density, temperature, velocity, and dissociation fraction in high temperature hydrogen flows  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper is essentially a review of the current state of the art in hydrogen atom and hydrogen molecule diagnostics. This paper contains some of our own results and ideas along with results from many other laboratories. This is not intended to be an exhaustive review; instead it summarizes some techniques which we believe are ideally suited as diagnostics for high temperature hydrogen which are of paramount importance for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). 31 refs., 1 fig.

Sappey, A.D.; Funk, D.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: A Technology of Low Coal Rate and High Productivity of RHF Ironmaking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An economical and environment-friendly ironmaking process based on heating the chemiexecy self-sufficient green balls of iron ore and coal in a hearth furnace is being developed with financial support from AISI members and DOE. DRI, which is hot (1400 C), dense (3.2 g/cm) and of high degree of metallization (95%), has been produced in laboratory and in a pilot plant in Genoa, Italy. Products of such quality have been made from American and Brazilian ores, BOF sludge, EAF dust/BOF sludge mixtures and millscale. The removal of zinc and lead from green balls by this process is essentially complete. In comparison with typical blast furnace operation, the new technology with a melter would have a lower total coal rate by 200kg.THM. The elimination of cokemaking and high temperature agglomeration steps, and a simpler gas handling system would lead to lower capital and operating costs. In comparison with commercial RHF practice it is different in atmosphere (fully oxidized at 1600 to 1650 C), in bed height (120 mm instead of 20-25 mm) and in pellet composition (much less coal but of higher VM). The combined effect leads to three times higher furnace productivity, lower coal consumption and superior DRI quality. The risk of re-oxidation (slag formation) and dusty operation are practiexecy eliminated. The process is stable, tolerant and independent of the size, shape and movement of the hearth. However, materials handling (e.g., discharge of hot DRI) and the exact energy savings have to be established in a larger furnace, straight or rotary, and in a continuous mode of operation.

Wei-Kao Lu

2002-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

High temperature step-flow growth of gallium phosphide by molecular beam epitaxy and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Post-growth surface morphologies of high-temperature homoepitaxial GaP films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been studied. Smooth, stepped surface morphologies of MBE-grown layers, measured by atomic force microscopy, were found for a wide range of substrate temperatures and P{sub 2}:Ga flux ratios. A MOCVD-based growth study performed under similar conditions to MBE-grown samples shows a nearly identical smooth, step-flow surface morphology, presenting a convergence of growth conditions for the two different methods. The additional understanding of GaP epitaxy gained from this study will impact its use in applications that include GaP-based device technologies, III-V metamorphic buffers, and III-V materials integration with silicon.

Ratcliff, C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Grassman, T. J.; Ringel, S. A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Institute for Materials Research, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Carlin, J. A. [Institute for Materials Research, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

314

Distributed control of reactive power flow in a radial distribution circuit with high photovoltaic penetration  

SciTech Connect

We show how distributed control of reactive power can serve to regulate voltage and minimize resistive losses in a distribution circuit that includes a significant level of photovoltaic (PV) generation. To demonstrate the technique, we consider a radial distribution circuit with a single branch consisting of sequentially-arranged residential-scale loads that consume both real and reactive power. In parallel, some loads also have PV generation capability. We postulate that the inverters associated with each PV system are also capable of limited reactive power generation or consumption, and we seek to find the optimal dispatch of each inverter's reactive power to both maintain the voltage within an acceptable range and minimize the resistive losses over the entire circuit. We assume the complex impedance of the distribution circuit links and the instantaneous load and PV generation at each load are known. We compare the results of the optimal dispatch with a suboptimal local scheme that does not require any communication. On our model distribution circuit, we illustrate the feasibility of high levels of PV penetration and a significant (20% or higher) reduction in losses.

Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sule, Petr [NEW MEXICO CONSORTIUM

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Distributed control of reactive power flow in a radial distribution circuit with high photovoltaic penetration  

SciTech Connect

We show how distributed control of reactive power can serve to regulate voltage and minimize resistive losses in a distribution circuit that includes a significant level of photovoltaic (PV) generation. To demonstrate the technique, we consider a radial distribution circuit with a single branch consisting of sequentially-arranged residential-scale loads that consume both real and reactive power. In parallel, some loads also have PV generation capability. We postulate that the inverters associated with each PV system are also capable of limited reactive power generation or consumption, and we seek to find the optimal dispatch of each inverter's reactive power to both maintain the voltage within an acceptable range and minimize the resistive losses over the entire circuit. We assume the complex impedance of the distribution circuit links and the instantaneous load and PV generation at each load are known. We compare the results of the optimal dispatch with a suboptimal local scheme that does not require any communication. On our model distribution circuit, we illustrate the feasibility of high levels of PV penetration and a significant (20% or higher) reduction in losses.

Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sule, Petr [NEW MEXICO CONSORTIUM

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Measurement of the Rates of Production and Dissipation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in an Energetic Tidal Flow: Red Wharf Bay Revisited  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous measurements of the rates of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation (?) and production (P) have been made over a period of 24 h at a tidally energetic site in the northern Irish Sea in water of 25-m depth. Some ? profiles from 5 ...

Tom P. Rippeth; John H. Simpson; Eirwen Williams; Mark E. Inall

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Definition: Rating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

power, such as transformers, or transport it from one location to another, such as transmission lines, the power rating almost always refers to the maximum power flow...

318

Elbow mass flow meter  

SciTech Connect

Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); Ortiz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX); Nelson, David C. (Santa Fe, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Clock division as a power saving strategy in a system constrained by high transmission frequency and low data rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Systems are often restricted to have higher transmission frequency than required by their data rates. Possible constraints include channel attenuation, power requirements, and backward compatibility. As a result these ...

Selbst, Andrew D. (Andrew David)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Development and Implementation of 3-D, High Speed Capacitance Tomography for Imaging Large-Scale, Cold-Flow Circulating Fluidized Bed  

SciTech Connect

A detailed understanding of multiphase flow behavior inside a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) requires a 3-D technique capable of visualizing the flow field in real-time. Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) is a newly developed technique that can provide such measurements. The attractiveness of the technique is in its low profile sensors, fast imaging speed and scalability to different section sizes, low operating cost, and safety. Moreover, the flexibility of ECVT sensors enable them to be designed around virtually any geometry, rendering them suitable to be used for measurement of solid flows in exit regions of the CFB. Tech4Imaging LLC has worked under contract with the U.S. Department of Energyâ??s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to develop an ECVT system for cold flow visualization and install it on a 12 inch ID circulating fluidized bed. The objective of this project was to help advance multi-phase flow science through implementation of an ECVT system on a cold flow model at DOE NETL. This project has responded to multi-phase community and industry needs of developing a tool that can be used to develop flow models, validate computational fluid dynamics simulations, provide detailed real-time feedback of process variables, and provide a comprehensive understating of multi-phase flow behavior. In this project, a complete ECVT system was successfully developed after considering different potential electronics and sensor designs. The system was tested at various flow conditions and with different materials, yielding real-time images of flow interaction in a gas-solid flow system. The system was installed on a 12 inch ID CFB of the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Labs. Technical and economic assessment of Scale-up and Commercialization of ECVT was also conducted. Experiments conducted with larger sensors in conditions similar to industrial settings are very promising. ECVT has also the potential to be developed for imaging multi-phase flow systems in high temperature and high pressure conditions, typical in many industrial applications.

Qussai Marashdeh

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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321

Preferential flow paths and heat pipes: Results from laboratory experiments on heat-driven flow in natural and artificial rock fractures  

SciTech Connect

Water flow in fractures under the conditions of partial saturation and thermal drive may lead to fast flow along preferential localized pathways and heat pipe conditions. Water flowing in fast pathways may ultimately contact waste packages at Yucca Mountain and transport radionuclides to the accessible environment. Sixteen experiments were conducted to visualize liquid flow in glass fracture models, a transparent epoxy fracture replica, and a rock/replica fracture assembly. Spatially resolved thermal monitoring was performed in seven of these experiments to evaluate heat-pipe formation. Depending on the fracture apertures and flow conditions, various flow regimes were observed including continuous rivulet flow for high flow rates, intermittent rivulet flow and drop flow for intermediate flow rates, and film flow for low flow rates and wide apertures. These flow regimes were present in both fracture models and in the replica of a natural fracture. Heat-pipe conditions indicated by low thermal gradients were observed in five experiments. Conditions conducive to heat-pipe formation include an evaporation zone, condensation zone, adequate space for vapor and liquid to travel, and appropriate fluid driving forces. In one of the two experiments where heat pipe conditions were not observed, adequate space for liquid-vapor counterflow was not provided. Heat pipe conditions were not established in the other, because liquid flow was inadequate to compensate for imbibition and the quantity of heat contained within the rock.

Kneafsey, T.J.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Solids mass flow determination  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

Macko, Joseph E. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

4. Trends in Natural Gas Transportation Rates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration 39 Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates 4. Trends in Natural Gas Transportation Rates

324

Characterization of High Strain Rate Mechanical behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy using 3D Digital Image Correlation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterization of the material mechanical behavior at sub-Hopkinson regime (0.1 to 1000 s{sup -1}) is very challenging due to instrumentation limitations and the complexity of data analysis involved in dynamic loading. In this study, AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet specimens are tested using a custom designed servo-hydraulic machine in tension at nominal strain rates up to 1000 s{sup -1}. In order to resolve strain measurement artifacts, the specimen displacement is measured using 3D Digital Image correlation instead from actuator motion. The total strain is measured up to {approx} 30%, which is far beyond the measurable range of electric resistance strain gages. Stresses are calculated based on the elastic strains in the tab of a standard dog-bone shaped specimen. Using this technique, the stresses measured for strain rates of 100 s{sup -1} and lower show little or no noise comparing to load cell signals. When the strain rates are higher than 250 s{sup -1}, the noises and oscillations in the stress measurements are significantly decreased from {approx} 250 to 50 MPa. Overall, it is found that there are no significant differences in the elongation, although the material exhibits slight work hardening when the strain rate is increased from 1 to 100 s{sup -1}.

Wang, Yanli [ORNL; Xu, Hanbing [ORNL; ERDMAN III, DONALD L [ORNL; Starbuck, J Michael [ORNL; Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

High Average Power, 100 Hz Repetition Rate, Table-top EUV/Soft X-ray Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Compact =13.9 nm and =18.9 nm lasers with >0.1 mW average power at 100 Hz repetition rate driven by a diode-pumped, 1 J, CPA laser were demonstrated. Wavelength scaling to =10.9 nm will be discussed.

Reagan, Brendon [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Wernsing, Keith [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Baumgarten, Cory [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Durivage, Leon [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Furch, Federico [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Curtis, Alden [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Salsbury, Chase [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Luther, Brad [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Patel, Dinesh [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Menoni, Carmen [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Rocca, Jorge [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

High-energy threshold reaction rates on 0.8 GeV proton-irradiated thick Pb-target  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This works presents results of activation-aided determination of threshold reaction rates in 92 209Bi, natPb, 197Au, 181Ta, 169Tm, natIn, 93Nb, 64Zn, 65Cu, 63Cu, 59Co, 19F, and 12C samples and in 121 27Al samples. All the samples were aligned with the proton beam axis inside and outside the demountable 92-cm thick Pb target of 15-cm diameter assembled of 23 4-cm thick discs. The samples were placed on 12 target disks to reproduce the long axis distribution of protons and neutrons. In June 2006, the target was exposed for 18 hours to a 800-MeV proton beam extracted from the ITEP U-10 accelerator. The proton fluence and the proton beam shape were determined using the 27Al(p,x)7Be monitor reaction. The reaction rates were determined by the direct gamma-spectrometry techniques. In total, 1196 gamma-spectra have been measured, and about 1500 reaction rates determined. The measured reaction rates were simulated by the MCNPX code using the following databases: ENDF/B6 for neutrons below 20 MeV, MENDL2 for 20-100 MeV neutrons, and MENDL2P for proton cross sections up to 200 MeV. An acceptable agreement of simulations with experimental data has been found.

Yu. E. Titarenko; V. F. Batyaev; A. Yu. Titarenko; M. A. Butko; K. V. Pavlov; R. S. Tikhonov; S. N. Florya; S. G. Mashnik; W. Gudowski

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

327

Analysis of the transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual vapor flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds and high mass flow rates are successfully predicted. The one-dimensional model also describes the vapor flow dynamics in cylindrical heat pipes at high temperatures.

Jang, J.H.; Faghri, A. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States); Chang, W.S. [Wright Research and Development Center, Wright-Patterson, OH (United States)

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Quantitative discrimination between geological materials with variable density contrast by high resolution X-ray computed tomography: An example using amygdule size-distribution in ancient lava flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bubble-size distribution in 2.7 billion year old lava flows can be used as a proof of concept illustrating a new set of techniques for measuring volumes of geological materials with variable density contrasts using high-resolution X-ray computed ... Keywords: Amygdules, Bootstrap resampling, Bubble-size distribution, Central limit theorem, Dynamic thresholding, X-ray tomography

Sanjoy M. Som, James W. Hagadorn, Weston A. Thelen, Alan R. Gillespie, David C. Catling, Roger Buick

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Update on the Long-Term Flow Testing Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Preliminary flow and pressure testing of the Phase II Hot Dry Rock (HDR) reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, as part of the preparations for the initial 90-day segment of the Long-Term Flow Test, has revealed several significant features concerning the hydraulic behavior of this reservoir as a function of injection and production pressure levels. Of most significance to the future operation of HDR power plants is the influence of elevated production backpressure on the effective reservoir flow impedance (i.e., the difference between injection and production pressures, divided by the production flow rate). It has been found that the effective flow impedance at high backpressure is significantly lower than the corresponding impedance at low backpressure. At an injection pressure of 3700 psi and a back-pressure of 2210 psi, the effective flow impedance for the present reservoir is 20 psi/gpm--less than 40% of the effective flow impedance for similar injection conditions, but at low backpressure (about 170 psi). Recently, a 10-day reservoir flow test was conducted at a somewhat lower backpressure of 1500 psi, and at a slightly higher injection pressure of 3750 psi. At these new conditions, there was an increase in the effective reservoir flow impedance to 23.6 psi/gpm, but also a significant increase in the production flow rate and temperature--from 74 gpm to 95 gpm, and from 154 C to 180 C. The net reservoir water loss rate averaged over the last 5 days of this latest flow test was 7.3 gpm, which corresponds to a net recovery of 93% of the injected water--a very significant result that has been obtained from our preliminary reservoir flow testing. Under both of these high backpressure flow conditions, the reservoir was not extending, as evidenced by a very low rate of water loss and the absence of microseismic activity.

Brown, Donald W.

1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

330

Identification of Highly Predictable Flow Elements for Spatial Filtering of Medium- and Extended-Range Numerical Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To determine if some flow components are systematically forecast more accurately than others, 990 wintertime medium-range forecasts made at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are examined. It is found that forecasts ...

Grant Branstator; Andrew Mai; David Baumhefner

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Optimized Flow Sheet for a Reference Commercial-Scale Nuclear-Driven High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results from the development and optimization of a reference commercialscale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540° C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen consists of 4.176 × 10 6 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. A nominal cell area-specific resistance, ASR, value of 0.4 Ohm•cm2 with a current density of 0.25 A/cm2 was used, and isothermal boundary conditions were assumed. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 49.07% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.45 kg/s with the high-temperature helium-cooled reactor concept. The information presented in this report is intended to establish an optimized design for the reference nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant so that parameters can be compared with other hydrogen production methods and power cycles to evaluate relative performance characteristics and plant economics.

M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien; E. A. Harvego; J. S. Herring

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Infinite cloud model of electrification by the precipitation mechanism in the presence of high rates of ion generation  

SciTech Connect

We have extended a simple, infinite cloud, precipitation mechanism model of thundercloud electrification to include effects due to the presence of radioactive aerosol particles resulting from fresh debris from a nuclear explosion. These effects involve ion generation, currents due to motions of ions and charged aerosol particles, and collection of ions and aerosol particles by hydrometeors and cloud droplets. Our conclusion is that an ion pair generation rate G> or approx. =10/sup 12/m/sup -3/ s/sup -1/ will prevent significant electric field growth.

Spangler, J.D.; Rosenkilde, C.E.

1979-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

333

Infinite cloud model of electrification by the precipitation mechanism in the pressence of high rates of ion generation  

SciTech Connect

We have extended a simple, infinite-cloud, precipitation-mechanism model of thundercloud electrification to include effects due to the presence of radioactive aerosol particles. These effects involve ion generation, currents due to motions of ions and charged aerosol particles, and collection of ions and aerosol particles by hydrometeors and cloud droplets. Our conclusion is that an ion-pair generation rate G equal to or greater than 10/sup 12/m/sup -3/s/sup -1/ will prevent significant electric-field growth.

Spangler, J.D.; Rosenkilde, C.E.

1978-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

334

Use of very-high-frequency plasmas to prepare a-Si:H-based triple-junction solar cells at high deposition rates: Annual technical status report, 11 March 1998--11 March 1999  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work performed by Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD) during this phase of this subcontract. ECD researchers have made significant progress in advancing the very high frequency (VHF), high-rate technology. They demonstrated that 8.0% stable efficiencies can be achieved for a-Si:H cells whose i-layers are prepared at rates near 10 {angstrom}/s using the VHF technique. Presently, there is not a great difference in the performance of a-Si:H cells made using the VHF technique and i-layer deposition rates near 10 {angstrom}/s and that for cells made using the standard 13.56 MHz technique and rates near 1 {angstrom}/s in the same deposition system. In terms of the a-SiGe:H cells, researchers have completed a number of studies of devices with properties appropriate for middle-junction cells-that is, cells without Ag/ZnO back-reflectors having Voc values near 0.75V and Jsc values near 8.0 mA/cm{sup 2} when measured using AM1.5 light filtered using a 530-nm, low-band-pass filter. The stabilized proper ties for these cells prepared at i-layer rates near 10 {angstrom}/s are again similar to a-SiGe:H cells made using the same deposition hardware and the low-rate 13.56 MHz method. Establishing an initial 10.5% for a triple-junction cell whose i-layers are prepared at the high rates sets the baseline for ECD's future studies. The triple-junction cell degradation (10%--13%) with prolonged light soaking is similar to that regularly obtained for cells prepared at low i-layer deposition rates (1 {angstrom}/s). This is important because the use of high-rate methods to prepare i-layers typically leads to less-stable materials and cells. Increasing the buffer-layer deposition rate to 6 {angstrom}/s leads to nearly a 15-min decrease in the total deposition time, whereas the increase in the n-layer and p-layer deposition rates both decrease the total time by 5 and 5.8 min, respectively. Thus, besides the i-layer growth rates, increasing the buffer layer growth rate has the strongest effect on the deposition time of the triple-junction semiconductor structures.

Jones, S.J.; Liu, T.; Tsu, D.; Izu, M.

1999-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

335

Apparatus for establishing and maintaining a stable discharge across a stream of flowing gas, particularly useful for high-power lasers  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus is described for establishing and maintaining a stable discharge across a stream of gas flowing through a gas-flow channel, which consists of: an electrode system including a group of working electrodes disposed on opposite sides of the gas flow channel and spaced longitudinally thereof in the direction of gas flow, which working electrodes include at least one upstream electrode at the upstream end of the gas flow channel; a high-voltage alternating current source connected at one side to each of the working electrodes and at the opposite side to a point of fixed reference potential; and a ballast impedance connected to each of the working electrodes for stabilizing the electrical discharge; the electrode system further including at least one starting electrode adjacent to the upstream working electrode and connected to the point of fixed reference potential via a ballast impedance of substantially larger impedance value than those connected to the working electrodes, such that the starting electrode is effective to bring the point of fixed reference potential to the upstream working electrode to start the discharge, and to draw little current after the discharge has been started.

Katz, D.

1986-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

336

Method and system for measuring multiphase flow using multiple pressure differentials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and system for measuring a multiphase flow in a pressure flow meter. An extended throat venturi is used and pressure of the multiphase flow is measured at three or more positions in the venturi, which define two or more pressure differentials in the flow conduit. The differential pressures are then used to calculate the mass flow of the gas phase, the total mass flow, and the liquid phase. The method for determining the mass flow of the high void fraction fluid flow and the gas flow includes certain steps. The first step is calculating a gas density for the gas flow. The next two steps are finding a normalized gas mass flow rate through the venturi and computing a gas mass flow rate. The following step is estimating the gas velocity in the venturi tube throat. The next step is calculating the pressure drop experienced by the gas-phase due to work performed by the gas phase in accelerating the liquid phase between the upstream pressure measuring point and the pressure measuring point in the venturi throat. Another step is estimating the liquid velocity in the venturi throat using the calculated pressure drop experienced by the gas-phase due to work performed by the gas phase. Then the friction is computed between the liquid phase and a wall in the venturi tube. Finally, the total mass flow rate based on measured pressure in the venturi throat is calculated, and the mass flow rate of the liquid phase is calculated from the difference of the total mass flow rate and the gas mass flow rate.

Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

High-resolution numerical methods for compressible multi-phase flow in hierarchical porous media. Progress report, September 1993--September 1994  

SciTech Connect

This is the second year in the proposed three-year effort to develop high-resolution numerical methods for multi-phase flow in hierarchical porous media. The issues being addressed in this research are: Computational efficiency: Field-scale simulation of enhanced oil recovery, whether for energy production or aquifer remediation, is typically highly under-resolved. This is because rock transport properties vary on many scales, and because current numerical methods have low resolution. Effective media properties: Since porous media are formed through complex geologic processes, they involve significant uncertainty and scale-dependence. Given this uncertainty, knowledge of ensemble averages of flow in porous media can be preferable to knowledge of flow in specific realizations of the reservoir. However, current models of effective properties do not represent the observed behavior very well. Relative permeability models present a good example of this problem. In practice, these models seldom provide realistic representations of hysteresis, interfacial tension effects or three-phase flow; there are no models that represent well all three effects simultaneously.

Trangenstein, J.A.

1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Highly Selective Proton-Conducting Composite Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries - Alan Cisar, Lynntech  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Membrane for Redox Flow Batteries Membrane for Redox Flow Batteries DOE Grant No: DE-SC0004516 Alan Cisar* and Chris Rhodes Lynntech, Inc., 2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South, College Station, TX 77845 *E-mail: alan.cisar@lynntech.com, Phone: 979.764.2311 Introduction * Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are a promising technology to store electrical energy from intermittent renewable sources such as solar and wind power. Although they offer many advantages, RFBs with reduced cost and improved performance (i.e., efficiency and durability) need to be developed to achieve broad market penetration. * Ion exchange membranes in RFBs separate two soluble redox couples should allow rapid proton transport and suppress transport of the reactive species between anode and cathode compartments. Nafion

339

A high-repetition rate scheme for synchrotron-based picosecond laser pump/x-ray probe experiments on chemical and biological systems in solution  

SciTech Connect

We present the extension of time-resolved optical pump/x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) probe experiments towards data collection at MHz repetition rates. The use of a high-power picosecond laser operating at an integer fraction of the repetition rate of the storage ring allows exploitation of up to two orders of magnitude more x-ray photons than in previous schemes based on the use of kHz lasers. Consequently, we demonstrate an order of magnitude increase in the signal-to-noise of time-resolved XAS of molecular systems in solution. This makes it possible to investigate highly dilute samples at concentrations approaching physiological conditions for biological systems. The simplicity and compactness of the scheme allows for straightforward implementation at any synchrotron beamline and for a wide range of x-ray probe techniques, such as time-resolved diffraction or x-ray emission studies.

Lima, Frederico A.; Milne, Christopher J.; Amarasinghe, Dimali C. V.; Rittmann-Frank, Mercedes Hannelore; Veen, Renske M. van der; Reinhard, Marco; Pham, Van-Thai; Karlsson, Susanne; Mourik, Frank van; Chergui, Majed [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Ultrarapide, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, ISIC, FSB, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Johnson, Steven L.; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia; Huthwelker, Thomas; Janousch, Markus [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Abela, Rafael [SwissFEL, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

Design and demonstration of heat pipe cooling for NASP and evaluation of heating methods at high heating rates  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of two heating methods for demonstration of NASP leading edge heat pipe technology was conducted. The heating methods were and rf induction heated plasma jet and direct rf induction. Tests were conducted to determine coupling from the argon plasma jet on a surface physically similar to a heat pipe. A molybdenum tipped calorimeter was fabricated and installed in an rf induction heated plasma jet for the test. The calorimetric measurements indicated a maximum power coupling of approximately 500 W/cm{sup 2} with the rf plasma jet. The effect of change in gas composition on the heating rate was investigated using helium. An alternative to the plasma heating of a heat pipe tip, an rf concentrator was evaluated for coupling to the hemispherical tip of a heat pipe. A refractory metal heat pipe was designed, fabricated, and tested for the evaluation. The heat pipe was designed for operation at 1400 to 1900 K with power input to 1000 W/cm{sup 2} over a hemispherical nose tip. Power input of 800 W/cm{sup 2} was demonstrated using the rf concentrator. 2 refs., 13 figs.

Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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341

Rate Schedules  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

342

Markov Random Field Models for High-Dimensional Parameters in Simulations of Fluid Flow in Porous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is injected along with the water at the input wells and its concentration is recorded over time at the uptake on the solution to the forward problem, i.e. determining the flow of water when the physical characteristics. It is this inverse problem that we address in this paper. A review of the inverse problem can be found in Yeh (1986

West, Mike

343

Markov Random Field Models for HighDimensional Parameters in Simulations of Fluid Flow in Porous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is injected along with the water at the input wells and its concentration is recorded over time at the uptake on the solution to the forward problem, i.e. determining the flow of water when the physical characteristics. It is this inverse problem that we address in this paper. A review of the inverse problem can be found in Yeh (1986

West, Mike

344

Helical Turbulence Prevails over Inertial Waves in Forced Rotating Flows at High Reynolds and Low Rossby Numbers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study of spectral laws for helical turbulence in the presence of solid body rotation up to Reynolds numbers Re ~ 1 × 105 and down to Rossby numbers Ro ~ 3 × 10?3 is presented. The forcing function is a fully helical flow that can also be viewed ...

Julien Baerenzung; D. Rosenberg; P. D. Mininni; A. Pouquet

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Final Report - Melt Rate Enhancement for High Aluminum HLW Glass Formulation, VSL-08R1360-1, Rev. 0, dated 12/19/08  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of the work reported here was to develop and identify HLW glass compositions that maximize waste processing rates for the aluminum limted waste composition specified by ORP while maintaining high waste loadings and acceptable glass properties. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, confirmation tests on the DM100 melter system, and demonstration at pilot scale (DM1200). The DM100-BL unit was selected for these tests since it was used previously with the HLW waste streams evaluated in this study, was used for tests on HLW glass compositions to support subsequent tests on the HLW Pilot Melter, conduct tests to determine the effect of various glass properties (viscosity and conductivity) and oxide concentrations on glass production rates with HLW feed streams, and to assess the volatility of cesium and technetium during the vitrification of an HLW AZ-102 composition. The same melter was selected for the present tests in order to maintain comparisons between the previously collected data. These tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including formation of secondary phases and partitioning. Once DM100 tests were completed, one of the compositions was selected for further testing on the DM1200; the DM1200 system has been used for processing a variety of simulated Hanford waste streams. Tests on the larger melter provide processing data at one third of the scale of the actual WTP HLW melter and, therefore, provide a more accurate and reliable assessment of production rates and potential processing issues. The work focused on maximizing waste processing rates for high aluminum HLW compositions. In view of the diversity of forms of aluminum in the Hanford tanks, tests were also conducted on the DM100 to determine the effect of changes in the form of aluminum on feed properties and production rate. In addition, the work evaluated the effect on production rate of modest increases in melter operating temperature. Glass composition development was based on one of the HLW waste compositions specified by ORP that has a high concentration of aluminum. Small-scale tests were used to provide an initial screening of various glass formulations with respect to melt rates; more definitive screening was provided by the subsequent DM100 tests. Glass properties evaluated included: viscosity, electrical conductivity, crystallinity, gross glass phase separation and the 7- day Product Consistency Test (ASTM-1285). Glass property limits were based upon the reference properties for the WTP HLW melter. However, the WTP crystallinity limit (< 1 vol% at 950oC) was relaxed slightly as a waste loading constraint for the crucible melts.

Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Gong, W.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.; Bardakci, T.; Kot, W.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

346

Method of particle trajectory recognition in particle flows of high particle concentration using a candidate trajectory tree process with variable search areas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The application relates to particle trajectory recognition from a Centroid Population comprised of Centroids having an (x, y, t) or (x, y, f) coordinate. The method is applicable to visualization and measurement of particle flow fields of high particle. In one embodiment, the centroids are generated from particle images recorded on camera frames. The application encompasses digital computer systems and distribution mediums implementing the method disclosed and is particularly applicable to recognizing trajectories of particles in particle flows of high particle concentration. The method accomplishes trajectory recognition by forming Candidate Trajectory Trees and repeated searches at varying Search Velocities, such that initial search areas are set to a minimum size in order to recognize only the slowest, least accelerating particles which produce higher local concentrations. When a trajectory is recognized, the centroids in that trajectory are removed from consideration in future searches.

Shaffer, Franklin D.

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

347

A high order kinetic flux-vector splitting method for the reduced five-equation model of compressible two-fluid flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a high order kinetic flux-vector splitting (KFVS) scheme for the numerical solution of a conservative interface-capturing five-equation model of compressible two-fluid flows. This model was initially introduced by Wackers and Koren (2004) ... Keywords: 35L45, 35L65, 35L67, 65M99, 65Y99, 76T99, Central schemes, Conservation laws, Five-equation model, Hyperbolic systems, Kinetic flux-vector splitting schemes, Shock solutions

Shamsul Qamar; Munshoor Ahmed

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Elbow mass flow meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

349

On the need for a nonlinear subscale turbulence term in POD models as exemplified for a high Reynolds number flow over an Ahmed body  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate a hierarchy of eddy-viscosity terms in POD Galerkin models to account for a large fraction of unresolved fluctuation energy. These Galerkin methods are applied to Large Eddy Simulation data for a flow around the vehicle-like bluff body call Ahmed body. This flow has three challenges for any reduced-order model: a high Reynolds number, coherent structures with broadband frequency dynamics, and meta-stable asymmetric base flow states. The Galerkin models are found to be most accurate with modal eddy viscosities as proposed by Rempfer & Fasel (1994). Robustness of the model solution with respect to initial conditions, eddy viscosity values and model order is only achieved for state-dependent eddy viscosities as proposed by Noack, Morzynski & Tadmor (2011). Only the POD system with state-dependent modal eddy viscosities can address all challenges of the flow characteristics. All parameters are analytically derived from the Navier-Stokes based balance equations with the available data. We ar...

Östh, Jan; Krajnovi?, Siniša

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Deposition of amorphous silicon solar cells at high rates by glow discharge of disilane. Final subcontract report, January 1985-July 1986  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of recent a-Si:H thin-film photovoltaic (PV) materials research. The work reported here concerned the fabrication of a-Si:H solar cells at high deposition rates using disilane. This task required the construction of a new, dual-chamber deposition system to control the dopant profile between the heavily doped p-type layer and the undoped (intrinsic) layer in the solar cell structure. Conditions were sought that would produce high-quality films at a high deposition rate. Complete photovoltaic devices were fabricated. In disilane-deposited material, the optimum substrate temperature is much higher than in silane material, presumably because it is harder to eliminate the excess hydrogen in the former. The efficiency of the best disilane cell was about 7%, with an open-circuit voltage of 0.80 V, a short-circuit current density of 14.7 mA cm/sup -2/ and a fill factor of 0.59. The most likely area for improvement is in the voltage, where values as high as 0.9 V should be possible with careful adjustment of the cell structure.

Vanier, P.E.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building  

SciTech Connect

Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10 percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15 percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100 percent, and were often greater than 25 percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

352

Rates - WAPA-137 Rate Order  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WAPA-137 Rate Order WAPA-137 Rate Order 2009 CRSP Management Center Customer Rates Second Step Presentation from the June 25, 2009, Customer Meeting Handout Materials from the June 25, 2009, Customer Meeting Customer Comment Letters ATEA CREDA Farmington ITCA AMPUA Rate Adjustment Information The second step of WAPA-137 SLCA/IP Firm Power, CRSP Transmission and Ancillary Services rate adjustment. FERC Approval of Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Notice Of Filing for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Published Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Letter to Customers regarding the published Notice of Extension of Public Process for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Published Extension of Public Process for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 FRN Follow-up Public Information and Comment Forum Flier WAPA-137 Customer Meetings and Rate Adjustment Schedule

353

The high moisture western coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility. Topical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The original eastern coal processing system at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, was modified to pulverize and dry Montana Rosebud, a western coal. Significant modifications to the CFFF coal processing system were required and the equipment selection criteria are reviewed. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

Sanders, M.E.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Design of a high-pressure research flow loop for the experimental investigation of liquid loading in gas wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid loading in producing gas wells is the inability of the produced gas to remove produced liquids from the wellbore. A review of existing flow loops worldwide revealed that specialized areas of research such as liquid loading in gas wells are still lacking dedicated test facilities. This project presents the design of a new dedicated facility to be located at the TowerLab at the Richardson building with adequate operating conditions to reproduce the flow regimes encountered prior to and after the onset of liquid loading in gas wells. The facility consists of a compressed air system, pipelines for air and water, a pressure vessel containing glass beads, an injection manifold, and flow control and monitoring devices. Our results show that three compressors working in parallel is the most technical and economic configuration for the TowerLab based on the overall costs provided by the supplier, the footprint but most importantly the flexibility. The design of the pressure vessel required a cylindrical body with top and bottom welded-flat head covers with multiple openings to minimize its weight. The pipelines connecting major equipment and injection manifold located at the pressure vessel were selected based on the superficial velocities for air and water. These values also showed the need for independent injection using two manifolds instead of commingling flow through a tee joint. The use of digital pressure gauges with an accuracy of 0.05 to 25% and coriolis or vortex meters to measure air flowrate is also suggested. For the water line, installation of turbine meters results in the most economic approach.

Fernandez Alvarez, Juan Jose

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

The Effect of High Rotational Speed on the Performance of Straight-through Labyrinth Seals for Compressible and Incompressible Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The leakage flow through straight through labyrinth seals with tooth on stator was investigated by performing CFD simulations .ANSYS Fluent is used to simulate the fluid flow through straight through Labyrinth seals. The effect of seal geometry on discharge coefficient, carry over coefficient and expansion factor is studied by varying clearance, pitch, tooth height, tooth width ,Reynolds number and rotor speed. Derived quantities Such as carry over coefficient, coefficient of discharge and expansion factor are analyzed as a function of the tooth with preceding cavity to predict the effectiveness of the seal. To understand the effect of varying seal geometries and swirl, 2D CFD simulations were performed. It was found that the clearance to pitch ratio is a strong geometry factor which affect the performance of the seal. The carryover coefficient which describes the portion of kinetic energy carried over from one cavity to the next is also examined. It was found to be a function of Reynolds number and shaft speed. Discharge coefficient describes the losses which occur when fluid flows through the cavity and under the tooth. Just like the carryover coefficient, it is also discovered that it is a strong function of Reynolds number and shaft speed.

Obidigbo, Ekene R.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Flow Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flow Test Flow Test Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Flow Test Details Activities (38) Areas (33) Regions (1) NEPA(3) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Testing Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Testing Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Flow tests provide information on permeability, recharge rates, reservoir pressures, fluid chemistry, and scaling. Thermal: Flow tests can measure temperature variations with time to estimate characteristics about the heat source. Dictionary.png Flow Test: Flow tests are typically conducted shortly after a well has been drilled to test its productivity. The well is opened and fluids are released, the

357

Energy Rating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consistent, accurate, and uniform ratings based on a single statewide rating scale Reasonable estimates of potential utility bill savings and reliable recommendations on cost-effective measures to improve energy efficiency Training and certification procedures for home raters and quality assurance procedures to promote accurate ratings and to protect consumers Labeling procedures that will meet the needs of home buyers, homeowners, renters, the real estate industry, and mortgage lenders with an interest in home energy ratings

Cabec Conference; Rashid Mir P. E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Insertion Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HOME > Insertion Rates. TECH HEADLINES. Research Explores a New Layer in Additive Manufacturin... Grand Opening Slated for Electron Microscopy Facility.

359

Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes how hydrogen photoproduction activity in algal cultures can be improved dramatically by increasing the gas-phase to liquid-phase volume ratio of the photobioreactor. NREL, in partnership with subcontractors from the Institute of Basic Biological Problems in Pushchino, Russia, demonstrated that the hydrogen photoproduction rate in algal cultures always decreases exponentially with increasing hydrogen partial pressure above the culture. The inhibitory effect of high hydrogen concentrations in the photobioreactor gas phase on hydrogen photoproduction by algae is significant and comparable to the effect observed with some anaerobic bacteria.

Not Available

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Control of emulsion drop production in flow focusing microfluidics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generating droplets using flow-focusing microfluidics in multiphase flows has reached its limit that it cannot generate submicrometer droplets in size. Flow focusing geometry together with an electric field has been used to make smaller droplets in microchannels. The droplet size was controllable by the flow rate ratio as well as the electric field. The droplets size decreased as the voltage increased. A Taylor cone was formed to generate very fine droplets which were less than 1m? in diameter. The tip made smaller droplets due to the tangential force by the electric field. A small inner flow rate and high electric field were required to form a stable Taylor cone in a DC electric field. The droplet size, however, was not stable at a small water flow rate because the flow rate was not as accuate as required. When I used a modified syringe pump with more accurate flow rate control, I was able to obtain a stable set of data. A small change in droplet size occurred at low voltage. The drop size changed dramatically, when the voltage was high enough. I also observed how an AC electric field affects the droplet size. The droplet size was not solely determined by the voltage. This is because of the imbalance of the supplied flow rate and the emitted flow rate. I also found that the droplet size is related to the tip position of the dispersed phase. The droplet size decreased as the tip stretched more. Typically, the microfluidic device generated monodispese droplets in narrow size distribution. It also generated a bigger droplet followed by a smaller one consecutively at low flow rate ratio of inner and outer fluid flow ()265.0/09.0??oiQQ. To understand this instability of drop formation, a numerical calculation was conducted. The simulation results showed inside of the tip still pointed downstream after it generated a big droplet. Then, the tip generated another smaller droplet while the tip was stretched. Finally, the tip moved back and began a new cycle.

Kim, Haejune

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Experimental research of temperature and velocity fields in high-temperature flow of liquid heavy metal coolant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presented are the results of experimental research of temperature and velocity fields for lead and lead-bismuth coolant flows in channels having circular and annular cross sections under varying oxygen content in the coolant and varying characteristics of insulating coatings. Tests are performed under the following operating conditions: (1) lead-bismuth eutectic-temperature T = 400-520 Degree-Sign C, thermodynamic oxygen activity a = 10{sup -5}-10{sup 0}, average flow velocity of the coolant w = 0.12-1.84 m/s, value of magnetic induction B = 0-0.85 T, Reynolds number Re = (0.24-3.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5}, Hartmann number Ha = 0-500, and Peclet number Pe = 320-4600; (2) lead coolant-T = 400-550 Degree-Sign C, a = 10{sup -5}-10{sup 0}, w = 0.1-1.5 m/s, Re = (2.36-2.99) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5}, and Pe = 500-7000.

Besnosov, A. V., E-mail: ats@nntu.nnov.ru; Savinov, S. Yu., E-mail: Savinov.S@mail.ru; Novozhilova, O. O.; Antonenkov, M. A. [Nizhni Novgorod State Technical University (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

362

High-Strain-Rate II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 40kJ instrumented pendulum machine has been used to perform DWTT test for an API X80 pipeline steel to acquire the force-displacement curve, which ...

363

Drag-disc turbine transducer data evaluation methods for dynamic steam-water mass flow measurements. [PWR  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical design of a two-phase mass flow rate transducer for a highly corrosive, high temperature (651 K) hot water environment is presented. Performance data for transient steam-water flows are presented. Details of the applications of the device during loss-of-coolant experiments in a pressurized water reactor environment are discussed.

Winsel, C.E.; Fincke, J.R.; Deason, V.A.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Silicon nucleation and film evolution on silicon dioxide using disilane: Rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition of very smooth silicon at high deposition rates  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} and H{sub 2} for rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) of silicon on SiO{sub 2} has been performed at temperatures ranging from 590 to 900 C and pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 Torr. Deposition at 590 C yields amorphous silicon films with the corresponding ultrasmooth surface with a deposition rate of 68 nm/min. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of a sample deposited at 625 C and 1 Torr reveals a bilayer structure which is amorphous at the growth surface and crystallized at the oxide interface. Higher temperatures yield polycrystalline films where the surface roughness depends strongly on both deposition pressure and temperature. Silane-based amorphous silicon deposition in conventional systems yields the expected ultrasmooth surfaces, but at greatly reduced deposition rates unsuitable for single-wafer processing. However, disilane, over the process window considered here, yields growth rates high enough to be appropriate for single-wafer manufacturing, thus providing a viable means for deposition of very smooth silicon films on SiO{sub 2} in a single-wafer environment.

Violette, K.E.; Oeztuerk, M.C.; Christensen, K.N.; Maher, D.M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Catalyst regeneration apparatus with radial flow distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apparatus is described for regenerating spent hydrocarbon conversion catalyst. Catalyst particles in a vertically-elongated movable tapered bed are contacted with a hot oxygen-containing gas stream in order to remove, by means of combustion, coke which accumulated on the catalyst particles while they were used in a hydrocarbon conversion zone. Catalyst moves downward under the influence of gravity. The catalyst bed is tapered such that the thickness of the bed, in a dimension which is transverse to the direction of catalyst movement, varies from a minimum at the top of the tapered bed to a maximum at the bottom of the tapered bed. Gas passes through the tapered bed in a direction which is substantially transverse to the direction of catalyst movement. Substantially, all of the catalyst in the bed is in contact with the flowing gas. The variation in bed thickness causes a varying gas flow rate through the bed, from a maximum flow rate at the top of the tapered bed to a minimum flow rate at the bottom of the tapered bed and reduces the time that catalyst is exposed to high temperature gases. This flow pattern results in the delivery of oxygen in a manner which more closely matches the oxygen requirement for combustion at each point in the tapered bed. Advantages of the invention include increased coke burning capacity and longer catalyst life. Catalytic reforming is an example of a hydrocarbon conversion process in which the invention may be advantageously employed. 9 figs.

Sechrist, P.A.; Koves, W.J.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

366

Rate schedule  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Firm Power Service Provided by Rate/Charges Firm Power Service Provided by Rate/Charges Rate/Charges Effective Through (or until superceded) Firm Sales (SLIP-F9) Composite Rate SLIP 29.62 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Demand Charge SLIP $5.18/kW-month 9/30/2015 Energy Charge SLIP 12.19 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) SLIP 0 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Transmission Service Provided by Current Rates effective10/12 - 9/15 (or until superceded) Rate Schedule Effective Through Firm Point-to-Point Transmission (SP-PTP7) CRSP $1.14 per kW-month $13.69/kW-year $0.00156/kW-hour $0.04/kW-day $0.26/kW-week 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Network Integration Transmission (SP-NW3) CRSP see rate schedule 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Non-Firm Point-to-Point Transmission (SP-NFT6) CRSP see rate schedule 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Ancillary Services Provided by Rate Rate Schedule

367

Establishment of very uniform gas-flow pattern in the process chamber for microwave-excited high-density plasma by ceramic shower plate  

SciTech Connect

The authors developed a ceramic upper shower plate used in the microwave-excited high-density plasma process equipment incorporating a dual shower-plate structure to establish a very uniform gas-flow pattern in the process chamber. Thousands of very fine gas-injection holes are implemented on this Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} upper shower plate with optimized allocation to establish a uniform gas-flow pattern of plasma-excitation gases and radical-generation gases for generating intended radicals in the plasma-excitation region. The size of these fine holes must be 50 {mu}m or less in diameter and 8 mm or more in length because these holes perform an essential role: They completely avoid the plasma excitation in these fine holes and upper gas-supply regions resulting from the plasma penetration into these regions from excited high-density plasma, even if very high-density plasma greater than 1x10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} is excited just under the ceramic upper shower plate by microwaves supplied from the radial line slot antenna. On the other hand, various process gases, such as material gases for film formations and etching gases, are supplied from the lower shower plate installed in the diffusion plasma region to this very uniform gas-flow pattern region of plasma-excitation gases and radical-generation gases. As a result, the process gases are supplied to the wafer surface in a very effective manner without excess decomposition of those process gas molecules and undesired reaction-product deposition on the inner surface of the process chamber. The process results are improved drastically by introducing the newly developed ceramic upper shower plate. But also, process uniformity on the entire wafer is improved with drastically reducing reaction-product deposition on the inner surface of the process chamber.

Goto, Tetsuya; Inokuchi, Atsutoshi; Ishibashi, Kiyotaka; Yasuda, Seij; Nakanishi, Toshio; Kohno, Masayuki; Okesaku, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masaru; Nozawa, Toshihisa; Hirayama, Masaki; Ohmi, Tadahiro [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Tokyo Electron Ltd., Tokyo 107-6325 (Japan); Tokyo Electron Technology Development Institute, Inc., Hyogo 660-0891 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Tokyo Electron AT Ltd., Hyogo 660-0891 (Japan); Hokuriku Seikei Industrial, Co., Ltd., Ishikawa 923-0157 (Japan); Tokyo Electron Technology Development Institute, Inc., Hyogo 660-0891 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Entrained-flow dry-bottom gasification of high-ash coals in coal-water slurries  

SciTech Connect

It was shown that the effective use of dry ash removal during entrained-flow gasification of coal-water slurries consists in simplification of the ash storage system and utilization of coal ash, a decrease in the coal demand, a reduction in the atmospheric emissions of noxious substances and particulate matter, and abandonment of the discharge of water used for ash slurry. According to the results of gasification of coal-water slurries (5-10 {mu}m) in a pilot oxygen-blow unit at a carbon conversion of >91%, synthesis gas containing 28.5% CO, 32.5% H{sub 2}, 8.2% CO{sub 2}, 1.5% CH{sub 4}, the rest being nitrogen, was obtained. The fly ash in its chemical composition, particle size, and density meets the requirements of the European standard EN 450 as a cement additive for concrete manufacture.

E.G. Gorlov; V.G. Andrienko; K.B. Nefedov; S.V. Lutsenko; B.K. Nefedov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

Eulerian and Lagrangian Correspondence of High-Frequency Radar and Surface Drifter Data: Effects of Radar Resolution and Flow Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigated the correspondence between the near-surface drifters from a mass drifter deployment near Martha’s Vineyard, MA and the surface current observations from a network of 3 high-resolution high-frequency radars to understand the ...

I. I. Rypina; A. Kirincich; R. Limeburner; I. A. Udovydchenkov

370

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

A High-Resolution Coupled Riverine Flow, Tide, Wind, Wind Wave, and Storm Surge Model for Southern Louisiana and Mississippi. Part II: Synoptic Description and Analysis of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hurricanes Katrina and Rita were powerful storms that impacted southern Louisiana and Mississippi during the 2005 hurricane season. In Part I, the authors describe and validate a high-resolution coupled riverine flow, tide, wind, wave, and storm ...

J. C. Dietrich; S. Bunya; J. J. Westerink; B. A. Ebersole; J. M. Smith; J. H. Atkinson; R. Jensen; D. T. Resio; R. A. Luettich; C. Dawson; V. J. Cardone; A. T. Cox; M. D. Powell; H. J. Westerink; H. J. Roberts

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Assessment of High Rates of Precocious Male Maturation in a Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Hatchery Program, Annual Report 2002-2003.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yakima River Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project in Washington State is currently one of the most ambitious efforts to enhance a natural salmon population in the United States. Over the past five years we have conducted research to characterize the developmental physiology of naturally- and hatchery-reared wild progeny spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River basin. Fish were sampled at the main hatchery in Cle Elum, at remote acclimation sites and, during smolt migration, at downstream dams. Throughout these studies the maturational state of all fish was characterized using combinations of visual and histological analysis of testes, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and measurement of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). We established that a plasma 11-KT threshold of 0.8 ng/ml could be used to designate male fish as either immature or precociously maturing approximately 8 months prior to final maturation (1-2 months prior to release as 'smolts'). Our analyses revealed that 37-49% of the hatchery-reared males from this program undergo precocious maturation at 2 years of age and a proportion of these fish appear to residualize in the upper Yakima River basin throughout the summer. An unnaturally high incidence of precocious male maturation may result in loss of potential returning anadromous adults, skewing of female: male sex ratios, ecological, and genetic impacts on wild populations and other native species. Precocious male maturation is significantly influenced by growth rate at specific times of year and future studies will be conducted to alter maturation rates through seasonal growth rate manipulations.

Larsen, Donald; Beckman, Brian; Cooper, Kathleen

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Flow regime transition at high capillary numbers in a microfluidic T-junction: Viscosity contrast and geometry effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA 2 Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering few years, numerous experiments have high- lighted the advances being made in the field of droplet gen of the two liquids,8 namely, oil and water. A similar design has been shown to yield equal and periodic

Gupta, Amit

374

Three dimensional flow processor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The 3D-flow processor is a general purpose programmable data stream pipelined device that allows fast data movement in six directions for digital signal processing applications such as identifying objects in a matrix in a programmable form. The 3D-flow processor can be used in one dimensional, two dimensional, and three dimensional topologies capable of sustaining an input data rate of up to 100 million data (or frames) per second in a parallel processing system.

Crosetto, D.B.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tariff Rates FY 2014 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2013 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2012 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2011 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2010 Rates and Rate Schedules FY...

376

A Comprehensive Analysis of Cardiac Dose in Balloon-Based High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate radiation dose to the heart in 60 patients with left-sided breast cancer who were treated with balloon-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy using MammoSite or Contura applicators. Methods and Materials: We studied 60 consecutive women with breast cancer who were treated with 34 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions using MammoSite (n = 37) or Contura (n = 23) applicators. The whole heart and the left and right ventricles were retrospectively delineated, and dose-volume histograms were analyzed. Multiple dosimetrics were reported, such as mean dose (D{sub mean}); relative volume receiving 1.7, 5, 10, and 20 Gy (V1.7, V5, V10, and V20, respectively); dose to 1 cc (D{sub 1cc}); and maximum point dose (D{sub max}). Biologic metrics, biologically effective dose and generalized equivalent uniform dose were computed. The impact of lumpectomy cavity location on cardiac dose was investigated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation of D{sub mean} was 2.45 {+-} 0.94 Gy (range, 0.56-4.68) and 3.29 {+-} 1.28 Gy (range, 0.77-6.35) for the heart and the ventricles, respectively. The average whole heart V5 and V10 values were 10.2% and 1.3%, respectively, and the heart D{sub max} was >20 Gy in 7 of 60 (11.7%) patients and >25 Gy in 3 of 60 (5%) patients. No cardiac tissue received {>=}30 Gy. The V1.7, V5, V10, V20, and D{sub mean} values were all higher for the ventricles than for the whole heart. For balloons located in the upper inner quadrant of the breast, the average whole heart D{sub mean} was highest. The D{sub mean}, biologically effective dose, and generalized equivalent uniform dose values for heart and ventricles decreased with increasing minimal distance from the surface of the balloon. Conclusions: On the basis of these comprehensive cardiac dosimetric data, we recommend that cardiac dose be routinely reported and kept as low as possible in balloon-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment planning for patients with left-sided breast cancer so the correlation with future cardiac toxicity data can be investigated.

Valakh, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir@valakh.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kim, Yongbok; Werts, E. Day; Trombetta, Mark G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

High-Resolution Large-Eddy Simulations of Flow in a Steep Alpine Valley. Part I: Methodology, Verification, and Sensitivity Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the steps necessary to achieve accurate simulations of flow over steep, mountainous terrain. Large-eddy simulations of flow in the Riviera Valley in the southern Swiss Alps are performed at horizontal resolutions as fine ...

Fotini Katopodes Chow; Andreas P. Weigel; Robert L. Street; Mathias W. Rotach; Ming Xue

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Development of a fuel-rod simulator and small-diameter thermocouples for high-temperature, high-heat-flux tests in the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Core Flow Test Loop  

SciTech Connect

The Core Flow Test Loop was constructed to perform many of the safety, core design, and mechanical interaction tests in support of the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) using electrically heated fuel rod simulators (FRSs). Operation includes many off-normal or postulated accident sequences including transient, high-power, and high-temperature operation. The FRS was developed to survive: (1) hundreds of hours of operation at 200 W/cm/sup 2/, 1000/sup 0/C cladding temperature, and (2) 40 h at 40 W/cm/sup 2/, 1200/sup 0/C cladding temperature. Six 0.5-mm type K sheathed thermocouples were placed inside the FRS cladding to measure steady-state and transient temperatures through clad melting at 1370/sup 0/C.

McCulloch, R.W.; MacPherson, R.E.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Category Rating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Gold category: highly proficient with an overall comprehensive level of knowledge; skills, and abilities of the job based on a complete review of ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

380

Flow cytometry apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An obstruction across the flow chamber creates a one-dimensional convergence of a sheath fluid. A passageway in the obstruction directs flat cells near to the area of one-dimensional convergence in the sheath fluid to provide proper orientation of flat cells at fast rates. 6 figs.

Pinkel, D.

1987-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Flow cytometry apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An obstruction across the flow chamber creates a one dimensional convergence of a sheath fluid. A passageway in the construction directs flat cells near to the area of one dimensional convergence in the sheath fluid to provide proper orientation of flat cells at fast rates.

Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Visualization and Diagnostics of Thermal Plasma Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow visualization is a key tool for the study of thermal plasma flows. Because of their high temperature and associated self emission, standard and high speed photography is commonly used for flow and temperature field visualization. Tracer techniques ... Keywords: d.c. plasma jet, enthalpy probe techniques, induction plasma, laser strobe, photographic techniques, schlieren, thermal plasma flows

M. I. Boulos

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Fluid-Structure Interaction for Coolant Flow in Research-type Nuclear Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is scheduled to undergo a conversion of the fuel used and this proposed change requires an extensive analysis of the flow through the reactor core. The core consists of 540 very thin and long fuel plates through which the coolant (water) flows at a very high rate. Therefore, the design and the flow conditions make the plates prone to dynamic and static deflections, which may result in flow blockage and structural failure which in turn may cause core damage. To investigate the coolant flow between fuel plates and associated structural deflections, the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) module in COMSOL will be used. Flow induced flutter and static deflections will be examined. To verify the FSI module, a test case of a cylinder in crossflow, with vortex induced vibrations was performed and validated.

Curtis, Franklin G [ORNL; Ekici, Kivanc [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Customer Letter - Preliminary Review of Drought Adder Component for 2011 Firm Power Rates 2010 Rates and Rate Schedule - Current * 2009 Rates and Rate Schedule 2008 Rates and...

385

Intercooler flow path for gas turbines: CFD design and experiments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program was created by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for generating electricity. Intercooling or cooling of air between compressor stages is a feature under consideration in advanced cycles for the ATS. Intercooling entails cooling of air between the low pressure (LP) and high pressure (HP) compressor sections of the gas turbine. Lower air temperature entering the HP compressor decreases the air volume flow rate and hence, the compression work. Intercooling also lowers temperature at the HP discharge, thus allowing for more effective use of cooling air in the hot gas flow path.

Agrawal, A.K.; Gollahalli, S.R.; Carter, F.L. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

386

Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Self-regulating flow control device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable, self-regulating valve having a hydraulic loss coefficient proportional to a positive exponential power of the flow rate. The device includes two objects in a flow channel and structure which assures that the distance between the two objects is an increasing function of the flow rate. The range of spacing between the objects is such that the hydraulic resistance of the valve is an increasing function of the distance between the two objects so that the desired hydraulic loss coefficient as a function of flow rate is obtained without variation in the flow area.

Humphreys, Duane A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Flame stabilizer for stagnation flow reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of stabilizing a strained flame in a stagnation flow reactor. By causing a highly strained flame to be divided into a large number of equal size segments it is possible to stablize a highly strained flame that is on the verge of extinction, thereby providing for higher film growth rates. The flame stabilizer is an annular ring mounted coaxially and coplanar with the substrate upon which the film is growing and having a number of vertical pillars mounted on the top surface, thereby increasing the number of azimuthal nodes into which the flame is divided and preserving an axisymmetric structure necessary for stability.

Hahn, David W. (Dublin, CA); Edwards, Christopher F. (Sunnyvale, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Critical heat-flux experiments under low-flow conditions in a vertical annulus. [PWR; BWR; LMFBR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study was performed on critical heat flux (CHF) at low flow conditions for low pressure steam-water upward flow in an annulus. The test section was transparent, therefore, visual observations of dryout as well as various instrumentations were made. The data indicated that a premature CHF occurred due to flow regime transition from churn-turbulent to annular flow. It is shown that the critical heat flux observed in the experiment is essentially similar to a flooding-limited burnout and the critical heat flux can be well reproduced by a nondimensional correlation derived from the previously obtained criterion for flow regime transition. The observed CHF values are much smaller than the standard high quality CHF criteria at low flow, corresponding to the annular flow film dryout. This result is very significant, because the coolability of a heater surface at low flow rates can be drastically reduced by the occurrence of this mode of CHF.

Mishima, K.; Ishii, M.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Optimal Growth Rates in the Quasigeostrophic Initial Value Problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large class of wave structures in quasigeostrophic flow have instantaneous growth rates significantly larger than normal-mode growth rates. Since energy and potential enstrophy growth rates can be defined as functions of the perturbation ...

Enda O'Brien

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Preparation and properties of high-deposition-rate a-Si:H films and solar cells using disilane: Annual subcontract report, 1 May 1987--30 April 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report contains results of the first year of research on producing p-i-n amorphous silicon solar cells with the intrinsic layer deposited from higher order silanes at deposition rates of 1 nm/s or more. The research was divided into three major areas: diagnostic studies of monosilane and disilane RF discharges using optical emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to assist in optimizing discharge conditions and gas-phase processes; parametric studies of material properties of 1-layers prepared form disilane as a function of deposition rate and other process parameters; and parametric studies of p-i-n devices with the i-layer prepared from disilane at various deposition rates. The focus during the first year was to fabricate a p-i-n solar cell with 9/percent/ AM1.5 efficiency over an area greater than 0.08 cm/sup 2/ with the i-layer deposited at 1 nm/s or more. Material properties such as the dark and AM1.5 light conductivities, optical band gap, and conductivity activation energy showed a weak dependence on deposition rate. The performance characteristics of unoptimized p-i-n solar cells with i-layers prepared from disilane were independent of the deposition rate of the i-layer. A p-i-n device was prepared at a rate close to 1 nm/s with an AM1.5 efficiency of 9/percent/. 20 refs, 26 figs, 2 tabs.

Bhat, P.K.; Chatham, H.; Madan, A.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods.

Sheppard, John D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tong, Long S. (Gaithersburg, MD)

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Objective method to report planner-independent skin/rib maximal dose in balloon-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for breast cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: An objective method was proposed and compared with a manual selection method to determine planner-independent skin and rib maximal dose in balloon-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy planning. Methods: The maximal dose to skin and rib was objectively extracted from a dose volume histogram (DVH) of skin and rib volumes. A virtual skin volume was produced by expanding the skin surface in three dimensions (3D) external to the breast with a certain thickness in the planning computed tomography (CT) images. Therefore, the maximal dose to this volume occurs on the skin surface the same with a conventional manual selection method. The rib was also delineated in the planning CT images and its maximal dose was extracted from its DVH. The absolute (Abdiff=|D{sub max}{sup Man}-D{sub max}{sup DVH}|) and relative (Rediff[%]=100x(|D{sub max}{sup Man}-D{sub max}{sup DVH}|)/D{sub max}{sup DVH}) maximal skin and rib dose differences between the manual selection method (D{sub max}{sup Man}) and the objective method (D{sub max}{sup DVH}) were measured for 50 balloon-based HDR (25 MammoSite and 25 Contura) patients. Results: The average{+-}standard deviation of maximal dose difference was 1.67%{+-}1.69% of the prescribed dose (PD). No statistical difference was observed between MammoSite and Contura patients for both Abdiff and Rediff[%] values. However, a statistically significant difference (p value dose difference compared with maximal skin dose difference for both Abdiff (2.30%{+-}1.71% vs 1.05%{+-}1.43%) and Rediff[%] (2.32%{+-}1.79% vs 1.21%{+-}1.41%). In general, rib has a more irregular contour and it is more proximally located to the balloon for 50 HDR patients. Due to the inverse square law factor, more dose difference was observed in higher dose range (D{sub max}>90%) compared with lower dose range (D{sub max}low dose ranges. Conclusions: The objective method using volumetric information of skin and rib can determine the planner-independent maximal dose compared with the manual selection method. However, the difference was dose point in 3D planning CT images.

Kim, Yongbok; Trombetta, Mark G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States) and Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

An analysis of rate-sensitive skin in oil wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper documents the results of the perforating program for the first forty wells in the Kuparuk River Field in Alaska. Several different types of perforating guns were used to perforate the wells at varying shot densities. Pressure transient tests were conducted on each well to measure skin damage and flow efficiency. A correlation of average flow efficiency with perforating gun type and shot density is presented. This shows that shot densities above 4 shots/ft result in less skin damage, and wells completed with 12 shots/ft have little or no damage. The effect of perforation penetration is also shown to be a factor in reducing damage, but with all other factors being equal, 12 shots/ft is shown to result in the least amount of damage. The above results are explained by a detailed analysis of multiple buildup tests at varying rates which were performed on some of the highly damaged wells completed during the early development of the field. These tests indicated skin damage to be rate sensitive with some true formation damage also present. Non-Darcy flow and gas saturation near the wellbore are shown to contribute to the rate-sensitive skin factors. A method of analysis is presented which allows non-Darcy flow skin factors to be calculated when gas saturation is also causing a skin effect. This can be accomplished without fluid property and relative permeability data, which is necessary to calculate saturation effects using standard analysis methods.

Blacker, L.K.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Forced convective flow and heat transfer of upward cocurrent air-water slug flow in vertical plain and swirl tubes  

SciTech Connect

This experimental study comparatively examined the two-phase flow structures, pressured drops and heat transfer performances for the cocurrent air-water slug flows in the vertical tubes with and without the spiky twisted tape insert. The two-phase flow structures in the plain and swirl tubes were imaged using the computerized high frame-rate videography with the Taylor bubble velocity measured. Superficial liquid Reynolds number (Re{sub L}) and air-to-water mass flow ratio (AW), which were respectively in the ranges of 4000-10000 and 0.003-0.02 were selected as the controlling parameters to specify the flow condition and derive the heat transfer correlations. Tube-wise averaged void fraction and Taylor bubble velocity were well correlated by the modified drift flux models for both plain and swirl tubes at the slug flow condition. A set of selected data obtained from the plain and swirl tubes was comparatively examined to highlight the impacts of the spiky twisted tape on the air-water interfacial structure and the pressure drop and heat transfer performances. Empirical heat transfer correlations that permitted the evaluation of individual and interdependent Re{sub L} and AW impacts on heat transfer in the developed flow regions of the plain and swirl tubes at the slug flow condition were derived. (author)

Chang, Shyy Woei [Thermal Fluids Laboratory, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Haijhuan Road, Nanzih District, Kaohsiung City 81143 (China); Yang, Tsun Lirng [Department of Marine Engineering, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Haijhuan Road, Nanzih District, Kaohsiung City 81143 (China)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

EPRI Coal-Flow Loop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is targeted at plant personnel responsible for coal-flow measurement and mill balancing that are using or are considering the use of online, in situ measurement technologies. Optimum combustion in a boiler requires careful control of coal and air flow to individual burners. Measuring in near real-time the mass flow rate of pneumatically conveyed pulverized coal in burner feed pipes is a critical element of such control. This report summarizes the findings for two online coal-flow instruments ...

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates Loveland Area Project Firm Power Rates Transmission and Ancillary Services Rates 2012 Rate Adjustment-Transmission and Ancillary Services 2010 Rate Adjustment-Firm Power 2009...

398

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates and Repayment Services Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2014 Rates BCP Annual Rate Process Central Arizona Project Transmission Rate Process DSW Multiple System Transmission...

399

7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during a one-day period and the rate of air flowing through the furnace are to be determined.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7-11 7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during The heating value of the coal is given to be 28,000 kJ/kg. Analysis (a) The rate and the amount of heat inputs'tQQ The amount and rate of coal consumed during this period are kg/s48.33 s360024 kg10893.2 MJ/kg28 MJ101.8 6

Bahrami, Majid

400

High-Energy Threshold Reaction Rates on 0.8 GeV Proton-Irradiated Thick W and W-Na Targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Threshold activation reaction rates in 12C, 19F, 27Al, 59Co, 63Cu, 65Cu, 64Zn, 93Nb, 115In, 169Tm, 181Ta, 197Au, and 209Bi experimental samples placed along the axis inside and outside the 0.8 GeV proton-irradiated 92-cm thick W-Na and 4-cm thick W targets where measured at the ITEP proton synchrotron. 158 reactions of up to +AH4-0.5 GeV thresholds have been measured in 123 activation samples for W-Na target, and 157 reactions in 36 activation samples for W target. The reaction rates were determined using the gamma-spectrometry method. In total, more than 1000 values of activation reactions were determined in the experiments. In both cases the measured reaction rates were compared with the LAHET code simulated rates and using several nuclear databases for the respective excitation functions, namely, ENDF/B6 for cross section of neutrons at energies below 20 MeV and MENDL2 together with MENDL2P for cross sections of protons and neutrons of 20 to 100 MeV energies. A general satisfactory agreement between simulated and experimental data has been found.

Yu. E. Titarenko; V. F. Batyaev; E. I. Karpikhin; V. M. Zhivun; A. B. Koldobsky; R. D. Mulambetov; S. V. Mulambetova; S. L. Zaitsev; S. G. Mashnik; R. E. Prael

2004-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

A High-Resolution Coupled Riverine Flow, Tide, Wind, Wind Wave, and Storm Surge Model for Southern Louisiana and Mississippi. Part I: Model Development and Validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled system of wind, wind wave, and coastal circulation models has been implemented for southern Louisiana and Mississippi to simulate riverine flows, tides, wind waves, and hurricane storm surge in the region. The system combines the NOAA ...

S. Bunya; J. C. Dietrich; J. J. Westerink; B. A. Ebersole; J. M. Smith; J. H. Atkinson; R. Jensen; D. T. Resio; R. A. Luettich; C. Dawson; V. J. Cardone; A. T. Cox; M. D. Powell; H. J. Westerink; H. J. Roberts

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Extremely Durable High-Rate Capability of the LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 Cathode Enabled with Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A binder-free LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode fabricated with 5 wt.% single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTS) shows excellent cycling performance at rates of 10C (Charge/discharge in 6 minutes). In contrast, a LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} electrode prepared by conventional methods without SWNTs has a significantly lower capacity. Based on the morphology and structural analysis, this exceptional rate capability is due to highly intimate contact between the long crystalline SWNT ropes and the active cathode material, ensuring fast diffusion of ions and electrons during cycling and resulting in sustainable capacity at high rates for 500 cycles.

Ban, Chunmei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Li, Zheng [State University of New York, Binghamton; Wu, Zhuangchun [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Chen, Le [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Jung, Yoonseok [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Yan, Yanfa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Whittingham, M. Stanley [State University of New York, Binghamton; Dillon, Anne C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Electron flow stability in magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We evaluate the stability of electron current flow in high-power magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). A detailed model of electron flow in cross-field gaps yields a dispersion relation for electromagnetic (EM) transverse magnetic waves [R. C. Davidson et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 2332 (1984)] which is solved numerically to obtain growth rates for unstable modes in various sheath profiles. These results are compared with two-dimensional (2D) EM particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of electron flow in high-power MITLs. We find that the macroscopic properties (charge and current densities and self-fields) of the equilibrium profiles observed in the simulations are well represented by the laminar-flow model of Davidson et al. Idealized simulations of sheared flow in electron sheaths yield growth rates for both long (diocotron) and short (magnetron) wavelength instabilities that are in good agreement with the dispersion analysis. We conclude that electron sheaths that evolve self-consistently from space-charged-limited emission of electrons from the cathode in well-resolved 2D EM PIC simulations form stable profiles.

Genoni, Thomas C. (Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Stygar, William A.; Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Clark, R. E. (Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Rose, David V. (Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM)

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

UZ Flow Models and Submodels  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow models and submodels, as well as the flow fields that have been generated using the UZ flow model(s) of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this report, the term ''UZ model'' refers to the UZ flow model and the several submodels, which include tracer transport, temperature or ambient geothermal, pneumatic or gas flow, and geochemistry (chloride, calcite, and strontium) submodels. The term UZ flow model refers to the three-dimensional models used for calibration and simulation of UZ flow fields. This work was planned in the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.7). The table of included Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs), Table 6.2-11, is different from the list of included FEPs assigned to this report in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Table 2.1.5-1), as discussed in Section 6.2.6. The UZ model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ model (BSC 2001 [DIRS 158726]) by incorporating the repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates, and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These three-dimensional UZ flow fields are used directly by Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales, and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, the limitations of the UZ model are discussed in Section 8.11.

Y. Wu

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Physical aging and relaxation of residual stresses in a colloidal glass following flow cessation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dilute Laponite suspensions in water at low salt concentration form repulsive colloidal glasses which display physical aging. This phenomenon is still not completely understood and in particular, little is known about the connection between the flow history, as a determinant of the initial state of the system, and the subsequent aging dynamics. Using a stress controlled rheometer, we perform stress jump experiments to observe the elastic component of the flow stress that remains on cessation of flow or flow quenching. We investigate the connection between the dynamics of these residual stresses and the rate of physical aging upon quenching from different points on the steady state flow curve. Quenching from high rates produces a fluid state, G">G', with small, fast relaxing residual stresses and rapid, sigmoidal aging of the complex modulus. Conversely, quenching from lower shear rates produces increasingly jammed states featuring slowly relaxing stresses and a slow increase of the complex modulus with system age. Flow cessation from a fixed shear rate with varying quench durations shows that slower quenches produce smaller residual stresses at short times which relax at long times by smaller extents, by comparison with faster quenches. These smaller stresses are correlated with a higher modulus but slower physical aging of the system. The characteristic time for the residual stress relaxation scales inversely with the quench rate. This implies a frustrated approach to any ideal stress-free state that succinctly reflects the frustrated nature of these glassy systems.

Ajay Singh Negi; Chinedum O. Osuji

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

406

Rates & Repayment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current and Historical Rate Information Collbran Power Rates CRSP Power Rates CRSP Transmission System Rates CRSP Management Center interest rates Falcon-Amistad Power Rates Provo River Power Rates Rio Grande Power Rates Seedskadee Power Rates SLCA/IP Power Rates Rate Schedules & Supplemental Rate Information Current Rates for Firm Power, Firm & Non-firm Transmission Service, & Ancillary Services Current Transmission & Ancillary Services Rates Tariffs Components of the SLCA/IP Existing Firm Power Rate Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Page MOA Concerning the Upper Colorado River Basin

407

National Utility Rate Database: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

PACKAGE (Plasma Analysis, Chemical Kinetics and Generator Efficiency): a computer program for the calculation of partial chemical equilibrium/partial chemical rate controlled composition of multiphased mixtures under one dimensional steady flow  

SciTech Connect

The NASA CEC Code was the starting point for PACKAGE, whose function is to evaluate the composition of a multiphase combustion product mixture under the following chemical conditions: (1) total equilibrium with pure condensed species; (2) total equilibrium with ideal liquid solution; (3) partial equilibrium/partial finite rate chemistry; and (4) fully finite rate chemistry. The last three conditions were developed to treat the evolution of complex mixtures such as coal combustion products. The thermodynamic variable pairs considered are either pressure (P) and enthalpy, P and entropy, at P and temperature. Minimization of Gibbs free energy is used. This report gives detailed discussions of formulation and input/output information used in the code. Sample problems are given. The code development, description, and current programming constraints are discussed. (DLC)

Yousefian, V.; Weinberg, M.H.; Haimes, R.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

FLOW GATING  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

BS>This invention is a fast gating system for eiectronic flipflop circuits. Diodes connect the output of one circuit to the input of another, and the voltage supply for the receiving flip-flop has two alternate levels. When the supply is at its upper level, no current can flow through the diodes, but when the supply is at its lower level, current can flow to set the receiving flip- flop to the same state as that of the circuit to which it is connected. (AEC)

Poppelbaum, W.J.

1962-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

411

Deposition of device quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon at high deposition rates with increased stability using the hot wire filament technique  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method or producing hydrogenated amorphous silicon on a substrate, comprising the steps of: positioning the substrate in a deposition chamber at a distance of about 0.5 to 3.0 cm from a heatable filament in the deposition chamber; maintaining a pressure in said deposition chamber in the range of about 10 to 100 millitorr and pressure times substrate-filament spacing in the range of about 10 to 100 millitorr-cm, heating the filament to a temperature in the range of about 1,500 to 2,000.degree. C., and heating the substrate to a surface temperature in the range of about 280 to 475.degree. C.; and flowing silicohydride gas into the deposition chamber with said heated filament, decomposing said silicohydride gas into silicon and hydrogen atomic species and allowing products of gas reactions between said atomic species and the silicohydride gas to migrate to and deposit on said substrate while adjusting and maintaining said pressure times substrate-filament spacing in said deposition chamber at a value in said 10 to 100 millitorr range to produce statistically about 3 to 50 atomic collisions between the silicon and hydrogen atomic species migrating to said substrate and undecomposed molecules of the silane or other silicohydride gas in the deposition chamber.

Molenbroek, Edith C. (Utrecht, NL); Mahan, Archie Harvin (Golden, CO); Gallagher, Alan C. (Louisville, CO)

2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

412

Flow cytometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Faraday cage enclosing the flow chamber of a cytometer and ground planes associated with each field deflection plate in concert therewith inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates and increases forces applied to a charged event passing therethrough for accurate focus thereof while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard.

van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Flow cytometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Faraday cage is described which encloses the flow chamber of a cytometer. Ground planes associated with each field deflection plate inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates. They also increase forces applied to a passing charged event for accurate focus while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard. 4 figs.

Van den Engh, G.

1995-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

414

High-Rate Cathodes Based on Li3V2(PO4)3 Nanobelts Prepared via Surfactant-Assisted Fabrication  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this work, we synthesized monoclinic Li3V2(PO4)3 nanobelts via a single-step, solid-state reaction process in a molten hydrocarbon. The as-prepared Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles have a unique nanobelt shape and are ~50-nm thick. When cycled in a voltage range between 3.0 V and 4.3V at a 1C rate, these unique Li3V2(PO4)3 nanobelts demonstrated a specific discharge capacity of 131 mAh g-1 (which is close to the theoretical capacity of 132 mAh g-1) and stable cycling characteristics.

Pan, Anqiang; Choi, Daiwon; Zhang, Jiguang; Liang, Shu-quan; Cao, Guozhong; Nie, Zimin; Arey, Bruce W.; Liu, Jun

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities at different concentration levels of added contaminant.

Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

416

High Range Resolution Radar Measurements of the Speed Distribution of Breaking Events in Wind-Generated Ocean Waves: Surface Impulse and Wave Energy Dissipation Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of X-band radar measurements, backscattered from the sea surface at near grazing incidence with very high spatial and temporal resolution (30 cm in range and 2000-Hz pulse repetition frequency) in moderate wind conditions, are dominated by ...

O. M. Phillips; F. L. Posner; J. P. Hansen

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Wave Ducting in a Stratified Shear Flow over a Two-Dimensional Mountain. Part II: Implications for the Development of High-Drag States for Severe Downslope Windstorms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, it is found that the discrepancies among earlier studies of severe downslope windstorms are caused by the use of the critical level height (zc), instead of the low-level uniform flow–layer depth (z1), as an indicator to determine ...

Ting-An Wang; Yuh-Lang Lin

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The successful adaptation of conventional cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts for use in converting biomass-derived syngas hinges in part on understanding their susceptibility to byproducts produced during the biomass gasification process. With the possibility that oil production will peak in the near future, and due to concerns in maintaining energy security, the conversion of biomass-derived syngas and syngas derived from coal/biomass blends to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products to liquid fuels may provide a sustainable path forward, especially considering if carbon sequestration can be successfully demonstrated. However, one current drawback is that it is unknown whether conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt will be suitable without proper development because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using an entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier) than solely from coal, other byproducts may be present in higher concentrations. The current project examines the impact of a number of potential byproducts of concern from the gasification of biomass process, including compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the second year, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities.

Burtron Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Dennis Sparks; Wilson Shafer

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

419

Versatile high-repetition-rate phase-locked chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray spectral region  

SciTech Connect

A novel light chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and x-ray spectral region has been developed. It can be phase-locked and synchronized with a synchrotron radiation storage ring, accommodating repetition rates in the range of {approx}8 to {approx}120 kHz by choosing different sets of apertures and subharmonics of the ring frequency (MHz range). Also the opening time of the system can be varied from some nanoseconds to several microseconds to meet the needs of a broad range of applications. Adjusting these parameters, the device can be used either for the generation of single light pulses or pulse packages from a microwave driven, continuous He gas discharge lamp or from storage rings which are otherwise often considered as quasi-continuous light sources. This chopper can be utilized for many different kinds of experiments enabling, for example, unambiguous time-of-flight (TOF) multi-electron coincidence studies of atoms and molecules excited by a single light pulse as well as time-resolved visible laser pump x-ray probe electron spectroscopy of condensed matter in the valence and core level region.

Plogmaker, Stefan; Johansson, Erik M. J.; Rensmo, Haakan; Feifel, Raimund; Siegbahn, Hans [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Linusson, Per [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Eland, John H. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Baker, Neville [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

420

Patterns in Flowing Sand: Understanding the Physics of Granular Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dense granular flows are often unstable and form inhomogeneous structures. Although significant advances have been recently made in understanding simple flows, instabilities of such flows are often not understood. We present experimental and numerical results that show the formation of longitudinal stripes that arise from instability of the uniform flowing state of granular media on a rough inclined plane. The form of the stripes depends critically on the mean density of the flow with a robust form of stripes at high density that consists of fast sliding plug-like regions (stripes) on top of highly agitated boiling material - a configuration reminiscent of the Leidenfrost effect when a droplet of liquid lifted by its vapor is hovering above a hot surface.

Tamas Borzsonyi; Robert E. Ecke; Jim N. McElwaine

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

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421

Transit-Time and Tracer-Age Distributions in Geophysical Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transport in the atmosphere and in the ocean is the result of the complex action of time-dependent and often highly turbulent flow. A useful diagnostic that summarizes the rate at which fluid elements are transported from some region to a point (...

Mark Holzer; Timothy M. Hall

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Very Slow Strain Rate Stress-Strain Behavior and Resisting Stress ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

rectly obtained from measurements of yield stress and flow stress made in constant strain rate tests at creep strain rates and temperatures. In this paper, constant.

423

Gamma/neutron analysis for SNM signatures at high-data rates(greater than 107 cps) for single-pulse active interrogation  

SciTech Connect

We are developing a high data gamma/neutron spectrometer suitable for active interrogation of special nuclear materials (SNM) activated by a single burst from an intense source. We have tested the system at Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) Mercury pulsed-power facility at distances approaching 10 meters from a depleted uranium (DU) target. We have found that the gamma-ray field in the target room 'disappears' 10 milliseconds after the x-ray flash, and that gamma ray spectroscopy will then be dominated by isomeric states/beta decay of fission products. When a polyethylene moderator is added to the DU target, a time-dependent signature of the DU is produced by thermalized neutrons. We observe this signature in gamma-spectra measured consecutively in the 0.1-1.0 ms time range. These spectra contain the Compton edge line (2.2 MeV) from capture in hydrogen, and a continuous high energy gamma-spectrum from capture or fission in minority constituents of the DU.

Forman L.; Dioszegi, I.; Salwen, C.

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

424

Stability and Rate Capability of Al Substituted Lithium-Rich High-Manganese Content Oxide Materials for Li-Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The structures, electrochemical properties and thermal stability of Al-substituted lithium-excess oxides, Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.16} Mn{sub 0.56}Co{sub 0.08-y}Al{sub y}O{sub 2} (y = 0, 0.024, 0.048, 0.08), are reported, and compared to the stoichiometric compounds, LiNi{sub z}Mn{sub z}Co{sub 1-2z}O{sub 2}. A solid solution was found up to at least y = 0.06. Aluminum substitution improves the poor thermal stability while preserving the high energy density of lithium-excess oxides. However, these high manganese compositions are inferior to the lithium stoichiometric materials, LiNi{sub z}Mn{sub z}Co{sub 1-2z}O{sub 2} (z = 0.333, 0.4), in terms of both power and thermal stability.

Li, Zheng; Chernova, Natasha A.; Feng, Jijun; Upreti, Shailesh; Omenya, Fredrick; Whittingham, M. Stanley (SUNY-Binghamton)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Measuring OutdoorAir Intake Rates Using Electronic Velocity Sensors at Louvers and Downstream of Airflow Straighteners  

SciTech Connect

Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100percent, and were often greater than 25percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

high  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Summary Our short-term outlook for a wide array of energy prices has been adjusted upward as international and domestic energy supply conditions have tightened. We think that crude oil prices are as likely as not to end the year $2 to $3 per barrel higher than our previous projections. Thus, we think that the probability of West Texas Intermediate costing an average of $30 per barrel or more at midwinter is about 50 percent. On their current track, heating oil prices are likely to be about 30 percent above year-ago levels in the fourth quarter. Prices for Q1 2001 seem more likely now to match or exceed the high level seen in Q1 2000. Tight oil markets this year and an inherent propensity for high gas utilization in incremental power supply have resulted in rising North American natural gas

427

Subcooled flow boiling of fluorocarbons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A study was conducted of heat transfer and hydrodynamic behavior for subcooled flow boiling of Freon-113, one of a group of fluorocarbons suitable for use in cooling of high-power-density electronic components. Problems ...

Murphy, Richard Walter

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Flow and diffusion distributed structures with noise at the inlet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow and diffusion distributed structures (FDS) are stationary spatially periodic patterns that can be observed in reaction-diffusion-advection systems. These structures arise when the flow rate exceeds a certain bifurcation point provided that concentrations ... Keywords: 47.54.-r, 82.40.Ck, Flow and diffusion distributed structures, Flow distributed oscillations, Noise, Pattern formation, Reaction-diffusion-advection system

Pavel V. Kuptsov; Razvan A. Satnoianu

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Anti-CD45 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy using Bismuth-213: High Rates of Complete Remission and Long-Term Survival in a Mouse Myeloid Leukemia Xenograft Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) using an anti-CD45 antibody (Ab)-streptavidin (SA) conjugate and DOTA-biotin labeled with beta-emitting radionuclides has been explored as a strategy to decrease relapse and toxicity. Alpha-emitting radionuclides exhibit high cytotoxicity coupled with a short path-length, potentially increasing the therapeutic index and making them an attractive alternative to beta-emitting radionuclides for patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Accordingly, we have used 213Bi in mice with human leukemia xenografts. Results demonstrated excellent localization of 213Bi-DOTA-biotin to tumors with minimal uptake into normal organs. After 10 minutes, 4.5 ± 1.1% of the injected dose of 213Bi was delivered per gram of tumor. Alpha imaging demonstrated uniform radionuclide distribution within tumor tissue 45 minutes after 213Bi-DOTA-biotin injection. Radiation absorbed doses were similar to those observed using a beta-emitting radionuclide (90Y) in the same model. We conducted therapy experiments in a xenograft model using a single-dose of 213Bi-DOTA-biotin given 24 hours after anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate. Among mice treated with anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate followed by 800 ?Ci of 213Bi- or 90Y-DOTA-biotin, 80% and 20%, respectively, survived leukemia-free for >100 days with minimal toxicity. These data suggest that anti-CD45 PRIT using an alpha-emitting radionuclide may be highly effective and minimally toxic for treatment of AML.

Pagel, John M.; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Back, Tom; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Fisher, Darrell R.; Park, Steven I.; Frayo, Shani; Axtman, Amanda; Orgun, Nural; Orozoco, Johnnie; Shenoi, Jaideep; Lin, Yukang; Gopal, Ajay K.; Green, Damian J.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Press, Oliver W.

2011-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

430

Contact and Stress Anisotropies in Start-Up Flow of Colloidal Suspensions |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contact and Stress Anisotropies in Start-Up Flow of Colloidal Suspensions Contact and Stress Anisotropies in Start-Up Flow of Colloidal Suspensions Submitted by Anonymous on November 3, 2011 - 12:52 Authors: Martys, N.S., Lootens, D., George, W., and H Spatiotemporal correlations in start-up flows of attractive colloids are explored by numerical simulations as a function of their volume fraction and shear rate. The suspension is first allowed to flocculate during a time tw, then the stress necessary to induce its flow is computed. We find that, at low volume fractions, the stress is a universal function of the strain. On the contrary, at high volume fractions, this scaling behavior is no longer observed and a supplementary stress becomes necessary to induce flow. To better understand the physical origin of the supplementary stress,

431

Chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be used to accurately measure fluid flow rate in a microanalytical system. The thermal flow sensor can be operated in either constant temperature or constant power mode and variants thereof. The chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be fabricated with the same MEMS technology as the rest of the microanlaytical system. Because of its low heat capacity, low-loss, and small size, the chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor is fast and efficient enough to be used in battery-powered, portable microanalytical systems.

Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Performance optimization of fossil power plants is a high priority within the electric utilities in the new competitive environment. This manual can help utility engineers establish a heat rate improvement program.

1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

433

high  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Highlights International Oil Markets Prices. We have raised our world oil price projection by about $2 per barrel for this month because of assumed greater compliance by OPEC to targeted cuts, especially for the second quarter of 2000 (Figure 1). The expected decline in world petroleum inventories continues (Figure 2), and, given the generally stiff resolve of OPEC members to maintain production cuts, any sign of a turnaround in stocks may be postponed until later this year than previously assumed (Q3 instead of Q2). Our current estimate for the average import cost this past January is now $25 per barrel, a nearly $15-per-barrel increase from January 1999. Crude oil prices are expected to remain at relatively high levels for the first half of 2000, but

434

Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechan