Sample records for high energy ignition

  1. Ignite High Tech Startups | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel JumpCounty, Texas:ITCSolidIdaho‎ |Idylwood, Virginia: EnergyIgnite

  2. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to Ignition, High Energy Density Science and Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2011-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is a Nd:Glass laser facility capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. This world's most energetic laser system is now operational with the goals of achieving thermonuclear burn in the laboratory and exploring the behavior of matter at extreme temperatures and energy densities. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in the interiors of planetary and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, NIF performed the first integrated ignition experiment which demonstrated the successful coordination of the laser, the cryogenic target system, the array of diagnostics and the infrastructure required for ignition. Many more experiments have been completed since. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and the international communities are examining the implication of achieving ignition on NIF for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a 10% electrical-optical efficiency laser, as well as further advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection and tracking, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in 10- to 15-years. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) baseline design and examining various technology choices for LIFE power plant This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF, the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the start of fundamental science experiments and plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to researchers around the world. The paper will conclude with a discussion of LIFE, its development path and potential to enable a carbon-free clean energy future.

  3. High-energy x-ray microscopy of laser-fusion plasmas at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, J.A.; Landen, O.L.; Hammel, B.A. [and others

    1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-keV x-ray microscopy will be an important laser-produced plasma diagnostic at future megajoule facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF).In preparation for the construction of this facility, we have investigated several instrumentation options in detail, and we conclude that near normal incidence single spherical or toroidal crystals may offer the best general solution for high-energy x-raymicroscopy at NIF and at similar large facilities. Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes using multi-layer mirrors may also be good secondary options, particularly if apertures are used to increase the band-width limited field of view.

  4. Advanced CFD Models for High Efficiency Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CFD Models for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Engines Advanced CFD Models for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Engines Advanced CFD models for high efficiency...

  5. Ignitor with stable low-energy thermite igniting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Michael D. (West Alexandria, OH); Munger, Alan C. (Miamisburg, OH)

    1991-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A stable compact low-energy igniting system in an ignitor utilizes two components, an initiating charge and an output charge. The initiating charge is a thermite in ultra-fine powder form compacted to 50-70% of theoretical maximum density and disposed in a cavity of a header of the ignitor adjacent to an electrical ignition device, or bridgewire, mounted in the header cavity. The initiating charge is ignitable by operation of the ignition device in a hot-wire mode. The output charge is a thermite in high-density consoladated form compacted to 90-99% of theoretical maximum density and disposed adjacent to the initiating charge on an opposite end thereof from the electrical ignition device and ignitable by the initiating charge. A sleeve is provided for mounting the output charge to the ignitor header with the initiating charge confined therebetween in the cavity.

  6. High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Design for Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Design for Compression Ignition Engines High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Design for Compression Ignition Engines Presentation given at DEER 2006,...

  7. High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition Systems High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition Systems 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  8. High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines Most accurate and detailed chemical kinetic...

  9. The National Ignition Facility: Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. I. Moses

    2001-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) currently under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a 192-beam, 1.8-megajoule, 500-terawatt, 351-nm laser for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density experimental studies. NIF is being built by the Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) to provide an experimental test bed for the U.S. Stockpile Stewardship Program to ensure the country's nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear testing. The experimental program will encompass a wide range of physical phenomena from fusion energy production to materials science. Of the roughly 700 shots available per year, about 10% will be dedicated to basic science research. Laser hardware is modularized into line replaceable units (LRUs) such as deformable mirrors, amplifiers, and multi-function sensor packages that are operated by a distributed computer control system of nearly 60,000 control points. The supervisory control room presents facility-wide status and orchestrates experiments using operating parameters predicted by physics models. A network of several hundred front-end processors (FEPs) implements device control. The object-oriented software system is implemented in the Ada and Java languages and emphasizes CORBA distribution of reusable software objects. NIF is currently scheduled to provide first light in 2004 and will be completed in 2008.

  10. Ignition methods and apparatus using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFreitas, Dennis M. (Oxford, NY); Darling, Timothy W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Rees, Daniel E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ignition apparatus for a combustor includes a microwave energy source that emits microwave energy into the combustor at a frequency within a resonant response of the combustor, the combustor functioning as a resonant cavity for the microwave energy so that a plasma is produced that ignites a combustible mixture therein. The plasma preferably is a non-contact plasma produced in free space within the resonant cavity spaced away from with the cavity wall structure and spaced from the microwave emitter.

  11. Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign The Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield (ICF) Campaign supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and effective nuclear weapons stockpile without underground testing. It supports stockpile assessment in simulations is essential to having confidence in them. More than 99 percent of the energy from a nuclear criticality is attained. The ICF program operates and conducts experiments in facilities that can create

  12. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) A Path to Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion energy has long been considered a promising clean, nearly inexhaustible source of energy. Power production by fusion micro-explosions of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets has been a long term research goal since the invention of the first laser in 1960. The NIF is poised to take the next important step in the journey by beginning experiments researching ICF ignition. Ignition on NIF will be the culmination of over thirty years of ICF research on high-powered laser systems such as the Nova laser at LLNL and the OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester as well as smaller systems around the world. NIF is a 192 beam Nd-glass laser facility at LLNL that is more than 90% complete. The first cluster of 48 beams is operational in the laser bay, the second cluster is now being commissioned, and the beam path to the target chamber is being installed. The Project will be completed in 2009 and ignition experiments will start in 2010. When completed NIF will produce up to 1.8 MJ of 0.35 {micro}m light in highly shaped pulses required for ignition. It will have beam stability and control to higher precision than any other laser fusion facility. Experiments using one of the beams of NIF have demonstrated that NIF can meet its beam performance goals. The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) has been established to manage the ignition effort on NIF. NIC has all of the research and development required to execute the ignition plan and to develop NIF into a fully operational facility. NIF will explore the ignition space, including direct drive, 2{omega} ignition, and fast ignition, to optimize target efficiency for developing fusion as an energy source. In addition to efficient target performance, fusion energy requires significant advances in high repetition rate lasers and fusion reactor technology. The Mercury laser at LLNL is a high repetition rate Nd-glass laser for fusion energy driver development. Mercury uses state-o-the art technology such as ceramic laser slabs and light diode pumping for improved efficiency and thermal management. Progress in NIF, NIC, Mercury, and the path forward for fusion energy will be presented.

  13. High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    confidential, or otherwise restricted information Overview High Efficiency GDI Engine Research with Emphasis on Ignition Systems 2 Timeline Project start: Sept. 2012...

  14. Integral low-energy thermite igniter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, A.; Haws, L.D.; Mohler, J.H.

    1983-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In a thermite igniter/heat source comprising a container holding an internal igniter load, there is provided the improvement wherein the container consists essentially of consumable consolidated thermite having a low gas output upon combustion, whereby upon ignition, substantially all of the container and said load is consumed with low gas production.

  15. Integral low-energy thermite igniter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, Albert (Dayton, OH); Haws, Lowell D. (Springboro, OH); Mohler, Jonathan H. (Spring Valley, OH)

    1984-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In a thermite igniter/heat source comprising a container holding an internal igniter load, there is provided the improvement wherein the container consists essentially of consumable consolidated thermite having a low gas output upon combustion, whereby upon ignition, substantially all of the container and said load is consumed with low gas production.

  16. Investigation of spark discharge processes and ignition systems for spark-ignited internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khare, Yogesh Jayant

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    includes an evaluation of the various types of conventional as well as high-energy ignition systems for lean burn engines. An experimental ignition system was constructed to determine the effect of ignition energy, spark plug electrode geometry and gas...

  17. On the Fielding of a High Gain, Shock-Ignited Target on the National Ignitiion Facility in the Near Term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, L J; Betti, R; Schurtz, G P; Craxton, R S; Dunne, A M; LaFortune, K N; Schmitt, A J; McKenty, P W; Bailey, D S; Lambert, M A; Ribeyre, X; Theobald, W R; Strozzi, D J; Harding, D R; Casner, A; Atzemi, S; Erbert, G V; Andersen, K S; Murakami, M; Comley, A J; Cook, R C; Stephens, R B

    2010-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Shock ignition, a new concept for igniting thermonuclear fuel, offers the possibility for a near-term ({approx}3-4 years) test of high gain inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility at less than 1MJ drive energy and without the need for new laser hardware. In shock ignition, compressed fusion fuel is separately ignited by a strong spherically converging shock and, because capsule implosion velocities are significantly lower than those required for conventional hotpot ignition, fusion energy gains of {approx}60 may be achievable on NIF at laser drive energies around {approx}0.5MJ. Because of the simple all-DT target design, its in-flight robustness, the potential need for only 1D SSD beam smoothing, minimal early time LPI preheat, and use of present (indirect drive) laser hardware, this target may be easier to field on NIF than a conventional (polar) direct drive hotspot ignition target. Like fast ignition, shock ignition has the potential for high fusion yields at low drive energy, but requires only a single laser with less demanding timing and spatial focusing requirements. Of course, conventional symmetry and stability constraints still apply. In this paper we present initial target performance simulations, delineate the critical issues and describe the immediate-term R&D program that must be performed in order to test the potential of a high gain shock ignition target on NIF in the near term.

  18. Pathway to a lower cost high repetition rate ignition facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obenschain, S.P.; Colombant, D.G.; Schmitt, A.J.; Sethian, J.D.; McGeoch, M. W. [Plasma Physics Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Plex LLC, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446-5478 (United States)

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An approach to a high-repetition ignition facility based on direct drive with the krypton-fluoride laser is presented. The objective is development of a 'Fusion Test Facility' that has sufficient fusion power to be useful as a development test bed for power plant materials and components. Calculations with modern pellet designs indicate that laser energies well below a megajoule may be sufficient. A smaller driver would result in an overall smaller, less complex and lower cost facility. While this facility might appear to have most direct utility to inertial fusion energy, the high flux of neutrons would also be able to address important issues concerning materials and components for other approaches to fusion energy. The physics and technological basis for the Fusion Test Facility are presented along with a discussion of its applications.

  19. High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Funding in FY13: 400k Funding in FY14: 350k Overview High Efficiency GDI Engine Research with Emphasis on Ignition Systems 2 Timeline Project start: FY 2013 ...

  20. Low profile thermite igniter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halcomb, Danny L. (Camden, OH); Mohler, Jonathan H. (Spring Valley, OH)

    1991-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermite igniter/heat source comprising a housing, high-density thermite, and low-density thermite. The housing has a relatively low profile and can focus energy by means of a torch-like ejection of hot reaction products and is externally ignitable.

  1. Ignition Control for HCCI | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),Energy Petroleum TechnologyEnergy Rules4 AUDIT REPORT61HCCI

  2. High Efficiency, Low Emissions Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of the High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Research Program for the U.S. Department of Energy. Work under this co-funded program began in August 2005 and finished in July 2010. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate a low emission, high thermal efficiency engine system that met 2010 EPA heavy-duty on-highway truck emissions requirements (0.2g/bhp-hr NOx, 0.14g/bhp-hr HC and 0.01g/bhp-hr PM) with a thermal efficiency of 46%. To achieve this goal, development of diesel homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion was the chosen approach. This report summarizes the development of diesel HCCI combustion and associated enabling technologies that occurred during the HECC program between August 2005 and July 2010. This program showed that although diesel HCCI with conventional US diesel fuel was not a feasible means to achieve the program objectives, the HCCI load range could be increased with a higher volatility, lower cetane number fuel, such as gasoline, if the combustion rate could be moderated to avoid excessive cylinder pressure rise rates. Given the potential efficiency and emissions benefits, continued research of combustion with low cetane number fuels and the effects of fuel distillation are recommended. The operation of diesel HCCI was only feasible at part-load due to a limited fuel injection window. A 4% fuel consumption benefit versus conventional, low-temperature combustion was realized over the achievable operating range. Several enabling technologies were developed under this program that also benefited non-HCCI combustion. The development of a 300MPa fuel injector enabled the development of extended lifted flame combustion. A design methodology for minimizing the heat transfer to jacket water, known as precision cooling, will benefit conventional combustion engines, as well as HCCI engines. An advanced combustion control system based on cylinder pressure measurements was developed. A Well-to-wheels analysis of the energy flows in a mobile vehicle system and a 2nd Law thermodynamic analysis of the engine system were also completed under this program.

  3. Dynamics of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines with High Dilution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Dynamics of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines with High Dilution C. J. Chiang (HCCI) engines in light of the cycle-to-cycle thermal feedback due to the high percentage of exhaust temperature is the primary mechanism for con- trolling ignition timing in an HCCI engine, especially when

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by General Motors LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the application of high...

  5. Utility of the US National Ignition Facility for development of inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, B.G.; Anderson, A.T.; Tobin, M.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schrock, V.E. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Meier, W.R. [Schafer (W.J.) Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA (United States); Bangerter, R.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Tokheim, R.E. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Poulter Lab.; Abdou, M.A. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schultz, K.R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The demonstration of inertial fusion ignition and gain in the proposed US National Ignition Facility (NIF), along with the parallel demonstration of the feasibility of an efficient, high-repetition-rate driver, would provide the basis for a follow-on Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a facility for integrated testing of the technologies needed for inertial fusion-energy (IFE) power plants. A workshop was convened at the University of California, Berkeley on February 22--24, 1994, attended by 61 participants from 17 US organizations, to identify possible NIF experiments relevant to IFE. We considered experiments in four IFE areas: Target physics, target chamber dynamics, fusion power ethnology, and target systems, as defined in the following sections.

  6. Energy enhancement for deuteron beam fast ignition of a precompressed inertial confinement fusion target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Xiaoling; Miley, George H. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Flippo, Kirk A. [P-24 Plasma Physics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Hora, Heinrich [University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast Ignition (FI) is recognized as a potentially promising approach to achieve the high-energy-gain target performance needed for commercial inertial confinement fusion. Here we consider deuteron beam driven FI which provides not only the 'hot spot' ignition spark, but also extra ''bonus'' fusion energy through reactions in the target. In this study, we estimate the impact of the added deposition energy due to the fusion reactions occurring, based on calculations using a modified energy multiplication factor F{sub c}. The deuteron beam energy deposition range and time are also evaluated in order to estimate the desired deuteron initial energy. It is shown that an average of 30% extra energy can be gained from deuterons with 1 MeV initial energy and 12% from deuterons with 3 MeV initial energy. These results indicate that the energy benefit of this approach could be significant, but a much more comprehensive calculation is needed to realize a full 3D design for realistic experimental studies.

  7. Laser spark distribution and ignition system - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power pulse. The laser spark distribution and ignition system has application in natural gas fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives and laser induced...

  8. On the critical flame radius and minimum ignition energy for spherical flame initiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zheng; Burke, M. P.; Ju, Yiguang

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spherical flame initiation from an ignition kernel is studied theoretically and numerically using different fuel/oxygen/helium/argon mixtures (fuel: hydrogen, methane, and propane). The emphasis is placed on investigating the critical flame radius controlling spherical flame initiation and its correlation with the minimum ignition energy. It is found that the critical flame radius is different from the flame thickness and the flame ball radius and that their relationship depends strongly on the Lewis number. Three different flame regimes in terms of the Lewis number are observed and a new criterion for the critical flame radius is introduced. For mixtures with Lewis number larger than a critical Lewis number above unity, the critical flame radius is smaller than the flame ball radius but larger than the flame thickness. As a result, the minimum ignition energy can be substantially over-predicted (under-predicted) based on the flame ball radius (the flame thickness). The results also show that the minimum ignition energy for successful spherical flame initiation is proportional to the cube of the critical flame radius. Furthermore, preferential diffusion of heat and mass (i.e. the Lewis number effect) is found to play an important role in both spherical flame initiation and flame kernel evolution after ignition. It is shown that the critical flame radius and the minimum ignition energy increase significantly with the Lewis number. Therefore, for transportation fuels with large Lewis numbers, blending of small molecule fuels or thermal and catalytic cracking will significantly reduce the minimum ignition energy.

  9. Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Provide mission need report for the proposed OMEGA Extended Performance project. · October 2002: NNSA November 21, 2003 #12;2 Statements to FESAC IFE panel 10/28/03 · Ignition is a major goal for NNSA supports OFES's mission and OFES use of NNSA's ICF facilities is accepted · Defense Programs reserves right

  10. High voltage ignition of high pressure microwave powered UV light sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, J.D.; Cekic, M.; Wood, C.H. [Fusion U.V. Curing Systems Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial microwave powered (electrodeless) light sources have been limited to quiescent pressures of {approximately}300 Torr of buffer gas and metal-halide fills. The predominant reason for such restrictions has been the inability to microwave ignite the plasma due to the collisionality of higher pressure fills and/or the electronegativity of halide bulb chemistries. Commercially interesting bulb fills require electric fields for ionization that are often large multiples of the breakdown voltage for air. Many auxiliary ignition methods are evaluated for efficiency and practicality before the choice of a high-voltage system with a retractable external electrode. The scheme utilizes a high voltage pulse power supply and a novel field emission source. Acting together they create localized condition of pressure reduction and high free electron density. This allows the normal microwave fields to drive this small region into avalanche, ignite the bulb, and heat the plasma to its operating point (T{sub e} {approx} 0.5 eV). This process is currently being used in a new generation of lamps, which are using multi-atmospheric excimer laser chemistries and pressure and constituent enhanced metal-halide systems. At the present time, production prototypes produce over 900 W of radiation in a 30 nm band, centered at 308 nm. Similarly, these prototypes when loaded with metal-halide bulb fills produce over 1 kW of radiation in 30 nm wide bands, centered about the wavelength of interest.

  11. Use of the National Ignition Facility for defense, energy, and basic research science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, B.G.

    1994-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    On January 15, 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) approved the Justification for Mission Need (JMN) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This action (Key Decision Zero, or KD0) commenced the conceptual design for the facility, which has resulted in a recently completed Conceptual Design Report (CDR). The JMN document defined the NIF mission elements to include laboratory fusion ignition and energy gain, weapons physics, and nuclear weapons effects testing research (NWET). NIF has a dual benefit by contributing to inertial fusion energy (IFE), industrial technology development, new basic science areas applying high power lasers, and training young scientists for future stewardship activities. For consideration of the next DOE action, Key Decision One (KD1), all mission elements of the NIF as stated in the JMN are consistent with and important to the US stockpile stewardship program, and are expected to continue to be in the vital interest of the United States for the long term. This document provides further information on the utility of NIF for stockpile stewardship, including support for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and specific findings of four national workshops on the NIF utility for weapons physics, NWET, IFE and basic science research. The role of NIF for stockpile stewardship has been refined since a DOE meeting in Albuquerque, NM Feb. 1--2, 1994. The possible compliance of NIF research with anticipated CTBT and NPT limitations was discussed at the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in Washington, DC on March 8, 1994.

  12. High load operation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL)

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine is set up by first identifying combinations of compression ratio and exhaust gas percentages for each speed and load across the engines operating range. These identified ratios and exhaust gas percentages can then be converted into geometric compression ratio controller settings and exhaust gas recirculation rate controller settings that are mapped against speed and load, and made available to the electronic

  13. Tungsten bridge for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.A.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Blewer, R.S.

    1990-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A tungsten bridge device for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials is disclosed. The device is fabricated on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate which has an insulating bridge element defined therein using standard integrated circuit fabrication techniques. Then, a thin layer of tungsten is selectively deposited on the silicon bridge layer using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Finally, conductive lands are deposited on each end of the tungsten bridge layer to form the device. It has been found that this device exhibits substantially shorter ignition times than standard metal bridges and foil igniting devices. In addition, substantially less energy is required to cause ignition of the tungsten bridge device of the present invention than is required for common metal bridges and foil devices used for the same purpose. 2 figs.

  14. Tungsten bridge for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David A. (Albuquerque, NM); Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Blewer, Robert S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tungsten bridge device for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials is disclosed. The device is fabricated on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate which has an insulating bridge element defined therein using standard integrated circuit fabrication techniques. Then, a thin layer of tungsten is selectively deposited on the silicon bridge layer using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Finally, conductive lands are deposited on each end of the tungsten bridge layer to form the device. It has been found that this device exhibits substantially shorter ignition times than standard metal bridges and foil igniting devices. In addition, substantially less energy is required to cause ignition of the tungsten bridge device of the present invention than is required for common metal bridges and foil devices used for the same purpose.

  15. International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating Nottingham, UK, September 2013 Underwater Microwave Ignition of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerby, Eli

    -cost operation [4, 5]. Thermite reaction as a self-propagated, high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process, Localized microwave heating, underwater ignition, combustion. INTRODUCTION Self-propagated thermite reactions between metal-oxide and metals typically burn at high flame temperatures, and require high

  16. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to a Carbon-Free Energy Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolz, C J

    2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF will enable exploration of scientific problems in national strategic security, basic science and fusion energy. One of the early NIF goals centers on achieving laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and energy gain, demonstrating the feasibility of laser fusion as a viable source of clean, carbon-free energy. This talk will discuss the precision technology and engineering challenges of building the NIF and those we must overcome to make fusion energy a commercial reality.

  17. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables such as internal dilution level and charge temperature. As a result, HCCI combustion has limited robustness when variables exceed the required narrow ranges determined in this program. HCCI combustion is also not available for the entire range of production engine speeds and loads, (i.e., the dynamic range is limited). Thus, regular SI combustion must be employed for a majority of the full dynamic range of the engine. This degrades the potential fuel economy impact of HCCI combustion. Currently-available combustion control actuators for the simple valve train system engine do not have the authority for continuous air - fuel or torque control for managing the combustion mode transitions between SI and HCCI and thus, require further refinement to meet customer refinement expectations. HCCI combustion control sensors require further development to enable robust long-term HCCI combustion control. Finally, the added technologies required to effectively manage HCCI combustion such as electric cam phasers, central direct fuel injection, cylinder pressure sensing, high-flow exhaust gas recirculation system, etc. add excessive on-engine cost and complexity that erodes the production-viability business

  18. Fusion Energy Research at The National Ignition Facility: The Pursuit of the Ultimate Clean, Inexhaustible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusion Energy Research at The National Ignition Facility: The Pursuit of the Ultimate Clean, Inexhaustible Energy Source" John D. Moody, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory" " Presented to: MIT ­ PSFC IAP 2014" " January 15, 2014" This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy

  19. The high-foot implosion campaign on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurricane, O. A., E-mail: hurricane1@llnl.gov; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Dppner, T.; Barrios Garcia, M. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Kervin, P.; Pape, S. Le; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Milovich, J. L.; Moody, J.; Pak, A. E.; Patel, P. K.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); and others

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-Foot platform manipulates the laser pulse-shape coming from the National Ignition Facility laser to create an indirect drive 3-shock implosion that is significantly more robust against instability growth involving the ablator and also modestly reduces implosion convergence ratio. This strategy gives up on theoretical high-gain in an inertial confinement fusion implosion in order to obtain better control of the implosion and bring experimental performance in-line with calculated performance, yet keeps the absolute capsule performance relatively high. In this paper, we will cover the various experimental and theoretical motivations for the high-foot drive as well as cover the experimental results that have come out of the high-foot experimental campaign. At the time of this writing, the high-foot implosion has demonstrated record total deuterium-tritium yields (9.310{sup 15}) with low levels of inferred mix, excellent agreement with implosion simulations, fuel energy gains exceeding unity, and evidence for the bootstrapping associated with alpha-particle self-heating.

  20. High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHigh Efficiency Low -1Department

  1. Controlling the Electrostatic Discharge Ignition Sensitivity of Composite Energetic Materials Using Carbon Nanotube Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kade H. Poper; Eric S. Collins; Michelle L. Pantoya; Michael Daniels

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Powder energetic materials are highly sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD) ignition. This study shows that small concentrations of carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to the highly reactive mixture of aluminum and copper oxide (Al + CuO) significantly reduces ESD ignition sensitivity. CNT act as a conduit for electric energy, bypassing energy buildup and desensitizing the mixture to ESD ignition. The lowest CNT concentration needed to desensitize ignition is 3.8 vol.% corresponding to percolation corresponding to an electrical conductivity of 0.04 S/cm. Conversely, added CNT increased Al + CuO thermal ignition sensitivity to a hot wire igniter.

  2. ENERGY PARTITIONING, ENERGY COUPLING (EPEC) EXPERIMENTS AT THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, K B; Brown, C G; May, M J; Dunlop, W H; Compton, S M; Kane, J O; Mirkarimi, P B; Guyton, R L; Huffman, E

    2012-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy-partitioning, energy-coupling (EPEC) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will simultaneously measure the coupling of energy into both ground shock and air-blast overpressure from a laser-driven target. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of seismic and air-blast phenomena caused by a nuclear weapon. In what follows, we discuss the motivation for our investigation and briefly describe NIF. Then, we introduce the EPEC experiments, including diagnostics, in more detail.

  3. Mechanisms of Ignition by Transient Energy Deposition: Regimes of Combustion Waves Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiverin, Alexey D; Ivanov, Mikhail F; Liberman, Michael A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regimes of chemical reaction wave propagating in reactive gaseous mixtures, whose chemistry is governed by chain-branching kinetics, are studied depending on the characteristics of a transient thermal energy deposition localized in a finite volume of reactive gas. Different regimes of the reaction wave propagation are initiated depending on the amount of deposited thermal energy, power of the source and the size of the hot spot. The main parameters which define regimes of the combustion waves facilitated by the transient deposition of thermal energy are: acoustic timescale, duration of the energy deposition, ignition time scale and size of the hot spot. The interplay between these parameters specifies the role of gasdynamical processes, the formation and steepness of the temperature gradient and speed of the spontaneous wave. The obtained results show how ignition of one or another regime of combustion wave depends on the value of energy, rate of the energy deposition and size of the hot spot, which is import...

  4. Higher velocity, high-foot implosions on the National Ignition Facility laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Callahan, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000315498916); Hurricane, O. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hinkel, D. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ma, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Park, H. -S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barrios Garcia, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Berzak Hopkins, L. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000291875667); Casey, D. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cerjan, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000251686845); Dewald, E. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dittrich, T. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edwards, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haan, S. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000184045131); Hamza, A. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kline, J. L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Knauer, J. P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Kritcher, A. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); LePape, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); MacPhee, A. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000341604479); Milovich, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000288550378); Pak, A. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rygg, J. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ralph, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Salmonson, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Spears, B. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Springer, P. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tommasini, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Benedetti, L. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bionta, R. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bond, E. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bradley, D. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Caggiano, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Field, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fittinghoff, D. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frenje, J. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000168460378); Gatu Johnson, M. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Grim, G. P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hatarik, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Merrill, F. E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nagel, S. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000277686819); Izumi, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Khan, S. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By increasing the velocity in high foot implosions [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014); Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014); Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility laser, we have nearly doubled the neutron yield and the hotspot pressure as compared to the implosions reported upon last year. The implosion velocity has been increased using a combination of the laser (higher power and energy), the hohlraum (depleted uranium wall material with higher opacity and lower specific heat than gold hohlraums), and the capsule (thinner capsules with less mass). We find that the neutron yield from these experiments scales systematically with a velocity-like parameter of the square root of the laser energy divided by the ablator mass. By connecting this parameter with the inferred implosion velocity (v), we find that for shots with primary yield >1e15 neutrons, the total yield ~ v???. This increase is considerably faster than the expected dependence for implosions without alpha heating ( ~v???) and is additional evidence that these experiments have significant alpha heating.

  5. Higher velocity, high-foot implosions on the National Ignition Facility laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Dppner, T.; Ma, T.; Park, H. -S.; Barrios Garcia, M. A.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; et al

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By increasing the velocity in high foot implosions [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014); Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014); Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility laser, we have nearly doubled the neutron yield and the hotspot pressure as compared to the implosions reported upon last year. The implosion velocity has been increased using a combination of the laser (higher power and energy), the hohlraum (depleted uranium wall material with higher opacity and lower specific heat than gold hohlraums), andmorethe capsule (thinner capsules with less mass). We find that the neutron yield from these experiments scales systematically with a velocity-like parameter of the square root of the laser energy divided by the ablator mass. By connecting this parameter with the inferred implosion velocity (v), we find that for shots with primary yield >1e15 neutrons, the total yield ~ v???. This increase is considerably faster than the expected dependence for implosions without alpha heating ( ~v???) and is additional evidence that these experiments have significant alpha heating.less

  6. Ion Fast Ignition-Establishing a Scientific Basis for Inertial Fusion Energy --- Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, Richard Burnite [General Atomics; Foord, Mark N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Wei, Mingsheng [General Atomics; Beg, Farhat N. [University of California, San Diego; Schumacher, Douglass W. [The Ohio State University

    2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional ?central hot spot? (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10?s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The compressed fuel is opaque to laser light. The ignition laser energy must be converted to a jet of energetic charged particles to deposit energy in the dense fuel. The original concept called for a spray of laser-generated hot electrons to deliver the energy; lack of ability to focus the electrons put great weight on minimizing the electron path. An alternative concept, proton-ignited FI, used those electrons as intermediaries to create a jet of protons that could be focused to the ignition spot from a more convenient distance. Our program focused on the generation and directing of the proton jet, and its transport toward the fuel, none of which were well understood at the onset of our program. We have developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to create a self-consistent understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our strategy was to examine the new physics emerging as we added the complexity necessary to use proton beams in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) application. From the starting point of a proton beam accelerated from a flat, isolated foil, we 1) curved it to focus the beam, 2) attached the foil to a superstructure, 3) added a side sheath to protect it from the surrounding plasma, and finally 4) studied the proton beam behavior as it passed through a protective end cap into plasma. We built up, as we proceeded, a self-consistent picture of the quasi-neutral plasma jet that is the proton beam that, for the first time, included the role of the hot electrons in shaping the jet. Controlling them?through design of the accelerating surface and its connection to the surrounding superstructure?is critical; their uniform spread across the proton accelerating area is vital, but their presence in the jet opposes focus; their electron flow away from the acceleration area reduces conversion efficiency but can also increase focusing ability. The understanding emerging from our work and the improved simulation tools we have developed allow designing structures that optimize proton beams for focused heating. Our findings include: ? The achievable focus of proton beams is limited by the thermal pressure gradient in the laser-generated hot electrons that drive the process. This bending can be suppressed using a controlled flow of hot electrons along the surrounding cone wall, which induces a local transverse focusing sheath electric field. The resultant (vacuum-focused) spot can meet IFE requirements. ? Confinement of laser-generated electrons to the proton accelerating area can be achieved by supporting targets on thin struts. That increases laser-to-proton conversion energy by ~50%. As noted above, confinement should not be total; necessary hot-electron leakage into the surrounding superstructure for proton focusing can be controlled by with the strut width/number. ? Proton jets are further modified as they enter the fuel through the superstructure?s end cap. They can generate currents during that transit that further focus the proton beams. We developed a new ion stopping module for LSP code that properly accounted for changes in stopping power with ionization (e.g. temperature), and will be using it in future studies. The improved understanding, new experimental platforms, and the self-consistent modeling capability allow researchers a new ability to investigate the interaction of large ion currents with warm dense matter. That is of direct importance to the creation and investiga

  7. The National Ignition Facility and the Promise of Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E I

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is now operational. The NIF is the world's most energetic laser system capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in planetary interiors and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, the first integrated ignition experiment was conducted, demonstrating the successful coordination of the laser, cryogenic target system, array of diagnostics and infrastructure required for ignition demonstration. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and international communities are examining the implication of NIF ignition for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a laser with 10% electrical-optical efficiency, as well as further development and advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in the 10- to 15-year time frame. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) concept and examining in detail various technology choices, as well as the advantages of both pure fusion and fusion-fission schemes. This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF and the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition. The paper will conclude with a discussion about the need to build on the progress on NIF to develop an implementable and effective plan to achieve the promise of LIFE as a source of carbon-free energy.

  8. Laser Spark Distribution and Ignition System - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,sandLaserLaser SeedingVehicles and

  9. Interim report on the assessment of engineering issues for compact high-field ignition devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, C.A. (ed.)

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The engineering issues addressed at the workshop included the overall configuration, layout, and assembly; limiter and first-wall energy removal; magnet system structure design; fabricability; repairability; and costs. In performing the assessment, the primary features and characteristics of each concept under study were reviewed as representative of this class of ignition device. The emphasis was to understand the key engineering areas of concern for this class of device and deliberately not attempt to define an optimum design or to choose a best approach. The assessment concluded that compact ignition tokamaks, as represented by the three concepts under study, are feasible. A number of critical engineering issues were identified, and all appear to have tractable solutions. The engineering issues appear quite challenging, and to obtain increased confidence in the apparent design solutions requires completion of the next level of design detail, complemented by appropriate development programs and testing.

  10. National Ignition Campaign Hohlraum Energetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meezan, N B; Atherton, L J; Callahan, D A; Dewald, E L; Dixit, S N; Dzenitis, E G; Edwards, M J; Haynam, C A; Hinkel, D E; Jones, O S; Landen, O; London, R A; Michel, P A; Moody, J D; Milovich, J L; Schneider, M B; Thomas, C A; Town, R J; Warrick, A L; Weber, S V; Widmann, K; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L J; MacGowan, B J; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Nikroo, A

    2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The first series of experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses, R. N. Boyd, B. A. Remington, C. J. Keane, and R. Al-Ayat, 'The National Ignition Facility: ushering in a new age for high energy density science,' Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] tested ignition hohlraum 'energetics,' a term described by four broad goals: (1) Measurement of laser absorption by the hohlraum; (2) Measurement of the x-ray radiation flux (T{sub RAD}{sup 4}) on the surrogate ignition capsule; (3) Quantitative understanding of the laser absorption and resultant x-ray flux; and (4) Determining whether initial hohlraum performance is consistent with requirements for ignition. This paper summarizes the status of NIF hohlraum energetics experiments. The hohlraum targets and experimental design are described, as well as the results of the initial experiments. The data demonstrate low backscattered energy (< 10%) for hohlraums filled with helium gas. A discussion of our current understanding of NIF hohlraum x-ray drive follows, including an overview of the computational tools, i.e., radiation-hydrodynamics codes, that have been used to design the hohlraums. The performance of the codes is compared to x-ray drive and capsule implosion data from the first NIF experiments. These results bode well for future NIF ignition hohlraum experiments.

  11. Advanced CFD Models for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Engines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAccelerated agingDepartment of Energy 1

  12. EBDI® - Application of a High BMEP Downsized Spark Ignited Engine |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of98-F, Western Systems Power PoolOctober 17, 2012of5,

  13. High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnology ValidationCombustionTechnologies|

  14. High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Design for Compression Ignition Engines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D e e p p a a r r t t m m e1Department

  15. High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Compression Ignition

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D e e p p a a r r t t m m e1DepartmentEngines

  16. IGNITION AND FRONTIER SCIENCE ON THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF construction Project was certified by the Department of Energy as complete on March 30, 2009. NIF, a 192-beam Nd-glass laser facility, will produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of light at the third-harmonic, ultraviolet light of 351 nm. On March 10, 2009, a total 192-beam energy of 1.1 MJ was demonstrated; this is approximately 30 times more energy than ever produced in an ICF laser system. The principal goal of NIF is to achieve ignition of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel capsule and provide access to HED physics regimes needed for experiments related to national security, fusion energy and for broader frontier scientific exploration. NIF experiments in support of indirect drive ignition will begin in FY2009. These first experiments represent the next phase of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC is a 1.7 billion dollar national effort to achieve fusion ignition and is coordinated through a detailed execution plan that includes the science, technology, and equipment. Equipment required for ignition experiments include diagnostics, cryogenic target manipulator, and user optics. Participants in this effort include LLNL, General Atomics (GA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Energetics (LLE). The primary goal for NIC is to have all of the equipment operational and integrated into the facility and be ready to begin a credible ignition campaign in 2010. With NIF now operational, the long-sought goal of achieving self-sustained nuclear fusion and energy gain in the laboratory is much closer to realization. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and will likely focus the world's attention on the possibility of an ICF energy option. NIF experiments to demonstrate ignition and gain will use central-hot-spot (CHS) ignition, where a spherical fuel capsule is simultaneously compressed and ignited. The scientific basis for CHS has been intensively developed and has high probability of success. Achieving ignition with CHS will open the door for other advanced concepts, such as the use of high-yield pulses of visible wavelength rather than ultraviolet and Fast Ignition concepts. Moreover, NIF will have important scientific applications in such diverse fields as astrophysics, nuclear physics and materials science. The NIC will develop the full set of capabilities required to operate NIF as a major national and international user facility. A solicitation for NIF frontier science experiments to be conducted by the academic community is planned for summer 2009. This paper summarizes the design, performance, and status of NIF, experimental plans for NIC, and will present a brief discussion of the unparalleled opportunities to explore frontier basic science that will be available on the NIF.

  17. Special Feature: Energy - The Spark that Ignited DOE Supercomputing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Department of Energy's (DOE's) first unclassified supercomputer center-the Controlled Thermonuclear Research Computer Center (CTRCC), established in 1974 at the Lawrence...

  18. Cosmos Ignite Innovations Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationinConcentratingEnergyCoosa ValleyCorsicana ChemicalCosan

  19. Status and Prospects of the Fast Ignition Inertial Fusion Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Key, M H

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast ignition is an alternate concept in inertial confinement fusion, which has the potential for easier ignition and greater energy multiplication. If realized it could improve the prospects for inertial fusion energy. It poses stimulating challenges in science and technology and the research is approaching a key stage in which the feasibility of fast ignition will be determined. This review covers the concepts, the state of the science and technology, the near term prospects and the challenges and risks involved in demonstrating high gain fast ignition.

  20. Ignition Control for HCCI - Agreement 9285 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),Energy Petroleum TechnologyEnergy Rules4 AUDIT REPORT61HCCI -

  1. Dynamic instabilities in spark-ignited combustion engines with high exhaust gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a cycle-resolved dynamic model for combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines operating with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR is important for increasing fuel efficiency and implementing advanced low-emission combustion modes such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI). We account for the complex combustion response to cycle-to-cycle feedback by utilizing a global probability distribution that describes the pre-spark state of in-cylinder fuel mixing. The proposed model does a good job of simulating combustion instabilities observed in both lean-fueling engine experiments and in experiments where nitrogen dilution is used to simulate some of the combustion inhibition of EGR. When used to simulate high internal EGR operation, the model exhibits a range of global bifurcations and chaos that appear to be very robust. We use the model to show that it should be possible to reduce high EGR combustion instabilities by switching from internal to external EGR. We also explain why it might be helpful to deliberately stratify the fuel in the pre-spark gas mixture. It might be possible to extend the simple approach used in this model to other chemical reaction systems with spatial inhomogeneity.

  2. Laser ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones. In a third embodiment, alternating short and long pulses of light from the excitation light source are directed into the ignitor laser. Each of the embodiments of the invention can be multiplexed so as to provide laser light energy sequentially to more than one ignitor laser.

  3. Special Feature: Energy - The Spark that Ignited DOE Supercomputing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebookScholarship Fund3Biology|SolarSpeakers Bureau SpeakersEnergy - The

  4. Relativistic electron beam transport for fast ignition relevant scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cottrill, Larissa A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A crucial issue surrounding the feasibility of fast ignition, an alternative inertial confinement fusion scheme, is the ability to efficiently couple energy from an incident short-pulse laser to a high-density, pre-compressed ...

  5. Equilibrium ignition for ICF capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lackner, K.S.; Colgate, S.A.; Johnson, N.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Menikoff, R.; Petschek, A.G.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There are two fundamentally different approaches to igniting DT fuel in an ICF capsule which can be described as equilibrium and hot spot ignition. In both cases, a capsule which can be thought of as a pusher containing the DT fuel is imploded until the fuel reaches ignition conditions. In comparing high-gain ICF targets using cryogenic DT for a pusher with equilibrium ignition targets using high-Z pushers which contain the radiation. The authors point to the intrinsic advantages of the latter. Equilibrium or volume ignition sacrifices high gain for lower losses, lower ignition temperature, lower implosion velocity and lower sensitivity of the more robust capsule to small fluctuations and asymmetries in the drive system. The reduction in gain is about a factor of 2.5, which is small enough to make the more robust equilibrium ignition an attractive alternative.

  6. On thermonuclear ignition criterion at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Wang, Yi-Ming; Batha, Steven H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sustained thermonuclear fusion at the National Ignition Facility remains elusive. Although recent experiments approached or exceeded the anticipated ignition thresholds, the nuclear performance of the laser-driven capsules was well below predictions in terms of energy and neutron production. Such discrepancies between expectations and reality motivate a reassessment of the physics of ignition. We have developed a predictive analytical model from fundamental physics principles. Based on the model, we obtained a general thermonuclear ignition criterion in terms of the areal density and temperature of the hot fuel. This newly derived ignition threshold and its alternative forms explicitly show the minimum requirements of the hot fuel pressure, mass, areal density, and burn fraction for achieving ignition. Comparison of our criterion with existing theories, simulations, and the experimental data shows that our ignition threshold is more stringent than those in the existing literature and that our results are consistent with the experiments.

  7. Extension of the high load limit in the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scaringe, Robert J. (Robert Joseph)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine offers diesel-like efficiency with very low soot and NOx emissions. In a HCCI engine, a premixed charge of air, fuel and burned gas is compressed to achieve ...

  8. Review of the National Ignition Campaign 2009-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindl, John; Landen, Otto; Edwards, John; Moses, Ed [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Collaboration: NIC Team

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) was a multi-institution effort established under the National Nuclear Security Administration of DOE in 2005, prior to the completion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in 2009. The scope of the NIC was the planning and preparation for and the execution of the first 3 yr of ignition experiments (through the end of September 2012) as well as the development, fielding, qualification, and integration of the wide range of capabilities required for ignition. Besides the operation and optimization of the use of NIF, these capabilities included over 50 optical, x-ray, and nuclear diagnostic systems, target fabrication facilities, experimental platforms, and a wide range of NIF facility infrastructure. The goal of ignition experiments on the NIF is to achieve, for the first time, ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory via inertial confinement fusion and to develop a platform for ignition and high energy density applications on the NIF. The goal of the NIC was to develop and integrate all of the capabilities required for a precision ignition campaign and, if possible, to demonstrate ignition and gain by the end of FY12. The goal of achieving ignition can be divided into three main challenges. The first challenge is defining specifications for the target, laser, and diagnostics with the understanding that not all ignition physics is fully understood and not all material properties are known. The second challenge is designing experiments to systematically remove these uncertainties. The third challenge is translating these experimental results into metrics designed to determine how well the experimental implosions have performed relative to expectations and requirements and to advance those metrics toward the conditions required for ignition. This paper summarizes the approach taken to address these challenges, along with the progress achieved to date and the challenges that remain. At project completion in 2009, NIF lacked almost all the diagnostics and infrastructure required for ignition experiments. About half of the 3 yr period covered in this review was taken up by the effort required to install and performance qualify the equipment and experimental platforms needed for ignition experiments. Ignition on the NIF is a grand challenge undertaking and the results presented here represent a snapshot in time on the path toward that goal. The path forward presented at the end of this review summarizes plans for the Ignition Campaign on the NIF, which were adopted at the end of 2012, as well as some of the key results obtained since the end of the NIC.

  9. An electron/ion spectrometer with the ability of low energy electron measurement for fast ignition experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozaki, T.; Sakagami, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kojima, S.; Arikawa, Y.; Shiraga, H.; Fujioka, S. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kato, R., E-mail: ozaki@nifs.ac.jp [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1, Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron energy spectrometer (ESM) is one of the most fundamental diagnostics in the fast ignition experiment. It is necessary to observe the spectra down to a low energy range in order to obtain the accurate deposition efficiency toward the core. Here, we realize the suitable ESM by using a ferrite magnet with a moderate magnetic field of 0.3 T and a rectangular magnetic circuit covered with a steel plate in the inlet side.

  10. Homogenous charge compression ignition engine having a cylinder including a high compression space

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agama, Jorge R.; Fiveland, Scott B.; Maloney, Ronald P.; Faletti, James J.; Clarke, John M.

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogeneous charge compression engines. In these engines, fuel is injected upstream or directly into the cylinder when the power piston is relatively close to its bottom dead center position. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder as the power piston advances to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the power piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. Thus, the present invention divides the homogeneous charge between a controlled volume higher compression space and a lower compression space to better control the start of ignition.

  11. Plasma channel from EP beam Direct-drive ignition is the main thrust in LLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -drive ignition; this is not an optimal configuration fordirectdrivethatrequiressphericalillumination I2093 for direct-drive experiments; it is coupled to a high-power, short-pulse laser (OMEGA EP) to explore advanced 26 kJ Scale 1:70 in energy Scale 1:1 Scale 1:1 #12;Hydro-equivalentignitiononOMEGA #12;Ignition

  12. Laser ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Sequenced pulses of light from an excitation laser with at least two resonator cavities with separate output couplers are directed through a light modulator and a first polarzing analyzer. A portion of the light not rejected by the first polarizing analyzer is transported through a first optical fiber into a first ignitor laser rod in an ignitor laser. Another portion of the light is rejected by the first polarizing analyzer and directed through a halfwave plate into a second polarization analyzer. A first portion of the output of the second polarization analyzer passes through the second polarization analyzer to a second, oscillator, laser rod in the ignitor laser. A second portion of the output of the second polarization analyzer is redirected by the second polarization analyzer to a second optical fiber which delays the beam before the beam is combined with output of the first ignitor laser rod. Output of the second laser rod in the ignitor laser is directed into the first ignitor laser rod which was energized by light passing through the first polarizing analyzer. Combined output of the first ignitor laser rod and output of the second optical fiber is focused into a combustible fuel where the first short duration, high peak power pulse from the ignitor laser ignites the fuel and the second long duration, low peak power pulse directly from the excitation laser sustains the combustion.

  13. Laser ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source capable of producing alternating beams of light having different wavelengths is used in tandem with one or more ignitor lasers to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using the single remote excitation light source for pumping one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones with alternating wavelengths of light.

  14. Qualification of a high-efficiency, gated spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dppner, T.; Kritcher, A. L.; Bachmann, B.; Burns, S.; Hawreliak, J.; House, A.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Swift, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Neumayer, P. [Gesellschaft fr Schwerionenphysik, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kraus, D. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Falcone, R. W. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94309 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have designed, built, and successfully fielded a highly efficient and gated Bragg crystal spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering measurements on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). It utilizes a cylindrically curved Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite crystal. Its spectral range of 7.410?keV is optimized for scattering experiments using a Zn He-? x-ray probe at 9.0 keV or Mo K-shell line emission around 18 keV in second diffraction order. The spectrometer has been designed as a diagnostic instrument manipulator-based instrument for the NIF target chamber at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA. Here, we report on details of the spectrometer snout, its novel debris shield configuration and an in situ spectral calibration experiment with a Brass foil target, which demonstrated a spectral resolution of E/?E = 220 at 9.8 keV.

  15. Assessing the prospects for achieving double-shell ignition on the National Ignition Facility using vacuum hohlraums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amendt, Peter; Cerjan, C.; Hamza, A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Milovich, J. L.; Robey, H. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of demonstrating ignition on the National Ignition Facility [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2003)] has motivated a revisit of double-shell (DS) targets as a complementary path to the cryogenic baseline approach. Expected benefits of DS ignition targets include noncryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel preparation, minimal hohlraum-plasma-mediated laser backscatter, low threshold-ignition temperatures ({approx_equal}4 keV) for relaxed hohlraum x-ray flux asymmetry tolerances, and minimal (two-) shock timing requirements. On the other hand, DS ignition presents several formidable challenges, encompassing room-temperature containment of high-pressure DT ({approx_equal}790 atm) in the inner shell, strict concentricity requirements on the two shells (<3 {mu}m), development of nanoporous (<100 nm cell size) low-density (<100 mg/cc) metallic foams for structural support of the inner shell and hydrodynamic instability mitigation, and effective control of hydrodynamic instabilities on the high-Atwood-number interface between the DT fuel and the high-Z inner shell. Recent progress in DS ignition designs and required materials science advances at the nanoscale are described herein. Two new ignition designs that use rugby-shaped vacuum hohlraums are presented that utilize either 1 or 2 MJ of laser energy at 3{omega}. The capability of the National Ignition Facility to generate the requested 2 MJ reverse-ramp pulse shape for DS ignition is expected to be comparable to the planned high-contrast ({approx_equal}100) pulse shape at 1.8 MJ for the baseline cryogenic target. Nanocrystalline, high-strength, Au-Cu alloy inner shells are under development using electrochemical deposition over a glass mandrel, exhibiting tensile strengths well in excess of 790 atm. Novel, low-density (85 mg/cc) copper foams have recently been demonstrated using 10 mg/cc SiO{sub 2} nanoporous aerogels with suspended Cu particles. A prototype demonstration of an ignition DS is planned for 2008, incorporating the needed novel nanomaterials science developments and the required fabrication tolerances for a realistic ignition attempt after 2010.

  16. Self-ignition of S.I. engine model fuels: A shock tube investigation at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fieweger, K.; Blumenthal, R.; Adomeit, G. [RWTH, Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Allegemeine Mechanik] [RWTH, Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Allegemeine Mechanik

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The self-ignition of several spark-ignition (SI) engine fuels (iso-octane, methanol, methyl tert-butyl ether and three different mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane), mixed with air, was investigated experimentally under relevant engine conditions by the shock tube technique. Typical modes of the self-ignition process were registered cinematographically. For temperatures relevant to piston engine combustion, the self-ignition process always starts as an inhomogeneous, deflagrative mild ignition. This instant is defined by the ignition delay time, {tau}{sub defl}. The deflagration process in most cases is followed by a secondary explosion (DDT). This transition defines a second ignition delay time, {tau}{sub DDT}, which is a suitable approximation for the chemical ignition delay time, if the change of the thermodynamic conditions of the unburned test gas due to deflagration is taken into account. For iso-octane at p = 40 bar, a NTC (negative temperature coefficient), behavior connected with a two step (cool flame) self-ignition at low temperatures was observed. This process was very pronounced for rich and less pronounced for stoichiometric mixtures. The results of the {tau}{sub DDT} delays of the stoichiometric mixtures were shortened by the primary deflagration process in the temperature range between 800 and 1,000 K. Various mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane were investigated. The results show a strong influence of the n-heptane fraction in the mixture, both on the ignition delay time and on the mode of self-ignition. The self-ignition of methanol and MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) is characterized by a very pronounced initial deflagration. For temperatures below 900 K (methanol: 800 K), no secondary explosion occurs. Taking into account the pressure increase due to deflagration, the measured delays {tau}{sub DDT} of the secondary explosion are shortened by up to one order of magnitude.

  17. High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological and Environmental Research Fusion Energy Sciences High Energy Physics Nuclear Physics Advanced Scientific Computing...

  18. Stability of shocks relating to the shock ignition inertial fusion energy scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davie, C. J., E-mail: c.davie10@imperial.ac.uk; Bush, I. A.; Evans, R. G. [Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by the shock ignition approach to improve the performance of inertial fusion targets, we make a series of studies of the stability of shock waves in planar and converging geometries. We examine stability of shocks moving through distorted material and driving shocks with non-uniform pressure profiles. We then apply a fully 3D perturbation, following this spherically converging shock through collapse to a distorted plane, bounce and reflection into an outgoing perturbed, broadly spherical shock wave. We find broad shock stability even under quite extreme perturbation.

  19. SPINTHIR: An ignition model for gas turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neophytou, A; Mastorakos, E

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    that the spark characteristics and location used in the experiments, developed over a number of years by trial-and-error methods, are indeed close to optimum. 1. Introduction Aircraft engines must satisfy high-altitude relight capability. Inexpensive models... and shape of the spark, for the same spark energy, that lead to the best ignition behaviour are explored. Firstly, we introduce the mathematical model and the combustor investigated. Then we present the results computed with the model. The paper concludes...

  20. Mutual colliding impact fast ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winterberg, Friedwardt, E-mail: winterbe@unr.edu [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia Street, Reno, Nevada 89557-0220 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is proposed to apply the well established colliding beam technology of high energy physics to the fast hot spot ignition of a highly compressed DT (deuterium-tritium) target igniting a larger D (deuterium) burn, by accelerating a small amount of solid deuterium, and likewise a small amount of tritium, making a head-on collision in the center of the target, projecting them through conical ducts situated at the opposite side of the target and converging in its center. In their head-on collision, the relative collision velocity is 5/3 times larger compared to the collision velocity of a stationary target. The two pieces have for this reason to be accelerated to a smaller velocity than would otherwise be needed to reach upon impact the same temperature. Since the velocity distribution of the two head-on colliding projectiles is with its two velocity peaks non-Maxwellian, the maximum cross section velocity product turns out to be substantially larger than the maximum if averaged over a Maxwellian. The D and T projectiles would have to be accelerated with two sabots driven by powerful particle or laser beams, permitting a rather large acceleration length. With the substantially larger cross section-velocity product by virtue of the non-Maxwellian velocity distribution, a further advantage is that the head-on collision produces a large magnetic field by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect, enhancing propagating burn. With this concept, the ignition of the neutron-less hydrogen-boron (HB{sup 11}) reaction might even be possible in a heterogeneous assembly of the hydrogen and the boron to reduce the bremsstrahlung-losses, resembling the heterogeneous assembly in a graphite-natural uranium reactor, there to reduce the neutron losses.

  1. Two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear burn in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets under compressed axial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, L. J.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Werner, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that explore the impact of highly compressed imposed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of perturbed spherical implosions of ignition-scale cryogenic capsules. Using perturbations that highly convolute the cold fuel boundary of the hotspot and prevent ignition without applied fields, we impose initial axial seed fields of 20100 T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 4 10{sup 4} T (400 MG) under implosion, thereby relaxing hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by ?50%. The compressed field is high enough to suppress transverse electron heat conduction, and to allow alphas to couple energy into the hotspot even when highly deformed by large low-mode amplitudes. This might permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities.

  2. Laser spark distribution and ignition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodruff, Steven (Morgantown, WV); McIntyre, Dustin L. (Morgantown, WV)

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser spark distribution and ignition system that reduces the high power optical requirements for use in a laser ignition and distribution system allowing for the use of optical fibers for delivering the low peak energy pumping pulses to a laser amplifier or laser oscillator. An optical distributor distributes and delivers optical pumping energy from an optical pumping source to multiple combustion chambers incorporating laser oscillators or laser amplifiers for inducing a laser spark within a combustion chamber. The optical distributor preferably includes a single rotating mirror or lens which deflects the optical pumping energy from the axis of rotation and into a plurality of distinct optical fibers each connected to a respective laser media or amplifier coupled to an associated combustion chamber. The laser spark generators preferably produce a high peak power laser spark, from a single low power pulse. The laser spark distribution and ignition system has application in natural gas fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnostic sensors.

  3. High energy astrophysical processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todor Stanev

    2005-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We briefly review the high energy astrophysical processes that are related to the production of high energy $\\gamma$-ray and neutrino signals and are likely to be important for the energy loss of high and ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. We also give examples for neutrino fluxes generated by different astrophysical objects and describe the cosmological link provided by cosmogenic neutrinos.

  4. Thermite powder ignition by localized microwaves Yehuda Meir, Eli Jerby

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerby, Eli

    - propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) for sintering of ceramic composites [14]. The magnetic (H, the microwave energy is supplied locally to the powder. It creates a confined hotspot, and initiates a self-propagating the powder prior to its ignition is simulated theoretically, taking into account the powder's temperature

  5. Performance of High-Convergence, Layered DT Implosions with Extended-Duration Pulses at the National Ignition Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gatu Johnson, Maria

    Radiation-driven, low-adiabat, cryogenic DT layered plastic capsule implosions were carried out on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to study the sensitivity of performance to peak power and drive duration. An implosion ...

  6. Final Scientific and Technical Report - Practical Fiber Delivered Laser Ignition Systems for Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yalin, Azer [Seaforth, LLC

    2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Research has characterized advanced kagome fiber optics for their use in laser ignition systems. In comparison to past fibers used in laser ignition, these fibers have the important advantage of being relatively bend-insensitivity, so that they can be bent and coiled without degradation of output energy or beam quality. The results are very promising for practical systems. For pulse durations of ~12 ns, the fibers could deliver >~10 mJ pulses before damage onset. A study of pulse duration showed that by using longer pulse duration (~20 30 ns), it is possible to carry even higher pulse energy (by factor of ~2-3) which also provides future opportunities to implement longer duration sources. Beam quality measurements showed nearly single-mode output from the kagome fibers (i.e. M2 close to 1) which is the optimum possible value and, combined with their high pulse energy, shows the suitability of the fibers for laser ignition. Research has also demonstrated laser ignition of an engine including reliable (100%) ignition of a single-cylinder gasoline engine using the laser ignition system with bent and coiled kagome fiber. The COV of IMEP was <2% which is favorable for stable engine operation. These research results, along with the continued reduction in cost of laser sources, support our commercial development of practical laser ignition systems.

  7. Fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu., E-mail: guskov@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of studies on fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are reviewed. The aspects of the fast ignition concept, which consists in the separation of the processes of target ignition and compression due to the synchronized action of different energy drivers, are considered. Criteria for the compression ratio and heating rate of a fast ignition target, the energy balance, and the thermonuclear gain are discussed. The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the heating of a compressed target by various types of igniting drivers, namely, beams of fast electrons and light ions produced under the action of a petawatt laser pulse on the target, a heavy-ion beam generated in the accelerator, an X-ray pulse, and a hydrodynamic flow of laser-accelerated matter, are analyzed. Requirements to the igniting-driver parameters that depend on the fast ignition criteria under the conditions of specific target heating mechanisms, as well as possibilities of practical implementation of these requirements, are discussed. The experimental programs of various laboratories and the prospects of practical implementation of fast ignition of ICF targets are reviewed. To date, fast ignition is the most promising method for decreasing the ignition energy and increasing the thermonuclear gain of an ICF plasma. A large number of publications have been devoted to investigations of this method and adjacent problems of the physics of igniting drivers and their interaction with plasma. This review presents results of only some of these studies that, in the author's opinion, allow one to discuss in detail the main physical aspects of the fast ignition concept and understand the current state and prospects of studies in this direction.

  8. Piezoelectric Ignition of Nanocomposite Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Collins; Michelle Pantoya; Andreas A. Neuber; Michael Daniels; Daniel Prentice

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Piezoelectric initiators are a unique form of ignition for energetic material because the current and voltage are tied together by impact loading on the crystal. This study examines the ignition response of an energetic composite composed of aluminum and molybdenum trioxide nanopowders to the arc generated from a lead zirconate and lead titanate piezocrystal. The mechanical stimuli used to activate the piezocrystal varied to assess ignition voltage, power, and delay time of aluminummolybdenum trioxide for a range of bulk powder densities. Results show a high dielectric strength leads to faster ignition times because of the higher voltage delivered to the energetic. Ignition delay is under 0.4 ms, which is faster than observed with thermal or shock ignition. Electric ignition of composite energetic materials is a strong function of interparticle connectivity, and thus the role of bulk density on electrostatic discharge ignition sensitivity is a focus of this study. Results show that the ignition delay times are dependent on the powder bulk density with an optimum bulk density of 50%. Packing fractions and electrical conductivity were analyzed and aid in explaining the resulting ignition behavior as a function of bulk density.

  9. Energy Storage Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy Development Energy Storage Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy Development 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  10. Radiological assessments for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Kou-John; Lazaro, M.A.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential radiological impacts of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), a proposed facility for fusion ignition and high energy density experiments, were assessed for five candidate sites to assist in site selection. The GENII computer program was used to model releases of radionuclides during normal NIF operations and a postulated accident and to calculate radiation doses to the public. Health risks were estimated by converting the estimated doses into health effects using a standard cancer fatality risk factor. The greatest calculated radiation dose was less than one thousandth of a percent of the dose received from natural background radiation; no cancer fatalities would be expected to occur in the public as the result of normal operations. The highest dose conservatively estimated to result from a postulated accident could lead to one in one million risk of cancer.

  11. Ignition feedback regenerative free electron laser (FEL) amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Kwang-Je (Burr Ridge, IL); Zholents, Alexander (Walnut Creek, CA); Zolotorev, Max (Oakland, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ignition feedback regenerative amplifier consists of an injector, a linear accelerator with energy recovery, and a high-gain free electron laser amplifier. A fraction of the free electron laser output is coupled to the input to operate the free electron laser in the regenerative mode. A mode filter in this loop prevents run away instability. Another fraction of the output, after suitable frequency up conversion, is used to drive the photocathode. An external laser is provided to start up both the amplifier and the injector, thus igniting the system.

  12. Microdischarge-assisted ignition of dielectric-barrier high-pressure glow discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    of an array of microdischarges integrated with one of the DB-HPG electrodes, a substantial reduction of DB1000 Torr.1,2 Due to high pd pressure-distance val- ues at high pressures, relatively high breakdown of four microdischarges on the bottom electrode-dielectric assembly surface. The up- per electrode

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high efficiency...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high efficiency...

  15. Volume Ignition via Time-like Detonation in Pellet Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Csernai, L P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistic fluid dynamics and the theory of relativistic detonation fronts are used to estimate the space-time dynamics of the burning of the D-T fuel in Laser driven pellet fusion experiments. The initial "High foot" heating of the fuel makes the compressed target transparent to radiation, and then a rapid ignition pulse can penetrate and heat up the whole target to supercritical temperatures in a short time, so that most of the interior of the target ignites almost simultaneously and instabilities will have no time to develop. In these relativistic, radiation dominated processes both the interior, time-like burning front and the surrounding space-like part of the front will be stable against Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. To achieve this rapid, volume ignition the pulse heating up the target to supercritical temperature should provide the required energy in less than ~ 10 ps.

  16. Advances in Inertial Confinement Fusion at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The 192-beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is now operational and conducting experiments. NIF, the flagship facility of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program, will achieve high-energy-density conditions never previously obtained in the laboratory - temperatures over 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm3, and pressures exceeding 100 billion atmospheres. Such conditions exist naturally only in the interiors of the stars and during thermonuclear burn. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. To date, the NIF laser has demonstrated all pulse shape, beam quality, energy, and other specifications required to meet the ignition challenge. On March 10, 2009, the NIF laser delivered 1.1 MJ of ultraviolet laser energy to target chamber center, approximately 30 times more energy than any previous facility. The ignition program at NIF is the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), a national collaboration for ignition experimentation with participation from General Atomics, LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on fusion as a viable energy option. A particular energy concept under investigation is the LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy) scheme. The LIFE engine is inherently safe, minimizes proliferation concerns associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, and can provide a sustainable carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This talk will describe NIF and its potential as a user facility and an experimental platform for high-energy-density science, NIC, and the LIFE approach for clean, sustainable energy.

  17. Chemical Kinetics of Hydrocarbon Ignition in Practical Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C.K.

    2000-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical kinetic factors of hydrocarbon oxidation are examined in a variety of ignition problems. Ignition is related to the presence of a dominant chain branching reaction mechanism that can drive a chemical system to completion in a very short period of time. Ignition in laboratory environments is studied for problems including shock tubes and rapid compression machines. Modeling of the laboratory systems are used to develop kinetic models that can be used to analyze ignition in practical systems. Two major chain branching regimes are identified, one consisting of high temperature ignition with a chain branching reaction mechanism based on the reaction between atomic hydrogen with molecular oxygen, and the second based on an intermediate temperature thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic models are then used to describe ignition in practical combustion environments, including detonations and pulse combustors for high temperature ignition, and engine knock and diesel ignition for intermediate temperature ignition. The final example of ignition in a practical environment is homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) which is shown to be a problem dominated by the kinetics intermediate temperature hydrocarbon ignition. Model results show why high hydrocarbon and CO emissions are inevitable in HCCI combustion. The conclusion of this study is that the kinetics of hydrocarbon ignition are actually quite simple, since only one or two elementary reactions are dominant. However, there are many combustion factors that can influence these two major reactions, and these are the features that vary from one practical system to another.

  18. Thermonuclear Ignition of Dark Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Marvin Herndon

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thermonuclear ignition of stars by nuclear fission, and the corollary, non-ignition of stars. The possibility of

  19. Laser preheat enhanced ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for enhancing fuel ignition performance by preheating the fuel with laser light at a wavelength that is absorbable by the fuel prior to ignition with a second laser is provided.

  20. High-temperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive: Shock-tube experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)); Westbrook, C.K. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ignition of propane has been studied in a shock tube and by computational modeling to determine the effect of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel additive. MTBE and isobutene were added in amounts up to 25% of the fuel to propane-oxygen-argon mixtures in shock-tube experiments covering a range of temperatures between 1450 and 1800 K. Ignition delays were measured from chemiluminescence at 432 nm due to excited CH radicals. The temperature dependence of the ignition rates was analyzed to yield Arrhenius parameters of E{sub a}{approximately}40 kcal/mol and log (A){approximately} 9.0 sec{sup {minus}1} for the overall reaction. Reactions involving MTBE and its decomposition products were combined with an established propane mechanism in a numerical model to describe the kinetic interaction of this additive with a typical hydrocarbon fuel. The experiments and the kinetic model both show that MTBE and isobutene retard propane ignition with nearly equal efficiency. The kinetic model demonstrates that isobutene kinetics are responsible for inhibition by both MTBE and isobutene, and the specific elementary reactions which produce this behavior are identified.

  1. High-temperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive: Shock-tube experiments and modeling. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ignition of propane has been studied in a shock tube and by computational modeling to determine the effect of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel additive. MTBE and isobutene were added to amounts up to 25% of the fuel to propane-oxygen-argon mixtures to shock-tube experiments covering a range of temperatures between 1450 and 1800 K. Ignition delays were measured from chemiluminescence at 432 nm due to excited CH radicals. The temperature dependence of the ignition rates was analyzed to yield Arrhenium parameters of E{sub a}{sup {minus}}40 kcal/mol and log(A) {sup {minus}}9.0 sec{sup {minus}1} for the overall reaction. Reactions involving MTBE and its decomposition products were combined with an established propane mechanism in a numerical model to describe the kinetic interaction of this additive with a typical hydrocarbon fuel. The experiments and the kinetic model both show that MTBE and isobutene retard propane ignition with nearly equal efficiency. The kinetic model demonstrates that isobutene kinetics are responsible for inhibition by both MTBE and isobutene, and the specific elementary reactions which produce this behavior are identified. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. High-temperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive: Shock-tube experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ignition of propane has been studied in a shock tube and by computational modeling to determine the effect of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel additive. MTBE and isobutene were added in amounts up to 25% of the fuel to propane-oxygen-argon mixtures in shock-tube experiments covering a range of temperatures between 1450 and 1800 K. Ignition delays were measured from chemiluminescence at 432 nm due to excited CH radicals. The temperature dependence of the ignition rates was analyzed to yield Arrhenius parameters of E{sub a}{approximately}40 kcal/mol and log (A){approximately} 9.0 sec{sup {minus}1} for the overall reaction. Reactions involving MTBE and its decomposition products were combined with an established propane mechanism in a numerical model to describe the kinetic interaction of this additive with a typical hydrocarbon fuel. The experiments and the kinetic model both show that MTBE and isobutene retard propane ignition with nearly equal efficiency. The kinetic model demonstrates that isobutene kinetics are responsible for inhibition by both MTBE and isobutene, and the specific elementary reactions which produce this behavior are identified.

  3. High-temperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive: Shock-tube experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)); Westbrook, C.K. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ignition of propane has been studied in a shock tube and by computational modeling to determine the effect of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel additive. MTBE and isobutene were added to amounts up to 25% of the fuel to propane-oxygen-argon mixtures to shock-tube experiments covering a range of temperatures between 1450 and 1800 K. Ignition delays were measured from chemiluminescence at 432 nm due to excited CH radicals. The temperature dependence of the ignition rates was analyzed to yield Arrhenium parameters of E{sub a}{sup {minus}}40 kcal/mol and log(A) {sup {minus}}9.0 sec{sup {minus}1} for the overall reaction. Reactions involving MTBE and its decomposition products were combined with an established propane mechanism in a numerical model to describe the kinetic interaction of this additive with a typical hydrocarbon fuel. The experiments and the kinetic model both show that MTBE and isobutene retard propane ignition with nearly equal efficiency. The kinetic model demonstrates that isobutene kinetics are responsible for inhibition by both MTBE and isobutene, and the specific elementary reactions which produce this behavior are identified. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Inertial Confinement Fusion and the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, P.

    2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) seeks to provide sustainable fusion energy by compressing frozen deuterium and tritium fuel to extremely high densities. The advantages of fusion vs. fission are discussed, including total energy per reaction and energy per nucleon. The Lawson Criterion, defining the requirements for ignition, is derived and explained. Different confinement methods and their implications are discussed. The feasibility of creating a power plant using ICF is analyzed using realistic and feasible numbers. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is shown as a significant step forward toward making a fusion power plant based on ICF. NIF is the worlds largest laser, delivering 1.8 MJ of energy, with a peak power greater than 500 TW. NIF is actively striving toward the goal of fusion energy. Other uses for NIF are discussed.

  5. IGNITION AND LIFTOFF // A TROJAN FOR NASA // NEW DOE ENERGY CENTER USCViterbi//Engineer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    .S.inGreenTechnologies: an inter- disciplinary program addressing both the supply side of alternative energy sources and the demand side of energy efficiency and carbon waste management. · M.S.inHealthSystemsManagement Engineering for Better Building 17

  6. Time-resolved characterization and energy balance analysis of implosion core in shock-ignition experiments at OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Florido, R., E-mail: ricardo.florido@ulpgc.es; Mancini, R. C.; Nagayama, T. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Tommasini, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Delettrez, J. A.; Regan, S. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-resolved temperature and density conditions in the core of shock-ignition implosions have been determined for the first time. The diagnostic method relies on the observation, with a streaked crystal spectrometer, of the signature of an Ar tracer added to the deuterium gas fill. The data analysis confirms the importance of the shell attenuation effect previously noted on time-integrated spectroscopic measurements of thick-wall targets [R. Florido et al., Phys. Rev. E 83, 066408 (2011)]. This effect must be taken into account in order to obtain reliable results. The extracted temperature and density time-histories are representative of the state of the core during the implosion deceleration and burning phases. As a consequence of the ignitor shock launched by the sharp intensity spike at the end of the laser pulse, observed average core electron temperature and mass density reach T???1100?eV and ????2?g/cm{sup 3}; then temperature drops to T???920?eV while density rises to ????3.4?g/cm{sup 3} about the time of peak compression. Compared to 1D hydrodynamic simulations, the experiment shows similar maximum temperatures and smaller densities. Simulations do not reproduce all observations. Differences are noted in the heating dynamics driven by the ignitor shock and the optical depth time-history of the compressed shell. Time-histories of core conditions extracted from spectroscopy show that the implosion can be interpreted as a two-stage polytropic process. Furthermore, an energy balance analysis of implosion core suggests an increase in total energy greater than what 1D hydrodynamic simulations predict. This new methodology can be implemented in other ICF experiments to look into implosion dynamics and help to understand the underlying physics.

  7. Plasma jet ignition device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIlwain, Michael E. (Franklin, MA); Grant, Jonathan F. (Wayland, MA); Golenko, Zsolt (North Reading, MA); Wittstein, Alan D. (Fairfield, CT)

    1985-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An ignition device of the plasma jet type is disclosed. The device has a cylindrical cavity formed in insulating material with an electrode at one end. The other end of the cylindrical cavity is closed by a metal plate with a small orifice in the center which plate serves as a second electrode. An arc jumping between the first electrode and the orifice plate causes the formation of a highly-ionized plasma in the cavity which is ejected through the orifice into the engine cylinder area to ignite the main fuel mixture. Two improvements are disclosed to enhance the operation of the device and the length of the plasma plume. One improvement is a metal hydride ring which is inserted in the cavity next to the first electrode. During operation, the high temperature in the cavity and the highly excited nature of the plasma breaks down the metal hydride, liberating hydrogen which acts as an additional fuel to help plasma formation. A second improvement consists of a cavity insert containing a plurality of spaced, metal rings. The rings act as secondary spark gap electrodes reducing the voltage needed to maintain the initial arc in the cavity.

  8. Laser ablation based fuel ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition.

  9. Laser ablation based fuel ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, J.W.; Lester, C.S.

    1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition. 3 figs.

  10. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  11. Ultra High Energy Fermions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burra G. Sidharth

    2015-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The LHC in Geneva is already operating at a total energy of $7 TeV$ and hopefully after a pause in 2012, it will attain its full capacity of $14 TeV$ in 2013. These are the highest energies achieved todate in any accelerator. It is against this backdrop that it is worthwhile to revisit very high energy collisions of Fermions (Cf. also \\cite{bgspp}). We will in fact examine their behaviour at such energies.

  12. Status Of The National Ignition Campaign And National Ignition Facility Integrated Computer Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagin, L; Brunton, G; Carey, R; Demaret, R; Fisher, J; Fishler, B; Ludwigsen, P; Marshall, C; Reed, R; Shelton, R; Townsend, S

    2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility that will contains a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for multiple experimental diagnostics. NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's laser beams are designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn. NIF is operated by the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) in an object-oriented, CORBA-based system distributed among over 1800 frontend processors, embedded controllers and supervisory servers. In the fall of 2010, a set of experiments began with deuterium and tritium filled targets as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). At present, all 192 laser beams routinely fire to target chamber center to conduct fusion and high energy density experiments. During the past year, the control system was expanded to include automation of cryogenic target system and over 20 diagnostic systems to support fusion experiments were deployed and utilized in experiments in the past year. This talk discusses the current status of the NIC and the plan for controls and information systems to support these experiments on the path to ignition.

  13. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) R&D | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D e e p pof EnergyFuelHomogeneous Charge

  14. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartment of Energy LWR Nuclear Fuel2 DOE Hydrogen

  15. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartment of Energy LWR Nuclear Fuel2 DOE

  16. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartment of Energy LWR Nuclear Fuel2 DOE10 DOE

  17. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartment of Energy LWR Nuclear Fuel2 DOE10 DOE09

  18. On the critical flame radius and minimum ignition energy for spherical flame initiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ju, Yiguang

    , methane, and propane). The emphasis is placed on investigating the critical flame radius controlling to the cube of the critical flame radius. Furthermore, preferential diffusion of heat and mass (i.e. the Lewis igni- tion energy. ? 2010 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

  19. Fast Ignition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHall A This photo shows one

  20. Ignition Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHallNotSeventyTechnologiesfacility

  1. High Energy Photoproduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Butterworth; M. Wing

    2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental and phenomenological status of high energy photoproduction is reviewed. Topics covered include the structure of the photon, production of jets, heavy flavours and prompt photons, rapidity gaps, energy flow and underlying events. The results are placed in the context of the current understanding of QCD, with particular application to present and future hadron and lepton colliders.

  2. Ultra High Energy Behaviour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burra G. Sidharth

    2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We reexamine the behaviour of particles at Ultra Highe energies in the context of the fact that the LHC has already touched an energy of $7 TeV$ and is likely to attain $14 TeV$ by 2013/2014.Consequences like a possible new shortlived interaction within the Compton scale are discussed.

  3. High-energy detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Camarda, Giuseppe (Farmingville, NY); Cui, Yonggang (Upton, NY); James, Ralph B. (Ridge, NY)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  4. High Energy Neutrino Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. D. Hoffman

    2008-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a review of the history, motivation and current status of high energy neutrino telescopes. Many years after these detectors were first conceived, the operation of kilometer-cubed scale detectors is finally on the horizon at both the South Pole and in the Mediterranean Sea. These new detectors will perhaps provide us the first view of high energy astrophysical objects with a new messenger particle and provide us with our first real glimpse of the distant universe at energies above those accessible by gamma-ray instruments. Some of the topics that can be addressed by these new instruments include the origin of cosmic rays, the nature of dark matter, and the mechanisms at work in high energy astrophysical objects such as gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, pulsar wind nebula and supernova remnants.

  5. Stockpile Stewardship and the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's most energetic laser system, is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Since the completion of the construction project in March 2009, NIF has completed nearly 150 target experiments for the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), High Energy Density Stewardship Science (HEDSS) in the areas of radiation transport, material dynamics at high pressure in the solid state, as well as fundamental science and other national security missions. NIF capabilities and infrastructure are in place to support all of its missions with over 50 X-ray, optical and nuclear diagnostic systems and the ability to shoot cryogenic targets and DT layered capsules. NIF is now qualified for use of tritium and other special materials as well as to perform high yield experiments and classified experiments. DT implosions with record indirect-drive neutron yield of 4.5 x 10{sup 14} neutrons have been achieved. A series of 43 experiments were successfully executed over a 27-day period, demonstrating the ability to perform precise experiments in new regimes of interest to HEDSS. This talk will provide an update of the progress on the NIF capabilities, NIC accomplishments, as well as HEDSS and fundamental science experimental results and an update of the experimental plans for the coming year.

  6. National Ignition Facility Quality Assurance Program Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, C.R.; Yatabe, J.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a key constituent of the Department of Energy`s Stockpile Stewardship Program. The NIF will use inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to produce ignition and energy gain in ICF targets, and will perform weapons physics and high-energy- density experiments in support of national security and civilian objectives. The NIF Project is a national facility involving the collaboration of several DOE laboratories and subcontractors, including Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). The primary mission of the NIF Project is the construction and start-up operation of laser-based facilities that will demonstrate fusion ignition in the laboratory to provide nuclear-weapons-related physics data, and secondarily, to propagate fusion burn aimed at developing a potential source of civilian energy. To support the accomplishment of this very important mission, the LLNL Laser Directorate created the NIF Project Office to organize and bring about the Project. The NIF Project Office has established this Quality Assurance Program to ensure its success. This issue of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) adds the requirements for the conduct of Title 11 design, construction, procurement, and Title III engineering. This QAPP defines and describes the program-the management system-for specifying, achieving, and assuring the quality of all NIF Project work consistent with the policies of the Laboratory and the Laser Directorate.

  7. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  8. Particle Diffraction at High Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir A. Petrov

    1998-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief ideological and historical review of problems of high energy diffractive scattering is given.

  9. Sandia Energy - High Performance Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Performance Computing Home Energy Research Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) High Performance Computing High Performance Computingashoter2015-03-18T21:41:24+00:00...

  10. Laser ignition of aluminum nanoparticles in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandstrom, M. M. (Mary M.); Oschwald, D. M. (David M); Son, S. F. (Steven F.)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on recent experiments of the ignition of nanoaluminum in air by CO{sub 2} laser heating. Ignition time and temperature were measured as a function of Al particle size and laser power. The ignition time was determined by high-speed digital images and frrst light as determined by a photodiode. The ignition delay increases with increasing particle size, and the decreasing laser power. Two stage burning is observed. The first reaction takes place on the surface of the powder sample and moves from the center to the edges followed by the second reaction, which takes place within the bulk of the sample. As the particles size increases the material is less likely to burn through out, leaving behind unreacted Al powder.

  11. Using indium tin oxide material to implement the imaging of microwave plasma ignition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Hou, Lingyun; Zhang, Guixin, E-mail: guixin@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhang, Boya; Liu, Cheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Zhi; Huang, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a method is introduced to get global observation of microwave plasma ignition process at high pressure. A microwave resonator was designed with an indium tin oxide coated glass at bottom. Microwave plasma ignition was implemented in methane and air mixture at 10 bars by a 2?ms-3?kW-2.45?GHz microwave pulse, and the high speed images of the ignition process were obtained. The images visually proved that microwave plasma ignition could lead to a multi-point ignition. The system may also be applied to obtain Schlieren images, which is commonly used to observe the development of flame kernel in an ignition process.

  12. High Energy Laser for Space Debris Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barty, C; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Beach, R; Rubenchik, A

    2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Photon Science Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has substantial relevant experience in the construction of high energy lasers, and more recently in the development of advanced high average power solid state lasers. We are currently developing new concepts for advanced solid state laser drivers for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) application, and other high average power laser applications that could become central technologies for use in space debris removal. The debris population most readily addressed by our laser technology is that of 0.1-10 cm sized debris in low earth orbit (LEO). In this application, a ground based laser system would engage an orbiting target and slow it down by ablating material from its surface which leads to reentry into the atmosphere, as proposed by NASA's ORION Project. The ORION concept of operations (CONOPS) is also described in general terms by Phipps. Key aspects of this approach include the need for high irradiance on target, 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, which favors short (i.e., picoseconds to nanoseconds) laser pulse durations and high energy per pulse ({approx} > 10 kJ). Due to the target's orbital velocity, the potential duration of engagement is only of order 100 seconds, so a high pulse repetition rate is also essential. The laser technology needed for this application did not exist when ORION was first proposed, but today, a unique combination of emerging technologies could create a path to enable deployment in the near future. Our concepts for the laser system architecture are an extension of what was developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), combined with high repetition rate laser technology developed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), and heat capacity laser technology developed for military applications. The 'front-end' seed pulse generator would be fiber-optics based, and would generate a temporally, and spectrally tailored pulse designed for high transmission through the atmosphere, as well as efficient ablative coupling to the target. The main amplifier would use either diode-pumped or flashlamp-pumped solid state gain media, depending on budget constraints of the project. A continuously operating system would use the gas-cooled amplifier technology developed for Mercury, while a burst-mode option would use the heat capacity laser technology. The ground-based system that we propose is capable of rapid engagement of targets whose orbits cross over the site, with potential for kill on a single pass. Very little target mass is ablated per pulse so the potential to create additional hazardous orbiting debris is minimal. Our cost estimates range from $2500 to $5000 per J depending on choices for laser gain medium, amplifier pump source, and thermal management method. A flashlamp-pumped, Nd:glass heat-capacity laser operating in the burst mode would have costs at the lower end of this spectrum and would suffice to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach as a prototype system. A diode-pumped, gas-cooled laser would have higher costs but could be operated continuously, and might be desirable for more demanding mission needs. Maneuverability can be incorporated in the system design if the additional cost is deemed acceptable. The laser system would need to be coupled with a target pointing and tracking telescope with guide-star-like wavefront correction capability.

  13. Analytical model for fast-shock ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghasemi, S. A., E-mail: abo.ghasemi@yahoo.com; Farahbod, A. H. [Plasma Physics Research School, NSTRI, North Kargar Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sobhanian, S. [Department of Physics, Tabriz University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A model and its improvements are introduced for a recently proposed approach to inertial confinement fusion, called fast-shock ignition (FSI). The analysis is based upon the gain models of fast ignition, shock ignition and considerations for the fast electrons penetration into the pre-compressed fuel to examine the formation of an effective central hot spot. Calculations of fast electrons penetration into the dense fuel show that if the initial electron kinetic energy is of the order ?4.5 MeV, the electrons effectively reach the central part of the fuel. To evaluate more realistically the performance of FSI approach, we have used a quasi-two temperature electron energy distribution function of Strozzi (2012) and fast ignitor energy formula of Bellei (2013) that are consistent with 3D PIC simulations for different values of fast ignitor laser wavelength and coupling efficiency. The general advantages of fast-shock ignition in comparison with the shock ignition can be estimated to be better than 1.3 and it is seen that the best results can be obtained for the fuel mass around 1.5 mg, fast ignitor laser wavelength ?0.3??micron and the shock ignitor energy weight factor about 0.25.

  14. High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet WhenHiggs Boson May BeAdministration |High

  15. High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet WhenHiggs Boson May BeAdministration |High

  16. High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet WhenHiggs Boson May BeAdministration |High

  17. Ignition of a deuterium micro-detonation with a gigavolt super marx generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Centurion-Halite experiment demonstrated the feasibility of igniting a deuterium-tritium micro-explosion with an energy of not more than a few megajoule, and the Mike test, the feasibility of a pure deuterium explosion with an energy of more than 10^6 megajoule. In both cases the ignition energy was supplied by a fission bomb explosive. While an energy of a few megajoule, to be released in the time required of less than 10^-9 sec, can be supplied by lasers and intense particle beams, this is not enough to ignite a pure deuterium explosion. Because the deuterium-tritium reaction depends on the availability of lithium, the non-fusion ignition of a pure deuterium fusion reaction would be highly desirable. It is shown that this goal can conceivably be reached with a "Super Marx Generator", where a large number of "ordinary" Marx generators charge (magnetically insulated) fast high voltage capacitors of a second stage Marx generator, called a "Super Marx Generator", ultimately reaching gigavolt potentials with...

  18. Semiconductor bridge, SCB, ignition of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W.; Grubelich, M.D.; Harris, S.M.; Merson, J.A.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories` semiconductor bridge, SCB, is now being used for the ignition or initiation of a wide variety of exeoergic materials. Applications of this new technology arose because of a need at the system level to provide light weight, small volume and low energy explosive assemblies. Conventional bridgewire devices could not meet the stringent size, weight and energy requirements of our customers. We present an overview of SCB technology and the ignition characteristics for a number of energetic materials including primary and secondary explosives, pyrotechnics, thermites and intermetallics. We provide examples of systems designed to meet the modern requirements that sophisticated systems must satisfy in today`s market environments.

  19. Prompt Beta Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic for Mix in Ignited NIF Capsules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Hayes; G. Jungman; J. C. Solem; P. A. Bradley; R. S. Rundberg

    2004-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) technology is designed to drive deuterium-tritium (DT) internal confinement fusion (ICF) targets to ignition using indirect radiation from laser beam energy captured in a hohlraum. Hydrodynamical instabilities at interfaces in the ICF capsule leading to mix between the DT fue l and the ablator shell material are of fundamental physical interest and can affect the performance characteristics of the capsule. In this Letter we describe new radiochemical diagnostics for mix processes in ICF capsules with plastic or Be (0.9%Cu) ablator shells. Reactions of high-energy tritons with shell material produce high-energy $\\beta$-emitters. We show that mix between the DT fuel and the shell material enhances high-energy prompt beta emission from these reactions by more than an order of magnitude over that expected in the absence of mix.

  20. An ignition and combustion model based on the level-set method for spark ignition engine multidimensional modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Zhichao; Reitz, Rolf D. [Engine Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To improve the prediction accuracy of the spark ignition and combustion processes in spark ignition engines, improved ignition and flame propagation models have been developed and implemented in the CFD code, KIVA-3V. An equation to calculate the spark ignition kernel growth rate is derived that considers the effects of the spark ignition discharge energy and flow turbulence on the ignition kernel growth. In addition, a flamelet combustion model based on the G equation combustion model was developed and implemented. To test the ignition and combustion models, they were applied to a homogeneous charge pancake-shaped-combustion-chamber engine, in which experimental heat flux data from probes in the engine head and cylinder liner were available. By comparing the flame arrival timings with the simulation predictions, the ignition and combustion models were validated. In addition, the models were also applied to a homogeneous charge propane-fueled SI engine. Good agreement with experimental cylinder pressures and NO{sub x} data was obtained as a function of ignition timing, engine speed, and EGR levels. (author)

  1. Scientists ignite aluminum water mix

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebook Twitter PrincipalfuelTorus ExperimentScientists ignite aluminum

  2. National Ignition Facility Cryogenic Target Systems Interim Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, B

    2002-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Restricted availability of funding has had an adverse impact, unforeseen at the time of the original decision to projectize the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Cryogenic Target Handling Systems (NCTS) Program, on the planning and initiation of these efforts. The purpose of this document is to provide an interim project management plan describing the organizational structure and management processes currently in place for NCTS. Preparation of a Program Execution Plan (PEP) for NCTS has been initiated, and a current draft is provided as Attachment 1 to this document. The National Ignition Facility is a multi-megajoule laser facility being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) in the Department of Energy (DOE). Its primary mission is to support the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) by performing experiments studying weapons physics, including fusion ignition. NIF also supports the missions of weapons effects, inertial fusion energy, and basic science in high-energy-density physics. NIF will be operated by LLNL under contract to the University of California (UC) as a national user facility. NIF is a low-hazard, radiological facility, and its operation will meet all applicable federal, state, and local Environmental Safety & Health (ES&H) requirements. The NCTS Interim Management Plan provides a summary of primary design criteria and functional requirements, current organizational structure, tracking and reporting procedures, and current planning estimates of project scope, cost, and schedule. The NIF Director controls the NIF Cryogenic Target Systems Interim Management Plan. Overall scope content and execution schedules for the High Energy Density Physics Campaign (SSP Campaign 10) are currently undergoing rebaselining and will be brought into alignment with resources expected to be available throughout the NNSA Future Years National Security Plan (FYNSP). The revised schedule for delivering this system will be decided at the national level, based on experiment campaign requirement dates that will be derived through this process. The current milestone date for achieving indirect-drive ignition on the NIF is December 2010. Maintaining this milestone requires that the cryogenic systems be complete and available for fielding experiments early enough that the planned experimental campaigns leading up to ignition can be carried out. The capability of performing non-ignition cryogenic experiments is currently required by March 2006, when the NIF's first cluster of beams is operational. Plans for cryogenic and non-cryogenic experiments on the NIF are contained in NNSA's Campaign 10 Program Plans for Ignition (MTE 10.1) and High Energy Density Sciences (MTE 10.2). As described in this document, the NCTS Program Manager is responsible for managing NIF Cryogenic Target Systems development, engineering, and deployment. Through the NIF Director, the NCTS Program Manager will put in place an appropriate Program Execution Plan (draft attached) at a later time consistent with the maturing and funding these efforts. The PEP will describe management methods for carrying out these activities.

  3. FSU High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State University; Adams, Todd [Florida State University; Askew, Andrew [Florida State University; Berg, Bernd [Florida State University; Blessing, Susan K. [Florida State University; Okui, Takemichi [Florida State University; Owens, Joseph F. [Florida State University; Reina, Laura [Florida State University; Wahl, Horst D. [Florida State University

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the groups theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the non-zero neutrino masses or the overwhelming astrophysical evidence for an invisible form of matter, called dark matter, that has had a marked effect on the evolution of structure in the universe. The report highlights the main, recent, experimental achievements of the experimental group, which include the investigation of properties of the W and Z bosons; the search for new heavy stable charged particles and the search for a proposed property of nature called supersymmetry in proton-proton collisions that yield high energy photons. In addition, we report a few results from a more general search for supersymmetry at the LHC, initiated by the group. The report also highlights the group's significant contributions, both theoretical and experimental, to the 2012 discovery of the Higgs boson and the measurement of its properties.

  4. Scientists ignite aluminum water mix

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists ignite aluminum water mix Scientists ignite aluminum water mix Don't worry, that beer can you're holding is not going to spontaneously burst into flames. June 30, 2014...

  5. Ignition of a deuterium micro-detonation with a gigavolt super marx generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedwardt Winterberg

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Centurion-Halite experiment demonstrated the feasibility of igniting a deuterium-tritium micro-explosion with an energy of not more than a few megajoule, and the Mike test, the feasibility of a pure deuterium explosion with an energy of more than 10^6 megajoule. In both cases the ignition energy was supplied by a fission bomb explosive. While an energy of a few megajoule, to be released in the time required of less than 10^-9 sec, can be supplied by lasers and intense particle beams, this is not enough to ignite a pure deuterium explosion. Because the deuterium-tritium reaction depends on the availability of lithium, the non-fusion ignition of a pure deuterium fusion reaction would be highly desirable. It is shown that this goal can conceivably be reached with a "Super Marx Generator", where a large number of "ordinary" Marx generators charge (magnetically insulated) fast high voltage capacitors of a second stage Marx generator, called a "Super Marx Generator", ultimately reaching gigavolt potentials with an energy output of 100 megajoule. An intense 10^7 Ampere-GeV proton beam drawn from a "Super Marx Generator" can ignite a deuterium thermonuclear detonation wave in a compressed deuterium cylinder, where the strong magnetic field of the proton beam entraps the charged fusion reaction products inside the cylinder. In solving the stand-off problem, the stiffness of a GeV proton beam permits to place the deuterium target at a comparatively large distance from the wall of a cavity confining the deuterium micro-explosion.

  6. Thermonuclear supernova simulations with stochastic ignition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Schmidt; J. C. Niemeyer

    2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply an ad hoc model for dynamical ignition in three-dimensional numerical simulations of thermonuclear supernovae assuming pure deflagrations. The model makes use of the statistical description of temperature fluctuations in the pre-supernova core proposed by Wunsch & Woosley (2004). Randomness in time is implemented by means of a Poisson process. We are able to vary the explosion energy and nucleosynthesis depending on the free parameter of the model which controls the rapidity of the ignition process. However, beyond a certain threshold, the strength of the explosion saturates and the outcome appears to be robust with respect to number of ignitions. In the most energetic explosions, we find about 0.75 solar masses of iron group elements. Other than in simulations with simultaneous multi-spot ignition, the amount of unburned carbon and oxygen at radial velocities of a few 1000 km/s tends to be reduced for an ever increasing number of ignition events and, accordingly, more pronounced layering results.

  7. FIREBALL: Fusion Ignition Rocket Engine with Ballistic Ablative Lithium Liner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Adam K.; Eskridge, Richard H.; Lee, Michael H. [Propulsion Research Center, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center XD22, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Fimognari, Peter J. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermo-nuclear fusion may be the key to a high Isp, high specific power propulsion system. In a fusion system energy is liberated within, and imparted directly to, the propellant. In principle, this can overcome the performance limitations inherent in systems that require thermal power transfer across a material boundary, and/or multiple power conversion stages (NTR, NEP). A thermo-nuclear propulsion system, which attempts to overcome some of the problems inherent in the Orion concept, is described. A dense FRC plasmoid is accelerated to high velocity (in excess of 500 km/s) and is compressed into a detached liner (pulse unit). The kinetic energy of the FRC is converted into thermal and magnetic-field energy, igniting a fusion burn in the magnetically confined plasma. The fusion reaction serves as an ignition source for the liner, which is made out of detonable materials. The energy liberated in this process is converted to thrust by a pusher-plate, as in the classic Orion concept. However with this concept, the vehicle does not carry a magazine of autonomous pulse-units. By accelerating a second, heavier FRC, which acts as a piston, right behind the first one, the velocity required to initiate the fusion burn is greatly reduced.

  8. Ignition of deuterium-tritium fuel targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musinski, D.L.; Mruzek, M.T.

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method of igniting a deuterium-tritium ICF fuel target to obtain fuel burn in which the fuel target initially includes a hollow spherical shell having a frozen layer of DT material at substantially uniform thickness and cryogenic temperature around the interior surface of the shell. The target is permitted to free-fall through a target chamber having walls heated by successive target ignitions, so that the target is uniformly heated during free-fall to at least partially melt the frozen fuel layer and form a liquid single-phase layer or a mixed liquid/solid bi-phase layer of substantially uniform thickness around the interior shell surface. The falling target is then illuminated from exteriorly of the chamber while the fuel layer is at substantially uniformly single or bi-phase so as to ignite the fuel layer and release energy therefrom. 5 figures.

  9. Ignition of deuterium-trtium fuel targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musinski, Donald L. (Saline, MI); Mruzek, Michael T. (Britton, MI)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of igniting a deuterium-tritium ICF fuel target to obtain fuel burn in which the fuel target initially includes a hollow spherical shell having a frozen layer of DT material at substantially uniform thickness and cryogenic temperature around the interior surface of the shell. The target is permitted to free-fall through a target chamber having walls heated by successive target ignitions, so that the target is uniformly heated during free-fall to at least partially melt the frozen fuel layer and form a liquid single-phase layer or a mixed liquid/solid bi-phase layer of substantially uniform thickness around the interior shell surface. The falling target is then illuminated from exteriorly of the chamber while the fuel layer is at substantially uniformly single or bi-phase so as to ignite the fuel layer and release energy therefrom.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy High...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV-40 Requirements Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV-40 Requirements...

  11. National Ignition Facility Title II Design Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumpan, S

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This National Ignition Facility (NIF) Title II Design Plan defines the work to be performed by the NIF Project Team between November 1996, when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reviewed Title I design and authorized the initiation of Title H design and specific long-lead procurements, and September 1998, when Title 11 design will be completed.

  12. High Energy Density Capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEEST Project: Recapping is developing a capacitor that could rival the energy storage potential and price of todays best EV batteries. When power is needed, the capacitor rapidly releases its stored energy, similar to lightning being discharged from a cloud. Capacitors are an ideal substitute for batteries if their energy storage capacity can be improved. Recapping is addressing storage capacity by experimenting with the material that separates the positive and negative electrodes of its capacitors. These separators could significantly improve the energy density of electrochemical devices.

  13. Time-resolved measurements of the hot-electron population in ignition-scale experiments on the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohenberger, M., E-mail: mhoh@lle.rochester.edu; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Albert, F.; Palmer, N. E.; Dppner, T.; Divol, L.; Dewald, E. L.; Bachmann, B.; MacPhee, A. G.; LaCaille, G.; Bradley, D. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Lee, J. J. [National Security Technologies LLC, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In laser-driven inertial confinement fusion, hot electrons can preheat the fuel and prevent fusion-pellet compression to ignition conditions. Measuring the hot-electron population is key to designing an optimized ignition platform. The hot electrons in these high-intensity, laser-driven experiments, created via laser-plasma interactions, can be inferred from the bremsstrahlung generated by hot electrons interacting with the target. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)], the filter-fluorescer x-ray (FFLEX) diagnostica multichannel, hard x-ray spectrometer operating in the 20500 keV rangehas been upgraded to provide fully time-resolved, absolute measurements of the bremsstrahlung spectrum with ?300 ps resolution. Initial time-resolved data exhibited significant background and low signal-to-noise ratio, leading to a redesign of the FFLEX housing and enhanced shielding around the detector. The FFLEX x-ray sensitivity was characterized with an absolutely calibrated, energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector using the high-energy x-ray source at NSTec Livermore Operations over a range of K-shell fluorescence energies up to 111 keV (U K{sub ?}). The detectors impulse response function was measured in situ on NIF short-pulse (?90 ps) experiments, and in off-line tests.

  14. High Energy Physics Jobs

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,,ofOpportunitieshighlights/ The Office ofabout/jobs/

  15. High energy photon emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jabs, Harry

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photons, neutrons, charged particles, and fission fragments were used to study the reaction 160 + 238 U at a projectile energy of 50 MeV/u. Inverse slope values of the photon spectra were extracted for inclusive data and data of higher multiplicities...

  16. National Ignition Facility Control and Information System Operational Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, C D; Beeler, R G; Bowers, G A; Carey, R W; Fisher, J M; Foxworthy, C B; Frazier, T M; Mathisen, D G; Lagin, L J; Rhodes, J J; Shaw, M J

    2009-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) in Livermore, California, is the world's highest-energy laser fusion system and one of the premier large scale scientific projects in the United States. The system is designed to setup and fire a laser shot to a fusion ignition or high energy density target at rates up to a shot every 4 hours. NIF has 192 laser beams delivering up to 1.8 MJ of energy to a {approx}2 mm target that is planned to produce >100 billion atm of pressure and temperatures of >100 million degrees centigrade. NIF is housed in a ten-story building footprint the size of three football fields as shown in Fig. 1. Commissioning was recently completed and NIF will be formally dedicated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on May 29, 2009. The control system has 60,000 hardware controls points and employs 2 million lines of control system code. The control room has highly automated equipment setup prior to firing laser system shots. This automation has a data driven implementation that is conducive to dynamic modification and optimization depending on the shot goals defined by the end user experimenters. NIF has extensive facility machine history and infrastructure maintenance workflow tools both under development and deployed. An extensive operational tools suite has been developed to support facility operations including experimental shot setup, machine readiness, machine health and safety, and machine history. The following paragraphs discuss the current state and future upgrades to these four categories of operational tools.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Spark-Ignited Combustion with High-Octane Biofuels and EGR. 1. Engine Load Range and Downsize Downspeed Opportunity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in midlevel alcohol gasoline blends with 24% vol/vol isobutanol gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol/vol ethanol gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine was used with an 11.85:1 compression ratio, hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and was capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Experiments were conducted with all fuels to full-load conditions with = 1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. Higher octane number biofuel blends exhibited increased stoichiometric torque capability at this compression ratio, where the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg (indicated mean effective pressure gross) at = 1. EGR provided thermodynamic advantages and was a key enabler for increasing engine efficiency for all fuel types. However, with E30, EGR was less useful for knock mitigation than gasoline or IB24. Torque densities with E30 with 15% EGR at = 1 operation were similar or better than a modern EURO IV calibration turbo-diesel engine. The results of the present study suggest that it could be possible to implement a 40% downsize + downspeed configuration (1.2 L engine) into a representative midsize sedan. For example, for a midsize sedan at a 65 miles/h cruise, an estimated fuel consumption of 43.9 miles per gallon (MPG) (engine out 102 g-CO2/km) could be achieved with similar reserve power to a 2.0 L engine with 87AKI (38.6 MPG, engine out 135 g-CO2/km). Data suggest that, with midlevel alcohol gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol gasoline blends and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  18. High energy neutrino cross sections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. H. Reno

    2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The theoretical status of the neutrino-nucleon cross section is reviewed for incident neutrino energies up to E_nu=10^12 GeV, including different approaches to high energy extrapolations. Nonstandard model physics may play a role at ultrahigh energies. The cases of mini-black hole production and electroweak instanton contributions are discussed as examples in the context of ultrahigh energy neutrino scattering.

  19. Advanced Concept Exploration for Fast Ignition Science Program, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, Richard Burnite [General Atomics; McLean, Harry M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Theobald, Wolfgang [Laboratory for Laser Energetics; Akli, Kramer U. [The Ohio State University; Beg, Farhat N. [University of California, San Diego; Sentoku, Yasuhiko [University of Nevada, Reno; Schumacher, Douglass W. [The Ohio State University; Wei, Mingsheng [General Atomics

    2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional central hot spot (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The physics of fast ignition process was the focus of our Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program. Ignition depends critically on two major issues involving Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics: The laser-induced creation of fast electrons and their propagation in high-density plasmas. Our program has developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to advance understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our program had three thrust areas: Understand the production and characteristics of fast electrons resulting from FI relevant laser-plasma interactions and their dependence on laser prepulse and laser pulse length. Investigate the subsequent fast electron transport in solid and through hot (FI-relevant) plasmas. Conduct and understand integrated core-heating experiments by comparison to simulations. Over the whole period of this project (three years for this contract), we have greatly advanced our fundamental understanding of the underlying properties in all three areas: Comprehensive studies on fast electron source characteristics have shown that they are controlled by the laser intensity distribution and the topology and plasma density gradient. Laser pre-pulse induced pre-plasma in front of a solid surface results in increased stand-off distances from the electron origin to the high density target as well as large and erratic spread of the electron beam with increasing short pulse duration. We have demonstrated, using newly available higher contrast lasers, an improved energy coupling, painting a promising picture for FI feasibility. Our detailed experiments and analyses of fast electron transport dependence on target material have shown that it is feasible to collimate fast electron beam by self-generated resistive magnetic fields in engineered targets with a rather simple geometry. Stable and collimated electron beam with spot size as small as 50-?m after >100-?m propagation distance (an angular divergence angle of 20!) in solid density plasma targets has been demonstrated with FI-relevant (10-ps, >1-kJ) laser pulses Such collimated beam would meet the required heating beam size for FI. Our new experimental platforms developed for the OMEGA laser (i.e., i) high resolution 8 keV backlighter platform for cone-in-shell implosion and ii) the 8 keV imaging with Cu-doped shell targets for detailed transport characterization) have enabled us to experimentally confirm fuel assembly from cone-in-shell implosion with record-high areal density. We have also made the first direct measurement of fast electron transport and spatial energy deposition in integrated FI experiments enabling the first experiment-based benchmarking of integrated simulation codes. Executing this program required a large team. It was managed as a collaboration between General Atomics (GA), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). GA fulfills its responsibilities jointly with the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), The Ohio State University (OSU) and the University of Nevada at Reno (UNR). The division of responsibility was as follows: (1) LLE had primary leadership for channeling studies and the integrated energy transfer, (2) LLNL led the development of measurement methods, analysis, and deployment of diagnostics, and (3) GA together with UCSD, OSU and UNR studied the detailed energy-transfer physics. Th

  20. High Energy Cost Grants | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of Energy CompletingPresented By:DanielHigh Energy Cost

  1. Burner ignition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carignan, Forest J. (Bedford, MA)

    1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronic ignition system for a gas burner is battery operated. The battery voltage is applied through a DC-DC chopper to a step-up transformer to charge a capacitor which provides the ignition spark. The step-up transformer has a significant leakage reactance in order to limit current flow from the battery during initial charging of the capacitor. A tank circuit at the input of the transformer returns magnetizing current resulting from the leakage reactance to the primary in succeeding cycles. An SCR in the output circuit is gated through a voltage divider which senses current flow through a flame. Once the flame is sensed, further sparks are precluded. The same flame sensor enables a thermopile driven main valve actuating circuit. A safety valve in series with the main gas valve responds to a control pressure thermostatically applied through a diaphragm. The valve closes after a predetermined delay determined by a time delay orifice if the pilot gas is not ignited.

  2. Intermittent laser-plasma interactions and hot electron generation in shock ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, R.; Li, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Ren, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study laser-plasma interactions and hot electron generation in the ignition phase of shock ignition through 1D and 2D particle-in-cell simulations in the regime of long density scale length and moderately high laser intensity. These long-term simulations show an intermittent bursting pattern of laser-plasma instabilities, resulting from a coupling of the modes near the quarter-critical-surface and those in the lower density region via plasma waves and laser pump depletion. The majority of the hot electrons are found to be from stimulated Raman scattering and of moderate energies. However, high energy electrons of preheating threat can still be generated from the two-plasmon-decay instability.

  3. High-energy Cosmic Rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser; Todor Stanev

    2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    After a brief review of galactic cosmic rays in the GeV to TeV energy range, we describe some current problems of interest for particles of very high energy. Particularly interesting are two features of the spectrum, the `knee' above $10^{15}$ eV and the `ankle' above $10^{18}$ eV. An important question is whether the highest energy particles are of extra-galactic origin and, if so, at what energy the transition occurs. A theme common to all energy ranges is use of nuclear abundances as a tool for understanding the origin of the cosmic radiation.

  4. Dark matter ignition of type Ia supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bramante, Joseph

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies of low redshift type Ia supernovae (SNIa) indicate that half explode from less than Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs, implying ignition must proceed from something besides the canonical criticality of Chandrasekhar mass SNIa progenitors. We show that $0.1-10$ PeV mass asymmetric dark matter, with imminently detectable nucleon scattering interactions, can accumulate to the point of self-gravitation in a white dwarf and collapse, shedding gravitational potential energy by scattering off nuclei, thereby heating the white dwarf and igniting the flame front that precedes SNIa. We combine data on SNIa masses with data on the ages of SNIa-adjacent stars. This combination reveals a $ 3 \\sigma$ inverse correlation between SNIa masses and ignition ages, which could result from increased capture of dark matter in 1.4 versus 1.1 solar mass white dwarfs. Future studies of SNIa in galactic centers will provide additional tests of dark-matter-induced type Ia ignition. Remarkably, both bosonic and fermionic SNI...

  5. Fast Ignition Experimental and Theoretical Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akli, K

    2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We are becoming dependent on energy more today than we were a century ago, and with increasing world population and booming economies, sooner or later our energy sources will be exhausted. Moreover, our economy and welfare strongly depends on foreign oil and in the shadow of political uncertainties, there is an urgent need for a reliable, safe, and cheap energy source. Thermonuclear fusion, if achieved, is that source of energy which not only will satisfy our demand for today but also for centuries to come. Today, there are two major approaches to achieve fusion: magnetic confinement fusion (MFE) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). This dissertation explores the inertial confinement fusion using the fast ignition concept. Unlike the conventional approach where the same laser is used for compression and ignition, in fast ignition separate laser beams are used. This dissertation addresses three very important topics to fast ignition inertial confinement fusion. These are laser-to-electron coupling efficiency, laser-generated electron beam transport, and the associated isochoric heating. First, an integrated fast ignition experiment is carried out with 0.9 kJ of energy in the compression beam and 70 J in the ignition beam. Measurements of absolute K{sub {alpha}} yield from the imploded core revealed that about 17% of the laser energy is coupled to the suprathermal electrons. Modeling of the transport of these electrons and the associated isochoric heating, with the previously determined laser-to-electron conversion efficiency, showed a maximum target temperature of 166 eV at the front where the electron flux is higher and the density is lower. The contribution of the potential, induced by charge separation, in opposing the motion of the electrons was moderate. Second, temperature sensitivity of Cu K{sub {alpha}} imaging efficiency using a spherical Bragg reflecting crystal is investigated. It was found that due to the shifting and broadening of the K{sub {alpha}} line, with increasing temperature, both the brightness and the pattern of K{sub {alpha}} intensity are affected. Finally, x-ray spectroscopy of a 500 J 0.7 ps laser-solid interactions showed the formation of a hot surface layer({approx} 1 {micro}m) at the front of the target. PIC simulations confirm surface heating.

  6. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hadron collider studies will focus on: (i) the search for the top quark with the newly installed D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, (ii) the upgrade of the D0 detector to match the new main injector luminosity and (iii) R&D on silicon microstrip tracking devices for the SSC. High statistics studies of Z{sup 0} decay will continue with the OPAL detector at LEP. These studies will include a direct measurement of Z decay to neutrinos, the search for Higgs and heavy quark decays of Z. Preparations for the Large Scintillation Neutrino Detector (LSND) to measure neutrino oscillations at LAMPF will focus on data acquisition and testing of photomultiplier tubes. In the theoretical area E. Ma will concentrate on mass-generating radiative mechanisms for light quarks and leptons in renormalizable gauge field theories. J. Wudka`s program includes a detailed investigation of the magnetic-flip approach to the solar neutrino.

  7. High West Energy, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | Open EnergyInformation Hess Retail NaturalHiflux LtdTechnoHigh

  8. Electron Generation and Transport in Intense Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions Relevant to Fast Ignition ICF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, T

    2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The reentrant cone approach to Fast Ignition, an advanced Inertial Confinement Fusion scheme, remains one of the most attractive because of the potential to efficiently collect and guide the laser light into the cone tip and direct energetic electrons into the high density core of the fuel. However, in the presence of a preformed plasma, the laser energy is largely absorbed before it can reach the cone tip. Full scale fast ignition laser systems are envisioned to have prepulses ranging between 100 mJ to 1 J. A few of the imperative issues facing fast ignition, then, are the conversion efficiency with which the laser light is converted to hot electrons, the subsequent transport characteristics of those electrons, and requirements for maximum allowable prepulse this may put on the laser system. This dissertation examines the laser-to-fast electron conversion efficiency scaling with prepulse for cone-guided fast ignition. Work in developing an extreme ultraviolet imager diagnostic for the temperature measurements of electron-heated targets, as well as the validation of the use of a thin wire for simultaneous determination of electron number density and electron temperature will be discussed.

  9. Comparison of the Recently proposed Super Marx Generator Approach to Thermonuclear Ignition with the DT Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid Concept by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recently proposed Super Marx generator pure deuterium micro-detonation ignition concept is compared to the Lawrence Livermore National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser DT fusion-fission hybrid concept (LiFE) [1]. In a Super Marx generator a large number of ordinary Marx generators charge up a much larger second stage ultra-high voltage Marx generator, from which for the ignition of a pure deuterium micro-explosion an intense GeV ion beam can be extracted. A typical example of the LiFE concept is a fusion gain of 30, and a fission gain of 10, making up for a total gain of 300, with about 10 times more energy released into fission as compared to fusion. This means a substantial release of fission products, as in fusion-less pure fission reactors. In the Super Marx approach for the ignition of a pure deuterium micro-detonation a gain of the same magnitude can in theory be reached [2]. If feasible, the Super Marx generator deuterium ignition approach would make lasers obsolete as a means for the ignition of ther...

  10. Pre-ignition laser ablation of nanocomposite energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stacy, S. C.; Massad, R. A.; Pantoya, M. L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser ignition of energetic material composites was studied for initiation with heating rates from 9.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} to 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K/s. This is a unique heating rate regime for laser ignition studies because most studies employ either continuous wave CO{sub 2} lasers to provide thermal ignition or pulsed Nd:YAG lasers to provide shock ignition. In this study, aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) nanoparticle powders were pressed into consolidated pellets and ignited using a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm wavelength) with varied pulse energy. Results show reduced ignition delay times corresponding to laser powers at the ablation threshold for the sample. Heating rate and absorption coefficient were determined from an axisymmetric heat transfer model. The model estimates absorption coefficients from 0.1 to 0.15 for consolidated pellets of Al + MoO{sub 3} at 1064 nm wavelength. Ablation resulted from fracturing caused by a rapid increase in thermal stress and slowed ignition of the pellet.

  11. Simulation of hydrogen and hydrogen-assisted propane ignition in Pt catalyzed microchannel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seshadri, Vikram; Kaisare, Niket S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology - Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with self-ignition of catalytic microburners from ambient cold-start conditions. First, reaction kinetics for hydrogen combustion is validated with experimental results from the literature, followed by validation of a simplified pseudo-2D microburner model. The model is then used to study the self-ignition behavior of lean hydrogen/air mixtures in a Platinum-catalyzed microburner. Hydrogen combustion on Pt is a very fast reaction. During cold start ignition, hydrogen conversion reaches 100% within the first few seconds and the reactor dynamics are governed by the ''thermal inertia'' of the microburner wall structure. The self-ignition property of hydrogen can be used to provide the energy required for propane ignition. Two different modes of hydrogen-assisted propane ignition are considered: co-feed mode, where the microburner inlet consists of premixed hydrogen/propane/air mixtures; and sequential feed mode, where the inlet feed is switched from hydrogen/air to propane/air mixtures after the microburner reaches propane ignition temperature. We show that hydrogen-assisted ignition is equivalent to selectively preheating the inlet section of the microburner. The time to reach steady state is lower at higher equivalence ratio, lower wall thermal conductivity, and higher inlet velocity for both the ignition modes. The ignition times and propane emissions are compared. Although the sequential feed mode requires slightly higher amount of hydrogen, the propane emissions are at least an order of magnitude lower than the other ignition modes. (author)

  12. Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

  13. Ignition of syngas/air and hydrogen/air mixtures at low temperatures and high pressures: Experimental data interpretation and kinetic modeling implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dryer, Frederick L.; Chaos, Marcos [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 (United States)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnitude of ignition delay observations and homogeneous kinetic calculations seen elsewhere is a result in large measure of departures of the experimental configurations from behavior dominated solely by homogeneous gas phase kinetics. In the regime of interest (higher pressures, lower temperatures), the hydrogen-oxygen chemical induction processes can be significantly perturbed by several nonhomogeneous effects, which include catalytic aberrations. The multiple perturbations that can significantly affect induction chemistry are very difficult to remove in research experiments and nearly impossible to control in engineering applications. The implications for developing lean premixing schemes for advanced syngas gas turbine applications are that designs must consider the inherent presence of these perturbations on ignition delay as well as those that might occur from potential particle contamination of the air stream exiting the compressor, if stimulated flashback into the mixing region is to be precluded.

  14. Multiple laser pulse ignition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two or more laser light pulses with certain differing temporal lengths and peak pulse powers can be employed sequentially to regulate the rate and duration of laser energy delivery to fuel mixtures, thereby improving fuel ignition performance over a wide range of fuel parameters such as fuel/oxidizer ratios, fuel droplet size, number density and velocity within a fuel aerosol, and initial fuel temperatures.

  15. D-Cluster Converter Foil for Laser-Accelerated Deuteron Beams: Towards Deuteron-Beam-Driven Fast Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miley, George H.

    2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast Ignition (FI) uses Petawatt laser generated particle beam pulse to ignite a small volume called a pre-compressed Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target, and is the favored method to achieve the high energy gain per target burn needed for an attractive ICF power plant. Ion beams such as protons, deuterons or heavier carbon ions are especially appealing for FI as they have relative straight trajectory, and easier to focus on the fuel capsule. But current experiments have encountered problems with the 'converter-foil' which is irradiated by the Petawatt laser to produce the ion beams. The problems include depletion of the available ions in the convertor foils, and poor energy efficiency (ion beam energy/ input laser energy). We proposed to develop a volumetrically-loaded ultra-high-density deuteron deuterium cluster material as the basis for converter-foil for deuteron beam generation. The deuterons will fuse with the ICF DT while they slow down, providing an extra 'bonus' energy gain in addition to heating the hot spot. Also, due to the volumetric loading, the foil will provide sufficient energetic deuteron beam flux for 'hot spot' ignition, while avoiding the depletion problem encountered by current proton-driven FI foils. After extensive comparative studies, in Phase I, high purity PdO/Pd/PdO foils were selected for the high packing fraction D-Cluster converter foils. An optimized loading process has been developed to increase the cluster packing fraction in this type of foil. As a result, the packing fraction has been increased from 0.1% to 10% - meeting the original Phase I goal and representing a significant progress towards the beam intensities needed for both FI and pulsed neutron applications. Fast Ignition provides a promising approach to achieve high energy gain target performance needed for commercial Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). This is now a realistic goal for near term in view of the anticipated ICF target burn at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in CA within a year. This will usher in the technology development Phase of ICF after years of research aimed at achieving breakeven experiment. Methods to achieve the high energy gain needed for a competitive power plant will then be a key developmental issue, and our D-cluster target for Fast Ignition (FI) is expected to meet that need.

  16. PRACTICAL NEUTRON DOSIMETRY AT HIGH ENERGIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCaslin, J.B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of High-Energy Accelerators, New York, April, 1957. USAECShielding of High-Energy Accelerators, New York, April 1957.Shielding of High-Energy Accelerators, New York, April 1957.

  17. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gleckman, Philip L. (Chicago, IL); O'Gallagher, Joseph J. (Flossmoor, IL)

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  18. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  19. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste...

  20. Frictionally induced ignition processes in drop and skid tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Parker, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Novak, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard LANL/Pantex drop and skid tests rely on subjective assessment of reaction violence to quantify the response of the charge, and completely miss nonpropagating hot-spot ignition sites. Additionally, large variations in test results have been observed, which we propose is due to a misunderstanding of the basic physical processes that lead to threshold ignition in these tests. The tests have been redesigned to provide control of these mechanisms and to permit direct observation of hot spots at the impact site, allowing us to follow the progression of the outcome as the drop height and ignition source density are varied. The results confirm that frictional interactions between high-melting-point solids are the dominant ignition mechanism, not just at the threshold, but in fact at all realistic drop heights.

  1. Ultra High Energy Neutrino Astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Berezinsky

    2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The short review of theoretical aspects of ultra high energy (UHE) neutrinos and superGZK neutrinos. The sources and diffuse fluxes of UHE neutrinos are discussed. Much attention is given to comparison of the cascade and cosmic ray upper bounds for diffuse neutrino fluxes. Cosmogenic neutrinos and neutrinos from the mirror mater are considered as superGZK neutrinos.

  2. Theory of hydro-equivalent ignition for inertial fusion and its applications to OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nora, R.; Betti, R.; Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.; Christopherson, A. R.; Meyerhofer, D. D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and/or Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Anderson, K. S.; Shvydky, A.; Marozas, J. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; Radha, P. B.; Hu, S. X.; Epstein, R.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); McCrory, R. L. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and/or Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The theory of ignition for inertial confinement fusion capsules [R. Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 058102 (2010)] is used to assess the performance requirements for cryogenic implosion experiments on the Omega Laser Facility. The theory of hydrodynamic similarity is developed in both one and two dimensions and tested using multimode hydrodynamic simulations with the hydrocode DRACO [P. B. Radha et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 032702 (2005)] of hydro-equivalent implosions (implosions with the same implosion velocity, adiabat, and laser intensity). The theory is used to scale the performance of direct-drive OMEGA implosions to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) energy scales and determine the requirements for demonstrating hydro-equivalent ignition on OMEGA. Hydro-equivalent ignition on OMEGA is represented by a cryogenic implosion that would scale to ignition on the NIF at 1.8?MJ of laser energy symmetrically illuminating the target. It is found that a reasonable combination of neutron yield and areal density for OMEGA hydro-equivalent ignition is 3 to 6??10{sup 13} and ?0.3?g/cm{sup 2}, respectively, depending on the level of laser imprinting. This performance has not yet been achieved on OMEGA.

  3. Technical documentation in support of the project-specific analysis for construction and operation of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Vinikour, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.; Allison, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.] [and others

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides information that supports or supplements the data and impact analyses presented in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project-Specific Analysis (PSA). The purposes of NIF are to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory for the first time with inertial confinement fusion (ICF) technology and to conduct high- energy-density experiments ins support of national security and civilian application. NIF is an important element in the DOE`s science-based SSM Program, a key mission of which is to ensure the reliability of the nation`s enduring stockpile of nuclear weapons. NIF would also advance the knowledge of basic and applied high-energy- density science and bring the nation a large step closer to developing fusion energy for civilian use. The NIF PSA includes evaluations of the potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating the facility at one of five candidate site and for two design options.

  4. Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todor Stanev

    2004-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss theoretical issues and experimental data that brought the ultra high energy cosmic rays in the list of Nature's greatest puzzles. After many years of research we still do not know how astrophysical acceleration processes can reach energies exceeding 10$^{11}$ GeV. The main alternative {\\em top-down} mechanism postulates the existence of super massive $X$-particles that create a particle spectrum extending down to the observed energy through their decay channels. The propagation of nuclei and photons from their sources to us adds to the puzzle as all particles of these energies interact with the ambient photons, mostly of the microwave background. We also describe briefly the main observational results and give some information on the new experiments that are being built and designed now.

  5. The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  6. A Concept Exploration Program in Fast Ignition Inertial Fusion Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, Richarad Burnite [General Atomics] [General Atomics; Freeman, Richard R. [The Ohio State University] [The Ohio State University; Van Woekom, L. D. [The Ohio State University] [The Ohio State University; Key, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; MacKinnon, Andrew J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Wei, Mingsheng [General Atomics] [General Atomics

    2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fast Ignition (FI) approach to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) holds particular promise for fusion energy because the independently generated compression and ignition pulses allow ignition with less compression, resulting in (potentially) higher gain. Exploiting this concept effectively requires an understanding of the transport of electrons in prototypical geometries and at relevant densities and temperatures. Our consortium, which included General Atomics (GA), The Ohio State University (OSU), the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), University of California, Davis (UC-Davis), and Princeton University under this grant (~$850K/yr) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under a companion grant, won awards in 2000, renewed in 2005, to investigate the physics of electron injection and transport relevant to the FI concept, which is crucial to understand electron transport in integral FI targets. In the last two years we have also been preparing diagnostics and starting to extend the work to electron transport into hot targets. A complementary effort, the Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program for Fast Ignition, was funded starting in 2006 to integrate this understanding into ignition schemes specifically suitable for the initial fast ignition attempts on OMEGA and National Ignition Facility (NIF), and during that time these two programs have been managed as a coordinated effort. This result of our 7+ years of effort has been substantial. Utilizing collaborations to access the most capable laser facilities around the world, we have developed an understanding that was summarized in a Fusion Science & Technology 2006, Special Issue on Fast Ignition. The author lists in the 20 articles in that issue are dominated by our group (we are first authors in four of them). Our group has published, or submitted 67 articles, including 1 in Nature, 2 Nature Physics, 10 Physical Review Letters, 8 Review of Scientific Instruments, and has been invited to give numerous talks at national and international conferences (including APS-DPP, IAEA, FIW). The advent of PW capabilities at Rutherford Appleton Lab (UK) and then at Titan (LLNL) (2005 and 2006, respectively), was a major step toward experiments in ultra-high intensity high-energy FI relevant regime. The next step comes with the activation of OMEGA EP at LLE, followed shortly by NIF-ARC at LLNL. These capabilities allow production of hot dense material for electron transport studies. In this transitional period, considerable effort has been spent in developing the necessary tools and experiments for electron transport in hot and dense plasmas. In addition, substantial new data on electron generation and transport in metallic targets has been produced and analyzed. Progress in FI detailed in 2 is related to the Concept Exploration Program (CEP) objectives; this section is a summary of the publications and presentations listed in 5. This work has benefited from the synergy with work on related Department of Energy (DOE) grants, the Fusion Science Center and the Fast Ignition Advanced Concept Exploration grant, and from our interactions with overseas colleagues, primarily at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, and the Institute for Laser Engineering in Japan.

  7. High Energy Density Ultracapacitors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHigh Efficiency Low -1 DOE

  8. High Energy Density Ultracapacitors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHigh Efficiency Low -1 DOE0 DOE

  9. High Energy Density Ultracapacitors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHigh Efficiency Low -1 DOE0 DOE09

  10. Stable transport in proton driven Fast Ignition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bret, A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton beam transport in the context of proton driven Fast Ignition is usually assumed to be stable due to protons high inertia, but an analytical analysis of the process is still lacking. The stability of a charge and current neutralized proton beam passing through a plasma is therefore conducted here, for typical proton driven Fast Ignition parameters. In the cold regime, two fast growing Buneman-like modes are found, with an inverse growth-rate much smaller than the beam time-of-flight to the target core. The stability issue is thus not so obvious, and Kinetic effects are investigated. One unstable mode is found stabilized by the background plasma protons and electrons temperatures. The second mode is also damped, providing the proton beam thermal spread is larger than $\\sim$ 10 keV. In Fusion conditions, the beam propagation should therefore be stable.

  11. Ignition of Aluminum Particles and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Boiko, V M

    2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we review experimental data and models of the ignition of aluminum (Al) particles and clouds in explosion fields. The review considers: (i) ignition temperatures measured for single Al particles in torch experiments; (ii) thermal explosion models of the ignition of single Al particles; and (iii) the unsteady ignition Al particles clouds in reflected shock environments. These are used to develop an empirical ignition model appropriate for numerical simulations of Al particle combustion in shock dispersed fuel explosions.

  12. Partial fuel stratification to control HCCI heat release rates : fuel composition and other factors affecting pre-ignition reactions of two-stage ignition fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.; Cannella, William (Chevron USA Inc.); Yang, Yi; Dronniou, Nicolas

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion with fully premixed charge is severely limited at high-load operation due to the rapid pressure-rise rates (PRR) which can lead to engine knock and potential engine damage. Recent studies have shown that two-stage ignition fuels possess a significant potential to reduce the combustion heat release rate, thus enabling higher load without knock.

  13. TOWARD A STANDARD IGNITION SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volkingburg, David R. Van

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and ignited with a small propane torch. The top center ofhead is supplied with propane. In these experiments allin the pre-mixed mode with propane alone to simulate trash

  14. Exceptions to ignition source controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHLOSSER, R.L.

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a basis for acceptance of risks associated with equipment that does not fully comply with the ignition source control requirements as they will be applied by the Technical Safety Requirements prepared to implement the documented safety analysis.

  15. High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Compression...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Compression Ignition Engines High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Compression Ignition Engines Presentation from...

  16. Preheat of radiative shock in double-shell ignition targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J. W.; He, X. T. [Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) [Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094 (China); Pei, W. B.; Li, J. H.; Zheng, W. D.; Zhu, S. P. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094 (China)] [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094 (China); Kang, W. [Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For the double-shell ignition target, the nonuniform preheat of the inner shell by high-energy x rays, especially the M-band line radiation and L-shell radiation from the Au hohlraum, aggravates the hydrodynamic instability that causes shell disruption. In this paper, for the first time, we propose another preheating mechanism due to the radiative shock formed in the CH foam, and also confirm and validate such preheat of radiative shock by numerical results. We also give an estimate of the improved double-shell in which the CH foam is replaced by the metallic foam to mitigate the hydrodynamic instabilities, and find that the radiative shock formed in the metallic foam produces a much stronger radiation field to preheat the inner shell, which plays a role in better controlling the instabilities. In double-shells, the preheat of radiative shock, as a potential effect on the instabilities, should be seriously realized and underlined.

  17. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL)

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  18. High Energy Gas Fracturing Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulte, R.

    2001-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has recently completed two tests of a high-energy gas fracturing system being developed by Western Technologies of Crossville, Tennessee. The tests involved the use of two active wells located at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), thirty-five miles north of Casper, Wyoming (See Figure 1). During the testing process the delivery and operational system was enhanced by RMOTC, Western Technologies, and commercial wireline subcontractors. RMOTC has assisted an industrial client in developing their technology for high energy gas fracturing to a commercial level. The modifications and improvements implemented during the technology testing process are instrumental in all field testing efforts at RMOTC. The importance of well selection can also be critical in demonstrating the success of the technology. To date, significant increases in well productivity have been clearly proven in well 63-TPX-10. Gross fluid production was initially raised by a factor of three. Final production rates increased by a factor of six with the use of a larger submersible pump. Well productivity (bbls of fluid per foot of drawdown) increased by a factor of 15 to 20. The above results assume that no mechanical damage has occurred to the casing or cast iron bridge plug which could allow well production from the Tensleep ''B'' sand. In the case of well 61-A-3, a six-fold increase in total fluid production was seen. Unfortunately, the increase is clouded by the water injection into the well that was necessary to have a positive fluid head on the propellant tool. No significant increase in oil production was seen. The tools which were retrieved from both 63-TPX-10 and 61-A-3 indicated a large amount of energy, similar to high gram perforating, had been expended downhole upon the formation face.

  19. High Impact Technology Catalyst | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    energy-efficient commercial building technologies. Through the High Impact Technology Catalyst program, initiated in 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identifies...

  20. SCB thermite igniter studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Wackerbarth, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohler, J.H. [Energetic Materials Associates, Inc., Vero Beach, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report on recent studies comparing the ignition threshold of temperature cycled, SCB thermite devices with units that were not submitted to temperature cycling. Aluminum/copper-oxide thermite was pressed into units at two densities, 45% of theoretical maximum density (TMD) or 47% of TMD. Half of each of the density sets underwent three thermal cycles; each cycle consisted of 2 hours at 74 C and 2 hours at {minus}54 C, with a 5 minute maximum transfer time between temperatures. The temperature cycled units were brought to ambient temperature before the threshold testing. Both the density and the thermal cycling affected the all-fire voltage. Using a 5.34 {micro}F CDU (capacitor discharge unit) firing set, the all-fire voltage for the units that were not temperature cycled increased with density from 32.99 V (45% TMD) to 39.32 V (47% TMD). The all-fire voltages for the thermally cycled units were 34.42 V (45% TMD) and 58.1 V (47% TMD). They also report on no-fire levels at ambient temperature for two component designs; the 5 minute no-fire levels were greater than 1.2 A. Units were also subjected to tests in which 1 W of RF power was injected into the bridges at 10 MHz for 5 minutes. The units survived and fired normally afterwards. Finally, units were subjected to pin-to-pin electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests. None of the units fired upon application of the ESD pulse, and all of the tested units fired normally afterwards.

  1. Imaging the High Energy Cosmic Ray Sky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haviland, David

    Imaging the High Energy Cosmic Ray Sky PETTER HOFVERBERG Licentiate Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2006 #12;#12;Licentiate Thesis Imaging the High Energy Cosmic Ray Sky Petter Hofverberg Particle

  2. Final Project Report "Advanced Concept Exploration For Fast Ignition Science Program"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STEPHENS, Richard B.; McLEAN, Harry M.; THEOBALD, Wolfgang; AKLI, Kramer; BEG, Farhat N.; SENTOKU, Yasuiko; SCHUMACHER, Douglas; WEI, Mingsheng S.

    2014-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactors. FI differs from conventional central hot spot (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using the laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10s of ns) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 ps) high intensity pulse to ignite a small region of it. There are two major physics issues concerning this concept; controlling the laser-induced generation of large electron currents and their propagation through high density plasmas. This project has addressed these two significant scientific issues in Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics. Learning to control relativistic laser matter interaction (and the limits and potential thereof) will enable a wide range of applications. While these physics issues are of specific interest to inertial fusion energy science, they are also important for a wide range of other HED phenomena, including high energy ion beam generation, isochoric heating of materials, and the development of high brightness x-ray sources. Generating, controlling, and understanding the extreme conditions needed to advance this science has proved to be challenging: Our studies have pushed the boundaries of physics understanding and are at the very limits of experimental, diagnostic, and simulation capabilities in high energy density laboratory physics (HEDLP). Our research strategy has been based on pursuing the fundamental physics underlying the Fast Ignition (FI) concept. We have performed comprehensive study of electron generation and transport in fast-ignition targets with experiments, theory, and numerical modeling. A major issue is that the electrons produced in these experiments cannot be measured directlyonly effects due to their transport. We focused mainly on x-ray continuum photons from bremsstrahlung and x-ray line radiation from K-shell fluorescence. Integrated experiments, which combine target compression with short-pulse laser heating, yield additional information on target heating efficiency. This indirect way of studying the underlying behavior of the electrons must be validated with computational modeling to understand the physics and improve the design. This program execution required a large, well-organized team and it was managed by a joint Collaboration between General Atomics (GA), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The Collaboration was formed 8 years ago to understand the physics issues of the Fast Ignition concept, building on the strengths of each partner. GA fulfills its responsibilities jointly with the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), The Ohio State University (OSU) and the University of Nevada at Reno (UNR). Since RHED physics is pursued vigorously in many countries, international researchers have been an important part of our efforts to make progress. The division of responsibility was as follows: (1) LLE had primary leadership for channeling studies and the integrated energy transfer, (2) LLNL led the development of measurement methods, analysis, and deployment of diagnostics, and (3) GA together with UCSD, OSU and UNR studied the detailed energy-transfer physics. The experimental program was carried out using the Titan laser at the Jupiter Laser Facility at LLNL, the OMEGA and OMEGA EP lasers at LLE and the Texas Petawatt laser (TPW) at UT Austin. Modeling has been pursued on large computing facilities at LLNL, OSU, and UCSD using codes developed (by us and others) within the HEDLP program, commercial codes, and by leveraging existing supercomputer codes developed by the NNSA ICF program. This Consortium brought together all the componentsresources, facilities, and personnelnecessary to accomplish its aggressive goals. The ACE Program has been strongly collaborative, taking advantage of the expertise of the participating institutions to provide a research effort

  3. Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (SSP) through three strategic objectives: Achieve thermonuclear ignition in the laboratory experiments to include access to thermonuclear burn conditions in the laboratory, a unique and unprecedented to demonstrate thermonuclear ignition in the laboratory. The NIF is a 192-bea

  4. IGNITE Leadership Fellows 2012--2013 Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanco, Philip R.

    IGNITE Leadership Fellows 2012--2013 Application Instructions: Please complete the form below in its entirety. Applicants for the IGNITE Leadership Fellows cohort are expected to participate fully, and be committed to their own personal and leadership development. Name

  5. Thermonuclear Ignition of Dark Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Marvin Herndon

    2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Dark matter is thought to be at least an order of magnitude more abundant than luminous matter in the Universe, but there has yet to be an unambiguous identification of a wholly dark, galactic-scale structure. There is, however, increasing evidence that VIRGOHI 21 may be a dark galaxy. If VIRGOHI 21 turns out to be composed of dark stars, having approximately the same mass of stars found in luminous galaxies, it will pose an enigma within the framework of current astrophysical models, but will provide strong support for my concept, published in 1994 in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, of the thermonuclear ignition of stars by nuclear fission, and the corollary, non-ignition of stars. The possibility of galactic thermonuclear ignition is discussed from that framework and leads to my suggestion that the distribution of luminous stars in a galaxy may simply be a reflection of the galactic distribution of the heavy elements.

  6. Oxides having high energy densities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Certain disclosed embodiments generally relate to oxide materials having relatively high energy and/or power densities. Various aspects of the embodiments are directed to oxide materials having a structure B.sub.i(M.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2, for example, a structure Li.sub.j(Ni.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2 such as Li(Ni.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5)O.sub.2. In this structure, Y represents one or more atoms, each independently selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metals, transition metals, Group 14 elements, Group 15, or Group 16 elements. In some embodiments, such an oxide material may have an O3 crystal structure, and/or a layered structure such that the oxide comprises a plurality of first, repeating atomic planes comprising Li, and a plurality of second, repeating atomic planes comprising Ni and/or Y.

  7. Method for reducing ignition delay of fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppie, L.O.

    1984-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of reducing ignition delay /tau/, of fuels to negligible values and negligible differences is disclosed. Fuels conditioned to have such negligible values and differences are readily used in multiple fuel engines, such fuels self-ignite substantially instantaneously when injected into an oxidant, require substantially no heat transfer from the oxidant to effect the self-ignition, and the self-ignition is sufficient to sustain continued combustion.

  8. Energy Star Helps Manufacturers To Achieve High Energy Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutrow, E.; Hicks, T.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From personal electronic devices to homes and office buildings, ENERGY STAR is a recognized symbol of high quality energy performance which enables consumers, home buyers, and businesses to make informed energy decisions. Now, the U...

  9. Energy Star Helps Manufacturers To Achieve High Energy Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutrow, E.; Hicks, T.

    From personal electronic devices to homes and office buildings, ENERGY STAR is a recognized symbol of high quality energy performance which enables consumers, home buyers, and businesses to make informed energy decisions. Now, the U...

  10. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  11. Integral magnetic ignition pickup trigger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, R.

    1992-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a trigger system for the ignition system of an internal combustion engine having a crankcase with a rotatable crankshaft therein, and a flywheel on one end of the crankcase connected to an end of the crankshaft. It comprises: a nonferromagnetic disk-shaped hub for connection to the crankshaft and rotatable therewith on the end opposite the flywheel; and a stationary sensor mounted adjacent the hub for detecting impulses from the magnetically responsive elements as the hub rotates and utilizing the impulses to trigger the ignition system.

  12. Features of a point design for fast ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabak, M; Clark, D; Town, R J; Key, M H; Amendt, P; Ho, D; Meeker, D J; Shay, H D; Lasinski, B F; Kemp, A; Divol, L; Mackinnon, A J; Patel, P; Strozzi, D; Grote, D P

    2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast Ignition is an inertial fusion scheme in which fuel is first assembled and then heated to the ignition temperature with an external heating source. In this note we consider cone and shell implosions where the energy supplied by short pulse lasers is transported to the fuel by electrons. We describe possible failure modes for this scheme and how to overcome them. In particular, we describe two sources of cone tip failure, an axis jet driven from the compressed fuel mass and hard photon preheat leaking through the implosion shell, and laser prepulse that can change the position of laser absorption and the angular distribution of the emitted electrons.

  13. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

  14. Electron generation and transport in intense relativistic laser-plasma interactions relevant to fast ignition ICF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Tammy Yee Wing

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-Short Pulse, Ultra-High In- tensity Lasers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ignition), an ultra-intense short pulse laser is brought inof the ultra-high intensity, short-pulse laser has opened up

  15. Ignition Delay Times of Natural Gas/Hydrogen Blends at Elevated Pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brower, Marissa

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Applications of natural gases that contain high levels of hydrogen have become a primary interest in the gas turbine market. For reheat gas turbines, understanding of the ignition delay times of high-hydrogen natural gases is important for two...

  16. High Country Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms AHefei SungrowHelukabel GmbH

  17. Extended performance gas Cherenkov detector for gamma-ray detection in high-energy density experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, H. W., E-mail: herrmann@lanl.gov; Kim, Y. H.; Young, C. S.; Fatherley, V. E.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Batha, S. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Malone, R. M. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Stoeffl, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Zylstra, A. B. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Shmayda, W. T. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) with low-energy threshold and high sensitivity, currently known as Super GCD (or GCD-3 at OMEGA), is being developed for use at the OMEGA Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Super GCD is designed to be pressurized to ?400 psi (absolute) and uses all metal seals to allow the use of fluorinated gases inside the target chamber. This will allow the gamma energy threshold to be run as low at 1.8 MeV with 400 psi (absolute) of C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, opening up a new portion of the gamma ray spectrum. Super GCD operating at 20 cm from TCC will be ?400 more efficient at detecting DT fusion gammas at 16.7 MeV than the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic at NIF (GRH-6m) when operated at their minimum thresholds.

  18. Maintenance FUSION IGNITION RESEARCH EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Insulation Enclosure Remote Maintenance Module FUSION IGNITION RESEARCH EXPERIMENT SYSTEM coils. The magnets are liquid nitrogen cooled and the entire device is surrounded by a thermal enclosure. The double wall vacuum vessel integrates cooling and shielding in a shape that maximizes shielding of ex

  19. EXCEPTIONS TO IGNITION SOURCE CONTROLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHLOSSER, R.L.

    2003-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a basis for acceptance of risks associated with equipment and materials that do not fully comply with the ignition source controls as they are applied by the Technical Safety Requirements prepared to implement the controls required by the documented safety analysis for tank farms facilities.

  20. High Energy Astrophysics: Overview 1/47 High Energy Astrophysics in Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bicknell, Geoff

    High Energy Astrophysics: Overview 1/47 High Energy Astrophysics in Context 1 Some references The following set of volumes is an outstanding summary of the field of High Energy Astrophysics and its relation to the rest of Astrophysics High Energy Astrophysics, Vols. 1,2 and 3. M.S. Longair, Cam- bridge University

  1. Fast ignition when heating the central part of an inertial confinement fusion target by an ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guskov, S. Yu., E-mail: guskov@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Zmitrenko, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Ilin, D. V.; Sherman, V. E. [St. Petersburg State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the ignition and burning of a precompressed laser fusion target when it is rapidly heated by an ion beam with the formation of a temperature peak in the central part of the target. We present the results of our comprehensive numerical simulations of the problem that include the following components: (1) the target compression under the action of a profiled laser pulse, (2) the heating of the compressed target with spatially nonuniform density and temperature distributions by a beam of high-energy ions, and (3) the burning of the target with the initial spatial density distribution formed at the instant of maximum target compression and the initial spatial temperature distribution formed as a result of the compressed-target heating by an ion beam. The dependences of the threshold energies of the igniting ion beam and the thermonuclear gain on the width of the Gaussian beam ion energy spectrum have been established. The peculiarities of fast ignition by an ion beam related to the spatial distribution of parameters for the target precompressed by a laser pulse are discussed.

  2. High-Pulse-Energy Ultrafast Laser for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    High-Pulse-Energy Ultrafast Laser for Spectroscopy & Micromachining PROBLEM THIS TECHNOLOGY SOLVES. In addition to the OPO, a custom designed ultrafast pump source, provides high pulse energy (.res.hw.ac.uk Professor Derryck Reid (Principal Investigator) www.ultrafast.hw.ac.uk BENEFITS & APPLICATIONS: · High pulse

  3. Railplug Ignition System for Enhanced Engine Performance and Reduced Maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DK Ezekoye; Matt Hall; Ron Matthews

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Final Technical Report discusses the progress that was made on the experimental and numerical tasks over the duration of this project. The primary objectives of the project were to (1) develop an improved understanding of the spark ignition process, and (2) develop the railplug as an improved ignitor for large bore stationary natural gas engines. We performed fundamental experiments on the physical processes occurring during spark ignition and used the results from these experiments to aid our development of the most complete model of the spark ignition process ever devised. The elements in this model include (1) the dynamic response of the ignition circuit, (2) a chemical kinetics mechanism that is suitable for the reactions that occur in the plasma, (3) conventional flame propagation kinetics, and (4) a multi-dimensional formulation so that bulk flow through the spark gap can be incorporated. This model (i.e., a Fortran code that can be used as a subroutine within an engine modeling code such as KIVA) can be obtained from Prof. Ron Matthews at rdmatt{at}mail.utexas.edu or Prof. DK Ezekoye at dezekoye{at}mail.utexas.edu. Fundamental experiments, engine experiments, and modeling tasks were used to help develop the railplug as a new ignitor for large bore natural gas engines. As the result of these studies, we developed a railplug that could extend the Lean Stability Limit (LSL) of an engine operating at full load on natural gas from {phi} = 0.59 for operation on spark plugs down to {phi} = 0.53 using railplugs with the same delivered energy (0.7 J). However, this delivered energy would rapidly wear out the spark plug. For a conventional delivered energy (<0.05 J), the LSL is {phi} = 0.63 for a spark plug. Further, using a permanent magnet to aid the plasma movement, the LSL was extended to {phi} = 0.54 for a railplug with a delivered energy of only 0.15 J/shot, a typical discharge energy for commercial capacitive discharge ignition systems. Here, it should be noted that railplugs and the associated ignition circuit should not cost much more than a conventional spark ignition system. Additionally, it is believed that the railplug performance can be further improved via continued research and development.

  4. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaghan, R.W.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF.

  5. Fusion and Ignition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHall ATours,Dioxide and Methane |science Fusion

  6. Ignition Control for HCCI

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Objectives Project Objective A multi-year CRADA between ORNL and Delphi to demonstrate a practical application of HCCI in a...

  7. Participation in high energy physics, Task D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lederman, L.M.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the following topics: Communication and Advancement of High Energy Physics; B-Quarks; Secondary Vertex Trigger; and Science Education.

  8. Development of High Energy Cathode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    other high- energy cathodes. Improved the performance of Li-rich, Mn-rich layered composite cathode suitable for PHEV and EV applications. Developed electrolyte additives...

  9. Fast Camera Imaging of Hall Thruster Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.L. Ellison, Y. Raitses and N.J. Fisch

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Hall thrusters provide efficient space propulsion by electrostatic acceleration of ions. Rotating electron clouds in the thruster overcome the space charge limitations of other methods. Images of the thruster startup, taken with a fast camera, reveal a bright ionization period which settles into steady state operation over 50 ?s. The cathode introduces azimuthal asymmetry, which persists for about 30 ?s into the ignition. Plasma thrusters are used on satellites for repositioning, orbit correction and drag compensation. The advantage of plasma thrusters over conventional chemical thrusters is that the exhaust energies are not limited by chemical energy to about an electron volt. For xenon Hall thrusters, the ion exhaust velocity can be 15-20 km/s, compared to 5 km/s for a typical chemical thruster

  10. Multi-timescale modeling of ignition and flame regimes of n-heptane-air mixtures near spark assisted homogeneous charge compression ignition conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, Yiguang; Sun, Wenting; Burke, M. P.; Gou, Xiaolong; Chen, Zheng

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The flame regimes of ignition and flame propagation as well as transitions between different flame regimes of n-heptane-air mixtures in a one-dimensional, cylindrical, spark assisted homogeneously charged compression ignition (HCCI) reactor are numerically modeled using a multi-timescale method with reduced kinetic mechanism. It is found that the initial mixture temperature and pressure have a dramatic impact on flame dynamics. Depending on the initial temperature gradient, there exist at least six different combustion regimes, an initial single flame front propagation regime, a coupled low temperature and high temperature double-flame regime, a decoupled low temperature and high temperature double-flame regime, a low temperature ignition regime, a single high temperature flame regime, and a hot ignition regime. The results show that the low temperature and high temperature flames have distinct kinetic and transport properties as well as flame speeds, and are strongly influenced by the low temperature chemistry. The pressure and heat release rates are affected by the appearance of different flame regimes and the transitions between them. Furthermore, it is found that the critical temperature gradient for ignition and acoustic wave coupling becomes singular at the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region. The results show that both the NTC effect and the acoustic wave propagation in a closed reactor have a dramatic impact on the ignition front and acoustic interaction.

  11. Sandia Energy - High Performance Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear Press ReleasesInAppliedEnergyGeothermal HomeGridHHigh

  12. High Mesa | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia, California: Energy Resources Jump to:HidroflotMesa Jump

  13. Langston University - High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    snow, joel

    2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report is presented by Langston University (LU) for the project entitled "Langston University High Energy Physics" (LUHEP) under the direction of principal investigator (PI) and project director Professor Joel Snow. The project encompassed high energy physics research performed at hadron colliders. The PI is a collaborator on the DZero experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL, USA and the ATLAS experiment at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and was during the entire project period from April 1, 1999 until May 14, 2012. Both experiments seek to understand the fundamental constituents of the physical universe and the forces that govern their interactions. In 1999 as member of the Online Systems group for Run 2 the PI developed a cross-platform Python-based, Graphical User Interface (GUI) application for monitoring and control of EPICS based devices for control room use. This served as a model for other developers to enhance and build on for further monitoring and control tasks written in Python. Subsequently the PI created and developed a cross-platform C++ GUI utilizing a networked client-server paradigm and based on ROOT, the object oriented analysis framework from CERN. The GUI served as a user interface to the Examine tasks running in the D\\O\\ control room which monitored the status and integrity of data taking for Run 2. The PI developed the histogram server/control interface to the GUI client for the EXAMINE processes. The histogram server was built from the ROOT framework and was integrated into the D\\O\\ framework used for online monitoring programs and offline analysis. The PI developed the first implementation of displaying histograms dynamically generated by ROOT in a Web Browser. The PI's work resulted in several talks and papers at international conferences and workshops. The PI established computing software infrastructure at LU and U. Oklahoma (OU) to do analysis of DZero production data and produce simulation data for the experiment. Eventually this included the FNAL SAM data grid system, the SAMGrid (SG) infrastructure, and the Open Science Grid software stacks for computing and storage elements. At the end of 2003 the PI took on the role of global Monte Carlo production coordinator for the DZero experiment. In January of 2004 the PI started working with the SAMGrid development team to help debug, deploy, and integrate SAMGrid with DZero Monte Carlo production. The PI installed and configured SG execution and client sites at LUHEP and OUHEP, and a SG scheduler site at LUHEP. The PI developed a python based GUI (DAJ) that acts as a front end for job submission to SAMGrid. The GUI interfaces to the DZero Mone Carlo (MC) request system that uses SAM to manage MC requests by the physics analysis groups. DAJ significantly simplified SG job submission and was deployed in DZero in an effort to increase the user base of SG. The following year was the advent of SAMGrid job submission to the Open Science Grid (OSG) and LHC Computing Grid (LCG) through a forwarding mechanism. The PI oversaw the integration of these grids into the existing production infrastructure. The PI developed an automatic MC (Automc) request processing system capable of operating without user intervention (other than getting grid credentials), and able to submit to any number of sites on various grids. The system manages production at all but 2 sites. The system was deployed at Fermilab and remains operating there today. The PI's work in distributed computing resulted in several talks at international conferences. UTA, OU, and LU were chosen as the collaborating institutions that form the Southwest Tier 2 Center (SWT2) for ATLAS. During the project period the PI contributed to the online and offline software infrastructure through his work with the Run 2 online group, and played a major role in Monte Carlo production for DZero. During the part of the project period in which the PI served as MC production coordinator MC production increased very significantly. In the first year of the PI's tenure as production coor

  14. Use of a Thermodynamic Engine Cycle Simulation to Study a Turbocharged Spark-ignition Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawand, Vaibhav

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    to examine the turbocharged spark-ignition engines in greater detail using second law analyses as they are gaining popularity in high performance and conventional automobiles as well. A thermodynamic simulation was developed in order to investigate...

  15. Investigation of ignition of thermoplastics through the Hot Wire Ignition Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Araujo, Luiz Claudio Bonilla

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the ignition phenomena of selected polymeric materials using the Hot Wire Ignition Test. This test is prescribed by Underwriters Laboratories as one of various requirements for polymeric materials used...

  16. High-Energy Neutrino Astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Halzen

    2005-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Kilometer-scale neutrino detectors such as IceCube are discovery instruments covering nuclear and particle physics, cosmology and astronomy. Examples of their multidisciplinary missions include the search for the particle nature of dark matter and for additional small dimensions of space. In the end, their conceptual design is very much anchored to the observational fact that Nature accelerates protons and photons to energies in excess of 10^{20} and 10^{13} eV, respectively. The cosmic ray connection sets the scale of cosmic neutrino fluxes. In this context, we discuss the first results of the completed AMANDA detector and the reach of its extension, IceCube. Similar experiments are under construction in the Mediterranean. Neutrino astronomy is also expanding in new directions with efforts to detect air showers, acoustic and radio signals initiated by neutrinos with energies similar to those of the highest energy cosmic rays.

  17. High Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel Jump to: navigation, search Name:Hidralia

  18. HIGH-ENERGY HEAVY-ION BEAMS AS IGNITERS FOR COMMERCIAL-SCALE INTERTIAL-FUSION POWER PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judd, D.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    confined controlled thermonuclear fusion has been David L.steady succession of thermonuclear microexplosions of smallwas the detonation of thermonuclear bombs. I t was proposed

  19. Optimized beryllium target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simakov, Andrei N., E-mail: simakov@lanl.gov; Wilson, Douglas C.; Yi, Sunghwan A.; Kline, John L.; Batha, Steven H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Clark, Daniel S.; Milovich, Jose L.; Salmonson, Jay D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For indirect drive inertial confinement fusion, Beryllium (Be) ablators offer a number of important advantages as compared with other ablator materials, e.g., plastic and high density carbon. In particular, the low opacity and relatively high density of Be lead to higher rocket efficiencies giving a higher fuel implosion velocity for a given X-ray drive; and to higher ablation velocities providing more ablative stabilization and reducing the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities on the implosion performance. Be ablator advantages provide a larger target design optimization space and can significantly improve the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] ignition margin. Herein, we summarize the Be advantages, briefly review NIF Be target history, and present a modern, optimized, low adiabat, Revision 6 NIF Be target design. This design takes advantage of knowledge gained from recent NIF experiments, including more realistic levels of laser-plasma energy backscatter, degraded hohlraum-capsule coupling, and the presence of cross-beam energy transfer.

  20. Measurements of high energy density electrons via observation of Cherenkov radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habara, Hideaki; Ohta, Kazuhide; Tanaka, Kazuo A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan and Laser Institute of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kumar, G. Ravindra; Krishnamurthy, M.; Kahaly, Subhendu; Mondal, Sudipta; Bhuyan, Manoj Kumar; Rajeev, R. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400-005 (India); Zheng Jian [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct measurement of extremely high energy density electrons created in ultraintense laser-plasma interactions is crucial issue for fast ignition. Recently Cherenkov radiation has been studied to obtain the energy distribution of electrons because the emission angle depends on the electron energy. However in the previous studies [F. Brandl et al., Europhys. Lett. 61, 632 (2003); M. Manclossi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 125002 (2006)], the experimental configurations using a planar target raised issues of spatial overlapping among the light from the different energy electrons as well as from the other emissions, such as transition radiation. A novel prism shaped target is developed in which Cherenkov lights emitted from different energy electrons are spatially separated, realizing an absolute measurement of the energy spectrum by counting the light intensities in each observed position. The observed image clearly shows the horseshoe pattern as expected in fully three-dimensional ray-trace calculations, and the image is successfully converted into the electron spectrum inside the target. In addition, it is found from the blur of the outer edge of the Cherenkov pattern that the electrons have a small beam divergence. The calibrated energy spectrum well agrees with particle simulations.

  1. Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blijderveen, Maarten van [TNO, Schoemakerstraat 97, 2628 VK Delft (Netherlands); University of Twente, Department of Thermal Engineering, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Bramer, Eddy A. [University of Twente, Department of Thermal Engineering, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Brem, Gerrit, E-mail: g.brem@utwente.nl [University of Twente, Department of Thermal Engineering, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model piloted ignition times of wood and plastics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model is applied on a packed bed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When the air flow is above a critical level, no ignition can take place. - Abstract: To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The incoming radiative heat flux, sample thickness and moisture content are some of the used variables. Not only the ignition time can be calculated with the model, but also the mass flux and surface temperature at ignition. The ignition times for softwoods and PMMA are mainly under-predicted. For hardwoods and PVC the predicted ignition times agree well with experimental results. Due to a significant scatter in the experimental data the mass flux and surface temperature calculated with the model are hard to validate. The model is applied on the startup of a municipal waste incineration plant. For this process a maximum allowable primary air flow is derived. When the primary air flow is above this maximum air flow, no ignition can be obtained.

  2. Heating National Ignition Facility, Realistic Financial Planning...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    628 National Ignition Facility Realistic Financial Planning Rapid Modification are Essential Lessons Learned Report Apr 2010.pdf More Documents & Publications EIS-0236: Record of...

  3. Igniter containing titanium hydride and potassium perchlorate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietzel, Russel W. (Albuquerque, NM); Leslie, William B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An explosive device is described which employs a particular titanium hydride-potassium perchlorate composition directly ignitible by an electrical bridgewire.

  4. Precision Crystal Calorimeters in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ren-Yuan Zhu

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Precision crystal calorimeters traditionally play an important role in high energy physics experiments. In the last two decades, it faces a challenge to maintain its precision in a hostile radiation environment. This paper reviews the performance of crystal calorimeters constructed for high energy physics experiments and the progress achieved in understanding crystal?s radiation damage as well as in developing high quality scintillating crystals for particle physics. Potential applications of new generation scintillating crystals of high density and high light yield, such as LSO and LYSO, in particle physics experiments is also discussed.

  5. A new metric of the low-mode asymmetry for ignition target designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Jianfa, E-mail: gu-jianfa@iapcm.ac.cn; Dai, Zhensheng; Fan, Zhengfeng; Zou, Shiyang, E-mail: zou-shiyang@iapcm.ac.cn; Ye, Wenhua; Pei, Wenbing; Zhu, Shaoping [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)] [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the deuterium-tritium inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility, the measured neutron yield and hot spot pressure are significantly lower than simulations. Understanding the underlying physics of the deficit is essential to achieving ignition. This paper investigates the low-mode areal density asymmetry in the main fuel of ignition capsule. It is shown that the areal density asymmetry breaks up the compressed shell and significantly reduces the conversion of implosion kinetic energy to hot spot internal energy, leading to the calculated hot spot pressure and neutron yield quite close to the experimental data. This indicates that the low-mode shell areal density asymmetry can explain part of the large discrepancy between simulations and experiments. Since only using the hot spot shape term could not adequately characterize the effects of the shell areal density asymmetry on implosion performance, a new metric of the low-mode asymmetry is developed to accurately measure the probability of ignition.

  6. Elliptical magnetic mirror generated via resistivity gradients for fast ignition inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, A. P. L.; Schmitz, H. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)] [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The elliptical magnetic mirror scheme for guiding fast electrons for Fast Ignition proposed by Schmitz et al. (Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085016 (2012)) is studied for conditions on the multi-kJ scale which are much closer to full-scale Fast Ignition. When scaled up, the elliptical mirror scheme is still highly beneficial to Fast Ignition. An increase in the coupling efficiency by a factor of 34 is found over a wide range of fast electron divergence half-angles.

  7. Control of Thermal Ignition in Gasoline Engines C. J. Chiang and A. G. Stefanopoulou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    (HCCI) en- gine, is fundamentally different from the spark ignition (SI) and the compression ignition

  8. High Energy Evolution with Pomeron Loops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Lublinsky

    2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The high energy/density QCD has been widely used for DIS phenomenology with a projectile particle considered as perturbative and dilute. We review some recent attempts to derive a high energy evolution kernel which treats targets and projectiles in a symmetric manner. From theoretical point of view the problem is tightly related to inclusion of Pomeron loops in the evolution. The ultimate goal is to consider high energy scatterings with both projectile and target being dense, the situation faced at RHIC and the LHC.

  9. High-Energy Astrophysics and Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Ellis

    2002-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Interfaces between high-energy physics, astrophysics and cosmology are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the important roles played by high-energy cosmic-ray physics. These include the understanding of atmospheric neutrinos, the search for massive cold dark matter particles and possible tests of models of quantum gravity. In return, experiments at the LHC may be useful for refining models of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, and thereby contributing indirectly to understanding their origin. Only future experiments will be able to tell whether these are due to some bottom-up astrophysical mechanism or some top-down cosmological mechanism.

  10. High Energy Physics Research at Louisiana Tech

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawyer, Lee; Greenwood, Zeno; Wobisch, Marcus

    2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to create, maintain, and strengthen a world-class, nationally and internationally recognized experimental high energy physics group at Louisiana Tech University, focusing on research at the energy frontier of collider-based particle physics, first on the D? experiment and then with the ATLAS experiment, and providing leadership within the US high energy physics community in the areas of jet physics, top quark and charged Higgs decays involving tau leptons, as well as developing leadership in high performance computing.

  11. Cooldown of the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeton, D.C.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooldown of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) with the baseline liquid nitrogen cooling system was analyzed. On the basis of this analysis and present knowledge of the two-phase heat transfer, the current baseline CIT can be cooled down in about 1.5 h. An extensive heat transfer test program is recommended to reduce uncertainty in the heat transfer performance and to explore methods for minimizing the cooldown time. An alternate CIT cooldown system is described which uses a pressurized gaseous helium coolant in a closed-loop system. It is shown analytically that this system will cool down the CIT well within 1 h. Confidence in this analysis is sufficiently high that a heat transfer test program would not be necessary. The added cost of this alternate system is estimated to be about $5.3 million. This helium cooling system represents a reasonable backup approach to liquid nitrogen cooling of the CIT. 3 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Effects of Ignition Quality and Fuel Composition on Critical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effects of Ignition Quality and Fuel Composition on Critical Equivalence Ratio Effects of Ignition Quality and Fuel Composition on Critical Equivalence Ratio Our research shows...

  13. Improving the Efficiency of Spark Ignited, Stoichiometric Natural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Spark Ignited, Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines Improving the Efficiency of Spark Ignited, Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines This work focused on using camless engine technology...

  14. Fuel Effects on Ignition and Their Impact on Advanced Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ignition and Their Impact on Advanced Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Ignition and Their Impact on Advanced Combustion Engines Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

  15. alcohol ignition interlock: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE), a tokamak designed for burning plasma research. Engineering 58 The National Ignition Campaign Presentation to Plasma Physics and...

  16. ENHANCED IGNITION FOR I.C. ENGINES WITH PREMIXED CHARGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, J.D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Igniter for Internal Combustion Engines," SAE Paper 760764.Emissions from an Internal Combustion Engine,'' Combusti and11 Laser Ignited Internal Combustion Engine -An Experimental

  17. Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emissions Reduction over Transient Driving Cycles Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel...

  18. High Energy Scattering Amplitudes of Superstring Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuan-Tsung Chan; Jen-Chi Lee; Yi Yang

    2005-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We use three different methods to calculate the proportionality constants among high-energy scattering amplitudes of different string states with polarizations on the scattering plane. These are the decoupling of high-energy zero-norm states (HZNS), the Virasoro constraints and the saddle-point calculation. These calculations are performed at arbitrary but fixed mass level for the NS sector of 10D open superstring. All three methods give the consistent results, which generalize the previous works on the high-energy 26D open bosonic string theory. In addition, we discover new leading order high-energy scattering amplitudes, which are still proportional to the previous ones, with polarizations orthogonal to the scattering plane. These scattering amplitudes are of subleading order in energy for the case of 26D open bosonic string theory. The existence of these new high-energy scattering amplitudes is due to the worldsheet fermion exchange in the correlation functions and is, presumably, related to the high-energy massive spacetime fermionic scattering amplitudes in the R-sector of the theory.

  19. High-Energy Neutrino Astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Halzen

    2004-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Kilometer-scale neutrino detectors such as IceCube are discovery instruments covering nuclear and particle physics, cosmology and astronomy. Examples of their multidisciplinary missions include the search for the particle nature of dark matter and for additional small dimensions of space. In the end, their conceptual design is very much anchored to the observational fact that Nature accelerates protons and photons to energies in excess of $10^{20}$ and $10^{13}$ eV, respectively. The cosmic ray connection sets the scale of cosmic neutrino fluxes. In this context, we discuss the first results of the completed AMANDA detector and the reach of its extension, IceCube. Similar experiments are under construction in the Mediterranean. Neutrino astronomy is also expanding in new directions with efforts to detect air showers, acoustic and radio signals initiated by super-EeV neutrinos.

  20. Cosmic absorption of ultra high energy particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruffini, R; Xue, S -S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the limits on propagation of ultra high energy particles in the Universe, set up by their interactions with cosmic background of photons and neutrinos. By taking into account cosmic evolution of these backgrounds and considering appropriate interactions we derive the mean free path for ultra high energy photons, protons and neutrinos. For photons the relevant processes are the Breit-Wheeler process as well as the double pair production process. For protons the relevant reactions are the photopion production and the Bethe-Heitler process. We discuss the interplay between the energy loss length and mean free path for the Bethe-Heitler process. Neutrino opacity is determined by its scattering off the cosmic background neutrino. We compute for the first time the high energy neutrino horizon as a function of its energy.

  1. Physics at high energy photon photon colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I review the physic prospects for high energy photon photon colliders, emphasizing results presented at the LBL Gamma Gamma Collider Workshop. Advantages and difficulties are reported for studies of QCD, the electroweak gauge sector, supersymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking.

  2. Terrestrial Effects of High Energy Cosmic Rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atri, Dimitra

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    On geological timescales, the Earth is likely to be exposed to higher than the usual flux of high energy cosmic rays (HECRs) from astrophysical sources such as nearby supernovae, gamma ray bursts or by galactic shocks. ...

  3. Research in High Energy Physics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conway, John S.

    2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report details the work done from January 2010 until April 2013 in the area of experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics and cosmology at the University of California, Davis.

  4. ULTRA-LOW-ENERGY HIGH-CURRENT ION SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a high current ion source for ultra-low energy ions has beenthe Department of Energy ULTRA-LOW-ENERGY HIGH-CURRENT IONedited by A. Anders. ULTRA-LOW-ENERGY HIGH-CURRENT ION

  5. Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Engineering Status Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the world. The FIRE web site has been chosen as a selection for the Scout Report for Science and EngineeringFusion Ignition Research Experiment -FIRE- Engineering Status Report For Fiscal Year 2000 Issued on the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE), a tokamak designed for burning plasma research. Engineering

  6. Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Facility (NIF) will extend HEDP experiments to include access to thermonuclear burn conditions's Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) through three strategic objectives: Achieve thermonuclear ignition thermonuclear ignition to the national nuclear weapons program was one of the earliest motivations of the ICF

  7. Nuclear diffractive structure functions at high energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Marquet; H. Kowalski; T. Lappi; R. Venugopalan

    2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A future high-energy electron-ion collider would explore the non-linear weakly-coupled regime of QCD, and test the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approach to high-energy scattering. Hard diffraction in deep inelastic scattering off nuclei will provide many fundamental measurements. In this work, the nuclear diffractive structure function F_{2,A}^D is predicted in the CGC framework, and the features of nuclear enhancement and suppression are discussed.

  8. Managing transient behaviors of a dual mode spark ignition-- controlled auto ignition engine with a variable valve timing system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santoso, Halim G. (Halim Gustiono), 1975-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has the potential of providing better fuel economy and emissions characteristics than current spark ignition engines. One implementation of this technology ...

  9. High Energy Processes in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Bednarek

    2006-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Young pulsars produce relativistic winds which interact with matter ejected during the supernova explosion and the surrounding interstellar gas. Particles are accelerated to very high energies somewhere in the pulsar winds or at the shocks produced in collisions of the winds with the surrounding medium. As a result of interactions of relativistic leptons with the magnetic field and low energy radiation (of synchrotron origin, thermal, or microwave background), the non-thermal radiation is produced with the lowest possible energies up to $\\sim$100 TeV. The high energy (TeV) gamma-ray emission has been originally observed from the Crab Nebula and recently from several other objects. Recent observations by the HESS Cherenkov telescopes allow to study for the first time morphology of the sources of high energy emission, showing unexpected spectral features. They might be also interpreted as due to acceleration of hadrons. However, theory of particle acceleration in the PWNe and models for production of radiation are still at their early stage of development since it becomes clear that realistic modeling of these objects should include their time evolution and three-dimensional geometry. In this paper we concentrate on the attempts to create a model for the high energy processes inside the PWNe which includes existence not only relativistic leptons but also hadrons inside the nebula. Such model should also take into account evolution of the nebula in time. Possible high energy expectations based on such a model are discussed in the context of new observations.

  10. NET-ZERO ENERGY HIGH PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    , University of Nebraska­Lincoln · Denise Kuehn, Manager, Demand Side and Sustainable Management, Omaha Public was that the largest potential for enhancing energy supplies in this country is making buildings more efficient. "-- Harvey Perlman, UNL Chancellor #12;Net-Zero Energy, High-Performance Green Buildings | 1 INTRODUCTION

  11. Analysis of ignition behavior in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine using propane and methane as primary fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (???© pilot ?¢???¼ 0.2-0.6 and ???© overall ?¢???¼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant ???© pilot (> 0.5), increasing ???© overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing ???© overall (at constant ???© pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

  12. Utilization of Wind Energy at High Altitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground based, wind energy extraction systems have reached their maximum capability. The limitations of current designs are: wind instability, high cost of installations, and small power output of a single unit. The wind energy industry needs of revolutionary ideas to increase the capabilities of wind installations. This article suggests a revolutionary innovation which produces a dramatic increase in power per unit and is independent of prevailing weather and at a lower cost per unit of energy extracted. The main innovation consists of large free-flying air rotors positioned at high altitude for power and air stream stability, and an energy cable transmission system between the air rotor and a ground based electric generator. The air rotor system flies at high altitude up to 14 km. A stability and control is provided and systems enable the changing of altitude. This article includes six examples having a high unit power output (up to 100 MW). The proposed examples provide the following main advantages: 1. Large power production capacity per unit - up to 5,000-10,000 times more than conventional ground-based rotor designs; 2. The rotor operates at high altitude of 1-14 km, where the wind flow is strong and steady; 3. Installation cost per unit energy is low. 4. The installation is environmentally friendly (no propeller noise). -- * Presented in International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference at Providence., RI, Aug. 16-19. 2004. AIAA-2004-5705. USA. Keyword: wind energy, cable energy transmission, utilization of wind energy at high altitude, air rotor, windmills, Bolonkin.

  13. CARBON DEFLAGRATION IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA. I. CENTRALLY IGNITED MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, H.; Woosley, S. E.; Malone, C. M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Almgren, A.; Bell, J. [Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A leading model for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) begins with a white dwarf near the Chandrasekhar mass that ignites a degenerate thermonuclear runaway close to its center and explodes. In a series of papers, we shall explore the consequences of ignition at several locations within such dwarfs. Here we assume central ignition, which has been explored before, but is worth revisiting, if only to validate those previous studies and to further elucidate the relevant physics for future work. A perturbed sphere of hot iron ash with a radius of {approx}100 km is initialized at the middle of the star. The subsequent explosion is followed in several simulations using a thickened flame model in which the flame speed is either fixed-within the range expected from turbulent combustion-or based on the local turbulent intensity. Global results, including the explosion energy and bulk nucleosynthesis (e.g., {sup 56}Ni of 0.48-0.56 M{sub Sun }) turn out to be insensitive to this speed. In all completed runs, the energy released by the nuclear burning is adequate to unbind the star, but not enough to give the energy and brightness of typical SNe Ia. As found previously, the chemical stratification observed in typical events is not reproduced. These models produce a large amount of unburned carbon and oxygen in central low velocity regions, which is inconsistent with spectroscopic observations, and the intermediate mass elements and iron group elements are strongly mixed during the explosion.

  14. Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angela V. Olinto

    1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The surprising lack of a high energy cutoff in the cosmic ray spectrum at the highest energies together with an apparently isotropic distribution of arrival directions have strongly challenged most models proposed for the acceleration of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Young neutron star winds may be able to explain the mystery. We discuss this recent proposal after summarizing the observational challenge and plausible acceleration sites. Young neutrons star winds differ from alternative models in the predictions for composition, spectrum, and angular distribution which will be tested in future experiments.

  15. Hydrodynamic instabilities in beryllium targets for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, S. A., E-mail: austinyi@lanl.gov; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Beryllium ablators offer higher ablation velocity, rate, and pressure than their carbon-based counterparts, with the potential to increase the probability of achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We present here a detailed hydrodynamic stability analysis of low (NIF Revision 6.1) and high adiabat NIF beryllium target designs. Our targets are optimized to fully utilize the advantages of beryllium in order to suppress the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. This results in an implosion that resists breakup of the capsule, and simultaneously minimizes the amount of ablator material mixed into the fuel. We quantify the improvement in stability of beryllium targets relative to plastic ones, and show that a low adiabat beryllium capsule can be at least as stable at the ablation front as a high adiabat plastic target.

  16. High Energy Particles in the Solar Corona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; L. Larsen

    2008-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Collective Ampere law interactions producing magnetic flux tubes piercing through sunspots into and then out of the solar corona allow for low energy nuclear reactions in a steady state and high energy particle reactions if a magnetic flux tube explodes in a violent event such as a solar flare. Filamentous flux tubes themselves are vortices of Ampere currents circulating around in a tornado fashion in a roughly cylindrical geometry. The magnetic field lines are parallel to and largely confined within the core of the vortex. The vortices may thereby be viewed as long current carrying coils surrounding magnetic flux and subject to inductive Faraday and Ampere laws. These laws set the energy scales of (i) low energy solar nuclear reactions which may regularly occur and (ii) high energy electro-weak interactions which occur when magnetic flux coils explode into violent episodic events such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections.

  17. Astronomy with ultra high-energy particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joerg R. Hoerandel

    2008-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent measurements of the properties of cosmic rays above 10^17 eV are summarized and implications on our contemporary understanding of their origin are discussed. Cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10^20 eV have been measured, they are the highest-energy particles in the Universe. Particles at highest energies are expected to be only marginally deflected by magnetic fields and they should point towards their sources on the sky. Recent results of the Pierre Auger Observatory have opened a new window to the Universe - astronomy with ultra high-energy particles.

  18. High Brightness Beam Applications: Energy Recovered Linacs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geoffrey A. Krafft

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the first part of the paper some general statements are made regarding applications suitable for utilizing energy recovered linacs (ERLs) by contrasting their potential performance to that of single pass linacs and storage rings. As a result of their potential for extremely good beam quality in combination with high average beam current, ERLs have been used and considered as drivers of both free electron laser and partially coherent photon sources, from THz through X-rays; as a suitable technology for high energy electron cooling; and as a continuous or semi-continuous electron beam source for high energy colliders. At present, beam requirements tend to be highly matched to end use requirements. By reviewing some of the many examples which have either been reduced to practice, or are being explored presently, one can develop an appreciation for the wide range of parameters being considered in ERL applications.

  19. Extremely High Current, High-Brightness Energy Recovery Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. Ben-Zvi; D.S. Barton; D.B. Beavis; M. Blaskiewicz; J.M. Brennan; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X.Y. Chang; R. Connolly; D.M. Gassner; J.G. Grimes; H. Hahn; A. Hershcovitch; H.-C. Hseuh; P.D.J. Johnson; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; R.F. Lambiase; V. Litvinenko; G.T. McIntyre; W. Meng; T.C.N. Nehring; T. Nicoletti; B. Oerter; D. Pate; J. Rank; T. Rao; T. Roser; T. Russo; J. Scaduto; Z. Segalov; K. Smith; N.W.W. Williams; K.-C. Wu; V. Yakimenko; K. Yip; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; H. Bluem; A. Burger; M.D. Cole; A.J. Favale; D. Holmes; J. Rathke; T. Schultheiss; A.M.M. Todd; J.R. Delayen; L. W. Funk; P. Kneisel; H.L. Phillips; J.P. Preble

    2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Next generation ERL light-sources, high-energy electron coolers, high-power Free-Electron Lasers, powerful Compton X-ray sources and many other accelerators were made possible by the emerging technology of high-power, high-brightness electron beams. In order to get the anticipated performance level of ampere-class currents, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for its electron cooling of RHIC application, as well as a possible future electron-hadron collider. We will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun and an accelerator cavity capable of producing low emittance (about 1 micron rms normalized) one nano-Coulomb bunches at currents of the order of one ampere average.

  20. New INL High Energy Battery Test Facility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many DevilsForum |EnergyNewEnergy ServicesEnergyINL High

  1. A soft x-ray transmission grating imaging-spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, A S; Guymer, T M; Kline, J L; Morton, J; Taccetti, M; Lanier, N E; Bentley, C; Workman, J; Peterson, B; Mussack, K; Cowan, J; Prasad, R; Richardson, M; Burns, S; Kalantar, D H; Benedetti, L R; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Hsing, W; Stevenson, M

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer has been designed for use on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF); coupled to one of the NIF gated x-ray detectors (GXD) it records sixteen time-gated spectra between 250 and 1000eV with 100ps temporal resolution. The trade-off between spectral and spatial resolution leads to an optimized design for measurement of emission around the peak of a 100-300eV blackbody spectrum. Performance qualification results from the NIF, the Trident Laser Facility and VUV beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), evidence a <100{micro}m spatial resolution in combination with a source-size limited spectral resolution that is <10eV at photon energies of 300eV.

  2. Activation Energy of Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2010-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The activation energy of a high melting temperature sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique to 300 and 400 C to produce pellets with dimensions of 5 mm diameter by 1.5 mm height. A custom built ignition setup was developed to measure ignition temperatures at high heating rates (500-2000 C {center_dot} min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Unlike the 400 C samples, results show that the samples consolidated to 300 C undergo an abrupt change in temperature response prior to ignition. This change in temperature response has been attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465-670 C. The activation energy of the SG derived Ta-WO{sup 3} thermite composite consolidated to 300 and 400 C were determined to be 37.787 {+-} 1.58 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and 57.381 {+-} 2.26 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, respectively.

  3. Radiation transport and energetics of laser-driven half-hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, A. S. [Directorate Science and Technology, AWE Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom); Cooper, A. B.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schneider, M. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); MacLaren, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Graham, P. [Directorate Science and Technology, AWE Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom); Lu, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Seugling, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Satcher, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Klingmann, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Comley, A. J. [Directorate Science and Technology, AWE Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom); Marrs, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); May, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Widmann, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glendinning, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Castor, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sain, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Back, C. A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Hund, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Baker, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hsing, W. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, J. [Directorate Science and Technology, AWE Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom); Young, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Young, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments that characterize and develop a high energy-density half-hohlraum platform for use in bench-marking radiation hydrodynamics models have been conducted at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Results from the experiments are used to quantitatively compare with simulations of the radiation transported through an evolving plasma density structure, colloquially known as an N-wave. A half-hohlraum is heated by 80 NIF beams to a temperature of 240 eV. This creates a subsonic di#11;usive Marshak wave which propagates into a high atomic number Ta2O5 aerogel. The subsequent radiation transport through the aerogel and through slots cut into the aerogel layer is investigated. We describe a set of experiments that test the hohlraum performance and report on a range

  4. High-energy electron beam technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danko, J.C.; Lundin, C.D. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)); Nolting, E.E. (Naval Surface Warfare Center, White Oak, MD (United States))

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-energy electron beam (HEEB) technology was developed under the US Department of Defense (DOD) charged-particle-beam (CPB) directed-energy program. The program's objective was advanced military weapon systems. For the past two decades, charged-particle-beam research focused on producing intense beams and the vehicles to deliver large amounts of electrical energy. The charged-particle beams of interest for weapon systems had particle energies up to 100 MeV, beam currents of tens of kiloamperes, and propagation distances in excess of 100 m. However, such high energy levels are not required for industrial uses of the technology. It is anticipated that these less-aggressive beams will provide an electrical heat source suitable for a variety of materials processing applications, including surface treatment, joining, shock hardening, phase-transformation hardening, peening, shock-wave compaction, and melting. Much more R and D is needed to transfer to industry the high-energy electron beam technology developed in the CPB program. For example, its power as a materials processing tool must be convincingly demonstrated. Also required are compact, reliable accelerators that are relatively simple to use and reasonably priced.

  5. Neutron spectrometry - An essential tool for diagnosing implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackinnon, A J; Johnson, M G; Frenje, J A; Casey, D T; Li, C K; Seguin, F H; Petrasso, R; Ashabranner, R; Cerjan, C; Clancy, T J; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Bond, E J; Caggiano, J A; Capenter, A; Eckart, M J; Edwards, M J; Friedrich, S; Glenzer, S H; Haan, S W; Hartouni, E P; Hatarik, R; Hachett, S P; McKernan, M; Jones, O; Lepape, S; Lerche, R A; Landen, O L; Moran, M; Moses, E; Munro, D; McNaney, J; Rygg, J R; Sepke, S; Spears, B; Springer, P; Yeamans, C; Farrell, M; Kilkenny, J D; Nikroo, A; Paguio, R; Knauer, J; Glebov, V; Sangster, T; Betti, R; Stoeckl, C; Magoon, J; Shoup, M J; Grim, G P; Moran, G L; Murphy, T J; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C

    2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    DT neutron yield (Y{sub n}), ion temperature (T{sub i}) and down-scatter ratio (dsr) determined from measured neutron spectra are essential metrics for diagnosing the performance of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A suite of neutron-Time-Of-Flight (nTOF) spectrometers and a Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) have been implemented in different locations around the NIF target chamber, providing good implosion coverage and the redundancy required for reliable measurements of Yn, Ti and dsr. From the measured dsr value, an areal density ({rho}R) is determined from the relationship {rho}R{sub tot} (g/cm{sup 2}) = (20.4 {+-} 0.6) x dsr{sub 10-12 MeV}. The proportionality constant is determined considering implosion geometry, neutron attenuation and energy range used for the dsr measurement. To ensure high accuracy in the measurements, a series of commissioning experiments using exploding pushers have been used for in situ calibration. The spectrometers are now performing to the required accuracy, as indicated by the good agreement between the different measurements over several commissioning shots. In addition, recent data obtained with the MRS and nTOFs indicate that the implosion performance of cryogenically layered DT implosions, characterized by the experimental Ignition Threshold Factor (ITFx) which is a function of dsr (or fuel {rho}R) and Y{sub n}, has improved almost two orders of magnitude since the first shot in September, 2010.

  6. Calibration in High-Energy Astrophysics Statistical Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Dyk, David

    Calibration in High-Energy Astrophysics Statistical Methods Statistical Computation Empirical Illustrations Accounting for Calibration Uncertainty: High Energy Astrophysics and the PCG Sampler David A. van Dyk Accounting for Calibration Uncertainty #12;Calibration in High-Energy Astrophysics Statistical

  7. High-Powered Lasers for Clean Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHallNot Logged3 HanfordHarry|High-Powered Lasers

  8. Structures in high-energy fusion data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Esbensen

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Structures observed in heavy-ion fusion cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier are interpreted as caused by the penetration of centrifugal barriers that are well-separated in energy. The structures are most pronounced in the fusion of lighter, symmetric systems, where the separation in energy between successive angular momentum barriers is relatively large. It is shown that the structures or peaks can be revealed by plotting the first derivative of the energy weighted cross section. It is also shown how an orbital angular momentum can be assign to the observed peaks by comparing to coupled-channels calculations. This is illustrated by analyzing high-energy fusion data for $^{12}$C+$^{16}$O and $^{16}$O+$^{16}$O, and the possibility of observing similar structures in the fusion of heavier systems is discussed.

  9. A high energy photon polarimeter for astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eingorn, Maxim; Vlahovic, Branislav; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Urciuoli, Guido Maria; De Persio, Fulvio; Meddi, Franco

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-energy photon polarimeter for astrophysics studies in the energy range from 20 MeV to 1000 MeV is considered. The proposed concept uses a stack of silicon micro-strip detectors where they play the roles of both a converter and a tracker. The purpose of this paper is to outline the parameters of such a polarimeter and to estimate the productivity of measurements. Our study supported by a Monte Carlo simulation shows that with a one-year observation period the polarimeter will provide 5.5 % accuracy of the polarization degree for a photon energy of 100 MeV, which would be a significant advance relative to the currently explored energy range of a few MeV. The proposed polarimeter design could easily be adjusted to the specific photon energy range to maximize efficiency if needed.

  10. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Richard A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    second resulting from a thermonuclear explosion of materialresult from the thermonuclear burning of a carbon-oxygensensitive to how the thermonuclear runaway is ignited (

  11. Engineering of High Energy Cathode Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard |inHVACEnforcementEngaging Students in20High EnergyHigh

  12. Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality Molten Aluminum Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality Molten Aluminum itmdelivery.pdf More...

  13. Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping This factsheet describes a...

  14. Developing new high energy gradient concentration cathode material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    new high energy gradient concentration cathode material Developing new high energy gradient concentration cathode material 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  15. USABC Energy Storage Testing - High Power and PHEV Development...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Storage Testing - High Power and PHEV Development USABC Energy Storage Testing - High Power and PHEV Development Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

  16. Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature...

  17. Modular Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator with Closed-Loop Exhaust By-Pass System Modular Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator with...

  18. TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries. TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries. Abstract: We will...

  19. High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program...

  20. Sandia Energy - High-Resolution Computational Algorithms for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Resolution Computational Algorithms for Simulating Offshore Wind Farms Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Offshore Wind High-Resolution...

  1. Interface Modifications by Anion Acceptors for High Energy Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modifications by Anion Acceptors for High Energy Lithium Ion Batteries. Interface Modifications by Anion Acceptors for High Energy Lithium Ion Batteries. Abstract: Li-rich, Mn-rich...

  2. Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  3. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for...

  4. Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors 2012...

  5. Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes This presentation is from the Building America...

  6. Search for High Energy Density Cathode Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy atLLC - FE DKT. 10-160-LNG -EnergyProcess|2StanfordOptimizationofSeanHigh

  7. High Bridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia, California: Energy Resources Jump to:Hidroflot JumpHigh

  8. High Energy Batteries India Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | Open EnergyInformation Hess Retail NaturalHiflux Ltd Jump to:High

  9. National Ignition Facility Management Descriptions Revision 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E I

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to describe the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project Organization and the top-level roles and responsibilities of the managers charged with executing the Project.

  10. National Ignition Facility Project Completion and Control System Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Arsdall, P J; Azevedo, S G; Beeler, R G; Bryant, R M; Carey, R W; Demaret, R D; Fisher, J M; Frazier, T M; Lagin, L J; Ludwigsen, A P; Marshall, C D; Mathisen, D G; Reed, R K

    2009-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. Completed in 2009, NIF is a stadium-sized facility containing a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW 192-beam ultraviolet laser and target chamber. A cryogenic tritium target system and suite of optical, X-ray and nuclear diagnostics will support experiments in a strategy to achieve fusion ignition starting in 2010. Automatic control of NIF is performed by the large-scale Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which is implemented by 2 MSLOC of Java and Ada running on 1300 front-end processors and servers. The ICCS framework uses CORBA distribution for interoperation between heterogeneous languages and computers. Laser setup is guided by a physics model and shots are coordinated by data-driven distributed workflow engines. The NIF information system includes operational tools and a peta-scale repository for provisioning experimental results. This paper discusses results achieved and the effort now underway to conduct full-scale operations and prepare for ignition.

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: very high solar energy conversion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    very high solar energy conversion efficiency ECIS-Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter On March 19, 2013, in DETL, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy...

  12. Highly Dispersed Metal Catalyst - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High SchoolBundles to LivingPortal HighlyHydrogen

  13. High Performance Valve Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHighLouisiana |HighMaterials High

  14. High Energy Studies of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick Slane

    2008-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The extended nebulae formed as pulsar winds expand into their surroundings provide information about the composition of the winds, the injection history from the host pulsar, and the material into which the nebulae are expanding. Observations from across the electromagnetic spectrum provide constraints on the evolution of the nebulae, the density and composition of the surrounding ejecta, the geometry of the systems, the formation of jets, and the maximum energy of the particles in the nebulae. Here I provide a broad overview of the structure of pulsar wind nebulae, with specific examples that demonstrate our ability to constrain the above parameters. The association of pulsar wind nebulae with extended sources of very high energy gamma-ray emission are investigated, along with constraints on the nature of such high energy emission.

  15. High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    & Publications Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies Vehicle Technologies Office Merit...

  16. High energy hadron-hadron collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, T.T.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of a study on high energy collision with the geometrical model are summarized in three parts: (1) the elastic hadron-hadron collision, (2) the inelastic hadron-hadron collision, and (3) the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation. More recent studies are highlighted below. For elastic scattering, a modified form for the hadronic matter form factor of the proton was proposed which remains to be dipole in form but contains an energy-dependent range parameter. This new expression of the opacity function fits the elastic {bar p}p scattering very well from the ISR to S{bar p}pS energies. Extrapolation of this theory also yielded results in good agreement with the {bar p}p differential cross section measured at the Tevatron. For inelastic hadron-hadron collisions, we have made a systematic investigation of the single-particle momentum spectra in the entire S{bar p}pS energy region. Results are useful for the extrapolation of angular distribution to the higher SSC energies. In e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation, a detailed analysis of all available experimental multiplicity data from PETRA to LEP energies has been performed. We discovered that the cluster size of emitted hadrons increases steadily with energy and is close to 2 as we predicted.

  17. High energy photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, S.J. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Zerwas, P.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The collisions of high energy photons produced at a electron-positron collider provide a comprehensive laboratory for testing QCD, electroweak interactions and extensions of the standard model. The luminosity and energy of the colliding photons produced by back-scattering laser beams is expected to be comparable to that of the primary e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions. In this overview, we shall focus on tests of electroweak theory in photon-photon annihilation, particularly {gamma}{gamma} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup {minus}}, {gamma}{gamma} {yields} Higgs bosons, and higher-order loop processes, such as {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}, Z{gamma} and ZZ. Since each photon can be resolved into a W{sup +}W{sup minus} pair, high energy photon-photon collisions can also provide a remarkably background-free laboratory for studying WW collisions and annihilation. We also review high energy {gamma}{gamma} tests of quantum chromodynamics, such as the scaling of the photon structure function, t{bar t} production, mini-jet processes, and diffractive reactions.

  18. A High Energy Nuclear Database Proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David A. Brown; Ramona Vogt

    2005-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interace. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from the Bevalac, AGS and SPS to RHIC and LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for intertial confinement fusion and target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the Next Linear Collider. To enhance the utility of this database, we propose periodically performing evaluations of the data and summarizing the results in topical reviews.

  19. 2924 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 36, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2008 Kinetic Ignition Enhancement of H2 Versus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ju, Yiguang

    , any type of enhancement of ignition in high- speed flow is complicated by the coupling of heat and rad 12, 2008. This work was supported in part by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant

  20. High energy neutron Computed Tomography developed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet WhenHiggs BosonAccurate knowledgeHigh energy

  1. Property:SalinityHIgh | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag Jump to:ID8/Organization RAPID/Contact/ID8/Positionmaterial JumpSalinityHIgh Jump

  2. High Temperature Cements | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel Jump to: navigation, search Name:Hidralia EnergiaFalls,High

  3. Engineering of High Energy Cathode Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard |inHVACEnforcementEngaging Students in20High Energy

  4. High-Energy Neutrinos from Cosmic Rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Halzen

    2002-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce neutrino astronomy from the observational fact that Nature accelerates protons and photons to energies in excess of 10^{20} and 10^{13} eV, respectively. Although the discovery of cosmic rays dates back close to a century, we do not know how and where they are accelerated. We review the facts as well as the speculations about the sources. Among these gamma ray bursts and active galaxies represent well-motivated speculations because these are also the sources of the highest energy gamma rays, with emission observed up to 20 TeV, possibly higher. We discuss why cosmic accelerators are also expected to be cosmic beam dumps producing high-energy neutrino beams associated with the highest energy cosmic rays. Cosmic ray sources may produce neutrinos from MeV to EeV energy by a variety of mechanisms. The important conclusion is that, independently of the specific blueprint of the source, it takes a kilometer-scale neutrino observatory to detect the neutrino beam associated with the highest energy cosmic rays and gamma rays. The technology for commissioning such instruments exists.

  5. Overview of the gamma reaction history diagnostic for the national ignition facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yong Ho [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Scott C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Herrmann, Hans W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mack, Joseph M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Young, Carl S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Malone, Robert M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cox, Brian C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Frogget, Brent C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kaufman, Morris I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tunnell, Thomas W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tibbitts, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palagi, Martin J [NST/LAS VEGAS; Stoeffl, Wolfgang [LLNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has a need for measuring gamma radiation as part of a nuclear diagnostic program. A new gamma-detection diagnostic uses 900 off-axis parabolic mirrors to rel ay Cherenkov light from a volume of pressurized gas. This non imaging optical system has the high-speed detector placed at a stop position with the Cherenkov light delayed until after the prompt gammas have passed through the detector. Because of the wavelength range (250 to 700 nm), the optical element surface finish was a key design constraint. A cluster of four channels (each set to a different gas pressure) will collect the time histories for different energy ranges of gammas.

  6. Constraints of Dark Energy at High Redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiping Su; Rong-Gen Cai

    2014-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Constrains of dark energy (DE) at high redshift from current and mock future observational data are obtained. It is found that present data give poor constraints of DE even beyond redshift z=0.4, and mock future 2298 type Ia supernove data only give a little improvement of the constraints. We analyze in detail why constraints of DE decrease rapidly with the increasing of redshift. Then we try to improve the constraints of DE at high redshift. It is shown that the most efficient way is to improve the error of observations.

  7. High Performance Window Attachments | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'iPresentedHigh PenetrationEnergyHigh

  8. High Temperature Interfacial Superconductivity - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School football Fancy footwork by C. Kim

  9. High Temperature PEM - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School football Fancy footwork by C.

  10. High energy neutron Computed Tomography developed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School football Fancy footworke ne rgy data s

  11. High West Energy, Inc (Nebraska) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel Jump to: navigation, search Name:HidraliaWells Geothermal ProjectHigh

  12. Development of High Energy Cathode Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H IMaterials Development of High Energy Cathode

  13. Engineering of High Energy Cathode Material | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard |inHVACEnforcementEngaging Students in20High Energy Cathode

  14. Engineering of high energy cathode material | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard |inHVACEnforcementEngaging Students in20High EnergyHighhigh

  15. High Energy Neutrino Astronomy: WIN 99

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Halzen

    1999-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Although high energy neutrino astronomy is a multidisciplinary science, gamma ray bursts have become the theoretical focus since recent astronomical observations revealed their potential as cosmic particle accelerators. This spotlight is shared with investigations of the potential of high energy telescopes to observe oscillating atmospheric neutrinos. The Superkamiokande results have boosted atmospheric neutrinos from a calibration tool and a background for doing astronomy, to an opportunity to confirm the evidence for neutrino mass. Nevertheless, the highlights are mostly on the experimental front with the completion of the first-generation Baikal and AMANDA detectors. Neutrino signals from the Lake Baikal detector bode well for the flurry of activities in the Mediterranean. The completed AMANDA telescope announced first light, neutrinos actually, at this meeting.

  16. New Prospects in High Energy Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blandford, Roger; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent discoveries using TeV, X-ray and radio telescopes as well as Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray arrays are leading to new insights into longstanding puzzles in high energy astrophysics. Many of these insights come from combining observations throughout the electromagnetic and other spectra as well as evidence assembled from different types of source to propose general principles. Issues discussed in this general overview include methods of accelerating relativistic particles, and amplifying magnetic field, the dynamics of relativistic outflows and the nature of the prime movers that power them. Observational approaches to distinguishing hadronic, leptonic and electromagnetic outflows and emission mechanisms are discussed along with probes of the velocity field and the confinement mechanisms. Observations with GLAST promise to be very prescriptive for addressing these problems.

  17. Prospects of High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, J.S.T.; Chen, P.; /SLAC

    2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) have been observed but their sources and production mechanisms are yet to be understood. We envision a laboratory astrophysics program that will contribute to the understanding of cosmic accelerators with efforts to: (1) test and calibrate UHECR observational techniques, and (2) elucidate the underlying physics of cosmic acceleration through laboratory experiments and computer simulations. Innovative experiments belonging to the first category have already been done at the SLAC FFTB. Results on air fluorescence yields from the FLASH experiment are reviewed. Proposed future accelerator facilities can provided unprecedented high-energy-densities in a regime relevant to cosmic acceleration studies and accessible in a terrestrial environment for the first time. We review recent simulation studies of nonlinear plasma dynamics that could give rise to cosmic acceleration, and discuss prospects for experimental investigation of the underlying mechanisms.

  18. High energy density redox flow device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Ho, Bryan Y; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  19. Viscosity of High Energy Nuclear Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Parihar; A. Widom; D. Drosdoff; Y. N. Srivastava

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistic high energy heavy ion collision cross sections have been interpreted in terms of almost ideal liquid droplets of nuclear matter. The experimental low viscosity of these nuclear fluids have been of considerable recent quantum chromodynamic interest. The viscosity is here discussed in terms of the string fragmentation models wherein the temperature dependence of the nuclear fluid viscosity obeys the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law.

  20. UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutherfoord, John P. [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Johns, Kenneth A. [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Shupe, Michael A. [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Cheu, Elliott C. [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Varnes, Erich W. [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Dienes, Keith [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Su, Shufang [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Toussaint, William Doug [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Sarcevic, Ina [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona

    2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Energy Physics Group at the University of Arizona has conducted forefront research in elementary particle physics. Our theorists have developed new ideas in lattice QCD, SUSY phenomenology, string theory phenomenology, extra spatial dimensions, dark matter, and neutrino astrophysics. The experimentalists produced significant physics results on the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider and on the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. In addition, the experimentalists were leaders in detector development and construction, and on service roles in these experiments.

  1. High Penetration Solar Deployment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHigh

  2. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roman Kogler; David M. South; Michael Steder

    2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Data from high-energy physics experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. However, until recently no coherent strategy existed for data preservation and re-use, and many important and complex data sets have simply been lost. While the current focus is on the LHC at CERN, in the current period several important and unique experimental programs at other facilities are coming to an end, including those at HERA, b-factories and the Tevatron. To address this issue, an inter-experimental study group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis (DPHEP) was convened at the end of 2008. The group now aims to publish a full and detailed review of the present status of data preservation in high energy physics. This contribution summarises the results of the DPHEP study group, describing the challenges of data preservation in high energy physics and the group's first conclusions and recommendations. The physics motivation for data preservation, generic computing and preservation models, technological expectations and governance aspects at local and international levels are examined.

  3. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alp, Ercan E. (Bolingbrook, IL); Mooney, Timothy M. (Westmont, IL); Toellner, Thomas (Green Bay, WI)

    1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut (.alpha.=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5-30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the .mu.eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator.

  4. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.

    1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut ({alpha}=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5--30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the {micro}eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator. 7 figs.

  5. Kinetic modelling of a surrogate diesel fuel applied to 3D auto-ignition in HCCI engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bounaceur, Roda; Fournet, Ren; Battin-Leclerc, Frdrique; Jay, S; Da Cruz, A Pires

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The prediction of auto-ignition delay times in HCCI engines has risen interest on detailed chemical models. This paper described a validated kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of a model Diesel fuel (n-decane and ?-methylnaphthalene). The 3D model for the description of low and high temperature auto-ignition in engines is presented. The behavior of the model fuel is compared with that of n-heptane. Simulations show that the 3D model coupled with the kinetic mechanism can reproduce experimental HCCI and Diesel engine results and that the correct modeling of auto-ignition in the cool flame region is essential in HCCI conditions.

  6. Terascale Physics Opportunities at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, T.

    This article presents the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering

  7. Development and Benchmarking of a Hybrid PIC Code For Dense Plasmas and Fast Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas [HyperV Technologies Corp.; Welch, Dale R. [Voss Scientific, LLC; Thompson, John R. [FAR-TECH, Inc.; MacFarlane, Joeseph J. [Prism Computational Sciences Inc.; Phillips, Michael W. [Advanced Energy Systems, Inc.; Bruner, Nicki [Voss Scientific, LLC; Mostrom, Chris [Voss Scientific, LLC; Thoma, Carsten [Voss Scientific, LLC; Clark, R. E. [Voss Scientific, LLC; Bogatu, Nick [FAR-TECH, Inc.; Kim, Jin-Soo [FAR-TECH, Inc.; Galkin, Sergei [FAR-TECH, Inc.; Golovkin, Igor E. [Prism Computational Sciences, Inc.; Woodruff, P. R. [Prism Computational Sciences, Inc.; Wu, Linchun [HyperV Technologies Corp.; Messer, Sarah J. [HyperV Technologies Corp.

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation processes play an important role in the study of both fast ignition and other inertial confinement schemes, such as plasma jet driven magneto-inertial fusion, both in their effect on energy balance, and in generating diagnostic signals. In the latter case, warm and hot dense matter may be produced by the convergence of a plasma shell formed by the merging of an assembly of high Mach number plasma jets. This innovative approach has the potential advantage of creating matter of high energy densities in voluminous amount compared with high power lasers or particle beams. An important application of this technology is as a plasma liner for the flux compression of magnetized plasma to create ultra-high magnetic fields and burning plasmas. HyperV Technologies Corp. has been developing plasma jet accelerator technology in both coaxial and linear railgun geometries to produce plasma jets of sufficient mass, density, and velocity to create such imploding plasma liners. An enabling tool for the development of this technology is the ability to model the plasma dynamics, not only in the accelerators themselves, but also in the resulting magnetized target plasma and within the merging/interacting plasma jets during transport to the target. Welch pioneered numerical modeling of such plasmas (including for fast ignition) using the LSP simulation code. Lsp is an electromagnetic, parallelized, plasma simulation code under development since 1995. It has a number of innovative features making it uniquely suitable for modeling high energy density plasmas including a hybrid fluid model for electrons that allows electrons in dense plasmas to be modeled with a kinetic or fluid treatment as appropriate. In addition to in-house use at Voss Scientific, several groups carrying out research in Fast Ignition (LLNL, SNL, UCSD, AWE (UK), and Imperial College (UK)) also use LSP. A collaborative team consisting of HyperV Technologies Corp., Voss Scientific LLC, FAR-TECH, Inc., Prism Computational Sciences, Inc. and Advanced Energy Systems Inc. joined efforts to develop new physics and numerical models for LSP in several key areas to enhance the ability of LSP to model high energy density plasmas (HEDP). This final report details those efforts. Areas addressed in this research effort include: adding radiation transport to LSP, first in 2D and then fully 3D, extending the EMHD model to 3D, implementing more advanced radiation and electrode plasma boundary conditions, and installing more efficient implicit numerical algorithms to speed complex 2-D and 3-D computations. The new capabilities allow modeling of the dominant processes in high energy density plasmas, and further assist the development and optimization of plasma jet accelerators, with particular attention to MHD instabilities and plasma/wall interaction (based on physical models for ion drag friction and ablation/erosion of the electrodes). In the first funding cycle we implemented a solver for the radiation diffusion equation. To solve this equation in 2-D, we used finite-differencing and applied the parallelized sparse-matrix solvers in the PETSc library (Argonne National Laboratory) to the resulting system of equations. A database of the necessary coefficients for materials of interest was assembled using the PROPACEOS and ATBASE codes from Prism. The model was benchmarked against Prism's 1-D radiation hydrodynamics code HELIOS, and against experimental data obtained from HyperV's separately funded plasma jet accelerator development program. Work in the second funding cycle focused on extending the radiation diffusion model to full 3-D, continued development of the EMHD model, optimizing the direct-implicit model to speed up calculations, add in multiply ionized atoms, and improved the way boundary conditions are handled in LSP. These new LSP capabilities were then used, along with analytic calculations and Mach2 runs, to investigate plasma jet merging, plasma detachment and transport, restrike and advanced jet accelerator design. In addition, a strong linkage to diagnostic measureme

  8. Fuel effects in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angelos, John P. (John Phillip)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogenous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) combustion is a new method of burning fuel in internal combustion (IC) engines. In an HCCI engine, the fuel and air are premixed prior to combustion, like in a spark-ignition ...

  9. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clobes, A.R.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility M Project. It was prepared for the NIP Prood Office by the NIF Procurement Manager.

  10. Low current extended duration spark ignition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waters, Stephen Howard; Chan, Anthony Kok-Fai

    2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for firing a spark plug is disclosed. The system includes a timing controller configured to send a first timing signal and a second timing signal. The system also includes an ignition transformer having a primary winding and a secondary winding and a spark-plug that is operably associated with the secondary winding. A first switching element is disposed between the timing controller and the primary winding of the ignition transformer. The first switching element controls a supply of power to the primary winding based on the first timing signal. Also, a second switching element is disposed between the timing controller and the primary winding of the ignition transformer. The second switching element controls the supply of power to the primary winding based on the second timing signal. A method for firing a spark plug is also disclosed.

  11. Photoresist integrity during high energy implant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parrill, T.M. [Texas Instruments Productization, Dallas, TX (United States); Jones, M. [Eaton Corporation, Beverly, MA (United States); Jain, A. [Texas Indstruments Semiconductor Process and Development Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoresist integrity was evaluated on a commercial high-energy ion implanter operated up to the specified energy (1.7 MeV B or 3.0 MeV P) and power (1.0 MeV B at 1000 p{mu}A or 2.0 MeV P at 500 p{mu}A) limits. SEM Cross-sectional analysis of several photoresists showed that the proper cooling was maintained to avoid significant photoresist degradation. Photoresist shrinkage was observed, resulting in thickness reductions up to 22% and significant changes in sidewall slope. Little asymmetry was observed when photoresist was implanted at a 7{degrees} tilt. At the specified power limits, photoresist outgassing prevented smooth implant operation unless pressure compensation was implemented.

  12. The ePLAS Code for Ignition Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Rodney J

    2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) presents unique opportunities for the extraction of clean energy from Fusion. Intense lasers and particle beams can create and interact with such plasmas, potentially yielding sufficient energy to satisfy all our national needs. However, few models are available to help aid the scientific community in the study and optimization of such interactions. This project enhanced and disseminated the computer code ePLAS for the early understanding and control of Ignition in ICF. ePLAS is a unique simulation code that tracks the transport of laser light to a target, the absorption of that light resulting in the generation and transport of hot electrons, and the heating and flow dynamics of the background plasma. It uses an implicit electromagnetic field-solving method to greatly reduce computing demands, so that useful target interaction studies can often be completed in 15 minutes on a portable 2.1 GHz PC. The code permits the rapid scoping of calculations for the optimization of laser target interactions aimed at fusion. Recent efforts have initiated the use of analytic equations of state (EOS), K-alpha image rendering graphics, allocatable memory for source-free usage, and adaption to the latest Mac and Linux Operating Systems. The speed and utility of ePLAS are unequaled in the ICF simulation community. This project evaluated the effects of its new EOSs on target heating, compared fluid and particle models for the ions, initiated the simultaneous use of both ion models in the code, and studied long time scale 500 ps hot electron deposition for shock ignition. ePLAS has been granted EAR99 export control status, permitting export without a license to most foreign countries. Beta-test versions of ePLAS have been granted to several Universities and Commercial users. The net Project was aimed at achieving early success in the laboratory ignition of thermonuclear targets and the mastery of controlled fusion power for the nation.

  13. DOE/EIS-0236, Oakland Operations Office, National Ignition Facility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOEEIS-0236, Oakland Operations Office, National Ignition Facility Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement to the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic...

  14. Crops sought as high chemical energy source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawls, R.

    1983-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Dept of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service is searching for native plants that are not now being grown as commercial crops but that could be grown profitably to produce easily extractable, high-energy organic products. Usually these products are hydrocarbons or whole plant oils; protein content and plant fiber content are also considered. One such plant being investigated is smooth sumac, a woody perennial that is native to North America and is a particularly good source of polyphenols, resins and oils.

  15. Future high energy colliders. Formal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsa, Z. [ed.] [ed.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This Report includes copies of transparencies and notes from the presentations made at the Symposium on Future High Energy Colliders, October 21-25, 1996 at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara California, that was made available by the authors. Editing, reduction and changes to the authors contributions were made only to fulfill the printing and publication requirements. We would like to take this opportunity and thank the speakers for their informative presentations and for providing copies of their transparencies and notes for inclusion in this Report.

  16. High-Tech Means High-Efficiency: The Business Case for Energy Management in High-Tech Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamshoian, Gary; Blazek, Michele; Naughton, Phil; Seese, Robert S.; Mills, Evan; Tschudi, William

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EIA Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (1999 values). High-Tech buildings from LBNL benchmarking databases.

  17. Design and Construction of a Gamma Reaction History Diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.M. Malone, B.C. Cox, B.C. Frogget, M.I. Kaufman, T.W. Tunnell; H.W. Herrmann, S.C. Evans, J.M. Mack, C.S. Young; W. Stoeffl

    2009-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Cherenkov detectors have been used to convert fusion gammas into photons to achieve gamma reaction history (GRH) measurements. These gas detectors include a converter, pressurized gas volume, relay optics, and a photon detector. A novel design for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using 90 Off-Axis Parabolic mirrors efficiently collects signal from fusion gammas with 8-ps time dispersion.1 Fusion gammas are converted to Compton electrons, which generate broadband Cherenkov light (our response is from 250 to 700 nm) in a pressurized gas cell. This light is relayed into a high-speed detector using three parabolic mirrors. The detector optics collect light from a 125-mm-diameter by 600-mm-long interchangeable gas (CO2 or SF6) volume. Because light is collected from source locations throughout the gas volume, the detector is positioned at the stop position rather than at an image position. The stop diameter and its position are independent of the light-generation locations along the gas cell. This design incorporates a fixed time delay that allows the detector to recover from prompt radiation. Optical ray tracings demonstrate how light can be collected from different angled trajectories of the Compton electrons as they traverse the gas volume. A Monte Carlo model of the conversion process from gammas to Cherenkov photons is used to generate photon trajectories. The collection efficiencies for different gamma energies are evaluated. At NIF, a cluster of four channels will allow for increased dynamic range, as well as different gamma energy thresholds. This GRH design is compared to a gas Cherenkov detector that utilizes a Cassegrain reflector now used at the OMEGA laser facility. 1. R. M. Malone, H. W. Herrmann, W. Stoeffl, J. M. Mack, C. S. Young, Gamma bang time/reaction history diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility using 90 off-axis parabolic mirrors, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 10E532 (2008).

  18. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Climates Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Humid Climates School districts around the country are finding that the smart energy choices can help them...

  19. Chaotic Combustion in Spark Ignition Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Wendeker; J. Czarnigowski; G. Litak; K. Szabelski

    2002-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyse the combustion process in a spark ignition engine using the experimental data of an internal pressure during the combustion process and show that the system can be driven to chaotic behaviour. Our conclusion is based on the observation of unperiodicity in the time series, suitable stroboscopic maps and a complex structure of a reconstructed strange attractor. This analysis can explain that in some circumstances the level of noise in spark ignition engines increases considerably due to nonlinear dynamics of a combustion process.

  20. A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickworth, L. A., E-mail: pickworth1@llnl.gov; McCarville, T.; Decker, T.; Pardini, T.; Ayers, J.; Bell, P.; Bradley, D.; Brejnholt, N. F.; Izumi, N.; Mirkarimi, P.; Pivovaroff, M.; Smalyuk, V.; Vogel, J.; Walton, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Current pinhole x ray imaging at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is limited in resolution and signal throughput to the detector for Inertial Confinement Fusion applications, due to the viable range of pinhole sizes (1025 ?m) that can be deployed. A higher resolution and throughput diagnostic is in development using a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope system (KBM). The system will achieve <9 ?m resolution over a 300 ?m field of view with a multilayer coating operating at 10.2 keV. Presented here are the first images from the uncoated NIF KBM configuration demonstrating high resolution has been achieved across the full 300 ?m field of view.

  1. Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale implosions on the NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Hammel, B. A.; Suter, L. J.; Ralph, J.; Scott, H.; Barrios, M. A.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C.; Collins, G. W.; Dixit, S. N.; Doeppner, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Farley, D. R.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ignition of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target depends on the formation of a central hot spot with sufficient temperature and areal density. Radiative and conductive losses from the hot spot can be enhanced by hydrodynamic instabilities. The concentric spherical layers of current National Ignition Facility (NIF) ignition targets consist of a plastic ablator surrounding a thin shell of cryogenic thermonuclear fuel (i.e., hydrogen isotopes), with fuel vapor filling the interior volume [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. The Rev. 5 ablator is doped with Ge to minimize preheat of the ablator closest to the DT ice caused by Au M-band emission from the hohlraum x-ray drive [D. S. Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 052703 (2010)]. Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by high-mode () ablator-surface perturbations can cause Ge-doped ablator to mix into the interior of the shell at the end of the acceleration phase [B. A. Hammel et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056310 (2011)]. As the shell decelerates, it compresses the fuel vapor, forming a hot spot. K-shell line emission from the ionized Ge that has penetrated into the hot spot provides an experimental signature of hot-spot mix. The Ge emission from tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) cryogenic targets and gas-filled plastic-shell capsules, which replace the THD layer with a mass-equivalent CH layer, was examined. The inferred amount of hot-spot-mix mass, estimated from the Ge K-shell line brightness using a detailed atomic physics code [J. J. MacFarlane et al., High Energy Density Phys. 3, 181 (2006)], is typically below the 75-ng allowance for hot-spot mix [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. Predictions of a simple mix model, based on linear growth of the measured surface-mass modulations, are consistent with the experimental results.

  2. Engineering of High Energy Cathode Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 FederalTexas Energyof 2005 atDepartment ofLLCEngineering of High Energy

  3. High Energy Novel Cathode / Alloy Automotive Cell | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHigh Efficiency Low -1 DOE0Novel

  4. University of Oklahoma - High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skubic, Patrick L. [University of Oklahoma] [University of Oklahoma

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Energy Physics program at the University of Oklahoma, Pat Skubic, Principal Investigator, is attempting to understand nature at the deepest level using the most advanced experimental and theoretical tools. The four experimental faculty, Brad Abbott, Phil Gutierrez, Pat Skubic, and Mike Strauss, together with post-doctoral associates and graduate students, are finishing their work as part of the D0 collaboration at Fermilab, and increasingly focusing their investigations at the Large Hadron Collidor (LHC) as part of the ATLAS Collaboration. Work at the LHC has become even more exciting with the recent discovery by ATLAS and the other collaboration, CMS, of the long-sought Higgs boson, which plays a key role in generating masses for the elementary constituents of matter. Work of the OUHEP group has been in the three areas of hardware, software, and analysis. Now that the Higgs boson has been discovered, completing the Standard Model of fundamental physics, new efforts will focus on finding hints of physics beyond the standard model, such as supersymmetry. The OUHEP theory group (Kim Milton, PI) also consists of four faculty members, Howie Baer, Chung Kao, Kim Milton, and Yun Wang, and associated students and postdocs. They are involved in understanding fundamental issues in formulating theories of the microworld, and in proposing models that carry us past the Standard Model, which is an incomplete description of nature. They therefore work in close concert with their experimental colleagues. One also can study fundamental physics by looking at the large scale structure of the universe; in particular the ``dark energy'' that seems to be causing the universe to expand at an accelerating rate, effectively makes up about 3/4 of the energy in the universe, and yet is totally unidentified. Dark energy and dark matter, which together account for nearly all of the energy in the universe, are an important probe of fundamental physics at the very shortest distances, or at the very highest energies. The outcomes of the group's combined experimental and theoretical research will be an improved understanding of nature, at the highest energies reachable, from which applications to technological innovation will surely result, as they always have from such studies in the past.

  5. Safety and environmental process for the design and construction of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brereton, S.J., LLNL

    1998-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laser fusion experimental facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This paper describes the safety and environmental processes followed by NIF during the design and construction activities.

  6. Pathway from the National Ignition Facility to an operational LIFE power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pathway from the National Ignition Facility to an operational LIFE power plant Presentation to AAAS next step, after NIF, is construction of a full-scale power plant NIF-1111-23807.ppt 4 #12 PG&E Southern Company Wisconsin Energy SSEB Power Plant Vendors Laser

  7. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xiangwu; Fedkiw, Peter; Khan, Saad; Huang, Alex; Fan, Jiang

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 ?m or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  8. Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Kasei * Focused on High Capacity Manganese Rich (HCMR TM ) cathodes & Silicon-Carbon composite anodes for Lithium ion batteries * Envia's high energy Li-ion battery materials...

  9. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Case study describes...

  10. Gasoline surrogate modeling of gasoline ignition in a rapid compression machine and comparison to experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Kukkadapu, G; Kumar, K; Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Sung, S J

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of gasoline in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) and in duel fuel diesel - gasoline engines, has increased the need to understand its compression ignition processes under engine-like conditions. These processes need to be studied under well-controlled conditions in order to quantify low temperature heat release and to provide fundamental validation data for chemical kinetic models. With this in mind, an experimental campaign has been undertaken in a rapid compression machine (RCM) to measure the ignition of gasoline mixtures over a wide range of compression temperatures and for different compression pressures. By measuring the pressure history during ignition, information on the first stage ignition (when observed) and second stage ignition are captured along with information on the phasing of the heat release. Heat release processes during ignition are important because gasoline is known to exhibit low temperature heat release, intermediate temperature heat release and high temperature heat release. In an HCCI engine, the occurrence of low-temperature and intermediate-temperature heat release can be exploited to obtain higher load operation and has become a topic of much interest for engine researchers. Consequently, it is important to understand these processes under well-controlled conditions. A four-component gasoline surrogate model (including n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and 2-pentene) has been developed to simulate real gasolines. An appropriate surrogate mixture of the four components has been developed to simulate the specific gasoline used in the RCM experiments. This chemical kinetic surrogate model was then used to simulate the RCM experimental results for real gasoline. The experimental and modeling results covered ultra-lean to stoichiometric mixtures, compressed temperatures of 640-950 K, and compression pressures of 20 and 40 bar. The agreement between the experiments and model is encouraging in terms of first-stage (when observed) and second-stage ignition delay times and of heat release rate. The experimental and computational results are used to gain insight into low and intermediate temperature processes during gasoline ignition.

  11. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, Yuiko T. (Clarks Summit, PA); Guesto-Barnak, Donna (Dupont, PA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-or no-silica, low- or no-alkali phosphate glass useful as a laser amplifier in a multiple pass, high energy laser system having a high thermal conductivity, K.sub.90.degree. C. >0.85 W/mK, a low coefficient of thermal expansion, .alpha..sub.20.degree.-300.degree. C. <80.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C., low emission cross section, .sigma.<2.5.times.10.sup.-20 cm.sup.2, and a high fluorescence lifetime, .tau.>325 .mu.secs at 3 wt. % Nd doping, consisting essentially of (on an oxide composition basis): wherein Ln.sub.2 O.sub.3 is the sum of lanthanide oxides; .SIGMA.R.sub.2 O is <5, R being Li, Na, K, Cs, and Rb; the sum of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and MgO is <24 unless .SIGMA.R.sub.2 O is 0, then the sum of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and MgO is <42; and the ratio of MgO to B.sub.2 O.sub.3 is 0.48-4.20.

  12. High Energy Resummation in Quantum ChromoDynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marzani, Simone

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis I discuss different aspects of high energy resummation in Quantum Chromo-Dynamics and its relevance for precision physics at hadron colliders. The high energy factorisation theorem is presented and discussed ...

  13. New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas Mileage Cars and Trucks New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas Mileage Cars and Trucks June 11, 2009 -...

  14. Direct Injection Compression Ignition Diesel Automotive Technology Education GATE Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Carl L

    2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The underlying goal of this prqject was to provide multi-disciplinary engineering training for graduate students in the area of internal combustion engines, specifically in direct injection compression ignition engines. The program was designed to educate highly qualified engineers and scientists that will seek to overcome teclmological barriers preventing the development and production of cost-effective high-efficiency vehicles for the U.S. market. Fu1iher, these highly qualified engineers and scientists will foster an educational process to train a future workforce of automotive engineering professionals who are knowledgeable about and have experience in developing and commercializing critical advanced automotive teclmologies. Eight objectives were defmed to accomplish this goal: 1. Develop an interdisciplinary internal co1nbustion engine curriculum emphasizing direct injected combustion ignited diesel engines. 2. Encourage and promote interdisciplinary interaction of the faculty. 3. Offer a Ph.D. degree in internal combustion engines based upon an interdisciplinary cuniculum. 4. Promote strong interaction with indusuy, develop a sense of responsibility with industry and pursue a self sustaining program. 5. Establish collaborative arrangements and network universities active in internal combustion engine study. 6. Further Enhance a First Class educational facility. 7. Establish 'off-campus' M.S. and Ph.D. engine programs of study at various indusuial sites. 8. Extend and Enhance the Graduate Experience.

  15. FUSION IGNITION RESEARCH EXPERIMENT SYSTEM INTEGRATION *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FUSION IGNITION RESEARCH EXPERIMENT SYSTEM INTEGRATION * T. Brown Princeton Plasma Physics-- This paper describes the current status of the FIRE configuration and the integration of the major subsystem vessel integrates cooling and shielding in a shape that maximizes shielding of ex-vessel components

  16. FUSION IGNITION RESEARCH EXPERIMENT SYSTEM INTEGRATION *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FUSION IGNITION RESEARCH EXPERIMENT SYSTEM INTEGRATION * T. Brown Princeton Plasma Physics of the FIRE configuration and the integration of the major subsystem components. FIRE has a major by a thermal enclosure. The double wall vacuum vessel integrates cooling and shielding in a shape

  17. Impacts assessment for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bay Area Economics

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the economic and other impacts that will be created by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction and ongoing operation, as well as the impacts that may be created by new technologies that may be developed as a result of NIF development and operation.

  18. High Speed Flywheels for Integrated Energy Storage and Attitude Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Christopher D.

    High Speed Flywheels for Integrated Energy Storage and Attitude Control Christopher D. Hall. Decomposition of the space of internal torques separates the attitude control functionfrom the energy storage simultaneously performing energy storage and extraction operations. 1 Introduction The power engineering

  19. ISTC SAC Seminar "New Perspectives of High Energy Physics"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    13th ISTC SAC Seminar "New Perspectives of High Energy Physics" 15 September, 2010, Budker) is organizing the 13th SAC Seminar "New Perspectives of High Energy Physics", from 01 till 05 September 2010 of this Seminar is to report on the newest achievements and challenges in High Energy Physics and to identify

  20. Data mining in high energy physics Bertrand Brelier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prodi, Aleksandar

    Data mining in high energy physics Bertrand Brelier SOSCIP July 3, 2014 Bertrand Brelier (SOSCIP) Data mining in high energy physics July 3, 2014 1 / 8 #12;The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Bertrand Brelier (SOSCIP) Data mining in high energy physics July 3, 2014 2 / 8 #12;The ATLAS detector Bertrand

  1. Calibration in High-Energy Astrophysics Statistical Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Dyk, David

    Calibration in High-Energy Astrophysics Statistical Methods Empirical Illustrations Accounting for Calibration Uncertainty in High Energy Astrophysics David A. van Dyk1 Vinay Kashyap2 Taeyoung Park3 Jin Xu4 David A. van Dyk Accounting for Calibration Uncertainty #12;Calibration in High-Energy Astrophysics

  2. Mode-Locked Fibre Lasers with High-Energy Pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    , including generation of ultra-short and high-energy pulses. Since the invention of the laser researchers, technological, medical, and other applications. High energies and ultra-short pulse durations are both resonators. In addition, the path to high-energy ultra-short pulses is, typically, further complicated

  3. Low energy high pressure miniature screw valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A low energy high pressure screw valve having a valve body having an upper portion and a lower portion, said lower portion of said valve body defining an inlet flow passage and an outlet flow passage traversing said valve body to a valve seat, said upper portion of said valve body defining a cavity at said valve seat, a diaphragm restricting flow between said upper portion of said valve body and said lower portion, said diaphragm capable of engaging said valve seat to restrict fluid communication between said inlet passage and said outlet passage, a plunger within said cavity supporting said diaphragm, said plunger being capable of engaging said diaphragm with said valve seat at said inlet and outlet fluid passages, said plunger being in point contact with a drive screw having threads engaged with opposing threads within said upper portion of said valve body such engagement allowing motion of said drive screw within said valve body.

  4. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors for High Energy Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maoddi, Pietro; Mapelli, Alessandro

    This thesis deals with the development and study of microfluidic scintillation detectors, a technology of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles. Most of the interest for such devices comes from the use of a liquid scintillator, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to increased radiation resistance. A first part of the thesis focuses on the work performed in terms of design and modelling studies of novel prototype devices, hinting to new possibilities and applications. In this framework, the simulations performed to validate selected designs and the main technological choices made in view of their fabrication are addressed. The second part of this thesis deals with the microfabrication of several prototype devices. Two different materials were studied for the manufacturing of microfluidic scintillation detectors, namely the SU-8 photosensitive epoxy and monocrystalline silicon. For what concerns the former, an original fabrication appro...

  5. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic calculations, the continuum calculations and the experiments.

  6. Axionic shortcuts for high energy photons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolaidis, A., E-mail: nicolaid@auth.gr [Theoretical Physics Department, University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the photon axion mixing in the presence of large extra dimensions. The eigenvalues and eigenstates of the mixing matrix are analyzed and we establish the resonance condition for the total conversion of a high energy photon into a Kaluza-Klein (KK) axion state. This resonant transition, a photon transformed into a KK axion traveling freely through the bulk and converting back into a photon, may provide a plausible explanation for the transparency of the universe to energetic photons. If the brane we live in is curved, then there are shortcuts through the bulk, which the axion can take. Within our model, the photons having the appropriate resonance energy are using the axionic shortcut and arrive earlier compared to the photons which follow the geodesic on the brane. We suggest that such axionic shortcuts are at the root of the dispersion of time arrival of photons observed by the MAGIC telescope. We indicate also the cosmological significance of the existence of axionic shortcuts for the photon.

  7. High energy activation data library (HEAD-2009)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashnik, Stepan G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korovin, Yury A [NON LANL; Natalenko, Anatoly A [NON LANL; Konobeyev, Alexander Yu [NON LANL; Stankovskiy, A Yu [NON LANL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A proton activation data library for 682 nuclides from 1 H to 210Po in the energy range from 150 MeV up to 1 GeV was developed. To calculate proton activation data, the MCNPX 2.6.0 and CASCADE/INPE codes were chosen. Different intranuclear cascade, preequilibrium, and equilibrium nuclear reaction models and their combinations were used. The optimum calculation models have been chosen on the basis of statistical correlations for calculated and experimental proton data taken from the EXFOR library of experimental nuclear data. All the data are written in ENDF-6 format. The library is called HEPAD-2008 (High-Energy Proton Activation Data). A revision of IEAF-2005 neutron activation data library has been performed. A set of nuclides for which the cross-section data can be (and were) updated using more modern and improved models is specified, and the corresponding calculations have been made in the present work. The new version of the library is called IEAF-2009. The HEPAD-2008 and IEAF-2009 are merged to the final HEAD-2009 library.

  8. Experimental investigation of piston heat transfer under conventional diesel and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL; Hendricks, Terry Lee [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Ghandhi, Jaal B [University of Wisconsin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The piston of a heavy-duty single-cylinder research engine was instrumented with 11 fast-response surface thermocouples, and a commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit the signals from the moving piston. The raw thermocouple data were processed using an inverse heat conduction method that included Tikhonov regularization to recover transient heat flux. By applying symmetry, the data were compiled to provide time-resolved spatial maps of the piston heat flux and surface temperature. A detailed comparison was made between conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion operations at matched conditions of load, speed, boost pressure, and combustion phasing. The integrated piston heat transfer was found to be 24% lower, and the mean surface temperature was 25 C lower for reactivity-controlled compression ignition operation as compared to conventional diesel combustion, in spite of the higher peak heat release rate. Lower integrated piston heat transfer for reactivity-controlled compression ignition was found over all the operating conditions tested. The results showed that increasing speed decreased the integrated heat transfer for conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition. The effect of the start of injection timing was found to strongly influence conventional diesel combustion heat flux, but had a negligible effect on reactivity-controlled compression ignition heat flux, even in the limit of near top dead center high-reactivity fuel injection timings. These results suggest that the role of the high-reactivity fuel injection does not significantly affect the thermal environment even though it is important for controlling the ignition timing and heat release rate shape. The integrated heat transfer and the dynamic surface heat flux were found to be insensitive to changes in boost pressure for both conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition. However, for reactivity-controlled compression ignition, the mean surface temperature increased with changes in boost suggesting that equivalence ratio affects steady-state heat transfer.

  9. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R. [GREMI, CNRS/Universit d'Orlans (UMR7344), Orlans (France); Sadeghi, N. [LIPhy, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier (UMR5588), Grenoble (France); Overzet, L. J. [GREMI, CNRS/Universit d'Orlans (UMR7344), Orlans (France); PSAL, UTDallas, Richardson, Texas 75080-3021 (United States)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250??m thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8??m thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2??s long current peak as high as 24?mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400?Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few ?s relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

  10. Large Eddy Simulation of laser ignition and compressible reacting flow in a rocket-like

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    combustion devices. The technical needs for internal-combustion (IC) engines and aircraft combustors have in a rocket engine is a critical problem for combustion cham- ber design. Delayed ignition may lead to high without failure. The combustion initiation in rocket engines is usually based on pyrotechnic devices

  11. Detailed Analysis and Control Issues of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, Salvador M.; Flowers, Daniel L.; Martinez-Frias, Joel; Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Dibble, Robert

    2002-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low NOx and particulate matter emissions. This paper describes the HCCI research activities being currently pursued at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at the University of California Berkeley. Current activities include analysis as well as experimental work.

  12. SIMULATION OF RADIATION BACKGROUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH NUCLEAR DIAGNOSTICS IN THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khater, H; Dauffy, L; Tommasini, R; Eckart, M; Eder, D

    2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments resulting in a significant neutron yield are scheduled to start in 2010 at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Several experiments utilizing Tritium-Hydrogen-Deuterium (THD) and Deuterium-Tritium (DT) targets are scheduled as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). A wide range of diagnostics will be used to measure several parameters of implosion such as the core and fuel shape, temperatures and densities, and neutron yield. Accurate evaluations of the neutron and gamma backgrounds are important for several diagnostics, such as the High Energy X-ray Imager (HEXRI) and Neutron-Time-Of-Flight (nTOF). Several sources of neutron and gamma backgrounds will impact the accuracy of the diagnostics measurements. Fusion neutrons generated by fuel burn and secondary neutrons resulting from the fusion neutrons interaction with structures present inside and outside the Target Chamber (TC) contribute to the neutron background. In the meantime, X-rays emitted from the implosion, X-rays resulting from Laser Plasma Interaction (LPI) of NIF beams with the hohlraum, and gamma-rays induced by neutron interactions with different structures inside and outside the TC contribute to the gamma background. A detailed model has been developed of the NIF facility and all structures inside the TC. Several Monte-Carlo simulations were performed to identify the expected signal-to- background ratios at several potential locations for the HEXRI and nTOF diagnostics. Gamma backgrounds associated with HEXRI were significantly reduced by using a tungsten collimator. The collimator resulted in the reduction of the gamma background at the HEXRI scintillator by more than an order of magnitude during the first 40 ns following a THD shot. The nTOF20 detectors inside the Neutron Spectrometry room are exposed to low levels of neutron and gamma background during yield shots.

  13. Calibration in High-Energy Astrophysics Statistical Computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Dyk, David

    : Effective area records sensitivity as a function of energy Energy redistribution matrix can vary with energy/location Point Spread Functions can vary with energy and location Exposure Map shows how effective area variesCalibration in High-Energy Astrophysics Statistical Computation Back to Calibration Uncertainty

  14. The Neutron Imaging System Fielded at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, F E; Buckles, R; Clark, D D; Danly, C R; Drury, O B; Dzenitis, J M; Fatherley, V E; Fittinghoff, D N; Gallegos, R; Grim, G P; Guler, N; Loomis, E N; Lutz, S; Malone, R M; Martinson, D D; Mares, D; Morley, D J; Morgan, G L; Oertel, J A; Tregillis, I L; Volegov, P L; Weiss, P B; Wilde, C H

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutron imaging diagnostic has recently been commissioned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This new system is an important diagnostic tool for inertial fusion studies at the NIF for measuring the size and shape of the burning DT plasma during the ignition stage of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions. The imaging technique utilizes a pinhole neutron aperture, placed between the neutron source and a neutron detector. The detection system measures the two dimensional distribution of neutrons passing through the pinhole. This diagnostic has been designed to collect two images at two times. The long flight path for this diagnostic, 28 m, results in a chromatic separation of the neutrons, allowing the independently timed images to measure the source distribution for two neutron energies. Typically the first image measures the distribution of the 14 MeV neutrons and the second image of the 6-12 MeV neutrons. The combination of these two images has provided data on the size and shape of the burning plasma within the compressed capsule, as well as a measure of the quantity and spatial distribution of the cold fuel surrounding this core.

  15. Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilawa-Podgurski, R. C. N.

    The challenging problem of ultra-high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and small-scale portable power generation is addressed here using a distinctive thermophotovoltaic energy conversion mechanism and chip-based system ...

  16. Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Nandi; M.J. Strauss; J. Snow; F. Rizatdinova; B. Abbott; K. Babu; P. Gutierrez; C. Kao; A. Khanov; K.A. Milton; H. Neaman; H. Severini, P. Skubic

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, with the support from the State of Oklahoma and from the three universities, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma and Langston University, resulted in establishing of the Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP) in 2004. Currently, OCHEP continues to flourish as a vibrant hub for research in experimental and theoretical particle physics and an educational center in the State of Oklahoma. All goals of the original proposal were successfully accomplished. These include foun- dation of a new experimental particle physics group at OSU, the establishment of a Tier 2 computing facility for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Tevatron data analysis at OU and organization of a vital particle physics research center in Oklahoma based on resources of the three universities. OSU has hired two tenure-track faculty members with initial support from the grant funds. Now both positions are supported through OSU budget. This new HEP Experimental Group at OSU has established itself as a full member of the Fermilab D0 Collaboration and LHC ATLAS Experiment and has secured external funds from the DOE and the NSF. These funds currently support 2 graduate students, 1 postdoctoral fellow, and 1 part-time engineer. The grant initiated creation of a Tier 2 computing facility at OU as part of the Southwest Tier 2 facility, and a permanent Research Scientist was hired at OU to maintain and run the facility. Permanent support for this position has now been provided through the OU university budget. OCHEP represents a successful model of cooperation of several universities, providing the establishment of critical mass of manpower, computing and hardware resources. This led to increasing Oklahoma?¢????s impact in all areas of HEP, theory, experiment, and computation. The Center personnel are involved in cutting edge research in experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of High Energy Physics with the research areas ranging from the search for new phenomena at the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN Large Hadron Collider to theoretical modeling, computer simulation, detector development and testing, and physics analysis. OCHEP faculty members participating on the D0 collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron and on the ATLAS collaboration at the CERN LHC have made major impact on the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson search, top quark studies, B physics studies, and measurements of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) phenomena. The OCHEP Grid computing facility consists of a large computer cluster which is playing a major role in data analysis and Monte Carlo productions for both the D0 and ATLAS experiments. Theoretical efforts are devoted to new ideas in Higgs bosons physics, extra dimensions, neutrino masses and oscillations, Grand Unified Theories, supersymmetric models, dark matter, and nonperturbative quantum field theory. Theory members are making major contributions to the understanding of phenomena being explored at the Tevatron and the LHC. They have proposed new models for Higgs bosons, and have suggested new signals for extra dimensions, and for the search of supersymmetric particles. During the seven year period when OCHEP was partially funded through the DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, OCHEP members published over 500 refereed journal articles and made over 200 invited presentations at major conferences. The Center is also involved in education and outreach activities by offering summer research programs for high school teachers and college students, and organizing summer workshops for high school teachers, sometimes coordinating with the Quarknet programs at OSU and OU. The details of the Center can be found in http://ochep.phy.okstate.edu.

  17. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; /SLAC; Le Diberder, Francois; /Orsay, LAL; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; /SLAC; Bellis, Matt; /Stanford U.; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab; Konigsberg, Jacobo; /Florida U.; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; /Fermilab; Lucchesi, Donatella; /INFN, Padua; Denisov, Dmitri; /Fermilab; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; /Manchester U.; Li, Qizhong; /Fermilab; Varnes, Erich; /Arizona U.; Jonckheere, Alan; /Fermilab; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  18. Nuclear and High-Energy Astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridolin Weber

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has never been a more exciting time in the overlapping areas of nuclear physics, particle physics and relativistic astrophysics than today. Orbiting observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope, Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), Chandra X-ray satellite, and the X-ray Multi Mirror Mission (XMM) have extended our vision tremendously, allowing us to see vistas with an unprecedented clarity and angular resolution that previously were only imagined, enabling astrophysicists for the first time ever to perform detailed studies of large samples of galactic and extragalactic objects. On the Earth, radio telescopes (e.g., Arecibo, Green Bank, Parkes, VLA) and instruments using adaptive optics and other revolutionary techniques have exceeded previous expectations of what can be accomplished from the ground. The gravitational wave detectors LIGO, LISA VIRGO, and Geo-600 are opening up a window for the detection of gravitational waves emitted from compact stellar objects such as neutron stars and black holes. Together with new experimental forefront facilities like ISAC, ORLaND and RIA, these detectors provide direct, quantitative physical insight into nucleosynthesis, supernova dynamics, accreting compact objects, cosmic-ray acceleration, and pair-production in high energy sources which reinforce the urgent need for a strong and continuous feedback from nuclear and particle theory and theoretical astrophysics. In my lectures, I shall concentrate on three selected topics, which range from the behavior of superdense stellar matter, to general relativistic stellar models, to strange quark stars and possible signals of quark matter in neutron stars.

  19. Spin structure in high energy processes: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePorcel, L.; Dunwoodie, C. [eds.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains papers as the following topics: Spin, Mass, and Symmetry; physics with polarized Z{sup 0}s; spin and precision electroweak physics; polarized electron sources; polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics; polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; polarized targets in high energy physics; spin dynamics in storage rings and linear accelerators; spin formalism and applications to new physics searches; precision electroweak physics at LEP; recent results on heavy flavor physics from LEP experiments using 1990--1992 data; precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production by electron-positron collisions; preliminary results on heavy flavor physics at SLD; QCD tests with SLD and polarized beams; recent results from TRISTAN at KEK; recent B physics results from CLEO; searching for the H dibaryon at Brookhaven; recent results from the compton observatory; the spin structure of the deuteron; spin structure of the neutron ({sup 3}HE) and the Bjoerken sum rule; a consumer`s guide to lattice QCD results; top ten models constrained by b {yields} sy; a review of the Fermilab fixed target program; results from the D0 experiment; results from CDF at FNAL; quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung; report from the ZEUS collaboration at HERA; physics from the first year of H1 at HERA, and hard diffraction. These papers have been cataloged separately elsewhere.

  20. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    multiple speakers, presenters listed on link below

    2011-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, ?New Data From the Energy Frontier.? There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week?s events included a public lecture (?The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson? given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics caf? geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was ?Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter.? It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled ?What Makes Up Dark Matter.? There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics caf? to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  1. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, Y.T.; Guesto-Barnak, D.

    1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a low-or no-silica, low- or no-alkali phosphate glass useful as a laser amplifier in a multiple pass, high energy laser system having a high thermal conductivity, K[sub 90 C] >0.85 W/mK, a low coefficient of thermal expansion, [alpha][sub 20-300 C] <80[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C, low emission cross section, [sigma]<2.5[times]10[sup [minus]20] cm[sup 2], and a high fluorescence lifetime, [tau]>325 [mu]secs at 3 wt. % Nd doping, consisting essentially of (on an oxide composition basis): (Mole %) P[sub 2]O[sub 5], (52-72); Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], (0-<20); B[sub 2]O[sub 3], (>0-25); ZnO, (0-31); Li[sub 2]O, (0-5); K[sub 2]O, (0-5); Na[sub 2]O, (0-5); Cs[sub 2]O, (0-5); Rb[sub 2]O, (0-5); MgO, (>0-<30); CaO, (0-20); BaO, (0-20); SrO, (0-<20); Sb[sub 2]O[sub 3], (0-<1); As[sub 2]O[sub 3], (0-<1); Nb[sub 2]O[sub 5], (0-<1); Ln[sub 2]O[sub 3], (up to 6.5); PbO, (0-<5); and SiO[sub 2], (0-3); wherein Ln[sub 2]O[sub 3] is the sum of lanthanide oxides; [Sigma]R[sub 2]O is <5, R being Li, Na, K, Cs, and Rb; the sum of Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and MgO is <24 unless [Sigma]R[sub 2]O is 0, then the sum of Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and MgO is <42; and the ratio of MgO to B[sub 2]O[sub 3] is 0.48-4.20. 7 figs.

  2. Target diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeper, R.J.; Chandler, G.A.; Cooper, G.W.; Derzon, M.S. [and others

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of recent progress on the design of a diagnostic system proposed for ignition target experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be presented. This diagnostic package contains an extensive suite of optical, x-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron diagnostics that enable measurements of the performance of both direct and indirect driven NIF targets. The philosophy used in designing all of the diagnostics in the set has emphasized redundant and independent measurement of fundamental physical quantities relevant to the operation of the NIF target. A unique feature of these diagnostics is that they are being designed to be capable of operating, in the high radiation, EMP, and debris backgrounds expected on the NIF facility. The diagnostic system proposed can be categorized into three broad areas: laser characterization, hohlraum characterization, and capsule performance diagnostics. The operating principles of a representative instrument from each class of diagnostic employed in this package will be summarized and illustrated with data obtained in recent prototype diagnostic tests.

  3. Visualization of Target Inspection data at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, D; Antipa, N

    2012-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    As the National Ignition Facility continues its campaign to achieve ignition, new methods and tools will be required to measure the quality of the target capsules used to achieve this goal. Techniques have been developed to measure capsule surface features using a phase-shifting diffraction interferometer and Leica Microsystems confocal microscope. These instruments produce multi-gigabyte datasets which consist of tens to hundreds of files. Existing software can handle viewing a small subset of an entire dataset, but none can view a dataset in its entirety. Additionally, without an established mode of transport that keeps the target capsules properly aligned throughout the assembly process, a means of aligning the two dataset coordinate systems is needed. The goal of this project is to develop web based software utilizing WebGL which will provide high level overview visualization of an entire dataset, with the capability to retrieve finer details on demand, in addition to facilitating alignment of multiple datasets with one another based on common features that have been visually identified by users of the system.

  4. The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) Mission R. P. fla B. Dennis, G mission is to investigate the physics of particle acceleration and energy release in solar flares, through-ray/gamma-ray spectroscopy 1. INTRODUCTION The primary scientific objective of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar

  5. Electroweak Radiative Corrections at High Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ansgar Denner

    2001-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    For energies far above the electroweak scale, large electroweak radiative corrections occur that grow logarithmically with energy and can easily reach several tens of per cent in the TeV range. Recent work on these corrections is reviewed.

  6. Transport Simulations for Fast Ignition on NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strozzi, D J; Tabak, M; Grote, D P; Cohen, B I; Shay, H D; Town, R J; Kemp, A J; Key, M

    2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We are designing a full hydro-scale cone-guided, indirect-drive FI coupling experiment, for NIF, with the ARC-FIDO short-pulse laser. Current rad-hydro designs with limited fuel jetting into cone tip are not yet adequate for ignition. Designs are improving. Electron beam transport simulations (implicit-PIC LSP) show: (1) Magnetic fields and smaller angular spreads increase coupling to ignition-relevant 'hot spot' (20 um radius); (2) Plastic CD (for a warm target) produces somewhat better coupling than pure D (cryogenic target) due to enhanced resistive B fields; and (3) The optimal T{sub hot} for this target is {approx} 1 MeV; coupling falls by 3x as T{sub hot} rises to 4 MeV.

  7. Conceptual Design - Polar Drive Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, R

    2012-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester is proposing a collaborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and General Atomics (GA) with the goal of developing a cryogenic polar drive (PD) ignition platform on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The scope of this proposed project requires close discourse among theorists, experimentalists, and laser and system engineers. This document describes how this proposed project can be broken into a series of parallel independent activities that, if implemented, could deliver this goal in the 2017 timeframe. This Conceptual Design document is arranged into two sections: mission need and design requirements. Design requirements are divided into four subsystems: (1) A point design that details the necessary target specifications and laser pulse requirements; (2) The beam smoothing subsystem that describes the MultiFM 1D smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD); (3) New optical elements that include continuous phase plates (CPP's) and distributed polarization rotators (DPR's); and (4) The cryogenic target handling and insertion subsystem, which includes the design, fabrication, testing, and deployment of a dedicated PD ignition target insertion cryostat (PD-ITIC). This document includes appendices covering: the primary criteria and functional requirements, the system design requirements, the work breakdown structure, the target point design, the experimental implementation plan, the theoretical unknowns and technical implementation risks, the estimated cost and schedule, the development plan for the DPR's, the development plan for MultiFM 1D SSD, and a list of acronym definitions. While work on the facility modifications required for PD ignition has been in progress for some time, some of the technical details required to define the specific modifications for a Conceptual Design Review (CDR) remain to be defined. In all cases, the facility modifications represent functional changes to existing systems or capabilities. The bulk of the scope yet to be identified is associated with the DPR's and MultiFM beam smoothing. Detailed development plans for these two subsystems are provided in Appendices H and I; additional discussion of subsystem requirements based on the physics of PD ignition is given in Section 3. Accordingly, LLE will work closely with LLNL to develop detailed conceptual designs for the PD-specific facility modifications, including assessments of the operational impact of implementation (e.g., changing optics for direct rather than indirect-drive illumination and swapping from a hohlraum-based ITIC to one that supports PD). Furthermore, the experimental implementation plan represents the current best understanding of the experimental campaigns required to achieve PD ignition. This plan will evolve based on the lessons learned from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) and ongoing indirect-drive ignition experiments. The plan does not take the operational realities of the PD configuration into account; configuration planning for the proposed PD experiments is beyond the scope of this document.

  8. Ignition quality determination of marine diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulder, O.L.; Glavincevski, B.; Kassinger, R.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ignition quality of heavy marine diesel fuels is considered to be an important parameter. The standard procedures used to quantify this parameter for distillate fuels are not applicable to residual fuels. Proton NMR Spectroscopy was demonstrated to be an effective tool to characterize the ''global'' fuel composition of commercially available fuels covering a wide range of ignition quality. Proton NMR data from these fuels were used to determine a cetane number (CNp) for the heavy fuels using procedures previously reported for distillate fuels. The validity of this instrumental technique for determining CNp was corroborated by actual ASTM D 613 engine tests on a number of commercially available fuels, run as blends with secondary reference fuels. Viscosity and density values of the analyzed heavy fuels were regressed against predicted cetane numbers to obtain a correlation expression.

  9. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  10. COLLOQUIUM: In Pursuit of Ignition on the National Ignition Facility |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccess StoriesFebruary 26, 2014, 4:00pm to 5:30pmPrinceton

  11. Analyzing High Energy Physics Data Using Databases: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Robert

    Analyzing High Energy Physics Data Using Databases: A Case Study R. Grossman, X. &in, D. Valsamis. Nixdorf, B. Scipioni, T. Song Superconducting Supercollider Laboratory Abstract We describe the initial experimental data from high energy physics. At this time, we have designed two proto- types to analyze high

  12. Low Cost Components: Advanced High Power & High Energy Battery...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08amine2.pdf More Documents & Publications Engineering of High...

  13. High energy physics advisory panel`s subpanel on vision for the future of high-energy physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was requested by the Secretary of Energy to (1) define a long-term program for pursuing the most important high-energy physics goals since the termination of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project, (2) assess the current US high-energy physics program, and (3) make recommendations regarding the future of the field. Subjects on which recommendations were sought and which the report addresses were: high-energy physics funding priorities; facilitating international collaboration for future construction of large high-energy physics facilities; optimizing uses of the investment made in the SSC; how to encourage displaced scientists and engineers to remain in high-energy physics and to attract young scientists to enter the field in the future. The report includes a description of the state of high-energy physics research in the context of history, a summary of the SSC project, and documentation of the report`s own origins and development.

  14. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, Y.T.; Payne, S.A.; Hayden, J.S.; Campbell, J.H.; Aston, M.K.; Elder, M.L.

    1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high energy laser system utilizing phosphate laser glass components to amplify the laser beam, the laser system requires a generated laser beam having an emission bandwidth of less than 26 nm and the laser glass components consist essentially of (on an oxide composition basis) in mole percent: P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 50--75; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {gt}0--10; K{sub 2}O, {gt}0--30; MgO, 0--30; CaO, 0--30; Li{sub 2}O, 0--20; Na{sub 2}O, 0--20; Rb{sub 2}O, 0--20; Cs{sub 2}O, 0--20; BeO, 0--20; SrO, 0--20; BaO, 0--20; ZnO, 0--20; PbO, 0--20; B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--8; Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0.01--8; wherein the sum of MgO and CaO is >0--30; the sum of Li{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}O, Rb{sub 2}O, and Cs{sub 2}O is 0--20; the sum of BeO, SrO, BaO, ZnO, and PbO is 0--20; the sum of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is 0--10; and Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} represents the sum of the oxides of active lasing lanthanides of atomic number 58--71. 21 figs.

  15. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, Yuiko T. (Clarks Summit, PA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Hayden, Joseph S. (Clarks Summit, PA); Campbell, John H. (Livermore, CA); Aston, Mary Kay (Moscow, PA); Elder, Melanie L. (Dublin, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high energy laser system utilizing phosphate laser glass components to amplify the laser beam, the laser system requires a generated laser beam having an emission bandwidth of less than 26 nm and the laser glass components consist essentially of (on an oxide composition basis) in mole percent: P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 50--75; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {gt}0--10; K{sub 2}O, {gt}0--30; MgO, 0--30; CaO, 0--30; Li{sub 2}O, 0--20; Na{sub 2}O, 0--20; Rb{sub 2}O, 0--20; Cs{sub 2}O, 0--20; BeO, 0--20; SrO, 0--20; BaO, 0--20; ZnO, 0--20; PbO, 0--20; B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--8; Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0.01--8; wherein the sum of MgO and CaO is >0--30; the sum of Li{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}O, Rb{sub 2}O, and Cs{sub 2}O is 0--20; the sum of BeO, SrO, BaO, ZnO, and PbO is 0--20; the sum of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is 0--10; and Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} represents the sum of the oxides of active lasing lanthanides of atomic number 58--71. 21 figs.

  16. Phase conjugation of high energy lasers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bliss, David Emery; Valley, Michael T.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Bigman, Verle; Boye, Lydia Ann; Broyles, Robin Scott; Kimmel, Mark W.; Law, Ryan J.; Yoder, James R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report we explore claims that phase conjugation of high energy lasers by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) can compensate optical aberrations associated with severely distorted laser amplifier media and aberrations induced by the atmosphere. The SBS media tested was a gas cell pressurized up to 300 psi with SF6 or Xe or both. The laser was a 10 Hz, 3J, Q-switched Nd:YAG with 25 ns wide pulses. Atmospheric aberrations were created with space heaters, helium jets and phase plates designed with a Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum characterized by a Fried parameter, ro , ranging from 0.6 - 6.0 mm. Phase conjugate tests in the laboratory were conducted without amplification. For the strongest aberrations, D/ro ~ 20, created by combining the space heaters with the phase plate, the Strehl ratio was degraded by a factor of ~50. Phase conjugation in SF6 restored the peak focusable intensity to about 30% of the original laser. Phase conjugate tests at the outdoor laser range were conducted with laser amplifiers providing gain in combination with the SBS cell. A large 600,000 BTU kerosene space heater was used to create turbulence along the beam path. An atmospheric structure factor of Cn2 = 5x10-13 m2/3 caused the illumination beam to expand to a diameter 250mm and overfill the receiver. The phase conjugate amplified return could successfully be targeted back onto glints 5mm in diameter. Use of a lenslet arrays to lower the peak focusable intensity in the SBS cell failed to produce a useful phase conjugate beam; The Strehl ratio was degraded with multiple random lobes instead of a single focus. I will review literature results which show how multiple beams can be coherently combined by SBS when a confocal reflecting geometry is used to focus the laser in the SBS cell.

  17. Gamma Ray Bursts as Possible High Energy Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles D. Dermer

    2005-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma-ray bursts are known to be sources of high-energy gamma rays, and are likely to be sources of high-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Following a short review of observations of GRBs at multi-MeV energies and above, the physics of leptonic and hadronic models of GRBs is summarized. Evidence for two components in BATSE and EGRET/TASC data suggest that GRBs are sources of high-energy cosmic rays. GLAST observations will reveal the high-energy gamma-ray power and energy releases from GRBs, and will provide detailed knowledge of anomalous high-energy emission components, but confirmation of cosmic ray acceleration must await 100 TeV -- PeV neutrino detection from GRBs.

  18. Polar-direct-drive experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hohenberger, M.; Radha, P. B.; Myatt, J. F.; LePape, S.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Regan, S. P.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; et al

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To support direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] in its indirect-drive beam configuration, the polar-direct-drive (PDD) concept [S. Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] has been proposed. Ignition in PDD geometry requires direct-drivespecific beam smoothing, phase plates, and repointing the NIF beams toward the equator to ensure symmetric target irradiation. First experiments to study the energetics and preheat in PDD implosions at the NIF have been performed. These experiments utilize the NIF in its current configuration, including beammoregeometry, phase plates, and beam smoothing. Room-temperature, 2.2-mm-diam plastic shells filled with D? gas were imploded with total drive energies ranging from ~500 to 750 kJ with peak powers of 120 to 180 TW and peak on-target irradiances at the initial target radius from 8 10? to 1.2 10?W/cm. Results from these initial experiments are presented, including measurements of shell trajectory, implosion symmetry, and the level of hot-electron preheat in plastic and Si ablators. Experiments are simulated with the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO including a full 3-D ray-trace to model oblique beams, and models for nonlocal electron transport and cross-beam energy transport (CBET). These simulations indicate that CBET affects the shell symmetry and leads to a loss of energy imparted onto the shell, consistent with the experimental data.less

  19. Polar-direct-drive experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hohenberger, M. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)] (ORCID:0000000258879711); Radha, P. B. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Myatt, J. F. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); LePape, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marozas, J. A. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Marshall, F. J. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Michel, D. T. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)] (ORCID:0000000166894359); Regan, S. P. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Seka, W. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Shvydky, A. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Sangster, T. C. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)] (ORCID:0000000340402672); Bates, J. W. [U. S. Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] (ORCID:0000000188087240); Betti, R. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Boehly, T. R. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Bonino, M. J. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Casey, D. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Collins, T. J. B. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Craxton, R. S. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)] (ORCID:0000000158858227); Delettrez, J. A. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Edgell, D. H. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Epstein, R. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)] (ORCID:0000000340628444); Fiksel, G. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Fitzsimmons, P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Frenje, J. A. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000168460378); Froula, D. H. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Goncharov, V. N. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Harding, D. R. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Kalantar, D. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Karasik, M. [U. S. Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Kessler, T. J. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Kilkenny, J. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Knauer, J. P. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Kurz, C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lafon, M. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); LaFortune, K. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); MacGowan, B. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mackinnon, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); MacPhee, A. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000341604479); McCrory, R. L. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); McKenty, P. W. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Meeker, J. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meyerhofer, D. D. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To support direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] in its indirect-drive beam configuration, the polar-direct-drive (PDD) concept [S. Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] has been proposed. Ignition in PDD geometry requires direct-drivespecific beam smoothing, phase plates, and repointing the NIF beams toward the equator to ensure symmetric target irradiation. First experiments to study the energetics and preheat in PDD implosions at the NIF have been performed. These experiments utilize the NIF in its current configuration, including beam geometry, phase plates, and beam smoothing. Room-temperature, 2.2-mm-diam plastic shells filled with D? gas were imploded with total drive energies ranging from ~500 to 750 kJ with peak powers of 120 to 180 TW and peak on-target irradiances at the initial target radius from 8 10? to 1.2 10?W/cm. Results from these initial experiments are presented, including measurements of shell trajectory, implosion symmetry, and the level of hot-electron preheat in plastic and Si ablators. Experiments are simulated with the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO including a full 3-D ray-trace to model oblique beams, and models for nonlocal electron transport and cross-beam energy transport (CBET). These simulations indicate that CBET affects the shell symmetry and leads to a loss of energy imparted onto the shell, consistent with the experimental data.

  20. Enabling high-temperature nanophotonics for energy applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeng, YiXiang

    The nascent field of high-temperature nanophotonics could potentially enable many important solid-state energy conversion applications, such as thermophotovoltaic energy generation, selective solar absorption, and selective ...

  1. City of High Point Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of High Point offers the Hometown Green Program to help customers reduce energy use. Under this program, rebates are available for newly constructed energy efficient homes, heat pumps, and...

  2. Energy Performance and Comfort Level in High Rise and Highly Glazed Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayraktar, M.; Perino, M.; Yilmaz, A. Z.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal and visual comfort in buildings play a significant role on occupants' performance but on the other hand achieving energy savings and high comfort levels can be a quite difficult task especially in high rise buildings with highly glazed...

  3. Energy Performance and Comfort Level in High Rise and Highly Glazed Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayraktar, M.; Perino, M.; Yilmaz, A. Z.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal and visual comfort in buildings play a significant role on occupants' performance but on the other hand achieving energy savings and high comfort levels can be a quite difficult task especially in high rise buildings with highly glazed...

  4. HiResHiRes Mapping the HighMapping the High Energy UniverseEnergy Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HiResHiRes ­­ Mapping the HighMapping the High Energy UniverseEnergy Universe Stefan Westerhoff Columbia University HiRes Collaboration Fermilab Wine & Cheese Seminar 24 October 2003 #12;Particle-rays · Gamma-ray Astronomy ­ photons from MeV to TeV · Cosmic Rays ­ protons and heavier nuclei with energies

  5. Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Upset and Recovery of the National Ignition Facility's Optics Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. D. Bernardin

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being constructed as the latest in a series of high-power laser facilities to study inertial confinement fusion. In particular, the NIF will generate and amplify 192 laser beams and focus them onto a fusion fuel capsule the size of a BB. The energy deposited by the laser beams will raise the core temperature of the target to 100,OOO,OOO C, which will ignite the fusion fuel and produce a fusion energy output that is several times greater than the energy input. The ability to generate, condition, and focus 192 laser beams onto a target the size of a BB, requires precision optical hardware and instrumentation. One of the most critical pieces of optical hardware within the NIF is the Optics Module (OM), a mechanical apparatus which is responsible for optical focusing and frequency conversion of the laser beam to optimize the energy deposition at the fusion target. The OM contains two potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), frequency conversion crystals and a focusing lens. The functionality of the KDP crystals is extremely temperature sensitive. Small temperature changes on the order of 0.1 C can significantly alter the performance of these components. Consequently, to maximize NIF system availability and minimize beam conditioning problems, accurate temperature control of the OM optical components was deemed a necessity. In this study, an experimental OM prototype, containing mock frequency conversion crystals and a focusing lens, was used determine the thermal stability provided by a prototype water temperature control system. More importantly, the OM prototype was used to identify and characterize potential thermal upsets and corresponding recovery times of the KDP crystals. The results of this study indicate that the water temperature control system is adequate in maintaining uniform steady-state temperatures within the OM. Vacuum pump-down and venting of the OM generated significant temperature changes in the optical components. However, the corresponding recovery times of the optical components were found to be less than three hours, well within the seven hour limit posed by NW operations. Simulated laser shots also were found to create thermal upsets within the OM's optical components over a range of heat deposition rates. However, the recovery times of these thermal upsets were found to be less than one hour. Finally, the use of non-contact infrared thermocouples was demonstrated as an effective means to track the temperature of the OM's optics.

  6. Characterizing dilute combustion instabilities in a multi-cylinder spark-ignited engine using symbolic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Kaul, Brian C [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spark-ignited internal combustion engines have evolved considerably in recent years in response to increasingly stringent regulations for emissions and fuel-economy. One new advanced engine strategy utilizes high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce combustion temperatures, thereby increasing thermodynamic efficiency and reducing nitrogen oxide emissions. While this strategy can be highly effective, it also poses major control and design challenges due to the large combustion oscillations that develop at sufficiently high EGR levels. Previous research has documented that combustion instabilities can propagate between successive engine cycles in individual cylinders via self-generated feedback of reactive species and thermal energy in the retained residual exhaust gases. In this work, we use symbolic analysis to characterize multi-cylinder combustion oscillations in an experimental engine operating with external EGR. At low levels of EGR, intra-cylinder oscillations are clearly visible and appear to be associated with brief, intermittent coupling among cylinders. As EGR is increased further, a point is reached where all four cylinders lock almost completely in phase and alternate simultaneously between two distinct bi-stable combustion states. From a practical perspective, it is important to understand the causes of this phenomenon and develop diagnostics that might be applied to ameliorate its effects. We demonstrate here that two approaches for symbolizing the engine combustion measurements can provide useful probes for characterizing these instabilities.

  7. Transition from cool flame to thermal flame in compression ignition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzaki, Kotaro; Goto, Yuichi [National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory, 7-42-27 Jindaiji-Higashimachi, Chofu, Tokyo 182-0012 (Japan); Tezaki, Atsumu [Department of Mechanical and Intellectual Systems Engineering, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama-shi, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism that initiates thermal flames in compression ignition has been studied. Experimentally, a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine was used with DME, n-heptane, and n-decane. Arrhenius plots of the heat release rate in the HCCI experiments showed that rates of heat release with DME, n-heptane, and n-decane exhibited a certain activation energy that is identical to that of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition reaction. The same feature was observed in diesel engine operation using ordinary diesel fuel with advanced ignition timing to make ignition occur after the end of fuel injection. These experimental results were reproduced in nondimensional simulations using kinetic mechanisms for DME, n-heptane, and n-decane, the last being developed by extending the n-heptane mechanism. Methanol addition, which suppresses low-temperature oxidation (LTO) and delays the ignition timing, had no effect on the activation energy obtained from the Arrhenius plot of heat release rate. Nevertheless, methanol addition lowered the heat release rates during the prethermal flame process. This is because H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation during cool flame was reduced by adding methanol. The mechanism during the transition process from cool flame to thermal flame can be explained quantitatively using thermal explosion theory, in which the rate-determining reaction is H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition, assuming that heat release in this period is caused by partial oxidation of DME and HCHO initiated with the reaction with OH produced though H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition. (author)

  8. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery PI - Chris Caylor, GMZ Director of Thermoelectric Systems GMZ Team: Bed Poudel, Giri Joshi, Jonathan D'Angelo,...

  9. High density behaviour of nuclear symmetry energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. N. Basu; Tapan Mukhopadhyay

    2006-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Role of the isospin asymmetry in nuclei and neutron stars, with an emphasis on the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy, is discussed. The symmetry energy is obtained using the isoscalar as well as isovector components of the density dependent M3Y effective interaction. The constants of density dependence of the effective interaction are obtained by reproducing the saturation energy per nucleon and the saturation density of spin and isospin symmetric cold infinite nuclear matter. Implications for the density dependence of the symmetry energy in case of a neutron star are discussed, and also possible constraints on the density dependence obtained from finite nuclei are compared.

  10. INTERACTION OF NUCLEI AT HIGH ENERGIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Herbert.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production on Nuclei. Trieste (June, 1976) 4) T.D. Lee,Energies, S.A. Azimov, ed Trieste, June, 1976 30) H.H.

  11. High-Order Energy Stable WENO Schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A third-order Energy Stable Weighted Essentially Non--Oscillatory (ESWENO) finite difference scheme developed by the authors of the paper [N. K. Yamaleev...

  12. High Winds Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia, California: Energy Resources JumpSheldon Energy Wind

  13. Meitag High Tech Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio: Energy8429°,Meeteetse, Wyoming: EnergyMegtec

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy High Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartmentDepartment ofConstruction || Department ofBattery

  15. High energy neutron Computed Tomography developed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be observed behind high-density materials, such as depleted uranium or tungsten. Comparison of the high (bottom half) and foam (center teeth) phantom could be viewed through 76 mm of depleted uranium. Some ~ 3

  16. Building Algorithm-Based Energy Efficient High Performance Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building Algorithm-Based Energy Efficient High Performance Computing Systems with Resilience Event Sponsor: Mathematics and Computing Science Seminar Start Date: May 12 2015 -...

  17. Color Glass Condensate in QCD at High Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazunori Itakura

    2004-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    I give a brief review about the color glass condensate, which is the universal form of hadrons and nuclei at high energies.

  18. Polymer Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium Batteries Ashoutosh Panday Scott Mullin Nitash Balsara Proposed Battery anode (Li metal) Li Li + + e - e - Li salt in a hard solid...

  19. Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  20. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results ....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    zirconia in intense radiation environments. Citation: Zarkadoula E, R Devanathan, WJ Weber, M Seaton, I Todorov, K Nordlund, MT Dove, and K Trachenko.2014."High-energy radiation...

  1. High energy eigenfunctions of one-dimensional Schrdinger ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High energy eigenfunctions of one-dimensional. Schrdinger operators with polynomial. potentials. A. Eremenko?, A. Gabrielov and B. Shapiro. October 5, 2007.

  2. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    sponsored this assignment and provided comments on draft versions of the report. iii Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential...

  3. QCD and High Energy Interactions: Moriond 2014 Theory Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Gehrmann

    2014-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This article summarizes new theoretical developments, ideas and results that were presented at the 2014 Moriond "QCD and High Energy Interactions".

  4. Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Development of Novel Electrolytes...

  5. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Nanostructured...

  6. The Effective Action for QCD at High Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lech Szymanowski

    1994-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    I discuss the construction of the effective action for QCD suitable for the description of high-energy and small momentum transfer diffractive processes.

  7. Development of High Energy Cathode for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 3 Objectives Develop cost-effective, high energy cathode based on lithium metal phosphate materials suitable for PHEV and EV applications. Investigate the...

  8. Why Onion-Like Carbons Make High-Energy Supercapacitors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Energy Supercapacitors Simulations explain experimental results for electrical storage devices June 1, 2012 JiangCummingsCoverLarge.gif Capacitance and geometry effects...

  9. Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory (Fact Sheet), NREL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National laboratories Contact Us If you are interested in working with NREL's Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory, please contact: ESIF Manager Carolyn Elam...

  10. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. B. (1988) Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.novel microwave internal combustion engine ignition source,in the Internal Combustion Engine." SAE Technical Paper

  11. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling of Emissions from HCCI Engines using a ConsistentMechanism for Iso-Octane HCCI Combustion With TargetedCharge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine: Experimental and

  12. Muon Collider Physics at Very High Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Berger

    2000-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Muon colliders might greatly extend the energy frontier of collider physics. One can contemplate circular colliders with center-of-mass energies in excess of 10 TeV. Some physics issues that might be relevant at such a machine are discussed.

  13. Service Members Aim High-- for Energy Savings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Service members are helping reduce our dependency on oil, and saving taxpayers' money, with their energy-saving efforts. Operation Change Out has cut $26.3 million in total energy costs and helped prevent more than 396 lbs. of carbon dioxide.

  14. Energy Measurement and Strategy for a Trigger of Ultra High Energy Cosmic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erdmann, Martin

    Energy Measurement and Strategy for a Trigger of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays Measured with Radio Ray induced Air Showers 3 2.1 Physics of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1.1 Energy Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1.2 Composition

  15. Energy spectrum of ultra high energy cosmic rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ioana C. Maris; for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The construction of the southern site of the Pierre Auger Observatory is almost completed. Three independent measurements of the flux of the cosmic rays with energies larger than 1 EeV have been performed during the construction phase. The surface detector data collected until August 2007 have been used to establish a flux suppression at the highest energies with a 6 sigma significance. The observations of cosmic rays by the fluorescence detector allowed the extension of the energy spectrum to lower energies, where the efficiency of the surface detector is less than 100% and a change in the spectral index is expected.

  16. High Sheldon Energy Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia, California: Energy Resources JumpSheldon Energy Wind Farm

  17. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many DevilsForum |EnergyNewEnergy ServicesEnergy 1Highof1

  18. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many DevilsForum |EnergyNewEnergy ServicesEnergy 1Highof10

  19. LES of an ignition sequence in a gas turbine M. Boileau a,, G. Staffelbach a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    injection. Finally, a variability of the combustor sectors and quadrants ignition times is highlighted combustion in a 18-burner combustor. II - Flame ignition: the hot gases produced by the igniter must

  20. Modeling the Fuel Spray and Combustion Process of the Ignition Quality Tester with KIVA-3V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogin, G. E. Jr.; DeFilippo, A.; Chen, J. Y.; Chin, G.; Luecke, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.; Dean, A. M.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Discusses the use of KIVA-3V to develop a model that reproduces ignition behavior inside the Ignition Quality Tester, which measures the ignition delay of low-volatility fuels.

  1. High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHallNot Logged3 HanfordHarry|

  2. MHL High Speed Cavitation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther, Oklahoma:EnergyECO Auger <SmarTurbine <hyTide

  3. High Risk Plan | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of EnergySeacrist, Senior Fellow - Emerging

  4. High Temperature ESP Monitoring | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of EnergySeacrist, Senior Fellow - EmergingLaboratory

  5. High Temperature Superconductivity Partners | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of EnergySeacrist, Senior Fellow -

  6. Hitachi High Technologies Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms AHefei SungrowHelukabel GmbHHigher

  7. High Lonesome Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia, California: Energy Resources Jump to:Hidroflot

  8. High Performance Buildings Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia, California: Energy Resources Jump to:HidroflotMesa

  9. High Plains Tech Center | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia, California: Energy Resources Jump to:HidroflotMesaTech

  10. High Plains Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia, California: Energy Resources Jump to:HidroflotMesaTechWind

  11. Bellevue High School | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,Belcher Homes Jump to:formely Sun Electric

  12. High Plains Bioenergy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | Open EnergyInformation Hess Retail NaturalHiflux Ltd JumpPlains

  13. High Plains Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | Open EnergyInformation Hess Retail NaturalHiflux Ltd

  14. Mode 1 drive asymmetry in inertial confinement fusion implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spears, Brian K., E-mail: spears9@llnl.gov; Edwards, M. J.; Hatchett, S.; Kritcher, A.; Lindl, J.; Munro, D.; Patel, P.; Robey, H. F.; Town, R. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)] [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Knauer, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, 250 E. River Road Rochester, New York 14623-1212 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, 250 E. River Road Rochester, New York 14623-1212 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mode 1 radiation drive asymmetry (pole-to-pole imbalance) at significant levels can have a large impact on inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This asymmetry distorts the cold confining shell and drives a high-speed jet through the hot spot. The perturbed hot spot shows increased residual kinetic energy and reduced internal energy, and it achieves reduced pressure and neutron yield. The altered implosion physics manifests itself in observable diagnostic signatures, especially the neutron spectrum which can be used to measure the neutron-weighted flow velocity, apparent ion temperature, and neutron downscattering. Numerical simulations of implosions with mode 1 asymmetry show that the resultant simulated diagnostic signatures are moved toward the values observed in many NIF experiments. The diagnostic output can also be used to build a set of integrated implosion performance metrics. The metrics indicate that P{sub 1} has a significant impact on implosion performance and must be carefully controlled in NIF implosions.

  15. On the role of energy conservation in high-energy nuclear scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    On the role of energy conservation in high-energy nuclear scattering H J Drescher1 , M Hladik1-relativistic energies do not treat energy conservation in a consistent fashion. Demanding theoretical consistency), but energy conservation is not taken care of in cross section calculations. This is a serious problem

  16. Advanced High Energy and High Power Battery Systems for Automotive Applications Khalil Amine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    -dependent Industry 41% Oil-dependent 17% Oil-dependent 72% 22% 1% 5% U.S. Oil Consumption by End-use Sector 199.30am Advanced High Energy and High Power Battery Systems for Automotive Applications Khalil Amine Argonne National Laboratory Abstract To meet the high-energy requirem ent that can enab le the 40-miles

  17. Ignition of hydrogen/air mixing layer in turbulent flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, H.G.; Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Law, C.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Autoignition of a scalar hydrogen/air mixing layer in homogeneous turbulence is studied using direct numerical simulation. An initial counterflow of unmixed nitrogen-diluted hydrogen and heated air is perturbed by two-dimensional homogeneous turbulence. The temperature of the heated air stream is chosen to be 1,100 K which is substantially higher than the crossover temperature at which the rates of the chain branching and termination reactions become equal. Three different turbulence intensities are tested in order to assess the effect of the characteristic flow time on the ignition delay. For each condition, a simulation without heat release is also performed. The ignition delay determined with and without heat release is shown to be almost identical up to the point of ignition for all of the turbulence intensities tested, and the predicted ignition delays agree well within a consistent error band. It is also observed that the ignition kernel always occurs where hydrogen is focused, and the peak concentration of HO{sub 2} is aligned well with the scalar dissipation rate. The dependence of the ignition delay on turbulence intensity is found to be nonmonotonic. For weak to moderate turbulence the ignition is facilitated by turbulence via enhanced mixing, while for stronger turbulence, whose timescale is substantially smaller than the ignition delay, the ignition is retarded due to excessive scalar dissipation, and hence diffusive loss, at the ignition location. However, for the wide range of initial turbulence fields studied, the variation in ignition delay due to the corresponding variation in turbulence intensity appears to be quite small.

  18. High West Energy, Inc (Wyoming) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | Open EnergyInformation Hess Retail NaturalHiflux LtdTechno

  19. The National Ignition Facility: The world's largest optical system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolz, C J

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 192-beam fusion laser, is presently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory with an expected completion in 2008. The facility contains 7,456 meter-scale optics for amplification, beam steering, vacuum barriers, focusing, polarization rotation, and wavelength conversion. A multiphase program was put in place to increase the monthly optical manufacturing rate by up to 20x while simultaneously reducing cost by up to 3x through a sub-scale development, full-scale facilitization, and a pilot production phase. Currently 80% of the optics are complete with over 50% installed. In order to manufacture the high quality optics at desired manufacturing rate of over 100 precision optics per month, new more deterministic advanced fabrication technologies had to be employed over those used to manufacture previous fusion lasers.

  20. Participation in High Energy Physics at the University of Chicago

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinec, Emil J. [University of Chicago

    2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers research at the University of Chicago in theoretical high energy physics and its connections to cosmology, over the period Nov. 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013. This research is divided broadly into two tasks: Task A, which covers a broad array of topics in high energy physics; and task C, primarily concerned with cosmology.

  1. High Energy Two-Body Deuteron Photodisintegration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terburg, Bart

    1999-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The differential cross section for twobody deuteron photodisintegration was measured at photon energies between 0.8 and 4.0 GeV and centerofmass angles theta_cm =37deg, 53deg, 70deg, and 90deg as part of CEBAF experiment E89012. Constituent counting rules predict a scaling of this cross section at asymptotic energies. In previous experiments this scaling has surprisingly been observed at energies between 1.4 and 2.8 GeV at 90deg. The results from this experiment are in reasonable agreement with previous measurements at lower energies. The data at 70deg and 90deg show a constituent counting rule behavior up to 4.0 GeV photon energy. The 37deg and 53deg data do not agree with the constituent counting rule prediction. The new data are compared with a variety of theoretical models inspired by quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and traditional hadronic nuclear physics.

  2. A Highly Configurable Cache for Low Energy Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najjar, Walid A.

    A Highly Configurable Cache for Low Energy Embedded Systems CHUANJUN ZHANG San Diego State University and FRANK VAHID and WALID NAJJAR University of California, Riverside Energy consumption is a major for about 50% of the total energy consumed in these systems. The performance of a given cache architecture

  3. Neutron-Proton High-Energy Charge Exchange Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Yan; R. Tegen; T. Gutsche; V. E. Lyubovitskij; Amand Faessler

    2002-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The high energy proton-neutron charge exchange scattering reaction is studied in an effective hadron model for the energy range of s from 45.9 to 414.61 GeV*GeV. The main features of the observed differential cross section, the forward peak and the scaling behavior over a large energy region, are well reproduced.

  4. Low emissions compression ignited engine technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Gerald N. (Dunlap, IL); Kilkenny, Jonathan P. (Peoria, IL); Fluga, Eric C. (Dunlap, IL); Duffy, Kevin P. (East Peoria, IL)

    2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for operating a compression ignition engine having a cylinder wall, a piston, and a head defining a combustion chamber. The method and apparatus includes delivering fuel substantially uniformly into the combustion chamber, the fuel being dispersed throughout the combustion chamber and spaced from the cylinder wall, delivering an oxidant into the combustion chamber sufficient to support combustion at a first predetermined combustion duration, and delivering a diluent into the combustion chamber sufficient to change the first predetermined combustion duration to a second predetermined combustion duration different from the first predetermined combustion duration.

  5. Electrolysis - High Temperature - Hydrogen - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseC Supports - Energy Innovation

  6. Wausau High School | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri GlobalJump to: navigation,Goff, 2002) | Open

  7. High Valley Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel Jump to: navigation, search Name:HidraliaWells Geothermal Project

  8. Margaretta High School | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose Bend < MHKconvertersourcesource History ViewDatasetsII

  9. Ultra High Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga, IndianaTurtle Airships JumpTypeforUSDOIin Developing andUlster,

  10. Hohlraum energetics scaling to 520 TW on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, J. L.; Grim, G.; Kyrala, G. A.; Batha, S. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Callahan, D. A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Meezan, N. B.; Moody, J. D.; Hinkel, D. E.; Jones, O. S.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Bennedetti, R.; Berger, R. L.; Bradley, D.; Dewald, E. L.; Bass, I.; Bennett, C.; Bowers, M.; Brunton, G.; Bude, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Indirect drive experiments have now been carried out with laser powers and energies up to 520 TW and 1.9 MJ. These experiments show that the energy coupling to the target is nearly constant at 84% 3% over a wide range of laser parameters from 350 to 520 TW and 1.2 to 1.9 MJ. Experiments at 520 TW with depleted uranium hohlraums achieve radiation temperatures of ?330 4 eV, enough to drive capsules 20 ?m thicker than the ignition point design to velocities near the ignition goal of 370 km/s. A series of three symcap implosion experiments with nearly identical target, laser, and diagnostics configurations show the symmetry and drive are reproducible at the level of 8.5% absolute and 2% relative, respectively.

  11. Apparatus for advancing a wellbore using high power laser energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Delivering high power laser energy to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. Down hole laser tools, laser systems and laser delivery techniques for advancement, workover and completion activities. A laser bottom hole assembly (LBHA) for the delivery of high power laser energy to the surfaces of a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics, a fluid path for debris removal and a mechanical means to remove earth.

  12. Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    constant Fluctuation due to calorimeter cooling system Electra's main oscillator has produced > 400J foil lifetime @ 5 Hz Deflecting laser gas or mist cooling promising Electra progress on Phase I goals Nd:glass Yb:crystals Increased energy storage and efficiency boule slab Gas Vanes Convective cooling

  13. High energy octupole resonance in Sn-116

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, HL; Youngblood, David H.; Lui, YW.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The region of excitation energy from 7 less than or equal to E(x) less than or equal to 38 MeV in Sn-116 was studied with inelastic scattering of 240 MeV alpha particles. Parameters obtained for the isoscalar giant monopole resonance...

  14. Recent progress on the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ignat, D.W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work done on the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), both at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and at other fusion laboratories in the United States. The goal of CIT is to reach ignition in a tokamak fusion device in the mid-1990's. Scientific and engineering features of the design are described, as well as projected cost and schedule.

  15. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition: Formulation Effect of a Diesel Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition: Formulation Effect of a Diesel Fuel on the Initiation and the Combustion Potential of Olefin Impact in a Diesel Base Fuel D. Alseda1,2, X. Montagne1 and P. Dagaut2 1 Compression Ignition: Formulation Effect of a Diesel Fuel on the Initiation and the Combustion - Potential

  16. web page: http://w3.pppl.gov/~ zakharov Operational Power Reactor Regime, ignited CTF,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    ] ­ power in #11;­particles, E pl [GJ] ­ thermal plasma energy, p [MPa] ­ averaged pressure, V [1000 m 3 ] ­ plasma volume. Fusion power is proportional to the plasma pressure P#11; = 0:6(#22; 0 p) 2 V; #22; 0 = 0web page: http://w3.pppl.gov/~ zakharov Operational Power Reactor Regime, ignited CTF, and Lithium

  17. Watauga High School Wind Energy Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri GlobalJump to: navigation, search Contents 1Wastes Hazardous or

  18. PLZT Nano-Precursors for High Energy Density Applications - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomass and4/26/11:Tel.: #001-408-927-2461;Innovation Portal

  19. High Falls, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel Jump to: navigation, search Name:Hidralia EnergiaFalls, New York:

  20. High Point, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel Jump to: navigation, search Name:Hidralia EnergiaFalls, NewPoint,