National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for high energy density

  1. High Energy Density Microwaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, R.M. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)

    1999-04-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the RF98 Workshop entitled `High Energy Density Microwaves` held in California in October, 1998. The topics discussed were predominantly accelerator{minus}related. The Workshop dealt, for the most part, with the generation and control of electron beams, the amplification of RF signals, the design of mode converters, and the effect of very high RF field gradients. This Workshop was designed to address the concerns of the microwave tube industry worldwide, the plasma physicists who deal with very high beam currents and gigawatts of RF power, and researchers in accelerator centers around the world. Papers were presented on multibeam klystrons, gyrotron development, plasmas in microwave tubes, RF breakdown, and alternatives to conventional linear coliders at 1 TeV and above. The Workshop was partially sponsored by the US Department of Energy. There were 46 papers presented at the conference,out of which 19 have been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  2. High Energy Density Capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Recapping is developing a capacitor that could rival the energy storage potential and price of todays best EV batteries. When power is needed, the capacitor rapidly releases its stored energy, similar to lightning being discharged from a cloud. Capacitors are an ideal substitute for batteries if their energy storage capacity can be improved. Recapping is addressing storage capacity by experimenting with the material that separates the positive and negative electrodes of its capacitors. These separators could significantly improve the energy density of electrochemical devices.

  3. High Energy Density Ultracapacitors | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es038smith2011p.pdf (1.95 MB) More Documents & Publications High Energy Density Ultracapacitors ...

  4. High energy density thermal cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, A.N.

    1980-04-29

    A thermal battery is described that uses a calcium anode and a catholyte consisting of a mixture of lithium, potassium, nitrate and chloride ions. The device is operable over a temperature range of about 150 to 600/sup 0/C and produces a long lasting, high energy density output.

  5. High Energy Density Ultracapacitors | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. esp22smith.pdf (1.09 MB) More Documents & Publications High Energy Density Ultracapacitors High ...

  6. Oxides having high energy densities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-09-10

    Certain disclosed embodiments generally relate to oxide materials having relatively high energy and/or power densities. Various aspects of the embodiments are directed to oxide materials having a structure B.sub.i(M.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2, for example, a structure Li.sub.j(Ni.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2 such as Li(Ni.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5)O.sub.2. In this structure, Y represents one or more atoms, each independently selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metals, transition metals, Group 14 elements, Group 15, or Group 16 elements. In some embodiments, such an oxide material may have an O3 crystal structure, and/or a layered structure such that the oxide comprises a plurality of first, repeating atomic planes comprising Li, and a plurality of second, repeating atomic planes comprising Ni and/or Y.

  7. High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. TRIDENT target chamber Sasi Palaniyappan, right, and Rahul Shah left inside a target chamber where the TRIDENT short pulse laser is aimed at a very thin diamond- foil target, a fraction of a micrometer thick. The

  8. Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors 2012 ...

  9. Basic Research Needs for High Energy Density Laboratory Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory. Basic Research Needs for High Energy Density Laboratory Physics Report of the Workshop on High Energy Density Laboratory Physics Research Needs November ...

  10. High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program NNSA invests in next ...

  11. High energy density redox flow device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Ho, Bryan Y; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  12. High Energy Density Utracapacitors: Low-Cost, High Energy and Power Density, Nanotube-Enhanced Ultracapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: FastCAP is improving the performance of an ultracapacitor—a battery-like electronic device that can complement, and possibly even replace, an HEV or EV battery pack. Ultracapacitors have many advantages over conventional batteries, including long lifespans (over 1 million cycles, as compared to 10,000 for conventional batteries) and better durability. Ultracapacitors also charge more quickly than conventional batteries, and they release energy more quickly. However, ultracapacitors have fallen short of batteries in one key metric: energy density—high energy density means more energy storage. FastCAP is redesigning the ultracapacitor’s internal structure to increase its energy density. Ultracapacitors traditionally use electrodes made of irregularly shaped, porous carbon. FastCAP’s ultracapacitors are made of tiny, aligned carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide a regular path for ions moving in and out of the ultracapacitor’s electrode, increasing the overall efficiency and energy density of the device.

  13. High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program Steady advances in increasing the energy, power, and brightness of lasers and particle beams and advances in pulsed power systems have made possible the exploration of matter at extremely high energy density in the laboratory. Exciting new experimental regimes are being realized by exploiting the scientific capabilities of existing ICF Office facilities, as well as the relevant Department of Defense (DoD) and university

  14. COLLOQUIUM: Frontiers in Plasma Science: A High Energy Density...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 13, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG AUDITORIUM COLLOQUIUM: Frontiers in Plasma Science: A High Energy Density Perspective Dr. Bruce A. Remington Lawrence Livermore ...

  15. Creating, Diagnosing and Controlling High-energy-density Matter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October 22, 2013, 3:00pm to 4:15pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium Creating, Diagnosing and Controlling High-energy-density Matter with Lasers Dr. Yuan Ping Lawrence Livermore National ...

  16. High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas NNSA's Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion and DOE's Office of Science established a joint program in HEDLP in 2008. Initially, this program was a combination of work that was funded as part of the NNSA's Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program in the research area of high energy density physics and the DOE Office of Science's HEDLP Program and Innovative Confinement Concepts Program. Steady advances in increasing the

  17. High energy density battery with cathode composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalewajek, D.; Eibeck, R. E.; Sukornick, B.

    1985-10-22

    A cell which employs an active metal anode such as lithium and a liquid organic electrolyte that is improved by the use of a cathode comprised of carbon fluoride chloride is described. The cathode comprises a carbon fluoride chloride of the general formula (C /SUB y/ F /SUB x/ Cl /SUB z/ ) /SUB n/ wherein y is 1 to 2, x is greater than 0 to 1.2, z is less than or equal to0.1 and n defines the number of repeating units occurring in the carbon fluoride chloride molecule of high molecular weight. The resulting battery has improved discharge and shelf-life characteristics.

  18. Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beg, Farhat

    2015-01-06

    The Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2013) was held in Saint Malo, France, at the Palais du Grand Large on 25-28 June 2013 (http://web.luli.polytechnique.fr/ICHED2013/). This meeting was the fourth in a series which was first held in 2008. This conference covered all the important aspects of High Energy Density Physics including fundamental topics from strong-field physics to creating new states of matter (including radiation-dominated, high-pressure quantum and relativistic plasmas) and ultra-fast lattice dynamics on the timescale of atomic transitions.

  19. Frontiers for Discovery in High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, R. C.; Katsouleas, T.; Arons, J.; Baring, M.; Deeney, C.; Di Mauro, L.; Ditmire, T.; Falcone, R.; Hammer, D.; Hill, W.; Jacak, B.; Joshi, C.; Lamb, F.; Lee, R.; Logan, B. G.; Melissinos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.; Mori, W.; Murnane, M.; Remington, B.; Rosner, R.; Schneider, D.; Silvera, I.; Stone, J.; Wilde, B.; Zajc. W.

    2004-07-20

    The report is intended to identify the compelling research opportunities of high intellectual value in high energy density physics. The opportunities for discovery include the broad scope of this highly interdisciplinary field that spans a wide range of physics areas including plasma physics, laser and particle beam physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science and condensed matter physics, intense radiation-matter interaction physics, fluid dynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics

  20. Sparingly Solvating Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research July 11, 2016, Research Highlights Sparingly Solvating Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Precipitation-dissolution Li-S chemistry achieved by sparingly solvating electrolyte and various electrolyte design concepts Scientific Achievement This work presents the promising new concepts of using sparingly solvating electrolyte to enable Li-S battery operation at lean electrolyte condition, as well as the design rules

  1. Sparingly Solvating Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research August 24, 2016, Videos Sparingly Solvating Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries As JCESR scientists work to develop lighter and less expensive chemistries than those used in current lithium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur shows tremendous promise. However, current lithium-sulfur batteries require an excessive amount of electrolyte to achieve moderate cycle life. This perspective presents an alternate approach of

  2. A novel zirconium K{alpha} imager for high energy density physics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for high energy density physics research Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A novel zirconium Kalpha imager for high energy density physics research We report on the ...

  3. High energy density capacitors using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1992-08-01

    Today, many pulse power and industrial applications are limited by capacitor performance. While incremental improvements are anticipated from existing capacitor technologies, significant advances are needed in energy density to enable these applications for both the military and for American economic competitiveness. We propose a program to research and develop a novel technology for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Nano-structure multilayer technologies developed at LLNL may well provide a breakthrough in capacitor performance. Our controlled sputtering techniques are capable of laying down extraordinarily smooth sub-micron layers of dielectric and conductor materials. With this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density may be achievable. Well-understood dielectrics and new materials will be investigated for use with this technology. Capacitors developed by nano-structure multilayer technology are inherently solid state, exhibiting extraordinary mechanical and thermal properties. The conceptual design of a Notepad capacitor is discussed to illustrate capacitor and capacitor bank design and performance with this technology. We propose a two phase R&D program to address DNA`s capacitor needs for electro-thermal propulsion and similar pulse power programs. Phase 1 will prove the concept and further our understanding of dielectric materials and design tradeoffs with multilayers. Nano-structure multilayer capacitors will be developed and characterized. As our materials research and modeling prove successful, technology insertion in our capacitor designs will improve the possibility for dramatic performance improvements. In Phase 2, we will make Notepad capacitors, construct a capacitor bank and demonstrate its performance in a meaningful pulse power application. We will work with industrial partners to design full scale manufacturing and move this technology to industry for volume production.

  4. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shumlak, U. Golingo, R. P. Nelson, B. A. Bowers, C. A. Doty, S. A. Forbes, E. G. Hughes, M. C. Kim, B. Knecht, S. D. Lambert, K. K. Lowrie, W. Ross, M. P. Weed, J. R.

    2014-12-15

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and

  5. PLZT Nano-Precursors for High Energy Density Applications - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PJM©2012 1 www.pjm.com Markets, Regulation and Energy Storage: A Match Made in Heaven? EIA 2013 Energy Conference June 17, 2013 Craig Glazer Vice President PJM Interconnection PJM©2012 2 www.pjm.com "We're Mad as Hell and We're Not Going to Take It Anymore!" PJM©2012 3 www.pjm.com * Need slide that is black. PJM©2012 4 www.pjm.com And What Were They Mad About??? At the Wholesale Level... * Transmission access - Negotiation of "wheeling rights" - Discriminatory treatment -

  6. Laser-Plasma Interactions in High-Energy-Density Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldis, H

    2006-10-17

    High temperature hohlraums (HTH) are designed to reach high radiation temperatures by coupling a maximum amount of laser energy into a small target in a short time. These 400-800 {micro}m diameter gold cylinders rapidly fill with hot plasma during irradiation with multiple beams in 1ns laser pulses. The high-Z plasmas are dense, (electron density, n{sub e}/n{sub c} {approx} 0.1-0.4), hot (electron temperature, T{sub e} {approx} 10keV) and are bathed in a high-temperature radiation field (radiation temperature, T{sub rad} {approx} 300eV). Here n{sub c}, the critical density, equals 9 x 10{sup 21}/cm{sup 3}. The laser beams heating this plasma are intense ({approx} 10{sup 15} - 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}). The coupling of the laser to the plasma is a rich regime for Laser-Plasma Interaction (LPI) physics. The LPI mechanisms in this study include beam deflection and forward scattering. In order to understand the LPI mechanisms, the plasma parameters must be known. An L-band spectrometer is used to measure the and electron temperature. A ride-along experiment is to develop the x-radiation emitted by the thin back wall of the half-hohlraum into a thermal radiation source.

  7. DIAGNOSTICS FOR ION BEAM DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P.A.

    2010-01-04

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K{sup +} beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (VISAR), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  8. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  9. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-08-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  10. Metrology Challenges for High Energy Density Science Target Manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seugling, R M; Bono, M J; Davis, P

    2009-02-19

    Currently, High Energy Density Science (HEDS) experiments are used to support and qualify predictive physics models. These models assume ideal conditions such as energy (input) and device (target) geometry. The experiments rely on precision targets constructed from components with dimensions in the millimeter range, while having micrometer-scale, functional features, including planar steps, sine waves, and step-joint geometry on hemispherical targets. Future target designs will likely have features and forms that rival or surpass current manufacturing and characterization capability. The dimensional metrology of these features is important for a number of reasons, including qualification of sub-components prior to assembly, quantification of critical features on the as-built assemblies and as a feedback mechanism for fabrication process development. Variations in geometry from part to part can lead to functional limitations, such as unpredictable instabilities during an experiment and the inability to assemble a target from poorly matched sub-components. Adding to the complexity are the large number and variety of materials, components, and shapes that render any single metrology technique difficult to use with low uncertainty. Common materials include metal and glass foams, doped transparent and opaque plastics and a variety of deposited and wrought metals. A suite of metrology tools and techniques developed to address the many critical issues relevant to the manufacture of HEDS targets including interferometry, x-ray radiography and contact metrology are presented including two sided interferometry for absolute thickness metrology and low force probe technology for micrometer feature coordinate metrology.

  11. Upgrading of biorenewables to high energy density fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, John C; Batista, Enrique R; Chen, Weizhong; Currier, Robert P; Dirmyer, Matthew R; John, Kevin D; Kim, Jin K; Keith, Jason; Martin, Richard L; Pierpont, Aaron W; Silks Ill, L. A. "" Pete; Smythe, Mathan C; Sutton, Andrew D; Taw, Felicia L; Trovitch, Ryan J; Vasudevan, Kalyan V; Waidmann, Christopher R; Wu, Ruilian; Baker, R. Thomas; Schlaf, Marcel

    2010-12-07

    According to a recent report, lignocellulose is the most abundant renewable biological resource on earth, with an annual production of {approx} 200 x 10{sup 9} tons. Conversion of lignocellulosics derived from wood, agricultural wastes, and woody grasses into liquid fuels and value-added chemical feedstocks is an active area of research that has seen an explosion of effort due to the need to replace petroleum based sources. The carbohydrates D-glucose (C{sub 6}), L-arabinose (C{sub 5}), and D-xylose (C{sub 5}) are readily obtained from the hydrolysis of lignocellulose and constitute the most abundant renewable organic carbon source on the planet. Because they are naturally produced on such a large scale, these sugars have the greatest potential to displace petrochemical derived transportation fuel. Recent efforts in our laboratories aimed towards the production of high energy density transportation fuels from carbohydrates have been structured around the parameters of selective carbohydrate carbon chain extension chemistries, low reaction temperatures, and the desired use of water or neat substrate as the solvent. Some of our efforts in this regard will be presented.

  12. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Large-scale energy storage systems are crucial for substantial deployment of renewable energy sources. Energy storage systems with high energy density, high safety, and low cost and environmental friendliness are desired. To overcome the major limitations of the current aqueous redox flow battery systems, namely lower energy density (~25 Wh L-1) and presence of strong acids and/or other hazardous, a high energy density aqueous zinc/polyiodide flow battery (ZIB) is designed with near neutral ZnI2 solutions as catholytes. The energy density of ZIB could reach 322 Wh L-1 at the solubility limit of ZnI2 in water (~7 M). We demonstrate charge and discharge energy densities of 245.9 Wh/L and 166.7 Wh L-1 with ZnI2 electrolyte at 5.0 M, respectively. The addition of ethanol (EtOH) in ZnI2 electrolyte can effectively mitigate the growth of zinc dendrite at the anode and improve the stability of catholytes with wider temperature window (-20 to 50°C), which enable ZIB system to be a promising alternative as a high-energy and high- safety stationary energy storage system.

  13. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Large-scale energy storage systems are crucial for substantial deployment of renewable energy sources. Energy storage systems with high energy density, high safety, and low cost and environmental friendliness are desired. To overcome the major limitations of the current aqueous redox flow battery systems, namely lower energy density (~25 Wh L-1) and presence of strong acids and/or other hazardous, a high energy density aqueous zinc/polyiodide flow battery (ZIB) is designed with near neutral ZnI2 solutions as catholytes. The energy density of ZIB could reach 322 Wh L-1 at the solubility limit of ZnI2 in water (~7 M). We demonstrate charge andmore » discharge energy densities of 245.9 Wh/L and 166.7 Wh L-1 with ZnI2 electrolyte at 5.0 M, respectively. The addition of ethanol (EtOH) in ZnI2 electrolyte can effectively mitigate the growth of zinc dendrite at the anode and improve the stability of catholytes with wider temperature window (-20 to 50°C), which enable ZIB system to be a promising alternative as a high-energy and high- safety stationary energy storage system.« less

  14. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Large-scale energy storage systems are crucial for substantial deployment of renewable energy sources. Energy storage systems with high energy density, high safety, and low cost and environmental friendliness are desired. To overcome the major limitations of the current aqueous redox flow battery systems, namely lower energy density (~25 Wh L-1) and presence of strong acids and/or other hazardous, a high energy density aqueous zinc/polyiodide flow battery (ZIB) is designed with near neutral ZnI2 solutions as catholytes. The energy density of ZIB could reach 322 Wh L-1 at the solubility limit of ZnI2 in water (~7 M). We demonstrate charge and discharge energy densities of 245.9 Wh/L and 166.7 Wh L-1 with ZnI2 electrolyte at 5.0 M, respectively. The addition of ethanol (EtOH) in ZnI2 electrolyte can effectively mitigate the growth of zinc dendrite at the anode and improve the stability of catholytes with wider temperature window (-20 to 50°C), which enable ZIB system to be a promising alternative as a high-energy and high- safety stationary energy storage system.

  15. Basic Research Needs for High Energy Density Laboratory Physics

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    On the cover: Invisible infrared light from the 200-trillion watt Trident Laser enters from the bottom to interact with a one-micrometer thick foil target in the center of the photo. The laser pulse produces a plasma - an ionized gas - many times hotter than the center of the sun, which lasts for a trillionth of a second. During this time some electrons from the foil are accelerated to virtually the speed of light, and some ions are accelerated to energies of tens of millions of volts. In this

  16. MEMS Fuel Cells--Low Temp--High Power Density - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search MEMS Fuel Cells--Low Temp--High Power Density Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Rechargeable batteries presently provide limited energy density and cyclical lifetime for portable power applications, with only incremental improvements forecasted in the foreseeable future. Furthermore, recharging requires access to electrical outlets via a tethered charger. The

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Density Lithium Battery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Binghamton U.-SUNY at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy density...

  18. High energy density capacitors for power electronic applications using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

    1995-09-01

    Power electronics applications are currently limited by capacitor size and performance. Only incremental improvements are anticipated in existing capacitor technologies, while significant performance advances are required in energy density and overall performance to meet the technical needs of the applications which are important for U.S. economic competitiveness. One application, the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB), promises a second electronics revolution in power electronic design. High energy density capacitors with excellent electrical thermal and mechanical performance represent an enabling technology in the PEBB concept. We propose a continuing program to research and develop LLNL`s nano-structure multilayer technologies for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Our controlled deposition techniques are capable of synthesizing extraordinarily smooth sub-micron thick layers of dielectric and conductor materials. We have demonstrated that, with this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density are achievable.

  19. High energy density battery based on complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2016-04-26

    A battery and process of operating a battery system is provided using high hydrogen capacity complex hydrides in an organic non-aqueous solvent that allows the transport of hydride ions such as AlH.sub.4.sup.- and metal ions during respective discharging and charging steps.

  20. Report of the Interagency Task Force on High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-08-01

    Identifies the needs for improving Federal stewardship of specific aspects of high energy density physics, particularly the study of high energy density plasmas in the laboratory, and strengthening university activities in this latter discipline. The report articulates how HEDP fits into the portfolio of federally funded missions and includes agency actions to be taken that are necessary to further this area of study consistent with Federal priorities and plans, while being responsive to the needs of the scientific community.

  1. Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometer electron density diagnostic for laser and pulsed power high energy density plasma experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I.; Theobald, W.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.; Klein, S. R.; Munoz-Cordoves, G.; et al

    2016-04-21

    Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometry has been developed as an electron density diagnostic for High Energy Density plasmas. The technique can deliver x-ray refraction, attenuation, elemental composition, and scatter information from a single Moiré image. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer was deployed using laser and x-pinch backlighters. Grating survival and electron density mapping was demonstrated for 25-29 J, 8-30 ps laser pulses using copper foil targets. Moire pattern formation and grating survival was also observed using a copper x-pinch driven at 400 kA, ~1 kA/ns. Lastly, these results demonstrate the potential of TXD as an electron density diagnostic for HED plasmas.

  2. Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chiping

    2013-08-26

    High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  3. US Heavy Ion Beam Research for High Energy Density Physics Applications and Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.; et al.

    2005-09-19

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers.

  4. An x-ray backlit Talbot-Lau deflectometer for high-energy-density electron density diagnostics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.

    2016-02-10

    X-ray phase-contrast techniques can measure electron density gradients in high-energy-density plasmas through refraction induced phase shifts. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer consisting of free standing ultrathin gratings was deployed at an ultra-short, high-intensity laser system using K-shell emission from a 1-30 J, 8 ps laser pulse focused on thin Cu foil targets. Grating survival was demonstrated for 30 J, 8 ps laser pulses. The first x-ray deflectometry images obtained under laser backlighting showed up to 25% image contrast and thus enabled detection of electron areal density gradients with a maximum value of 8.1 ± 0.5 × 1023 cm₋3 in amore » low-Z millimeter sized sample. An electron density profile was obtained from refraction measurements with an error of <8%. We found the 50 ± 15 μm spatial resolution achieved across the full field of view was limited by the x-ray source-size, similar to conventional radiography.« less

  5. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee -Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-11

    Here we demonstrate for the first time that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190°C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh/kg, which is 3 times higher than that of conventional tubular Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 280°C, was obtained for planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 190°C over a long-term cell test (1000 cycles). The high energy density and superior cycle stability are attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials (NaCl and Ni) at 190°C. The results reported in this work demonstrate that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at anmore » intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.« less

  6. The high-energy-density counterpropagating shear experiment and turbulent self-heating

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Doss, F. W.; Fincke, J. R.; Loomis, E. N.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Flippo, K. A.

    2013-12-06

    The counterpropagating shear experiment has previously demonstrated the ability to create regions of shockdriven shear, balanced symmetrically in pressure and experiencing minimal net drift. This allows for the creation of a high-Mach-number high-energy-density shear environment. New data from the counterpropagating shear campaign is presented, and both hydrocode modeling and theoretical analysis in the context of a Reynolds-averaged-Navier-Stokes model suggest turbulent dissipation of energy from the supersonic flow bounding the layer is a significant driver in its expansion. A theoretical minimum shear flow Mach number threshold is suggested for substantial thermal-turbulence coupling.

  7. Measurements of continuous mix evolution in a high energy density shear flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, E. Doss, F.; Flippo, K.; Fincke, J.

    2014-04-15

    We report on the novel integration of streaked radiography into a counter-flowing High Energy Density (HED) shear environment that continually measures a growing mix layer of Al separating two low-density CH foams. Measurements of the mix width allow us to validate compressible turbulence models and with streaked imaging, make this possible with a minimal number of experiments on large laser facilities. In this paper, we describe how the HED counter-flowing shear layer is created and diagnosed with streaked radiography. We then compare the streaked data to previous two-dimensional, single frame radiography and radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the experiment with inline compressible turbulent mix models.

  8. High energy-density physics: From nuclear testing to the superlasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, E.M.; Holmes, N.C.; Libby, S.B.; Remington, B.A.; Teller, E.

    1995-10-20

    We describe the role for the next-generation ``superlasers`` in the study of matter under extremely high energy density conditions, in comparison to previous uses of nuclear explosives for this purpose. As examples, we focus on three important areas of physics that have unresolved issues which must be addressed by experiment: Equations of state, hydrodynamic mixing, and the transport of radiation. We will describe the advantages the large lasers will have in a comprehensive experimental program.

  9. The impact of Hall physics on magnetized high energy density plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Seyler, C. E.; Atoyan, L.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Potter, W. M.; Schrafel, P. C.; Shelkovenko, T. A.

    2014-05-15

    Hall physics is often neglected in high energy density plasma jets due to the relatively high electron density of such jets (n{sub e} ∼ 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}). However, the vacuum region surrounding the jet has much lower densities and is dominated by Hall electric field. This electric field redirects plasma flows towards or away from the axis, depending on the radial current direction. A resulting change in the jet density has been observed experimentally. Furthermore, if an axial field is applied on the jet, the Hall effect is enhanced and ignoring it leads to serious discrepancies between experimental results and numerical simulations. By combining high currents (∼1 MA) and magnetic field helicity (15° angle) in a pulsed power generator such as COBRA, plasma jets can be magnetized with a 10 T axial field. The resulting field enhances the impact of the Hall effect by altering the density profile of current-free plasma jets and the stability of current-carrying plasma jets (e.g., Z-pinches)

  10. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to Ignition, High Energy Density Science and Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2011-03-25

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is a Nd:Glass laser facility capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. This world's most energetic laser system is now operational with the goals of achieving thermonuclear burn in the laboratory and exploring the behavior of matter at extreme temperatures and energy densities. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in the interiors of planetary and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, NIF performed the first integrated ignition experiment which demonstrated the successful coordination of the laser, the cryogenic target system, the array of diagnostics and the infrastructure required for ignition. Many more experiments have been completed since. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and the international communities are examining the implication of achieving ignition on NIF for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a 10% electrical-optical efficiency laser, as well as further advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection and tracking, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in 10- to 15-years. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) baseline design and examining various technology choices for LIFE power plant This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF, the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the start of fundamental science experiments and plans to transition NIF to an international user facility

  11. Differential heating: A versatile method for thermal conductivity measurements in high-energy-density matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping, Y.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Sio, H.; Correa, A.; Shepherd, R.; Landen, O.; London, R. A.; Sterne, P. A.; Whitley, H. D.; Fratanduono, D.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, G. W.

    2015-09-04

    We propose a method for thermal conductivity measurements of high energy density matter based on differential heating. A temperature gradient is created either by surface heating of one material or at an interface between two materials by different energy deposition. The subsequent heat conduction across the temperature gradient is observed by various time-resolved probing techniques. Conceptual designs of such measurements using laser heating, proton heating, and x-ray heating are presented. As a result, the sensitivity of the measurements to thermal conductivity is confirmed by simulations.

  12. Measurements of ion stopping around the Bragg peak in high-energy-density plasmas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Frenje, J. A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-09

    For the first time, quantitative measurements of ion stopping at energies about the Bragg peak (or peak ion stopping, which occurs at an ion velocity comparable to the average thermal electron velocity), and its dependence on electron temperature (Te) and electron number density (ne) in the range of 0.5 – 4.0 keV and 3 × 1022 – 3 × 1023 cm-3 have been conducted, respectively. It is experimentally demonstrated that the position and amplitude of the Bragg peak varies strongly with Te with ne. As a result, the importance of including quantum diffraction is also demonstrated in the stopping-power modelingmore » of High-Energy-Density Plasmas.« less

  13. Measurements of ion stopping around the Bragg peak in high-energy-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenje, J. A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-09

    For the first time, quantitative measurements of ion stopping at energies about the Bragg peak (or peak ion stopping, which occurs at an ion velocity comparable to the average thermal electron velocity), and its dependence on electron temperature (Te) and electron number density (ne) in the range of 0.5 – 4.0 keV and 3 × 1022 – 3 × 1023 cm-3 have been conducted, respectively. It is experimentally demonstrated that the position and amplitude of the Bragg peak varies strongly with Te with ne. As a result, the importance of including quantum diffraction is also demonstrated in the stopping-power modeling of High-Energy-Density Plasmas.

  14. 12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics Experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density...

  15. Research Opportunities in High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas on the NDCX-II Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, John; Cohen, Ron; Friedman, Alex; Grote, Dave; Lund, Steven; Sharp, Bill; Bieniosek, Frank; Ni, Pavel; Roy, Prabir; Henestroza, Enrique; Jung, Jin-Young; Kwan, Joe; Lee, Ed; Leitner, Matthaeus; Lidia, Steven; Logan, Grant; Seidl, Peter; Vay, Jean-Luc; Waldron, Will

    2009-03-23

    Intense beams of heavy ions offer a very attractive tool for fundamental research in high energy density physics and inertial fusion energy science. These applications build on the significant recent advances in the generation, compression and focusing of intense heavy ion beams in the presence of a neutralizing background plasma. Such beams can provide uniform volumetric heating of the target during a time-scale shorter than the hydrodynamic response time, thereby enabling a significant suite of experiments that will elucidate the underlying physics of dense, strongly-coupled plasma states, which have been heretofore poorly understood and inadequately diagnosed, particularly in the warm dense matter regime. The innovations, fundamental knowledge, and experimental capabilities developed in this basic research program is also expected to provide new research opportunities to study the physics of directly-driven ion targets, which can dramatically reduce the size of heavy ion beam drivers for inertial fusion energy applications. Experiments examining the behavior of thin target foils heated to the warm dense matter regime began at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 2008, using the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment - I (NDCX-I) facility, and its associated target chamber and diagnostics. The upgrade of this facility, called NDCX-II, will enable an exciting set of scientific experiments that require highly uniform heating of the target, using Li{sup +} ions which enter the target with kinetic energy in the range of 3 MeV, slightly above the Bragg peak for energy deposition, and exit with energies slightly below the Bragg peak. This document briefly summarizes the wide range of fundamental scientific experiments that can be carried out on the NDCX-II facility, pertaining to the two charges presented to the 2008 Fusion Energy Science Advisory Committee (FESAC) panel on High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas (HEDLP). These charges include: (1) Identify

  16. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The overall objective of the program is the determination of the minimal processing requirements to produce High Energy Density Fuels (HEDF), meeting a minimal energy density of 130,000 Btu/gal (conventional jet fuels have energy densities in the vicinity of 115,000--120,000 Btu/gal) and having acceptable advanced fuel specifications in accordance with the three defined categories of HEDF. The program encompasses assessing current technology capability; selecting acceptable processing and refining schemes; and generating samples of advanced test fuels. A task breakdown structure was developed containing eight key tasks. This report summarizes the work that Amoco Oil Company (AOC), as key subcontractor, performed in the execution of Task 4, Proposed Upgrading Schemes for Advanced Fuel. The intent of the Task 4 study was to represent all the candidate processing options, that were either studied in the experimental efforts of Task 3 or were available from the prior art in the open literature, in a linear program (LP) model. The LP model would allow scaling of the bench-scale Task 3 results to commercial scale and would perform economic evaluations on any combination of the processes which might be used to make HEDF. Section 2.0 of this report summarizes the process and economic bases used. Sections 3.0 and 4.0 details the economics and processing sensitivities for HEDF production. 1 ref., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. High Energy Density Thermal Batteries: Thermoelectric Reactors for Efficient Automotive Thermal Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-15

    HEATS Project: Sheetak is developing a new HVAC system to store the energy required for heating and cooling in EVs. This system will replace the traditional refrigerant-based vapor compressors and inefficient heaters used in today’s EVs with efficient, light, and rechargeable hot-and-cold thermal batteries. The high energy density thermal battery—which does not use any hazardous substances—can be recharged by an integrated solid-state thermoelectric energy converter while the vehicle is parked and its electrical battery is being charged. Sheetak’s converters can also run on the electric battery if needed and provide the required cooling and heating to the passengers—eliminating the space constraint and reducing the weight of EVs that use more traditional compressors and heaters.

  18. 12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics Experiments A high contrast 12.6 keV Kr Kalpha source has been demonstrated on the petawatt-class Titan laser facility. ...

  19. A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Vijayakumar, M.; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang; Hu, Jian Z.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-05-01

    Low cost, high performance redox flow batteries are highly demanded for up to multi-megawatt levels of renewable and grid energy storage. Here, we report a new vanadium redox flow battery with a significant improvement over the current technologies. This new battery utilizes a sulfate-chloride mixed solution, which is capable of dissolving more than 2.5 M vanadium or about a 70% increase in the energy storage capacity over the current vanadium sulfate system. More importantly, the new electrolyte remains stable over a wide temperature range of -5 to 60oC, potentially eliminating the need of active heat management. Its high energy density, broad operational temperature window, and excellent electrochemical performance would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of energy storage, thus accelerating its market penetration.

  20. Note: Experimental platform for magnetized high-energy-density plasma studies at the omega laser facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiksel, G.; Agliata, A.; Barnak, D.; Brent, G.; Chang, P. -Y.; Folnsbee, L.; Gates, G.; Hasset, D.; Lonobile, D.; Magoon, J.; Mastrosimone, D.; Shoup, III, M. J.; Betti, R.

    2015-01-12

    Here, an upgrade of the pulsed magnetic field generator magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system [O. Gotchev et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 043504 (2009)] is described. The device is used to study magnetized high-energy-density plasma and is capable of producing a pulsed magnetic field of tens of tesla in a volume of a few cubic centimeters. The magnetic field is created by discharging a high-voltage capacitor through a small wire-wound coil. The coil current pulse has a duration of about 1 μs and a peak value of 40 kA. Compared to the original, the updated version has a larger energy storage and improved switching system. In addition, magnetic coils are fabricated using 3-D printing technology which allows for a greater variety of the magnetic field topology.

  1. A novel zirconium K{alpha} imager for high energy density physics research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akli, K. U.; Jiang, S.; Storm, M. S.; Krygier, A.; Freeman, R. R.; Sanchez del Rio, M.; Stephens, R. B.; Pereira, N. R.; Baronova, E. O.; Theobald, W.; Ping, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Patel, P. K.; Key, M. H.

    2011-12-15

    We report on the development and characterization of a zirconium K{alpha} imager for high energy density physics research. The imager consists of a spherically bent quartz crystal operating at 15.7 keV photon energy. We compare the performance of the imager in terms of integrated reflectivity (R{sub int}) and temperature dependent collection efficiency ({eta}{sub Te}) to that of the widely used Cu K{alpha} imager. Our collisional-radiative simulations show that the new imager can be reliably used up to 250 eV plasma temperature. Monte Carlo simulations show that for a 25 {mu}m thick tracer layer of zirconium, the contribution to K{alpha} production from photo-pumping is only 2%. We present, for the first time, 2D spatially resolved images of zirconium plasmas generated by a high intensity short pulse laser interacting with Zr solid targets.

  2. Schlieren technique applied to the arc temperature measurement in a high energy density cutting torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.

    2010-01-15

    Plasma temperature and radial density profiles of the plasma species in a high energy density cutting arc have been obtained by using a quantitative schlieren technique. A Z-type two-mirror schlieren system was used in this research. Due to its great sensibility such technique allows measuring plasma composition and temperature from the arc axis to the surrounding medium by processing the gray-level contrast values of digital schlieren images recorded at the observation plane for a given position of a transverse knife located at the exit focal plane of the system. The technique has provided a good visualization of the plasma flow emerging from the nozzle and its interactions with the surrounding medium and the anode. The obtained temperature values are in good agreement with those values previously obtained by the authors on the same torch using Langmuir probes.

  3. Three-dimensional modeling and analysis of a high energy density Kelvin-Helmholtz experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, K. S.; Hurricane, O. A.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Drake, R. P.; Krauland, C. M.; Kuranz, C. C.; Hansen, J. F.; Harding, E. C.

    2012-09-15

    A recent series of experiments on the OMEGA laser provided the first controlled demonstration of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability in a high-energy-density physics context [E. C. Harding et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 045005, (2009); O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 056305, (2009)]. We present 3D simulations which resolve previously reported discrepancies between those experiments and the 2D simulation used to design them. Our new simulations reveal a three-dimensional mechanism behind the low density 'bubble' structures which appeared in the experimental x-ray radiographs at late times but were completely absent in the 2D simulations. We also demonstrate that the three-dimensional expansion of the walls of the target is sufficient to explain the 20% overprediction by 2D simulation of the late-time growth of the KH rollups. The implications of these results for the design of future experiments are discussed.

  4. Monochromatic radiography of high energy density physics experiments on the MAGPIE generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G. N. Burdiak, G. C.; Suttle, L.; Stuart, N. H.; Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Smith, R. A.; Patankar, S.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Grouchy, P. de; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Pickworth, L.; Skidmore, J.

    2014-11-15

    A monochromatic X-ray backlighter based on Bragg reflection from a spherically bent quartz crystal has been developed for the MAGPIE pulsed power generator at Imperial College (1.4 MA, 240ns) [I. H. Mitchell et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1533 (2005)]. This instrument has been used to diagnose high energy density physics experiments with 1.865 keV radiation (Silicon He-?) from a laser plasma source driven by a ?7 J, 1 ns pulse from the Cerberus laser. The design of the diagnostic, its characterisation and performance, and initial results in which the instrument was used to radiograph a shock physics experiment on MAGPIE are discussed.

  5. A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Bowden, Mark E.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-15

    Alkali metal-sulfur batteries are attractive for energy storage applications because of their high energy density. Among the batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries typically use liquid in the battery electrolyte, which causes problems in both performance and safety. Sodium-sulfur batteries can use a solid electrolyte such as beta alumina but this requires a high operating temperature. Here we report a novel potassium-sulfur battery with K+-conducting beta-alumina as the electrolyte. Our studies indicate that liquid potassium exhibits much better wettability on the surface of beta-alumina compared to liquid sodium at lower temperatures. Based on this observation, we develop a potassium-sulfur battery that can operate at as low as 150°C with excellent performance. In particular, the battery shows excellent cycle life with negligible capacity fade in 1000 cycles because of the dense ceramic membrane. This study demonstrates a new battery with a high energy density, long cycle life, low cost and high safety, which is ideal for grid-scale energy storage.

  6. The National Ignition Facility: Ushering in a new age for high energy density science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E. I.; Boyd, R. N.; Remington, B. A.; Keane, C. J.; Al-Ayat, R.

    2009-04-15

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 012003 (2008); https://lasers.llnl.gov/], completed in March 2009, is the highest energy laser ever constructed. The high temperatures and densities achievable at NIF will enable a number of experiments in inertial confinement fusion and stockpile stewardship, as well as access to new regimes in a variety of experiments relevant to x-ray astronomy, laser-plasma interactions, hydrodynamic instabilities, nuclear astrophysics, and planetary science. The experiments will impact research on black holes and other accreting objects, the understanding of stellar evolution and explosions, nuclear reactions in dense plasmas relevant to stellar nucleosynthesis, properties of warm dense matter in planetary interiors, molecular cloud dynamics and star formation, and fusion energy generation.

  7. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A.; Lu, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/ΔE of order 10 000 and spatial resolution better than 10 μm. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  8. Note: Experimental platform for magnetized high-energy-density plasma studies at the omega laser facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fiksel, G.; Agliata, A.; Barnak, D.; Brent, G.; Chang, P. -Y.; Folnsbee, L.; Gates, G.; Hasset, D.; Lonobile, D.; Magoon, J.; et al

    2015-01-12

    Here, an upgrade of the pulsed magnetic field generator magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system [O. Gotchev et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 043504 (2009)] is described. The device is used to study magnetized high-energy-density plasma and is capable of producing a pulsed magnetic field of tens of tesla in a volume of a few cubic centimeters. The magnetic field is created by discharging a high-voltage capacitor through a small wire-wound coil. The coil current pulse has a duration of about 1 μs and a peak value of 40 kA. Compared to the original, the updated version has a larger energymore » storage and improved switching system. In addition, magnetic coils are fabricated using 3-D printing technology which allows for a greater variety of the magnetic field topology.« less

  9. High current density ion beam obtained by a transition to a highly focused state in extremely low-energy region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirano, Y. E-mail: hirano.yoichi@phys.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp; Kiyama, S.; Koguchi, H.; Fujiwara, Y.; Sakakita, H.

    2015-11-15

    A high current density (≈3 mA/cm{sup 2}) hydrogen ion beam source operating in an extremely low-energy region (E{sub ib} ≈ 150–200 eV) has been realized by using a transition to a highly focused state, where the beam is extracted from the ion source chamber through three concave electrodes with nominal focal lengths of ≈350 mm. The transition occurs when the beam energy exceeds a threshold value between 145 and 170 eV. Low-level hysteresis is observed in the transition when E{sub ib} is being reduced. The radial profiles of the ion beam current density and the low temperature ion current density can be obtained separately using a Faraday cup with a grid in front. The measured profiles confirm that more than a half of the extracted beam ions reaches the target plate with a good focusing profile with a full width at half maximum of ≈3 cm. Estimation of the particle balances in beam ions, the slow ions, and the electrons indicates the possibility that the secondary electron emission from the target plate and electron impact ionization of hydrogen may play roles as particle sources in this extremely low-energy beam after the compensation of beam ion space charge.

  10. High-Energy Density science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Glenzer, S. H.; Fletcher, L. B.; Hastings, J. B.

    2016-03-01

    The Matter in Extreme Conditions end station at the Linac Coherent Light Source holds great promise for novel pump-probe experiments to make new discoveries in high- energy density science. Recently, our experiments have demonstrated the first spectrally- resolved measurements of plasmons using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam. Forward x-ray Thomson scattering spectra from isochorically heated solid aluminum show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV from the incident 8 keV elastic scattering feature. In this spectral range, the simultaneously measured backscatter spectrum shows no spectral features indicating observation of collective plasmon oscillations on amore » scattering length comparable to the screening length. Moreover, this technique is a prerequisite for Thomson scattering measurements in compressed matter where the plasmon shift is a sensitive function of the free electron density and where the plasmon intensity provides information on temperature.« less

  11. Experimental and Computational Studies of High Energy Density Plasma Streams Ablated from Fine Wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenly, John B.; Seyler, Charles

    2014-03-30

    Experimental and computational studies of high energy density plasma streams ablated from fine wires. Laboratory of Plasma Studies, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University. Principal Investigators: Dr. John B. Greenly and Dr. Charles E. Seyler. This report summarizes progress during the final year of this project to study the physics of high energy density (HED) plasma streams of 10^17-10^20/cm3 density and high velocity (~100-500 km/s). Such streams are produced from 5-250 micrometer diameter wires heated and ionized by a 1 MA, 250 ns current pulse on the COBRA pulsed power facility at Cornell University. Plasma is ablated from the wires and is driven away to high velocity by unbalanced JxB force. A wire, or an array of wires, can persist as an essentially stationary, continuous source of this streaming plasma for >200 ns, even with driving magnetic fields of many Tesla and peak current densities in the plasma of many MA/cm2. At the heart of the ablation stream generation is the continuous transport of mass from the relatively cold, near-solid-density wire "core" into current-carrying plasma within 1 mm of the wire, followed by the magnetic acceleration of that plasma and its trapped flux to form a directed stream. In the first two years of this program, an advancing understanding of ablation physics led to the discovery of several novel wire ablation experimental regimes. In the final year, one of these new HED plasma regimes has been studied in quantitative detail. This regime studies highly reproducible magnetic reconnection in strongly radiating plasma with supersonic and superalfvenic flow, and shock structures in the outflow. The key discovery is that very heavy wires, e.g. 250 micrometer diameter Al or 150 micrometer Cu, behave in a qualitatively different way than the lighter wires typically used in wire-array Z-pinches. Such wires can be configured to produce a static magnetic X-point null geometry that stores magnetic and

  12. Solar Thermal Energy Storage Device: Hybrid Nanostructures for High-Energy-Density Solar Thermal Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-09

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a thermal energy storage device that captures energy from the sun; this energy can be stored and released at a later time when it is needed most. Within the device, the absorption of sunlight causes the solar thermal fuels photoactive molecules to change shape, which allows energy to be stored within their chemical bonds. A trigger is applied to release the stored energy as heat, where it can be converted into electricity or used directly as heat. The molecules would then revert to their original shape, and can be recharged using sunlight to begin the process anew. MITs technology would be 100% renewable, rechargeable like a battery, and emissions-free. Devices using these solar thermal fuelscalled Hybrisolcan also be used without a grid infrastructure for applications such as de-icing, heating, cooking, and water purification.

  13. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Yang; Zhu, Yimei; Cai, Sendan; Wu, Lijun; Yang, Weijing; Xie, Jingying; Wen, Wen; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Zheng, Yi

    2014-11-10

    Li/CFx primary possesses the highest energy density of 2180 W h kg⁻¹ among all primary lithium batteries. However, a key limitation for the utility of this type of battery is in its poor rate capability because the cathode material, CFx, is an intrinsically poor electronic conductor. Here, we report on our development of a controlled process of surface de-fluorination under mild hydrothermal conditions to modify the highly fluorinated CFx. The modified CFx, consisting of an in situ generated shell component of F-graphene layers, possesses good electronic conductivity and removes the transporting barrier for lithium ions, yielding a high-capacity performance and an excellent rate-capability. Indeed, a capacity of 500 mA h g⁻¹ and a maximum power density of 44 800 W kg⁻¹ can be realized at the ultrafast rate of 30 C (24 A g⁻¹), which is over one order of magnitude higher than that of the state-of-the-art primary lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dai, Yang; Zhu, Yimei; Cai, Sendan; Wu, Lijun; Yang, Weijing; Xie, Jingying; Wen, Wen; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Zheng, Yi

    2014-11-10

    Li/CFx primary possesses the highest energy density of 2180 W h kg⁻¹ among all primary lithium batteries. However, a key limitation for the utility of this type of battery is in its poor rate capability because the cathode material, CFx, is an intrinsically poor electronic conductor. Here, we report on our development of a controlled process of surface de-fluorination under mild hydrothermal conditions to modify the highly fluorinated CFx. The modified CFx, consisting of an in situ generated shell component of F-graphene layers, possesses good electronic conductivity and removes the transporting barrier for lithium ions, yielding a high-capacity performance andmore » an excellent rate-capability. Indeed, a capacity of 500 mA h g⁻¹ and a maximum power density of 44 800 W kg⁻¹ can be realized at the ultrafast rate of 30 C (24 A g⁻¹), which is over one order of magnitude higher than that of the state-of-the-art primary lithium-ion batteries.« less

  15. Performance of bent-crystal x-ray microscopes for high energy density physics research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schollmeier, Marius S.; Geissel, Matthias; Shores, Jonathon E.; Smith, Ian C.; Porter, John L.

    2015-05-29

    We present calculations for the field of view (FOV), image fluence, image monochromaticity, spectral acceptance, and image aberrations for spherical crystal microscopes, which are used as self-emission imaging or backlighter systems at large-scale high energy density physics facilities. Our analytic results are benchmarked with ray-tracing calculations as well as with experimental measurements from the 6.151 keV backlighter system at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, the analytic expressions can be used for x-ray source positions anywhere between the Rowland circle and object plane. We discovered that this enables quick optimization of the performance of proposed but untested, bent-crystal microscope systems to find the best compromise between FOV, image fluence, and spatial resolution for a particular application.

  16. Performance of bent-crystal x-ray microscopes for high energy density physics research

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schollmeier, Marius S.; Geissel, Matthias; Shores, Jonathon E.; Smith, Ian C.; Porter, John L.

    2015-05-29

    We present calculations for the field of view (FOV), image fluence, image monochromaticity, spectral acceptance, and image aberrations for spherical crystal microscopes, which are used as self-emission imaging or backlighter systems at large-scale high energy density physics facilities. Our analytic results are benchmarked with ray-tracing calculations as well as with experimental measurements from the 6.151 keV backlighter system at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, the analytic expressions can be used for x-ray source positions anywhere between the Rowland circle and object plane. We discovered that this enables quick optimization of the performance of proposed but untested, bent-crystal microscope systems to findmore » the best compromise between FOV, image fluence, and spatial resolution for a particular application.« less

  17. Demonstration of x-ray fluorescence imaging of a high-energy-density plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, M. J. Gamboa, E. J.; Keiter, P. A.; Fein, J. R.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; LeFevre, H. J.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P.; Montgomery, D. S.; Biener, M. M.; Fournier, K. B.; Streit, J.

    2014-11-15

    Experiments at the Trident Laser Facility have successfully demonstrated the use of x-ray fluorescence imaging (XRFI) to diagnose shocked carbonized resorcinol formaldehyde (CRF) foams doped with Ti. One laser beam created a shock wave in the doped foam. A second laser beam produced a flux of vanadium He-α x-rays, which in turn induced Ti K-shell fluorescence within the foam. Spectrally resolved 1D imaging of the x-ray fluorescence provided shock location and compression measurements. Additionally, experiments using a collimator demonstrated that one can probe specific regions within a target. These results show that XRFI is a capable alternative to path-integrated measurements for diagnosing hydrodynamic experiments at high energy density.

  18. Energy in density gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vranjes, J.; Kono, M.

    2015-01-15

    Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work, the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindrical configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and, in particular, in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit volume (per second) in quiet regions in the corona. Consequently, within the life-time of a magnetic structure such energy losses can easily be compensated by the stochastic drift wave heating.

  19. High Energy Density Na-S/NiCl2 Hybrid Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Lemmon, John P.; Kim, Jin Yong; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-15

    High temperature (250-350C) sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) are attractive energy storage devices for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications. Currently, two technologies are commercially available in NBBs, e.g., sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries. In this study, we investigated the combination of these two chemistries with a mixed cathode. In particular, the cathode of the cell consisted of molten NaAlCl4 as a catholyte and a mixture of Ni, NaCl and Na2S as active materials. During cycling, two reversible plateaus were observed in cell voltage profiles, which matched electrochemical reactions for Na-S and Na-NiCl2 redox couples. An irreversible reaction between sulfur species and Ni was identified during initial charge at 280C, which caused a decrease in cell capacity. The final products on discharge included Na2Sn with 1< n < 3, which differed from Na2S3 found in traditional Na-S battery. Reduction of sulfur in the mixed cathode led to an increase in overall energy density over ZEBRA batteries. Despite of the initial drop in cell capacity, the mixed cathode demonstrated relatively stable cycling with more than 95% of capacity retained over 60 cycles under 10mA/cm2. Optimization of the cathode may lead to further improvements in battery performance.

  20. Observation of finite-wavelength screening in high-energy-density matter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, D. A.; Vorberger, J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Baggott, R. A.; Divol, L.; Döppner, T.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gregori, G.; Guymer, T. M.; et al

    2015-04-23

    A key component for the description of charged particle systems is the screening of the Coulomb interaction between charge carriers. First investigated in the 1920s by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes, charge screening is important for determining the structural and transport properties of matter as diverse as astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, nuclear matter such as quark-gluon plasmas, electrons in solids, planetary cores and charged macromolecules. For systems with negligible dynamics, screening is still mostly described using a Debye–Hückel-type approach. Here, we report the novel observation of a significant departure from the Debye–Hückel-type model in high-energy-density matter by probing laser-driven, shock-compressedmore » plastic with high-energy X-rays. We use spectrally resolved X-ray scattering in a geometry that enables direct investigation of the screening cloud, and demonstrate that the observed elastic scattering amplitude is only well described within a more general approach.« less

  1. Observation of finite-wavelength screening in high-energy-density matter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, D. A.; Vorberger, J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Baggott, R. A.; Divol, L.; Döppner, T.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gregori, G.; Guymer, T. M.; et al

    2015-04-23

    A key component for the description of charged particle systems is the screening of the Coulomb interaction between charge carriers. First investigated in the 1920s by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes, charge screening is important for determining the structural and transport properties of matter as diverse as astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, nuclear matter such as quark-gluon plasmas, electrons in solids, planetary cores and charged macromolecules. For systems with negligible dynamics, screening is still mostly described using a Debye–Hückel-type approach. Here, we report the novel observation of a significant departure from the Debye–Hückel-type model in high-energy-density matter by probing laser-driven, shock-compressedmore »plastic with high-energy X-rays. We use spectrally resolved X-ray scattering in a geometry that enables direct investigation of the screening cloud, and demonstrate that the observed elastic scattering amplitude is only well described within a more general approach.« less

  2. Observation of finite-wavelength screening in high-energy-density matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, D. A.; Vorberger, J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Baggott, R. A.; Divol, L.; Döppner, T.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gregori, G.; Guymer, T. M.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; Pak, A. E.; Gericke, D. O.

    2015-04-23

    A key component for the description of charged particle systems is the screening of the Coulomb interaction between charge carriers. First investigated in the 1920s by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes, charge screening is important for determining the structural and transport properties of matter as diverse as astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, nuclear matter such as quark-gluon plasmas, electrons in solids, planetary cores and charged macromolecules. For systems with negligible dynamics, screening is still mostly described using a Debye–Hückel-type approach. Here, we report the novel observation of a significant departure from the Debye–Hückel-type model in high-energy-density matter by probing laser-driven, shock-compressed plastic with high-energy X-rays. We use spectrally resolved X-ray scattering in a geometry that enables direct investigation of the screening cloud, and demonstrate that the observed elastic scattering amplitude is only well described within a more general approach.

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV’s Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Farasis Energy, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy density Li...

  4. The formation of reverse shocks in magnetized high energy density supersonic plasma flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, S. V. E-mail: l.suttle10@imperial.ac.uk; Suttle, L.; Swadling, G. F.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Burdiak, G. C.; Chittenden, J. P.; Grouchy, P. de; Hall, G. N.; Hare, J. D.; Kalmoni, N.; Niasse, N.; Patankar, S.; Smith, R. A.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Burgess, D.; Clemens, A.; Ciardi, A.; Sheng, L.; Yuan, J.; and others

    2014-05-15

    A new experimental platform was developed, based on the use of supersonic plasma flow from the ablation stage of an inverse wire array z-pinch, for studies of shocks in magnetized high energy density physics plasmas in a well-defined and diagnosable 1-D interaction geometry. The mechanism of flow generation ensures that the plasma flow (Re{sub M} ∼ 50, M{sub S} ∼ 5, M{sub A} ∼ 8, V{sub flow} ≈ 100 km/s) has a frozen-in magnetic field at a level sufficient to affect shocks formed by its interaction with obstacles. It is found that in addition to the expected accumulation of stagnated plasma in a thin layer at the surface of a planar obstacle, the presence of the magnetic field leads to the formation of an additional detached density jump in the upstream plasma, at a distance of ∼c/ω{sub pi} from the obstacle. Analysis of the data obtained with Thomson scattering, interferometry, and local magnetic probes suggests that the sub-shock develops due to the pile-up of the magnetic flux advected by the plasma flow.

  5. Electron density profile measurements at a self-focusing ion beam with high current density and low energy extracted through concave electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujiwara, Y. Nakamiya, A.; Sakakita, H.; Innovative Plasma Technologies Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology , Ibaraki ; Hirano, Y.; Laboratory of Physics, College of Science and Technologies, Nihon University, Tokyo ; Kiyama, S.; Koguchi, H.

    2014-02-15

    The self-focusing phenomenon has been observed in a high current density and low energy ion beam. In order to study the mechanism of this phenomenon, a special designed double probe to measure the electron density and temperature is installed into the chamber where the high current density ion beam is injected. Electron density profile is successfully measured without the influence of the ion beam components. Estimated electron temperature and density are ?0.9 eV and ?8 10{sup 8} cm{sup ?3} at the center of ion beam cross section, respectively. It was found that a large amount of electrons are spontaneously accumulated in the ion beam line in the case of self-forcing state.

  6. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hui E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Magee, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Stone, G.; Williams, G. J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M. E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Hill, K. W.; Kerr, S.

    2014-11-15

    Adapting a concept developed for magnetic confinement fusion experiments, an imaging crystal spectrometer has been designed and tested for HED plasmas. The instrument uses a spherically bent quartz [211] crystal with radius of curvature of 490.8 mm. The instrument was tested at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by irradiating titanium slabs with laser intensities of 10{sup 19}–10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. He-like and Li-like Ti lines were recorded, from which the spectrometer performance was evaluated. This spectrometer provides very high spectral resolving power (E/dE > 7000) while acquiring a one-dimensional image of the source.

  7. Corrosion, passivity and breakdown of alloys used in high energy density batteries: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, J.

    1987-10-01

    The objective of this research is to further the understanding of the passivity of metals and alloys in non-aqueous and mixed solvents. There is a lack of data in this area, despite its importance to applications such as the construction materials for high energy density batteries. There have been a number of corrosion-related problems reported in the construction materials of such batteries. As demands for longevity for these batteries increase, problems associated with corrosion will become increasingly important. This work is concerned with analyzing the nature, mode of formation, and mode of breakdown of passive films that exist on alloys in non-aqueous and mixed solvents. Work during Year I has concentrated upon generating cyclic voltammograms and potentiodynamic curves as baseline data on Au and Armco Fe in water/propylene carbonate mixtures. In addition, Scanning Electron Microscopy has been performed in order to characterize the attack observed and to correlate it to the electrochemical parameters measured. 3 refs., 15 figs.

  8. Investigating the Effects of Anisotropic Mass Transport on Dendrite Growth in High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Jinwang; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Ferris, Kim F.; Ryan, Emily M.

    2016-01-01

    Dendrite formation on the electrode surface of high energy density lithium (Li) batteries causes safety problems and limits their applications. Suppressing dendrite growth could significantly improve Li battery performance. Dendrite growth and morphology is a function of the mixing in the electrolyte near the anode interface. Most research into dendrites in batteries focuses on dendrite formation in isotropic electrolytes (i.e., electrolytes with isotropic diffusion coefficient). In this work, an anisotropic diffusion reaction model is developed to study the anisotropic mixing effect on dendrite growth in Li batteries. The model uses a Lagrangian particle-based method to model dendrite growth in an anisotropic electrolyte solution. The model is verified by comparing the numerical simulation results with analytical solutions, and its accuracy is shown to be better than previous particle-based anisotropic diffusion models. Several parametric studies of dendrite growth in an anisotropic electrolyte are performed and the results demonstrate the effects of anisotropic transport on dendrite growth and morphology, and show the possible advantages of anisotropic electrolytes for dendrite suppression.

  9. Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.

    2012-05-15

    Recently, novel experiments on magnetic reconnection have been conducted in laser-produced plasmas in a high-energy-density regime. Individual plasma bubbles self-generate toroidal, mega-gauss-scale magnetic fields through the Biermann battery effect. When multiple bubbles are created at small separation, they expand into one another, driving reconnection of this field. Reconnection in the experiments was reported to be much faster than allowed by both Sweet-Parker, and even Hall-MHD theories, when normalized to the nominal magnetic fields self-generated by single bubbles. Through particle-in-cell simulations (both with and without a binary collision operator), we model the bubble interaction at parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments. This paper discusses in detail the reconnection regime of the laser-driven experiments and reports the qualitative features of simulations. We find substantial flux-pileup effects, which boost the relevant magnetic field for reconnection in the current sheet. When this is accounted for, the normalized reconnection rates are much more in line with standard two-fluid theory of reconnection. At the largest system sizes, we additionally find that the current sheet is prone to breakup into plasmoids.

  10. High density photovoltaic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haigh, R.E.; Jacobson, G.F.; Wojtczuk, S.

    1997-10-14

    Photovoltaic technology can directly generate high voltages in a solid state material through the series interconnect of many photovoltaic diodes. We are investigating the feasibility of developing an electrically isolated, high-voltage power supply using miniature photovoltaic devices that convert optical energy to electrical energy.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV’s Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Farasis at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy density Li-ion cells for...

  12. Stimulated scattering in laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, L. Albright, B. J.; Rose, H. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Finnegan, S. M.; Bergen, B.; Bowers, K. J.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Milovich, J.

    2014-09-15

    In laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments, one often encounters a k?{sub D} range of 0.15?

  13. Validating density-functional theory simulations at high energy-density conditions with liquid krypton shock experiments to 850 GPa on Sandia's Z machine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Ann E.; Shulenburger, Luke; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Flicker, Dawn G.

    2014-11-11

    We use Sandia's Z machine and magnetically accelerated flyer plates to shock compress liquid krypton to 850 GPa and compare with results from density-functional theory (DFT) based simulations using the AM05 functional. We also employ quantum Monte Carlo calculations to motivate the choice of AM05. We conclude that the DFT results are sensitive to the quality of the pseudopotential in terms of scattering properties at high energy/temperature. A new Kr projector augmented wave potential was constructed with improved scattering properties which resulted in excellent agreement with the experimental results to 850 GPa and temperatures above 10 eV (110 kK). Inmore » conclusion, we present comparisons of our data from the Z experiments and DFT calculations to current equation of state models of krypton to determine the best model for high energy-density applications.« less

  14. Validating density-functional theory simulations at high energy-density conditions with liquid krypton shock experiments to 850 GPa on Sandia's Z machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Ann E.; Shulenburger, Luke; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Flicker, Dawn G.

    2014-11-11

    We use Sandia's Z machine and magnetically accelerated flyer plates to shock compress liquid krypton to 850 GPa and compare with results from density-functional theory (DFT) based simulations using the AM05 functional. We also employ quantum Monte Carlo calculations to motivate the choice of AM05. We conclude that the DFT results are sensitive to the quality of the pseudopotential in terms of scattering properties at high energy/temperature. A new Kr projector augmented wave potential was constructed with improved scattering properties which resulted in excellent agreement with the experimental results to 850 GPa and temperatures above 10 eV (110 kK). In conclusion, we present comparisons of our data from the Z experiments and DFT calculations to current equation of state models of krypton to determine the best model for high energy-density applications.

  15. Applications of Robust, Radiation Hard AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices in Space Exploration and High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, K.

    2011-05-04

    This slide show presents: space exploration applications; high energy density physics applications; UV LED and photodiode radiation hardness; UV LED and photodiode space qualification; UV LED AC charge management; and UV LED satellite payload instruments. A UV LED satellite will be launched 2nd half 2012.

  16. Identifying high energy density stream-reaches through refined geospatial resolution in hydropower resource assessment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pasha, M. Fayzul K.; Yang, Majntxov; Yeasmin, Dilruba; Saetern, Sen; Kao, Shih -Chieh; Smith, Brennan T.

    2016-01-07

    Benefited from the rapid development of multiple geospatial data sets on topography, hydrology, and existing energy-water infrastructures, the reconnaissance level hydropower resource assessment can now be conducted using geospatial models in all regions of the US. Furthermore, the updated techniques can be used to estimate the total undeveloped hydropower potential across all regions, and may eventually help identify further hydropower opportunities that were previously overlooked. To enhance the characterization of higher energy density stream-reaches, this paper explored the sensitivity of geospatial resolution on the identification of hydropower stream-reaches using the geospatial merit matrix based hydropower resource assessment (GMM-HRA) model. GMM-HRAmore » model simulation was conducted with eight different spatial resolutions on six U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 8-digit hydrologic units (HUC8) located at three different terrains; Flat, Mild, and Steep. The results showed that more hydropower potential from higher energy density stream-reaches can be identified with increasing spatial resolution. Both Flat and Mild terrains exhibited lower impacts compared to the Steep terrain. Consequently, greater attention should be applied when selecting the discretization resolution for hydropower resource assessments in the future study.« less

  17. Bounds on the density of sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2013-05-01

    We derive lower bounds on the density of sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from the lack of significant clustering in the arrival directions of the highest energy events detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The density of uniformly distributed sources of equal intrinsic intensity was found to be larger than ∼ (0.06−5) × 10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −3} at 95% CL, depending on the magnitude of the magnetic deflections. Similar bounds, in the range (0.2−7) × 10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −3}, were obtained for sources following the local matter distribution.

  18. Long-Range Electric Vehicle Batteries: High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: In a battery, metal ions move between the electrodes through the electrolyte in order to store energy. Envia Systems is developing new silicon-based negative electrode materials for Li-Ion batteries. Using this technology, Envia will be able to produce commercial EV batteries that outperform todays technology by 2-3 times. Many other programs have attempted to make anode materials based on silicon, but have not been able to produce materials that can withstand charge/discharge cycles multiple times. Envia has been able to make this material which can successfully cycle hundreds of times, on a scale that is economically viable. Today, Envias batteries exhibit world-record energy densities.

  19. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-10-02

    Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

  20. Extended performance gas Cherenkov detector for gamma-ray detection in high-energy density experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, H. W. Kim, Y. H.; Young, C. S.; Fatherley, V. E.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Batha, S. H.; Malone, R. M.; Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Stoeffl, W.; Zylstra, A. B.; Shmayda, W. T.

    2014-11-15

    A new Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) with low-energy threshold and high sensitivity, currently known as Super GCD (or GCD-3 at OMEGA), is being developed for use at the OMEGA Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Super GCD is designed to be pressurized to ?400 psi (absolute) and uses all metal seals to allow the use of fluorinated gases inside the target chamber. This will allow the gamma energy threshold to be run as low at 1.8 MeV with 400 psi (absolute) of C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, opening up a new portion of the gamma ray spectrum. Super GCD operating at 20 cm from TCC will be ?400 more efficient at detecting DT fusion gammas at 16.7 MeV than the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic at NIF (GRH-6m) when operated at their minimum thresholds.

  1. Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries: Low-Cost Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries with High Energy Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Pellion Technologies is developing rechargeable magnesium batteries that would enable an EV to travel 3 times farther than it could using Li-ion batteries. Prototype magnesium batteries demonstrate excellent electrochemical behavior; delivering thousands of charge cycles with very little fade. Nevertheless, these prototypes have always stored too little energy to be commercially viable. Pellion Technologies is working to overcome this challenge by rapidly screening potential storage materials using proprietary, high-throughput computer models. To date, 12,000 materials have been identified and analyzed. The resulting best materials have been electrochemically tested, yielding several very promising candidates.

  2. Density-dependent covariant energy density functionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalazissis, G. A.

    2012-10-20

    Relativistic nuclear energy density functionals are applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena at and away fromstability line. Isoscalar monopole, isovector dipole and isoscalar quadrupole giant resonances are calculated using fully self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle randomphase approximation, based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubovmodel. The impact of pairing correlations on the fission barriers in heavy and superheavy nuclei is examined. The role of pion in constructing desnity functionals is also investigated.

  3. Nano-structure multilayer technology fabrication of high energy density capacitors for the power electronic building book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W.; Johnson, G.W.; Wagner, A.V.

    1997-10-21

    Commercially available capacitors do not meet the specifications of the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB) concept. We have applied our propriety nanostructure multilayer materials technology to the fabrication of high density capacitors designed to remove this impediment to PEBB progress. Our nanostructure multilayer capacitors will also be enabling technology in many industrial and military applications. Examples include transient suppression (snubber capacitors), resonant circuits, and DC filtering in PEBB modules. Additionally, weapon applications require compact energy storage for detonators and pulsed-power systems. Commercial applications run the gamut from computers to lighting to communications. Steady progress over the last five years has brought us to the threshold of commercial manufacturability. We have demonstrated a working dielectric energy density of > 11 J/cm3 in 20 nF devices designed for 1 kV operation.

  4. Amplifying Magnetic Fields in High Energy Density Plasmas | U.S. DOE Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ecosystem | Department of Energy Amped Up! Magazine - Accelerating Clean Energy through an Innovation Ecosystem The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) has a new acting assistant secretary in David Friedman who plans to continue to support EERE’s clean energy revolution and help strengthen its innovation ecosystem. The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) has a new acting assistant secretary in David Friedman who plans to continue to support EERE's

  5. High Energy Density Physics and Applications with a State-of-the-Art Compact X-Pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beg, Farhat N

    2013-08-14

    Recent advances in technology has made possible to create matter with extremely high energy density (energy densities and pressure exceeding 1011 J/m3 and 1 Mbar respectively). The field is new and complex. The basic question for high energy density physics (HEDP) is how does matter behave under extreme conditions of temperature, pressure, density and electromagnetic radiation? The conditions for studying HEDP are normally produced using high intensity short pulse laser, x-rays, particle beams and pulsed power z-pinches. Most of these installations occupy a large laboratory floor space and require a team consisting of a large number of scientists and engineers. This limits the number of experiments that can be performed to explore and understand the complex physics. A novel way of studying HEDP is with a compact x-pinch in university scale laboratory. The x-pinch is a configuration in which a pulsed current is passed through two or more wires placed between the electrodes making the shape of the letter ‘X’. Extreme conditions of magnetic field (> 200 MGauss for less than 1 ns), temperature (1 keV) and density (~ 1022 cm-3) are produced at the cross-point, where two wires make contact. Further, supersonic jets are produced on either side of the cross-point. The physics of the formation of the plasma at the cross-point is complex. It is not clear what role radiation plays in the formation of high energy density plasma (>> 1011 J/m3) at the cross-point. Nor it is understood how the supersonic jets are formed. Present numerical codes do not contain complex physics that can take into account some of these aspects. Indeed, a comprehensive experimental study could answer some of the questions, which are relevant to wide-ranging fields such as inertial confinement fusion, astrophysical plasmas, high intensity laser plasma interactions and radiation physics. The main aim of the proposal was to increase the fundamental understanding of high energy density physics and

  6. Moiré deflectometry using the Talbot-Lau interferometer as refraction diagnostic for High Energy Density plasmas at energies below 10 keV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.

    2014-07-15

    The highly localized density gradients expected in High Energy Density (HED) plasma experiments can be characterized by x-ray phase-contrast imaging in addition to conventional attenuation radiography. Moiré deflectometry using the Talbot-Lau grating interferometer setup is an attractive HED diagnostic due to its high sensitivity to refraction induced phase shifts. We report on the adaptation of such a system for operation in the sub-10 keV range by using a combination of free standing and ultrathin Talbot gratings. This new x-ray energy explored matches well the current x-ray backlighters used for HED experiments, while also enhancing phase effects at lower electron densities. We studied the performance of the high magnification, low energy Talbot-Lau interferometer, for single image phase retrieval using Moiré fringe deflectometry. Our laboratory and simulation studies indicate that such a device is able to retrieve object electron densities from phase shift measurements. Using laboratory x-ray sources from 7 to 15 μm size we obtained accurate simultaneous measurements of refraction and attenuation for both sharp and mild electron density gradients.

  7. Direct photoetching of polymers using radiation of high energy density from a table-top extreme ultraviolet plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barkusky, Frank; Bayer, Armin; Peth, Christian; Mann, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    In order to perform material interaction studies with intense extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, a Schwarzschild mirror objective coated with Mo/Si multilayers was adapted to a compact laser-driven EUV plasma source utilizing a solid Au target. By 10x demagnified imaging of the plasma a maximum pulse energy density of {approx}0.73 J/cm{sup 2} at a wavelength of 13.5 nm can be achieved in the image plane of the objective at a pulse duration of 8.8 ns. In this paper we present EUV photoetching rates measured for polymethyl methacrylate, polycarbonate, and polytetrafluoroethylene at various fluence levels. A linear dependence between etch depth and applied EUV pulse number could be observed without the necessity for any incubation pulses. By evaluating the slope of these data, etch rates were determined, revealing also a linear behavior for low fluences. A threshold energy density could not be observed. The slope of the linear etch regime as well as deviations from the linear trend at higher energy densities are discussed and compared to data known from deep UV laser ablation. Furthermore, the surface roughness of the structured polymers was measured by atomic force microscopy and compared to the nonirradiated polymer surface, indicating a rather smooth etch process (roughness increase of 20%-30%). The different shapes of the etch craters observed for the three polymers at high energy densities can be explained by the measured fluence dependence of the etch rates, having consequences for the proper use of polymer ablation for beam profiling of focused EUV radiation.

  8. Radiation from Ag high energy density Z-pinch plasmas and applications to lasing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weller, M. E. Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Shrestha, I.; Stafford, A.; Keim, S. F.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Osborne, G. C.; Petkov, E. E.; Apruzese, J. P.; Giuliani, J. L.; Chuvatin, A. S.

    2014-03-15

    Silver (Ag) wire arrays were recently introduced as efficient x-ray radiators and have been shown to create L-shell plasmas that have the highest electron temperature (>1.8?keV) observed on the Zebra generator so far and upwards of 30?kJ of energy output. In this paper, results of single planar wire arrays and double planar wire arrays of Ag and mixed Ag and Al that were tested on the UNR Zebra generator are presented and compared. To further understand how L-shell Ag plasma evolves in time, a time-gated x-ray spectrometer was designed and fielded, which has a spectral range of approximately 3.55.0?. With this, L-shell Ag as well as cold L{sub ?} and L{sub ?} Ag lines was captured and analyzed along with photoconducting diode (PCD) signals (>0.8?keV). Along with PCD signals, other signals, such as filtered XRD (>0.2?keV) and Si-diodes (SiD) (>9?keV), are analyzed covering a broad range of energies from a few eV to greater than 53?keV. The observation and analysis of cold L{sub ?} and L{sub ?} lines show possible correlations with electron beams and SiD signals. Recently, an interesting issue regarding these Ag plasmas is whether lasing occurs in the Ne-like soft x-ray range, and if so, at what gains? To help answer this question, a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) kinetic model was utilized to calculate theoretical lasing gains. It is shown that the Ag L-shell plasma conditions produced on the Zebra generator at 1.7 maximum current may be adequate to produce gains as high as 6?cm{sup ?1} for various 3p???3s transitions. Other potential lasing transitions, including higher Rydberg states, are also included in detail. The overall importance of Ag wire arrays and plasmas is discussed.

  9. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass

  10. High density laser-driven target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindl, John D.

    1981-01-01

    A high density target for implosion by laser energy composed of a central quantity of fuel surrounded by a high-Z pusher shell with a low-Z ablator-pusher shell spaced therefrom forming a region filled with low-density material.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Complex Targets for High-Energy- Density Experiments with Ion Beams and other Drivers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Koniges, Alice; Liu, Wangyi; Lidia, Steven; Schenkel, Thomas; Barnard, John; Friedman, Alex; Eder, David; Fisher, Aaron; Masters, Nathan

    2016-03-01

    We explore the simulation challenges and requirements for experiments planned on facilities such as the NDCX-II ion accelerator at LBNL, currently undergoing commissioning. Hydrodynamic modeling of NDCX-II experiments include certain lower temperature effects, e.g., surface tension and target fragmentation, that are not generally present in extreme high-energy laser facility experiments, where targets are completely vaporized in an extremely short period of time. Target designs proposed for NDCX-II range from metal foils of order one micron thick (thin targets) to metallic foam targets several tens of microns thick (thick targets). These high-energy-density experiments allow for the study of fracture as wellmore » as the process of bubble and droplet formation. We incorporate these physics effects into a code called ALE-AMR that uses a combination of Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrodynamics and Adaptive Mesh Refinement. Inclusion of certain effects becomes tricky as we must deal with non-orthogonal meshes of various levels of refinement in three dimensions. A surface tension model used for droplet dynamics is implemented in ALE-AMR using curvature calculated from volume fractions. Thick foam target experiments provide information on how ion beam induced shock waves couple into kinetic energy of fluid flow. Although NDCX-II is not fully commissioned, experiments are being conducted that explore material defect production and dynamics.« less

  12. Multilayer co-extrusion technique for developing high energy density organic devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spangler, Scott W.; Schroeder, John Lee; Mrozek, Randy; Bieg, Lothar Franz; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow; Stavig, Mark Edwin; Cole, Phillip James; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Winter, Michael R.; Schneider, Duane Allen

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop multi-layered co-extrusion (MLCE) capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories to produce multifunctional polymeric structures. Multi-layered structures containing layers of alternating electrical, mechanical, optical, or structural properties can be applied to a variety of potential applications including energy storage, optics, sensors, mechanical, and barrier applications relevant to the internal and external community. To obtain the desired properties, fillers must be added to the polymer materials that are much smaller than the end layer thickness. We developed two filled polymer systems, one for conductive layers and one for dielectric layers and demonstrated the potential for using MLCE to manufacture capacitors. We also developed numerical models to help determine the material and processing parameters that impact processing and layer stability.

  13. Phenomenological Relativistic Energy Density Functionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalazissis, G. A.; Kartzikos, S.; Niksic, T.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.

    2009-08-26

    The framework of relativistic nuclear energy density functionals is applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena, not only in spherical and deformed nuclei along the valley of beta-stability, but also in exotic systems with extreme isospin values and close to the particle drip-lines. Dynamical aspects of exotic nuclear structure is explored using the fully consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. Recent applications of energy density functionals with explicit density dependence of the meson-nucleon couplings are presented.

  14. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Marvin

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily skimmed'' from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  15. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily ``skimmed`` from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  16. Observation and modeling of mixing-layer development in high-energy-density, blast-wave-driven shear flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Stefano, C. A. Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P.; Malamud, G.; Henry de Frahan, M. T.; Johnsen, E.; Shimony, A.; Shvarts, D.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Martinez, D.

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we examine the hydrodynamics of high-energy-density (HED) shear flows. Experiments, consisting of two materials of differing density, use the OMEGA-60 laser to drive a blast wave at a pressure of ∼50 Mbar into one of the media, creating a shear flow in the resulting shocked system. The interface between the two materials is Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable, and a mixing layer of growing width develops due to the shear. To theoretically analyze the instability's behavior, we rely on two sources of information. First, the interface spectrum is well-characterized, which allows us to identify how the shock front and the subsequent shear in the post-shock flow interact with the interface. These observations provide direct evidence that vortex merger dominates the evolution of the interface structure. Second, simulations calibrated to the experiment allow us to estimate the time-dependent evolution of the deposition of vorticity at the interface. The overall result is that we are able to choose a hydrodynamic model for the system, and consequently examine how well the flow in this HED system corresponds to a classical hydrodynamic description.

  17. High Energy Density Ultracapacitors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  18. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional VaryMatrix.png Collaboration with mathematicians and computational...

  19. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bennett, N L; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; Genoni, T. C.; Gomez, M. R.; Greiser, G. W.; Gruner, F. R.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jennings, C. A.; Jobe, D. O.; Jones, B. M.; Jones, M. C.; Jones, P. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Lash, J. S.; LeChien, K. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Leeper, R. J.; Lewis, S. A.; Long, F. W.; Lucero, D. J.; Madrid, E. A.; Martin, M. R.; Matzen, M. K.; Mazarakis, M. G.; McBride, R. D.; McKee, G. R.; Miller, C. L.; Moore, J. K.; Mostrom, C. B.; Mulville, T. D.; Peterson, K. J.; Porter, J. L.; Reisman, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Rochau, G. E.; Rose, D. V.; Savage, M. E.; Sceiford, M. E.; Schmit, P. F.; Schneider, R. F.; Schwarz, J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Thoma, C.; Vesey, R. A.; Wakeland, P. E.; Welch, D. R.; Wisher, M. L.; Woodworth, J. R.; Bailey, J. E.; Rovang, D. C.

    2015-11-30

    ) simulations suggest Z 300 will deliver 4.3 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 18 MJ. Z 800 is 52 m in diameter and stores 130 MJ. This accelerator generates 890 TW at the output of its LTD system, and delivers 65 MA in 113 ns to a MagLIF target. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF liner is 2500 TW. The principal goal of Z 800 is to achieve high-yield thermonuclear fusion; i.e., a yield that exceeds the energy initially stored by the accelerator’s capacitors. 2D MHD simulations suggest Z 800 will deliver 8.0 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 440 MJ. Z 300 and Z 800, or variations of these accelerators, will allow the international high-energy-density-physics community to conduct advanced inertial-confinement-fusion, radiation-physics, material-physics, and laboratory-astrophysics experiments over heretofore-inaccessible parameter regimes.

  20. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bennett, N L; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; et al

    2015-11-30

    ) simulations suggest Z 300 will deliver 4.3 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 18 MJ. Z 800 is 52 m in diameter and stores 130 MJ. This accelerator generates 890 TW at the output of its LTD system, and delivers 65 MA in 113 ns to a MagLIF target. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF liner is 2500 TW. The principal goal of Z 800 is to achieve high-yield thermonuclear fusion; i.e., a yield that exceeds the energy initially stored by the accelerator’s capacitors. 2D MHD simulations suggest Z 800 will deliver 8.0 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 440 MJ. Z 300 and Z 800, or variations of these accelerators, will allow the international high-energy-density-physics community to conduct advanced inertial-confinement-fusion, radiation-physics, material-physics, and laboratory-astrophysics experiments over heretofore-inaccessible parameter regimes.« less

  1. AlGaN UV LED and Photodiodes Radiation Hardness and Space Qualifications and Their Applications in Space Science and High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, K. X.

    2011-05-31

    This presentation provides an overview of robust, radiation hard AlGaN optoelectronic devices and their applications in space exploration & high energy density physics. Particularly, deep UV LED and deep UV photodiodes are discussed with regard to their applications, radiation hardness and space qualification. AC charge management of UV LED satellite payload instruments, which were to be launched in late 2012, is covered.

  2. High-density fluid compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, D.C.

    1981-09-29

    Clear, high-density fluids suitable for use as well completion, packing, and perforation media comprise aqueous solutions of zinc bromide and calcium bromide having densities lying in the range of about 14.5 up to about 18.0 pounds per gallon and measured PH's lying in the range of about 3.5 up to about 6.0. Optionally, such fluids may also comprise calcium chloride and/or a soluble film-forming amine-based corrosion inhibitor. Such fluids under conditions of ordinary use exhibit low corrosion rates and have crystallization points lying well below the range of temperatures under which they are used.

  3. High Density Sensor Network Development | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Density Sensor Network Development

  4. High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration | (NNSA) High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program Steady advances in increasing the energy, power, and brightness of lasers and particle beams and advances in pulsed power systems have made possible the exploration of matter at extremely high energy density in the laboratory. Exciting new experimental regimes are being realized by exploiting the scientific capabilities of existing ICF Office facilities, as well as the relevant Department of Defense (DoD) and university

  5. Probability distribution of the vacuum energy density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duplancic, Goran; Stefancic, Hrvoje; Glavan, Drazen

    2010-12-15

    As the vacuum state of a quantum field is not an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian density, the vacuum energy density can be represented as a random variable. We present an analytical calculation of the probability distribution of the vacuum energy density for real and complex massless scalar fields in Minkowski space. The obtained probability distributions are broad and the vacuum expectation value of the Hamiltonian density is not fully representative of the vacuum energy density.

  6. OZSPEC-2: An improved broadband high-resolution elliptical crystal x-ray spectrometer for high-energy density physics experiments (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, R. F.; Anderson, S. G.; Booth, R.; Brown, G. V.; Emig, J.; Fulkerson, S.; McCarville, T.; Norman, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Young, B. K. F.

    2008-10-15

    A novel time, space, and energy-resolved x-ray spectrometer has been developed which produces, in a single snapshot, a broadband and relatively calibrated spectrum of the x-ray emission from a high-energy density laboratory plasma. The opacity zipper spectrometer (OZSPEC-1) records a nearly continuous spectrum for x-ray energies from 240 to 5800 eV in a single shot. The second-generation OZSPEC-2, detailed in this work, records fully continuous spectra on a single shot from any two of these three bands: 270-650, 660-1580, and 1960-4720 eV. These instruments thus record thermal and line radiation from a wide range of plasmas. These instruments' single-shot bandwidth is unmatched in a time-gated spectrometer; conversely, other broadband instruments are either time-integrated (using crystals or gratings), lack spectral resolution (diode arrays), or cover a lower energy band (gratings). The OZSPECs are based on the zipper detector, a large-format (100x35 mm) gated microchannel plate detector, with spectra dispersed along the 100 mm dimension. OZSPEC-1 and -2 both use elliptically bent crystals of OHM, RAP, and/or PET. Individual spectra are gated in 100 ps. OZSPEC-2 provides one-dimensional spatial imaging with 30-50 {mu}m resolution over a 1500 {mu}m field of view at the source. The elliptical crystal design yields broad spectral coverage with resolution E/{delta}E>500, strong rejection of hard x-ray backgrounds, and negligible source broadening for extended sources. Near-term applications include plasma opacity measurements, detailed spectra of inertial fusion Hohlraums, and laboratory astrophysics experiments.

  7. Density Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Density Log Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Density Log Details Activities (7) Areas (6) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration...

  8. Rock Density | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Density Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Rock Density Details Activities (2) Areas (2) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique...

  9. The Quantum Energy Density: Improved E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krogel, Jaron; Yu, Min; Kim, Jeongnim; Ceperley, David M.

    2013-01-01

    We establish a physically meaningful representation of a quantum energy density for use in Quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The energy density operator, dened in terms of Hamiltonian components and density operators, returns the correct Hamiltonian when integrated over a volume containing a cluster of particles. This property is demonstrated for a helium-neon \\gas," showing that atomic energies obtained from the energy density correspond to eigenvalues of isolated systems. The formation energies of defects or interfaces are typically calculated as total energy dierences. Using a model of delta-doped silicon (where dopant atoms form a thin plane) we show how interfacial energies can be calculated more eciently with the energy density, since the region of interest is small. We also demonstrate how the energy density correctly transitions to the bulk limit away from the interface where the correct energy is obtainable from a separate total energy calculation.

  10. Feasibility of a super high-energy-density battery of the Li/Br/F sub 3 electrochemical system. Final report, 15 August 1989-14 May 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frysz, C.A.; Pyszczek, M.F.; Ebel, S.J.

    1990-08-16

    Feasibility studies on the practical aspects of developing a lithium/bromine trifluoride battery have been studied. Efforts directed toward identifying materials for porous electrode separators, glasses for insulated electrical feed-throughs, and metals for lid, case and current collector fabrication via electrochemical testing techniques have resulted in a list of materials suitable for these applications. Prototype cells utilizing a spirally wound electrode configuration have been constructed and discharged. The use of lithium salts as an electrolyte additive has been explored, and has shown a positive effect on discharge performance. Through the use of currently available technology, however, the lithium/bromine trifluoride couple has not delivered energy density comparable to other high energy density lithium systems. This investigation has revealed that practical Li/BrF3 cell development will require further extensive fundamental electrochemical research.

  11. Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS Nuclear structure; nuclear energy density functional Word Cloud ...

  12. Inductor Geometry With Improved Energy Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, H; Ngo, KDT; Moss, J; Lim, MHF; Rey, E

    2014-10-01

    The "constant-flux" concept is leveraged to achieve high magnetic-energy density, leading to inductor geometries with height significantly lower than that of conventional products. Techniques to shape the core and to distribute the winding turns to shape a desirable field profile are described for the two basic classes of magnetic geometries: those with the winding enclosed by the core and those with the core enclosed by the winding. A relatively constant flux distribution is advantageous not only from the density standpoint, but also from the thermal standpoint via the reduction of hot spots, and from the reliability standpoint via the suppression of flux crowding. In this journal paper on a constant-flux inductor (CFI) with enclosed winding, the foci are operating principle, dc analysis, and basic design procedure. Prototype cores and windings were routed from powder-iron disks and copper sheets, respectively. The design of CFI was validated by the assembled inductor prototype.

  13. Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation vss058_fenske_2011_o.pdf (352.55 KB) More Documents & Publications Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Development of High Power Density

  14. Symmetry Energy as a Function of Density and Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danielewicz, Pawel; Lee, Jenny

    2007-10-26

    Energy in nuclear matter is, in practice, completely characterized at different densities and asymmetries, when the density dependencies of symmetry energy and of energy of symmetric matter are specified. The density dependence of the symmetry energy at subnormal densities produces mass dependence of nuclear symmetry coefficient and, thus, can be constrained by that latter dependence. We deduce values of the mass dependent symmetry coefficients, by using excitation energies to isobaric analog states. The coefficient systematic, for intermediate and high masses, is well described in terms of the symmetry coefficient values of a{sub a}{sup V} = (31.5-33.5) MeV for the volume coefficient and a{sub a}{sup S} = (9-12) MeV for the surface coefficient. These two further correspond to the parameter values describing density dependence of symmetry energy, of L{approx}95 MeV and K{sub sym}{approx}25 MeV.

  15. Unraveling the Voltage-Fade Mechanism in High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries: Origin of the Tetrahedral Cations for Spinel Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Abraham, Daniel P.; Huq, Ashfia; Payzant, E. Andrew; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2014-09-30

    Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cation intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct →LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct → LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Unraveling the Voltage-Fade Mechanism in High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries: Origin of the Tetrahedral Cations for Spinel Conversion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Abraham, Daniel P.; Huq, Ashfia; Payzant, E. Andrew; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2014-09-30

    Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cationmore » intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct →LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct → LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.« less

  17. Developing a bright 17 keV x-ray source for probing high-energy-density states of matter at high spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, R.; Braun, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Remington, B. A.; Hohenberger, M.; Regan, S. P.

    2015-04-15

    A set of experiments were performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to develop and optimize a bright, 17 keV x-ray backlighter probe using laser-irradiated Nb foils. High-resolution one-dimensional imaging was achieved using a 15 μm wide slit in a Ta substrate to aperture the Nb He{sub α} x-rays onto an open-aperture, time integrated camera. To optimize the x-ray source for imaging applications, the effect of laser pulse shape and spatial profile on the target was investigated. Two laser pulse shapes were used—a “prepulse” shape that included a 3 ns, low-intensity laser foot preceding the high-energy 2 ns square main laser drive, and a pulse without the laser foot. The laser spatial profile was varied by the use of continuous phase plates (CPPs) on a pair of shots compared to beams at best focus, without CPPs. A comprehensive set of common diagnostics allowed for a direct comparison of imaging resolution, total x-ray conversion efficiency, and x-ray spectrum between shots. The use of CPPs was seen to reduce the high-energy tail of the x-ray spectrum, whereas the laser pulse shape had little effect on the high-energy tail. The measured imaging resolution was comparably high for all combinations of laser parameters, but a higher x-ray flux was achieved without phase plates. This increased flux was the result of smaller laser spot sizes, which allowed us to arrange the laser focal spots from multiple beams and produce an x-ray source which was more localized behind the slit aperture. Our experiments are a first demonstration of point-projection geometry imaging at NIF at the energies (>10 keV) necessary for imaging denser, higher-Z targets than have previously been investigated.

  18. High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Energy Physics High Energy Physics Investigating the field of high energy physics ... Through the Office of High Energy Physics (HEP), Los Alamos conducts research in particle ...

  19. High Density Fuel Development for Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Wachs; Dennis Keiser; Mitchell Meyer; Douglas Burkes; Curtis Clark; Glenn Moore; Jan-Fong Jue; Totju Totev; Gerard Hofman; Tom Wiencek; Yeon So Kim; Jim Snelgrove

    2007-09-01

    An international effort to develop, qualify, and license high and very high density fuels has been underway for several years within the framework of multi-national RERTR programs. The current development status is the result of significant contributions from many laboratories, specifically CNEA in Argentina, AECL in Canada, CEA in France, TUM in Germany, KAERI in Korea, VNIIM, RDIPE, IPPE, NCCP and RIARR in Russia, INL, ANL and Y-12 in USA. These programs are mainly engaged with UMo dispersion fuels with densities from 6 to 8 gU/cm3 (high density fuel) and UMo monolithic fuel with density as high as 16 gU/cm3 (very high density fuel). This paper, mainly focused on the French & US programs, gives the status of high density UMo fuel development and perspectives on their qualification.

  20. Screening potential in high density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amari, M.; Arranz, J. P.; Butaux, J.; Nguyen, H.

    1997-01-05

    On the basis of a two-ion center model, an accurate closed form of the screening potential is suggested for intermediate and high density plasmas.

  1. Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-24

    High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

  2. Radiation sources with planar wire arrays and planar foils for inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Esaulov, A. A.; Shrestha, I.; Astanovitsky, A.; Osborne, G. C.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Weller, M. E.; Keim, S.; Stafford, A.; Cooper, M.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Rudakov, L. I.; Velikovich, A. L.

    2014-03-15

    This article reports on the joint success of two independent lines of research, each of them being a multi-year international effort. One of these is the development of innovative sources, such as planar wire arrays (PWAs). PWAs turned out to be a prolific radiator, which act mainly as a resistor, even though the physical mechanism of efficient magnetic energy conversion into radiation still remains unclear. We review the results of our extensive studies of PWAs. We also report the new results of the experimental comparison PWAs with planar foil liners (another promising alternative to wire array loads at multi-mega-ampere generators). Pioneered at UNR, the PWA Z-pinch loads have later been tested at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on the Saturn generator, on GIT-12 machine in Russia, and on the QiangGuang-1 generator in China, always successfully. Another of these is the drastic improvement in energy efficiency of pulsed-power systems, which started in early 1980s with Zucker's experiments at Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Successful continuation of this approach was the Load Current Multiplier (LCM) proposed by Chuvatin in collaboration with Rudakov and Weber from NRL. The 100?ns LCM was integrated into the Zebra generator, which almost doubled the plasma load current, from 0.9 to 1.7 MA. The two above-mentioned innovative approaches were used in combination to produce a new compact hohlraum radiation source for ICF, as jointly proposed by SNL and UNR [Jones et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 125001 (2010)]. The first successful proof-of-the-principle experimental implementation of new hohlraum concept at university-scale generator Zebra/LCM is demonstrated. A numerical simulation capability with VisRaD code (from PRISM Co.) established at UNR allowed for the study of hohlraum coupling physics and provides the possibility of optimization of a new hohlraum. Future studies are discussed.

  3. Proposal for the Study of Thermophysical Properties of High-Energy-Density Matter Using Current and Future Heavy-Ion Accelerator Facilities at GSI Darmstadt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tahir, N.A.; Spiller, P.; Deutsch, C.; Fortov, V.E.; Gryaznov, V.; Kulish, M.; Lomonosov, I.V.; Mintsev, V.; Nikolaev, D.; Shilkin, N.; Shutov, A.; Ternovoi, V.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Ni, P.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D.; Piriz, A.R.; Temporal, M.

    2005-07-15

    The subject of high-energy-density (HED) states in matter is of considerable importance to numerous branches of basic as well as applied physics. Intense heavy-ion beams are an excellent tool to create large samples of HED matter in the laboratory with fairly uniform physical conditions. Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, is a unique worldwide laboratory that has a heavy-ion synchrotron, SIS18, that delivers intense beams of energetic heavy ions. Construction of a much more powerful synchrotron, SIS100, at the future international facility for antiprotons and ion research (FAIR) at Darmstadt will lead to an increase in beam intensity by 3 orders of magnitude compared to what is currently available. The purpose of this Letter is to investigate with the help of two-dimensional numerical simulations, the potential of the FAIR to carry out research in the field of HED states in matter.

  4. High bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Globig, Michael A.; Story, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    A high bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system for measuring the density of an atomic vapor during one or more photoionization events. The system translates the measurements from a low frequency region to a high frequency, relatively noise-free region in the spectrum to provide improved signal to noise ratio.

  5. Efficient high density train operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference. During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  6. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merritt, E. C. Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-06-15

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varying two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. We also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.

  7. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Merritt, E. C.; Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-06-24

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varyingmore » two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. In addition, we also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.« less

  8. high renewable energy penetration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high renewable energy penetration - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future ...

  9. Stabilizing laser energy density on a target during pulsed laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Stabilizing laser energy density on a target during pulsed laser deposition of thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stabilizing laser energy density on a ...

  10. Energy flux density in a thermoacoustic couple

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, N.; Chen, S. |; Olson, R.; Swift, G.W.

    1996-06-01

    The hydro- and thermodynamical processes near and within a thermoacoustic couple are simulated and analyzed by numerical solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes, continuity, and energy equations for an ideal gas, concentrating on the time-averaged energy flux density in the gas. The numerical results show details of the heat sink at one end of the plates in the thermoacoustic couple. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    A high density peg which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  12. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-01-29

    A high density peg is disclosed which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 4 figs.

  13. Metal-Air Electric Vehicle Battery: Sustainable, High-Energy Density, Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage Metal-Air Ionic Liquid (MAIL) Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-12-21

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is developing a new class of metal-air batteries. Metal-air batteries are promising for future generations of EVs because they use oxygen from the air as one of the batterys main reactants, reducing the weight of the battery and freeing up more space to devote to energy storage than Li-Ion batteries. ASU technology uses Zinc as the active metal in the battery because it is more abundant and affordable than imported lithium. Metal-air batteries have long been considered impractical for EV applications because the water-based electrolytes inside would decompose the battery interior after just a few uses. Overcoming this traditional limitation, ASUs new battery system could be both cheaper and safer than todays Li-Ion batteries, store from 4-5 times more energy, and be recharged over 2,500 times.

  14. Identification of Catalysts and Materials for a High-Energy Density Biochemical Fuel Cell: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-345

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghirardi, M.; Svedruzic, D.

    2013-07-01

    The proposed research attempted to identify novel biochemical catalysts, catalyst support materials, high-efficiency electron transfer agents between catalyst active sites and electrodes, and solid-phase electrolytes in order to maximize the current density of biochemical fuel cells that utilize various alcohols as substrates.

  15. High power densities from high-temperature material interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Thermionic energy conversion (TEC) and metallic-fluid heat pipes (MFHPs) offer important and unique advantages in terrestrial and space energy processing. And they are well suited to serve together synergistically. TEC and MFHPs operate through working-fluid vaporization, condensation cycles that accept great thermal power densities at high temperatures. TEC and MFHPs have apparently simple, isolated performance mechanisms that are somewhat similar. And they also have obviously difficult, complected material problems that again are somewhat similar. Intensive investigation reveals that aspects of their operating cycles and material problems tend to merge: high-temperature material effects determine the level and lifetime of performance. Simplified equations verify the preceding statement for TEC and MFHPs. Material properties and interactions exert primary influences on operational effectiveness. And thermophysicochemical stabilities dictate operating temperatures which regulate the thermoemissive currents of TEC and the vaporization flow rates of MFHPs. Major high-temperature material problems of TEC and MFHPs have been solved. These solutions lead to productive, cost-effective applications of current TEC and MFHPs - and point to significant improvements with anticipated technological gains.

  16. Category:Rock Density | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock Density Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Rock Density page? For detailed information on Rock Density as...

  17. High power density solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-10-12

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  18. Ultra-high density diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Padmore, Howard A.; Voronov, Dmytro L.; Cambie, Rossana; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2012-12-11

    A diffraction grating structure having ultra-high density of grooves comprises an echellette substrate having periodically repeating recessed features, and a multi-layer stack of materials disposed on the echellette substrate. The surface of the diffraction grating is planarized, such that layers of the multi-layer stack form a plurality of lines disposed on the planarized surface of the structure in a periodical fashion, wherein lines having a first property alternate with lines having a dissimilar property on the surface of the substrate. For example, in one embodiment, lines comprising high-Z and low-Z materials alternate on the planarized surface providing a structure that is suitable as a diffraction grating for EUV and soft X-rays. In some embodiments, line density of between about 10,000 lines/mm to about 100,000 lines/mm is provided.

  19. High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cathodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    * Start: August 1, 2013 * End: July 31, 2016 * Percent complete: 60% Barriers of batteries - High cost (A) - Low energy density (C) - Short battery life (E) Targets:...

  20. Initial energy density and gluon distribution from the glasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Initial energy density and gluon distribution from the glasma in heavy-ion collisions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Initial energy density and gluon distribution from the ...

  1. Method of high-density foil fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blue, Craig A.; Sikka, Vinod K.; Ohriner, Evan K.

    2003-12-16

    A method for preparing flat foils having a high density includes the steps of mixing a powdered material with a binder to form a green sheet. The green sheet is exposed to a high intensity radiative source adapted to emit radiation of wavelengths corresponding to an absorption spectrum of the powdered material. The surface of the green sheet is heated while a lower sub-surface temperature is maintained. An apparatus for preparing a foil from a green sheet using a radiation source is also disclosed.

  2. New Electrode Manufacturing Process Equipment: Novel High Energy Density Lithium-Ion Cell Designs via Innovative Manufacturing Process Modules for Cathode and Integrated Separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Applied Materials is developing new tools for manufacturing Li-Ion batteries that could dramatically increase their performance. Traditionally, the positive and negative terminals of Li-Ion batteries are mixed with glue-like materials called binders, pressed onto electrodes, and then physically kept apart by winding a polymer mesh material between them called a separator. With the Applied Materials system, many of these manually intensive processes will be replaced by next generation coating technology to apply each component. This process will improve product reliability and performance of the cells at a fraction of the current cost. These novel manufacturing techniques will also increase the energy density of the battery and reduce the size of several of the batterys components to free up more space within the cell for storage.

  3. High density, high-aspect-ratio precision polyimide nanofilters | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory High density, high-aspect-ratio precision polyimide nanofilters December 1, 2009 Tweet EmailPrint Collaborative users from Creatv MicroTech, Inc. and Los Alamos National Laboratory, working with CNM's Nanofabrication & Devices Group, have demonstrated a novel fabrication process that produces high-porosity polymer nanofilters with smooth, uniform. and straight pores and high aspect ratios. Nanofilters have a wide range of applications for various size-exclusion-based

  4. Technical Note: Exploring the limit for the conversion of energy-subtracted CT number to electron density for high-atomic-number materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Masatoshi; Tsukihara, Masayoshi

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: For accurate tissue inhomogeneity correction in radiotherapy treatment planning, the authors had previously proposed a novel conversion of the energy-subtracted CT number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide ρ{sub e} range. The purpose of this study is to address the limitations of the conversion method with respect to atomic number (Z) by elucidating the role of partial photon interactions in the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion process. Methods: The authors performed numerical analyses of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion for 105 human body tissues, as listed in ICRU Report 46, and elementary substances with Z = 1–40. Total and partial attenuation coefficients for these materials were calculated using the XCOM photon cross section database. The effective x-ray energies used to calculate the attenuation were chosen to imitate a dual-source CT scanner operated at 80–140 kV/Sn under well-calibrated and poorly calibrated conditions. Results: The accuracy of the resultant calibrated electron density,ρ{sub e}{sup cal}, for the ICRU-46 body tissues fully satisfied the IPEM-81 tolerance levels in radiotherapy treatment planning. If a criterion of ρ{sub e}{sup cal}/ρ{sub e} − 1 is assumed to be within ±2%, the predicted upper limit of Z applicable for the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion under the well-calibrated condition is Z = 27. In the case of the poorly calibrated condition, the upper limit of Z is approximately 16. The deviation from the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} linearity for higher Z substances is mainly caused by the anomalous variation in the photoelectric-absorption component. Conclusions: Compensation among the three partial components of the photon interactions provides for sufficient linearity of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion to be applicable for most human tissues even for poorly conditioned scans in which there exists a large variation of effective x

  5. High density harp or wire scanner for particle beam diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritsche, C.T.; Krogh, M.L.

    1996-05-21

    Disclosed is a diagnostic detector head harp used to detect and characterize high energy particle beams using an array of closely spaced detector wires, typically carbon wires, spaced less than 0.1 cm (0.040 inch) connected to a hybrid microcircuit formed on a ceramic substrate. A method to fabricate harps to obtain carbon wire spacing and density not previously available utilizing hybrid microcircuit technology. The hybrid microcircuit disposed on the ceramic substrate connects electrically between the detector wires and diagnostic equipment which analyzes pulses generated in the detector wires by the high energy particle beams. 6 figs.

  6. High density harp or wire scanner for particle beam diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritsche, Craig T.; Krogh, Michael L.

    1996-05-21

    A diagnostic detector head harp (23) used to detect and characterize high energy particle beams using an array of closely spaced detector wires (21), typically carbon wires, spaced less than 0.1 cm (0.040 inch) connected to a hybrid microcircuit (25) formed on a ceramic substrate (26). A method to fabricate harps (23) to obtain carbon wire spacing and density not previously available utilizing hybrid microcircuit technology. The hybrid microcircuit (25) disposed on the ceramic substrate (26) connects electrically between the detector wires (21) and diagnostic equipment (37) which analyzes pulses generated in the detector wires (21) by the high energy particle beams.

  7. Finite-size instabilities in nuclear energy density functionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellemans, V.; Heenen, P.-H.; Bender, M.

    2012-10-20

    The systematic lack of convergence of self-consistent mean-field calculations with certain parameterizations of the Skyrme energy density functional has been attributed to the appearance of finite-size instabilities. In this contribution, we investigate what happens at the instability associated with the C{sub 0}{sup {Delta}s}s{sub 0} Dot-Operator {Delta}s{sub 0} term in a high-spin state of the superdeformed band in {sup 194}Hg.

  8. Extended length microchannels for high density high throughput electrophoresis systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    High throughput electrophoresis systems which provide extended well-to-read distances on smaller substrates, thus compacting the overall systems. The electrophoresis systems utilize a high density array of microchannels for electrophoresis analysis with extended read lengths. The microchannel geometry can be used individually or in conjunction to increase the effective length of a separation channel while minimally impacting the packing density of channels. One embodiment uses sinusoidal microchannels, while another embodiment uses plural microchannels interconnected by a via. The extended channel systems can be applied to virtually any type of channel confined chromatography.

  9. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Joe A.; Furnstahl, Dick; Horoi, Mihai; Lust, Rusty; Nazaewicc, Witek; Ng, Esmond; Thompson, Ian; Vary, James

    2012-12-30

    During the period of Dec. 1 2006 – Jun. 30, 2012, the UNEDF collaboration carried out a comprehensive study of all nuclei, based on the most accurate knowledge of the strong nuclear interaction, the most reliable theoretical approaches, the most advanced algorithms, and extensive computational resources, with a view towards scaling to the petaflop platforms and beyond. The long-term vision initiated with UNEDF is to arrive at a comprehensive, quantitative, and unified description of nuclei and their reactions, grounded in the fundamental interactions between the constituent nucleons. We seek to replace current phenomenological models of nuclear structure and reactions with a well-founded microscopic theory that delivers maximum predictive power with well-quantified uncertainties. Specifically, the mission of this project has been three-fold:  First, to find an optimal energy density functional (EDF) using all our knowledge of the nucleonic Hamiltonian and basic nuclear properties;  Second, to apply the EDF theory and its extensions to validate the functional using all the available relevant nuclear structure and reaction data;  Third, to apply the validated theory to properties of interest that cannot be measured, in particular the properties needed for reaction theory.

  10. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.

    2014-09-10

    This grant had two components: Density functional theory and pairing and Nuclear reactions. This final report summarizes the activities for this SciDAC-2 project.

  11. FMC high power density electric drive technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    FMC has developed a unique capability in energy-efficient, high-performance AC induction electric drive systems for electric and hybrid vehicles. These drives will not only be important to future military ground combat vehicles, but will also provide significant competitive advantages to industrial and commercial machinery and vehicles. The product line under development includes drive motors and associated power converters directed at three power/vehicle weight classes. These drive systems cover a broad spectrum of potential vehicle applications, ranging from light pickup trucks to full-size transit buses. The drive motors and power converters are described.

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High-Efficiency High-Density

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GaN-Based 6.6kW Bidirectional On-Board Charger for PEVs | Department of Energy High-Efficiency High-Density GaN-Based 6.6kW Bidirectional On-Board Charger for PEVs Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High-Efficiency High-Density GaN-Based 6.6kW Bidirectional On-Board Charger for PEVs Presentation given by Delta Products Corporation at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high-efficiency

  13. Key Parameters Governing the Energy Density of Rechargeable Li...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Rechargeable LiS Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Key Parameters Governing the Energy Density of Rechargeable LiS Batteries Authors: Gao, Jie ; ...

  14. High Energy QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuri Kovchegov

    2012-05-31

    The project significantly advanced our understanding of the theory of strong interactions known as quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in high energy collisions of elementary particles and nuclei. QCD is one of the four fundamental forces of nature, but is understood quite poorly due to the complexity of strong interactions. This project advanced our understanding of QCD in the very high energy collisions of protons and nuclei, where densities of quarks and gluons inside the colliding particles are so high (due to high energy) that complicated nonlinear interactions between quarks and gluons become important. This regime is known as gluon (or parton) saturation. The result of the project is a significant improvement of our understanding of the physics of gluon saturation: important (running coupling) corrections to the existing description of the process (the so-called Balitsky-Kovchegov equation) have been calculated, placing the BK equation in good agreement with the experimental data on deep inelastic scattering (DIS), a process where an electron is collided with the proton to probe the proton's internal structure. Corresponding cross section for quark and gluon production in DIS and nuclear collisions have been calculated and corrected correspondingly, resulting in new and interesting predictions for the physics to be probed in heavy ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The dense gluon systems play an important role in collisions of ultrarelativistic large nuclei, which are performed in order to create a plasma of quarks and gluons (QGP). An important question in the field is how exactly this QGP is produced in a collision of two heavy ions. The conclusion of this project is that QGP production happens due to strong coupling effects between quarks and gluons. This made theoretical description of QGP production only possible using the methods emerging from string theory. Using these methods QGP production was well understood as a result of this project

  15. Density of sodium chloride solutions at high temperatures and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; SEAWATER; DENSITY; SODIUM CHLORIDES; AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; CORRELATIONS; EQUATIONS; HIGH ...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of High Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells | Department of Energy of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells Presentation given by The Pennsylvania State University at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development of high energy density lithium-sulfur cells. es125_wang_2014_p.pdf (2.05 MB) More Documents &

  17. High current density cathode for electrorefining in molten electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Shelly X.

    2010-06-29

    A high current density cathode for electrorefining in a molten electrolyte for the continuous production and collection of loose dendritic or powdery deposits. The high current density cathode eliminates the requirement for mechanical scraping and electrochemical stripping of the deposits from the cathode in an anode/cathode module. The high current density cathode comprises a perforated electrical insulated material coating such that the current density is up to 3 A/cm.sup.2.

  18. Normal and abnormal evolution of argon metastable density in high-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; You, S. J.

    2015-05-15

    A controversial problem on the evolution of Ar metastable density as a function of electron density (increasing trend versus decreasing trend) was resolved by discovering the anomalous evolution of the argon metastable density with increasing electron density (discharge power), including both trends of the metastable density [Daltrini et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Later, by virtue of an adequate physical explanation based on a simple global model, both evolutions of the metastable density were comprehensively understood as part of the abnormal evolution occurring at low- and high-density regimes, respectively, and thus the physics behind the metastable evolution has seemed to be clearly disclosed. In this study, however, a remarkable result for the metastable density behavior with increasing electron density was observed: even in the same electron density regime, there are both normal and abnormal evolutions of metastable-state density with electron density depending on the measurement position: The metastable density increases with increasing electron density at a position far from the inductively coupled plasma antenna but decreases at a position close to the antenna. The effect of electron temperature, which is spatially nonuniform in the plasma, on the electron population and depopulation processes of Argon metastable atoms with increasing electron density is a clue to understanding the results. The calculated results of the global model, including multistep ionization for the argon metastable state and measured electron temperature, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Durable high-density data storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stutz, R.A.; Lamartine, B.C.

    1996-09-01

    This paper will discuss the Focus Ion Beam (FIB) milling process, media life considerations, and methods of reading the micromilled data. The FIB process for data storage provides a new non-magnetic storage method for archiving large amounts of data. The process stores data on robust materials such as steel, silicon, and gold coated silicon. The storage process was developed to provide a method to insure the long term storage life of data. We estimate the useful life of data written on silicon or gold coated silicon to be a few thousand years. The process uses an ion beam to carve material from the surface much like stone cutting. The deeper information is carved into the media the longer the expected life of the information. The process can read information in three formats: (1) binary at densities of 3.5 Gbits/cm{sup 2}, (2) alphanumeric at optical or non-optical density, and (3) graphical at optical and non-optical density. The formats can be mixed on the same media; and thus it is possible to record, in a human readable format, instructions that can be read using an optical microscope. These instructions provide guidance on reading the higher density information.

  20. Diagnosing collisions of magnetized, high energy density plasma flows using a combination of collective Thomson scattering, Faraday rotation, and interferometry (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swadling, G. F. Lebedev, S. V.; Hall, G. N.; Patankar, S.; Stewart, N. H.; Smith, R. A.; Burdiak, G. C.; Grouchy, P. de; Skidmore, J.; Suttle, L.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Bland, S. N.; Kwek, K. H.; Pickworth, L.; Bennett, M.; Hare, J. D.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Rozmus, W.; Yuan, J.

    2014-11-15

    A suite of laser based diagnostics is used to study interactions of magnetised, supersonic, radiatively cooled plasma flows produced using the Magpie pulse power generator (1.4 MA, 240 ns rise time). Collective optical Thomson scattering measures the time-resolved local flow velocity and temperature across 7–14 spatial positions. The scattering spectrum is recorded from multiple directions, allowing more accurate reconstruction of the flow velocity vectors. The areal electron density is measured using 2D interferometry; optimisation and analysis are discussed. The Faraday rotation diagnostic, operating at 1053 nm, measures the magnetic field distribution in the plasma. Measurements obtained simultaneously by these diagnostics are used to constrain analysis, increasing the accuracy of interpretation.

  1. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molloi, Sabee Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dual energy mammography system. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Dual energy decomposition was applied after scatter correction to calculate breast density. Breast density was also estimated using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding and a fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Chemical analysis was used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of different techniques to measure breast composition. Results: Breast density measurements using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, and dual energy were in good agreement with the measured fibroglandular volume fraction using chemical analysis. The standard error estimates using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean, and dual energy were 9.9%, 8.6%, 7.2%, and 4.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure breast density. The variability in breast density estimation using dual energy mammography was lower than reader assessment rankings, standard histogram thresholding, and fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Improved quantification of breast density is expected to further enhance its utility as a risk factor for breast cancer.

  2. Three- and two-dimensional simulations of counter-propagating shear experiments at high energy densities at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ping; Zhou, Ye; MacLaren, Stephan A.; Huntington, Channing M.; Raman, Kumar S.; Doss, Forrest W.; Flippo, Kirk A.

    2015-11-06

    Three- and two-dimensional numerical studies have been carried out to simulate recent counter-propagating shear flow experiments on the National Ignition Facility. A multi-physics three-dimensional, time-dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulation code is used. Using a Reynolds Averaging Navier-Stokes model, we show that the evolution of the mixing layer width obtained from the simulations agrees well with that measured from the experiments. A sensitivity study is conducted to illustrate a 3D geometrical effect that could confuse the measurement at late times, if the energy drives from the two ends of the shock tube are asymmetric. Implications for future experiments are discussed.

  3. Particle Gas Target for High Density Laser Produced Plasmas Charles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particle Gas Target for High Density Laser Produced Plasmas Charles H. Skinner, Nathaniel Fisch, and Ernest Valeo This invention is a novel "particle gas" cell for achieving plasma ...

  4. Ultra Low Density and Highly Crosslinked Biocompatible Shape...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biocompatible Shape Memory Polyurethane Foams Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Low Density and Highly Crosslinked Biocompatible Shape Memory Polyurethane Foams ...

  5. The Effects of Highly Structured Low Density Carbon Nanotube...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon Nanotube Networks on the Thermal Degradation Behaviour of Polysiloxanes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Effects of Highly Structured Low Density Carbon ...

  6. Comparing the Powertrain Energy Densities of Electric and Gasoline Vehicles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Argonne National Laboratory Comparing the Powertrain Energy Densities of Electric and Gasoline Vehicles Title Comparing the Powertrain Energy Densities of Electric and Gasoline Vehicles Publication Type Conference Paper Year of Publication 2016 Authors Vijayagopal, R, Gallagher, K, Lee, D, Rousseau, A Conference Name SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition Date Published 04052016 Other Numbers SAE Paper No. 2016-01-0903 Keywords batteries, electric vehicles, EVs, fuel economy, gasoline,

  7. High-energy detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Camarda, Giuseppe; Cui, Yonggang; James, Ralph B.

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  8. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S.

    2015-04-15

    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth.

  9. Energy Storage Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy Development Energy Storage Testing and ... Testing Overview and Progress of the Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design Activity ...

  10. High Energy Cost Grants | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Energy Cost Grants High Energy Cost Grants The High Energy Cost Grant Program provides financial assistance for the improvement of energy generation, transmission, and distribution facilities servicing eligible rural communities with home energy costs that are over 275% of the national average. Grants under this program may be used for the acquisition, construction, installation, repair, replacement, or improvement of energy generation, transmission, or distribution facilities in

  11. High energy density redox flow device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, William Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

  12. High energy density redox flow device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet -Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2015-10-06

    Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

  13. Search for High Energy Density Cathode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  14. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  15. A scheme to produce high density and high temperature plasma for opacity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yan; Wu, SiZhong; Zheng, WuDi

    2015-04-15

    The opacity of shock-compressed material is of general scientific interest for astrophysical plasmas and for inertial confinement fusion research. A proposal is suggested to produce high temperature plasma with density around 1 g/cm{sup −3}. Two types of opacity target (the sandwich target and the foam enhanced sandwich target) are investigated numerically. The foam enhanced sandwich target has structure of foam–solid-sample-solid-foam. The foam will increase laser absorption efficiency and the ablating pressure. Hydrodynamic simulations confirm that the laser can be fully absorbed by the under-critical-density foam and a faster shock is produced inside the CH layer. High intensity lasers heat opacity target from both sides. The CH layers must be thick enough to keep the laser away from the sample. The laser-driven shocks move inward and collide at the center. Part of their kinetic energy is converted into internal energy and high density and high temperature local thermodynamic equilibrium sample plasma is produced. The plasma produced by laser heating the foam enhanced sandwich target has higher sample temperature than by laser heating the sandwich target. It may be useful for measuring the opacity of shock compressed material in laboratory.

  16. A High Power Density DC-DC Converter for Distributed PV Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed S. Agamy; Song Chi; Ahmed Elasser; Maja Harfman-Todorovic; Yan Jiang; Frank Mueller; Fengfeng Tao

    2012-06-01

    In order to maximize solar energy harvesting capabilities, power converters have to be designed for high efficiency and good MPPT and voltage/current performance. When many converters are used in distributed systems, power density also becomes an important factor as it allows for simpler system integration. In this paper a high power density string dc-dc converter suitable for distributed medium to large scale PV installation is presented. A simple partial power processing topology, implemented with all silicon carbide devices provides high efficiency as well as high power density. A 3.5kW, 100kHz converter is designed and tested to verify the proposed methods.

  17. High-Density Infrared Surface Treatments of Refractories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiegs, T.N.

    2005-03-31

    Refractory materials play a crucial role in all energy-intensive industries and are truly a crosscutting technology for the Industries of the Future (IOF). One of the major mechanisms for the degradation of refractories and a general decrease in their performance has been the penetration and corrosion by molten metals or glass. Methods and materials that would reduce the penetration, wetting, and corrosive chemistry would significantly improve refractory performance and also maintain the quality of the processed liquid, be it metal or glass. This report presents the results of an R&D project aimed at investigating the use of high-density infrared (HDI) heating to surface treat refractories to improve their performance. The project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR). HDI is capable of heating the near-surface region of materials to very high temperatures where sintering, diffusion, and melting can occur. The intended benefits of HDI processing of refractories were to (1) reduce surface porosity (by essentially sealing the surface to prevent liquid penetration), (2) allow surface chemistry changes to be performed by bonding an adherent coating onto the underlying refractory (in order to inhibit wetting and/or improve corrosion resistance), and (3) produce noncontact refractories with high-emissivity surface coatings.

  18. New Electrode Designs for Ultrahigh Energy Density | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in Energy Innovations | Department of Energy The Building America Program is hosting a free webinar that will provide an overview of new Code Compliance Brief content on the Building America Solution Center. These briefs help builders understand and meet code requirements while helping code officials apply codes to new and emerging innovations. The Code Compliance Briefs provide code-related information about Building America's research, best practices, and new innovations to describe how

  19. High power density fuel cell stack development for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pow, R.; Reindl, M.; Tilmetz, W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the joint development by Daimler-Benz and Ballard Power Systems of a high power-density fuel cell stack and its demonstration in a 6-passenger Minivan.

  20. Quantum Chromodynamics and Nuclear Physics at Extreme Energy Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, B.; Bass, S.A.; Chandrasekharan, S.; Mehen, T.; Springer, R.P.

    2005-11-07

    The report describes research in theoretical quantum chromodynamics, including effective field theories of hadronic interactions, properties of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy density, phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions, and algorithms and numerical simulations of lattice gauge theory and other many-body systems.

  1. High frequency energy measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stotlar, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    High-frequency (> 100 MHz) energy measurements present special problems to the experimenter. Environment or available electronics often limit the applicability of a given detector type. The physical properties of many detectors are frequency dependent and in some cases, the physical effect employed can be frequency dependent. State-of-the-art measurements generally involve a detection scheme in association with high-speed electronics and a method of data recording. Events can be single or repetitive shot requiring real time, sampling, or digitizing data recording. Potential modification of the pulse by the detector and the associated electronics should not be overlooked. This presentation will review typical applications, methods of choosing a detector, and high-speed detectors. Special considerations and limitations of some applications and devices will be described.

  2. High Performance Energy Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Performance Energy Management Reduce energy use and meet your business objectives By applying continuous improvement practices similar to Lean and Six Sigma, the BPA Energy Smart...

  3. Sandia Energy - High Performance Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Performance Computing Home Energy Research Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) High Performance Computing High Performance Computingcwdd2015-03-18T21:41:24+00:00...

  4. Independent control of electron energy and density using a rotating magnetic field in inductively coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, Takahiro; Ohta, Masayuki; Ito, Tsuyohito; Okada, Shigefumi

    2013-09-21

    Effects of a rotating magnetic field (RMF) on the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and on the electron density are investigated with the aim of controlling the radical composition of inductively coupled plasmas. By adjusting the RMF frequency and generation power, the desired electron density and electron energy shift are obtained. Consequently, the amount and fraction of high-energy electrons, which are mostly responsible for direct dissociation processes of raw molecules, will be controlled externally. This controllability, with no electrode exposed to plasma, will enable us to control radical components and their flux during plasma processing.

  5. High Mesa | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    High Mesa Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Exelon Wind Developer Exelon Wind Energy Purchaser Idaho Power Location...

  6. Precision Crystal Calorimeters in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ren-Yuan Zhu

    2010-01-08

    Precision crystal calorimeters traditionally play an important role in high energy physics experiments. In the last two decades, it faces a challenge to maintain its precision in a hostile radiation environment. This paper reviews the performance of crystal calorimeters constructed for high energy physics experiments and the progress achieved in understanding crystal?s radiation damage as well as in developing high quality scintillating crystals for particle physics. Potential applications of new generation scintillating crystals of high density and high light yield, such as LSO and LYSO, in particle physics experiments is also discussed.

  7. Online diagnoses of high current-density beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilpatrick, J.D.

    1994-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has proposed several CW-proton-beam facilities for production of tritium or transmutation of nuclear waste with beam-current densities greater than 5 mA/mm{sup 2}. The primary beam-diagnostics-instrumentation requirement for these facilities is provision of sufficient beam information to understand and minimize beam-loss. To accomplish this task, the beam-diagnostics instrumentation must measure beam parameters such as the centroids and profiles, total integrated current, and particle loss. Noninterceptive techniques must be used for diagnosis of high-intensity CW beam at low energies due to the large quantity of power deposited in an interceptive diagnostic device by the beam. Transverse and longitudinal centroid measurements have been developed for bunched beams by measuring and processing image currents on the accelerator walls. Transverse beam-profile measurement-techniques have also been developed using the interaction of the particle beam with the background gases near the beam region. This paper will discuss these noninterceptive diagnostic Techniques.

  8. PREPARATION OF HIGH-DENSITY THORIUM OXIDE SPHERES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNees, R.A. Jr.; Taylor, A.J.

    1963-12-31

    A method of preparing high-density thorium oxide spheres for use in pellet beds in nuclear reactors is presented. Sinterable thorium oxide is first converted to free-flowing granules by means such as compression into a compact and comminution of the compact. The granules are then compressed into cubes having a density of 5.0 to 5.3 grams per cubic centimeter. The cubes are tumbled to form spheres by attrition, and the spheres are then fired at 1250 to 1350 deg C. The fired spheres are then polished and fired at a temperature above 1650 deg C to obtain high density. Spherical pellets produced by this method are highly resistant to mechanical attrition hy water. (AEC)

  9. High density electronic circuit and process for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, William P.

    1999-01-01

    High density circuits with posts that protrude beyond one surface of a substrate to provide easy mounting of devices such as integrated circuits. The posts also provide stress relief to accommodate differential thermal expansion. The process allows high interconnect density with fewer alignment restrictions and less wasted circuit area than previous processes. The resulting substrates can be test platforms for die testing and for multi-chip module substrate testing. The test platform can contain active components and emulate realistic operational conditions, replacing shorts/opens net testing.

  10. High density electronic circuit and process for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, W.P.

    1999-06-29

    High density circuits with posts that protrude beyond one surface of a substrate to provide easy mounting of devices such as integrated circuits are disclosed. The posts also provide stress relief to accommodate differential thermal expansion. The process allows high interconnect density with fewer alignment restrictions and less wasted circuit area than previous processes. The resulting substrates can be test platforms for die testing and for multi-chip module substrate testing. The test platform can contain active components and emulate realistic operational conditions, replacing shorts/opens net testing. 8 figs.

  11. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb{sup {minus}}1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989.

  12. New High Energy Gradient Concentration Cathode Material | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 6_amine_2011_p.pdf (1.42 MB) More Documents & Publications FY 2011 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D Design of Safer High-Energy Density Materials for Lithium-Ion Cells Developing new high energy gradient concentration cathode material

  13. Device and method for electron beam heating of a high density plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thode, Lester E.

    1981-01-01

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator produces a high voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target plasma is ionized prior to application of the electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region within the high density plasma target.

  14. High Density Polymer-Based Integrated Electgrode Array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Davidson, James Courtney; Hamilton, Julie K.

    2006-04-25

    A high density polymer-based integrated electrode apparatus that comprises a central electrode body and a multiplicity of arms extending from the electrode body. The central electrode body and the multiplicity of arms are comprised of a silicone material with metal features in said silicone material that comprise electronic circuits.

  15. Towards the island of stability with relativistic energy density functionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prassa, V.; Niksic, T.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Vretenar, D.

    2012-10-20

    Relativistic energy density functionals (REDF) provide a complete and accurate, global description of nuclear structure phenomena. Modern semi-empirical functionals, adjusted to the nuclear matter equation of state and to empirical masses of deformed nuclei, are applied to studies of shapes of superheavy nuclei. The theoretical framework is tested in a comparison to empirical masses, quadrupole deformations, and energy barriers of actinide nuclei. The model is used in a self-consistent mean-field calculation of spherical, axial and triaxial shapes of superheavy nuclei, alpha-decay energies and lifetimes. The effect of explicit treatment of collective correlations is analyzed in calculations that consistently use a collective Hamiltonian model based on REDFs.

  16. High Density Nano-Electrode Array for Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mano Misra

    2010-05-07

    Bulk single crystals of Cd1-xZnxTe (x=0.04 to x=0.2) compound semiconductor is used for room temperature radiation detection. The production of large volume of Cd1-xZnxTe with low defect density is expensive. As a result there is a growing research interest in the production of nanostructured compound semiconductors such as Cd1-xZnxTe in an electrochemical route. In this investigation, Cd1-xZnxTe ternary compound semiconductor, referred as CZT, was electrodeposited in the form of nanowires onto a TiO2 nanotubular template from propylene carbonate as the non-aqueous electrolyte, using a pulse-reverse electrodeposition process at 130 C. The template acted as a support in growing ordered nanowire of CZT which acts as a one dimensional conductor. Cyclic Voltammogram (CV) studies were conducted in determining the potentials for the growth of nanowires of uniform stoichiometry. The morphologies and composition of CZT were characterized by using SEM, TEM and XRD. The STEM mapping carried out on the nanowires showed the uniform distribution of Cd, Zn and Te elements. TEM image showed that the nanowires were polycrystalline in nature. The Mott-Schottky analysis carried on the nanowires showed that the nanowires were a p-type semiconductor. The carrier density, band gap and resistivity of the Cd0.9Zn0.1Te nanowires were 4.29x1013 cm-3, 1.56 eV and 2.76x1011?-cm respectively. The high resistivity was attributed to the presence of deep defect states such as cadmium vacancies or Te antisites which were created by the anodic cycle of the pulse-reverse electrodeposition process. Stacks of series connected CZT nanowire arrays were tested with different bias potentials. The background current was in the order of tens of picoamperes. When exposed to radiation source Amerecium-241 (60 KeV, 4 ?Ci), the stacked CZT nanowires arrays showed sensing behavior. The sensitivity of the nanowire arrays increased as the number of stacks increased. The preliminary results indicate that the CZT

  17. FSU High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prosper, Harrison B.; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Berg, Bernd; Blessing, Susan K.; Okui, Takemichi; Owens, Joseph F.; Reina, Laura; Wahl, Horst D.

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  18. Rf Gun with High-Current Density Field Emission Cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-12-19

    High current-density field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes, with field-emission-transistor control, and with secondary electron channel multiplication in a ceramic facing structure, have been combined in a cold cathode for rf guns and diode guns. Electrodynamic and space-charge flow simulations were conducted to specify the cathode configuration and range of emission current density from the field emission cold cathode. Design of this cathode has been made for installation and testing in an existing S-band 2-1/2 cell rf gun. With emission control and modulation, and with current density in the range of 0.1-1 kA/cm2, this cathode could provide performance and long-life not enjoyed by other currently-available cathodes

  19. Flying-plate detonator using a high-density high explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stroud, John R.; Ornellas, Donald L.

    1988-01-01

    A flying-plate detonator containing a high-density high explosive such as benzotrifuroxan (BTF). The detonator involves the electrical explosion of a thin metal foil which punches out a flyer from a layer overlying the foil, and the flyer striking a high-density explosive pellet of BTF, which is more thermally stable than the conventional detonator using pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  20. High-Density Plasma Arc Heating Studies of FePt Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, Amanda C; Thompson, Gregory; Harrell, J. W.; Weston, James; Ott, Ronald D

    2006-01-01

    The effect of pulsed-thermal-processing with high-density plasma arc heating is discussed for 20 nm thick nanocrystalline FePt thin films. The dependence of the A1 {yields} L1{sub 0} phase transformation on pulsed time and radiant energy of the pulse is quantified through x-ray diffraction and alternating gradient magnetometry. For 100 ms and 250 ms pulse widths, the phase transformation was observed. Higher radiant energy densities resulted in a larger measured coercivity associated with the L1{sub 0} phase.

  1. Descriptions of carbon isotopes within the energy density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail, Atef; Cheong, Lee Yen; Yahya, Noorhana; Tammam, M.

    2014-10-24

    Within the energy density functional (EDF) theory, the structure properties of Carbon isotopes are systematically studied. The shell model calculations are done for both even-A and odd-A nuclei, to study the structure of rich-neutron Carbon isotopes. The EDF theory indicates the single-neutron halo structures in {sup 15}C, {sup 17}C and {sup 19}C, and the two-neutron halo structures in {sup 16}C and {sup 22}C nuclei. It is also found that close to the neutron drip-line, there exist amazing increase in the neutron radii and decrease on the binding energies BE, which are tightly related with the blocking effect and correspondingly the blocking effect plays a significant role in the shell model configurations.

  2. High-density FRC formation studies on FRX-L.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taccetti, J. M.; Intrator, Thomas; Zhang, S.; Wurden, G. A.; Begay, D. W.; Mignardot, E. R.; Waganaar, W. J.; Siemon, R. E.; Tuszewski, M. G.; Sanchez, P. G.; Degnan, J. H.; Sommars, W.

    2002-01-01

    FRX-L (Field Reversed configuration experiment - Liner) is a magnetized-target injector for magnetized target fusion (MTF) experiments. It was designed with the goal of producing high-density n-1017 cm3 field reversed configurations (FRCs) and translating them into an aluminum liner (1-mm thick, 10-cm diameter cylindrical shell) for further compression to fusion conditions. Although operation at these high densities leads to shorter FRC lifetimes, our application requires thlat the plasma live only long enough to be translated and compressed, or on the order of 10-20 ps. Careful study of FRC formation in situ will be done in the present experiment to differentiate between effects introduced in future experiments by translation, trapping, and compression of the FRC. We present current results on the optimization of the FRC formation process on RX-L and compare the results with those from past experiments.

  3. Volume generation of negative ions in high density hydrogen discharges. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiskes, J.R.; Karo, A.M.

    1983-11-11

    An optimized tandem two-chamber negative-ion source system is discussed. In the first chamber high energy (E > 20 eV) electron collisions provide for H/sub 2/ vibrational excitation, while in the second chamber negative ions are formed by dissociative attachment. The gas density, electron density, and system scale length are varied as independent parameters. The extracted negative ion current density passes through a maximum as electron and gas densities are varied. This maximum scales inversely with system scale length, R. The optimum extracted current densities occur for electron densities near nR = 10/sup 13/ electrons cm/sup -2/ and for gas densities, N/sub 2/R, in the range 10/sup 14/ to 10/sup 15/ molecules cm/sup -2/. The extracted current densities are sensitive to the atomic concentration in the discharge. The atomic concentration is parametrized by the wall recombination coefficient, ..gamma.., and scale length, R. As ..gamma.. ranges from 0.1 to 1.0 and for system scale lengths of one centimeter, extracted current densities range from 8.0 to 80. mA cm/sup -2/.

  4. An innovative demonstration of high power density in a compact MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, H.J.; Lineberry, J.T.; Chapman, J.N.

    1990-06-01

    The present program was conducted by the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). It was by its nature a high risk experimental program to demonstrate the feasibility of high power density operation in a laboratory scale combustion driven MHD generator. Maximization of specific energy was not a consideration for the present program, but the results have implications in this regard by virtue of high energy fuel used. The power density is the ratio of the electrical energy output to the internal volume of the generator channel. The MHD process is a volumetric process and the power density is therefore a direct measure of the compactness of the system. Specific energy, is the ratio of the electrical energy output to consumable energy used for its production. The two parameters are conceptually interrelated. To achieve high power density and implied commensurate low system volume and weight, it was necessary to use an energetic fuel. The high energy fuel of choice was a mixture of powdered aluminum and carbon seeded with potassium carbonate and burned with gaseous oxygen. The solid fuel was burned in a hybrid combustion scheme wherein the fuel was cast within a cylindrical combustor in analogy with a solid propellant rocket motor. Experimental data is limited to gross channel output current and voltage, magnetic field strength, fuel and oxidizer flow rates, flow train external temperatures and combustor pressure. Similarly, while instantaneous oxidizer flow rates were measured, only average fuel consumption based on pre and post test component weights and dimensions was possible. 4 refs., 60 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. High Sheldon Energy Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sheldon Energy Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name High Sheldon Energy Wind Farm Facility High Sheldon Energy Wind Farm Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale...

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR HAVING LOCALIZED AREAS OF HIGH THERMAL NEUTRON DENSITIES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newson, H.W.

    1958-06-01

    A nuclear reactor for the irradiation of materials designed to provide a localized area of high thermal neutron flux density in which the materials to be irradiated are inserted is described. The active portion of the reactor is comprised of a cubicle graphite moderator of about 25 feet in length along each axis which has a plurality of cylindrical channels for accommodatirg elongated tubular-shaped fuel elements. The fuel elements have radial fins for spacing the fuel elements from the channel walls, thereby providing spaces through which a coolant may be passed, and also to serve as a heatconductirg means. Ducts for accommnodating the sample material to be irradiated extend through the moderator material perpendicular to and between parallel rows of fuel channels. The improvement is in the provision of additional fuel element channels spaced midway between 2 rows of the regular fuel channels in the localized area surrounding the duct where the high thermal neutron flux density is desired. The fuel elements normally disposed in the channels directly adjacent the duct are placed in the additional channels, and the channels directly adjacent the duct are plugged with moderator material. This design provides localized areas of high thermal neutron flux density without the necessity of providing additional fuel material.

  7. Energy density matrix formalism for interacting quantum systems: a quantum Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krogel, Jaron T; Kim, Jeongnim; Reboredo, Fernando A

    2014-01-01

    We develop an energy density matrix that parallels the one-body reduced density matrix (1RDM) for many-body quantum systems. Just as the density matrix gives access to the number density and occupation numbers, the energy density matrix yields the energy density and orbital occupation energies. The eigenvectors of the matrix provide a natural orbital partitioning of the energy density while the eigenvalues comprise a single particle energy spectrum obeying a total energy sum rule. For mean-field systems the energy density matrix recovers the exact spectrum. When correlation becomes important, the occupation energies resemble quasiparticle energies in some respects. We explore the occupation energy spectrum for the finite 3D homogeneous electron gas in the metallic regime and an isolated oxygen atom with ground state quantum Monte Carlo techniques imple- mented in the QMCPACK simulation code. The occupation energy spectrum for the homogeneous electron gas can be described by an effective mass below the Fermi level. Above the Fermi level evanescent behavior in the occupation energies is observed in similar fashion to the occupation numbers of the 1RDM. A direct comparison with total energy differences demonstrates a quantita- tive connection between the occupation energies and electron addition and removal energies for the electron gas. For the oxygen atom, the association between the ground state occupation energies and particle addition and removal energies becomes only qualitative. The energy density matrix provides a new avenue for describing energetics with quantum Monte Carlo methods which have traditionally been limited to total energies.

  8. Note: High density pulsed molecular beam for cold ion chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kokish, M. G.; Rajagopal, V.; Marler, J. P.; Odom, B. C.

    2014-08-15

    A recent expansion of cold and ultracold molecule applications has led to renewed focus on molecular species preparation under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Meanwhile, molecular beams have been used to study gas phase chemical reactions for decades. In this paper, we describe an apparatus that uses pulsed molecular beam technology to achieve high local gas densities, leading to faster reaction rates with cold trapped ions. We characterize the beam's spatial profile using the trapped ions themselves. This apparatus could be used for preparation of molecular species by reactions requiring excitation of trapped ion precursors to states with short lifetimes or for obtaining a high reaction rate with minimal increase of background chamber pressure.

  9. Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory Citation ... This content will become publicly available on April 27, 2016 Title: Complex-energy ...

  10. Silicon-Nanowire Based Lithium Ion Batteries for Vehicles With Double the Energy Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefan, Ionel; Cohen, Yehonathan

    2015-03-31

    Amprius researched and developed silicon nanowire anodes. Amprius then built and delivered high-energy lithium-ion cells that met the project’s specific energy goal and exceeded the project’s energy density goal. But Amprius’ cells did not meet the project’s cycle life goal, suggesting additional manufacturing process development is required. With DOE support, Amprius developed a new anode material, silicon, and a new anode structure, nanowire. During the project, Amprius also began to develop a new multi-step manufacturing process that does not involve traditional anode production processes (e.g. mixing, drying and calendaring).

  11. Radiation resistance testing of high-density polyethylene. [Gamma rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Adams, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical tests following gamma inrradiation and creep tests during irradiation have been conducted on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to assess the adequacy of this material for use in high-integrity containers (HICs). These tests were motivated by experience in nuclear power plants in which polyethylene electrical insulation detoriorated more rapidly than expected due to radiation-induced oxidation. This suggested that HDPE HICs used for radwaste disposal might degrade more rapidly than would be expected in the absence of the radiation field. Two types of HDPE, a highly cross-linked rotationally molded material and a non-cross-linked blow molded material, were used in these tests. Gamma-ray irradiations were performed at several dose rates in environments of air, Barnwell and Hanford backfill soils, and ion-exchange resins. The results of tensile and bend testing on these materials following irradiation will be presented along with preliminary results on creep during irradiation.

  12. Particle visualization in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering. II. Absolute density dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britun, Nikolay Palmucci, Maria; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Snyders, Rony

    2015-04-28

    Time-resolved characterization of an Ar-Ti high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge has been performed. The present, second, paper of the study is related to the discharge characterization in terms of the absolute density of species using resonant absorption spectroscopy. The results on the time-resolved density evolution of the neutral and singly-ionized Ti ground state atoms as well as the metastable Ti and Ar atoms during the discharge on- and off-time are presented. Among the others, the questions related to the inversion of population of the Ti energy sublevels, as well as to re-normalization of the two-dimensional density maps in terms of the absolute density of species, are stressed.

  13. Method for providing a low density high strength polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.; Goods, Steven H.; Skala, Dawn M.; Henderson, Craig C.; Keifer, Patrick N.

    2013-06-18

    Disclosed is a method for making a polyurethane closed-cell foam material exhibiting a bulk density below 4 lbs/ft.sup.3 and high strength. The present embodiment uses the reaction product of a modified MDI and a sucrose/glycerine based polyether polyol resin wherein a small measured quantity of the polyol resin is "pre-reacted" with a larger quantity of the isocyanate in a defined ratio such that when the necessary remaining quantity of the polyol resin is added to the "pre-reacted" resin together with a tertiary amine catalyst and water as a blowing agent, the polymerization proceeds slowly enough to provide a stable foam body.

  14. Development of technology of high density LEU dispersion fuel fabrication.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiencek, T.; Totev, T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Materials Fabrication Facilities at Argonne National Laboratory have been involved in development of LEU dispersion fuel for research and test reactors from the beginning of RERTR program. This paper presents development of technology of high density LEU dispersion fuel fabrication for full size plate type fuel elements. A brief description of Advanced Materials Fabrication Facilities where development of the technology was carried out is given. A flow diagram of the manufacturing process is presented. U-Mo powder was manufactured by the rotating electrode process. The atomization produced a U-Mo alloy powder with a relatively uniform size distribution and a nearly spherical shape. Test plates were fabricated using tungsten and depleted U-7 wt.% Mo alloy, 4043 Al and Al-2 wt% Si matrices with Al 6061 aluminum alloy for the cladding. During the development of the technology of manufacturing of full size high density LEU dispersion fuel plates special attention was paid to meet the required homogeneity, bonding, dimensions, fuel out of zone and other mechanical characteristics of the plates.

  15. Development of technology of high density LEU dispersion fuel fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiencek, Tom; Totev, Totju

    2008-07-15

    Advanced Materials Fabrication Facilities at Argonne National Laboratory have been involved in development of LEU dispersion fuel for research and test reactors from the beginning of RERTR program. This paper presents development of technology of high density LEU dispersion fuel fabrication for full size plate type fuel elements. A brief description of Advanced Materials Fabrication Facilities where development of the technology was carried out is given. A flow diagram of the manufacturing process is presented. U-Mo powder was manufactured by the rotating electrode process. The atomization produced a U-Mo alloy powder with a relatively uniform size distribution and a nearly spherical shape. Test plates were fabricated using tungsten and depleted U-7 wt.% Mo alloy, 4043 Al and Al-2 wt% Si matrices with Al 6061 aluminum alloy for the cladding. During the development of the technology of manufacturing of full size high density LEU dispersion fuel plates special attention was paid to meet the required homogeneity, bonding, dimensions, fuel out of zone and other mechanical characteristics of the plates. (author)

  16. Watauga High School Wind Energy Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Project Jump to: navigation, search Name Watauga High School Wind Energy Project Facility Watauga High School Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status...

  17. File:Air Density Lab.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Density Lab.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:Air Density Lab.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 600...

  18. Building A Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional (UNEDF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Joe, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM; Furnstahl, Dick, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; Horoi, Mihai, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI; Lusk, Rusty, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Nazarewicz, Witek, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; Ng, Esmond, Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Thompson, Ian, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA; Vary, James, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

    2012-09-30

    During the period of Dec. 1 2006 – Jun. 30, 2012, the UNEDF collaboration carried out a comprehensive study of all nuclei, based on the most accurate knowledge of the strong nuclear interaction, the most reliable theoretical approaches, the most advanced algorithms, and extensive computational resources, with a view towards scaling to the petaflop platforms and beyond. The long-term vision initiated with UNEDF is to arrive at a comprehensive, quantitative, and unified description of nuclei and their reactions, grounded in the fundamental interactions between the constituent nucleons. We seek to replace current phenomenological models of nuclear structure and reactions with a well-founded microscopic theory that delivers maximum predictive power with well-quantified uncertainties. Specifically, the mission of this project has been three-fold: first, to find an optimal energy density functional (EDF) using all our knowledge of the nucleonic Hamiltonian and basic nuclear properties; second, to apply the EDF theory and its extensions to validate the functional using all the available relevant nuclear structure and reaction data; third, to apply the validated theory to properties of interest that cannot be measured, in particular the properties needed for reaction theory. The main physics areas of UNEDF, defined at the beginning of the project, were: ab initio structure; ab initio functionals; DFT applications; DFT extensions; reactions.

  19. A study of electromagnetic showers in the high density projection chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, E.; Berggren, M.; Cattai, A.; Fischer, H.G.; Flammier, M.; Gerutti, G.; Innocenti, P.G.; Iversen, P.S.

    1983-02-01

    A prototype module of a High density Projection Chamber (HPC) has been tested in an electron beam. The HPC, with the shower conversion separated from the charge collection, offers a simple, homogeneous large volume detector with an energy resolution of 12.5%/..sqrt..E and an exceptionally fine granularity both along and transverse to the shower axis. The results from the test are presented together with a description of the calorimeter system.

  20. High-density percutaneous chronic connector for neural prosthetics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Kedar G.; Bennett, William J.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.

    2015-09-22

    A high density percutaneous chronic connector, having first and second connector structures each having an array of magnets surrounding a mounting cavity. A first electrical feedthrough array is seated in the mounting cavity of the first connector structure and a second electrical feedthrough array is seated in the mounting cavity of the second connector structure, with a feedthrough interconnect matrix positioned between a top side of the first electrical feedthrough array and a bottom side of the second electrical feedthrough array to electrically connect the first electrical feedthrough array to the second electrical feedthrough array. The two arrays of magnets are arranged to attract in a first angular position which connects the first and second connector structures together and electrically connects the percutaneously connected device to the external electronics, and to repel in a second angular position to facilitate removal of the second connector structure from the first connector structure.

  1. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Davis, Donald W.; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.; Wicker, Ryan B.; Medina, Francisco R.

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  2. Ultra-high current density thin-film Si diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang; Qi

    2008-04-22

    A combination of a thin-film .mu.c-Si and a-Si:H containing diode structure characterized by an ultra-high current density that exceeds 1000 A/cm.sup.2, comprising: a substrate; a bottom metal layer disposed on the substrate; an n-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited the bottom metal layer; an i-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the n-layer; a buffer layer of a-Si:H deposited on the i-layer, a p-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the buffer layer; and a top metal layer deposited on the p-layer.

  3. Glass Capacitor for High-Temperature Applications - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Glass Capacitor for High-Temperature Applications Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryTo meet the demand for smaller, lighter capacitors that have high energy densities, an ORNL researcher developed a capacitor made of glass rods that is constructed like insulated wire. This device can be used for power factor correction, high-voltage capacitors, power electronic

  4. Energy density dependence of hydrogen combustion efficiency in atmospheric pressure microwave plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, T.; Ezumi, N.; Sawada, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Nishimura, K.

    2015-03-15

    The recovery of tritium in nuclear fusion plants is a key issue for safety. So far, the oxidation procedure using an atmospheric pressure plasma is expected to be part of the recovery method. In this study, in order to clarify the mechanism of hydrogen oxidation by plasma chemistry, we have investigated the dependence of hydrogen combustion efficiency on gas flow rate and input power in the atmospheric pressure microwave plasma. It has been found that the combustion efficiency depends on energy density of absorbed microwave power. Hence, the energy density is considered as a key parameter for combustion processes. Also neutral gas temperatures inside and outside the plasma were measured by an optical emission spectroscopy method and thermocouple. The result shows that the neutral gas temperature in the plasma is much higher than the outside temperature of plasma. The high neutral gas temperature may affect the combustion reaction. (authors)

  5. Rock Density At Alum Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Rock Density At Alum Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Alum Geothermal Area...

  6. Effects of argon gas pressure on its metastable-state density in high-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; You, S. J.

    2015-05-15

    The effect of argon gas pressure on its metastable density in inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) is investigated by using the laser-induced fluorescence method. Our results show that the metastable-state density of argon varies with the gas pressure depending on the measurement position; the density decreases with the pressure at a position far from the ICP antenna, whereas it increases with the pressure at a position near the antenna. This contrast in the metastable-state density trend with the pressure is explained by considering the electron temperature variations at the two measurement positions. The theoretical interpretation and calculation using a global model are also addressed in detail in this paper.

  7. On the feasibility of increasing the energy of laser-accelerated protons by using low-density targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brantov, A. V. Bychenkov, V. Yu.

    2015-06-15

    Optimal regimes of proton acceleration in the interaction of short high-power laser pulses with thin foils and low-density targets are determined by means of 3D numerical simulation. It is demonstrated that the maximum proton energy can be increased by using low-density targets in which ions from the front surface of the target are accelerated most efficiently. It is shown using a particular example that, for the same laser pulse, the energy of protons accelerated from a low-density target can be increased by one-third as compared to a solid-state target.

  8. Atomistic Simulation of High-Density Uranium Fuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Garcés, Jorge Eduardo; Bozzolo, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    We apply an atomistic modeling approach to deal with interfacial phenomena in high-density uranium fuels. The effects of Si, as additive to Al or as U-Mo-particles coating, on the behavior of the Al/U-Mo interface is modeled by using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloys. The basic experimental features characterizing the real system are identified, via simulations and atom-by-atom analysis. These include (1) the trend indicating formation of interfacial compounds, (2) much reduced diffusion of Al into U-Mo solid solution due to the high Si concentration, (3) Si depletion in the Al matrix, (4) an unexpected interaction between Mo and Simore » which inhibits Si diffusion to deeper layers in the U-Mo solid solution, and (5) the minimum amount of Si needed to perform as an effective diffusion barrier. Simulation results related to alternatives to Si dispersed in the Al matrix, such as the use of C coating of U-Mo particles or Zr instead of the Al matrix, are also shown. Recent experimental results confirmed early theoretical proposals, along the lines of the results reported in this work, showing that atomistic computational modeling could become a valuable tool to aid the experimental work in the development of nuclear fuels.« less

  9. Probing topological relations between high-density and low-density regions of 2MASS with hexagon cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yongfeng; Xiao, Weike

    2014-02-01

    We introduced a new two-dimensional (2D) hexagon technique for probing the topological structure of the universe in which we mapped regions of the sky with high and low galaxy densities onto a 2D lattice of hexagonal unit cells. We defined filled cells as corresponding to high-density regions and empty cells as corresponding to low-density regions. The numbers of filled cells and empty cells were kept the same by controlling the size of the cells. By analyzing the six sides of each hexagon, we could obtain and compare the statistical topological properties of high-density and low-density regions of the universe in order to have a better understanding of the evolution of the universe. We applied this hexagonal method to Two Micron All Sky Survey data and discovered significant topological differences between the high-density and low-density regions. Both regions had significant (>5?) topological shifts from both the binomial distribution and the random distribution.

  10. High Island Densities and Long Range Repulsive Interactions:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    long range repulsive interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and density functional theory calculations support this conclusion. In addition to answering an outstanding...

  11. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  12. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland; Gleckman, Philip L.; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  13. Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on...

  14. High-power Laser Interaction With Low-density C-Cu Foams (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-power Laser Interaction With Low-density C-Cu Foams Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-power Laser Interaction With Low-density C-Cu Foams You are accessing a ...

  15. Low-Density and High Porosity Hydrogen Storage Materials Built from Ultra-Light Elements. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Pingyun

    2014-01-10

    A number of significant advances have been achieved, opening up new opportunities for the synthetic development of novel porous materials and their energy-related applications including gas storage and separation and catalysis. These include lithium-based metal-organic frameworks, magnesium-based metal-organic frameworks, and high gas uptake in porous frameworks with high density of open donor sites.

  16. Ultra Low Density and Highly Crosslinked Biocompatible Shape...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Low Density ... OSTI Identifier: 1111124 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-501951 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Journal ...

  17. Surface interactions involved in flashover with high density electronegative gases.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, Keith Conquest; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wallace, Zachariah Red; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the interactions involved with flashover along a surface in high density electronegative gases. The focus is on fast ionization processes rather than the later time ionic drift or thermalization of the discharge. A kinetic simulation of the gas and surface is used to examine electron multiplication and includes gas collision, excitation and ionization, and attachment processes, gas photoionization and surface photoemission processes, as well as surface attachment. These rates are then used in a 1.5D fluid ionization wave (streamer) model to study streamer propagation with and without the surface in air and in SF6. The 1.5D model therefore includes rates for all these processes. To get a better estimate for the behavior of the radius we have studied radial expansion of the streamer in air and in SF6. The focus of the modeling is on voltage and field level changes (with and without a surface) rather than secondary effects, such as, velocities or changes in discharge path. An experiment has been set up to carry out measurements of threshold voltages, streamer velocities, and other discharge characteristics. This setup includes both electrical and photographic diagnostics (streak and framing cameras). We have observed little change in critical field levels (where avalanche multiplication sets in) in the gas alone versus with the surface. Comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements are in agreement with this. We have examined streamer sustaining fields (field which maintains ionization wave propagation) in the gas and on the surface. Agreement of the gas levels with available literature is good and agreement between experiment and calculation is good also. Model calculations do not indicate much difference between the gas alone versus the surface levels. Experiments have identified differences in velocity between streamers on the surface and in the gas alone (the surface values being larger).

  18. SCALING OF THE SUPERFLUID DENSITY IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOMES, C.C.

    2005-10-24

    A scaling relation N{sub c} {approx} 4.4{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} has been observed parallel and perpendicular to the copper-oxygen planes in the high-temperature superconductors; N{sub c} is the spectral weight and {sigma}{sub dc} is the dc conductivity just above the critical temperature T{sub c}. In addition, Nb and Pb also fall close to the this scaling line. The application of the Ferrell-Glover-Tinkham sum rule to the BCS optical properties of Nb above and below T{sub c} yields N{sub c} {approx} 8.1{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} when the normal-state scattering rate is much greater than the superconducting energy gap (1/{tau} > 2{Delta}, the ''dirty'' limit). This result implies that the high-temperature superconductors may be in the dirty limit. The superconductivity perpendicular to the planes is explained by the Josephson effect, which again yields N{sub c} {approx} 8.1{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} in the BCS formalism. The similar forms for the scaling relation in these two directions suggests that in some regime the dirty limit and the Josephson effect may be viewed as equivalent.

  19. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste ...

  20. Engineered High Energy Crop (EHEC) Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Energy Crop Programs Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement DOEEIS-0481 JULY 2015 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Engineered High Energy Crop Programs ...

  1. Comparison of Energy Efficiency and Power Density in Pressure Retarded Osmosis and Reverse Electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yip, NY; Elimelech, M

    2014-09-16

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) and reverse electrodialysis (RED) are emerging membrane-based technologies that can convert chemical energy in salinity gradients to useful work. The two processes have intrinsically different working principles: controlled mixing in PRO is achieved by water permeation across salt-rejecting membranes, whereas RED is driven by ion flux across charged membranes. This study compares the energy efficiency and power density performance of PRO and RED with simulated technologically available membranes for natural, anthropogenic, and engineered salinity gradients (seawater-river water, desalination brine-wastewater, and synthetic hypersaline solutions, respectively). The analysis shows that PRO can achieve both greater efficiencies (54-56%) and higher power densities (2.4-38 W/m(2)) than RED (18-38% and 0.77-1.2 W/m(2)). The superior efficiency is attributed to the ability of PRO membranes to more effectively utilize the salinity difference to drive water permeation and better suppress the detrimental leakage of salts. On the other hand, the low conductivity of currently available ion exchange membranes impedes RED ion flux and, thus, constrains the power density. Both technologies exhibit a trade-off between efficiency and power density: employing more permeable but less selective membranes can enhance the power density, but undesired entropy production due to uncontrolled mixing increases and some efficiency is sacrificed. When the concentration difference is increased (i.e., natural -> anthropogenic -> engineered salinity gradients), PRO osmotic pressure difference rises proportionally but not so for RED Nernst potential, which has logarithmic dependence on the solution concentration. Because of this inherently different characteristic, RED is unable to take advantage of larger salinity gradients, whereas PRO power density is considerably enhanced. Additionally, high solution concentrations suppress the Donnan exclusion effect of the

  2. Energy density functional analysis of shape coexistence in {sup 44}S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z. P.; Yao, J. M.; Vretenar, D.; Niksic, T.; Meng, J.

    2012-10-20

    The structure of low-energy collective states in the neutron-rich nucleus {sup 44}S is analyzed using a microscopic collective Hamiltonian model based on energy density functionals (EDFs). The calculated triaxial energy map, low-energy spectrum and corresponding probability distributions indicate a coexistence of prolate and oblate shapes in this nucleus.

  3. High West Energy, Inc (Nebraska) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    West Energy, Inc Place: Nebraska Phone Number: 307.245.9292 Website: highwestenergy.com Twitter: @HighWestEnergy Facebook: https:www.facebook.comHighWestEnergy Outage Hotline:...

  4. High energy overcurrent protective device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL)

    1982-01-01

    Electrical loads connected to capacitance elements in high voltage direct current systems are protected from damage by capacitance discharge overcurrents by connecting between the capacitance element and the load, a longitudinal inductor comprising a bifilar winding wound about a magnetic core, which forms an incomplete magnetic circuit. A diode is connected across a portion of the bifilar winding which conducts a unidirectional current only. Energy discharged from the capacitance element is stored in the inductor and then dissipated in an L-R circuit including the diode and the coil winding. Multiple high voltage circuits having capacitance elements may be connected to loads through bifilar windings all wound about the aforementioned magnetic core.

  5. Theoretical High Energy Physics | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Accelerator Technology ATLAS at the LHC Cosmology & Astrophysics Instrumentation Precision Muon Physics Neutrino Physics Theoretical High Energy Physics Theoretical High Energy Physics Theoretical High Energy Physics Much of the work of high-energy physics concentrates on the interplay between theory and experiment. The theory group of Argonne's High Energy Physics Division performs high-precision calculations of Standard Model processes, interprets experimental data in terms of

  6. Device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive fast liners

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thode, Lester E.

    1981-01-01

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy and momentum into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. Fast liners disposed in the high-density target plasma are explosively or ablatively driven to implosion by a heated annular plasma surrounding the fast liner which is generated by an annular relativistic electron beam. An azimuthal magnetic field produced by axial current flow in the annular plasma, causes the energy in the heated annular plasma to converge on the fast liner.

  7. High Energy Batteries India Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Batteries India Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: High Energy Batteries (India) Ltd Place: Chennai, Andhra Pradesh, India Zip: 600096 Product: Manufacturer of...

  8. Mechanical confinement for improved energy storage density in BNT-BT-KNN lead-free ceramic capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chauhan, Aditya; Patel, Satyanarayan; Vaish, Rahul

    2014-08-15

    With the advent of modern power electronics, embedded circuits and non-conventional energy harvesting, the need for high performance capacitors is bound to become indispensible. The current state-of-art employs ferroelectric ceramics and linear dielectrics for solid state capacitance. However, lead-free ferroelectric ceramics propose to offer significant improvement in the field of electrical energy storage owing to their high discharge efficiency and energy storage density. In this regards, the authors have investigated the effects of compressive stress as a means of improving the energy storage density of lead-free ferroelectric ceramics. The energy storage density of 0.91(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-0.07BaTiO{sub 3}-0.02(K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} ferroelectric bulk ceramic was analyzed as a function of varying levels of compressive stress and operational temperature .It was observed that a peak energy density of 387 mJ.cm{sup -3} was obtained at 100 MPa applied stress (25{sup o}C). While a maximum energy density of 568 mJ.cm{sup -3} was obtained for the same stress at 80{sup o}C. These values are indicative of a significant, 25% and 84%, improvement in the value of stored energy compared to an unloaded material. Additionally, material's discharge efficiency has also been discussed as a function of operational parameters. The observed phenomenon has been explained on the basis of field induced structural transition and competitive domain switching theory.

  9. High current density electropolishing in the preparation of highly smooth substrate tapes for coated conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreiskott, Sascha; Matias, Vladimir; Arendt, Paul N.; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.

    2009-03-31

    A continuous process of forming a highly smooth surface on a metallic tape by passing a metallic tape having an initial roughness through an acid bath contained within a polishing section of an electropolishing unit over a pre-selected period of time, and, passing a mean surface current density of at least 0.18 amperes per square centimeter through the metallic tape during the period of time the metallic tape is in the acid bath whereby the roughness of the metallic tape is reduced. Such a highly smooth metallic tape can serve as a base substrate in subsequent formation of a superconductive coated conductor.

  10. HIGH ENERGY GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josephson, V.

    1960-02-16

    The high-energy electrical discharge device described comprises an envelope, a pair of main discharge electrodes supported in opposition in the envelope, and a metallic shell symmetrically disposed around and spaced from the discharge path between the electrodes. The metallic shell comprises a first element of spaced helical turns of metallic material and a second element of spaced helical turns of methllic material insulatedly supported in superposition outside the first element and with the turns overlapping the gap between the turns of the first element.

  11. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xiangwu; Fedkiw, Peter; Khan, Saad; Huang, Alex; Fan, Jiang

    2013-11-15

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 μm or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. • During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; • In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; • At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  12. Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy FAME biodiesel will likely remain a part of the global diesel pool for the coming years and the use of biodiesel can lead to lubrication issues. deer09_lauterwasser.pdf (1.36 MB) More Documents & Publications The Road to Improved Heavy Duty Fuel Economy Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Oil Dilution Energy

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual

  13. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freitas, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver>4kW/cm2 of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources.

  14. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freitas, B.L.

    1998-10-27

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver > 4kW/cm{sup 2} of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources. 13 figs.

  15. Soil Density/Moisture Gauge | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Smart Federal Partnerships Build Our Biofuels Future Smart Federal Partnerships Build Our Biofuels Future April 13, 2015 - 10:30am Addthis The Energy Department’s Bioenergy Technologies Office engages with the U.S. Department of Agriculture on many projects, including guidance on the proper removal of corn stover (non-edible corn husks, stalks, and leaves) from the field when it is used for cellulosic ethanol and other advanced biofuel production. A corn stover bale is pictured here. The

  16. New INL High Energy Battery Test Facility | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Foro Energy partners with Dept of Energy to commercialize high power lasers for the oil, natural gas, geothermal, and mining industries. photo courtesy of Foro Energy. Foro Energy partners with Dept of Energy to commercialize high power lasers for the oil, natural gas, geothermal, and mining industries. photo courtesy of Foro Energy. The Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) partners with cutting- edge technology developers to pioneer applications that accelerate the adoption of geothermal

  17. High West Energy, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    245-3261 Outage Map: highwestenergy.comoutage-cent References: Energy Information Administration.1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 27058 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  18. High West Energy, Inc (Wyoming) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Phone Number: (307) 245-3261 Website: highwestenergy.com Twitter: @HighWestEnergy Facebook: https:www.facebook.comHighWestEnergy Outage Hotline: (888).834.1657 Outage Map:...

  19. High-resolution Tangential AXUV Arrays for Radiated Power Density Measurements on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L; Bell, R E; Faust, I; Tritz, K; Diallo, A; Gerhardt, S P; Kozub, T A; LeBlanc, B P; Stratton, B C

    2014-07-01

    Precise measurements of the local radiated power density and total radiated power are a matter of the uttermost importance for understanding the onset of impurity-induced instabilities and the study of particle and heat transport. Accounting of power balance is also needed for the understanding the physics of various divertor con#12;gurations for present and future high-power fusion devices. Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can result from high Mach numbers and can impact the assessment of their flux-surface-average and hence vary the estimates of P[sub]rad (r, t) and (Z[sub]eff); the latter is used in the calculation of the neoclassical conductivity and the interpretation of non-inductive and inductive current fractions. To this end, the bolometric diagnostic in NSTX-U will be upgraded, enhancing the midplane coverage and radial resolution with two tangential views, and adding a new set of poloidally-viewing arrays to measure the 2D radiation distribution. These systems are designed to contribute to the near- and long-term highest priority research goals for NSTX-U which will integrate non-inductive operation at reduced collisionality, with high-pressure, long energy-confinement-times and a divertor solution with metal walls.

  20. “Nodal Gap” induced by the incommensurate diagonal spin density modulation in underdoped high- Tc superconductors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Tao; Gao, Yi; Zhu, Jian -Xin

    2015-03-07

    Recenmore » tly it was revealed that the whole Fermi surface is fully gapped for several families of underdoped cuprates. The existence of the finite energy gap along the d-wave nodal lines (nodal gap) contrasts the common understanding of the d-wave pairing symmetry, which challenges the present theories for the high-Tcsuperconductors. Here we propose that the incommensurate diagonal spin-density-wave order can account for the above experimental observation. The Fermi surface and the local density of states are also studied. Our results are in good agreement with many important experiments in high-Tcsuperconductors.« less

  1. Engineered High Energy Crop (EHEC) Programs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Engineered High Energy Crop Programs Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement DOE/EIS-0481 JULY 2015 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Engineered High Energy Crop Programs Final PEIS Responsible Federal Agency: U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy Cooperating Agencies: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Title: Engineered High Energy

  2. Device and method for electron beam heating of a high density plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thode, L.E.

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high density plasma in a small localized region are described. A relativistic electron beam generator produces a high voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10/sup 17/ to 10/sup 20/.

  3. Method For Enhanced Gas Monitoring In High Density Flow Streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Von Drasek, William A.; Mulderink, Kenneth A.; Marin, Ovidiu

    2005-09-13

    A method for conducting laser absorption measurements in high temperature process streams having high levels of particulate matter is disclosed. An impinger is positioned substantially parallel to a laser beam propagation path and at upstream position relative to the laser beam. Beam shielding pipes shield the beam from the surrounding environment. Measurement is conducted only in the gap between the two shielding pipes where the beam propagates through the process gas. The impinger facilitates reduced particle presence in the measurement beam, resulting in improved SNR (signal-to-noise) and improved sensitivity and dynamic range of the measurement.

  4. Constraints on the inner edge of neutron star crusts from relativistic nuclear energy density functionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moustakidis, Ch. C.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.

    2010-06-15

    The transition density n{sub t} and pressure P{sub t} at the inner edge between the liquid core and the solid crust of a neutron star are analyzed using the thermodynamical method and the framework of relativistic nuclear energy density functionals. Starting from a functional that has been carefully adjusted to experimental binding energies of finite nuclei, and varying the density dependence of the corresponding symmetry energy within the limits determined by isovector properties of finite nuclei, we estimate the constraints on the core-crust transition density and pressure of neutron stars: 0.086 fm{sup -3}<=n{sub t}<0.090 fm{sup -3} and 0.3 MeV fm{sup -3}

  5. High Energy Particle Transport Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-12-17

    Version 00 NMTC/JAM is an upgraded version of the code CCC-694/NMTC-JAERI97, which was developed in 1982 at JAERI and is based on the CCC-161/NMTC code system. NMTC/JAM simulates high energy nuclear reactions and nuclear meson transport processes. The applicable energy range of NMTC/JAM was extended in principle up to 200 GeV for nucleons and mesons by introducing the high energy nuclear reaction code Jet-Aa Microscopic (JAM) for the intra-nuclear cascade part. For the evaporation andmore » fission process, a new model, GEM, can be used to describe the light nucleus production from the excited residual nucleus. According to the extension of the applicable energy, the nucleon-nucleus non-elastic, elastic and differential elastic cross section data were upgraded. In addition, the particle transport in a magnetic field was implemented for beam transport calculations. Some new tally functions were added, and the format of input and output of data is more user friendly. These new calculation functions and utilities provide a tool to carry out reliable neutronics study of a large scale target system with complex geometry more accurately and easily than with the previous model. It implements an intranuclear cascade model taking account of the in-medium nuclear effects and the preequilibrium calculation model based on the exciton one. For treating the nucleon transport process, the nucleon-nucleus cross sections are revised to those derived by the systematics of Pearlstein. Moreover, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk is included as a new option for particle evaporation calculation. A geometry package based on the Combinatorial Geometry with multi-array system and the importance sampling technique is implemented in the code. Tally function is also employed for obtaining such physical quantities as neutron energy spectra, heat deposition and nuclide yield without editing a history file. The code can simulate both the primary spallation reaction and the

  6. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  7. High-speed digital holography for neutral gas and electron density...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-speed digital holography for neutral gas and electron density imaging This content will become publicly available on May 17, 2017 Prev Next Title: High-speed digital ...

  8. High-efficiency acceleration in the laser wakefield by a linearly increasing plasma density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Kegong; Wu, Yuchi; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Zhimeng; Zhao, Zongqing; Zhou, Weimin; Hong, Wei; Cao, Leifeng; Gu, Yuqiu

    2014-12-15

    The acceleration length and the peak energy of the electron beam are limited by the dephasing effect in the laser wakefield acceleration with uniform plasma density. Based on 2D-3V particle in cell simulations, the effects of a linearly increasing plasma density on the electron acceleration are investigated broadly. Comparing with the uniform plasma density, because of the prolongation of the acceleration length and the gradually increasing accelerating field due to the increasing plasma density, the electron beam energy is twice higher in moderate nonlinear wakefield regime. Because of the lower plasma density, the linearly increasing plasma density can also avoid the dark current caused by additional injection. At the optimal acceleration length, the electron energy can be increased from 350 MeV (uniform) to 760 MeV (linearly increasing) with the energy spread of 1.8%, the beam duration is 5 fs and the beam waist is 1.25 μm. This linearly increasing plasma density distribution can be achieved by a capillary with special gas-filled structure, and is much more suitable for experiment.

  9. Evidence of the existence of the high-density and low-density phases in deeply-cooled confined heavy water under high pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhe; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Harriger, Leland; Leo, Juscelino B.

    2014-07-07

    The average density of D{sub 2}O confined in a nanoporous silica matrix (MCM-41-S) is studied with neutron scattering. We find that below ?210 K, the pressure-temperature plane of the system can be divided into two regions. The average density of the confined D{sub 2}O in the higher-pressure region is about 16% larger than that in the lower-pressure region. These two regions could represent the so-called low-density liquid and high-density liquid phases. The dividing line of these two regions, which could represent the associated 1st order liquid-liquid transition line, is also determined.

  10. Characterization of intense ion beam energy density and beam induced pressure on the target with acoustic diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pushkarev, A. I.; Isakova, Yu. I.; Khailov, I. P.; Yu, Xiao

    2013-08-15

    We have developed the acoustic diagnostics based on a piezoelectric transducer for characterization of high-intensity pulsed ion beams. The diagnostics was tested using the TEMP-4M accelerator (150 ns, 250–300 kV). The beam is composed of C{sup +} ions (85%) and protons, the beam energy density is 0.5–5 J/cm{sup 2} (depending on diode geometry). A calibration dependence of the signal from a piezoelectric transducer on the ion beam energy density is obtained using thermal imaging diagnostics. It is shown that the acoustic diagnostics allows for measurement of the beam energy density in the range of 0.1–2 J/cm{sup 2}. The dependence of the beam generated pressure on the input energy density is also determined and compared with the data from literature. The developed acoustic diagnostics do not require sophisticated equipment and can be used for operational control of pulsed ion beam parameters with a repetition rate of 10{sup 3} pulses/s.

  11. Compact, high energy gas laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D.; Stapleton, Robert E.; Stratton, Thomas F.

    1976-08-03

    An electrically pumped gas laser amplifier unit having a disc-like configuration in which light propagation is radially outward from the axis rather than along the axis. The input optical energy is distributed over a much smaller area than the output optical energy, i.e., the amplified beam, while still preserving the simplicity of parallel electrodes for pumping the laser medium. The system may thus be driven by a comparatively low optical energy input, while at the same time, owing to the large output area, large energies may be extracted while maintaining the energy per unit area below the threshold of gas breakdown.

  12. Status of high-density fuel plates fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1989-09-01

    Progress has continued on the fabrication of fuel plates with fuel zone loadings approaching 9gU/cm{sup 3}. Using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPping) successful diffusion bonds have been made with 110 Al and 6061 Al alloys. These bonds demonstrated the most critical processing step for proof-of-concept hardware. Two types of prototype highly-loaded fuel plates have been fabricated. First, a fuel plate in which 0.030 in. (0.76 mm) uranium compound wires are bonded within an aluminum cladding and second, a dispersion fuel plate with uniform cladding and fuel zone thickness. The successful fabrication of these fuel plates derives from the unique ability of the HIPping process to produce diffusion bonds with minimal deformation. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  13. High energy chemical laser system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.; Pearson, R.K.

    1975-12-23

    A high energy chemical laser system is described wherein explosive gaseous mixtures of a reducing agent providing hydrogen isotopes and interhalogen compounds are uniformly ignited by means of an electrical discharge, flash- photolysis or an electron beam. The resulting chemical explosion pumps a lasing chemical species, hydrogen fluoride or deuterium fluoride which is formed in the chemical reaction. The generated lasing pulse has light frequencies in the 3- micron range. Suitable interhalogen compounds include bromine trifluoride (BrF$sub 3$), bromine pentafluoride (BrF$sub 5$), chlorine monofluoride (ClF), chlorine trifluoride (ClF$sub 3$), chlorine pentafluoride (ClF$sub 5$), iodine pentafluoride (IF$sub 5$), and iodine heptafluoride (IF$sub 7$); and suitable reducing agents include hydrogen (H$sub 2$), hydrocarbons such as methane (CH$sub 4$), deuterium (D$sub 2$), and diborane (B$sub 2$H$sub 6$), as well as combinations of the gaseous compound and/or molecular mixtures of the reducing agent.

  14. A class of polysulfide catholytes for lithium-sulfur batteries: energy density, cyclability, and voltage enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, XW; Manthiram, A

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-phase polysulfide catholytes are attracting much attention in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries as they provide a facile dispersion and homogeneous distribution of the sulfur active material in the conductive matrix. However, the organic solvents used in lithium-polysulfide (Li-PS) batteries play an important role and have an impact on the physico-chemical characteristics of polysulfides. For instance, significantly higher voltages (similar to 2.7 V) of the S/S-n(2-) (4 <= n <= 8) redox couple are observed in Li-PS batteries with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvents. Accordingly, high power Li-PS batteries are presented here with the catholyte prepared with NMP solvent and operated with the highly reversible sulfur/long-chain polysulfide redox couple. On the other hand, a remarkable cyclability enhancement of the Li-PS battery is observed with the long-chain, ether-based tetraglyme (TEGDME) solvent. The voltage enhancement and the cyclability enhancement of the Li-PS batteries are attributed to the solvation effect, viscosity, and volatility of the solvents. Finally, highly concentrated polysulfide catholytes are successfully synthesized, with which high energy density Li-PS batteries are demonstrated by employing a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) fabric electrode.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of energy density in pressure retarded osmosis: The impact of solution volumes and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimund, Kevin K.; McCutcheon, Jeffrey R.; Wilson, Aaron D.

    2015-08-01

    A general method was developed for estimating the volumetric energy efficiency of pressure retarded osmosis via pressure-volume analysis of a membrane process. The resulting model requires only the osmotic pressure, π, and mass fraction, w, of water in the concentrated and dilute feed solutions to estimate the maximum achievable specific energy density, uu, as a function of operating pressure. The model is independent of any membrane or module properties. This method utilizes equilibrium analysis to specify the volumetric mixing fraction of concentrated and dilute solution as a function of operating pressure, and provides results for the total volumetric energy density of similar order to more complex models for the mixing of seawater and riverwater. Within the framework of this analysis, the total volumetric energy density is maximized, for an idealized case, when the operating pressure is π/(1+√w⁻¹), which is lower than the maximum power density operating pressure, Δπ/2, derived elsewhere, and is a function of the solute osmotic pressure at a given mass fraction. It was also found that a minimum 1.45 kmol of ideal solute is required to produce 1 kWh of energy while a system operating at “maximum power density operating pressure” requires at least 2.9 kmol. Utilizing this methodology, it is possible to examine the effects of volumetric solution cost, operation of a module at various pressure, and operation of a constant pressure module with various feed.

  16. Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  17. Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  18. Cell Analysis … High-Energy Density Cathodes and Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  19. A high energy density relaxor antiferroelectric pulsed capacitor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lasup 3+ doping and excess PbO were used to produce relaxor antiferroelectric behavior with slim and slanted hysteresis loops to reduce the dielectric hysteresis loss, to ...

  20. Novel and Optimized Materials Phases for High Energy Density Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  1. High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    selected embody the breadth of research in HEDLP science, ranging from the study of magnetized astrophysical jets to large-scale simulation of kinetic laser plasma interactions.

  2. Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  3. One-dimensional time-dependent fluid model of a very high density low-pressure inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaplin, Vernon H.; Bellan, Paul M.

    2015-12-28

    A time-dependent two-fluid model has been developed to understand axial variations in the plasma parameters in a very high density (peak ne~ > 5x1019 m–3) argon inductively coupled discharge in a long 1.1 cm radius tube. The model equations are written in 1D, with radial losses to the tube walls accounted for by the inclusion of effective particle and energy sink terms. The ambipolar diffusion equation and electron energy equation are solved to find the electron density ne(z,t) and temperature Te(z,t), and the populations of the neutral argon 4s metastable, 4s resonant, and 4p excited state manifolds are calculated in order to determine the stepwise ionization rate and calculate radiative energy losses. The model has been validated through comparisons with Langmuir probe ion saturation current measurements; close agreement between the simulated and measured axial plasma density profiles and the initial density rise rate at each location was obtained at pAr = 30-60 mTorr. Lastly, we present detailed results from calculations at 60 mTorr, including the time-dependent electron temperature, excited state populations, and energy budget within and downstream of the radiofrequency (RF) antenna.

  4. One-dimensional time-dependent fluid model of a very high density low-pressure inductively coupled plasma

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chaplin, Vernon H.; Bellan, Paul M.

    2015-12-28

    A time-dependent two-fluid model has been developed to understand axial variations in the plasma parameters in a very high density (peak ne~ > 5x1019 m–3) argon inductively coupled discharge in a long 1.1 cm radius tube. The model equations are written in 1D, with radial losses to the tube walls accounted for by the inclusion of effective particle and energy sink terms. The ambipolar diffusion equation and electron energy equation are solved to find the electron density ne(z,t) and temperature Te(z,t), and the populations of the neutral argon 4s metastable, 4s resonant, and 4p excited state manifolds are calculated inmore » order to determine the stepwise ionization rate and calculate radiative energy losses. The model has been validated through comparisons with Langmuir probe ion saturation current measurements; close agreement between the simulated and measured axial plasma density profiles and the initial density rise rate at each location was obtained at pAr = 30-60 mTorr. Lastly, we present detailed results from calculations at 60 mTorr, including the time-dependent electron temperature, excited state populations, and energy budget within and downstream of the radiofrequency (RF) antenna.« less

  5. Method and apparatus for measuring the momentum, energy, power, and power density profile of intense particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gammel, George M.; Kugel, Henry W.

    1992-10-06

    A method and apparatus for determining the power, momentum, energy, and power density profile of high momentum mass flow. Small probe projectiles of appropriate size, shape and composition are propelled through an intense particle beam at equal intervals along an axis perpendicular to the beam direction. Probe projectiles are deflected by collisions with beam particles. The net beam-induced deflection of each projectile is measured after it passes through the intense particle beam into an array of suitable detectors.

  6. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Tianyue

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  7. High power and high energy electrodes using carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, Fabrizio; Brambilla, Nicolo Michele; Signorelli, Riccardo

    2015-04-07

    An electrode useful in an energy storage system, such as a capacitor, includes an electrode that includes at least one to a plurality of layers of compressed carbon nanotube aggregate. Methods of fabrication are provided. The resulting electrode exhibits superior electrical performance in terms of gravimetric and volumetric power density.

  8. Microstructural characterization of in situ MXCT images of high density foams under large strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Brian M; Gleiman, Seth; Marks, Trevor G; Milstein, Fredrick

    2009-01-01

    Foams are used in numerous applications, such as vibration damping and energy mitigation (e.g., packaging and helmets), wherein their mechanical properties are of critical importance. A typical compressive response of a high density elastomeric foam, shown in Fig 1, generally contains three regions of interest: (I) a linear-elastic region, governed by strut bending; (II) a relatively flat, or slowly increasing stress-strain response, accompanied by strut buckling and the localized collapse of pores; and (III) an exponentially increasing stress-strain curve wherein the collapse of the pore matrix leads to densification. Two material properties of interest, upon which considerable research has focused are the foam's Young's modulus, E{sub f}, defined as the slope of the stress-strain response in region I, and the collapse stress, {sigma}{sub f}, defined as the stress at which the response begins to deviate from linearity. It has been observed [1, 2, 3] that Young's modulus and the collapse stress are dependent on the material properties of the strut material and the non-dimensional relative-density of the foam, {rho}* = {rho}{sub f}/{rho}{sub m}, where {rho}{sub r} is the gross density of the foam and {rho}{sub m} is the density of the strut, or matrix, material. For foam of low relative-density, i.e, {rho}* < 0.1, the collapse stress and Young's modulus obey the relations {sigma}{sub c}/E{sub m} {proportional_to} ({rho}*){sup m} and E{sub f}/E{sub m} {proportional_to} ({rho}*){sup n} where E{sub m} is Young's modulus of the strut material and the bounds on the parameters m and n are 0.05 {le} m {le} 0.2 and 1 {le} n {le} 4 [4]. For open-celled foams, n = 2, whereas for closed-celled foams, n = 3. Theoretically, n = 1 for foams with an ''ideal strut'' configuration [6]. Foams of high relative-density ({rho}* > 0.1) require correcting terms to account for the axial contributions of the ''thick'' struts [5]. The above equations relate important foam properties to the

  9. Impact of the pedestal plasma density on dynamics of edge localized mode crashes and energy loss scaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, X. Q.; Ma, J. F.; Li, G. Q.

    2014-12-15

    The latest BOUT++ studies show an emerging understanding of dynamics of edge localized mode (ELM) crashes and the consistent collisionality scaling of ELM energy losses with the world multi-tokamak database. A series of BOUT++ simulations are conducted to investigate the scaling characteristics of the ELM energy losses vs collisionality via a density scan. Linear results demonstrate that as the pedestal collisionality decreases, the growth rate of the peeling-ballooning modes decreases for high n but increases for low n (1?density plays a major role in determining the ELM energy loss through its effect on the edge bootstrap current and ion diamagnetic stabilization. The critical trend emerges as a transition (1) linearly from ballooning-dominated states at high collisionality to peeling-dominated states at low collisionality with decreasing density and (2) nonlinearly from turbulence spreading dynamics at high collisionality into avalanche-like dynamics at low collisionality.

  10. High Energy Novel Cathode / Alloy Automotive Cell | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    12 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es131_choi_2012_p.pdf (1.19 MB) More Documents & Publications High Energy Novel Cathode / Alloy Automotive Cell Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Novel Cathode / Alloy Automotive Cell Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Advanced High Energy Li-Ion Cell for PHEV and EV Applications

  11. AMRH and High Energy Reinicke Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shestakov, A I; Greenough, J A

    2001-05-14

    The authors describe AMRH results on a version of the Reinicke problem specified by the V and V group of LLNL's A-Div. The simulation models a point explosion with heat conduction. The problem specification requires that the heat conduction be replaced with diffusive radiation transport. The matter and radiation energy densities are tightly coupled.

  12. High Bridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    High Bridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.6670454, -74.8957231 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappi...

  13. High Current Density, Long Life Cathodes for High Power RF Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ives, Robert Lawrence; Collins, George; Falce, Lou; Schwartzkopf, Steve; Busbaher, Daniel

    2014-01-22

    This program was tasked with improving the quality and expanding applications for Controlled Porosity Reservoir (CPR) cathodes. Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. (CCR) initially developed CPR cathodes on a DOE-funded SBIR program to improve cathodes for magnetron injection guns. Subsequent funding was received from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The program developed design requirements for implementation of the technology into high current density cathodes for high frequency applications. During Phase I of this program, CCR was awarded the prestigious 2011 R&D100 award for this technology. Subsequently, the technology was presented at numerous technical conferences. A patent was issued for the technology in 2009. These cathodes are now marketed by Semicon Associates, Inc. in Lexington, KY. They are the world’s largest producer of cathodes for vacuum electron devices. During this program, CCR teamed with Semicon Associates, Inc. and Ron Witherspoon, Inc. to improve the fabrication processes and expand applications for the cathodes. Specific fabrications issues included the quality of the wire winding that provides the basic structure and the sintering to bond the wires into a robust, cohesive structure. The program also developed improved techniques for integrating the resulting material into cathodes for electron guns.

  14. High Efficiency Engine Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies High Efficiency Engine Technologies The energy wasted in combustion process is a huge untapped resource and the recovery or conversion of this energy into useful power is a huge opportunity. deer09_nelson_2.pdf (285.08 KB) More Documents & Publications Innovative Approaches to Improving Engine Efficiency Overview of High-Efficiency Engine Technologies High Engine Efficiency at 2010 Emissions

  15. High Performance Valve Materials | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy The High-Performance Green Building Partnership Consortia are groups from the public and private sectors recognized by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for their commitment to high-performance green buildings. Groups that met specific qualifications outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 applied to be recognized as Consortia members through a Federal Register Notice. DOE recognized the following groups: Collaborative for High Performance Schools The

  16. High energy neutron Computed Tomography developed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High energy neutron Computed Tomography developed High energy neutron Computed Tomography developed LANSCE now has a high-energy neutron imaging capability that can be deployed on WNR flight paths for unclassified and classified objects. May 9, 2014 Neutron tomography horizontal "slice" of a tungsten and polyethylene test object containing tungsten carbide BBs. Neutron tomography horizontal "slice" of a tungsten and polyethylene test object containing tungsten carbide BBs.

  17. High-pressure polymorphism as a step towards high density structures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    detected in LiAlHsub 4, a promising hydrogen storage compound, upon compression in ... COMPRESSION; DENSITY; DIAMONDS; HYDROGEN STORAGE; LITHIUM HYDRIDES; MONOCLINIC ...

  18. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0_zhang_2011_p.pdf (472.78 KB) More Documents & Publications New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials FY 2011 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D FY 2012 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D

  19. Relativistic energy density functionals: Low-energy collective states of {sup 240}Pu and {sup 166}Er

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z. P.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.; Meng, J.

    2010-06-15

    The empirical relativistic density-dependent, point-coupling energy density functional, adjusted exclusively to experimental binding energies of a large set of deformed nuclei with Aapprox =150-180 and Aapprox =230-250, is tested with spectroscopic data for {sup 166}Er and {sup 240}Pu. Starting from constrained self-consistent triaxial relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov calculations of binding energy maps as functions of the quadrupole deformation in the beta-gamma plane, excitation spectra and E2 transition probabilities are calculated as solutions of the corresponding microscopic collective Hamiltonian in five dimensions for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom and compared with available data on low-energy collective states.

  20. High Plains Bioenergy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    owned subsidiary of Seaboard Foods, is a renewable energy company focused on producing alternative fuels from the Seaboard Foods integrated system. References: High Plains...

  1. High Energy Physics Division, ANL Lattice QCD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Physics Division, ANL Lattice QCD in extreme environments D. K. Sinclair (HEP, Argonne) J. B. Kogut (Physics, Illinois) D. ... At large I and high temperature we observe ...

  2. High Energy Electromagnetic and Weak Interaction Processes

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Lee, T. D.

    1972-01-11

    This talk reviews some known features of the high energy electromagnetic and weak interaction processes and then tries to speculate on some particular aspects of their future possibilities.

  3. Effects of the density of collision cascades: Separating contributions from dynamic annealing and energy spikes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Titov, A I; Karaseov, P A; Azarov, A Y; Kucheyev, S O

    2008-08-13

    We present a quantitative model for the efficiency of the molecular effect in damage buildup in semiconductors. Our model takes into account only one mechanism of the cascade density dependence: nonlinear energy spikes. In our three-dimensional analysis, the volume of each individual collision cascade is divided into small cubic cells, and the number of cells that have an average density of displacements above some threshold value is calculated. We assume that such cells experience a catastrophic crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition, while defects in the cells with lower displacement densities have perfect annihilation. For the two limiting cases of heavy (500 keV/atom {sup 209}Bi) and light (40 keV/atom {sup 14}N) ion bombardment of Si, theory predictions are in good agreement with experimental data for a threshold displacement density of 4.5 at.%. For intermediate density cascades produced by small 2.1 keV/amu PF{sub n} clusters, we show that dynamic annealing processes entirely dominate cascade density effects for PF{sub 2} ions, while energy spikes begin contributing in the case of PF{sub 4} cluster bombardment.

  4. Stochastic thermodynamics of fluctuating density fields: Non-equilibrium free energy differences under coarse-graining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, T.; Lander, B.; Seifert, U.; Speck, T.

    2013-11-28

    We discuss the stochastic thermodynamics of systems that are described by a time-dependent density field, for example, simple liquids and colloidal suspensions. For a time-dependent change of external parameters, we show that the Jarzynski relation connecting work with the change of free energy holds if the time evolution of the density follows the Kawasaki-Dean equation. Specifically, we study the work distributions for the compression and expansion of a two-dimensional colloidal model suspension implementing a practical coarse-graining scheme of the microscopic particle positions. We demonstrate that even if coarse-grained dynamics and density functional do not match, the fluctuation relations for the work still hold albeit for a different, apparent, change of free energy.

  5. High speed measurements of neutral beam turn-on and impact of beam modulation on measurements of ion density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grierson, B. A. Grisham, L.; Burrell, K. H.; Crowley, B.; Scoville, J. T.

    2014-10-15

    Modulation of neutral beams on tokamaks is performed routinely, enabling background rejection for active spectroscopic diagnostics, and control of injected power and torque. We find that there exists an anomalous initial transient in the beam neutrals delivered to the tokamak that is not accounted for by the accelerator voltage and power supply current. Measurements of the charge-exchange and beam photoemission on the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] at high speed (200 ?s) reveal that the energy of the beam neutrals is constant, but the density of beam neutrals displays dramatic variation in the first 23 ms following beam turn-on. The impact of this beam density variation on inferred ion densities and impurity transport is presented, with suggested means to correct for the anomalous transient.

  6. Density dependence of the symmetry energy from neutron skin thickness in finite nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinas, X.; Centelles, M.; Roca-Maza, X.; Warda, M.

    2012-10-20

    The density dependence of the symmetry energy, characterized by the parameter L, is studied using information provided by the neutron skin thickness in finite nuclei. An estimate of L is obtained from experimental data of antiprotonic atoms. We also discuss the ability of parity violating electron scatering to obtain information about the neutron skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb.

  7. Shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave phononic device with high density filling material for ultra-low power sensing applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, M.; Bhethanabotla, V. R.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.

    2014-06-23

    Finite element simulations of a phononic shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor based on ST 90-X Quartz reveal a dramatic reduction in power consumption. The phononic sensor is realized by artificially structuring the delay path to form an acoustic meta-material comprised of a periodic microcavity array incorporating high-density materials such as tantalum or tungsten. Constructive interference of the scattered and secondary reflected waves at every microcavity interface leads to acoustic energy confinement in the high-density regions translating into reduced power loss. Tantalum filled cavities show the best performance while tungsten inclusions create a phononic bandgap. Based on our simulation results, SAW devices with tantalum filled microcavities were fabricated and shown to significantly decrease insertion loss. Our findings offer encouraging prospects for designing low power, highly sensitive portable biosensors.

  8. High Plains Tech Center | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Owner High Plains Tech Center Energy Purchaser High Plains Tech Center Location Woodward OK Coordinates 36.40645133, -99.4282195 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappi...

  9. High Impact Technology Catalyst | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Buildings » High Impact Technology Catalyst High Impact Technology Catalyst High impact technologies (HITs) are cost-effective, underutilized energy-efficient commercial building technologies. Through the High Impact Technology Catalyst program, initiated in 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identifies and guides HITs through their early market introduction phases, ultimately leading them to the broader market through partnerships with the commercial buildings industry via

  10. First test of BNL electron beam ion source with high current density electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikin, Alexander Alessi, James G. Beebe, Edward N.; Shornikov, Andrey; Mertzig, Robert; Wenander, Fredrik; Scrivens, Richard

    2015-01-09

    A new electron gun with electrostatic compression has been installed at the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) Test Stand at BNL. This is a collaborative effort by BNL and CERN teams with a common goal to study an EBIS with electron beam current up to 10 A, current density up to 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} and energy more than 50 keV. Intensive and pure beams of heavy highly charged ions with mass-to-charge ratio < 4.5 are requested by many heavy ion research facilities including NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL and HIE-ISOLDE at CERN. With a multiampere electron gun, the EBIS should be capable of delivering highly charged ions for both RHIC facility applications at BNL and for ISOLDE experiments at CERN. Details of the electron gun simulations and design, and the Test EBIS electrostatic and magnetostatic structures with the new electron gun are presented. The experimental results of the electron beam transmission are given.

  11. Miniaturized, high-density, bead-based arrays are provided. Methods of producing and using clonal beads and producing and using miniaturized, high density, bead-based arrays are also provided.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Church, George M.; Shendure, Jay; Porreca, Gregory J.; Zhu, Jun

    2008-09-16

    Miniaturized, high-density, bead-based arrays are provided. Methods of producing and using clonal beads and producing and using miniaturized, high density, bead-based arrays are also provided.

  12. Power balance in a high-density field reversed configuration plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renneke, R. M.; Intrator, T. P.; Hsu, S. C.; Wurden, G. A.; Waganaar, W. J.; Ruden, E. L.; Grabowski, T. C.

    2008-06-15

    A global power balance analysis has been performed for the Field Reversed Experiment with Liner high density (>5x10{sup 22} m{sup -3}) field reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The analysis was based on a zero-dimensional power balance model [D. J. Rey and M. Tuszewski, Phys. Fluids 27, 1514 (1984)]. The key findings are as follows. First, the percentage of radiative losses relative to total loss is an order of magnitude lower than previous lower density FRC experiments. Second, Ohmic heating was found to correlate with the poloidal flux trapping at FRC formation, suggesting that poloidal flux dissipation is primarily responsible for plasma heating. Third, high density FRCs analyzed in this work reinforce the low-density adiabatic scaling, which shows that particle confinement time and flux confinement time are approximately equal.

  13. Access to a New Plasma Edge State with High Density and Pressures using Quiescent H-mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, Wayne M.; Snyder, P. B.; Burrell, K. H.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Garofalo, A. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Loarte, A.; McKee, G. R.; Nazikian, R; Osborne, T. H.

    2014-07-01

    A path to a new high performance regime has been discovered in tokamaks that could improve the attractiveness of a fusion reactor. Experiments on DIII-D using a quiescent H-mode edge have navigated a valley of improved edge peeling-ballooning stability that opens up with strong plasma shaping at high density, leading to a doubling of the edge pressure over standard edge localized mode (ELM)ing H-mode at these parameters. The thermal energy confinement time increases both as a result of the increased pedestal height and improvements in the core transport and reduced low-k turbulence. Calculations of the pedestal height and width as a function of density using constraints imposed by peeling-ballooning and kinetic-ballooning theory are in quantitative agreement with the measurements.

  14. Long pulse acceleration of MeV class high power density negative H{sup −} ion beam for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umeda, N. Kojima, A.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Hiratsuka, J.; Watanabe, K.; Dairaku, M.; Yamanaka, H.; Hanada, M.

    2015-04-08

    R and D of high power density negative ion beam acceleration has been carried out at MeV test facility in JAEA to realize ITER neutral beam accelerator. The main target is H{sup −} ion beam acceleration up to 1 MeV with 200 A/m{sup 2} for 60 s whose pulse length is the present facility limit. For long pulse acceleration at high power density, new extraction grid (EXG) has been developed with high cooling capability, which electron suppression magnet is placed under cooling channel similar to ITER. In addition, aperture size of electron suppression grid (ESG) is enlarged from 14 mm to 16 mm to reduce direct interception on the ESG and emission of secondary electron which leads to high heat load on the upstream acceleration grid. By enlarging ESG aperture, beam current increased 10 % at high current beam and total acceleration grid heat load reduced from 13 % to 10 % of input power at long pulse beam. In addition, heat load by back stream positive ion into the EXG is measured for the first time and is estimated as 0.3 % of beam power, while heat load by back stream ion into the source chamber is estimated as 3.5 ~ 4.0 % of beam power. Beam acceleration up to 60 s which is the facility limit, has achieved at 683 keV, 100 A/m{sup 2} of negative ion beam, whose energy density increases two orders of magnitude since 2011.

  15. High-energy cosmic ray interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, Ralph; Orellana, Mariana; Reynoso, Matias M.; Vila, Gabriela S.

    2009-04-30

    Research into hadronic interactions and high-energy cosmic rays are closely related. On one hand--due to the indirect observation of cosmic rays through air showers--the understanding of hadronic multiparticle production is needed for deriving the flux and composition of cosmic rays at high energy. On the other hand the highest energy particles from the universe allow us to study the characteristics of hadronic interactions at energies far beyond the reach of terrestrial accelerators. This is the summary of three introductory lectures on our current understanding of hadronic interactions of cosmic rays.

  16. High Energy Physics Research at Louisiana Tech

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawyer, Lee; Greenwood, Zeno; Wobisch, Marcus

    2013-06-28

    The goal of this project was to create, maintain, and strengthen a world-class, nationally and internationally recognized experimental high energy physics group at Louisiana Tech University, focusing on research at the energy frontier of collider-based particle physics, first on the D� experiment and then with the ATLAS experiment, and providing leadership within the US high energy physics community in the areas of jet physics, top quark and charged Higgs decays involving tau leptons, as well as developing leadership in high performance computing.

  17. Computing in high-energy physics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mount, Richard P.

    2016-05-31

    I present a very personalized journey through more than three decades of computing for experimental high-energy physics, pointing out the enduring lessons that I learned. This is followed by a vision of how the computing environment will evolve in the coming ten years and the technical challenges that this will bring. I then address the scale and cost of high-energy physics software and examine the many current and future challenges, particularly those of management, funding and software-lifecycle management. Lastly, I describe recent developments aimed at improving the overall coherence of high-energy physics software.

  18. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenig, Clarence L.

    1994-01-01

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2200.degree. C. and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  19. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenig, C.L.

    1994-08-09

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2,200 C and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made. 1 fig.

  20. The final stage of gravitational collapse for high density fluid medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza, R. G.; De Campos, M.

    2013-03-25

    The High density high density fluids can be represented by a stiff matter state equation P={rho} and also by the Hagedorn state equation. The first is constructed using a lagrangian that allows bare nucleons to interact attractively via scalar meson exchange, and repulsively by a more massive vector meson exchange; the second consider that for large mass the spectrum of hadrons grows exponentially, namely {rho}(m) {approx}exp(m/T{sub H}), where T{sub H} is the Hagedorn temperature, resulting the state equation P = P{sub 0}+{rho}{sub 0}ln({rho}/{rho}{sub 0}). We study the gravitational collapse for a high density fluid, considering a Hagedorn state equation in a presence of a vacuum component.

  1. Fragment transition density method to calculate electronic coupling for excitation energy transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voityuk, Alexander A.

    2014-06-28

    A general approach, the Fragment Transition Density (FTD) scheme, is introduced to estimate electronic coupling for excitation energy transfer in a molecular system. Within this method, the excitation energies and transition densities of the system are used to derive the coupling matrix element. The scheme allows one to treat systems where exciton donor and acceptor are close together and their exchange interaction and orbital overlap are significant. The FTD method can be applied in combination with any quantum mechanical approach to treat excited states of general nature including single-, double-, and higher excitations. Using FTD approach, we derive excitonic couplings for several systems computed with the CIS, TD DFT and MS-CASPT2 methods. In particular, it is shown that the estimated coupling values in DNA ?-stacks are strongly affected by the short-range electronic interaction of adjacent nucleobases.

  2. Orbital relaxation effects on Kohn–Sham frontier orbital energies in density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, DaDi; Zheng, Xiao; Li, Chen; Yang, Weitao

    2015-04-21

    We explore effects of orbital relaxation on Kohn–Sham frontier orbital energies in density functional theory by using a nonempirical scaling correction approach developed in Zheng et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 174105 (2013)]. Relaxation of Kohn–Sham orbitals upon addition/removal of a fractional number of electrons to/from a finite system is determined by a systematic perturbative treatment. The information of orbital relaxation is then used to improve the accuracy of predicted Kohn–Sham frontier orbital energies by Hartree–Fock, local density approximation, and generalized gradient approximation methods. The results clearly highlight the significance of capturing the orbital relaxation effects. Moreover, the proposed scaling correction approach provides a useful way of computing derivative gaps and Fukui quantities of N-electron finite systems (N is an integer), without the need to perform self-consistent-field calculations for (N ± 1)-electron systems.

  3. Nuclear energy density functionals: What we can learn about/from their global performance?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Agbemava, S. E.; Ray, D.; Ring, P.

    2014-10-15

    A short review of recent results on the global performance of covariant energy density functionals is presented. It is focused on an analysis of the accuracy of the description of physical observables of ground and excited states as well as to related theoretical uncertainties. In addition, a global analysis of pairing properties is presented and the impact of pairing on the position of two-neutron drip line is discussed.

  4. Neutron-star matter within the energy-density functional theory and neutron-star structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fantina, A. F.; Chamel, N.; Goriely, S.; Pearson, J. M.

    2015-02-24

    In this lecture, we will present some nucleonic equations of state of neutron-star matter calculated within the nuclear energy-density functional theory using generalized Skyrme functionals developed by the Brussels-Montreal collaboration. These equations of state provide a consistent description of all regions of a neutron star. The global structure of neutron stars predicted by these equations of state will be discussed in connection with recent astrophysical observations.

  5. Interacting boson model from energy density functionals: {gamma}-softness and the related topics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, K.

    2012-10-20

    A comprehensive way of deriving the Hamiltonian of the interacting boson model (IBM) is described. Based on the fact that the multi-nucleon induced surface deformation in finite nucleus is simulated by effective boson degrees of freedom, the potential energy surface calculated with self-consistent mean-field method employing a given energy density functional (EDF) is mapped onto the IBM analog, and thereby the excitation spectra and transition rates with good symmetry quantum numbers are calculated. Recent applications of the proposed approach are reported: (i) an alternative robust interpretation of the {gamma}-soft nuclei and (ii) shape coexistence in lead isotopes.

  6. Stabilizing laser energy density on a target during pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dowden, Paul C.; Jia, Quanxi

    2016-05-31

    A process for stabilizing laser energy density on a target surface during pulsed laser deposition of thin films controls the focused laser spot on the target. The process involves imaging an image-aperture positioned in the beamline. This eliminates changes in the beam dimensions of the laser. A continuously variable attenuator located in between the output of the laser and the imaged image-aperture adjusts the energy to a desired level by running the laser in a "constant voltage" mode. The process provides reproducibility and controllability for deposition of electronic thin films by pulsed laser deposition.

  7. Lattice vibrations in the Frenkel-Kontorova model. I. Phonon dispersion, number density, and energy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meng, Qingping; Wu, Lijun; Welch, David O.; Zhu, Yimei

    2015-06-17

    We studied the lattice vibrations of two inter-penetrating atomic sublattices via the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model of a linear chain of harmonically interacting atoms subjected to an on-site potential, using the technique of thermodynamic Green's functions based on quantum field-theoretical methods. General expressions were deduced for the phonon frequency-wave-vector dispersion relations, number density, and energy of the FK model system. In addition, as the application of the theory, we investigated in detail cases of linear chains with various periods of the on-site potential of the FK model. Some unusual but interesting features for different amplitudes of the on-site potential of themore » FK model are discussed. In the commensurate structure, the phonon spectrum always starts at a finite frequency, and the gaps of the spectrum are true ones with a zero density of modes. In the incommensurate structure, the phonon spectrum starts from zero frequency, but at a non-zero wave vector; there are some modes inside these gap regions, but their density is very low. In our approximation, the energy of a higher-order commensurate state of the one-dimensional system at a finite temperature may become indefinitely close to the energy of an incommensurate state. This finding implies that the higher-order incommensurate-commensurate transitions are continuous ones and that the phase transition may exhibit a “devil's staircase” behavior at a finite temperature.« less

  8. Research in High Energy Physics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conway, John S.

    2013-08-09

    This final report details the work done from January 2010 until April 2013 in the area of experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics and cosmology at the University of California, Davis.

  9. High-Powered Lasers for Clean Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    highpowered lasers High-Powered Lasers for Clean Energy Eli-Beamlines Architectural Design Architect's Rendering of the exterior of the Eli-Beamlines facility now under construction in the Czech Republic. Fusion is the process by which the Sun and other stars convert or "burn" hydrogen (the lightest element) and produce helium (the next lightest element). The fusion of hydrogen releases immense amounts of energy. Conditions needed to burn fusion fuel include extremely high temperatures

  10. Forming high efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2014-09-09

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  11. Forming high-efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2015-07-07

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  12. High Island Densities and Long Range Repulsive Interactions: Fe on Epitaxial Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binz, Steven M.; Hupalo, Myron; Liu, Xiaojie; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Lu, Wen-Cai; Thiel, Kai-Ming; Conrad, E.H.; Tringides, Michael C.

    2012-07-13

    The understanding of metal nucleation on graphene is essential for promising future applications, especially of magnetic metals which can be used in spintronics or computer storage media. A common method to study the grown morphology is to measure the nucleated island density n as a function of growth parameters. Surprisingly, the growth of Fe on graphene is found to be unusual because it does not follow classical nucleation: n is unexpectedtly high, it increases continuously with the deposited amount θ and shows no temperature dependence. These unusual results indicate the presence of long range repulsive interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and density functional theory calculations support this conclusion. In addition to answering an outstanding question in epitaxial growth, i.e., to find systems where long range interactions are present, the high density of magnetic islands, tunable with θ, is of interest for nanomagnetism applications.

  13. High Temperature Downhole Motor - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geothermal Geothermal Find More Like This Return to Search High Temperature Downhole Motor Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (164 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Drilling costs amount to over half of the total cost of geothermal energy production. To address the high cost of well construction, Sandia engineers are developing a high temperature downhole motor that provides a high-power downhole rotation solution for

  14. High-bay Lighting Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple high-bay lighting system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: 1000 Watt to 750 Watt High-pressure Sodium lighting retrofit, 400 Watt to 360 Watt High Pressure Sodium lighting retrofit, High Intensity Discharge to T5 lighting retrofit, High Intensity Discharge to T8 lighting retrofit, and Daylighting. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building lifemore » cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.« less

  15. Quadrupole collective dynamics from energy density functionals: Collective Hamiltonian and the interacting boson model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, K.; Vretenar, D.; Niksic, T.; Otsuka, T.; Shimizu, N.

    2011-07-15

    Microscopic energy density functionals have become a standard tool for nuclear structure calculations, providing an accurate global description of nuclear ground states and collective excitations. For spectroscopic applications, this framework has to be extended to account for collective correlations related to restoration of symmetries broken by the static mean field, and for fluctuations of collective variables. In this paper, we compare two approaches to five-dimensional quadrupole dynamics: the collective Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrations and rotations and the interacting boson model (IBM). The two models are compared in a study of the evolution of nonaxial shapes in Pt isotopes. Starting from the binding energy surfaces of {sup 192,194,196}Pt, calculated with a microscopic energy density functional, we analyze the resulting low-energy collective spectra obtained from the collective Hamiltonian, and the corresponding IBM Hamiltonian. The calculated excitation spectra and transition probabilities for the ground-state bands and the {gamma}-vibration bands are compared to the corresponding sequences of experimental states.

  16. Joint Statement on Multinational Cooperation on High-Density Low-Enriched

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Uranium Fuel Development | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Joint Statement on Multinational Cooperation on High-Density Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Development March 25, 2014 The White House Office of the Press Secretary Belgium, France, Germany, the Republic of Korea and the United States, the parties to this joint statement recognize that the ultimate goal of nuclear security is advanced by minimizing highly-enriched uranium (HEU) in civilian use, which is affirmed in the

  17. Theory of melting at high pressures: Amending density functional theory with quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shulenburger, L.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Mattsson, T. R.

    2014-10-01

    We present an improved first-principles description of melting under pressure based on thermodynamic integration comparing Density Functional Theory (DFT) and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) treatments of the system. The method is applied to address the longstanding discrepancy between density functional theory (DFT) calculations and diamond anvil cell (DAC) experiments on the melting curve of xenon, a noble gas solid where van der Waals binding is challenging for traditional DFT methods. The calculations show excellent agreement with data below 20 GPa and that the high-pressure melt curve is well described by a Lindemann behavior up to at least 80 GPa, a finding in stark contrast to DAC data.

  18. Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik

    2015-04-27

    The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. To establish an efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random- phase approximation. The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method is very efficient and well-adaptable to parallel computing. As a result, the FAM formulation is especially useful when standard theorems based on commutation relations involving the nuclear Hamiltonian and external field cannot be used.

  19. Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik

    2015-04-27

    The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. To establish anmore » efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random- phase approximation. The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method is very efficient and well-adaptable to parallel computing. As a result, the FAM formulation is especially useful when standard theorems based on commutation relations involving the nuclear Hamiltonian and external field cannot be used.« less

  20. Density and x-ray emission profile relationships in highly ionized high-Z laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke Ugomori, Teruyuki; Tanaka, Nozomi; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi Kawasaki, Masato; Suzuki, Yuhei; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tomita, Kentaro; Hirose, Ryoichi; Ejima, Takeo; Ohashi, Hayato; Nishikino, Masaharu; Sunahara, Atsushi; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Yanagida, Tatsuya

    2015-03-23

    We present a benchmark measurement of the electron density profile in the region where the electron density is 10{sup 19?}cm{sup 3} and where the bulk of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission occurs from isotropically expanding spherical high-Z gadolinium plasmas. It was found that, due to opacity effects, the observed EUV emission is mostly produced from an underdense region. We have analyzed time-resolved emission spectra with the aid of atomic structure calculations and find the multiple ion charge states around 18+ during the laser pulse irradiation.

  1. Method of Fabrication of High Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2008-09-09

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O(LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  2. Particle visualization in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering. I. 2D density mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britun, Nikolay Palmucci, Maria; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Snyders, Rony

    2015-04-28

    Time-resolved characterization of an Ar-Ti high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge has been performed. This paper deals with two-dimensional density mapping in the discharge volume obtained by laser-induced fluorescence imaging. The time-resolved density evolution of Ti neutrals, singly ionized Ti atoms (Ti{sup +}), and Ar metastable atoms (Ar{sup met}) in the area above the sputtered cathode is mapped for the first time in this type of discharges. The energetic characteristics of the discharge species are additionally studied by Doppler-shift laser-induced fluorescence imaging. The questions related to the propagation of both the neutral and ionized discharge particles, as well as to their spatial density distributions, are discussed.

  3. High Energy Physics | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerator Technology Taking collider physics to higher energies More ATLAS at the LHC Colliding protons to learn about universal forces More Cosmology & Astrophysics Looking at the dawn and evolution of the universe More Instrumentation Innovative detectors for next-generation experiments More Precision Muon Physics Muons as a probe for new physics More Neutrino Physics Studying the elusive, but second most abundant particle in the universe More Theoretical High Energy Physics Motivating

  4. High Energy Physics | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News & Events Upcoming Events Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Videos Downloads About HEP at Work Career Opportunities Staff Directory About HEP at Work Career Opportunities Staff Directory Argonne National Laboratory High Energy Physics Research Facilities Capabilities Initiatives Publications News & Events Accelerator Technology Taking collider physics to higher energies More ATLAS at the LHC Colliding protons to learn about universal forces More Cosmology & Astrophysics

  5. High-brightness, high-current density cathode for induction linac FELs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, W.C.; Chen, Y.-J.; Nexsen, W.E.; Green, M.C.; Miram, G.; Nordquist, A.V.

    1988-09-28

    We have recently initiated an investigation to determine the intrinsic operating limits of an osmium coated dispenser cathode for use in free-electron lasers (FELs) driven by an induction linear accelerator. The experimental apparatus consists of a 5.1-cm-diam osmium coated dispenser cathode driven by a 250-kV, 10-..cap omega.., 35-ns Blumlein pulse line. The pepper pot technique is used to measure intrinsic cathode brightness and uniformity. Recent measurements have yielded brightness values exceeding 1 /times/ 10/sup 10/ A/m/sup 2/rad/sup 2/ for current densities up to 140 A/cm/sup 2/. We have also obtained quantitative data on cathode poisoning caused by a number of chemical agents of interest in the induction linac environment. 7 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. High Temperature, high pressure equation of state density correlations and viscosity correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapriyal, D.; Enick, R.; McHugh, M.; Gamwo, I.; Morreale, B.

    2012-07-31

    Global increase in oil demand and depleting reserves has derived a need to find new oil resources. To find these untapped reservoirs, oil companies are exploring various remote and harsh locations such as deep waters in Gulf of Mexico, remote arctic regions, unexplored deep deserts, etc. Further, the depth of new oil/gas wells being drilled has increased considerably to tap these new resources. With the increase in the well depth, the bottomhole temperature and pressure are also increasing to extreme values (i.e. up to 500 F and 35,000 psi). The density and viscosity of natural gas and crude oil at reservoir conditions are critical fundamental properties required for accurate assessment of the amount of recoverable petroleum within a reservoir and the modeling of the flow of these fluids within the porous media. These properties are also used to design appropriate drilling and production equipment such as blow out preventers, risers, etc. With the present state of art, there is no accurate database for these fluid properties at extreme conditions. As we have begun to expand this experimental database it has become apparent that there are neither equations of state for density or transport models for viscosity that can be used to predict these fundamental properties of multi-component hydrocarbon mixtures over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Presently, oil companies are using correlations based on lower temperature and pressure databases that exhibit an unsatisfactory predictive capability at extreme conditions (e.g. as great as {+-} 50%). From the perspective of these oil companies that are committed to safely producing these resources, accurately predicting flow rates, and assuring the integrity of the flow, the absence of an extensive experimental database at extreme conditions and models capable of predicting these properties over an extremely wide range of temperature and pressure (including extreme conditions) makes their task even more daunting.

  7. Future high energy colliders symposium. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsa, Z. |

    1996-12-31

    A `Future High Energy Colliders` Symposium was held October 21-25, 1996 at the Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP) in Santa Barbara. This was one of the 3 symposia hosted by the ITP and supported by its sponsor, the National Science Foundation, as part of a 5 month program on `New Ideas for Particle Accelerators`. The long term program and symposia were organized and coordinated by Dr. Zohreh Parsa of Brookhaven National Laboratory/ITP. The purpose of the symposium was to discuss the future direction of high energy physics by bringing together leaders from the theoretical, experimental and accelerator physics communities. Their talks provided personal perspectives on the physics objectives and the technology demands of future high energy colliders. Collectively, they formed a vision for where the field should be heading and how it might best reach its objectives.

  8. COMPILATION OF CURRENT HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.; Horne, C.P.; Hutchinson, M.S.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Addis, L.; Ward, C.E.W.; Baggett, N.; Goldschmidt-Clermong, Y.; Joos, P.; Gelfand, N.; Oyanagi, Y.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.

    1981-05-01

    This is the fourth edition of our compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about April 1981, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1977. We emphasize that only approved experiments are included.

  9. Development of High Energy Cathode Materials | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es056_zhang_2011_o.pdf (841.53 KB) More Documents & Publications Development of High Energy Cathode for Li-ion Batteries Phase Behavior and Solid State Chemistry in Olivines Low Cost SiOx-Graphite and Olivine Materials

  10. Inductively Driven, 3D Liner Compression of a Magnetized Plasma to Megabar Energy Densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slough, John

    2015-02-01

    To take advantage of the smaller scale, higher density regime of fusion an efficient method for achieving the compressional heating required to reach fusion gain conditions must be found. What is proposed is a more flexible metallic liner compression scheme that minimizes the kinetic energy required to reach fusion. It is believed that it is possible to accomplish this at sub-megajoule energies. This however will require operation at very small scale. To have a realistic hope of inexpensive, repetitive operation, it is essential to have the liner kinetic energy under a megajoule which allows for the survivability of the vacuum and power systems. At small scale the implosion speed must be reasonably fast to maintain the magnetized plasma (FRC) equilibrium during compression. For limited liner kinetic energy, it becomes clear that the thinnest liner imploded to the smallest radius consistent with the requirements for FRC equilibrium lifetime is desired. The proposed work is directed toward accomplishing this goal. Typically an axial (Z) current is employed for liner compression. There are however several advantages to using a θ-pinch coil. With the θ-pinch the liner currents are inductively driven which greatly simplifies the apparatus and vacuum system, and avoids difficulties with the post implosion vacuum integrity. With fractional flux leakage, the foil liner automatically provides for the seed axial compression field. To achieve it with optimal switching techniques, and at an accelerated pace however will require additional funding. This extra expense is well justified as the compression technique that will be enabled by this funding is unique in the ability to implode individual segments of the liner at different times. This is highly advantageous as the liner can be imploded in a manner that maximizes the energy transfer to the FRC. Production of shaped liner implosions for additional axial compression can thus be readily accomplished with the modified power

  11. Morphological features of the copper surface layer under sliding with high density electric current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.; Rubtsov, V. Ye.; Aleutdinova, V. A.

    2015-10-27

    Conductivity and wear intensity of copper under the influence of dry friction and electric current with contact density higher 100 A/cm{sup 2} are presented. It is shown that an increase in hardness and heat outflow from a friction zone leads to the reduction of wear intensity and current contact density increase corresponding to the beginning of catastrophic wear. Structural changes, such as the formation of FeO oxide and α-Fe particles in the copper surface layer, have also been found. It is observed that a worn surface is deformed according to a viscous liquid mechanism. Such singularity is explained in terms of appearance of high-excited atomic states in deforming micro-volumes near contact spots that lead to easy stress relaxation by local plastic shears in the vicinity of stress concentrators. In common this effect allows to achieve high wear resistance.

  12. OSCAR experiment high-density network data report: Event 3 - April 16-17, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana, M.T.; Easter, R.C.; Thorp, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    The OSCAR (Oxidation and Scavenging Characteristics of April Rains) experiment, conducted during April 1981, was a cooperative field investigation of wet removal in cyclonic storm systems. The high-density component of OSCAR was located in northeast Indiana and included sequential precipitation chemistry measurements on a 100 by 100 km network, as well as airborne air chemistry and cloud chemistry measurements, surface air chemistry measurements, and supporting meteorological measurements. Four separate storm events were studied during the experiment. This report summarizes data taken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the third storm event, April 16-17. The report contains the high-density network precipitation chemistry data, air chemistry and cloud chemistry data from the PNL aircraft, and meteorological data for the event, including standard National Weather Service products and radar and rawindsonde data from the network. 4 references, 76 figures, 6 tables.

  13. Highly collimated monoenergetic target-surface electron acceleration in near-critical-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, J. Y.; Chen, L. M.; Huang, K.; Ma, Y.; Zhao, J. R.; Yan, W. C.; Ma, J. L.; Wei, Z. Y.; Li, D. Z.; Aeschlimann, M.; Zhang, J.

    2015-03-30

    Optimized-quality monoenergetic target surface electron beams at MeV level with low normalized emittance (0.03π mm mrad) and high charge (30 pC) per shot have been obtained from 3 TW laser-solid interactions at a grazing incidence. The 2-Dimension particle-in-cell simulations suggest that electrons are wake-field accelerated in a large-scale, near-critical-density preplasma. It reveals that a bubble-like structure as an accelerating cavity appears in the near-critical-density plasma region and travels along the target surface. A bunch of electrons are pinched transversely and accelerated longitudinally by the wake field in the bubble. The outstanding normalized emittance and monochromaticity of such highly collimated surface electron beams could make it an ideal beam for fast ignition or may serve as an injector in traditional accelerators.

  14. DUST EXTINCTION BIAS IN THE COLUMN DENSITY DISTRIBUTION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: HIGH COLUMN DENSITY, LOW-REDSHIFT GRBs ARE MORE HEAVILY OBSCURED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, Darach [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Jakobsson, Pall, E-mail: darach@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: pja@raunvis.hi.is [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 5, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2012-08-01

    The afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have more soft-X-ray absorption than expected from the foreground gas column in the Galaxy. While the redshift of the absorption can in general not be constrained from current X-ray observations, it has been assumed that the absorption is due to metals in the host galaxy of the GRB. The large sample of X-ray afterglows and redshifts now available allows the construction of statistically meaningful distributions of the metal column densities. We construct such a sample and show, as found in previous studies, that the typical absorbing column density (N{sub H{sub X}}) increases substantially with redshift, with few high column density objects found at low-to-moderate redshifts. We show, however, that when highly extinguished bursts are included in the sample, using redshifts from their host galaxies, high column density sources are also found at low-to-moderate redshift. We infer from individual objects in the sample and from observations of blazars that the increase in column density with redshift is unlikely to be related to metals in the intergalactic medium or intervening absorbers. Instead we show that the origin of the apparent increase with redshift is primarily due to dust extinction bias: GRBs with high X-ray absorption column densities found at z {approx}< 4 typically have very high dust extinction column densities, while those found at the highest redshifts do not. It is unclear how such a strongly evolving N{sub H{sub X}}/A{sub V} ratio would arise, and based on current data, remains a puzzle.

  15. Precision timing measurements for high energy photons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apreysan, Artur; Bornheim, Adi; Duarte, Javier; Newman, Harvey; Pena, Cristian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; et al

    2014-11-21

    Particle colliders operating at high luminosities present challenging environments for high energy physics event reconstruction and analysis. We discuss how timing information, with a precision on the order of 10 ps, can aid in the reconstruction of physics events under such conditions. We present calorimeter based timing measurements from test beam experiments in which we explore the ultimate timing precision achievable for high energy photons or electrons of 10 GeV and above. Using a prototype calorimeter consisting of a 1.71.71.7 cm3 lutetiumyttrium oxyortho-silicate (LYSO) crystal cube, read out by micro-channel plate photomultipliers, we demonstrate a time resolution of 33.52.1 psmorefor an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV. In a second measurement, using a 2.52.520 cm3 LYSO crystal placed perpendicularly to the electron beam, we achieve a time resolution of 5911 ps using a beam energy of 4 GeV. We also present timing measurements made using a shashlik-style calorimeter cell made of LYSO and tungsten plates, and demonstrate that the apparatus achieves a time resolution of 545 ps for an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV.less

  16. High Performance Colloidal Nanocrystals | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Through the High Penetration Solar Deployment program, DOE is funding solar projects that are accelerating the placement of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems into existing and newly designed distribution circuits in the electrical grid. The High Penetration Solar Deployment projects are working with teams that include utility partners to model, test, and evaluate solutions to mitigate the impact of large amounts of PV-generated electricity on the reliability and stability of the

  17. ACCELERATING POLARIZED PROTONS TO HIGH ENERGY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BAI, M.; AHRENS, L.; ALEKSEEV, I.G.; ALESSI, J.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRAVAR, A.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRUNO, D.; BUNCE, G.; ET AL.

    2006-10-02

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is designed to provide collisions of high energy polarized protons for the quest of understanding the proton spin structure. Polarized proton collisions at a beam energy of 100 GeV have been achieved in RHIC since 2001. Recently, polarized proton beam was accelerated to 250 GeV in RHIC for the first time. Unlike accelerating unpolarized protons, the challenge for achieving high energy polarized protons is to fight the various mechanisms in an accelerator that can lead to partial or total polarization loss due to the interaction of the spin vector with the magnetic fields. We report on the progress of the RHIC polarized proton program. We also present the strategies of how to preserve the polarization through the entire acceleration chain, i.e. a 200 MeV linear accelerator, the Booster, the AGS and RHIC.

  18. Accelerating Polarized Protons to High Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, M.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I. G.; Alessi, J.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bravar, A.; Brennan, J. M.; Bruno, D.; Bunce, G.; Butler, J.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; Delong, J.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.

    2007-06-13

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is designed to provide collisions of high energy polarized protons for the quest of understanding the proton spin structure. Polarized proton collisions at a beam energy of 100 GeV have been achieved in RHIC since 2001. Recently, polarized proton beam was accelerated to 250 GeV in RHIC for the first time. Unlike accelerating unpolarized protons, the challenge for achieving high energy polarized protons is to fight the various mechanisms in an accelerator that can lead to partial or total polarization loss due to the interaction of the spin vector with the magnetic fields. We report on the progress of the RHIC polarized proton program. We also present the strategies of how to preserve the polarization through the entire acceleration chain, i.e. a 200 MeV linear accelerator, the Booster, the AGS and RHIC.

  19. The Time Domain Crossbar (TDX): A high speed, high density, FPGA design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, A.L.

    1993-12-31

    As system clock rates of electronic designs steadily increase, the need for high bandwidth communication between designs in the system becomes critical. The Time Domain Crossbar (TDX) provides programmable, high-speed communications bandwidth across the user I/O pins of a VME backplane. The TDX timemultiplexes 20MHz byte-wide data onto 80MHz byte-wide data for transmission between boards. A programmable register set allows the user to open and close virtual communicaton channels by configuring independent data paths between sets of boards. Because each additional TDX board provides another crossbar, the overall system bandwidth increases with the number of TDX boards.

  20. Indiana University High Energy Physics, Task A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brabson, B.; Crittenden, R.; Dzierba, A.; Hanson, G.; Martin, H.; Marshall, T.; Mir, R.; Mouthuy, T.; Ogren, H.; Rust, D.; Teige, S.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research in High Energy Physics under the following experiments: Meson spectroscopy at BNL; dimuon production at FNAL; the DO collider experiment at FNAL; the Mark II experiment at SLC and PEP; the OPAL experiment at CERN; and the superconducting supercollider.

  1. Density functional and theoretical study of the temperature and pressure dependency of the plasmon energy of solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attarian Shandiz, M. Gauvin, R.

    2014-10-28

    The temperature and pressure dependency of the volume plasmon energy of solids was investigated by density functional theory calculations. The volume change of crystal is the major factor responsible for the variation of valence electron density and plasmon energy in the free electron model. Hence, to introduce the effect of temperature and pressure for the density functional theory calculations of plasmon energy, the temperature and pressure dependency of lattice parameter was used. Also, by combination of the free electron model and the equation of state based on the pseudo-spinodal approach, the temperature and pressure dependency of the plasmon energy was modeled. The suggested model is in good agreement with the results of density functional theory calculations and available experimental data for elements with the free electron behavior.

  2. Experimental profile evolution of a high-density field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruden, E. L.; Zhang, Shouyin; Intrator, T. P.; Wurden, G. A.

    2006-12-15

    A field-reversed configuration (FRC) gains angular momentum over time, eventually resulting in an n=2 rotational instability (invariant under rotation by {pi}) terminating confinement. To study this, a laser interferometer probes the time history of line integrated plasma density along eight chords of the high-density ({approx}10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}) field-reversed configuration experiment with a liner. Abel and tomographic inversions provide density profiles during the FRC's azimuthally symmetric phase, and over a period when the rotational mode has saturated and rotates with a roughly fixed profile, respectively. During the latter part of the symmetric phase, the FRC approximates a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium, allowing the axial magnetic-field profile to be calculated from pressure balance. Basic FRC properties such as temperature and poloidal flux are then inferred. The subsequent two-dimensional n=2 density profiles provide angular momentum information needed to set bounds on prior values of the stability relevant parameter {alpha} (rotational to ion diamagnetic drift frequency ratio), in addition to a view of plasma kinematics useful for benchmarking plasma models of higher order than MHD.

  3. Conformable actively multiplexed high-density surface electrode array for brain interfacing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, John; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan

    2015-01-13

    Provided are methods and devices for interfacing with brain tissue, specifically for monitoring and/or actuation of spatio-temporal electrical waveforms. The device is conformable having a high electrode density and high spatial and temporal resolution. A conformable substrate supports a conformable electronic circuit and a barrier layer. Electrodes are positioned to provide electrical contact with a brain tissue. A controller monitors or actuates the electrodes, thereby interfacing with the brain tissue. In an aspect, methods are provided to monitor or actuate spatio-temporal electrical waveform over large brain surface areas by any of the devices disclosed herein.

  4. Illinois: High-Energy, Concentration-Gradient Cathode Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Energy, Concentration-Gradient Cathode Material for Plug-in Hybrids and All-Electric Vehicles Could Reduce Batteries' Cost and Size Illinois: High-Energy,...

  5. Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes This presentation is from the Building America research ...

  6. High energy gas fracture experiments in liquid-filled boreholes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High energy gas fracture experiments in liquid-filled boreholes: potential geothermal application Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High energy gas fracture experiments in ...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Lithium...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    High Energy Lithium Batteries for PHEV Applications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Lithium Batteries for PHEV Applications Presentation given by...

  8. High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics Network Requirements...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics Network Requirements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics Network ...

  9. Engineering of High Energy Cathode Materials | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engineering of High Energy Cathode Materials Engineering of High Energy Cathode Materials 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit ...

  10. Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  11. Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power Generation Systems Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power Generation ...

  12. Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D A; Vogt, R

    2005-03-31

    The authors propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from Bevalac, AGS and SPS to RHIC and CERN-LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the Next Linear Collider. To enhance the utility of this database, they propose periodically performing evaluations of the data and summarizing the results in topical reviews.

  13. A kinetic approach to modeling the manufacture of high density strucutral foam: Foaming and polymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Rekha R.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Noble, David R.; Brunini, Victor; Roberts, Christine Cardinal; Long, Kevin Nicholas; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; Celina, Mathias C.; Wyatt, Nicholas B.; Thompson, Kyle R.; Tinsley, James

    2015-09-01

    We are studying PMDI polyurethane with a fast catalyst, such that filling and polymerization occur simultaneously. The foam is over-packed to tw ice or more of its free rise density to reach the density of interest. Our approach is to co mbine model development closely with experiments to discover new physics, to parameterize models and to validate the models once they have been developed. The model must be able to repres ent the expansion, filling, curing, and final foam properties. PMDI is chemically blown foam, wh ere carbon dioxide is pr oduced via the reaction of water and isocyanate. The isocyanate also re acts with polyol in a competing reaction, which produces the polymer. A new kinetic model is developed and implemented, which follows a simplified mathematical formalism that decouple s these two reactions. The model predicts the polymerization reaction via condensation chemis try, where vitrification and glass transition temperature evolution must be included to correctly predict this quantity. The foam gas generation kinetics are determined by tracking the molar concentration of both water and carbon dioxide. Understanding the therma l history and loads on the foam due to exothermicity and oven heating is very important to the results, since the kinetics and ma terial properties are all very sensitive to temperature. The conservation eq uations, including the e quations of motion, an energy balance, and thr ee rate equations are solved via a stabilized finite element method. We assume generalized-Newtonian rheology that is dependent on the cure, gas fraction, and temperature. The conservation equations are comb ined with a level set method to determine the location of the free surface over time. Results from the model are compared to experimental flow visualization data and post-te st CT data for the density. Seve ral geometries are investigated including a mock encapsulation part, two configur ations of a mock stru ctural part, and a bar geometry to

  14. HIGH ENERGY POLARIZATION OF BLAZARS: DETECTION PROSPECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, N.; Pavlidou, V.; Fields, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    Emission from blazar jets in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared is polarized. If these low-energy photons were inverse-Compton scattered, the upscattered high-energy photons retain a fraction of the polarization. Current and future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimeters such as INTEGRAL-SPI, PoGOLITE, X-Calibur, Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter, GEMS-like missions, ASTRO-H, and POLARIX have the potential to discover polarized X-rays and gamma-rays from blazar jets for the first time. Detection of such polarization will open a qualitatively new window into high-energy blazar emission; actual measurements of polarization degree and angle will quantitatively test theories of jet emission mechanisms. We examine the detection prospects of blazars by these polarimetry missions using examples of 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3, bright sources with relatively high degrees of low-energy polarization. We conclude that while balloon polarimeters will be challenged to detect blazars within reasonable observational times (with X-Calibur offering the most promising prospects), space-based missions should detect the brightest blazars for polarization fractions down to a few percent. Typical flaring activity of blazars could boost the overall number of polarimetric detections by nearly a factor of five to six purely accounting for flux increase of the brightest of the comprehensive, all-sky, Fermi-LAT blazar distribution. The instantaneous increase in the number of detections is approximately a factor of two, assuming a duty cycle of 20% for every source. The detectability of particular blazars may be reduced if variations in the flux and polarization fraction are anticorrelated. Simultaneous use of variability and polarization trends could guide the selection of blazars for high-energy polarimetric observations.

  15. High temperature and current density induced degradation of multi-layer graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Baoming; Haque, M. A.; Mag-isa, Alexander E.; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hak-Joo

    2015-10-19

    We present evidence of moderate current density, when accompanied with high temperature, promoting migration of foreign atoms on the surface of multi-layer graphene. Our in situ transmission electron microscope experiments show migration of silicon atoms at temperatures above 800 °C and current density around 4.2 × 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}. Originating from the micro-machined silicon structures that clamp the freestanding specimen, the atoms are observed to react with the carbon atoms in the multi-layer graphene to produce silicon carbide at temperatures of 900–1000 °C. In the absence of electrical current, there is no migration of silicon and only pyrolysis of polymeric residue is observed.

  16. Theory of melting at high pressures: Amending density functional theory with quantum Monte Carlo

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shulenburger, L.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Mattsson, T. R.

    2014-10-01

    We present an improved first-principles description of melting under pressure based on thermodynamic integration comparing Density Functional Theory (DFT) and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) treatments of the system. The method is applied to address the longstanding discrepancy between density functional theory (DFT) calculations and diamond anvil cell (DAC) experiments on the melting curve of xenon, a noble gas solid where van der Waals binding is challenging for traditional DFT methods. The calculations show excellent agreement with data below 20 GPa and that the high-pressure melt curve is well described by a Lindemann behavior up to at least 80 GPa, amore » finding in stark contrast to DAC data.« less

  17. A numerical method for the quasi-incompressible Cahn–Hilliard–Navier–Stokes equations for variable density flows with a discrete energy law

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Z.; Lin, P.; Lowengrub, J.S.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate numerically a diffuse interface model for the Navier–Stokes equation with fluid–fluid interface when the fluids have different densities [48]. Under minor reformulation of the system, we show that there is a continuous energy law underlying the system, assuming that all variables have reasonable regularities. It is shown in the literature that an energy law preserving method will perform better for multiphase problems. Thus for the reformulated system, we design a C{sup 0} finite element method and a special temporal scheme where the energy law is preserved at the discrete level. Such a discrete energy law (almost the same as the continuous energy law) for this variable density two-phase flow model has never been established before with C{sup 0} finite element. A Newton method is introduced to linearise the highly non-linear system of our discretization scheme. Some numerical experiments are carried out using the adaptive mesh to investigate the scenario of coalescing and rising drops with differing density ratio. The snapshots for the evolution of the interface together with the adaptive mesh at different times are presented to show that the evolution, including the break-up/pinch-off of the drop, can be handled smoothly by our numerical scheme. The discrete energy functional for the system is examined to show that the energy law at the discrete level is preserved by our scheme.

  18. Coupled-Channels Density-Matrix Approach to Low-Energy Nuclear Reaction Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz-Torres, Alexis

    2011-10-28

    Atomic nuclei are complex, quantum many-body systems whose structure manifests itself through intrinsic quantum states associated with different excitation modes or degrees of freedom. Collective modes (vibration and/or rotation) dominate at low energy (near the ground-state). The associated states are usually employed, within a truncated model space, as a basis in (coherent) coupled channels approaches to low-energy reaction dynamics. However, excluded states can be essential, and their effects on the open (nuclear) system dynamics are usually treated through complex potentials. Is this a complete description of open system dynamics? Does it include effects of quantum decoherence? Can decoherence be manifested in reaction observables? In this contribution, I discuss these issues and the main ideas of a coupled-channels density-matrix approach that makes it possible to quantify the role and importance of quantum decoherence in low-energy nuclear reaction dynamics. Topical applications, which refer to understanding the astrophysically important collision {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C and achieving a unified quantum dynamical description of relevant reaction processes of weakly-bound nuclei, are highlighted.

  19. High-price energy strategy failing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonze, R.

    1981-03-01

    An energy policy based on decontrol and high energy prices to allocate resources is examined and found wanting. An economic penalty results when the oil companies can operate as a virtual monopoly to set prices for other fuels as well as oil. The impact on consumers is a lowered standard of living and social inequity. Government intervention that is pro-competition is shown to be as inadequate as price control. A list of twelve measures that would moderate the economic losses and still encourage energy production and conservation include strong antitrust action, an active federal coal leasing program, competitive coal transactions, limits on severance taxes, a permanent windfall profits tax, and direct subsidy programs. (DCK)

  20. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E. W.; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-08-15

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.

  1. High energy physics at UC Riverside

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    This report discusses progress made for the following two tasks: experimental high energy physics, Task A, and theoretical high energy physics, Task B. Task A1 covers hadron collider physics. Information for Task A1 includes: personnel/talks/publications; D0: proton-antiproton interactions at 2 TeV; SDC: proton-proton interactions at 40 TeV; computing facilities; equipment needs; and budget notes. The physics program of Task A2 has been the systematic study of leptons and hadrons. Information covered for Task A2 includes: personnel/talks/publications; OPAL at LEP; OPAL at LEP200; CMS at LHC; the RD5 experiment; LSND at LAMPF; and budget notes. The research activities of the Theory Group are briefly discussed and a list of completed or published papers for this period is given.

  2. Density functional theory calculations of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies for (Fe1-xCox)2B

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Daene, Markus; Kim, Soo Kyung; Surh, Michael P.; Aberg, Daniel; Benedict, Lorin X.

    2015-06-15

    We present and discuss density functional theory calculations of magnetic properties of the family of ferromagnetic compounds, (Fe1-xCox)2B, focusing specifically on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE). Using periodic supercells of various sizes (up to 96 atoms), it is shown that the general qualitative features of the composition dependence of the MAE is in agreement with experimental findings, while our predicted magnitudes are larger than those of experiment. We find that the use of small supercells (6 and 12-atom) favors larger MAE values relative to a statistical sample of configurations constructed with 96-atom supercells. As a result, the effect of latticemore » relaxations is shown to be small. Calculations of the Curie temperature for this alloy are also presented.« less

  3. Energy Density Functional Study of Nuclear Matrix Elements for Neutrinoless {beta}{beta} Decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Tomas R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64259 Darmstadt (Germany); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); CEA, Irfu, SPhN, Centre de Saclay, F-911191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Martinez-Pinedo, Gabriel [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64259 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-12-17

    We present an extensive study of nuclear matrix elements (NME) for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the nuclei {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 116}Cd, {sup 124}Sn, {sup 128}Te, {sup 130}Te, {sup 136}Xe, and {sup 150}Nd based on state-of-the-art energy density functional methods using the Gogny D1S functional. Beyond-mean-field effects are included within the generating coordinate method with particle number and angular momentum projection for both initial and final ground states. We obtain a rather constant value for the NMEs around 4.7 with the exception of {sup 48}Ca and {sup 150}Nd, where smaller values are found. We analyze the role of deformation and pairing in the evaluation of the NME and present detailed results for the decay of {sup 150}Nd.

  4. Quasi-particle energy spectra in local reduced density matrix functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lathiotakis, Nektarios N.; Helbig, Nicole; Rubio, Angel

    2014-10-28

    Recently, we introduced [N. N. Lathiotakis, N. Helbig, A. Rubio, and N. I. Gidopoulos, Phys. Rev. A 90, 032511 (2014)] local reduced density matrix functional theory (local RDMFT), a theoretical scheme capable of incorporating static correlation effects in Kohn-Sham equations. Here, we apply local RDMFT to molecular systems of relatively large size, as a demonstration of its computational efficiency and its accuracy in predicting single-electron properties from the eigenvalue spectrum of the single-particle Hamiltonian with a local effective potential. We present encouraging results on the photoelectron spectrum of molecular systems and the relative stability of C{sub 20} isotopes. In addition, we propose a modelling of the fractional occupancies as functions of the orbital energies that further improves the efficiency of the method useful in applications to large systems and solids.

  5. HIGH ENERGY GASEOUS PLASMA CONTAINMENT DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josephson, V.; Hammel, J.E.

    1959-01-13

    An apparatus is presenied for producing neutrons as a result of collisions between ions in high temperature plasmas. The invention resides in the particular arrangement of ihe device whereby ihe magneiic and electric fields are made to cross at substantially right angles in several places along a torus shaped containment vessel. A plasma of deuterium gas is generated in the vessel under the electric fields and is "trapped" in any one of the "crossed field" regions to produce a release of energy.

  6. High Temperature PEM - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search High Temperature PEM Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (976 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryPolymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) have been identified as an attractive electrical power source due to it having a higher efficiency level and being an environmental friendly energy source. In

  7. MASS SEPARATION OF HIGH ENERGY PARTICLES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, L.

    1962-09-25

    An apparatus and method are described for separating charged, high energy particles of equal momentum forming a beam where the particles differ slightly in masses. Magnetic lenses are utilized to focus the beam and maintain that condition while electrostatic fields located between magnetic lenses are utilized to cause transverse separation of the particles into two beams separated by a sufficient amount to permit an aperture to block one beam. (AEC)

  8. HIGH ENERGY RATE EXTRUSION OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, L.

    1963-07-23

    A method of extruding uranium at a high energy rate is described. Conditions during the extrusion are such that the temperature of the metal during extrusion reaches a point above the normal alpha to beta transition, but the metal nevertheless remains in the alpha phase in accordance with the Clausius- Clapeyron equation. Upon exiting from the die, the metal automatically enters the beta phase, after which the metal is permitted to cool. (AEC)

  9. EXTRACTOR FOR HIGH ENERGY CHARGED PARTICLES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambertson, G.R.

    1964-04-01

    A particle-extracting apparatus for use with a beam of high-energy charged particles such as travel in an evacuated chamber along a circular equilibrium axis is described. A magnetized target is impacted relatively against the beam whereby the beam particles are deflected from the beam by the magnetic induction in the target. To this end the target may be moved into the beam or the beam may coast into the target and achieve high angular particle deflection and slow extraction. A deflecting septum magnet may additionally be used for deflection at even sharper angles. (AEC)

  10. High-density carbon ablator experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKinnon, A. J. Meezan, N. B.; Ross, J. S.; Le Pape, S.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Divol, L.; Ho, D.; Milovich, J.; Pak, A.; Ralph, J.; Döppner, T.; Patel, P. K.; Thomas, C.; Tommasini, R.; Haan, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; McNaney, J.; Caggiano, J.; Hatarik, R.; Bionta, R.; and others

    2014-05-15

    High Density Carbon (HDC) is a leading candidate as an ablator material for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules in x-ray (indirect) drive implosions. HDC has a higher density (3.5 g/cc) than plastic (CH, 1 g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator with a larger inner radius for a given capsule scale. This leads to higher x-ray absorption and shorter laser pulses compared to equivalent CH designs. This paper will describe a series of experiments carried out to examine the feasibility of using HDC as an ablator using both gas filled hohlraums and lower density, near vacuum hohlraums. These experiments have shown that deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium gas filled HDC capsules driven by a hohlraum filled with 1.2 mg/cc He gas, produce neutron yields a factor of 2× higher than equivalent CH implosions, representing better than 50% Yield-over-Clean (YoC). In a near vacuum hohlraum (He = 0.03 mg/cc) with 98% laser-to-hohlraum coupling, such a DD gas-filled capsule performed near 1D expectations. A cryogenic layered implosion version was consistent with a fuel velocity = 410 ± 20 km/s with no observed ablator mixing into the hot spot.

  11. High-density carbon ablator experiments on the National Ignition Facilitya)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Ross, J. S.; Le Pape, S.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Divol, L.; Ho, D.; Milovich, J.; Pak, A.; Ralph, J.; Döppner, T.; Patel, P. K.; Thomas, C.; Tommasini, R.; Haan, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; McNaney, J.; Caggiano, J.; Hatarik, R.; Bionta, R.; Ma, T.; Spears, B.; Rygg, J. R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Dewald, E. L.; Fittinghoff, D.; Jones, O. S.; Robey, H. R.; Moody, J. D.; Khan, S.; Callahan, D. A.; Hamza, A.; Biener, J.; Celliers, P. M.; Braun, D. G.; Erskine, D. J.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Wallace, R. J.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Sater, J.; Collins, G.; Storm, E.; Hsing, W.; Landen, O.; Atherton, J. L.; Lindl, J. D.; Edwards, M. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Rinderknecht, H.; Rosenberg, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Zylstra, A.; Knauer, J. P.; Grim, G.; Guler, N.; Merrill, F.; Olson, R.; Kyrala, G. A.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nikroo, A.; Moreno, K.; Hoover, D. E.; Wild, C.; Werner, E.

    2014-05-01

    High Density Carbon (HDC) is a leading candidate as an ablator material for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules in x-ray (indirect) drive implosions. HDC has a higher density (3.5 g/cc) than plastic (CH, 1 g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator with a larger inner radius for a given capsule scale. This leads to higher x-ray absorption and shorter laser pulses compared to equivalent CH designs. This paper will describe a series of experiments carried out to examine the feasibility of using HDC as an ablator using both gas filled hohlraums and lower density, near vacuum hohlraums. These experiments have shown that deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium gas filled HDC capsules driven by a hohlraum filled with 1.2 mg/cc He gas, produce neutron yields a factor of 2× higher than equivalent CH implosions, representing better than 50% Yield-over-Clean (YoC). In a near vacuum hohlraum (He = 0.03 mg/cc) with 98% laser-to-hohlraum coupling, such a DD gas-filled capsule performed near 1D expectations. A cryogenic layered implosion version was consistent with a fuel velocity = 410 ± 20 km/s with no observed ablator mixing into the hot spot.

  12. Development of high-density helicon plasma sources and their applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinohara, Shunjiro; Hada, Tohru; Motomura, Taisei; Tanaka, Kenji; Tanikawa, Takao; Toki, Kyoichiro; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Shamrai, Konstantin P.

    2009-05-15

    We report on the development of unique, high-density helicon plasma sources and describe their applications. Characterization of one of the largest helicon plasma sources yet constructed is made. Scalings of the particle production efficiency are derived from various plasma production devices in open literature and our own data from long and short cylinder devices, i.e., high and low values of the aspect ratio A (the ratio of the axial length to the diameter), considering the power balance in the framework of a simple diffusion model. A high plasma production efficiency is demonstrated, and we clarify the structures of the excited waves in the low A region down to 0.075 (the large device diameter of 73.8 cm with the axial length as short as 5.5 cm). We describe the application to plasma propulsion using a new concept that employs no electrodes. A very small diameter (2.5 cm) helicon plasma with 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} density is produced, and the preliminary results of electromagnetic plasma acceleration are briefly described.

  13. DOE SC Exascale Requirements Review: High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Review: High Energy Physics Bethesda Hyatt, June 10, 2015 Jim Siegrist Associate Director for High Energy Physics Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy HEP Computing and ...

  14. Multi-dimensional collective effects in high-current relativistic beams relevant to High Density Laboratory Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shvets, Gennady

    2014-05-09

    In summary, an analytical model describing the self-pinching of a relativistic charge-neutralized electron beam undergoing the collisionless Weibel instability in an overdense plasma has been developed. The model accurately predicts the final temperature and size of the self-focused filament. It is found that the final temperature is primarily defined by the total beams current, while the filaments radius is shown to be smaller than the collisionless skin depth in the plasma and primarily determined by the beams initial size. The model also accurately predicts the repartitioning ratio of the initial energy of the beams forward motion into the magnetic field energy and the kinetic energy of the surrounding plasma. The density profile of the final filament is shown to be a superposition of the standard Bennett pinch profile and a wide halo surrounding the pinch, which contains a significant fraction of the beams electrons. PIC simulations confirm the key assumption of the analytic theory: the collisionless merger of multiple current filaments in the course of the Weibel Instability provides the mechanism for Maxwellization of the beams distribution function. Deviations from the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution are explained by incomplete thermalization of the deeply trapped and halo electrons. It is conjectured that the simple expression derived here can be used for understanding collsionless shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification in astrophysical plasmas.

  15. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  16. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional (UNEDF): SciDAC-2 Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Joe; Furnstahl, Dick; Lusk, Rusty; Nazarewicz, Witek; Ng, Esmond; Thompson, Ian; Vary, James

    2012-06-30

    An understanding of the properties of atomic nuclei is crucial for a complete nuclear theory, for element formation, for properties of stars, and for present and future energy and defense applications. During the period of Dec. 1, 2006 - Jun. 30, 2012, the UNEDF collaboration carried out a comprehensive study of all nuclei based on the most accurate knowledge of the strong nuclear interaction, the most reliable theoretical approaches, the most advanced algorithms, and extensive computational resources, with a view towards scaling to the petaflop platforms and beyond. The long-term vision initiated with UNEDF is to arrive at a comprehensive, quantitative, and unified description of nuclei and their reactions, grounded in the fundamental interactions between the constituent nucleons. We seek to replace current phenomenological models of nuclear structure and reactions with a well-founded microscopic theory that delivers maximum predictive power with well-quantified uncertainties. Specifically, the mission of this project has been three-fold: first, to find an optimal energy density functional (EDF) using all our knowledge of the nucleonic Hamiltonian and basic nuclear properties; second, to apply the EDF theory and its extensions to validate the functional using all the available relevant nuclear structure and reaction data; and third, to apply the validated theory to properties of interest that cannot be measured, in particular the properties needed for reaction theory.

  17. A new Skyrme energy density functional for a better description of spin-isospin resonances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roca-Maza, X.; Colò, G.; Cao, Li-Gang; Sagawa, H.

    2015-10-15

    A correct determination of the isospin and spin-isospin properties of the nuclear effective interaction should lead to an accurate description of the Gamow-Teller resonance (GT), the Spin Dipole Resonance (SDR), the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) or the Antianalog Giant Dipole Resonance (AGDR), among others. A new Skyrme energy density functional named SAMi is introduced with the aim of going a step forward in setting the bases for a more precise description of spin-isospin resonances [1, 2]. In addition, we will discuss some new features of our analysis on the AGDR in {sup 208}Pb [3] as compared with available experimental data on this resonance [4, 5, 6], and on the GDR [7]. Such study, guided by a simple yet physical pocket formula, has been developed by employing the so called SAMi-J family of systematically varied interactions. This set of interactions is compatible with experimental data for values of the symmetry energy at saturation J and slope parameter L falling in the ranges 31−33 MeV and 75−95 MeV, respectively.

  18. Dynamics of ionization-induced electron injection in the high density regime of laser wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desforges, F. G.; Paradkar, B. S. Ju, J.; Audet, T. L.; Maynard, G.; Cros, B.; Hansson, M.; Senje, L.; Persson, A.; Lundh, O.; Wahlström, C.-G.; Dobosz-Dufrénoy, S.; Monot, P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2014-12-15

    The dynamics of ionization-induced electron injection in high density (∼1.2 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}) regime of laser wakefield acceleration is investigated by analyzing the betatron X-ray emission. In such high density operation, the laser normalized vector potential exceeds the injection-thresholds of both ionization-injection and self-injection due to self-focusing. In this regime, direct experimental evidence of early on-set of ionization-induced injection into the plasma wave is given by mapping the X-ray emission zone inside the plasma. Particle-In-Cell simulations show that this early on-set of ionization-induced injection, due to its lower trapping threshold, suppresses the trapping of self-injected electrons. A comparative study of the electron and X-ray properties is performed for both self-injection and ionization-induced injection. An increase of X-ray fluence by at least a factor of two is observed in the case of ionization-induced injection due to increased trapped charge compared to self-injection mechanism.

  19. Cryogenic THD and DT layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meezan, N. B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; Divol, L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Döppner, T.; Ho, D. D.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L.; Pak, A. E.; Ross, J. S.; Thomas, C. A.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Izumi, N.; Kyrala, G. A.; Moody, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ralph, J. E.; Rygg, J. R.; Sepke, S. M.; Spears, B. K.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P. J.; Biener, J.; Bionta, R. M.; Bond, E. J.; Caggiano, J. A.; Eckart, M. J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G. P.; Hamza, A. V.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hoover, D. E.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Kroll, J. J.; McNaney, J. M.; Nikroo, A.; Sayre, D. B.; Stadermann, M.; Wild, C.; Yoxall, B. E.; Landen, O. L.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2015-06-02

    High Density Carbon (HDC or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a DT layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a THD layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightly oblate hot spot shape. Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 x 10¹⁵ neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.

  20. Cryogenic THD and DT layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meezan, N. B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; Divol, L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Döppner, T.; Ho, D. D.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; et al

    2015-06-02

    High Density Carbon (HDC or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a DT layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a THD layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightlymore » oblate hot spot shape. Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 x 10¹⁵ neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.« less

  1. Angular correlations and high energy evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2011-11-01

    We address the question of to what extent JIMWLK evolution is capable of taking into account angular correlations in a high energy hadronic wave function. Our conclusion is that angular (and indeed other) correlations in the wave function cannot be reliably calculated without taking into account Pomeron loops in the evolution. As an example we study numerically the energy evolution of angular correlations between dipole scattering amplitudes in the framework of the large N{sub c} approximation to JIMWLK evolution (the 'projectile dipole model'). Target correlations are introduced via averaging over an (isotropic) ensemble of anisotropic initial conditions. We find that correlations disappear very quickly with rapidity even inside the saturation radius. This is in accordance with our physical picture of JIMWLK evolution. The actual correlations inside the saturation radius in the target QCD wave function, on the other hand, should remain sizable at any rapidity.

  2. HIGH CURRENT ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LITVINENKO,V.N.; BEN-ZVI,I.; BARTON,D.S.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    We present the design and parameters of an energy recovery linac (ERL) facility, which is under construction in the Collider-Accelerator Department at BNL. This R&D facility has the goal of demonstrating CW operation of an ERL with an average beam current in the range of 0.1-1 ampere and with very high efficiency of energy recovery. The possibility of a future upgrade to a two-pass ERL is also being considered. The heart of the facility is a 5-cell 703.75 MHz super-conducting RF linac with strong Higher Order Mode (HOM) damping. The flexible lattice of the ERL provides a test-bed for exploring issues of transverse and longitudinal instabilities and diagnostics of intense CW electron beams. This ERL is also perfectly suited for a far-IR FEL. We present the status and plans for construction and commissioning of this facility.

  3. High Current Energy Recovery Linac at BNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vladimir N. Litvinenko; Donald Barton; D. Beavis; Ilan Ben-Zvi; Michael Blaskiewicz; J.M. Brennan; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X. Chang; Roger Connolly; D. Gassner; H. Hahn; A. Hershcovitch; H.C. Hseuh; P. Johnson; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; R. Lambiase; G. McIntyre; W. Meng; T. C. Nehring; A. Nicoletti; D. Pate; J. Rank; T. Roser; T. Russo; J. Scaduto; K. Smith; T. Srinivasan-Rao; N. Williams; K.-C. Wu; Vitaly Yakimenko; K. Yip; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; H. Bluem; A. Burger; Mike Cole; A. Favale; D. Holmes; John Rathke; Tom Schultheiss; A. Todd; J. Delayen; W. Funk; L. Phillips; Joe Preble

    2004-08-01

    We present the design, the parameters of a small test Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) facility, which is under construction at Collider-Accelerator Department, BNL. This R&D facility has goals to demonstrate CW operation of ERL with average beam current in the range of 0.1 - 1 ampere, combined with very high efficiency of energy recovery. A possibility for future up-grade to a two-pass ERL is considered. The heart of the facility is a 5-cell 700 MHz super-conducting RF linac with HOM damping. Flexible lattice of ERL provides a test-bed for testing issues of transverse and longitudinal instabilities and diagnostics of intense CW e-beam. ERL is also perfectly suited for a far-IR FEL. We present the status and our plans for construction and commissioning of this facility.

  4. Method and device for secure, high-density tritium bonded with carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wertsching, Alan Kevin; Trantor, Troy Joseph; Ebner, Matthias Anthony; Norby, Brad Curtis

    2016-04-05

    A method and device for producing secure, high-density tritium bonded with carbon. A substrate comprising carbon is provided. A precursor is intercalated between carbon in the substrate. The precursor intercalated in the substrate is irradiated until at least a portion of the precursor, preferably a majority of the precursor, is transmutated into tritium and bonds with carbon of the substrate forming bonded tritium. The resulting bonded tritium, tritium bonded with carbon, produces electrons via beta decay. The substrate is preferably a substrate from the list of substrates consisting of highly-ordered pyrolytic graphite, carbon fibers, carbon nanotunes, buckministerfullerenes, and combinations thereof. The precursor is preferably boron-10, more preferably lithium-6. Preferably, thermal neutrons are used to irradiate the precursor. The resulting bonded tritium is preferably used to generate electricity either directly or indirectly.

  5. OSCAR experiment high-density network data report: Event 1 - April 8-9, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana, M.T.; Easter, R.C.; Thorp, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    The OSCAR (Oxidation and Scavenging Characteristics of April Rains) experiment, conducted during April 1981, was a cooperative field investigation of wet removal in cyclonic storm systems. The high-densiy component of OSCAR was located in northeast Indiana and included sequential precipitation chemistry measurements on a 100 by 100 km network, as well as airborne air chemistry and cloud chemistry measurements, surface air chemistry measurements, and supporting meteorological measurements. Four separate storm events were studied during the experiment. This report summarizes data taken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the first storm event, April 8-9. The report contains the high-density network precipitation chemistry data, air chemistry data from the PNL aircraft, and meteorological data for the event, including standard National Weather Service products and radar data from the network. 4 references, 72 figures, 5 tables.

  6. PHERMEX: pulsed high energy radiographic machine emitting x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The PHERMEX facility used to provide flash radiographs of explosives and explosive-driven metal systems is described. With this facility, precision radiographs of large objects containing materials with high atomic number and high density are attainable. PHERMEX encompass the high-current, three-cavity, 30-MeV linear electron accelerator; the 50-MHz radio-frequency power source to drive the cavities; timing, and signal detection system; and a data-acquisition system. Some unique features of PHERMEX are reliability; very intense sub-microsecond bremsstrahlung source rich in 4- to 8-MeV x rays; less than 1.0-mm-diam spot size; precision determination of edges, discontinuities, and areal-mass distribution; and flash radiographs of large explosive systems close to the x-ray target. Some aspects of the PHERMEX-upgrading program are discussed. The program will result in (1) an increased electron-beam energy to about 50 MeV, (2) the use of an electron-gun pulser that is capable of producing three-time-adjustable pulses for obtaining three radiographic pictures of a single explosive event, (3) an increased electron injection energy of 1.25 MeV, (4) the capability for recording high-speed signals, and (5) the use of computers to assist the monitoring and control of the data-acquisition system and the PHERMEX accelerator.

  7. PHERMEX: Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The PHERMEX facility used to provide flash radiographs of explosives and explosive-driven metal systems is described. With this facility, precision radiographs of large objects containing materials with high atomic number and high density are attainable. PHERMEX encompasses the high-current, three-cavity, 30-MeV linear electron accelerator; the 50-MHz-radiofrequency power source to drive the cavities; timing, firing, and signal detection system; and a data-acquisition system. Some unique features of PHERMEX are reliability; very intensive submicrosecond bremsstrahlung source rich in 4- to 8-MeV x rays; less than 1.0-mm-diam spot size; precision determination of edges, discontinuities, and areal-mass distribution; and flash radiographs of large explosive systems close to the x-ray target. Some aspects of the PHERMEX-upgrading program are discussed. The program will result (1) in an increased electron-beam energy to about 50 MeV, (2) the use of an electron-gun pulser that is capable of producing three time-adjustable pulses for obtaining three radiographic pictures of a single explosive event, (3) an increased electron injection energy of 1.25 MeV, (4) the capability for recording high-speed signals, and (5) the use of computers to assist the monitoring and control of the data-acquisition system and the PHERMEX accelerator.

  8. Upward shift of the vortex solid phase in high-temperature-superconducting wires through high density nanoparticle addition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miura, Masashi; Maiorov, Boris; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Kato, Takeharu; Sato, Michio; Takagi, Yuji; Izumi, Teruo; Civale, Leonardo

    2016-02-08

    Here, we show a simple and effective way to improve the vortex irreversibility line up to very high magnetic fields (60T) by increasing the density of second phase BaZrO3 nanoparticles. (Y0.77,Gd0.23)Ba2Cu3Oy films were grown on metal substrates with different concentration of BaZrO3 nanoparticles by the metal organic deposition method. We find that upon increase of the BaZrO3 concentration, the nanoparticle size remains constant but the twin-boundary density increases. Up to the highest nanoparticle concentration (n ~ 1.3 × 1022/m3), the irreversibility field (Hirr) continues to increase with no sign of saturation up to 60 T, although the vortices vastly outnumbermore » pinning centers. We find extremely high Hirr, namely Hirr = 30 T (H||45°) and 24 T (H||c) at 65 K and 58 T (H||45°) and 45 T (H||c) at 50K. The difference in pinning landscape shifts the vortex solid-liquid transition upwards, increasing the vortex region useful for power applications, while keeping the upper critical field, critical temperature and electronic mass anisotropy unchanged.« less

  9. New High-Power Laser Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Power Laser Technology New High-Power Laser Technology December 10, 2013 - 10:38am Addthis Foro Energy partners with Dept of Energy to commercialize high power lasers for the ...

  10. APEX and ALPS, high power density technology programs in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, C.; Berk, S.; Abdou, M.; Mattas, R.

    1999-02-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1998 two new fusion technology programs were initiated in the US, with the goal of making marked progress in the scientific understanding of technologies and materials required to withstand high plasma heat flux and neutron wall loads. APEX is exploring new and revolutionary concepts that can provide the capability to extract heat efficiently from a system with high neutron and surface heat loads while satisfying all the fusion power technology requirements and achieving maximum reliability, maintainability, safety, and environmental acceptability. ALPS program is evaluating advanced concepts including liquid surface limiters and divertors on the basis of such factors as their compatibility with fusion plasma, high power density handling capabilities, engineering feasibility, lifetime, safety and R and D requirements. The APEX and ALPS are three-year programs to specify requirements and evaluate criteria for revolutionary approaches in first wall, blanket and high heat flux component applications. Conceptual design and analysis of candidate concepts are being performed with the goal of selecting the most promising first wall, blanket and high heat flux component designs that will provide the technical basis for the initiation of a significant R and D effort beginning in FY2001. These programs are also considering opportunities for international collaborations.

  11. Scalable sub-micron patterning of organic materials toward high density soft electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jaekyun; Kim, Myung -Gil; Kim, Jaehyun; Jo, Sangho; Kang, Jingu; Jo, Jeong -Wan; Lee, Woobin; Hwang, Chahwan; Moon, Juhyuk; Yang, Lin; Kim, Yun -Hi; Noh, Yong -Young; Yun Jaung, Jae; Kim, Yong -Hoon; Kyu Park, Sung

    2015-09-28

    The success of silicon based high density integrated circuits ignited explosive expansion of microelectronics. Although the inorganic semiconductors have shown superior carrier mobilities for conventional high speed switching devices, the emergence of unconventional applications, such as flexible electronics, highly sensitive photosensors, large area sensor array, and tailored optoelectronics, brought intensive research on next generation electronic materials. The rationally designed multifunctional soft electronic materials, organic and carbon-based semiconductors, are demonstrated with low-cost solution process, exceptional mechanical stability, and on-demand optoelectronic properties. Unfortunately, the industrial implementation of the soft electronic materials has been hindered due to lack of scalable fine-patterning methods. In this report, we demonstrated facile general route for high throughput sub-micron patterning of soft materials, using spatially selective deep-ultraviolet irradiation. For organic and carbon-based materials, the highly energetic photons (e.g. deep-ultraviolet rays) enable direct photo-conversion from conducting/semiconducting to insulating state through molecular dissociation and disordering with spatial resolution down to a sub-μm-scale. As a result, the successful demonstration of organic semiconductor circuitry promise our result proliferate industrial adoption of soft materials for next generation electronics.

  12. Scalable sub-micron patterning of organic materials toward high density soft electronics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Jaekyun; Kim, Myung -Gil; Kim, Jaehyun; Jo, Sangho; Kang, Jingu; Jo, Jeong -Wan; Lee, Woobin; Hwang, Chahwan; Moon, Juhyuk; Yang, Lin; et al

    2015-09-28

    The success of silicon based high density integrated circuits ignited explosive expansion of microelectronics. Although the inorganic semiconductors have shown superior carrier mobilities for conventional high speed switching devices, the emergence of unconventional applications, such as flexible electronics, highly sensitive photosensors, large area sensor array, and tailored optoelectronics, brought intensive research on next generation electronic materials. The rationally designed multifunctional soft electronic materials, organic and carbon-based semiconductors, are demonstrated with low-cost solution process, exceptional mechanical stability, and on-demand optoelectronic properties. Unfortunately, the industrial implementation of the soft electronic materials has been hindered due to lack of scalable fine-patterning methods. Inmore » this report, we demonstrated facile general route for high throughput sub-micron patterning of soft materials, using spatially selective deep-ultraviolet irradiation. For organic and carbon-based materials, the highly energetic photons (e.g. deep-ultraviolet rays) enable direct photo-conversion from conducting/semiconducting to insulating state through molecular dissociation and disordering with spatial resolution down to a sub-μm-scale. As a result, the successful demonstration of organic semiconductor circuitry promise our result proliferate industrial adoption of soft materials for next generation electronics.« less

  13. University of Oklahoma - High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skubic, Patrick L.

    2013-07-31

    The High Energy Physics program at the University of Oklahoma, Pat Skubic, Principal Investigator, is attempting to understand nature at the deepest level using the most advanced experimental and theoretical tools. The four experimental faculty, Brad Abbott, Phil Gutierrez, Pat Skubic, and Mike Strauss, together with post-doctoral associates and graduate students, are finishing their work as part of the D0 collaboration at Fermilab, and increasingly focusing their investigations at the Large Hadron Collidor (LHC) as part of the ATLAS Collaboration. Work at the LHC has become even more exciting with the recent discovery by ATLAS and the other collaboration, CMS, of the long-sought Higgs boson, which plays a key role in generating masses for the elementary constituents of matter. Work of the OUHEP group has been in the three areas of hardware, software, and analysis. Now that the Higgs boson has been discovered, completing the Standard Model of fundamental physics, new efforts will focus on finding hints of physics beyond the standard model, such as supersymmetry. The OUHEP theory group (Kim Milton, PI) also consists of four faculty members, Howie Baer, Chung Kao, Kim Milton, and Yun Wang, and associated students and postdocs. They are involved in understanding fundamental issues in formulating theories of the microworld, and in proposing models that carry us past the Standard Model, which is an incomplete description of nature. They therefore work in close concert with their experimental colleagues. One also can study fundamental physics by looking at the large scale structure of the universe; in particular the ``dark energy'' that seems to be causing the universe to expand at an accelerating rate, effectively makes up about 3/4 of the energy in the universe, and yet is totally unidentified. Dark energy and dark matter, which together account for nearly all of the energy in the universe, are an important probe of fundamental physics at the very shortest distances

  14. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alp, Ercan E.; Mooney, Timothy M.; Toellner, Thomas

    1996-06-04

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut (.alpha.=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5-30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the .mu.eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator.

  15. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.

    1996-06-04

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut ({alpha}=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5--30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the {micro}eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator. 7 figs.

  16. High energy photoproduction at the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovyn, S.

    2008-08-29

    High-energy photon-photon and photon-proton interactions at the LHC offer interesting possibilities for the study of the electroweak sector up to TeV scale and searches for processes beyond the Standard Model. First results, based on a fast LHC-like detector simulation are presented, various signals and their irreducible backgrounds are presented after applying acceptance cuts. Prospects are discussed for the Higgs boson search, detection of SUSY particles and of anomalous quartic gauge couplings, as well as for the top quark physics.

  17. High Energy Output Marx Generator Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monty Lehmann

    2011-07-01

    High Energy Output Marx Generator Design a design of a six stage Marx generator that has a unipolar pulse waveform of 200 kA in a 50500 microsecond waveform is presented. The difficulties encountered in designing the components to withstand the temperatures and pressures generated during the output pulse are discussed. The unique methods and materials used to successfully overcome these problems are given. The steps necessary to increase the current output of this Marx generator design to the meg-ampere region or higher are specified.

  18. Advanced Analysis Methods in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pushpalatha C. Bhat

    2001-10-03

    During the coming decade, high energy physics experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron and around the globe will use very sophisticated equipment to record unprecedented amounts of data in the hope of making major discoveries that may unravel some of Nature's deepest mysteries. The discovery of the Higgs boson and signals of new physics may be around the corner. The use of advanced analysis techniques will be crucial in achieving these goals. The author discusses some of the novel methods of analysis that could prove to be particularly valuable for finding evidence of any new physics, for improving precision measurements and for exploring parameter spaces of theoretical models.

  19. Channeling and dechanneling at high energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.

    1987-09-30

    The possibility of using channeling as a tool for high energy particle physics has now been extensively investigated. Bent crystals have been used as an accelerator extraction element and for particle deflection. Applications as accelerating devices have been discussed but appear remote. The major advantage in using a bent crystal rather than a magnet is the large deflection that can be achieved in a short length. The major disadvantage is the low transmission. A good understanding of dechanneling is important for applications. 43 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. High Energy Instrumentation Efforts in Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalemci, Emrah

    2011-09-21

    This work summarizes the efforts in Turkey to build a laboratory capable of building and testing high energy astrophysics detectors that work in space. The EC FP6 ASTRONS project contributed strongly to these efforts, and as a result a fully operational laboratory at Sabanci University have been developed. In this laboratory we test and develop Si and CdZnTe based room temperature semiconductor strip detectors and develop detector and electronics system to be used as a payload on potential small Turkish satellites.

  1. 16 TAC, part 1, chapter 3, rule 3.38 Well Densities | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1, chapter 3, rule 3.38 Well DensitiesLegal Abstract These regulations outline well density requirements in Texas. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 1989 Legal Citation...

  2. Durability of Low Platinum Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polevaya, Olga; Blanchet, Scott; Ahluwalia, Rajesh; Borup, Rod; Mukundan, Rangachary

    2014-03-19

    Understanding and improving the durability of cost-competitive fuel cell stacks is imperative to successful deployment of the technology. Stacks will need to operate well beyond today’s state-of-the-art rated power density with very low platinum loading in order to achieve the cost targets set forth by DOE ($15/kW) and ultimately be competitive with incumbent technologies. An accelerated cost-reduction path presented by Nuvera focused on substantially increasing power density to address non-PGM material costs as well as platinum. The study developed a practical understanding of the degradation mechanisms impacting durability of fuel cells with low platinum loading (≤0.2mg/cm2) operating at high power density (≥1.0W/cm2) and worked out approaches for improving the durability of low-loaded, high-power stack designs. Of specific interest is the impact of combining low platinum loading with high power density operation, as this offers the best chance of achieving long-term cost targets. A design-of-experiments approach was utilized to reveal and quantify the sensitivity of durability-critical material properties to high current density at two levels of platinum loading (the more conventional 0.45 mgPt.cm–1 and the much lower 0.2 mgPt.cm–2) across several cell architectures. We studied the relevance of selected component accelerated stress tests (AST) to fuel cell operation in power producing mode. New stress tests (NST) were designed to investigate the sensitivity to the addition of electrical current on the ASTs, along with combined humidity and load cycles and, eventually, relate to the combined city/highway drive cycle. Changes in the cathode electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and average oxygen partial pressure on the catalyst layer with aging under AST and NST protocols were compared based on the number of completed cycles. Studies showed elevated sensitivity of Pt growth to the potential limits and the initial particle size distribution. The ECSA loss

  3. Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles FY 2011 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage ...

  4. Research Projects in Renewable Energy for High School Student

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PROJECTS IN RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS National Renewable Energy Laboratory Education Programs 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80401 Tel: (303) 275-3044 Home page: http:...

  5. Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy savings ...

  6. Gwitchyaa Zhee Gwich'in Tribal Government Counteracts High Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gwitchyaa Zhee Gwich'in Tribal Government Counteracts High Energy Costs, Climate Challenges with Building Energy Retrofits Gwitchyaa Zhee Gwich'in Tribal Government Counteracts...

  7. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    iii Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Office of ...

  8. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery ...

  9. Technical Note: Relation between dual-energy subtraction of CT images for electron density calibration and virtual monochromatic imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: For accurate tissue inhomogeneity correction in radiotherapy treatment planning, the author previously proposed a simple conversion of the energy-subtracted computed tomography (CT) number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide ρ{sub e} range. The purpose of the present study was to reveal the relation between the ΔHU image for ρ{sub e} calibration and a virtually monochromatic CT image by performing numerical analyses based on the basis material decomposition in dual-energy CT. Methods: The author determined the weighting factor, α{sub 0}, of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion through numerical analyses of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report-46 human body tissues using their attenuation coefficients and given ρ{sub e} values. Another weighting factor, α(E), for synthesizing a virtual monochromatic CT image from high- and low-kV CT images, was also calculated in the energy range of 0.03 < E < 5 MeV, assuming that cortical bone and water were the basis materials. The mass attenuation coefficients for these materials were obtained using the XCOM photon cross sections database. The effective x-ray energies used to calculate the attenuation were chosen to imitate a dual-source CT scanner operated at 80–140 and 100–140 kV/Sn. Results: The determined α{sub 0} values were 0.455 for 80–140 kV/Sn and 0.743 for 100–140 kV/Sn. These values coincided almost perfectly with the respective maximal points of the calculated α(E) curves located at approximately 1 MeV, in which the photon-matter interaction in human body tissues is exclusively the incoherent (Compton) scattering. Conclusions: The ΔHU image could be regarded substantially as a CT image acquired with monoenergetic 1-MeV photons, which provides a linear relationship between CT numbers and electron densities.

  10. High energy electron beams for ceramic joining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turman, B.N.; Glass, S.J.; Halbleib, J.A.; Helmich, D.R.; Loehman, R.E.; Clifford, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Joining of structural ceramics is possible using high melting point metals such as Mo and Pt that are heated with a high energy electron beam, with the potential for high temperature joining. A 10 MeV electron beam can penetrate through 1 cm of ceramic, offering the possibility of buried interface joining. Because of transient heating and the lower heat capacity of the metal relative to the ceramic, a pulsed high power beam has the potential for melting the metal without decomposing or melting the ceramic. We have demonstrated the feasibility of the process with a series of 10 MeV, 1 kW electron beam experiments. Shear strengths up to 28 MPa have been measured. This strength is comparable to that reported in the literature for bonding silicon nitride to molybdenum with copper-silver-titanium braze, but weaker than that reported for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with gold-nickel braze. The bonding mechanism appears to be a thin silicide layer.

  11. Generation of very low energy-spread electron beams using low-intensity laser pulses in a low-density plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhyay, Ajay K.; Samant, Sushil Arun; Sarkar, Deepangkar; Krishnagopal, Srinivas; Jha, Pallavi

    2011-03-15

    The possibility of obtaining high-energy electron beams of high quality by using a low-density homogeneous plasma and a low-intensity laser (just above the self-injection threshold in the bubble regime) has been explored. Three-dimensional simulations are used to demonstrate, for the first time, an energy-spread of less than 1%, from self-trapping. More specifically, for a plasma density of 2x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and a laser intensity of a{sub 0}=2, a high-energy (0.55 GeV), ultrashort (1.4 fs) electron beam with very low energy-spread (0.55%) and high current (3 kA) is obtained. These parameters satisfy the requirements for drivers of short-wavelength free-electron lasers. It is also found that the quality of the electron beam depends strongly on the plasma length, which therefore needs to be optimized carefully to get the best performance in the experiments.

  12. Free Energy Calculations of Crystalline Hard Sphere Complexes Using Density Functional Theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gunawardana, K. G.S.H.; Song, Xueyu

    2014-12-22

    Recently developed fundamental measure density functional theory (FMT) is used to study binary hard sphere (HS) complexes in crystalline phases. By comparing the excess free energy, pressure and phase diagram, we show that the fundamental measure functional yields good agreements to the available simulation results of AB, AB2 and AB13 crystals. Additionally, we use this functional to study the HS models of five binary crystals, Cu5Zr(C15b), Cu51Zr14(β), Cu10Zr7(φ), CuZr(B2) and CuZr2 (C11b), which are observed in the Cu-Zr system. The FMT functional gives well behaved minimum for most of the hard sphere crystal complexes in the two dimensional Gaussian space,more » namely a crystalline phase. However, the current version of FMT functional (white Bear) fails to give a stable minimum for the structure Cu10Zr7(φ). We argue that the observed solid phases for the HS models of the Cu-Zr system are true thermodynamic stable phases and can be used as a reference system in perturbation calculations.« less

  13. Free Energy Calculations of Crystalline Hard Sphere Complexes Using Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunawardana, K. G.S.H.; Song, Xueyu

    2014-12-22

    Recently developed fundamental measure density functional theory (FMT) is used to study binary hard sphere (HS) complexes in crystalline phases. By comparing the excess free energy, pressure and phase diagram, we show that the fundamental measure functional yields good agreements to the available simulation results of AB, AB2 and AB13 crystals. Additionally, we use this functional to study the HS models of five binary crystals, Cu5Zr(C15b), Cu51Zr14(?), Cu10Zr7(?), CuZr(B2) and CuZr2 (C11b), which are observed in the Cu-Zr system. The FMT functional gives well behaved minimum for most of the hard sphere crystal complexes in the two dimensional Gaussian space, namely a crystalline phase. However, the current version of FMT functional (white Bear) fails to give a stable minimum for the structure Cu10Zr7(?). We argue that the observed solid phases for the HS models of the Cu-Zr system are true thermodynamic stable phases and can be used as a reference system in perturbation calculations.

  14. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Mizuno, Masaaki; Toyokuni, Shinya; Maruyama, Shoichi; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Adachi, Tetsuo; Kato, Masashi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2015-12-15

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established.

  15. Process and system for producing high-density pellets from a gaseous medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Christopher A.

    1999-01-01

    A process and system for producing pellets of high density carbon dioxide or other gases utilize a chamber containing a plurality of cell-like freezing compartments within which ice is to be formed. A gas desired to be frozen into ice is introduced into the chamber while the internal pressure of the chamber is maintained at a level which is below the equilibrium triple pressure of the gas. The temperature of the freezing compartments is lowered to a temperature which is below the equilibrium vapor pressure temperature of the gas at the chamber pressure so that the gas condenses into ice within the compartments. The temperature of the freezing compartments is thereafter raised so that the ice is thereby released from and falls out of the compartments as pellets for collection.

  16. OVERVIEW OF HIGH-DENSITY FRC RESEARCH ON FRX-L AT LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taccetti, J. M.; Zhang, S. Y.; Wurden, G. A.; Maqueda, R. J.; Tuszewski, M.; Siemon, R.; Begay, D.; Mignardot, E.; Sanchez, P.; Waganaar, B.; Degnan, J. H.; Sommars, W.; Grabowski, C.

    2002-10-07

    We present an overview of the FRC research on the Field Reversed configuration eXperiment – Liner (FRX-L) device at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This is a target plasma ‘injector’ to be used for magnetized target fusion (MTF) applications. MTF is an approach to fusion wherein a magnetized target plasma is compressed to fusion conditions. Our target plasma is an FRC because it has the required closed-field-line topology, and is translatable and compressible. The existing empirical database also indicates that the type of FRC required for MTF would be achievable. FRX-L includes the formation and translation of the FRC into a mock target chamber. We are currently in the process of forming the high-density FRC.

  17. Visible bremsstrahlung tomographic diagnostic for the pulsed high density field-reversed configuration experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gota, H.; Andreason, S. P.; Votroubek, G. R.; Pihl, C. J.; Slough, J. T.

    2006-10-15

    A diagnostic suite for the source section of the pulsed high density field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment has been constructed to investigate the equilibrium and stability of FRC plasmas. In particular, a visible bremsstrahlung tomographic system has been designed and implemented. Three types of tomographic analyses for FRCs are performed: a Fourier fit method (Cormack-Granetz), a maximum entropy method, and a minimum Fisher method utilizing code developed for the TCV tokamak experiment in Switzerland [Anton et al., Plasma Phys. Controled Fusion 38, 1849 (1996)]. Results from the different methods and end-on imaging from the fast-framing camera are compared showing relative agreement of FRC internal structures between all measurements.

  18. UPR/Mayaguez High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendez, Hector

    2014-10-31

    This year the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (UPRM) High Energy Physics (HEP) group continued with the ongoing research program outlined in the grant proposal. The program is centered on the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the proton-proton (pp) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The main research focus is on data analysis and on the preparation for the High Luminosity (HL) LHC or experiment detector upgrade. The physics data analysis included Higgs Doublet Search and measurement of the (1)#3; Λ0b branching fraction, (2) B meson mass, and (3) hyperon θ-b lifetime. The detector upgrade included work on the preparations for the Forward Pixel (FPIX) detector Silicon Sensor Testing in a production run at Fermilab. In addition, the group has taken responsibilities on the Software Release through our former research associate Dr. Eric Brownson who acted until last December as a Level Two Offline Manager for the CMS Upgrade. In support of the CMS data analysis activities carried out locally, the UPRM group has built and maintains an excellent Tier3 analysis center in Mayaguez. This allowed us to analyze large data samples and to continue the development of algorithms for the upgrade tracking robustness we started several years ago, and we plan to resume in the near future. This project involves computer simulation of the radiation damage to be suffered at the higher luminosities of the upgraded LHC. This year we continued to serve as a source of outstanding students for the field of high energy physics. Three of our graduate students finished their MS work in May, 2014, Their theses research were on data analysis of heavy quark b-physics. All of them are currently enrolled at Ph.D. physics program across the nation. One of them (Hector Moreno) at New Mexico University (Hector Moreno), one at University of New Hampshire (Sandra Santiesteban) and one at University of

  19. Studies on soliton energy at critical and noncritical densities of negative ions in an inhomogeneous magnetized warm plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Dhananjay K.; Malik, Hitendra K.

    2007-11-15

    Considering an inhomogeneous plasma having finite-temperature negative and positive ions, and the isothermal electrons in the presence of an external magnetic field, the solitons at noncritical and critical densities of the negative ions are studied through Korteweg-deVries (KdV) and modified Korteweg-deVries (mKdV) equations, respectively. The compressive (rarefactive) KdV solitons are found to propagate when the negative ion concentration is less (greater) than the critical density of the negative ions. At the critical density, both the compressive and the rarefactive solitons of equal amplitudes are found to occur. The energies of the compressive KdV soliton and the mKdV solitons are found to increase and that of the rarefactive KdV soliton is found to decrease with the negative ion density. Soliton energy for both the KdV and the mKdV solitons gets lowered under the effect of stronger magnetic field. The effect of ion temperature is to increase the energy of the compressive KdV soliton, whereas the energy of the rarefactive KdV soliton as well as of the mKdV solitons gets decreased. The variation of the energy with the obliqueness of the magnetic field is different for the KdV and the mKdV solitons.

  20. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  1. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, Yuiko T.; Guesto-Barnak, Donna

    1992-01-01

    A low-or no-silica, low- or no-alkali phosphate glass useful as a laser amplifier in a multiple pass, high energy laser system having a high thermal conductivity, K.sub.90.degree. C. >0.85 W/mK, a low coefficient of thermal expansion, .alpha..sub.20.degree.-300.degree. C. <80.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C., low emission cross section, .sigma.<2.5.times.10.sup.-20 cm.sup.2, and a high fluorescence lifetime, .tau.>325 .mu.secs at 3 wt. % Nd doping, consisting essentially of (on an oxide composition basis): wherein Ln.sub.2 O.sub.3 is the sum of lanthanide oxides; .SIGMA.R.sub.2 O is <5, R being Li, Na, K, Cs, and Rb; the sum of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and MgO is <24 unless .SIGMA.R.sub.2 O is 0, then the sum of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and MgO is <42; and the ratio of MgO to B.sub.2 O.sub.3 is 0.48-4.20.

  2. Innovative High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential for Clean Energy Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Can you imagine a photovoltaic module that’s able to generate and store electricity on its own? Or an electric vehicle (EV) powered by a technology more durable than the advanced batteries in today’s EVs? Innovative solid-state nanocapacitors are making this clean technology possible.

  3. Focusing monochromators for high energy synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suortti, P. )

    1992-01-01

    Bent crystals are introduced as monochromators for high energy synchrotron radiation. The reflectivity of the crystal can be calculated reliably from a model where the bent crystal is approximated by a stack of lamellas, which have a gradually changing angle of reflection. The reflectivity curves of a 4 mm thick, asymmetrically cut ({chi}=9.5{degree}) Si(220) crystal are measured using 150 keV radiation and varying the bending radius from 25 to 140 m. The width of the reflectivity curve is up to 50 times the Darwin width of the reflection, and the maximum reflectivity exceeds 80%. The crystal is used as a monochromator in Compton scattering measurements. The source is on the focusing circle, so that the resolution is limited essentially by the detector/analyzer. A wide bandpass, sharply focused beam is attained when the source is outside the focusing circle in the transmission geometry. In a test experiment. 10{sup 12} photons on an area of 2 mm{sup 2} was observed. The energy band was about 4 keV centered at 40 keV. A powder diffraction pattern of a few reflections of interest was recorded by an intrinsic Ge detector, and this demonstrated that a structural transition can be followed at intervals of a few milliseconds.

  4. Low energy high pressure miniature screw valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J.; Spletzer, Barry L.

    2006-12-12

    A low energy high pressure screw valve having a valve body having an upper portion and a lower portion, said lower portion of said valve body defining an inlet flow passage and an outlet flow passage traversing said valve body to a valve seat, said upper portion of said valve body defining a cavity at said valve seat, a diaphragm restricting flow between said upper portion of said valve body and said lower portion, said diaphragm capable of engaging said valve seat to restrict fluid communication between said inlet passage and said outlet passage, a plunger within said cavity supporting said diaphragm, said plunger being capable of engaging said diaphragm with said valve seat at said inlet and outlet fluid passages, said plunger being in point contact with a drive screw having threads engaged with opposing threads within said upper portion of said valve body such engagement allowing motion of said drive screw within said valve body.

  5. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Centers | Department of Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Case study describes an outline of energy efficiency opportunities in federal high-performance computing data centers. Download the case study. (1.05 MB) More Documents & Publications Case Study: Opportunities to Improve Energy Efficiency in Three Federal Data Centers Case Study: Innovative Energy

  6. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics: Target 2017 Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics: Target 2017 HEPlogo.jpg The NERSC Program Requirements Review "Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics" is organized by the Department of Energy's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP), Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). The review's goal is to characterize

  7. Density Log at Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Density Log at Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  8. Density Log at Gabbs Valley Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Density Log at Gabbs Valley Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Gabbs Valley...

  9. Rock Density At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Rock Density At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak Area...

  10. Density Log at Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Density Log at Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Fort Bliss...

  11. Density Log at Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Density Log at Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak...

  12. Density Log at Alum Area (Moos & Ronne, 2010) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Density Log at Alum Area (Moos & Ronne, 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Alum...

  13. Energy conversion system involving change in the density of an upwardly moving liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petrick, Michael (Jolliet, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A system for converting thermal energy into electrical energy includes a fluid reservoir, a relatively high boiling point fluid such as lead or a lead alloy within the reservoir, a downcomer defining a vertical fluid flow path communicating at its upper end with the reservoir and an upcomer defining a further vertical fluid flow path communicating at its upper end with the reservoir. A variable area nozzle of rectangular section may terminate the upper end of the upcomer and the lower end of the of the downcomer communicates with the lower end of the upcomer. A mixing chamber is located at the lower end portion of the upcomer and receives a second relatively low boiling point fluid such as air, the mixing chamber serving to introduce the low boiling point fluid into the upcomer so as to produce bubbles causing the resultant two-phase fluid to move at high velocity up the upcomer. Means are provided for introducing heat into the system preferably between the lower end of the downcomer and the lower end of the upcomer. Power generating means are associated with the one of the vertical fluid flow paths one such power generating means being a magneto hydrodynamic electrical generator.

  14. New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas Mileage Cars and Trucks New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas Mileage Cars and Trucks June 11, 2009 - ...

  15. High-energy metal air batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-energy metal air batteries Title: High-energy metal air batteries Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithiumair batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain ...

  16. Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality Molten Aluminum Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality Molten Aluminum itmdelivery.pdf (572.12 ...

  17. Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in 1500 Km3 of Sea Water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy...

  18. New Prospects in High Energy Astrophysics (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    discoveries using TeV, X-ray and radio telescopes as well as Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray arrays are leading to new insights into longstanding puzzles in high energy astrophysics. ...

  19. Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with ...

  20. Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural and Property Changes on WO3 Thin Films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reflection High-Energy ...

  1. Generation and diagnostics of pulsed intense ion beams with an energy density of 10 J/cm{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isakova, Yu. Pushkarev, A.; Khailov, I.; Zhong, H.

    2015-07-15

    The paper presents the results of a study on transportation and focusing of a pulsed ion beam at gigawatt power level, generated by a diode with explosive-emission cathode. The experiments were carried out with the TEMP-4M accelerator operating in double-pulse mode: the first pulse is of negative polarity (500 ns, 100-150 kV), and this is followed by a second pulse of positive polarity (120 ns, 200-250 kV). To reduce the beam divergence, we modified the construction of the diode. The width of the anode was increased compared to that of the cathode. We studied different configurations of planar and focusing strip diodes. It was found that the divergence of the ion beam formed by a planar strip diode, after construction modification, does not exceed 3° (half-angle). Modification to the construction of a focusing diode made it possible to reduce the beam divergence from 8° to 4°-5°, as well as to increase the energy density at the focus up to 10-12 J/cm{sup 2}, and decrease the shot to shot variation in the energy density from 10%-15% to 5%-6%. When measuring the ion beam energy density above the ablation threshold of the target material (3.5-4 J/cm{sup 2}), we used a metal mesh with 50% transparency to lower the energy density. The influence of the metal mesh on beam transport has been studied.

  2. High Density Infrared (HDI) Transient Liquid Coatings for Improved Wear and Corrosion Resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald W. Smith

    2007-07-05

    This report documents a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Materials Resources International and an industry team of participants to develop, evaluate and understand how high density infrared heating technology could be used to improve infiltrated carbide wear coatings and/or to densify sprayed coatings. The research included HDI fusion evaluations of infiltrated carbide suspensions such (BrazeCoat S), composite suspensions with tool steel powders, thermally sprayed Ni-Cr- B-Si (self fluxing alloy) and nickel powder layers. The applied work developed practical HDI / transient liquid coating (TLC) procedures on test plates that demonstrated the ability to fuse carbide coatings for industrial applications such as agricultural blades, construction and mining vehicles. Fundamental studies helped create process models that led to improved process understanding and control. The coating of agricultural blades was demonstrated and showed the HDI process to have the ability to fuse industrial scale components. Sliding and brasive wear tests showed that high degree of wear resistance could be achieved with the addition of tool steel powders to carbide particulate composites.

  3. Current Activities Assessing Butt Fusion Joint Integrity in High Density Polyethylene Piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Doctor, Steven R.; Denslow, Kayte M.

    2012-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, conducted initial studies to evaluate the effectiveness of nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing for assessing butt fusion joint integrity in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The work provided insightful information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques for detecting lack of fusion (LOF) conditions in the fusion joints. HDPE has been installed on a limited basis in American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Class 3, buried piping systems at several operating U.S. nuclear power plants and has been proposed for use in new construction. A comparison was made between the results from ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive examinations and the results from mechanical destructive evaluations, specifically the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test, for determining joint integrity. The data comparison revealed that none of the NDE techniques detected all of the lack-of-fusion conditions that were revealed by the destructive tests. Follow-on work has recently been initiated at PNNL to accurately characterize the NDE responses from machined flaws of varying size and location in PE 4710 materials as well as the LOF condition. This effort is directed at quantifying the ability of volumetric NDE techniques to detect flaws in relation to the critical flaw size associated with joint integrity. A status of these latest investigations is presented.

  4. UPR/Mayaguez High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    López, Angel M.

    2015-10-27

    For the period of sixteen years covered by this report (June 1, 1997 - July 31, 2013) the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Puerto Rico’s Mayaguez Campus (UPRM) carried out an extensive research program that included major experiments at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), the Cornell Electron-positron Collider and CERN. In particular, these were E831 (FOCUS) at Fermilab, CLEOc at Cornell and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The group’s history is one of successful execution and growth. Beginning with one faculty researcher in 1985, it eventually included four faculty researchers, one post-doctoral research associate, two undergraduates and as many as six graduate students at one time working on one of the experiments that discovered the Higgs boson. Some of this expansion was due to the group’s leveraging of funds from the Department of Energy’s core grant to attract funds from National Science Foundation programs not targeted to high energy physics. Besides the group’s research productivity, its other major contribution was the training of a large number of MS students who later went on to successful technical careers in industry as well as academia including many who obtained PhD degrees at US universities. In an attempt to document this history, this final report gives a general description of the Group’s work prior to June 1, 2010, the starting date for the last grant renewal period. Much more detail can, of course, be found in the annual reports submitted up to that date. The work during the last grant period is discussed in detail in a separate section. To summarize the group’s scientific accomplishments, one can point to the results of the experiments. Both FOCUS and CLEOc were designed to carry out precise measurements of processes involving the heavy quarks, charm and bottom. Heavy quarks are particularly interesting because, due to their mass, theoretical calculations

  5. Analysis by oxygen atom number density measurement of high-speed hydrophilic treatment of polyimide using atmospheric pressure microwave plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, S.

    2015-03-30

    This paper describes the fundamental experimental data of the plasma surface modification of the polyimide using atmospheric pressure microwave plasma source. The experimental results were discussed from the point of view of the radicals behavior, which significantly affects the modification mechanism. The purpose of the study is to examine how the value of the oxygen atom density will affect the hydrophilic treatment in the upstream region of the plasma where gas temperature is very high. The surface modification experiments were performed by setting the polyimide film sample in the downstream region of the plasma. The degree of the modification was measured by a water contact angle measurement. The water contact angle decreased less than 30 degrees within 1 second treatment time in the upstream region. Very high speed modification was observed. The reason of this high speed modification seems that the high density radical which contributes the surface modification exist in the upstream region of the plasma. This tendency is supposed to the measured relatively high electron density (~10{sup 15}cm{sup ?3}) at the center of the plasma. We used the electric heating catalytic probe method for oxygen radical measurement. An absolute value of oxygen radical density was determined by catalytic probe measurement and the results show that ~10{sup 15}cm{sup ?3} of the oxygen radical density in the upstream region and decreases toward downstream region. The experimental results of the relation of the oxygen radical density and hydrophilic modification of polyimide was discussed.

  6. Switchgrass as a High-Potential Energy Crop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Historical Perspective on How and Why Switchgrass was Selected as a “Model” High-Potential Energy Crop

  7. Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-499

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2013-10-01

    Under this CRADA NREL will support Creare's project for the Department of Energy entitled 'Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density' which involves the development of an air-flow based cooling product that increases energy density, safety, and reliability of hybrid electric vehicle battery packs.

  8. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Humid Climates Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Humid Climates School districts around the...

  9. Surface modification of structural materials by low-energy high-current pulsed electron beam treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panin, A. V. E-mail: kms@ms.tsc.ru; Kazachenok, M. S. E-mail: kms@ms.tsc.ru; Sinyakova, E. A.; Borodovitsina, O. M.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Leontieva-Smirnova, M. V.

    2014-11-14

    Microstructure formation in surface layers of pure titanium and ferritic-martensitic steel subjected to electron beam treatment is studied. It is shown that low energy high-current pulsed electron beam irradiation leads to the martensite structure within the surface layer of pure titanium. Contrary, the columnar ferrite grains grow during solidification of ferritic-martensitic steel. The effect of electron beam energy density on the surface morphology and microstructure of the irradiated metals is demonstrated.

  10. Catalyzed Nano-Framework Stablized High Density Reversible Hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Xia; Opalka, Susanne M.; Mosher, Daniel A; Laube, Bruce L; Brown, Ronald J; Vanderspurt, Thomas H; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Ronnebro, Ewa; Boyle, Tim; Cordaro, Joseph

    2010-06-30

    A wide range of high capacity on-board rechargeable material candidates have exhibited non-ideal behavior related to irreversible hydrogen discharge / recharge behavior, and kinetic instability or retardation. This project addresses these issues by incorporating solvated and other forms of complex metal hydrides, with an emphasis on borohydrides, into nano-scale frameworks of low density, high surface area skeleton materials to stabilize, catalyze, and control desorption product formation associated with such complex metal hydrides. A variety of framework chemistries and hydride / framework combinations were investigated to make a relatively broad assessment of the method's potential. In this project, the hydride / framework interactions were tuned to decrease desorption temperatures for highly stable compounds or increase desorption temperatures for unstable high capacity compounds, and to influence desorption product formation for improved reversibility. First principle modeling was used to explore heterogeneous catalysis of hydride reversibility by modeling H2 dissociation, hydrogen migration, and rehydrogenation. Atomic modeling also demonstrated enhanced NaTi(BH4)4 stabilization at nano-framework surfaces modified with multi-functional agents. Amine multi-functional agents were found to have more balanced interactions with nano-framework and hydride clusters than other functional groups investigated. Experimentation demonstrated that incorporation of Ca(BH4)2 and Mg(BH4)2 in aerogels enhanced hydride desorption kinetics. Carbon aerogels were identified as the most suitable nano-frameworks for hydride kinetic enhancement and high hydride loading. High loading of NaTi(BH4)4 ligand complex in SiO2 aerogel was achieved and hydride stability was improved with the aerogel. Although improvements of desorption kinetics was observed, the incorporation of Ca

  11. Combining harmonic generation and laser chirping to achieve high spectral density in Compton sources

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Terzić, Balša; Reeves, Cody; Krafft, Geoffrey A.

    2016-04-25

    Recently various laser-chirping schemes have been investigated with the goal of reducing or eliminating ponderomotive line broadening in Compton or Thomson scattering occurring at high laser intensities. Moreover, as a next level of detail in the spectrum calculations, we have calculated the line smoothing and broadening expected due to incident beam energy spread within a one-dimensional plane wave model for the incident laser pulse, both for compensated (chirped) and unchirped cases. The scattered compensated distributions are treatable analytically within three models for the envelope of the incident laser pulses: Gaussian, Lorentzian, or hyperbolic secant. We use the new results tomore » demonstrate that the laser chirping in Compton sources at high laser intensities: (i) enables the use of higher order harmonics, thereby reducing the required electron beam energies; and (ii) increases the photon yield in a small frequency band beyond that possible with the fundamental without chirping. We found that this combination of chirping and higher harmonics can lead to substantial savings in the design, construction and operational costs of the new Compton sources. This is of particular importance to the widely popular laser-plasma accelerator based Compton sources, as the improvement in their beam quality enters the regime where chirping is most effective.« less

  12. High Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP High Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042413_singh.pdf (1.63 MB) More Documents & Publications High Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP - FY13 Q1 High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP - FY13 Q3 High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage

  13. USDA High Energy Cost Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is accepting applications for the improvement of energy generation, transmission, and distribution facilities serving rural communities with home energy costs that are over 275% of the national average.

  14. A comparison of parametric decay of oblique Langmuir wave in high and low density magneto-plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahid, M.; Hussain, A.; Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore-54000 ; Murtaza, G.

    2013-09-15

    The parametric decay instability of an obliquely propagating Langmuir wave into the low-frequency electromagnetic shear Alfven wave and the Left-Handed Circularly Polarized wave has been investigated in an electron-ion plasma, immersed in a uniform external magnetic field. Quantum magneto-hydrodynamic model has been used to find the linear and non-linear response of a high density quantum magneto-plasma. Going to the classical limit (??0) retrieves the results for low density classical plasma. Nonlinear dispersion relations and growth rates are derived with analytically and numerically. It is observed that growth rate in the high density degenerate magneto-plasma increases exponentially, while in the low density classical case it increases logarithmically.

  15. Neutron diffraction measurements of dislocation density in copper crystals deformed at high strain rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Mala N.; Chaplot, S. L.; Rawat, S.

    2013-02-05

    Neutron diffraction measurements of the rocking curves were carried out for single crystals of copper subjected to dynamic compression at 10{sup 3}/s strain rate. The line broadening is expected to be produced by dislocations, and an analysis of this broadening gives the dislocation density. Dislocation density is found to increase with increase of pressure.

  16. Considerations for cold weather construction using high density polyethylene for corrosion control systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szklarz, K.E.; Baron, J.J.

    1995-12-01

    High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is commonly used as material for corrosion-resistant piping in the petroleum industry. It is used as thick-walled self-supporting linepipes, as internal liners for steel linepipe, and as protective jackets for insulated linepipes. In Canada, it is not uncommon for operations, such as pipeline installation, to be performed during the winter season when temperatures are in the 0 C to {minus}20 C range. Brittle failures of HDPE materials have been experienced during such sub-zero operations, particularly when pipe handling and bending is involved. This study evaluated the changes in HDPE mechanical properties within the temperature range of 10 C to {minus}40 C to understand any embrittlement phenomena that may be occurring. HDPE undergoes substantial increases in modulus and strength at lower temperatures and increasing strain rate. The changes are gradual and over a wide range of temperature with no sharp cut-off temperature at which brittle behavior will occur. Flexural properties behave in a similar manner. A notch, causing a local increased strain rate, has a significant effect on the failure behavior of HDPE material with a gradual transition in behavior of ductility and load at below 0 C.

  17. Phonon densities of states and related thermodynamic properties of high temperature ceramics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loong, C.-K.

    1998-08-28

    Structural components and semiconductor devices based on silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and gallium nitride are expected to function more reliably at elevated temperatures and at higher levels of performance because of the strong atomic bonding in these materials. The degree of covalency, lattice specific heat, and thermal conductivity are important design factors for the realization of advanced applications. We have determined the phonon densities of states of these ceramics by the method of neutron scattering. The results provide a microscopic interpretation of the mechanical and thermal properties. Moreover, experimental data of the static, structures, and dynamic excitations of atoms are essential to the validation of interparticle potentials employed for molecular-dynamics simulations of high-temperature properties of multi-component ceramic systems. We present an overview of neutron-scattering investigations of the atomic organization, phonon excitations, as well as calculations of related thermodynamic properties of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, {beta}-sialon, AlN and GaN. The results are compared with those of the oxide analogs such as SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  18. PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE DISPOSAL CELL HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE GEOMEMBRANE LONGEVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, M.

    2012-01-31

    It is anticipated that high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes will be utilized within the liner and closure cap of the proposed On-Site Disposal Cell (OSDC) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The likely longevity (i.e. service life) of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service is evaluated within the following sections of this report: (1) Section 2.0 provides an overview of HDPE geomembranes, (2) Section 3.0 outlines potential HDPE geomembranes degradation mechanisms, (3) Section 4.0 evaluates the applicability of HDPE geomembrane degradation mechanisms to the Portsmouth OSDC, (4) Section 5.0 provides a discussion of the current state of knowledge relative to the longevity (service life) of HDPE geomembranes, including the relation of this knowledge to the Portsmouth OSDC, and (5) Section 6.0 provides summary and conclusions relative to the anticipated service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service. Based upon this evaluation it is anticipated that the service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service would be significantly greater than the 200 year service life assumed for the OSDC closure cap and liner HDPE geomembranes. That is, a 200 year OSDC HDPE geomembrane service life is considered a conservative assumption.

  19. Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Nandi; M.J. Strauss; J. Snow; F. Rizatdinova; B. Abbott; K. Babu; P. Gutierrez; C. Kao; A. Khanov; K.A. Milton; H. Neaman; H. Severini, P. Skubic

    2012-02-29

    The DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, with the support from the State of Oklahoma and from the three universities, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma and Langston University, resulted in establishing of the Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP) in 2004. Currently, OCHEP continues to flourish as a vibrant hub for research in experimental and theoretical particle physics and an educational center in the State of Oklahoma. All goals of the original proposal were successfully accomplished. These include foun- dation of a new experimental particle physics group at OSU, the establishment of a Tier 2 computing facility for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Tevatron data analysis at OU and organization of a vital particle physics research center in Oklahoma based on resources of the three universities. OSU has hired two tenure-track faculty members with initial support from the grant funds. Now both positions are supported through OSU budget. This new HEP Experimental Group at OSU has established itself as a full member of the Fermilab D0 Collaboration and LHC ATLAS Experiment and has secured external funds from the DOE and the NSF. These funds currently support 2 graduate students, 1 postdoctoral fellow, and 1 part-time engineer. The grant initiated creation of a Tier 2 computing facility at OU as part of the Southwest Tier 2 facility, and a permanent Research Scientist was hired at OU to maintain and run the facility. Permanent support for this position has now been provided through the OU university budget. OCHEP represents a successful model of cooperation of several universities, providing the establishment of critical mass of manpower, computing and hardware resources. This led to increasing Oklahoma’s impact in all areas of HEP, theory, experiment, and computation. The Center personnel are involved in cutting edge research in experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of High Energy Physics with the research

  20. Ultra High Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ultra High Temperature Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Ultra High Temperature Dictionary.png Ultra High...