National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for high electricity demand

  1. What is a High Electric Demand Day?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation by T. McNevin of the New Jersey Bureau of Air Quality Planning was part of the July 2008 Webcast sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Clean Energy and Air Quality Integration Initiative that was titled Role of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Improving Air Quality and Addressing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals on High Electric Demand Days.

  2. High Electric Demand Days: Clean Energy Strategies for Improving Air Quality

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation, presented in July 2008, addressed greenhouse gas reduction goals on high electric demand days. Presenter was Art Diem of the State and Local Capacity Building Branch at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  3. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% - 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  4. Building America Top Innovations 2012: High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America solar home research that has demonstrated the ability to reduce peak demand by 75%. Numerous field studies have monitored power production and system effectiveness.

  5. A High-Resolution Spatially Explicit Monte-Carlo Simulation Approach to Commercial and Residential Electricity and Water Demand Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morton, April M; McManamay, Ryan A; Nagle, Nicholas N; Piburn, Jesse O; Stewart, Robert N; Surendran Nair, Sujithkumar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As urban areas continue to grow and evolve in a world of increasing environmental awareness, the need for high resolution spatially explicit estimates for energy and water demand has become increasingly important. Though current modeling efforts mark significant progress in the effort to better understand the spatial distribution of energy and water consumption, many are provided at a course spatial resolution or rely on techniques which depend on detailed region-specific data sources that are not publicly available for many parts of the U.S. Furthermore, many existing methods do not account for errors in input data sources and may therefore not accurately reflect inherent uncertainties in model outputs. We propose an alternative and more flexible Monte-Carlo simulation approach to high-resolution residential and commercial electricity and water consumption modeling that relies primarily on publicly available data sources. The method s flexible data requirement and statistical framework ensure that the model is both applicable to a wide range of regions and reflective of uncertainties in model results. Key words: Energy Modeling, Water Modeling, Monte-Carlo Simulation, Uncertainty Quantification Acknowledgment This manuscript has been authored by employees of UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Accordingly, the United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  6. Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie

    2014-12-01

    This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

  7. Implications of Low Electricity Demand Growth

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2014 EIA Energy Conference July 14, 2014 | Washington, DC Jim Diefenderfer, Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, & Renewables Analysis U.S. Energy Information Administration Implications of low electricity demand growth Growth in electricity use slows, but still increases by 29% from 2012 to 2040 -2% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 percent growth (3-year compounded annual growth rate) Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2014 Reference

  8. Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning Will demand resources such as energy efficiency (EE), demand response (DR), and distributed generation (DG) have ...

  9. Electricity demand in a developing country. [Paraguay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westley, G.D.

    1984-08-01

    This study analyzes the residential and commercial demand for electricity in ten regions in Paraguay for 1970-1977. Models that are both linear and nonlinear in the parameters are estimated. The nonlinear model takes advantage of prior information on the nature of the appliances being utilized and simultaneously deals with the demand discontinuities caused by appliance indivisibility. Three dynamic equations, including a novel cumulative adjustment model, all indicate rapid adjustment to desired appliance stock levels. Finally, the multiproduct surplus loss obtained from an estimated demand equation is used to measure the welfare cost of power outages. 15 references.

  10. Economic Rebalancing and Electricity Demand in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Gang; Lin, Jiang; Yuan, Alexandria

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the relationship between economic growth and electricity use is essential for power systems planning. This need is particularly acute now in China, as the Chinese economy is going through a transition to a more consumption and service oriented economy. This study uses 20 years of provincial data on gross domestic product (GDP) and electricity consumption to examine the relationship between these two factors. We observe a plateauing effect of electricity consumption in the richest provinces, as the electricity demand saturates and the economy develops and moves to a more service-based economy. There is a wide range of forecasts for electricity use in 2030, ranging from 5,308 to 8,292 kWh per capita, using different estimating functions, as well as in existing studies. It is therefore critical to examine more carefully the relationship between electricity use and economic development, as China transitions to a new growth phase that is likely to be less energy and resource intensive. The results of this study suggest that policymakers and power system planners in China should seriously re-evaluate power demand projections and the need for new generation capacity to avoid over-investment that could lead to stranded generation assets.

  11. Price-elastic demand in deregulated electricity markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2003-05-01

    The degree to which any deregulated market functions efficiently often depends on the ability of market agents to respond quickly to fluctuating conditions. Many restructured electricity markets, however, experience high prices caused by supply shortages and little demand-side response. We examine the implications for market operations when a risk-averse retailer's end-use consumers are allowed to perceive real-time variations in the electricity spot price. Using a market-equilibrium model, we find that price elasticity both increases the retailers revenue risk exposure and decreases the spot price. Since the latter induces the retailer to reduce forward electricity purchases, while the former has the opposite effect, the overall impact of price responsive demand on the relative magnitudes of its risk exposure and end-user price elasticity. Nevertheless, price elasticity decreases cumulative electricity consumption. By extending the analysis to allow for early settlement of demand, we find that forward stage end-user price responsiveness decreases the electricity forward price relative to the case with price-elastic demand only in real time. Moreover, we find that only if forward stage end-user demand is price elastic will the equilibrium electricity forward price be reduced.

  12. High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier Homes Rancho Cordoba, CA- Building America Top Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America Innovations profile describes Building America solar home research that has demonstrated the ability to reduce peak demand by 75%. Numerous field studies have monitored power production and system effectiveness.

  13. Demand Response is Focus of New Effort by Electricity Industry...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    U.S. Utilities, Grid Operators, Others Come Together in National Effort to Tackle Important New Electricity Area Demand Response is Focus of New Effort by Electricity Industry ...

  14. Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.L.; Hayhoe, K.; Jin, J.; Auffhammer, M.

    2008-04-01

    Climate projections from three atmosphere-ocean climate models with a range of low to mid-high temperature sensitivity forced by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change SRES higher, middle, and lower emission scenarios indicate that, over the 21st century, extreme heat events for major cities in heavily air-conditioned California will increase rapidly. These increases in temperature extremes are projected to exceed the rate of increase in mean temperature, along with increased variance. Extreme heat is defined here as the 90 percent exceedance probability (T90) of the local warmest summer days under the current climate. The number of extreme heat days in Los Angeles, where T90 is currently 95 F (32 C), may increase from 12 days to as many as 96 days per year by 2100, implying current-day heat wave conditions may last for the entire summer, with earlier onset. Overall, projected increases in extreme heat under the higher A1fi emission scenario by 2070-2099 tend to be 20-30 percent higher than those projected under the lower B1 emission scenario, ranging from approximately double the historical number of days for inland California cities (e.g. Sacramento and Fresno), up to four times for previously temperate coastal cities (e.g. Los Angeles, San Diego). These findings, combined with observed relationships between high temperature and electricity demand for air-conditioned regions, suggest potential shortfalls in transmission and supply during T90 peak electricity demand periods. When the projected extreme heat and peak demand for electricity are mapped onto current availability, maintaining technology and population constant only for demand side calculations, we find the potential for electricity deficits as high as 17 percent. Similar increases in extreme heat days are suggested for other locations across the U.S. southwest, as well as for developing nations with rapidly increasing electricity demands. Electricity response to recent extreme heat events, such

  15. Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ForskEL...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ForskEL (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ForskEL Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392,...

  16. Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ENS (Smart...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ENS (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ENS Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392, 9.501785...

  17. U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    Final issue of this report. - Presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand side management (DSM) activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels.

  18. Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence The work described in this paper was funded by the Office of ...

  19. Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Demand response is a tariff or program established to motivate changes in electric use by end-use customers in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to give ...

  20. Report: Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This report assesses the relationship between high levels of demand-side resources (including end-use efficiency, demand response, and distributed generation) and investment in new ...

  1. Investigation of structural changes in residential electricity demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chern, W.S.; Bouis, H.E.

    1982-09-23

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of aggregate national residential electricity demand coefficients over time. The hypothesis is maintained that the aggregate residential demand is the sum of various end-use demand components. Since the end-use composition changes over time, the demand relationship may change as well. Since the end-use composition differs among regions, the results obtained from this study can be used for making inferences about regional differences in electricity demand relationships. There are two additional sources for a possible structural change. One is that consumers may react differently to declining and rising prices, secondly, the impact of the 1973 oil embargo may have shifted demand preferences. The electricity demand model used for this study is presented. A moving regression method was employed to investigate changes in residential electricity demand over time. The statistical results show a strikingly consistent pattern of change for most of the structural variables. The most important finding of this study is that the estimated structure of residential electricity demand changes systematically over time as a result of changes in the characteristics (both durability and saturation level) of the stock of appliances. Furthermore, there is not strong evidence that the structural changes in demand occurred due to either the reversal of the declining trend of electricity prices or the impact of the 1973 oil embarge. (LCL)

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3. End-Use Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostick, Donna; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostick, D.; Belzer, D.B.; Hadley, S.W.; Markel, T.; Marnay, C.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  4. Irrigation and the demand for electricity. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddigan, R. J.; Chern, W. S.; Gallagher, C. A.

    1980-03-01

    In order to anticipate the need for generating capacity, utility planners must estimate the future growth in electricity demand. The need for demand forecasts is no less important for the nation's Rural Electric Cooperatives (RECs) than it is for the investor-owned utilities. The RECs serve an historically agrarian region; therefore, the irrigation sector accounts for a significant portion of the western RECs' total demand. A model is developed of the RECs' demand for electricity used in irrigation. The model is a simultaneous equation system which focuses on both the short-run utilization of electricity in irrigation and the long-run determination of the number of irrigators using electricity. Irrigation demand is described by a set of equations in which the quantity of electricity demanded, the average electricity price, the number of irrigation customers, and the ratio of electricity to total energy used for irrigation are endogenous. The structural equations are estimated using pooled state-level data for the period 1961-1977. In light of the model's results, the impact of changes in relative energy prices on irrigation can be examined.

  5. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    This report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels. Data is included for energy savings, peakload reductions, and costs.

  6. (Energy and electricity supply and demand)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilbanks, T.J.

    1990-10-09

    At the request of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), representing eleven international agencies which are sponsoring the 1991 Helsinki Symposium on Electricity and the Environment, I traveled to Brussels to participate in the second meeting of one of four advisory groups established to prepare for the Symposium. At the meeting, I was involved in a review of a draft issue paper being prepared for the Symposium and of the Symposium program.

  7. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D. [Global Business Reports (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it related to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  9. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chassin, David P.; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2011-12-06

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  10. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chassin, David P.; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2006-12-12

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  11. California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand September 20, 2012 - 1:15pm Addthis Ever wonder how we get the materials for the advanced batteries that power our cell phones, laptops, and even some electric vehicles? The U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) is working with California's Simbol Materials to develop technologies that extract battery materials

  12. Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Stanton W.; Sanstad, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    Will demand resources such as energy efficiency (EE), demand response (DR), and distributed generation (DG) have an impact on electricity transmission requirements? Five drivers for transmission expansion are discussed: interconnection, reliability, economics, replacement, and policy. With that background, we review the results of a set of transmission studies that were conducted between 2010 and 2013 by electricity regulators, industry representatives, and other stakeholders in the three physical interconnections within the United States. These broad-based studies were funded by the US Department of Energy and included scenarios of reduced load growth due to EE, DR, and DG. While the studies were independent and used different modeling tools and interconnect-specific assumptions, all provided valuable results and insights. However, some caveats exist. Demand resources were evaluated in conjunction with other factors, and limitations on transmission additions between scenarios made understanding the role of demand resources difficult. One study, the western study, included analyses over both 10- and 20-year planning horizons; the 10-year analysis did not show near-term reductions in transmission, but the 20-year indicated fewer transmission additions, yielding a 36percent capital cost reduction. In the eastern study the reductions in demand largely led to reductions in local generation capacity and an increased opportunity for low-cost and renewable generation to export to other regions. The Texas study evaluated generation changes due to demand, and is in the process of examining demand resource impacts on transmission.

  13. Greater fuel diversity needed to meet growing US electricity demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burt, B.; Mullins, S.

    2008-01-15

    Electricity demand is growing in the USA. One way to manage the uncertainty is to diversity fuel sources. Fuel sources include coal, natural gas, nuclear and renewable energy sources. Tables show actual and planned generation projects by fuel types. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. East Coast blizzard cuts into gasoline demand, but home electricity demand rises

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    East Coast blizzard cuts into gasoline demand, but home electricity demand rises U.S. monthly gasoline consumption declined in January, as the big winter storm that shut down many East Coast cities kept people in their homes and off the road. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said monthly gasoline consumption dropped 230,000 barrels per day in January compared to year-ago levels and that marked the first year-over-year decline in monthly gasoline use since

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures Study Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This volume details the end-use electricity demand and efficiency assumptions. The projection of electricity demand is an important consideration in determining the extent to which a predominantly renewable electricity future is feasible. Any scenario regarding future electricity use must consider many factors, including technological, sociological, demographic, political, and economic changes (e.g., the introduction of new energy-using devices; gains in energy efficiency and process improvements; changes in energy prices, income, and user behavior; population growth; and the potential for carbon mitigation).

  16. Electricity Demand Evolution Driven by Storm Motivated Population Movement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Melissa R; Fernandez, Steven J; Fu, Joshua S; Walker, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Managing the risks posed by climate change to energy production and delivery is a challenge for communities worldwide. Sea Level rise and increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters due to sea surface temperature rise force populations to move locations, resulting in changing patterns of demand for infrastructure services. Thus, Infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers while some parts of the network are underused, and these changes will create emerging vulnerabilities. Combining climate predictions and agent based population movement models shows promise for exploring the universe of these future population distributions and changes in coastal infrastructure configurations. In this work, we created a prototype agent based population distribution model and developed a methodology to establish utility functions that provide insight about new infrastructure vulnerabilities that might result from these patterns. Combining climate and weather data, engineering algorithms and social theory, we use the new Department of Energy (DOE) Connected Infrastructure Dynamics Models (CIDM) to examine electricity demand response to increased temperatures, population relocation in response to extreme cyclonic events, consequent net population changes and new regional patterns in electricity demand. This work suggests that the importance of established evacuation routes that move large populations repeatedly through convergence points as an indicator may be under recognized.

  17. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.; Zhou, Nan

    2009-05-18

    The time when energy-related carbon emissions come overwhelmingly from developed countries is coming to a close. China has already overtaken the United States as the world's leading emitter of greenhouse gas emissions. The economic growth that China has experienced is not expected to slow down significantly in the long term, which implies continued massive growth in energy demand. This paper draws on the extensive expertise from the China Energy Group at LBNL on forecasting energy consumption in China, but adds to it by exploring the dynamics of demand growth for electricity in the residential sector -- and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. This paper forecasts ownership growth of each product using econometric modeling, in combination with historical trends in China. The products considered (refrigerators, air conditioners, fans, washing machines, lighting, standby power, space heaters, and water heating) account for 90percent of household electricity consumption in China. Using this method, we determine the trend and dynamics of demandgrowth and its dependence on macroeconomic drivers at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, we present scenarios for reducing residential consumption through efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, thus allowing for a technologically realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities specifically in the Chinese context.

  18. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstract Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  19. Washington: Sustainability Training for Realtors in High Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sustainability Training for Realtors in High Demand Washington: Sustainability Training for Realtors in High Demand March 6, 2014 - 5:50pm Addthis Demand has been high for a free ...

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    End-use Electricity Demand Volume 3 of 4 Volume 2 PDF Volume 3 PDF Volume 1 PDF Volume 4 PDF NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Renewable Electricity Futures Study Edited By Hand, M.M. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Baldwin, S. U.S. Department of Energy DeMeo, E. Renewable Energy Consulting Services, Inc. Reilly, J. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mai,

  1. California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand September 20, 2012 - 1:15pm Addthis Ever ...

  2. California: Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California: Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand May 21, 2013 - 5:54pm Addthis Through funding provided by the...

  3. Electricity pricing as a demand-side management strategy: Western lessons for developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, L.J.

    1990-12-01

    Electric utilities in the Western world have increasingly realized that load commitments can be met not only by constructing new generating plants but also by influencing electricity demand. This demand-side management (DSM) process requires that electric utilities promote measures on the customer's side of the meter to directly or indirectly influence electricity consumption to meet desired load objectives. An important demand-side option to achieve these load objectives is innovative electricity pricing, both by itself and as a financial incentive for other demand-site measures. This study explores electricity pricing as a DSM strategy, addressing four questions in the process: What is the Western experience with DSM in general and electricity pricing in particular Do innovative pricing strategies alter the amount and pattern of electricity consumption Do the benefits of these pricing strategies outweigh the costs of implementation What are future directions in electricity pricing Although DSM can be used to promote increases in electricity consumption for electric utilities with excess capacity as well as to slow demand growth for capacity-short utilities, emphasis here is placed on the latter. The discussion should be especially useful for electric utilities in developing countries that are exploring alternatives to capacity expansion to meet current and future electric power demand.

  4. An integrated assessment of global and regional water demands for electricity generation to 2095

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, Evan; Kyle, G. Page; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-02-01

    Electric power plants currently account for approximately one-half of the global industrial water withdrawal. While continued expansion of the electric sector seems likely into the future, the consequent water demands are quite uncertain, and will depend on highly variable water intensities by electricity technologies, at present and in the future. Using GCAM, an integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change, we first establish lower-bound, median, and upper-bound estimates for present-day electric sector water withdrawals and consumption by individual electric generation technologies in each of 14 geopolitical regions, and compare them with available estimates of regional industrial or electric sector water use. We then explore the evolution of global and regional electric sector water use over the next century, focusing on uncertainties related to withdrawal and consumption intensities for a variety of electric generation technologies, rates of change of power plant cooling system types, and rates of adoption of a suite of water-saving technologies. Results reveal that the water withdrawal intensity of electricity generation is likely to decrease in the near term with capital stock turnover, as wet towers replace once-through flow cooling systems and advanced electricity generation technologies replace conventional ones. An increase in consumptive use accompanies the decrease in water withdrawal rates; however, a suite of water conservation technologies currently under development could compensate for this increase in consumption. Finally, at a regional scale, water use characteristics vary significantly based on characteristics of the existing capital stock and the selection of electricity generation technologies into the future.

  5. Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Power Sector

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Power Sector U.S. Department of Energy Page i Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Power Sector U.S. Department of Energy Page iii Table of Contents Executive Summary ....................................................................................................................................... v 1. Introduction

  6. Trends in electricity demand and supply in the developing countries, 1980--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, S.; Campbell, C.

    1992-11-01

    This report provides an overview of trends concerning electricity demand and supply in the developing countries in the 1980--1990 period, with special focus on 13 major countries for which we have assembled consistent data series. We describe the linkage between electricity demand and economic growth, the changing sectoral composition of electricity consumption, and changes in the mix of energy sources for electricity generation. We also cover trends in the efficiency of utility electricity supply with respect to power plant efficiency and own-use and delivery losses, and consider the trends in carbon dioxide emissions from electricity supply.

  7. Export demand response in the Ontario electricity market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peerbocus, Nash; Melino, Angelo

    2007-11-15

    Export responses to unanticipated price shocks can be a key contributing factor to the rapid mean reversion of electricity prices. The authors use event analysis - a technique more familiar from financial applications - to demonstrate how hourly export transactions respond to negative supply shocks in the Ontario electricity market. (author)

  8. Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Third Quarter 2011 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. A new tool is available to help integrate wind and solar power into the electric grid by predicting the ranges in ...

  9. Quantifying Changes in Building Electricity Use, with Application to Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Price, Phillip N.; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-11-17

    We present methods for analyzing commercial and industrial facility 15-minute-interval electric load data. These methods allow building managers to better understand their facility's electricity consumption over time and to compare it to other buildings, helping them to ask the right questions to discover opportunities for demand response, energy efficiency, electricity waste elimination, and peak load management. We primarily focus on demand response. Methods discussed include graphical representations of electric load data, a regression-based electricity load model that uses a time-of-week indicator variable and a piecewise linear and continuous outdoor air temperature dependence, and the definition of various parameters that characterize facility electricity loads and demand response behavior. In the future, these methods could be translated into easy-to-use tools for building managers.

  10. Electric power supply and demand for the contiguous United States, 1980-1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-06-01

    A limited review is presented of the outlook for the electric power supply and demand during the period 1980 to 1989. Only the adequacy and reliability aspects of bulk electric power supply in the contiguous US are considered. The economic, financial and environmental aspects of electric power system planning and the distribution of electricity (below the transmission level) are topics of prime importance, but they are outside the scope of this report.

  11. Reducing Residential Peak Electricity Demand with Mechanical Pre-Cooling of Building Thermal Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, Will; Walker, Iain; Roux, Jordan

    2014-08-01

    This study uses an advanced airflow, energy and humidity modelling tool to evaluate the potential for residential mechanical pre-cooling of building thermal mass to shift electricity loads away from the peak electricity demand period. The focus of this study is residential buildings with low thermal mass, such as timber-frame houses typical to the US. Simulations were performed for homes in 12 US DOE climate zones. The results show that the effectiveness of mechanical pre-cooling is highly dependent on climate zone and the selected pre-cooling strategy. The expected energy trade-off between cooling peak energy savings and increased off-peak energy use is also shown.

  12. Water demands for electricity generation in the U.S.: Modeling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water demands for electricity generation in the U.S.: Modeling different scenarios for the water-energy nexus Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly ...

  13. Electric shovels meet the demands for mining operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-03-15

    Rugged, intelligent shovels offer better productivity and help mine operators avoid costly downtime in a very tight market. In 2007 P & H Mining Equipment began to produce a new breed of electric mining shovels designed to help reduce operating cost in coal and other mining operations. These were designated the P & H C-Series. All have an advanced communication, command and control system called the Centurion system. Coal mining applications for this series include 4100XPCs in Australia, China and Wyoming, USA. The Centurion system provides information on shovel performance and systems health which is communicated via graphic user interface terminals to the operators cab. Bucyrus International is developing a hydraulic crowd mechanism for its electric shovels and is now field testing one for its 495 series shovel. The company has also added greater capability in the primary software in the drive system for troubleshooting and fault identification to quickly diagnose problems onboard or remotely. 4 photos.

  14. Demand Response- Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand response is an electricity tariff or program established to motivate changes in electric use by end-use customers, designed to induce lower electricity use typically at times of high market prices or when grid reliability is jeopardized.

  15. Modeling of Electric Water Heaters for Demand Response: A Baseline PDE Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Zhijie; Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Yu

    2014-09-05

    Demand response (DR)control can effectively relieve balancing and frequency regulation burdens on conventional generators, facilitate integrating more renewable energy, and reduce generation and transmission investments needed to meet peak demands. Electric water heaters (EWHs) have a great potential in implementing DR control strategies because: (a) the EWH power consumption has a high correlation with daily load patterns; (b) they constitute a significant percentage of domestic electrical load; (c) the heating element is a resistor, without reactive power consumption; and (d) they can be used as energy storage devices when needed. Accurately modeling the dynamic behavior of EWHs is essential for designing DR controls. Various water heater models, simplified to different extents, were published in the literature; however, few of them were validated against field measurements, which may result in inaccuracy when implementing DR controls. In this paper, a partial differential equation physics-based model, developed to capture detailed temperature profiles at different tank locations, is validated against field test data for more than 10 days. The developed model shows very good performance in capturing water thermal dynamics for benchmark testing purposes

  16. Price Responsive Demand in New York Wholesale Electricity Market using OpenADR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun; Kiliccote, Sila

    2012-06-01

    In New York State, the default electricity pricing for large customers is Mandatory Hourly Pricing (MHP), which is charged based on zonal day-ahead market price for energy. With MHP, retail customers can adjust their building load to an economically optimal level according to hourly electricity prices. Yet, many customers seek alternative pricing options such as fixed rates through retail access for their electricity supply. Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) is an XML (eXtensible Markup Language) based information exchange model that communicates price and reliability information. It allows customers to evaluate hourly prices and provide demand response in an automated fashion to minimize electricity costs. This document shows how OpenADR can support MHP and facilitate price responsive demand for large commercial customers in New York City.

  17. Preliminary Examination of the Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swezey, B.; Aabakken, J.; Bird, L.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, the demand for renewable electricity has accelerated as a consequence of state and federal policies and the growth of voluntary green power purchase markets, along with the generally improving economics of renewable energy development. This paper reports on a preliminary examination of the supply and demand balance for renewable electricity in the United States, with a focus on renewable energy projects that meet the generally accepted definition of "new" for voluntary market purposes, i.e., projects installed on or after January 1, 1997. After estimating current supply and demand, this paper presents projections of the supply and demand balance out to 2010 and describe a number of key market uncertainties.

  18. Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKane, Aimee; Rhyne, Ivin; Piette, Mary Ann; Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex

    2008-08-01

    In 2006, the Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated research into Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) applications in California industry. The goal is to improve electric grid reliability and lower electricity use during periods of peak demand. The purpose of this research is to begin to define the relationship among a portfolio of actions that industrial facilities can undertake relative to their electricity use. This 'electricity value chain' defines energy management and demand response (DR) at six levels of service, distinguished by the magnitude, type, and rapidity of response. One element in the electricity supply chain is OpenADR, an open-standards based communications system to send signals to customers to allow them to manage their electric demand in response to supply conditions, such as prices or reliability, through a set of standard, open communications. Initial DRRC research suggests that industrial facilities that have undertaken energy efficiency measures are probably more, not less, likely to initiate other actions within this value chain such as daily load management and demand response. Moreover, OpenADR appears to afford some facilities the opportunity to develop the supporting control structure and to 'demo' potential reductions in energy use that can later be applied to either more effective load management or a permanent reduction in use via energy efficiency. Under the right conditions, some types of industrial facilities can shift or shed loads, without any, or minimal disruption to operations, to protect their energy supply reliability and to take advantage of financial incentives. In 2007 and 2008, 35 industrial facilities agreed to implement OpenADR, representing a total capacity of nearly 40 MW. This paper describes how integrated or centralized demand management and system-level network controls are linked to OpenADR systems. Case studies

  19. Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKane, Aimee; Rhyne, Ivin; Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; Piette, MaryAnn

    2009-08-01

    In 2006, the Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated research into Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) applications in California industry. The goal is to improve electric grid reliability and lower electricity use during periods of peak demand. The purpose of this research is to begin to define the relationship among a portfolio of actions that industrial facilities can undertake relative to their electricity use. This ?electricity value chain? defines energy management and demand response (DR) at six levels of service, distinguished by the magnitude, type, and rapidity of response. One element in the electricity supply chain is OpenADR, an open-standards based communications system to send signals to customers to allow them to manage their electric demand in response to supply conditions, such as prices or reliability, through a set of standard, open communications. Initial DRRC research suggests that industrial facilities that have undertaken energy efficiency measures are probably more, not less, likely to initiate other actions within this value chain such as daily load management and demand response. Moreover, OpenADR appears to afford some facilities the opportunity to develop the supporting control structure and to"demo" potential reductions in energy use that can later be applied to either more effective load management or a permanent reduction in use via energy efficiency. Under the right conditions, some types of industrial facilities can shift or shed loads, without any, or minimal disruption to operations, to protect their energy supply reliability and to take advantage of financial incentives.1 In 2007 and 2008, 35 industrial facilities agreed to implement OpenADR, representing a total capacity of nearly 40 MW. This paper describes how integrated or centralized demand management and system-level network controls are linked to OpenADR systems. Case studies

  20. Water demands for electricity generation in the U.S.: Modeling different scenarios for the water–energy nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lu; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Patel, Pralit L.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

    2015-05-01

    Water withdrawal for electricity generation in the United States accounts for approximately half the total freshwater withdrawal. With steadily growing electricity demands, a changing climate, and limited water supplies in many water-scarce states, meeting future energy and water demands poses a significant socio-economic challenge. Employing an integrated modeling approach that can capture the energy-water interactions at regional and national scales is essential to improve our understanding of the key drivers that govern those interactions and the role of national policies. In this study, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a technologically-detailed integrated model of the economy, energy, agriculture and land use, water, and climate systems, was extended to model the electricity and water systems at the state level in the U.S. (GCAM-USA). GCAM-USA was employed to estimate future state-level electricity generation and consumption, and their associated water withdrawals and consumption under a set of six scenarios with extensive details on the generation fuel portfolio, cooling technology mix, and their associated water use intensities. Six scenarios of future water demands of the U.S. electric-sector were explored to investigate the implications of socioeconomics development and growing electricity demands, climate mitigation policy, the transition of cooling systems, electricity trade, and water saving technologies. Our findings include: 1) decreasing water withdrawals and substantially increasing water consumption from both climate mitigation and the conversion from open-loop to closed-loop cooling systems; 2) open trading of electricity benefiting energy scarce yet demand intensive states; 3) within state variability under different driving forces while across state homogeneity under certain driving force ; 4) a clear trade-off between water consumption and withdrawal for the electricity sector in the U.S. The paper discusses this withdrawal

  1. Heat wave contributes to higher summer electricity demand in the Northeast

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat wave contributes to higher summer electricity demand in the Northeast In its new energy forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects summer retail electricity prices in the Northeast to be 2.7 percent higher than last summer...mainly due to rising costs for the fuels used to generate electricity. Many households ran their air conditioners more than usual last month to try to beat the East Coast heat wave. While customers in New England are expected to use 1 percent more

  2. Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Sector

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report examines the potential infrastructure needs of the U.S. interstate natural gas pipeline transmission system across a range of future natural gas demand scenarios that drive increased electric power sector natural gas use. To perform this analysis, the U.S. Department of Energy commissioned Deloitte MarketPoint to examine scenarios in its North American Integrated Model (NAIM), which simultaneously models the electric power and the natural gas sectors. This study concludes that, under scenarios in which natural gas demand from the electric power sector increases, the incremental increase in interstate natural gas pipeline expansion is modest, relative to historical capacity additions. Similarly, capital expenditures on new interstate pipelines in the scenarios considered here are projected to be significantly less than the capital expenditures associated with infrastructure expansion over the last 15 years.

  3. Integration of Renewables Via Demand Management: Highly Dispatchable and Distributed Demand Response for the Integration of Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-11

    GENI Project: AutoGrid, in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Columbia University, will design and demonstrate automated control software that helps manage real-time demand for energy across the electric grid. Known as the Demand Response Optimization and Management System - Real-Time (DROMS-RT), the software will enable personalized price signal to be sent to millions of customers in extremely short timeframes—incentivizing them to alter their electricity use in response to grid conditions. This will help grid operators better manage unpredictable demand and supply fluctuations in short time-scales —making the power generation process more efficient and cost effective for both suppliers and consumers. DROMS-RT is expected to provide a 90% reduction in the cost of operating demand response and dynamic pricing Projects in the U.S.

  4. The Impact of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Programs on the U.S. Electricity Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek, Young Sun; Hadley, Stanton W

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of the energy efficiency (EE) and demand response (DR) programs on the grid and the consequent level of production. Changes in demand caused by EE and DR programs affect not only the dispatch of existing plants and new generation technologies, the retirements of old plants, and the finances of the market. To find the new equilibrium in the market, we use the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch Model (ORCED) developed to simulate the operations and costs of regional power markets depending on various factors including fuel prices, initial mix of generation capacity, and customer response to electricity prices. In ORCED, over 19,000 plant units in the nation are aggregated into up to 200 plant groups per region. Then, ORCED dispatches the power plant groups in each region to meet the electricity demands for a given year up to 2035. In our analysis, we show various demand, supply, and dispatch patterns affected by EE and DR programs across regions.

  5. Estimated winter 1980-1981 electric demand and supply, contiguous United States. Staff report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-12-01

    This report summarizes the most recent data available concerning projected electrical peak demands and available power resouces for the 1980-1981 winter peak period, as reported by electric utilities in the contiguous United States. The data, grouped by Regional Reliability Council areas and by Electrical Regions within the Council areas, was obtained from the Form 12E-2 reports filed by utilities with the Department of Energy on October 15, 1980 (data as of September 30). In some instances the data were revised or verified by telephone. Considerations affecting reliability, arising from Nuclear Regulatory Commission actions based on lessons learned from the forced outage of Three Mile Island Nuclear Unit No. 2, were factored into the report. No widespread large-scale reliability problems are foreseen for electric power supply this winter, on the basis of the supply and demand projections furnished by the electric utilities. Reserve margins could drop in some electric regions to levels considered inadequate for reliable service, if historical forced-outage magnitudes recur.

  6. Demand Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

  7. Influence of Climate Change Mitigation Technology on Global Demands of Water for Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Dooley, James J.; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.

    2013-01-17

    Globally, electricity generation accounts for a large and potentially growing water demand, and as such is an important component to assessments of global and regional water scarcity. However, the current suite—as well as potential future suites—of thermoelectric generation technologies has a very wide range of water demand intensities, spanning two orders of magnitude. As such, the evolution of the generation mix is important for the future water demands of the sector. This study uses GCAM, an integrated assessment model, to analyze the global electric sector’s water demands in three futures of climate change mitigation policy and two technology strategies. We find that despite five- to seven-fold expansion of the electric sector as a whole from 2005 to 2095, global electric sector water withdrawals remain relatively stable, due to the retirement of existing power plants with water-intensive once-through flow cooling systems. In the scenarios examined here, climate policies lead to the large-scale deployment of advanced, low-emissions technologies such as carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), concentrating solar power, and engineered geothermal systems. In particular, we find that the large-scale deployment of CCS technologies does not increase long-term water consumption from hydrocarbon-fueled power generation as compared with a no-policy scenario without CCS. Moreover, in sensitivity scenarios where low-emissions electricity technologies are required to use dry cooling systems, we find that the consequent additional costs and efficiency reductions do not limit the utility of these technologies in achieving cost-effective whole-system emissions mitigation.

  8. Impacts of climate change on sub-regional electricity demand and distribution in the southern United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Allen, Melissa R.; Fernandez, Steven J.; Fu, Joshua S.; Olama, Mohammed M.

    2016-07-25

    New tools are employed to develop an electricity demand map for the southeastern United States at neighborhood resolution to serve as a baseline from which to project increases in electricity demand due to a rise in global and local temperature and to population shifts motivated by increases in extreme weather events due to climate change. We find that electricity demand increases due to temperature rise over the next 40 years have a much smaller impact than those due to large population influx. In addition, we find evidence that some, sections of the national electrical grid are more adaptable to thesemore » population shifts and changing demand than others are; and that detailed projections of changing local electricity demand patterns are viable and important for planning at the urban level.« less

  9. Table A19. Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census Region and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census Region and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Million Kilowatthours)" " "," "," "," ","Sales/"," ","RSE" " "," ","Transfers","Onsite","Transfers"," ","Row" "Economic

  10. Table A26. Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census Region, Census Di

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census Region, Census Division, and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Kilowatthours)" " "," "," "," ","Sales/"," ","RSE" " "," ","Transfers","Onsite","Transfers"," ","Row" "Economic

  11. High current capacity electrical connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bettis, Edward S.; Watts, Harry L.

    1976-01-13

    An electrical connector is provided for coupling high current capacity electrical conductors such as copper busses or the like. The connector is arranged in a "sandwiched" configuration in which a conductor plate contacts the busses along major surfaces thereof clamped between two stainless steel backing plates. The conductor plate is provided with a plurality of contact buttons affixed therein in a spaced array such that the caps of the buttons extend above the conductor plate surface to contact the busses. When clamping bolts provided through openings in the sandwiched arrangement are tightened, Belleville springs provided under the rim of each button cap are compressed and resiliently force the caps into contact with the busses' contacting surfaces to maintain a predetermined electrical contact area provided by the button cap tops. The contact area does not change with changing thermal or mechanical stresses applied to the coupled conductors.

  12. Electrical Energy and Demand Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump ESPC at Fort Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, Louisiana, the space-conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lights, low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation, were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. Fifteen-minute interval data were also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. The analysis presented in this paper shows that for a typical meteorological year, the retrofits result in an electrical energy savings of approximately 25.6 million kWh, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical use in family housing. Peak electrical demand has also been reduced by about 6.8 MW, which is 40% of pre-retrofit peak demand. In addition, the retrofits save about 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the 'apparent' energy savings observed in the monitored data and are not to be mistaken for the 'contracted' energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the 'contracted' energy savings, the 'apparent' energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteri, addition of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  13. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, M. M.; Baldwin, S.; DeMeo, E.; Reilly, J. M.; Mai, T.; Arent, D.; Porro, G.; Meshek, M.; Sandor, D.

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  15. "Table A16. Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census Region, Industry"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census Region, Industry" " Group, and Selected Industries, 1991" " (Estimates in Million Kilowatthours)" " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," "," "," "," ","Sales and/or"," ","RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Transfers","Total

  16. Table 8.13 Electric Utility Demand-Side Management Programs, 1989-2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Electric Utility Demand-Side Management Programs, 1989-2010 Year Actual Peakload Reductions 1 Energy Savings Electric Utility Costs 4 Energy Efficiency 2 Load Management 3 Total Megawatts Million Kilowatthours Thousand Dollars 5 1989 NA NA 12,463 14,672 872,935 1990 NA NA 13,704 20,458 1,177,457 1991 NA NA 15,619 24,848 1,803,773 1992 7,890 9,314 17,204 35,563 2,348,094 1993 10,368 12,701 23,069 45,294 2,743,533 1994 11,662 13,340 25,001 52,483 2,715,657 1995 13,212 16,347 29,561 57,421

  17. Electric Demand Reduction for the U.S. Navy Public Works Center San Diego, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2000-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated the profitability of operating a Navy ship's generators (in San Diego) during high electricity price periods rather than the ships hooking up to the Base electrical system for power. Profitability is predicated on the trade-off between the operating and maintenance cost incurred by the Navy for operating the ship generators and the net profit associated with the sale of the electric power on the spot market. In addition, PNNL assessed the use of the ship's generators as a means to achieve predicted load curtailments, which can then be marketed to the California Independent System Operator.

  18. High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Builder Business Case: CaliforniaFlorida Production Builders - Building America Top Innovation Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile - Zero Energy-Ready Single-Family ...

  19. California: Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Using an EERE investment, Simbol Materials is co-producing electric vehicle batteries from co-produced fluids.

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures Study Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electrcity Futures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures) is an initial investigation of the extent to which renewable energy supply can meet the electricity demands of the contiguous United States1 over the next several decades. This study includes geographic and electric system operation resolution that is unprecedented for long-term studies of the U.S. electric sector. The analysis examines the implications and challenges of renewable electricity generation levels—from 30% up to 90%, with a focus on 80%, of all U.S. electricity generation from renewable technologies—in 2050. The study focuses on some key technical implications of this environment, exploring whether the U.S. power system can supply electricity to meet customer demand with high levels of renewable electricity, including variable wind and solar generation. The study also begins to address the potential economic, environmental, and social implications of deploying and integrating high levels of renewable electricity in the United States.

  1. California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    phones, laptops, and even some electric vehicles? The U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) is working with California's Simbol Materials to develop...

  2. Air-conditioning electricity savings and demand reductions from exterior masonry wall insulation applied to Arizona residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1993-06-01

    A field test involving eight single-family houses was performed during the summer of 1991 in Scottsdale, Arizona to evaluate the potential of reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption and demand by insulating their exterior masonry walls. Total per house costs to perform the installations ranged from $3610 to $4550. The average annual savings was estimated to be 491 kWh, or 9% of pre-retrofit consumption. Peak demands without and with insulation on the hottest day of an average weather year for Phoenix were estimated to be 4.26 and 3.61 kill, for a demand reduction of 0.65 kill (15%). We conclude that exterior masonry wall insulation reduces air-conditioning electricity consumption and peak demand in hot, dry climates similar to that of Phoenix. Peak demand reductions are a primary benefit, making the retrofit worthy of consideration in electric utility conservation programs. Economics can be attractive from a consumer viewpoint if considered within a renovation or home improvement program.

  3. Air-conditioning electricity savings and demand reductions from exterior masonry wall insulation applied to Arizona residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    A field test involving eight single-family houses was performed during the summer of 1991 in Scottsdale, Arizona to evaluate the potential of reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption and demand by insulating their exterior masonry walls. Total per house costs to perform the installations ranged from $3610 to $4550. The average annual savings was estimated to be 491 kWh, or 9% of pre-retrofit consumption. Peak demands without and with insulation on the hottest day of an average weather year for Phoenix were estimated to be 4.26 and 3.61 kill, for a demand reduction of 0.65 kill (15%). We conclude that exterior masonry wall insulation reduces air-conditioning electricity consumption and peak demand in hot, dry climates similar to that of Phoenix. Peak demand reductions are a primary benefit, making the retrofit worthy of consideration in electric utility conservation programs. Economics can be attractive from a consumer viewpoint if considered within a renovation or home improvement program.

  4. Where has Electricity Demand Growth Gon in PJM and What are the...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    economic conditions and environmental rules - New entry of combined cycle gas and demand response resources...will there be incentives for continued new entry? * Impending GHG ...

  5. Electrical energy and demand savings from a geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Ft. Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. 15-minute interval data was also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. This paper summarizes the electrical energy and demand savings observed in this data. Analysis of feeder-level data shows that for a typical year, the project will result in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing. Results from analysis of building-level data compare well with this figure. Analysis of feeder-level data also shows that the project has resulted in a reduction of peak electrical demand of 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak electrical demand. In addition to these electrical savings, the facility is also saving an estimated 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  6. Heat wave contributes to higher summer electricity demand in the Northeast

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drop in residential electricity use to continue through 2015 Improvements in energy efficiency in lighting and home appliances are expected to continue to push residential electricity use lower over the next two years. Electricity use by the average residential customer has been trending downward since 2006 and is expected to fall to the lowest level in more than a decade, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration EIA's new forecast shows household electricity use is expected to

  7. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeForest, Nicholas; Mendes, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris

    2013-06-02

    In much of the developed world, air-conditioning in buildings is the dominant driver of summer peak electricity demand. In the developing world a steadily increasing utilization of air-conditioning places additional strain on already-congested grids. This common thread represents a large and growing threat to the reliable delivery of electricity around the world, requiring capital-intensive expansion of capacity and draining available investment resources. Thermal energy storage (TES), in the form of ice or chilled water, may be one of the few technologies currently capable of mitigating this problem cost effectively and at scale. The installation of TES capacity allows a building to meet its on-peak air conditioning load without interruption using electricity purchased off-peak and operating with improved thermodynamic efficiency. In this way, TES has the potential to fundamentally alter consumption dynamics and reduce impacts of air conditioning. This investigation presents a simulation study of a large office building in four distinct geographical contexts: Miami, Lisbon, Shanghai, and Mumbai. The optimization tool DER-CAM (Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model) is applied to optimally size TES systems for each location. Summer load profiles are investigated to assess the effectiveness and consistency in reducing peak electricity demand. Additionally, annual energy requirements are used to determine system cost feasibility, payback periods and customer savings under local utility tariffs.

  8. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric ...

  9. Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Work on ...

  10. High thermal conductivity connector having high electrical isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nieman, Ralph C.; Gonczy, John D.; Nicol, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    A method and article for providing a low-thermal-resistance, high-electrical-isolation heat intercept connection. The connection method involves clamping, by thermal interference fit, an electrically isolating cylinder between an outer metallic ring and an inner metallic disk. The connection provides durable coupling of a heat sink and a heat source.

  11. The Boom of Electricity Demand in the Residential Sector in the Developing World and the Potential for Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

    2008-05-13

    With the emergence of China as the world's largest energy consumer, the awareness of developing country energy consumption has risen. According to common economic scenarios, the rest of the developing world will probably see an economic expansion as well. With this growth will surely come continued rapid growth in energy demand. This paper explores the dynamics of that demand growth for electricity in the residential sector and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. In 2000, only 66% of developing world households had access to electricity. Appliance ownership rates remain low, but with better access to electricity and a higher income one can expect that households will see their electricity consumption rise significantly. This paper forecasts developing country appliance growth using econometric modeling. Products considered explicitly - refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting, washing machines, fans, televisions, stand-by power, water heating and space heating - represent the bulk of household electricity consumption in developing countries. The resulting diffusion model determines the trend and dynamics of demand growth at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, the paper presents scenarios for reducing residential consumption through cost-effective and/or best practice efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, which allows for a realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities at the national or regional level. The past decades have seen some of the developing world moving towards a standard of living previously reserved for industrialized countries. Rapid economic development, combined with large populations has led to first China and now India to emerging as 'energy

  12. Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations for Achieving Them. A report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 1252 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (February 2006)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Most electricity customers see electricity rates that are based on average electricity costs and bear little relation to the true production costs of electricity as they vary over time. Demand...

  13. Examination of the Regional Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity in the United States through 2015: Projecting from 2009 through 2015 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Hurlbut, D.; Donohoo, P.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-06-01

    This report examines the balance between the demand and supply of new renewable electricity in the United States on a regional basis through 2015. It expands on a 2007 NREL study that assessed the supply and demand balance on a national basis. As with the earlier study, this analysis relies on estimates of renewable energy supplies compared to demand for renewable energy generation needed to meet existing state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies in 28 states, as well as demand by consumers who voluntarily purchase renewable energy. However, it does not address demand by utilities that may procure cost-effective renewables through an integrated resource planning process or otherwise.

  14. "Table A25. Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census Region, Census Division, Industry"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census Region, Census Division, Industry" " Group, and Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Kilowatthours)" " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," "," "," "," ","Sales and/or"," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","

  15. FMC high power density electric drive technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    FMC has developed a unique capability in energy-efficient, high-performance AC induction electric drive systems for electric and hybrid vehicles. These drives will not only be important to future military ground combat vehicles, but will also provide significant competitive advantages to industrial and commercial machinery and vehicles. The product line under development includes drive motors and associated power converters directed at three power/vehicle weight classes. These drive systems cover a broad spectrum of potential vehicle applications, ranging from light pickup trucks to full-size transit buses. The drive motors and power converters are described.

  16. High slot utilization systems for electric machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S

    2009-06-23

    Two new High Slot Utilization (HSU) Systems for electric machines enable the use of form wound coils that have the highest fill factor and the best use of magnetic materials. The epoxy/resin/curing treatment ensures the mechanical strength of the assembly of teeth, core, and coils. In addition, the first HSU system allows the coil layers to be moved inside the slots for the assembly purpose. The second system uses the slided-in teeth instead of the plugged-in teeth. The power density of the electric machine that uses either system can reach its highest limit.

  17. Electricity Demand of PHEVs Operated by Private Households and Commercial Fleets: Effects of Driving and Charging Behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Matthew Shirk; Ken Kurani; Casey Quinn; Jamie Davies

    2010-11-01

    Automotive and energy researchers have made considerable efforts to predict the impact of plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) charging on the electrical grid. This work has been done primarily through computer modeling and simulation. The US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), in partnership with the University of California at Davis’s Institute for Transportation Stuides, have been collecting data from a diverse fleet of PHEVs. The AVTA is conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory for DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. This work provides the opportunity to quantify the petroleum displacement potential of early PHEV models, and also observe, rather than simulate, the charging behavior of vehicle users. This paper presents actual charging behavior and the resulting electricity demand from these PHEVs operating in undirected, real-world conditions. Charging patterns are examined for both commercial-use and personal-use vehicles. Underlying reasons for charging behavior in both groups are also presented.

  18. Efforts to Harmonize Gas Pipeline Operations with the Demands of the Electricity Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costello, Ken

    2006-12-15

    A possible future course of action is for pipelines to continue their efforts to provide new services with FERC approval. Over time, pipelines could satisfy power generators by giving them the flexibility and services they desire and for which they are willing to pay. Another possibility is that FERC will enact new rules governing regional electricity markets that would function similarly to nationwide business practices. (author)

  19. Demand for Food for People in Need Remains High Throughout the Year |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Demand for Food for People in Need Remains High Throughout the Year Demand for Food for People in Need Remains High Throughout the Year December 24, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Pictured are donations the Office of Human Capital at EM headquarters provided to the campaign. Pictured are donations the Office of Human Capital at EM headquarters provided to the campaign. WASHINGTON, D.C. - EM and its field sites donated 53,630 pounds - or 27 tons - of non-perishable items to a

  20. Optimization of Ventilation Energy Demands and Indoor Air Quality in High-Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hun, Diana E; Jackson, Mark C; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    High-performance homes require that ventilation energy demands and indoor air quality (IAQ) be simultaneously optimized. We attempted to bridge these two areas by conducting tests in a research house located in Oak Ridge, TN, that was 20 months old, energy-efficient (i.e., expected to consume 50% less energy than a house built per the 2006 IRC), tightly-built (i.e., natural ventilation rate ~0.02 h-1), unoccupied, and unfurnished. We identified air pollutants of concern in the test home that could generally serve as indicators of IAQ, and conduced field experiments and computer simulations to determine the effectiveness and energy required by various techniques that lessened the concentration of these contaminants. Formaldehyde was selected as the main pollutant of concern among the contaminants that were sampled in the initial survey because it was the only compound that showed concentrations that were greater than the recommended exposure levels. Field data indicate that concentrations were higher during the summer primarily because emissions from sources rise with increases in temperature. Furthermore, supply ventilation and gas-phase filtration were effective means to reduce formaldehyde concentrations; however, exhaust ventilation had minimal influence on this pollutant. Results from simulations suggest that formaldehyde concentrations obtained while ventilating per ASHRAE 62.2-2010 could be decreased by about 20% from May through September through three strategies: 1) increasing ASHRAE supply ventilation by a factor of two, 2) reducing the thermostat setpoint from 76 to 74 F, or 3) running a gas-phase filtration system while decreasing supply ventilation per ASHRAE by half. In the mixed-humid climate of Oak Ridge, these strategies caused increases in electricity cost of ~$5 to ~$15/month depending on outdoor conditions.

  1. Demand Response | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response Demand Response Demand Response Demand response provides an opportunity for consumers to play a significant role in the operation of the electric grid by reducing or shifting their electricity usage during peak periods in response to time-based rates or other forms of financial incentives. Demand response programs are being used by electric system planners and operators as resource options for balancing supply and demand. Such programs can lower the cost of electricity in

  2. High pressure electrical insulated feed thru connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oeschger, Joseph E.; Berkeland, James E.

    1979-11-13

    A feed-thru type hermetic electrical connector including at least one connector pin feeding through an insulator block within the metallic body of the connector shell. A compression stop arrangement coaxially disposed about the insulator body is brazed to the shell, and the shoulder on the insulator block bears against this top in a compression mode, the high pressure or internal connector being at the opposite end of the shell. Seals between the pin and an internal bore at the high pressure end of the insulator block and between the insulator block and the metallic shell at the high pressure end are hermetically brazed in place, the first of these also functioning to transfer the axial compressive load without permitting appreciable shear action between the pin and insulator block.

  3. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries ...

  4. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  5. Impacts of Rising Air Temperatures and Emissions Mitigation on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States. A Multi-Model Comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-06-10

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. Our present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. Moreover, the increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  6. Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, Jim; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-10-09

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Yet fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. The present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. The increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  7. Erratum to: Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, Jim; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-10-07

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Yet fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. The present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. The increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  8. Impacts of Rising Air Temperatures and Emissions Mitigation on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States. A Multi-Model Comparison

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; et al

    2015-06-10

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. Our present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effectsmore » of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. Moreover, the increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.« less

  9. High density electrical card connector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haggard, J. Eric; Trotter, Garrett R.

    2000-01-01

    An electrical circuit board card connection system is disclosed which comprises a wedge-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. An extrusion along the edge of the circuit board mates with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit board during insertion/extraction and provides a constant mating force once the circuit board is positioned and the wedge inserted. The disclosed connection system is a simple solution to the need for a greater number of electrical signal connections.

  10. Water Impacts of High Solar PV Electricity Penetration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Impacts of High Solar PV Electricity Penetration Jordan Macknick and Stuart Cohen National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Technical Report NRELTP-6A20-63011 September...

  11. Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles FY 2011 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage ...

  12. Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules Discusses ...

  13. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, " ,"2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts and 2005 Base Year)" ,"Projected Monthly Base","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  14. Configuring load as a resource for competitive electricity markets--Review of demand response programs in the U.S. and around the world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, Grayson C.

    2002-09-01

    The restructuring of regional and national electricity markets in the U.S. and around the world has been accompanied by numerous problems, including generation capacity shortages, transmission congestion, wholesale price volatility, and reduced system reliability. These problems have created new opportunities for technologies and business approaches that allow load serving entities and other aggregators to control and manage the load patterns of wholesale and retail end-users they serve. Demand Response Programs, once called Load Management, have re-emerged as an important element in the fine-tuning of newly restructured electricity markets. During the summers of 1999 and 2001 they played a vital role in stabilizing wholesale markets and providing a hedge against generation shortfalls throughout the U.S.A. Demand Response Programs include ''traditional'' capacity reservation and interruptible/curtailable rates programs as well as voluntary demand bidding programs offered by either Load Serving Entities (LSEs) or regional Independent System Operators (ISOs). The Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) has been monitoring the development of new types of Demand Response Programs both in the U.S. and around the world. This paper provides a survey and overview of the technologies and program designs that make up these emerging and important new programs.

  15. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a high energy lithium based technology with targets of ...

  16. Tensile and electrical properties of high-strength high-conductivity copper alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Eatherly, W.S.

    1998-09-01

    Electrical conductivity and tensile properties have been measured on an extruded and annealed CuCrNb dispersion strengthened copper alloy which has been developed for demanding aerospace high heat flux applications. The properties of this alloy are somewhat inferior to GlidCop dispersion strengthened copper and prime-aged CuCrZr over the temperature range of 20--500 C. However, if the property degradation in CuCrZr due to joining operations and the anisotropic properties of GlidCop in the short transverse direction are taken into consideration, CuCrNb may be a suitable alternative material for high heat flux structural applications in fusion energy devices. The electrical conductivity and tensile properties of CuCrZr that was solution annealed and then simultaneously aged and diffusion bonded are also summarized. A severe reduction in tensile elongation is observed in the diffusion bonded joint, particularly if a thin copper shim is not placed in the diffusion bondline.

  17. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoff, Brian Douglas; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  18. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  19. Implications of High Renewable Electricity Penetration in the U.S. for Water Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Land-Use, and Materials Supply

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Recent work found that renewable energy could supply 80% of electricity demand in the contiguous United States in 2050 at the hourly level. This paper explores some of the implications of achieving such high levels of renewable electricity for supply chains and the environment in scenarios with renewable supply up to such levels. Transitioning to high renewable electricity supply would lead to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and water use, with only modest land-use implications. While renewable energy expansion implies moderate growth of the renewable electricity supply chains, no insurmountable long-term constraints to renewable electricity technology manufacturing capacity or materials supply are identified.

  20. Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules | Department of Energy Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules Discusses progress toward the fabrication of a skutterudite-based TE module and provides module performance data under operating conditions similar to those for automotive applications deer11_salvador.pdf (2.68

  1. Gaseous insulators for high voltage electrical equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; James, David R.; Pace, Marshall O.; Pai, Robert Y.

    1979-01-01

    Gaseous insulators comprise compounds having high attachment cross sections for electrons having energies in the 0-1.3 electron volt range. Multi-component gaseous insulators comprise compounds and mixtures having overall high electron attachment cross sections in the 0-1.3 electron volt range and moderating gases having high cross sections for inelastic interactions with electrons of energies 1-4 electron volts. Suitable electron attachment components include hexafluorobutyne, perfluorobutene-2, perfluorocyclobutane, perfluorodimethylcyclobutane, perfluorocyclohexene, perfluoromethylcyclohexane, hexafluorobutadiene, perfluoroheptene-1 and hexafluoroazomethane. Suitable moderating gases include N.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The gaseous insulating mixture can also contain SF.sub.6, perfluoropropane and perfluorobenzene.

  2. Gaseous insulators for high voltage electrical equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; James, David R.; Pace, Marshall O.; Pai, Robert Y.

    1981-01-01

    Gaseous insulators comprise compounds having high attachment cross sections for electrons having energies in the 0-1.3 electron volt range. Multi-component gaseous insulators comprise compounds and mixtures having overall high electron attachment cross sections in the 0-1.3 electron volt range and moderating gases having high cross sections for inelastic interactions with electrons of energies 1-4 electron volts. Suitable electron attachment components include hexafluorobutyne, perfluorobutene-2, perfluorocyclobutane, perfluorodimethylcyclobutane, perfluorocyclohexene, perfluoromethylcyclohexane, hexafluorobutadiene, perfluoroheptene-1 and hexafluoroazomethane. Suitable moderating gases include N.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The gaseous insulating mixture can also contain SF.sub.6, perfluoropropane and perfluorobenzene.

  3. High-frequency electric field measurement using a toroidal antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ki Ha

    2002-01-01

    A simple and compact method and apparatus for detecting high frequency electric fields, particularly in the frequency range of 1 MHz to 100 MHz, uses a compact toroidal antenna. For typical geophysical applications the sensor will be used to detect electric fields for a wide range of spectrum starting from about 1 MHz, in particular in the frequency range between 1 to 100 MHz, to detect small objects in the upper few meters of the ground. Time-varying magnetic fields associated with time-varying electric fields induce an emf (voltage) in a toroidal coil. The electric field at the center of (and perpendicular to the plane of) the toroid is shown to be linearly related to this induced voltage. By measuring the voltage across a toroidal coil one can easily and accurately determine the electric field.

  4. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Ghatikar, Girish; Ni, Chun Chun; Dudley, Junqiao; Martin, Phil; Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  5. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6" ,"Released: February 7, 2008" ,"Next Update: October 2008" ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 " ,"(Megawatts and 2006 Base Year)" ,"Projected Monthly Base","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  6. Easily disassembled electrical connector for high voltage, high frequency connections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milner, J.R.

    1994-05-10

    An easily accessible electrical connector capable of rapid assembly and disassembly is described wherein a wide metal conductor sheet may be evenly contacted over the entire width of the conductor sheet by opposing surfaces on the connector which provide an even clamping pressure against opposite surfaces of the metal conductor sheet using a single threaded actuating screw. 13 figures.

  7. Easily disassembled electrical connector for high voltage, high frequency connections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milner, Joseph R.

    1994-01-01

    An easily accessible electrical connector capable of rapid assembly and disassembly wherein a wide metal conductor sheet may be evenly contacted over the entire width of the conductor sheet by opposing surfaces on the connector which provide an even clamping pressure against opposite surfaces of the metal conductor sheet using a single threaded actuating screw.

  8. High voltage electric substation performance in earthquakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eidinger, J.; Ostrom, D.; Matsuda, E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines the performance of several types of high voltage substation equipment in past earthquakes. Damage data is provided in chart form. This data is then developed into a tool for estimating the performance of a substation subjected to an earthquake. First, suggests are made about the development of equipment class fragility curves that represent the expected earthquake performance of different voltages and types of equipment. Second, suggestions are made about how damage to individual pieces of equipment at a substation likely affects the post-earthquake performance of the substation as a whole. Finally, estimates are provided as to how quickly a substation, at various levels of damage, can be restored to operational service after the earthquake.

  9. High-speed electrical motor evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-03

    Under this task, MTI conducted a general review of state-of-the-art high-speed motors. The purpose of this review was to assess the operating parameters, limitations and performance of existing motor designs, and to establish commercial sources for a motor compatible with the requirements of the Brayton-cycle system. After the motor requirements were established, a list of motor types, manufacturers and designs capable of achieving the requisite performance was compiled. This list was based on an in-house evaluation of designs. Following the establishment of these options, a technical evaluation of the designs selected was conducted. In parallel with their evaluations, MTI focused on the establishment of commercial sources.

  10. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Chang, Wen-Kuei; Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-05-01

    Buildings consume more than one third of the world?s total primary energy. Weather plays a unique and significant role as it directly affects the thermal loads and thus energy performance of buildings. The traditional simulated energy performance using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data represents the building performance for a typical year, but not necessarily the average or typical long-term performance as buildings with different energy systems and designs respond differently to weather changes. Furthermore, the single-year TMY simulations do not provide a range of results that capture yearly variations due to changing weather, which is important for building energy management, and for performing risk assessments of energy efficiency investments. This paper employs large-scale building simulation (a total of 3162 runs) to study the weather impact on peak electricity demand and energy use with the 30-year (1980 to 2009) Actual Meteorological Year (AMY) weather data for three types of office buildings at two design efficiency levels, across all 17 ASHRAE climate zones. The simulated results using the AMY data are compared to those from the TMY3 data to determine and analyze the differences. Besides further demonstration, as done by other studies, that actual weather has a significant impact on both the peak electricity demand and energy use of buildings, the main findings from the current study include: 1) annual weather variation has a greater impact on the peak electricity demand than it does on energy use in buildings; 2) the simulated energy use using the TMY3 weather data is not necessarily representative of the average energy use over a long period, and the TMY3 results can be significantly higher or lower than those from the AMY data; 3) the weather impact is greater for buildings in colder climates than warmer climates; 4) the weather impact on the medium-sized office building was the greatest, followed by the large office and then the small

  11. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-06-20

    This paper describes strategies that can be used in commercial buildings to temporarily reduce electric load in response to electric grid emergencies in which supplies are limited or in response to high prices that would be incurred if these strategies were not employed. The demand response strategies discussed herein are based on the results of three years of automated demand response field tests in which 28 commercial facilities with an occupied area totaling over 11 million ft{sup 2} were tested. Although the demand response events in the field tests were initiated remotely and performed automatically, the strategies used could also be initiated by on-site building operators and performed manually, if desired. While energy efficiency measures can be used during normal building operations, demand response measures are transient; they are employed to produce a temporary reduction in demand. Demand response strategies achieve reductions in electric demand by temporarily reducing the level of service in facilities. Heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting are the systems most commonly adjusted for demand response in commercial buildings. The goal of demand response strategies is to meet the electric shed savings targets while minimizing any negative impacts on the occupants of the buildings or the processes that they perform. Occupant complaints were minimal in the field tests. In some cases, ''reductions'' in service level actually improved occupant comfort or productivity. In other cases, permanent improvements in efficiency were discovered through the planning and implementation of ''temporary'' demand response strategies. The DR strategies that are available to a given facility are based on factors such as the type of HVAC, lighting and energy management and control systems (EMCS) installed at the site.

  12. Calibration-free electrical conductivity measurements for highly conductive slags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MACDONALD,CHRISTOPHER J.; GAO,HUANG; PAL,UDAY B.; VAN DEN AVYLE,JAMES A.; MELGAARD,DAVID K.

    2000-05-01

    This research involves the measurement of the electrical conductivity (K) for the ESR (electroslag remelting) slag (60 wt.% CaF{sub 2} - 20 wt.% CaO - 20 wt.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) used in the decontamination of radioactive stainless steel. The electrical conductivity is measured with an improved high-accuracy-height-differential technique that requires no calibration. This method consists of making continuous AC impedance measurements over several successive depth increments of the coaxial cylindrical electrodes in the ESR slag. The electrical conductivity is then calculated from the slope of the plot of inverse impedance versus the depth of the electrodes in the slag. The improvements on the existing technique include an increased electrochemical cell geometry and the capability of measuring high precision depth increments and the associated impedances. These improvements allow this technique to be used for measuring the electrical conductivity of highly conductive slags such as the ESR slag. The volatilization rate and the volatile species of the ESR slag measured through thermogravimetric (TG) and mass spectroscopy analysis, respectively, reveal that the ESR slag composition essentially remains the same throughout the electrical conductivity experiments.

  13. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renee Forney (Acting) About Us Renee Forney (Acting) - Deputy CIO for Cybersecurity

    Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures Volume 1 of 4 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Volume 2 PDF Volume 3 PDF Volume 1 PDF Volume 4 PDF Renewable Electricity Futures Study Edited By Hand, M.M. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Baldwin, S. U.S.

  14. Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Sector Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Sector This ...

  15. Method for improving performance of highly stressed electrical insulating structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Michael J.; Goerz, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Removing the electrical field from the internal volume of high-voltage structures; e.g., bushings, connectors, capacitors, and cables. The electrical field is removed from inherently weak regions of the interconnect, such as between the center conductor and the solid dielectric, and places it in the primary insulation. This is accomplished by providing a conductive surface on the inside surface of the principal solid dielectric insulator surrounding the center conductor and connects the center conductor to this conductive surface. The advantage of removing the electric fields from the weaker dielectric region to a stronger area improves reliability, increases component life and operating levels, reduces noise and losses, and allows for a smaller compact design. This electric field control approach is currently possible on many existing products at a modest cost. Several techniques are available to provide the level of electric field control needed. Choosing the optimum technique depends on material, size, and surface accessibility. The simplest deposition method uses a standard electroless plating technique, but other metalization techniques include vapor and energetic deposition, plasma spraying, conductive painting, and other controlled coating methods.

  16. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  17. Demand Response (transactional control) - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Demand Response (transactional control) Pacific Northwest ...

  18. Distributed Automated Demand Response - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Distributed Automated Demand Response Lawrence Livermore ...

  19. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-10-23

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion.

  20. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.; Scott, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe.sub.M * to form XeBr*.

  1. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, R.C.; Scott, P.B.

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm is disclosed. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr, is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe/sub M/ to form XeBr.

  2. High-frequency electric field measurement using a toroidal antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the author describes an innovative method of measuring high-frequency electric fields using a toroid. For typical geophysical applications the new sensor will detect electric fields for a wide range of spectrum starting from 1.0 MHz. This window, in particular the lower frequency range between 1.0 to 100 MHz, has not been used for existing electromagnetic or radar systems to detect small objects in the upper few meters of the ground. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) can be used successfully in this depth range if the ground is resistive but most soils are, in fact, conductive (0.01 to 1.0 S/m) rendering GPR inefficient. Other factors controlling the resolution of GPR system for small objects is the spatial averaging inherent in the electric dipole antenna and the scattering caused by soil inhomogeneities of dimensions comparable to the wavelength (and antenna size). For maximum resolution it is desirable to use the highest frequencies but the scattering is large and target identification is poor. Time-varying magnetic fields induce an emf (voltage) in a toroid. The electric field at the center of the toroid is shown to be linearly related to this induced voltage. By measuring the voltage across a toroid one can easily and accurately determine the electric field. The new sensor will greatly simplify the cumbersome procedure involved with GPR measurements with its center frequency less than 100 MHz. The overall size of the toroidal sensor can be as small as a few inches. It is this size advantage that will not only allow easy fabrication and deployment of multi-component devices either on the surface or in a borehole, but it will render greatly improved resolution over conventional systems.

  3. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for both reliability and economic conditions.

  4. Demand Dispatch-Intelligent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demand Dispatch-Intelligent Demand for a More Efficient Grid 10 August 2011 DOE/NETL- DE-FE0004001 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Prepared by: National Energy Technology Laboratory Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal

  5. Demand Response

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response Assessment for Eastern Interconnection Youngsun Baek, Stanton W. Hadley, Rocio Martinez, Gbadebo Oladosu, Alexander M. Smith, Fran Li, Paul Leiby and Russell Lee ...

  6. Toughened Graphite Electrode for High Heat Electric Arc Furnaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ORNL to melt steel, titanium, and other scrap metal in industrial electric arc furnaces. ... Applications and Industries Electric arc furnace steel manufacturing Steel refinement and ...

  7. Analysis of highly-efficient electric residential HPWHs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D; Murphy, Richard W; Rice, C Keith; Shen, Bo; Gao, Zhiming

    2011-09-01

    A scoping level analysis was conducted to identify electric HPWH concepts that have the potential to achieve or exceed 30% source energy savings compared to a gas tankless water heater (GTWH) representative of the type represented in version 0.9.5.2 beta of the BEopt software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The analysis was limited to evaluation of options to improve the energy efficiency of electric HPWH product designs currently on the market in the US. The report first defines the baseline GTWH system and determines its efficiency (source-energy-based adjusted or derated EF of ~0.71). High efficiency components (compressors, pumps, fans, heat exchangers, etc.) were identified and applied to current US HPWH products and analyzed to determine the viability of reaching the target EF. The target site-based energy factor (EF) required for an electric HPWH necessary to provide 30% source energy savings compared to the GTWH baseline unit is then determined to be ~3.19.

  8. Apparatus for high speed rotation of electrically operated devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Keith E.; Rogus, Arnold J.

    1976-10-26

    Most high speed centrifuges employ a relatively small diameter elongate flexible drive shaft, sometimes called a "quill" shaft. These relatively slender shafts are flexible to absorb vibration as the assembly passes through speeds of resonance and to permit re-alignment of the axis of rotation of the shaft and the rotor driven thereby in the event the center of mass of the rotor and shaft assembly is displaced from the nominal axis of the rotation. To use such an apparatus for testing electrical devices and components, electrical conductors for wires are passed from a slip ring assembly located at an end of the quill shaft remote from the rotor and longitudinally alongside the quill shaft to the electrical device mounted on the rotor. The longitudinally extending conductors are supported against the radially outward directed centrifugal forces by a plurality of strong, self-lubricating, slightly compressible wafers or washers co-axially stacked on the slender shaft and provided with radially offset longitudinally aligned openings to support the longitudinally extending conductors. The conductors are supported against the centrifugal forces and thus protected from rupture or other damage without restricting or constraining the essential flexure or bending of the drive shaft.

  9. Emerging Issues and Challenges with Integrating High Levels of Solar into the Electrical Generation and Transmission Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Increasing the use of grid-flexibility options (improved grid management, demand response, and energy storage) could enable 25% or higher penetration of PV at low costs (see Denholm et al. 2016). Considering the large-scale integration of solar into electric-power systems complicates the calculation of the value of solar. In fact a comprehensive examination reveals that the value of solar technologies—or any other power-system technology or operating strategy—can only be understood in the context of the generation system as a whole. This is well illustrated by analysis of curtailment at high PV penetrations within the bulk power and transmission systems. As the deployment of PV increases, it is possible that during some sunny midday periods due to limited flexibility of conventional generators, system operators would need to reduce (curtail) PV output in order to maintain the crucial balance between electric supply and demand. As a result, PV’s value and cost competitiveness would degrade. For example, for utility-scale PV with a baseline SunShot LCOE of 6¢/kWh, increasing the annual energy demand met by solar energy from 10% to 20% would increase the marginal LCOE of PV from 6¢/kWh to almost 11¢/kWh in a California grid system with limited flexibility. However, this loss of value could be stemmed by increasing system flexibility via enhanced control of variable-generation resources, added energy storage, and the ability to motivate more electricity consumers to shift consumption to lower-demand periods. The combination of these measures would minimize solar curtailment and keep PV cost-competitive at penetrations at least as high as 25%. Efficient deployment of the grid-flexibility options needed to maintain solar’s value will require various innovations, from the development of communication, control, and energy storage technologies to the implementation of new market rules and operating procedures.

  10. ELECTRIC

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ELECTRIC cdrtrokArJclaeT 3 I+ &i, y$ \I &OF I*- j< t j,fci..- ir )(yiT !E-li, ( \-,v? Cl -p/4.4 RESEARCH LABORATORIES EAST PITTSBURGH, PA. 8ay 22, 1947 Mr. J. Carrel Vrilson General ?!!mager Atomic Qxzgy Commission 1901 Constitution Avenue Kashington, D. C. Dear Sir: In the course of OUT nuclenr research we are planning to study the enc:ri;y threshold anti cross section for fission. For thib program we require a s<>piAroted sample of metallic Uranium 258 of high purity. A

  11. Interim Data Changes in the Short-term Energy Outlook Data Systems Related to Electric Power Sector and Natural Gas Demand Data Revisions (Released in the STEO December 2002)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    Beginning with the December 2002 issue of the Energy Information Administration's Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO), electricity generation and related fuel consumption totals will be presented on a basis that is consistent with the definitions and aggregates used in the 2001 edition of EIA's Annual Energy Review (AER). Particularly affected by these changes are the demand and balancing item totals for natural

  12. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  13. THE STABILITY AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PROTON CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, K.

    2010-07-06

    The morphological and electrical properties of Ba{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Ce{sub 0.8}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} with x varying from 0 to 1 prepared by a modified Pechini method were investigated as potential high temperature proton conductors. Dense microstructures were achieved for all the samples upon sintering at 1500 C for 5 h. The phase structure analysis indicated that perovskite phase was formed for 0 {le} x {le} 0.2, while for x larger than 0.5, impurity phases of Sr{sub 2}CeO{sub 4} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} appeared. The tolerance to H{sub 2}O for the samples improved with the increase in Sr content when exposed to boiling water, while the electrical conductivity decreased from x = 0 to 1. However, the resistance to CO{sub 2} attack at elevated temperatures was not improved within the whole x range studied.

  14. Water Impacts of High Solar PV Electricity Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, Jordan; Cohen, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    This analysis provides a detailed national and regional description of the water-related impacts and constraints of high solar electricity penetration scenarios in the U.S. in 2030 and 2050. A modified version of the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that incorporates water resource availability and costs as a constraint in each of its 134 Balancing Area (BA) regions was utilized to explore national and regional differences in water use impacts and solar deployment locations under different solar energy cost and water availability scenarios (Macknick et al. 2015). Water resource availability and cost data are from recently completed research at Sandia National Laboratories (Tidwell et al. 2013a). Scenarios analyzed include two business-as-usual solar energy cost cases, one with and one without considering available water resources, and four solar energy cost cases that meet the SunShot cost goals (i.e., $1/watt for utility-scale PV systems), with varying levels of water availability restrictions. This analysis provides insight into the role solar energy technologies have in the broader electricity sector under scenarios of water constraints.

  15. Method of fabricating high-density hermetic electrical feedthroughs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Kedar G.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.; Delima, Terri L.

    2015-06-02

    A method of fabricating electrical feedthroughs selectively removes substrate material from a first side of an electrically conductive substrate (e.g. a bio-compatible metal) to form an array of electrically conductive posts in a substrate cavity. An electrically insulating material (e.g. a bio-compatible sealing glass) is then flowed to fill the substrate cavity and surround each post, and solidified. The solidified insulating material is then exposed from an opposite second side of the substrate so that each post is electrically isolated from each other as well as the bulk substrate. In this manner a hermetic electrically conductive feedthrough construction is formed having an array of electrical feedthroughs extending between the first and second sides of the substrate from which it was formed.

  16. Demand Response- Policy: More Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OE's commitment to ensuring non-wires options to modernize the nation's electricity delivery system includes ongoing support of a number of national and regional activities in support of demand response.

  17. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for bothmore » reliability and economic conditions.« less

  18. Hermetically sealed electrical feedthrough for high temperature secondary cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knoedler, R.; Nelson, P.A.; Shimotake, H.; Battles, J.E.

    1983-07-26

    A passthrough seal is disclosed for electrically isolating the terminal in a lithium/metal sulfide cell from the structural cell housing. The seal has spaced upper and lower insulator rings fitted snuggly between the terminal and an annularly disposed upstanding wall, and outwardly of a powdered insulator also confined between the upstanding wall and terminal. The adjacent surfaces of the upper insulator ring and the respective upstanding wall and terminal are conically tapered, diverging in the axial direction away from the cell interior, and a sealing ring is located between each pair of the adjacent surfaces. The components are sized so that upon appropriate movement of the upper insulator ring toward the lower insulator ring the powdered insulator and sealing rings are each compressed to a high degree. This compacts the powdered insulator thereby rendering the same highly impervious and moreover fuses the sealing rings to and between the adjacent surfaces. The upper and lower insulator rings might be formed of beryllium oxide and/or alumina, the powdered insulator might be formed of boron nitride, and the sealing rings might be formed of aluminum.

  19. Hermetically sealed electrical feedthrough for high temperature secondary cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knoedler, Reinhard (Nussloch, DE); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Shimotake, Hiroshi (Hinsdale, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL)

    1985-01-01

    A passthrough seal is disclosed for electrically isolating the terminal in a lithium/metal sulfide cell from the structural cell housing. The seal has spaced upper and lower insulator rings fitted snuggly between the terminal and an annularly disposed upstanding wall, and outwardly of a powdered insulator also confined between the upstanding wall and terminal. The adjacent surfaces of the upper insulator ring and the respective upstanding wall and terminal are conically tapered, diverging in the axial direction away from the cell interior, and a sealing ring is located between each pair of the adjacent surfaces. The components are sized so that upon appropriate movement of the upper insulator ring toward the lower insulator ring the powdered insulator and sealing rings are each compressed to a high degree. This compacts the powdered insulator thereby rendering the same highly impervious and moreover fuses the sealing rings to and between the adjacent surfaces. The upper and lower insulator rings might be formed of beryllium oxide and/or alumina, the powdered insulator might be formed of boron nitride, and the sealing rings might be formed of aluminum.

  20. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  1. ,"Table 3A.1. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A.1. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation ... February Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation ...

  2. ,"Table 3B.1. FRCC Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B.1. FRCC Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation ... 3B.2. NPCC Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation ...

  3. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Eitouni, Hany; Yang, Jin; Pratt, Russell; Wang, Xiao; Grape, Ulrik The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a...

  4. Commercial & Industrial Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand Response Cross-sector Demand Response...

  5. Low cost, compact, and high efficiency traction motor for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehsani, Mark

    2002-10-07

    A new motor drive, the switched reluctance motor drive, has been developed for hybrid-electric vehicles. The motor drive has been designed, built and tested in the test bed at a near vehicle scale. It has been shown that the switched reluctance motor drive is more suitable for traction application than any other motor drive.

  6. Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the ...

  7. High density printed electrical circuit board card connection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumbaugh, A.E.

    1997-05-06

    A zero insertion/extraction force printed circuit board card connection system comprises a cam-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. The extrusions along the circuit board mate with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The card connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit board during insertion/extraction and provides a constant mating force once the circuit board is positioned. The card connection system provides a simple solution to the need for a greater number of electrical signal connections. 12 figs.

  8. High density printed electrical circuit board card connection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumbaugh, Alan E.

    1997-01-01

    A zero insertion/extraction force printed circuit board card connection system comprises a cam-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. The extrusions along the circuit board mate with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The card connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit board during insertion/extraction and provides a constant mating force once the circuit board is positioned. The card connection system provides a simple solution to the need for a greater number of electrical signal connections.

  9. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these

  10. Electricity Monthly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Update November 28, 2012 Map of Electric System Selected for Daily Peak Demand was replaced with the correct map showing Selected Wholesale Electricity and Natural Gas Locations....

  11. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  12. The Development and Demonstration of an Electric Submersible Pump at High

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperatures - High-temperature Motor Windings for Down-hole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy The Development and Demonstration of an Electric Submersible Pump at High Temperatures - High-temperature Motor Windings for Down-hole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report The Development and Demonstration of an Electric Submersible Pump at High

  13. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  14. The alchemy of demand response: turning demand into supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rochlin, Cliff

    2009-11-15

    Paying customers to refrain from purchasing products they want seems to run counter to the normal operation of markets. Demand response should be interpreted not as a supply-side resource but as a secondary market that attempts to correct the misallocation of electricity among electric users caused by regulated average rate tariffs. In a world with costless metering, the DR solution results in inefficiency as measured by deadweight losses. (author)

  15. Multiwalled carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane composite films as high performance flexible electric heating elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Jing; Jeong, Young Gyu, E-mail: ygjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Organic Materials and Textile System Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-04

    High performance elastomeric electric heating elements were prepared by incorporating various contents of pristine multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix by using an efficient solution-casting and curing technique. The pristine MWCNTs were identified to be uniformly dispersed in the PDMS matrix and the electrical percolation of MWCNTs was evaluated to be at ?0.27?wt.?%, where the electrical resistivity of the MWCNT/PDMS composite films dropped remarkably. Accordingly, the composite films with higher MWCNT contents above 0.3?wt.?% exhibit excellent electric heating performance in terms of temperature response rapidity and electric energy efficiency at constant applied voltages. In addition, the composite films, which were thermally stable up to 250?C, showed excellent heating-cooling cyclic performance, which was associated with operational stability in actual electric heating applications.

  16. Surface area generation and droplet size control in solvent extraction systems utilizing high intensity electric fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Timothy C.; Wham, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    A method and system for solvent extraction where droplets are shattered by a high intensity electric field. These shattered droplets form a plurality of smaller droplets which have a greater combined surface area than the original droplet. Dispersion, coalescence and phase separation are accomplished in one vessel through the use of the single pulsing high intensity electric field. Electric field conditions are chosen so that simultaneous dispersion and coalescence are taking place in the emulsion formed in the electric field. The electric field creates a large amount of interfacial surface area for solvent extraction when the droplet is disintegrated and is capable of controlling droplet size and thus droplet stability. These operations take place in the presence of a counter current flow of the continuous phase.

  17. Nanostructured Cu-Cr alloy with high strength and electrical conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islamgaliev, R. K. Nesterov, K. M.; Bourgon, J.; Champion, Y.; Valiev, R. Z.

    2014-05-21

    The influence of nanostructuring by high pressure torsion (HPT) on strength and electrical conductivity in the Cu-Cr alloy has been investigated. Microstructure of HPT samples was studied by transmission electron microscopy with special attention on precipitation of small chromium particles after various treatments. Effect of dynamic precipitation leading to enhancement of strength and electrical conductivity was observed. It is shown that nanostructuring leads to combination of high ultimate tensile strength of 790–840 MPa, enhanced electrical conductivity of 81%–85% IACS and thermal stability up to 500 °C. The contributions of grain refinement and precipitation to enhanced properties of nanostructured alloy are discussed.

  18. Rotor apparatus for high strength undiffused brushless electric machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-01-24

    A radial gap brushless electric machine (30) having a stator (31) and a rotor (32) and a main air gap (34) also has at least one stationary excitation coil (35a, 36a) separated from the rotor (32) by a secondary air gap (35e, 35f, 36e, 36f) so as to induce a secondary flux in the rotor (32) which controls a resultant flux in the main air gap (34). Permanent magnetic (PM) material (38) is disposed in spaces between the rotor pole portions (39) to inhibit the second flux from leaking from the pole portions (39) prior to reaching the main air gap (34). By selecting the direction of current in the stationary excitation coil (35a, 36a) both flux enhancement and flux weakening are provided for the main air gap (34). Improvements of a laminated rotor, an end pole structure, and an arrangement of the PM elements for providing an arrangement of the flux paths from the auxiliary field coil assemblies are also disclosed.

  19. City of High Point Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of High Point offers the Hometown Green Program to help customers reduce energy use. Under this program, rebates are available for newly constructed energy efficient homes, heat pumps, and...

  20. Report: Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Electric Power Sector | Department of Energy Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Power Sector Report: Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Power Sector This report examines the potential infrastructure needs of the U.S. interstate natural gas pipeline transmission system across a range of future natural gas demand scenarios that drive increased electric power sector natural gas use. To perform this

  1. High voltage electrical amplifier having a short rise time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, David J.; Dallum, Gregory E.

    1991-01-01

    A circuit, comprising an amplifier and a transformer is disclosed that produces a high power pulse having a fast response time, and that responds to a digital control signal applied through a digital-to-analog converter. The present invention is suitable for driving a component such as an electro-optic modulator with a voltage in the kilovolt range. The circuit is stable at high frequencies and during pulse transients, and its impedance matching circuit matches the load impedance with the output impedance. The preferred embodiment comprises an input stage compatible with high-speed semiconductor components for amplifying the voltage of the input control signal, a buffer for isolating the input stage from the output stage; and a plurality of current amplifiers connected to the buffer. Each current amplifier is connected to a field effect transistor (FET), which switches a high voltage power supply to a transformer which then provides an output terminal for driving a load. The transformer comprises a plurality of transmission lines connected to the FETs and the load. The transformer changes the impedance and voltage of the output. The preferred embodiment also comprises a low voltage power supply for biasing the FETs at or near an operational voltage.

  2. High energy KrCl electric discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.; Scott, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A high energy KrCl laser for producing coherent radiation at 222 nm. Output energies on the order of 100 mJ per pulse are produced utilizing a discharge excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions, thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HCl is used as a halogen donor which undergoes a harpooning reaction with metastable Kr.sub.M * to form KrCl.

  3. High energy KrCl electric discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, R.C.; Scott, P.B.

    A high energy KrCl laser is presented for producing coherent radiation at 222 nm. Output energies on the order of 100 mJ per pulse are produced utilizing a discharge excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions, thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HCl is used as a halogen donor which undergoes a harpooning reaction with metastable Kr/sub M/ to form KrCl.

  4. China, India demand cushions prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, M.

    2006-11-15

    Despite the hopes of coal consumers, coal prices did not plummet in 2006 as demand stayed firm. China and India's growing economies, coupled with solid supply-demand fundamentals in North America and Europe, and highly volatile prices for alternatives are likely to keep physical coal prices from wide swings in the coming year.

  5. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a high energy lithium based technology with targets of over 500 Wh/l and 325 Wh/kg. Seeo would leverage the work already achieved with its unique proprietary solid polymer DryLyteTM technology in cells which had a specific energy density of 220

  6. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This study is a multi-national laboratory effort to assess the potential value of demand response and energy storage to electricity systems with different penetration levels of variable renewable...

  7. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  8. Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The Intermediate and High Demand Cases differ only in their underlying assumptions about coal-fired power plant retirements. In particular, the High Demand Case, which assumes ...

  9. Conductor of high electrical current at high temperature in oxygen and liquid metal environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, IV, Adam Clayton; Pati, Soobhankar; Derezinski, Stephen Joseph; Lau, Garrett; Pal, Uday B.; Guan, Xiaofei; Gopalan, Srikanth

    2016-01-12

    In one aspect, the present invention is directed to apparatuses for and methods of conducting electrical current in an oxygen and liquid metal environment. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for production of metals from their oxides comprising providing a cathode in electrical contact with a molten electrolyte, providing a liquid metal anode separated from the cathode and the molten electrolyte by a solid oxygen ion conducting membrane, providing a current collector at the anode, and establishing a potential between the cathode and the anode.

  10. Electrical method and apparatus for impelling the extruded ejection of high-velocity material jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weingart, Richard C.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus (10, 40) for producing high-velocity material jets provided. An electric current pulse generator (14, 42) is attached to an end of a coaxial two-conductor transmission line (16, 44) having an outer cylindrical conductor (18), an inner cylindrical conductor (20), and a solid plastic or ceramic insulator (21) therebetween. A coxial, thin-walled metal structure (22, 30) is conductively joined to the two conductors (18, 20) of the transmission line (16, 44). An electrical current pulse applies magnetic pressure to and possibly explosively vaporizes metal structure (22), thereby collapsing it and impelling the extruded ejection of a high-velocity material jet therefrom. The jet is comprised of the metal of the structure (22), together with the material that comprises any covering layers (32, 34) disposed on the structure. An electric current pulse generator of the explosively driven magnetic flux compression type or variety (42) may be advantageously used in the practice of this invention.

  11. A New Thermostat for Real-Time Price Demand Response: Cost, Comfort and Energy Impacts of Discrete-Time Control without Deadband

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Agathoklis, Pan; Djilali, Ned

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a residential thermostat design that enables accurate aggregate load control systems for electricity demand response. The thermostat features a control strategy that can be modeled as a linear time-invariant system for short- term demand response signals from the utility. This control design maintains the same comfort and demand response characteristics of existing real-time price- responsive thermostats but gives rise to linear time-invariant models of aggregate load control and demand response, which facilitates the design of highly accurate load-based regulation services for electricity interconnections.

  12. Towards High Performance Discrete-Event Simulations of Smart Electric Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perumalla, Kalyan S; Nutaro, James J; Yoginath, Srikanth B

    2011-01-01

    Future electric grid technology is envisioned on the notion of a smart grid in which responsive end-user devices play an integral part of the transmission and distribution control systems. Detailed simulation is often the primary choice in analyzing small network designs, and the only choice in analyzing large-scale electric network designs. Here, we identify and articulate the high-performance computing needs underlying high-resolution discrete event simulation of smart electric grid operation large network scenarios such as the entire Eastern Interconnect. We focus on the simulator's most computationally intensive operation, namely, the dynamic numerical solution for the electric grid state, for both time-integration as well as event-detection. We explore solution approaches using general-purpose dense and sparse solvers, and propose a scalable solver specialized for the sparse structures of actual electric networks. Based on experiments with an implementation in the THYME simulator, we identify performance issues and possible solution approaches for smart grid experimentation in the large.

  13. Low cost, compact high efficiency, traction motor for electric vehicles/hybrid electric vehicles. Final report for the period September 1998 - December 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Jerry; Kessinger, Roy

    2000-04-28

    This final report details technical accomplishments for Phase I of the ''Low Cost, Compact High Efficiency, Traction Motor for Electric Vehicles/Hybrid Electric Vehicles'' program. The research showed that the segmented-electromagnetic array (SEMA) technology combined with an Integrated Motion Module (IMM) concept is highly suited for electric vehicles. IMMs are essentially mechatronic systems that combine the motor, sensing, power electronics, and control functions for a single axis of motion into a light-weight modular unit. The functional integration of these components makes possible significant reductions in motor/alternator size, weight, and cost, while increasing power density and electromechanical conversion efficiency.

  14. Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    To better control costs and manage electric reliability under these conditions, OG&E is pursuing demand response strategies made possible by implementation of smart grid ...

  15. Demand Response National Trends: Implications for the West? ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Committee on Regional Electric Power Cooperation. San Francisco, CA. March 25, 2004 Demand Response National Trends: Implications for the West? (116.66 KB) More Documents & ...

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures for the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, Trieu; Hand, Maureen; Baldwin, Sam F.; Wiser , Ryan; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, Paul; Arent, Doug; Porro, Gian; Sandor, Debra; Hostick, Donna J.; Milligan, Michael; DeMeo, Ed; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-04-14

    This paper highlights the key results from the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study. It is a detailed consideration of renewable electricity in the United States. The paper focuses on technical issues related to the operability of the U. S. electricity grid and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. The results indicate that the future U. S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and the further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway. The central conclusion of the analysis is that renewable electricity generation from technologies that are commercially available today, in combination with a more flexible electric system, is more than adequate to supply 80% of the total U. S. electricity generation in 2050 while meeting electricity demand on an hourly basis in every region of the United States.

  17. Decision-Making for High Renewable Electricity Futures in the United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This short Report Review highlights aspects of policy, regulation, finance, markets and operations that can help enable high penetration renewable energy electricity generation futures. It uses analytical results from the NREL Renewable Electricity Futures (REF) Study as a basis for discussion. As technical issues have been shown not to be key impediments for this pathway at the hourly level for the bulk system, we focus on other aspects of public and private decision-making. We conclude by describing how the REF might inform future research and development by the scientific community.

  18. High-performance computational and geostatistical experiments for testing the capabilities of 3-d electrical tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carle, S. F.; Daily, W. D.; Newmark, R. L.; Ramirez, A.; Tompson, A.

    1999-01-19

    This project explores the feasibility of combining geologic insight, geostatistics, and high-performance computing to analyze the capabilities of 3-D electrical resistance tomography (ERT). Geostatistical methods are used to characterize the spatial variability of geologic facies that control sub-surface variability of permeability and electrical resistivity Synthetic ERT data sets are generated from geostatistical realizations of alluvial facies architecture. The synthetic data sets enable comparison of the "truth" to inversion results, quantification of the ability to detect particular facies at particular locations, and sensitivity studies on inversion parameters

  19. Missing Money--Will the Current Electricity Market Structure Support High (~50%) Wind/Solar?; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, Michael

    2015-05-15

    This presentation summarizes the missing money problem and whether the current electricity market structure will support high penetration levels of wind and solar.

  20. Chapter 3: Enabling Modernization of the Electric Power System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3: Enabling Modernization of the Electric Power System September 2015 Quadrennial Technology Review 3 Enabling Modernization of the Electric Power System Issues and RDD&D Opportunities  Fundamental changes in electricity generation and use are requiring the electricity system to perform in ways for which it was not designed-requiring new capabilities and system designs to maintain historical levels of reliability.  American industry and commerce demand affordable, high-quality power

  1. 2013 Electricity Form Proposals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Form EIA-861, "Annual Electric Power Industry Report" The EIA-861 survey has historically collected retail sales, revenue, and a variety of information related to demand response ...

  2. EIA - Electric Power Data

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and customer counts, peak load, electric purchases, and energy efficiency and demand-side management programs, green pricing and net metering programs, and distributed ...

  3. Demand Response | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technology Development Smart Grid Demand Response Demand Response Demand Response Demand response provides an opportunity for consumers to play a significant role in the ...

  4. Cross-sector Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand Response Cross-sector Demand Response...

  5. Residential Demand Sector Data, Commercial Demand Sector Data, Industrial Demand Sector Data - Annual Energy Outlook 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Tables describing consumption and prices by sector and census division for 2006 - includes residential demand, commercial demand, and industrial demand

  6. Dramatic Demand Reduction In The Desert Southwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, Robert; Hsieh, Sean; Lee, Joon; Baghzouz, Yahia; Cross, Andrew; Chatterjee, Sarah

    2015-07-06

    This report summarizes a project that was funded to the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), with subcontractors Pulte Homes and NV Energy. The project was motivated by the fact that locations in the Desert Southwest portion of the US demonstrate very high peak electrical demands, typically in the late afternoons in the summer. These high demands often require high priced power to supply the needs, and the large loads can cause grid supply problems. An approach was proposed through this contact that would reduce the peak electrical demands to an anticipated 65% of what code-built houses of the similar size would have. It was proposed to achieve energy reduction through four approaches applied to a development of 185 homes in northwest part of Las Vegas named Villa Trieste. First, the homes would all be highly energy efficient. Secondly, each house would have a PV array installed on it. Third, an advanced demand response technique would be developed to allow the resident to have some control over the energy used. Finally, some type of battery storage would be used in the project. Pulte Homes designed the houses. The company considered initial cost vs. long-term savings and chose options that had relatively short paybacks. HERS (Home Energy Rating Service) ratings for the homes are approximately 43 on this scale. On this scale, code-built homes rate at 100, zero energy homes rate a 0, and Energy Star homes are 85. In addition a 1.764 Wp (peak Watt) rated PV array was used on each house. This was made up of solar shakes that were in visual harmony with the roofing material used. A demand response tool was developed to control the amount of electricity used during times of peak demand. While demand response techniques have been used in the utility industry for some time, this particular approach is designed to allow the customer to decide the degree of participation in the response activity. The temperature change in the residence can be decided by the residents by

  7. Electric Efficiency Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In December 2009, the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission's (IURC) ordered utilities to establish demand-side management (DSM) electric savings goals leading to 2.0% reduction of electricity sa...

  8. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, and during certain conditions, there is more demand for power in the Puget Sound area than the transmission system and existing generation can reliably supply. This high demand, called peak demand occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both.

  9. Final report for %22High performance computing for advanced national electric power grid modeling and integration of solar generation resources%22, LDRD Project No. 149016.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Riehm, Andrew Charles; Hoekstra, Robert John; Munoz-Ramirez, Karina; Stamp, Jason Edwin; Phillips, Laurence R.; Adams, Brian M.; Russo, Thomas V.; Oldfield, Ron A.; McLendon, William Clarence, III; Nelson, Jeffrey Scott; Hansen, Clifford W.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Stein, Joshua S.; Schoenwald, David Alan; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.

    2011-02-01

    Design and operation of the electric power grid (EPG) relies heavily on computational models. High-fidelity, full-order models are used to study transient phenomena on only a small part of the network. Reduced-order dynamic and power flow models are used when analysis involving thousands of nodes are required due to the computational demands when simulating large numbers of nodes. The level of complexity of the future EPG will dramatically increase due to large-scale deployment of variable renewable generation, active load and distributed generation resources, adaptive protection and control systems, and price-responsive demand. High-fidelity modeling of this future grid will require significant advances in coupled, multi-scale tools and their use on high performance computing (HPC) platforms. This LDRD report demonstrates SNL's capability to apply HPC resources to these 3 tasks: (1) High-fidelity, large-scale modeling of power system dynamics; (2) Statistical assessment of grid security via Monte-Carlo simulations of cyber attacks; and (3) Development of models to predict variability of solar resources at locations where little or no ground-based measurements are available.

  10. High-surface-area nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for electric double-layer capacitors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A.; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-08

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH₃ gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007m²g⁻¹), high electrical conductivity (1532S m⁻¹), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt%) for electric double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 Fg⁻¹ at a current density of 1 A g⁻¹, and a capacitance of 261 F g⁻¹ was retained at 50 A g⁻¹, indicating a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability, preserving 96% of the initial specific capacitance after 100,000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorptionmore » fine-structure spectroscopy evidenced the recover of π-conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed the chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content.« less

  11. High-surface-area nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for electric double-layer capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A.; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-08

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH₃ gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007m²g⁻¹), high electrical conductivity (1532S m⁻¹), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt%) for electric double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 Fg⁻¹ at a current density of 1 A g⁻¹, and a capacitance of 261 F g⁻¹ was retained at 50 A g⁻¹, indicating a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability, preserving 96% of the initial specific capacitance after 100,000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy evidenced the recover of π-conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed the chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content.

  12. Control of high-order harmonics for attoscience using a static-electric-field pattern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrat, Carles

    2011-12-15

    Quantum control in high-order-harmonic generation is considered theoretically by using a spatial distribution of static electric fields along the propagation direction of the driving field. It is shown that the trajectories of the electrons during its acceleration by the laser field in the high-harmonics-generation process can be controlled by periodically distributed static electric fields, which conveniently shape the driving laser field during propagation. Applying this mechanism, a quasi-phase-matching scheme that leads to filtered enhanced high harmonics is achieved. The harmonics in the plateau region are enhanced due to periodical phase variations in the long quantum trajectories as a consequence of the faster change experienced by the intensity-dependent phase along the longer electron trajectories. This effect should be observed in all quasi-phase-matching schemes based on perturbation of the microscopic quantum phase. The richness of adding a static-electric-field spatial pattern in the interaction region suggests a general scheme for feedback loop control in high-order-harmonic generation.

  13. High-voltage electrical apparatus utilizing an insulating gas of sulfur hexafluoride and helium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wootton, Roy E.

    1980-01-01

    High-voltage electrical apparatus includes an outer housing at low potential, an inner electrode disposed within the outer housing at high potential with respect thereto, and support means for insulatably supporting the inner electrode within the outer housing. Conducting particles contaminate the interior of the outer housing, and an insulating gas electrically insulates the inner electrode from the outer housing even in the presence of the conducting particles. The insulating gas is comprised of sulfur hexafluoride at a partial pressure of from about 2.9 to about 3.4 atmospheres absolute, and helium at a partial pressure from about 1.1 to about 11.4 atmospheres absolute. The sulfur hexafluoride comprises between 20 and 65 volume percent of the insulating gas.

  14. K-shell spectroscopy of silicon ions as diagnostic for high electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loetzsch, R.; Jaeckel, O.; Hoefer, S.; Kaempfer, T.; Uschmann, I.; Kaluza, M. C.; Polz, J.; Foerster, E.; Stambulchik, E.; Kroupp, E.; Maron, Y.

    2012-11-15

    We developed a detection scheme, capable of measuring X-ray line shape of tracer ions in {mu}m thick layers at the rear side of a target foil irradiated by ultra intense laser pulses. We performed simulations of the effect of strong electric fields on the K-shell emission of silicon and developed a spectrometer dedicated to record this emission. The combination of a cylindrically bent crystal in von Hamos geometry and a CCD camera with its single photon counting capability allows for a high dynamic range of the instrument and background free spectra. This approach will be used in future experiments to study electric fields of the order of TV/m at high density plasmas close to solid density.

  15. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment December 2013 i NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures: Operational Analysis of the Western Interconnection at Very High Renewable Penetrations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Electricity Futures: Operational Analysis of the Western Interconnection at Very High Renewable Penetrations Gregory Brinkman National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-64467 September 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at

  17. High Power Electric Propulsion System for NEP: Propulsion and Trajectory Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koppel, Christophe R.; Duchemin, Olivier; Valentian, Dominique

    2006-01-20

    Recent US initiatives in Nuclear Propulsion lend themselves naturally to raising the question of the assessment of various options and particularly to propose the High Power Electric Propulsion Subsystem (HPEPS) for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). The purpose of this paper is to present the guidelines for the HPEPS with respect to the mission to Mars, for automatic probes as well as for manned missions. Among the various options, the technological options and the trajectory options are pointed out. The consequences of the increase of the electrical power of a thruster are first an increase of the thrust itself, but also, as a general rule, an increase of the thruster performance due to its higher efficiency, particularly its specific impulse increase. The drawback is as a first parameter, the increase of the thruster's size, hence the so-called 'thrust density' shall be high enough or shall be drastically increased for ions thrusters. Due to the large mass of gas needed to perform the foreseen missions, the classical xenon rare gas is no more in competition, the total world production being limited to 20 -40 tons per year. Thus, the right selection of the propellant feeding the thruster is of prime importance. When choosing a propellant with lower molecular mass, the consequences at thruster level are an increase once more of the specific impulse, but at system level the dead mass may increase too, mainly because the increase of the mass of the propellant system tanks. Other alternatives, in rupture with respect to the current technologies, are presented in order to make the whole system more attractive. The paper presents a discussion on the thruster specific impulse increase that is sometime considered an increase of the main system performances parameter, but that induces for all electric propulsion systems drawbacks in the system power and mass design that are proportional to the thruster specific power increase (kW/N). The electric thruster specific

  18. Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Lisa; Song, Katherine; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee

    2008-11-19

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process which, together with water treatment, comprises about three percent of U.S. annual energy use. Yet, since wastewater treatment facilities are often peripheral to major electricity-using industries, they are frequently an overlooked area for automated demand response opportunities. Demand response is a set of actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies or congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, and/or market conditions occur that raise electric supply costs. Demand response programs are designed to improve the reliability of the electric grid and to lower the use of electricity during peak times to reduce the total system costs. Open automated demand response is a set of continuous, open communication signals and systems provided over the Internet to allow facilities to automate their demand response activities without the need for manual actions. Automated demand response strategies can be implemented as an enhanced use of upgraded equipment and facility control strategies installed as energy efficiency measures. Conversely, installation of controls to support automated demand response may result in improved energy efficiency through real-time access to operational data. This paper argues that the implementation of energy efficiency opportunities in wastewater treatment facilities creates a base for achieving successful demand reductions. This paper characterizes energy use and the state of demand response readiness in wastewater treatment facilities and outlines automated demand response opportunities.

  19. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be used by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.

  20. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be usedmore » by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.« less

  1. Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage and Photovoltaic Power Systems for Demand Charge Mitigation (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Simpson, M.

    2013-10-01

    Commercial facility utility bills are often a strong function of demand charges -- a fee proportional to peak power demand rather than total energy consumed. In some instances, demand charges can constitute more than 50% of a commercial customer's monthly electricity cost. While installation of behind-the-meter solar power generation decreases energy costs, its variability makes it likely to leave the peak load -- and thereby demand charges -- unaffected. This then makes demand charges an even larger fraction of remaining electricity costs. Adding controllable behind-the-meter energy storage can more predictably affect building peak demand, thus reducing electricity costs. Due to the high cost of energy storage technology, the size and operation of an energy storage system providing demand charge management (DCM) service must be optimized to yield a positive return on investment (ROI). The peak demand reduction achievable with an energy storage system depends heavily on a facility's load profile, so the optimal configuration will be specific to both the customer and the amount of installed solar power capacity. We explore the sensitivity of DCM value to the power and energy levels of installed solar power and energy storage systems. An optimal peak load reduction control algorithm for energy storage systems will be introduced and applied to historic solar power data and meter load data from multiple facilities for a broad range of energy storage system configurations. For each scenario, the peak load reduction and electricity cost savings will be computed. From this, we will identify a favorable energy storage system configuration that maximizes ROI.

  2. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liepins, R.; Jorgensen, B.S.; Liepins, L.Z.

    1993-12-21

    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers are described. The in situ reactions: AgNO[sub 3] + RCHO [yields] Ag + RCOOH and R[sub 3]M [yields] M + 3R, where M=Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high-temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R[sub 3]M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrone.

  3. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liepins, Raimond; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Liepins, Leila Z.

    1989-01-01

    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers. The in situ reactions: AgNO.sub.3 +RCHO.fwdarw.AG.sup.0 +RCOOH and R.sub.3 M.fwdarw.M.sup.0 3R, where M=Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high-temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R.sub.3 M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrrone.

  4. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liepins, R.; Jorgensen, B.S.; Liepins, L.Z.

    1987-08-27

    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers. The in situ reactions: AgNO/sub 3/ + RCHO ..-->.. Ag/sup 0/ + RCOOH and R/sub 3/M ..-->.. M/sup 0/ + 3R, where M = Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high- temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R/sub 3/M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrrone. 3 tabs.

  5. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liepins, Raimond; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Liepins, Leila Z.

    1993-01-01

    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers. The in situ reactions: AgNO.sub.3 +RCHO.fwdarw.Ag.degree.+RCOOH and R.sub.3 M.fwdarw.M.degree.+3R, where M=Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high-temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R.sub.3 M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrrone.

  6. A high-accuracy optical current transducer for electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulmer, E.A. )

    1990-04-01

    This paper reports on an optical current transducer employing a new, simple, technique to measure electric current. The technique is based on a fundamental analysis of the Faraday effect. An optical current transducer (OCT) has been designed which overcomes the disturbing effects of temperature on the glass sensing element. By aligning the transmission axis of the polarizer at a specific angles, the OCT's output is shown to be independent of temperature. High accuracy measurements are thereby possible over a wide range of temperatures. Two practical OCT designs for extra-high voltage power systems are compared.

  7. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | High Temperature Reactors Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Reactors Chapter 4: Technology Assessments Introduction High temperature reactor (HTR) systems (i.e., reactors with core outlet temperatures between 700°C and 950°C) offer higher thermodynamic efficiency of converting the heat generated in the reactor to electricity (e.g., ~50% at 950°C or 47% at 850°C) than light water reactors (LWRs); this could greatly improve the economics of reactor systems. 1,2 However, the higher temperature also limits the number of fuel, coolant,

  8. Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with Thermal Mass in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Parrish, Kristen

    2010-05-14

    This paper reports on the potential impact of demand response (DR) strategies in commercial buildings in California based on the Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool (DRQAT), which uses EnergyPlus simulation prototypes for office and retail buildings. The study describes the potential impact of building size, thermal mass, climate, and DR strategies on demand savings in commercial buildings. Sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate how these factors influence the demand shift and shed during the peak period. The whole-building peak demand of a commercial building with high thermal mass in a hot climate zone can be reduced by 30percent using an optimized demand response strategy. Results are summarized for various simulation scenarios designed to help owners and managers understand the potential savings for demand response deployment. Simulated demand savings under various scenarios were compared to field-measured data in numerous climate zones, allowing calibration of the prototype models. The simulation results are compared to the peak demand data from the Commercial End-Use Survey for commercial buildings in California. On the economic side, a set of electricity rates are used to evaluate the impact of the DR strategies on economic savings for different thermal mass and climate conditions. Our comparison of recent simulation to field test results provides an understanding of the DR potential in commercial buildings.

  9. Measuring the capacity impacts of demand response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earle, Robert; Kahn, Edward P.; Macan, Edo

    2009-07-15

    Critical peak pricing and peak time rebate programs offer benefits by increasing system reliability, and therefore, reducing capacity needs of the electric power system. These benefits, however, decrease substantially as the size of the programs grows relative to the system size. More flexible schemes for deployment of demand response can help address the decreasing returns to scale in capacity value, but more flexible demand response has decreasing returns to scale as well. (author)

  10. Internal Electric Field Behavior of Cadmium Zinc Telluride Radiation Detectors Under High Carrier Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, G.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.H.; Gul, R.; and James, R.B.

    2010-10-26

    The behavior of the internal electric-field of nuclear-radiation detectors substantially affects the detector's performance. We investigated the distribution of the internal field in cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors under high carrier injection. We noted the build-up of a space charge region near the cathode that produces a built-in field opposing the applied field. Its presence entails the collapse of the electric field in the rest of detector, other than the portion near the cathode. Such a space-charge region originates from serious hole-trapping in CZT. The device's operating temperature greatly affects the width of the space-charge region. With increasing temperature from 5 C to 35 C, its width expanded from about 1/6 to 1/2 of the total depth of the detector.

  11. STEO December 2012 - coal demand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    coal demand seen below 1 billion tons in 2012 for fourth year in a row Coal consumption by U.S. power plants to generate electricity is expected to fall below 1 billion tons in 2012 for the fourth year in a row. Domestic coal consumption is on track to total 829 million tons this year. That's the lowest level since 1992, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new monthly energy forecast. Utilities and power plant operators are choosing to burn more lower-priced natural gas

  12. Conversion Tower for Dispatchable Solar Power: High-Efficiency Solar-Electric Conversion Power Tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-11

    HEATS Project: Abengoa Solar is developing a high-efficiency solar-electric conversion tower to enable low-cost, fully dispatchable solar energy generation. Abengoa’s conversion tower utilizes new system architecture and a two-phase thermal energy storage media with an efficient supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) power cycle. The company is using a high-temperature heat-transfer fluid with a phase change in between its hot and cold operating temperature. The fluid serves as a heat storage material and is cheaper and more efficient than conventional heat-storage materials, like molten salt. It also allows the use of a high heat flux solar receiver, advanced high thermal energy density storage, and more efficient power cycles.

  13. Electricity Monthly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Regional Wholesale Markets: June 2016 The United States has many regional wholesale electricity markets. Below we look at monthly and annual ranges of on-peak, daily wholesale prices at selected pricing locations and daily peak demand for selected electricity systems in the Nation. The range of daily prices and demand data is shown for the report month and for the year ending with the report month. Prices and demand are shown for six Regional Transmission Operator (RTO) markets: ISO New England

  14. ANUEADflM-31 Electric Power High-Voltage Transmission Lines:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ......... 42 26 Underground Configuration for 230-kV ac ... Empire State Electric Energy Research .Gorp. Energetics, Inc. Florida Electric Power ...

  15. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you...

  16. Residential Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in-home displays with controllable home area network capabilities and thermal storage devices for home heating. Goals and objectives: Reduce the City's NCP demand above...

  17. Demand Dispatch-Intelligent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Contract: DE-FE0004001 Demand Dispatch- ... ISO Independent System Operators LMP Locational Marginal Price MW Mega-watt MWh ... today My generator may come on and off ...

  18. Impacts of High Resolution Extreme Events on U.S. Energy Demand and CO{sub 2} Emissions in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2013-06-21

    Progress is reported in these areas: Validation of temperature and precipitation extremes; Time of emergence of severe heat stress in the United States; Quantifying the effects of temperature extremes on energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions.

  19. Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma Located in the heart of "Tornado Alley," Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company's (OG&E) electric grid faces significant challenges from severe weather, hot summers, and about 2% annual load growth. To better control costs and manage electric reliability under these conditions, OG&E is pursuing demand response strategies made possible by implementation of smart grid technologies, tools, and techniques from

  20. High performance electrical, magnetic, electromagnetic and electrooptical devices enabled by three dimensionally ordered nanodots and nanorods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit , Kang; Sukill

    2012-02-21

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate same with self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods of a single or multicomponent material within another single or multicomponent material for use in electrical, electronic, magnetic, electromagnetic and electrooptical devices is disclosed. Self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods are ordered arrays wherein ordering occurs due to strain minimization during growth of the materials. A simple method to accomplish this when depositing in-situ films is also disclosed. Device applications of resulting materials are in areas of superconductivity, photovoltaics, ferroelectrics, magnetoresistance, high density storage, solid state lighting, non-volatile memory, photoluminescence, thermoelectrics and in quantum dot lasers.

  1. Note: Versatile sample stick for neutron scattering experiments in high electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartkowiak, M., E-mail: marek.bartkowiak@psi.ch [Laboratory for Developments and Methods, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); White, J. S. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland) [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Laboratory for Quantum Magnetism, Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rnnow, H. M.; Pra, K. [Laboratory for Quantum Magnetism, Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Laboratory for Quantum Magnetism, Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    We present a versatile high voltage sample stick that fits into all cryomagnets and standard cryostats at the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, and which provides a low effort route to neutron scattering experiments that combine electric field with low temperature and magnetic field. The stick allows for voltages up to 5 kV and can be easily adapted for different scattering geometries. We discuss the design consideration and thermal behavior of the stick, and give one example to showcase the abilities of the device.

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures. Operational Analysis of the Western Interconnection at Very High Renewable Penetrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, Gregory

    2015-09-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures)--an analysis of the costs and grid impacts of integrating large amounts of renewable electricity generation into the U.S. power system--examined renewable energy resources, technical issues regarding the integration of these resources into the grid, and the costs associated with high renewable penetration scenarios. These scenarios included up to 90% of annual generation from renewable sources, although most of the analysis was focused on 80% penetration scenarios. Hourly production cost modeling was performed to understand the operational impacts of high penetrations. One of the conclusions of RE Futures was that further work was necessary to understand whether the operation of the system was possible at sub-hourly time scales and during transient events. This study aimed to address part of this by modeling the operation of the power system at sub-hourly time scales using newer methodologies and updated data sets for transmission and generation infrastructure. The goal of this work was to perform a detailed, sub-hourly analysis of very high penetration scenarios for a single interconnection (the Western Interconnection). It focused on operational impacts, and it helps verify that the operational results from the capacity expansion models are useful. The primary conclusion of this study is that sub-hourly operation of the grid is possible with renewable generation levels between 80% and 90%.

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, T.; Sandor, D.; Wiser, R.; Schneider, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  4. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Dudley, Junqiao

    2010-03-17

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) demonstrated and evaluated open automated demand response (OpenADR) communication infrastructure to reduce winter morning and summer afternoon peak electricity demand in commercial buildings the Seattle area. LBNL performed this demonstration for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in the Seattle City Light (SCL) service territory at five sites: Seattle Municipal Tower, Seattle University, McKinstry, and two Target stores. This report describes the process and results of the demonstration. OpenADR is an information exchange model that uses a client-server architecture to automate demand-response (DR) programs. These field tests evaluated the feasibility of deploying fully automated DR during both winter and summer peak periods. DR savings were evaluated for several building systems and control strategies. This project studied DR during hot summer afternoons and cold winter mornings, both periods when electricity demand is typically high. This is the DRRC project team's first experience using automation for year-round DR resources and evaluating the flexibility of commercial buildings end-use loads to participate in DR in dual-peaking climates. The lessons learned contribute to understanding end-use loads that are suitable for dispatch at different times of the year. The project was funded by BPA and SCL. BPA is a U.S. Department of Energy agency headquartered in Portland, Oregon and serving the Pacific Northwest. BPA operates an electricity transmission system and markets wholesale electrical power at cost from federal dams, one non-federal nuclear plant, and other non-federal hydroelectric and wind energy generation facilities. Created by the citizens of Seattle in 1902, SCL is the second-largest municipal utility in America. SCL purchases approximately 40% of its electricity and the majority of its transmission from BPA through a preference contract. SCL also provides

  5. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, Lori; Davidson, Carolyn; McLaren, Joyce; Miller, John

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  6. Morphological features of the copper surface layer under sliding with high density electric current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.; Rubtsov, V. Ye.; Aleutdinova, V. A.

    2015-10-27

    Conductivity and wear intensity of copper under the influence of dry friction and electric current with contact density higher 100 A/cm{sup 2} are presented. It is shown that an increase in hardness and heat outflow from a friction zone leads to the reduction of wear intensity and current contact density increase corresponding to the beginning of catastrophic wear. Structural changes, such as the formation of FeO oxide and α-Fe particles in the copper surface layer, have also been found. It is observed that a worn surface is deformed according to a viscous liquid mechanism. Such singularity is explained in terms of appearance of high-excited atomic states in deforming micro-volumes near contact spots that lead to easy stress relaxation by local plastic shears in the vicinity of stress concentrators. In common this effect allows to achieve high wear resistance.

  7. The impact of demand-controlled ventilation on energy use in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, J.E.; Brandemuehl, M.J.

    1999-07-01

    The overall objective of this work was to evaluate typical energy requirements associated with alternative ventilation control strategies. The strategies included different combinations of economizer and demand-controlled ventilation controls and energy analyses were performed for a range of typical buildings, systems, and climates. Only single zone buildings were considered, so that simultaneous heating and cooling did not exist. The energy savings associated with economizer and demand-controlled ventilation strategies were found to be very significant for both heating and cooling. In general, the greatest savings in electrical usage for cooling with the addition of demand-controlled ventilation occur in situations where the opportunities for economizer cooling are less. This is true for warm and humid climates, and for buildings that have low relative internal gains (i.e., low occupant densities). As much as 10% savings in electrical energy for cooling were possible with demand-controlled ventilation. The savings in heating energy associated with demand-controlled ventilation were generally much larger, but were strongly dependent upon the occupancy schedule. Significantly greater savings were found for buildings with highly variable occupancy schedules (e.g., stores and restaurants) as compared with office buildings. In some cases, the primary heating energy was reduced by a factor of 10 with demand-controlled ventilation as compared with fixed ventilation rates.

  8. Efficient, High-Torque Electric Vehicle Motor: Advanced Electric Vehicle Motors with Low or No Rare Earth Content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: QM Power will develop a new type of electric motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs without the use of rare-earth-based magnets. Many of todays EV motors use rare earth magnets to efficiently provide torque to the wheels. QM Powers motors would contain magnets that use no rare earth minerals, are light and compact, and can deliver more power with greater efficiency and at reduced cost. Key innovations in this project include a new motor design with iron-based magnetic materials, a new motor control technique, and advanced manufacturing techniques that substantially reduce the cost of the motor. The ultimate goal of this project is to create a cost-effective EV motor that offers the rough peak equivalent of 270 horsepower.

  9. A First Look at the Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Electric Grid in the EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen L. Schey; John G. Smart; Don R. Scoffield

    2012-05-01

    ECOtality was awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to lead a large-scale electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration, called The EV Project. ECOtality has partnered with Nissan North America, General Motors, the Idaho National Laboratory, and others to deploy and collect data from over 5,000 Nissan LEAFsTM and Chevrolet Volts and over 10,000 charging systems in 18 regions across the United States. This paper summarizes usage of residential charging units in The EV Project, based on data collected through the end of 2011. This information is provided to help analysts assess the impact on the electric grid of early adopter charging of grid-connected electric drive vehicles. A method of data aggregation was developed to summarize charging unit usage by the means of two metrics: charging availability and charging demand. Charging availability is plotted to show the percentage of charging units connected to a vehicle over time. Charging demand is plotted to show charging demand on the electric gird over time. Charging availability for residential charging units is similar in each EV Project region. It is low during the day, steadily increases in evening, and remains high at night. Charging demand, however, varies by region. Two EV Project regions were examined to identify regional differences. In Nashville, where EV Project participants do not have time-of-use electricity rates, demand increases each evening as charging availability increases, starting at about 16:00. Demand peaks in the 20:00 hour on weekdays. In San Francisco, where the majority of EV Project participants have the option of choosing a time-of-use rate plan from their electric utility, demand spikes at 00:00. This coincides with the beginning of the off-peak electricity rate period. Demand peaks at 01:00.

  10. Electric Power System Asset Optimization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... generation DMS Distributed management system DOE Department of Energy DR Demand response DUE Distribution utility enterprise EAC Electricity Advisory Committee EAM ...

  11. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 2: Modeling Demand Response in a Production Cost Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, Marissa; Palchak, David; Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Olsen, Daniel J.; Kiliccote, Sila; Matson, Nance; Sohn, Michael; Rose, Cody; Dudley, Junqiao; Goli, Sasank; Ma, Ookie

    2013-12-01

    This report is one of a series stemming from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study. This study is a multi-national-laboratory effort to assess the potential value of demand response (DR) and energy storage to electricity systems with different penetration levels of variable renewable resources and to improve our understanding of associatedmarkets and institutions. This report implements DR resources in the commercial production cost model PLEXOS.

  12. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  13. Demand for superpremium needle cokes on upswing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acciarri, J.A.; Stockman, G.H. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors discuss how recent supply shortages of super-premium quality needle cokes, plus the expectation of increased shortfalls in the future, indicate that refiners should consider upgrading their operations to fill these demands. Calcined, super-premium needle cokes are currently selling for as much as $550/metric ton, fob producer, and increasing demand will continue the upward push of the past year. Needle coke, in its calcined form, is the major raw material in the manufacture of graphite electrodes. Used in steelmaking, graphite electrodes are the electrical conductors that supply the heat source, through arcing electrode column tips, to electric arc steel furnaces. Needle coke is commercially available in three grades - super premium, premium, and intermediate. Super premium is used to produce electrodes for the most severe electric arc furnace steelmaking applications, premium for electrodes destined to less severe operations, and intermediate for even less critical needs.

  14. Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-09-20

    Policy makers and program designers in the U.S. and abroad are deeply concerned with the question of how to scale up energy efficiency to a level that is commensurate both to the scale of the energy and climate challenges we face, and to the potential for energy savings that has been touted for decades. When policy makers ask what energy efficiency can do, the answers usually revolve around the technical and economic potential of energy efficiency - they rarely hone in on the element of energy demand that matters most for changing energy usage in existing homes: the consumer. A growing literature is concerned with the behavioral underpinnings of energy consumption. We examine a narrower, related subject: How can millions of Americans be persuaded to divert valued time and resources into upgrading their homes to eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy? With hundreds of millions of public dollars flowing into incentives, workforce training, and other initiatives to support comprehensive home energy improvements, it makes sense to review the history of these programs and begin gleaning best practices for encouraging comprehensive home energy improvements. Looking across 30 years of energy efficiency programs that targeted the residential market, many of the same issues that confronted past program administrators are relevant today: How do we cost-effectively motivate customers to take action? Who can we partner with to increase program participation? How do we get residential efficiency programs to scale? While there is no proven formula - and only limited success to date with reliably motivating large numbers of Americans to invest in comprehensive home energy improvements, especially if they are being asked to pay for a majority of the improvement costs - there is a rich and varied history of experiences that new programs can draw upon. Our primary audiences are policy makers and program designers - especially those that are relatively

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustine, Chad; Bain, Richard; Chapman, Jamie; Denholm, Paul; Drury, Easan; Hall, Douglas G.; Lantz, Eric; Margolis, Robert; Thresher, Robert; Sandor, Debra; Bishop, Norman A.; Brown, Stephen R.; Felker, Fort; Fernandez, Steven J.; Goodrich, Alan C.; Hagerman, George; Heath, Garvin; O'Neil, Sean; Paquette, Joshua; Tegen, Suzanne; Young, Katherine

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems. Operations and Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, Michael; Ela, Erik; Hein, Jeff; Schneider, Thomas; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  19. Search for neutrons from deuterated palladium subject to high electrical currents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, S.F. |; Claytor, T.N.; Tuggle, D.G.; Jones, S.E.

    1994-04-01

    Tritium has been detected evolving from samples of deuteriated palladium wires and powders subject to pulsed high voltage at Los Alamos. They wanted to measure whether these samples were emitting neutrons. The idea of pulsing current through the wires and powders was to drive the deuterium in and out by rapid electrical heating. With promising tritium results in hand, the experiments were prepared at Los Alamos, and then taken to BYU and run in the neutron detector located in a tunnel in Provo canyon under 35 m of rock and dirt overburden. The neutrons detector and sample setup are described. Results including total neutron counts, time distributions, and an indication of the energy distributions are discussed. The results do not provide compelling evidence of neutron production, but are not inconsistent with earlier measurements of neutrons and tritium. Difficulties in explaining the difference in tritium and neutron measurements are also discussed. Plans for further work are presented.

  20. Electrical heating of soils using high efficiency electrode patterns and power phases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buettner, Harley M.

    1999-01-01

    Powerline-frequency electrical (joule) heating of soils using a high efficiency electrode configuration and power phase arrangement. The electrode configuration consists of several heating or current injection electrodes around the periphery of a volume of soil to be heated, all electrodes being connected to one phase of a multi-phase or a single-phase power system, and a return or extraction electrode or electrodes located inside the volume to be heated being connected to the remaining phases of the multi-phase power system or to the neutral side of the single-phase power source. This electrode configuration and power phase arrangement can be utilized anywhere where powerline frequency soil heating is applicable and thus has many potential uses including removal of volatile organic compounds such as gasoline and tricholorethylene (TCE) from contaminated areas.

  1. Chapter 3: Demand-Side Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    : Demand-Side Resources Chapter 3: Demand-Side Resources Utilities in many states have been implementing energy efficiency and load management programs (collectively called demand-side resources), some for more than two decades. According to one source, U.S. electric utilities spent $14.7 billion on DSM programs between 1989 and 1999, an average of $1.3 billion per year. Chapter 3: Demand-Side Resources (265.28 KB) More Documents & Publications Chapter 3 Demand-Side Resources Draft Ch

  2. Insidious vapors: infrared determination of NO/sub 2/ generated in a high-voltage electric arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, E.M.; LeFevre, P.G.; Williams, R.C.

    1984-11-01

    A study of the quantities of nitrogen dioxide generated by a high-voltage electric discharge was conducted. The amount of nitrogen dioxide present was measured using infrared spectroscopy. Paraffin was used to protect the KBr sample cell from damage and NO/sub 2/. The relative toxicities of phosgene and NO/sub 2/, both generated by arcing of electrical equipment, are presented. 10 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Atomistic and molecular effects in electric double layers at high surface charges

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Lee, Jonathan; Mani, Ali

    2015-06-16

    Here, the Poisson–Boltzmann theory for electrolytes near a charged surface is known to be invalid due to unaccounted physics associated with high ion concentration regimes. In order to investigate this regime, fluids density functional theory (f-DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to determine electric surface potential as a function of surface charge. Based on these detailed computations, for electrolytes with nonpolar solvent, the surface potential is shown to depend quadratically on the surface charge in the high charge limit. We demonstrate that modified Poisson–Boltzmann theories can model this limit if they are augmented with atomic packing densities providedmore » by MD. However, when the solvent is a highly polar molecule water an intermediate regime is identified in which a constant capacitance is realized. Simulation results demonstrate the mechanism underlying this regime, and for the salt water system studied here, it persists throughout the range of physically realistic surface charge densities so the potential’s quadratic surface charge dependence is not obtained.« less

  4. Failure modes in high-power lithium-ion batteries for use inhybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostecki, R.; Zhang, X.; Ross Jr., P.N.; Kong, F.; Sloop, S.; Kerr, J.B.; Striebel, K.; Cairns, E.; McLarnon, F.

    2001-06-22

    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program seeks to aid the development of high-power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles. Nine 18650-size ATD baseline cells were tested under a variety of conditions. The cells consisted of a carbon anode, LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode and DEC-EC-LiPF{sub 6} electrolyte, and they were engineered for high-power applications. Selected instrumental techniques such as synchrotron IR microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gas chromatography, etc. were used to characterize the anode, cathode, current collectors and electrolyte from these cells. The goal was to identify detrimental processes which lead to battery failure under a high-current cycling regime as well as during storage at elevated temperatures. The diagnostic results suggest that the following factors contribute to the cell power loss: (a) SEI deterioration and non-uniformity on the anode, (b) morphology changes, increase of impedance and phase separation on the cathode, (c) pitting corrosion on the cathode Al current collector, and (d) decomposition of the LiPF{sub 6} salt in the electrolyte at elevated temperature.

  5. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Jason; Yu, Wensong; Sun, Pengwei; Leslie, Scott; Prusia, Duane; Arnet, Beat; Smith, Chris; Cogan, Art

    2012-03-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  6. Multiple-Filled Skutterudites: High Thermoelectric Figure of Merit through Separately Optimizing Electrical and Thermal Transports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Weiqing; Yang, Jiong; Yang, Jihui; Wang, Hsin; Salvador, James R.; Shi, Xun; Chi, Miaofang; Cho, Jung Y; Bai, Shengqiang; Chen, Lidong

    2011-01-01

    Skutterudites CoSb{sub 3} with multiple cofillers Ba, La, and Yb were synthesized and very high thermoelectric figure of merit ZT = 1.7 at 850 K was realized. X-ray diffraction of the densified multiple-filled bulk samples reveals all samples are phase pure. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirm that multiple guest fillers occupy the nanoscale-cages in the skutterudites. The fillers are further shown to be uniformly distributed and the Co-Sb skutterudite framework is virtually unperturbed from atomic scale to a few micrometers. Our results firmly show that high power factors can be realized by adjusting the total filling fraction of fillers with different charge states to reach the optimum carrier density, at the same time, lattice thermal conductivity can also be significantly reduced, to values near the glass limit of these materials, through combining filler species of different rattling frequencies to achieve broad-frequency phonon scattering. Therefore, partially filled skutterudites with multiple fillers of different chemical nature render unique structural characteristics for optimizing electrical and thermal transports in a relatively independent way, leading to continually enhanced ZT values from single- to double-, and finally to multiple-filled skutterudites. The idea of combining multiple fillers with different charge states and rattling frequencies for performance optimization is also expected to be valid for other caged TE compounds.

  7. Electrical Engineer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transmission Field Services is responsible for field switching operation and maintenance of Bonneville Power Administration's high-voltage electrical transmission system to provide safe, reliable,...

  8. Demand response medium sized industry consumers (Smart Grid Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    demand and regulation power in Danish Industry consumers via a price and control signal from the supplier of electricity. The aim is to develop a valuable solution for the...

  9. AVTA: PHEV Demand and Energy Cost Demonstration Report | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    report describes results from a demonstration with Tacoma Power on plug-in hybrid electric ... Tacoma PowerAVTA PHEV Demand and Energy Cost Demonstration Analysis Report - May 2010 ...

  10. Robust Unit Commitment Considering Uncertain Demand Response

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-09-28

    Although price responsive demand response has been widely accepted as playing an important role in the reliable and economic operation of power system, the real response from demand side can be highly uncertain due to limited understanding of consumers' response to pricing signals. To model the behavior of consumers, the price elasticity of demand has been explored and utilized in both research and real practice. However, the price elasticity of demand is not precisely known and may vary greatly with operating conditions and types of customers. To accommodate the uncertainty of demand response, alternative unit commitment methods robust to themore » uncertainty of the demand response require investigation. In this paper, a robust unit commitment model to minimize the generalized social cost is proposed for the optimal unit commitment decision taking into account uncertainty of the price elasticity of demand. By optimizing the worst case under proper robust level, the unit commitment solution of the proposed model is robust against all possible realizations of the modeled uncertain demand response. Numerical simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System show the e ectiveness of the method. Finally, compared to unit commitment with deterministic price elasticity of demand, the proposed robust model can reduce the average Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) as well as the price volatility.« less

  11. Robust Unit Commitment Considering Uncertain Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-09-28

    Although price responsive demand response has been widely accepted as playing an important role in the reliable and economic operation of power system, the real response from demand side can be highly uncertain due to limited understanding of consumers' response to pricing signals. To model the behavior of consumers, the price elasticity of demand has been explored and utilized in both research and real practice. However, the price elasticity of demand is not precisely known and may vary greatly with operating conditions and types of customers. To accommodate the uncertainty of demand response, alternative unit commitment methods robust to the uncertainty of the demand response require investigation. In this paper, a robust unit commitment model to minimize the generalized social cost is proposed for the optimal unit commitment decision taking into account uncertainty of the price elasticity of demand. By optimizing the worst case under proper robust level, the unit commitment solution of the proposed model is robust against all possible realizations of the modeled uncertain demand response. Numerical simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System show the e ectiveness of the method. Finally, compared to unit commitment with deterministic price elasticity of demand, the proposed robust model can reduce the average Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) as well as the price volatility.

  12. Electric Power annual 1996: Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    This document presents a summary of electric power industry statistics. Data are included on electric utility retail sales of electricity, revenues, environmental information, power transactions, emissions, and demand-side management.

  13. Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Work on optimizing electrical and thermal transport properties of n-type skutterudites via a multiple-element-void-filling approach is presented.

  14. EIA Electric Power Forms

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electric Power Forms EIA Electric Power Forms Listing of Publicly Available and Confidential Data EIA's statistical surveys encompass each significant electric supply and demand activity in the United States. Most of the electric power survey forms resulting data elements are published, but respondent confidentiality is required. The chart below shows the data elements for each survey form and how each data element is treated in regard to confidentiality. Data Categories Data collection forms

  15. Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellington, Andre

    2014-03-31

    The Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (Interoperability Project) was awarded to Con Edison in 2009. The objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate methodologies to enhance the ability of customer sited Demand Response resources to integrate more effectively with electric delivery companies and regional transmission organizations.

  16. Demand Charges | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Demand Charges Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleDemandCharges&oldid488967" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs...

  17. Effects of light illumination on electron velocity of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures under high electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Lei; Yang, Xuelin Cheng, Jianpeng; Sang, Ling; Xu, Fujun; Tang, Ning; Feng, Zhihong; Lv, Yuanjie; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, B.; Ge, Weikun

    2014-12-15

    We have investigated the variation of electron velocity in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures depending on illuminating light intensity and wavelength. It is shown that the electron velocity at high electric field increases under above-band light illumination. This electron velocity enhancement is found to be related to the photo-generated cold holes which interact with hot electrons and thus accelerate the energy relaxation at high electric field. The results suggest an alternative way to improve the electron energy relaxation rate and hence the electron velocity in GaN based heterostructures.

  18. Energy conservation and electricity sector liberalization: Case-studies on the development of cogeneration, wind energy and demand-side management in the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slingerland, S.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper, the development of cogeneration, wind energy and demand-side management in the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom are compared. It is discussed to what extent these developments are determined by the liberalization process. Three key liberalization variables are identified: unbundling, privatization and introduction of competition. The analysis suggests that unbundling prior to introduction of full competition in generation is particularly successful in stimulating industrial cogeneration; simultaneous introduction of competition and unbundling mainly stimulates non-cogeneration gas-based capacity; and introduction of competition in itself is likely to impede the development of district-heating cogeneration. Furthermore, it is argued that development of wind energy and demand-side management are primarily dependent on the kind of support system set up by policy makers rather than on the liberalization process. Negative impacts of introduction of competition on integrated resource planning and commercial energy services could nevertheless be expected.

  19. Transistors for Electric Motor Drives: High-Performance GaN HEMT Modules for Agile Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: Transphorm is developing transistors with gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductors that could be used to make cost-effective, high-performance power converters for a variety of applications, including electric motor drives which transmit power to a motor. A transistor acts like a switch, controlling the electrical energy that flows around an electrical circuit. Most transistors today use low-cost silicon semiconductors to conduct electrical energy, but silicon transistors don’t operate efficiently at high speeds and voltage levels. Transphorm is using GaN as a semiconductor material in its transistors because GaN performs better at higher voltages and frequencies, and it is more energy efficient than straight silicon. However, Transphorm is using inexpensive silicon as a base to help keep costs low. The company is also packaging its transistors with other electrical components that can operate quickly and efficiently at high power levels—increasing the overall efficiency of both the transistor and the entire motor drive.

  20. Electric Power Annual 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Summer Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 1999 through 2010" ,"(Megawatts and Percent)" ,"Interconnection","NERC Regional Assesment Area","Net Internal Demand (MW)[1] -- Summer" ,,,"Actual",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Projected"

  1. Use of High Temperature Electrochemical Cells for Co-Generation of Chemicals and Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Barnett

    2007-09-30

    In this project, two key issues were addressed to show the feasibility of electrochemical partial oxidation (EPOx) in a SOFC. First, it was demonstrated that SOFCs can reliably operate directly with natural gas. These results are relevant to both direct-natural-gas SOFCs, where the aim is solely electrical power generation, and to EPOx. Second, it must be shown that SOFCs can work effectively as partial oxidation reactors, i.e, that they can provide high conversion efficiency of natural gas to syngas. The results of this study in both these areas look extremely promising. The main results are summarized briefly: (1) Stability and coke-free direct-methane SOFC operation is promoted by the addition of a thin porous inert barrier layer to the anode and the addition of small amounts of CO{sub 2} or air to the fuel stream; (2) Modeling results readily explained these improvements by a change in the gas composition at the Ni-YSZ anode to a non-coking condition; (3) The operation range for coke-free operation is greatly increased by using a cell geometry with a thin Ni-YSZ anode active layer on an inert porous ceramic support, i.e., (Sr,La)TiO{sub 3} or partially-stabilized zirconia (in segmented-in-series arrays); (4) Ethane and propane components in natural gas greatly increase coking both on the SOFC anode and on gas-feed tubes, but this can be mitigated by preferentially oxidizing these components prior to introduction into the fuel cell, the addition of a small amount of air to the fuel, and/or the use of ceramic-supported SOFC; (5) While a minimum SOFC current density was generally required to prevent coking, current interruptions of up to 8 minutes yielded only slight anode coking that caused no permanent damage and was completely reversible when the cell current was resumed; (6) Stable direct-methane SOFC operation was demonstrated under EPOx conditions in a 350 h test; (7) EPOx operation was demonstrated at 750 C that yielded 0.9 W/cm{sup 2} and a syngas

  2. Demand response pilot event conducted August 2,2011 : summary report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Donald; Evans, Christoper

    2012-01-01

    Energy management in a commercial facility can be segregated into two areas: energy efficiency and demand response (DR). Energy efficiency focuses on steady-state load minimization. Demand response reduces load for event driven periods during the peak load. Demand-response-driven changes in electricity use are designed to be short-term in nature, centered on critical hours during the day when demand is high or when the electricity supplier's reserve margins are low. Due to the recent Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 745, Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets the potential annual compensation to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) from performing DR ranges from $300K to $2,400K. While the current energy supply contract does not offer any compensation for participating in DR, there is benefit in understanding the issues and potential value in performing a DR event. This Report will be helpful in upcoming energy supply contract negotiations to quantify the energy savings and power reduction potential from DR at SNL. On August 25, 2011 the Facilities Management and Operations Center (FMOC) performed the first DR pilot event at SNL/NM. This report describes the details and results of this DR event.

  3. Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, Robert H; Hsu, John S; Starke, Michael R

    2006-09-01

    This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at

  4. Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, J.S.; Staunton, M.R.; Starke, M.R.

    2006-09-30

    This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at

  5. Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klepper, C Christopher; Martin, Elijah H; Isler, Ralph C; Colas, L.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Panayotis, Stephanie; Jacquot, Jonathan; Lotte, Ph.; Colledani, G.; Biewer, Theodore M; Caughman, J. B. O.; Ekedahl, A.; Green, David L; Harris, Jeffrey H; Hillis, Donald Lee; Shannon, Prof. Steven; Litaudon, X

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (> 1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher.

  6. Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klepper, C. C. Isler, R. C.; Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B.; Green, D. L.; Harris, J. H.; Hillis, D. L.; Martin, E. H.; Colas, L.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Panayotis, S.; Pegourié, B.; Jacquot, J.; Lotte, Ph.; Colledani, G.; Ekedahl, A.; Litaudon, X.; Shannon, S. C.

    2014-11-15

    An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (>∼1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher.

  7. Measurement and evaluation techniques for automated demand response demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Sezgen, Osman; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    The recent electricity crisis in California and elsewhere has prompted new research to evaluate demand response strategies in large facilities. This paper describes an evaluation of fully automated demand response technologies (Auto-DR) in five large facilities. Auto-DR does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a facility through receipt of an external communications signal. This paper summarizes the measurement and evaluation of the performance of demand response technologies and strategies in five large facilities. All the sites have data trending systems such as energy management and control systems (EMCS) and/or energy information systems (EIS). Additional sub-metering was applied where necessary to evaluate the facility's demand response performance. This paper reviews the control responses during the test period, and analyzes demand savings achieved at each site. Occupant comfort issues are investigated where data are available. This paper discusses methods to estimate demand savings and results from demand response strategies at five large facilities.

  8. A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G. E-mail: skpras@gmail.com; Krishna Prasad, S. E-mail: skpras@gmail.com; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.

    2014-10-21

    We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4–5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.

  9. Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures, 2003" ,"All Buildings* Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  10. Demand response compensation, net Benefits and cost allocation: comments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-11-15

    FERC's Supplemental Notice of Public Rulemaking addresses the question of proper compensation for demand response in organized wholesale electricity markets. Assuming that the Commission would proceed with the proposal ''to require tariff provisions allowing demand response resources to participate in wholesale energy markets by reducing consumption of electricity from expected levels in response to price signals, to pay those demand response resources, in all hours, the market price of energy for such reductions,'' the Commission posed questions about applying a net benefits test and rules for cost allocation. This article summarizes critical points and poses implications for the issues of net benefit tests and cost allocation. (author)

  11. travel-demand-modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Travel Demand Modeling for a Small sized MPO Using TRANSIMS Mohammad Sharif Ullah Champaign County Regional Planning Commission 1776 E Washington Street, Urbana, IL 61802 Phone: 217 328 3313 Ext 124 Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. List of Authors ================ Mohammad Sharif Ullah, Senior Transportation Engineer, CCRPC, Urbana, IL Asadur Rahman, PhD student, IIT, Chicago, IL Rita Morocoima-Black, Planning & Comm.

  12. Local changes of work function near rough features on Cu surfaces operated under high external electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djurabekova, Flyura Ruzibaev, Avaz; Parviainen, Stefan; Holmstrm, Eero; Hakala, Mikko

    2013-12-28

    Metal surfaces operated under high electric fields produce sparks even if they are held in ultra high vacuum. In spite of extensive research on the topic of vacuum arcs, the mystery of vacuum arc origin still remains unresolved. The indications that the sparking rates depend on the material motivate the research on surface response to extremely high external electric fields. In this work by means of density-functional theory calculations we analyze the redistribution of electron density on (100) Cu surfaces due to self-adatoms and in presence of high electric fields from ?1?V/nm up to ?2?V/nm (?1 to ?2 GV/m, respectively). We also calculate the partial charge induced by the external field on a single adatom and a cluster of two adatoms in order to obtain reliable information on charge redistribution on surface atoms, which can serve as a benchmarking quantity for the assessment of the electric field effects on metal surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the modifications of work function around rough surface features, such as step edges and self-adatoms.

  13. Puget Sound area electric reliability plan. Draft environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) identifies the alternatives for solving a power system problem in the Puget Sound area. This Plan is undertaken by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Puget Sound Power & Light, Seattle City Light, Snohomish Public Utility District No. 1 (PUD), and Tacoma Public Utilities. The Plan consists of potential actions in Puget Sound and other areas in the State of Washington. A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, there is more demand for power than the electric system can supply in the Puget Sound area. This high demand, called peak demand, occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies, the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both. The plan to balance Puget Sound`s power demand and supply has these purposes: The plan should define a set of actions that would accommodate ten years of load growth (1994--2003). Federal and State environmental quality requirements should be met. The plan should be consistent with the plans of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The plan should serve as a consensus guideline for coordinated utility action. The plan should be flexible to accommodate uncertainties and differing utility needs. The plan should balance environmental impacts and economic costs. The plan should provide electric system reliability consistent with customer expectations. 29 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Draft Environmental Impact State.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) identifies the alternatives for solving a power system problem in the Puget Sound area. This Plan is undertaken by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Puget Sound Power Light, Seattle City Light, Snohomish Public Utility District No. 1 (PUD), and Tacoma Public Utilities. The Plan consists of potential actions in Puget Sound and other areas in the State of Washington. A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, there is more demand for power than the electric system can supply in the Puget Sound area. This high demand, called peak demand, occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies, the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both. The plan to balance Puget Sound's power demand and supply has these purposes: The plan should define a set of actions that would accommodate ten years of load growth (1994--2003). Federal and State environmental quality requirements should be met. The plan should be consistent with the plans of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The plan should serve as a consensus guideline for coordinated utility action. The plan should be flexible to accommodate uncertainties and differing utility needs. The plan should balance environmental impacts and economic costs. The plan should provide electric system reliability consistent with customer expectations. 29 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. Demand Response: Lessons Learned with an Eye to the Future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the Recovery Act, the Energy Department awarded $3.5 billion in funds to the electricity industry, including OG&E, to help catalyze the adoption of smart grid tools, technologies and techniques such as demand response that are designed to increase the electric grid’s flexibility, reliability, efficiency, affordability, and resiliency. Understanding lessons learned from these projects is vital.

  16. Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in Procurement of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment This Guidance provides a description of the types of requirements to be included in an employer's workplace charging request for proposal (RFP). This Guidance is not intended to be a sample or manual for acquiring electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), but rather to serve as a reference for an employer to consider when acquiring EVSE as part of a workplace charging program. Contact the Workplace Charging Challenge at

  17. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  18. Recommended practice for fire protection for electric generating plants and high voltage direct current converter stations. 2005 ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    The standard outlines fire safety recommendations for gas, oil, coal, and alternative fuel electric generating plants including high voltage direct current converter stations and combustion turbine units greater than 7500 hp used for electric generation. Provisions apply to both new and existing plants. The document provides fire prevention and fire protection recommendations for the: safety of construction and operating personnel; physical integrity of plant components; and continuity of plant operations. The 2005 edition includes revisions and new art that clarify existing provisions. 5 annexes.

  19. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, June Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01

    This report characterizes small commercial buildings by market segments, systems and end-uses; develops a framework for identifying demand response (DR) enabling technologies and communication means; and reports on the design and development of a low-cost OpenADR enabling technology that delivers demand reductions as a percentage of the total predicted building peak electric demand. The results show that small offices, restaurants and retail buildings are the major contributors making up over one third of the small commercial peak demand. The majority of the small commercial buildings in California are located in southern inland areas and the central valley. Single-zone packaged units with manual and programmable thermostat controls make up the majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for small commercial buildings with less than 200 kW peak electric demand. Fluorescent tubes with magnetic ballast and manual controls dominate this customer group's lighting systems. There are various ways, each with its pros and cons for a particular application, to communicate with these systems and three methods to enable automated DR in small commercial buildings using the Open Automated Demand Response (or OpenADR) communications infrastructure. Development of DR strategies must consider building characteristics, such as weather sensitivity and load variability, as well as system design (i.e. under-sizing, under-lighting, over-sizing, etc). Finally, field tests show that requesting demand reductions as a percentage of the total building predicted peak electric demand is feasible using the OpenADR infrastructure.

  20. The impact of demand-controlled and economizer ventilation strategies on energy use in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandemuehl, M.J.; Braun, J.E.

    1999-07-01

    The overall objective of this work was to evaluate typical energy requirements associated with alternative ventilation control strategies for constant-air-volume (CAV) systems in commercial buildings. The strategies included different combinations of economizer and demand-controlled ventilation, and energy analyses were performed for four typical building types, eight alternative ventilation systems, and twenty US climates. Only single-zone buildings were considered so that simultaneous heating and cooling did not exist. The energy savings associated with economizer and demand-controlled ventilation strategies were found to be very significant for both heating and cooling. In general, the greatest savings in electrical usage for cooling with the addition of demand-controlled ventilation occur in situations where the opportunities for economizer cooling are less. This is true for warm and humid climates and for buildings that have relatively low internal gains (i.e., low occupant densities). As much as 20% savings in electrical energy for cooling were possible with demand-controlled ventilation. The savings in heating energy associated with demand-controlled ventilation were generally much larger but were strongly dependent upon the building type and occupancy schedule. Significantly greater savings were found for buildings with highly variable occupancy schedules and large internal gains (i.e., restaurants) as compared with office buildings. In some cases, the primary heating energy was virtually eliminated by demand-controlled ventilation as compared with fixed ventilation rates. For both heating and cooling, the savings associated with demand-controlled ventilation are dependent on the fixed minimum ventilation rate of the base case at design conditions.

  1. Exploring high temperature phenomena related to post-detonation using an electric arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Z. R. Crowhurst, J. C.; Grant, C. D.; Knight, K. B.; Tang, V.; Chernov, A. A.; Cook, E. G.; Lotscher, J. P.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2013-11-28

    We report a study of materials recovered from a uranium-containing plasma generated by an electric arc. The device used to generate the arc is capable of sustaining temperatures of an eV or higher for up to 100??s. Samples took the form of a 4??m-thick film deposited onto 8 pairs of 17??m-thick Cu electrodes supported on a 25??m-thick Kapton backing and sandwiched between glass plates. Materials recovered from the glass plates and around the electrode tips after passage of an arc were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Recovered materials included a variety of crystalline compounds (e.g., UO{sub 2}, UC{sub 2}, UCu{sub 5},) as well as mixtures of uranium and amorphous glass. Most of the materials collected on the glass plates took the form of spherules having a wide range of diameters from tens of nanometers to tens of micrometers. The composition and size of the spherules depended on location, indicating different chemical and physical environments. A theoretical analysis we have carried out suggests that the submicron spherules presumably formed by deposition during the arc discharge, while at the same time the glass plates were strongly heated due to absorption of plasma radiation mainly by islands of deposited metals (Cu, U). The surface temperature of the glass plates is expected to have risen to ?2300?K thus producing a liquefied glass layer, likely diffusions of the deposited metals on the hot glass surface and into this layer were accompanied by chemical reactions that gave rise to the observed materials. These results, together with the compact scale and relatively low cost, suggest that the experimental technique provides a practical approach to investigate the complex physical and chemical processes that occur when actinide-containing material interacts with the environment at high temperature, for example, during fallout formation following a nuclear detonation.

  2. Recovery Act: State Assistance for Recovery Act Related Electricity...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    efficiency, renewable energy, carbon capture and storage, transmission lines, energy storage, smart grid, demand response equipment, and electric and hybrid-electric vehicles. ...

  3. Average summer electric power bills expected to be lowest in...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lower electricity use to meet cooling demand this summer because of forecasted milder temperatures compared with last summer is expected to more than offset higher electricity ...

  4. Refrigerated Warehouse Demand Response Strategy Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Doug; Castillo, Rafael; Larson, Kyle; Dobbs, Brian; Olsen, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    This guide summarizes demand response measures that can be implemented in refrigerated warehouses. In an appendix, it also addresses related energy efficiency opportunities. Reducing overall grid demand during peak periods and energy consumption has benefits for facility operators, grid operators, utility companies, and society. State wide demand response potential for the refrigerated warehouse sector in California is estimated to be over 22.1 Megawatts. Two categories of demand response strategies are described in this guide: load shifting and load shedding. Load shifting can be accomplished via pre-cooling, capacity limiting, and battery charger load management. Load shedding can be achieved by lighting reduction, demand defrost and defrost termination, infiltration reduction, and shutting down miscellaneous equipment. Estimation of the costs and benefits of demand response participation yields simple payback periods of 2-4 years. To improve demand response performance, it’s suggested to install air curtains and another form of infiltration barrier, such as a rollup door, for the passageways. Further modifications to increase efficiency of the refrigeration unit are also analyzed. A larger condenser can maintain the minimum saturated condensing temperature (SCT) for more hours of the day. Lowering the SCT reduces the compressor lift, which results in an overall increase in refrigeration system capacity and energy efficiency. Another way of saving energy in refrigerated warehouses is eliminating the use of under-floor resistance heaters. A more energy efficient alternative to resistance heaters is to utilize the heat that is being rejected from the condenser through a heat exchanger. These energy efficiency measures improve efficiency either by reducing the required electric energy input for the refrigeration system, by helping to curtail the refrigeration load on the system, or by reducing both the load and required energy input.

  5. Characterization of plasmonic hole arrays as transparent electrical contacts for organic photovoltaics using high-brightness Fourier transform methods

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Camino, Fernando E.; Nam, Chang-Yong; Pang, Yutong T.; Hoy, Jessica; Eisaman, Matthew D.; Black, Charles T.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2014-05-15

    Here we present a methodology for probing light-matter interactions in prototype photovoltaic devices consisting of an organic semiconductor active layer with a semitransparent metal electrical contact exhibiting surface plasmon-based enhanced optical transmission. We achieve high-spectral irradiance in a spot size of less than 100 μm using a high-brightness laser-driven light source and appropriate coupling optics. Spatially resolved Fourier transform photocurrent spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions allows us to measure external quantum efficiency with high sensitivity in small-area devices (<1 mm2). Lastly, this allows for rapid fabrication of variable-pitch sub-wavelength hole arrays in metal films for use asmore » transparent electrical contacts, and evaluation of the evanescent and propagating mode coupling to resonances in the active layer.« less

  6. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian; Wray, Craig; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  7. Electric machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  8. Electric avenues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, P.; Chang, A.

    1994-12-31

    Highly efficient electric drive technology developed originally for defense applications is being applied to the development of all electric shuttle buses for the San Jose International Airport. An innovative opportunity charging system using induction chargers will be incorporated to extend operation hours. The project, if successful, is expected to reduce pollution at the airport and generate jobs for displaced defense workers.

  9. Aid for electrical contacting of high-temperature fuel cells and method for production thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, Ines; Schillig, Cora

    2014-03-18

    A double-sided adhesive metal-based tape for use as contacting aid for SOFC fuel cells is provided. The double-sided metal-based adhesive tape is suitable for simplifying the construction of cell bundles. The double-sided metal-based adhesive tape is used for electrical contacting of the cell connector with the anode and for electrical contacting of the interconnector of the fuel cells with the cell connector. A method for producing the double-sided adhesive metal-base tape is also provided.

  10. Electric Industry Structure and Regulatory Responses in a High Distributed Energy Resources Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corneli, Steve; Kihm, Steve; Schwartz, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of distributed energy resources (DERs) that can generate, manage and store energy on the customer side of the electric meter is widely recognized as a transformative force in the power sector. This report focuses on two key aspects of that transformation: structural changes in the electric industry and related changes in business organization and regulation that are likely to result from them. Both industry structure and regulation are inextricably linked. History shows that the regulation of the power sector has responded primarily to innovation in technologies and business models that created significant structural changes in the sector’s cost and organizational structure.

  11. Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-12-01

    DRQAT (Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool) is the tool for assessing demand response saving potentials for large commercial buildings. This tool is based on EnergyPlus simulations of prototypical buildings and HVAC equipment. The opportunities for demand reduction and cost savings with building demand responsive controls vary tremendously with building type and location. The assessment tools will predict the energy and demand savings, the economic savings, and the thermal comfor impact for various demand responsive strategies.more » Users of the tools will be asked to enter the basic building information such as types, square footage, building envelope, orientation, utility schedule, etc. The assessment tools will then use the prototypical simulation models to calculate the energy and demand reduction potential under certain demand responsive strategies, such as precooling, zonal temperature set up, and chilled water loop and air loop set points adjustment.« less

  12. Lessons learned in implementing a demand side management contract at the Presidio of San Francisco

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sartor, D.; Munn, M.

    1998-06-01

    The National Park Service (NSP) recently completed the implementation phase of its Power Saving Partners (PSP) Demand Side Management (DSM) contract with the local utility, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E). Through the DSM contract, NPS will receive approximately $4.1 million over eight years in payment for saving 61 kW of electrical demand, 179,000 km of electricity per year, and 1.1 million therms of natural gas per year. These payments are for two projects: the installation of high-efficiency lighting systems at the Thoreau Center for Sustainability and the replacement of an old central boiler plant with new, distributed boilers. Although these savings and payments are substantial, the electrical savings and contract payments fall well short of the projected 1,700 kW of electrical demand, 8 million kwh of annual electricity savings, and $11 million in payments, anticipated at the project's onset. Natural gas savings exceeded the initial forecast of 800,000 therms per year. The DSM contract payments did not meet expectations for a variety of reasons which fall into two broad categories: first, many anticipated projects were not constructed, and second, some of the projects that were constructed were not included in the program because the cost of implementing the DSM program's measurement and verification (M&V) requirements outweighed anticipated payments. This paper discusses the projects implemented, and examines the decisions made to withdraw some of them from the DSM contract. It also presents the savings that were realized and documented through M&V efforts. Finally, it makes suggestions relative to M&V protocols to encourage all efficiency measures, not just those that are easy to measure.

  13. Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification (Version 1.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Kiliccote, Sila; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Palensky, Peter; McParland, Charles

    2009-02-28

    The development of the Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification, also known as OpenADR or Open Auto-DR, began in 2002 following the California electricity crisis. The work has been carried out by the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC), which is managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This specification describes an open standards-based communications data model designed to facilitate sending and receiving demand response price and reliability signals from a utility or Independent System Operator to electric customers. OpenADR is one element of the Smart Grid information and communications technologies that are being developed to improve optimization between electric supply and demand. The intention of the open automated demand response communications data model is to provide interoperable signals to building and industrial control systems that are preprogrammed to take action based on a demand response signal, enabling a demand response event to be fully automated, with no manual intervention. The OpenADR specification is a flexible infrastructure to facilitate common information exchange between the utility or Independent System Operator and end-use participants. The concept of an open specification is intended to allow anyone to implement the signaling systems, the automation server or the automation clients.

  14. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  15. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-01

    Pumping water for agricultural irrigation represents a significant share of California’s annual electricity use and peak demand. It also represents a large source of potential flexibility, as farms possess a form of storage in their wetted soil. By carefully modifying their irrigation schedules, growers can participate in demand response without adverse effects on their crops. This report describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by agricultural irrigators in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use in California. Typical on-­farm controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Case studies of demand response programs in California and across the country are reviewed, and their results along with overall California demand estimates are used to estimate statewide demand response potential. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  16. Drivers for the Value of Demand Response under Increased Levels of Wind and Solar Power; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, Elaine

    2015-07-30

    Demand response may be a valuable flexible resource for low-carbon electric power grids. However, there are as many types of possible demand response as there are ways to use electricity, making demand response difficult to study at scale in realistic settings. This talk reviews our state of knowledge regarding the potential value of demand response in several example systems as a function of increasing levels of wind and solar power, sometimes drawing on the analogy between demand response and storage. Overall, we find demand response to be promising, but its potential value is very system dependent. Furthermore, demand response, like storage, can easily saturate ancillary service markets.

  17. Northeastern Summer Electricity Market Alert

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    The National Weather Service declared an excessive-heat warning for much of the Mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, including major electric markets covering Philadelphia, Boston, Washington, D.C., and New York City. This report highlights the wholesale electricity market activity occurring in response to the higher-than-normal electricity demand caused by the heat wave.

  18. Integrating High Levels of Renewables in to the Lanai Electric Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Burman, K.; Keller, J.; Kandt, A.; Glassmire, J.; Lilienthal, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) is working with a team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratory (Sandia) to assess the economic and technical feasibility of increasing the contribution of renewable energy sources on the island of Lanai with a stated goal of reaching 100% renewable energy. NREL and Sandia partnered with Castle & Cooke, Maui Electric Company (MECO), and SRA International to perform the assessment.

  19. Energy technologies and their impact on demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drucker, H.

    1995-06-01

    Despite the uncertainties, energy demand forecasts must be made to guide government policies and public and private-sector capital investment programs. Three principles can be identified in considering long-term energy prospects. First energy demand will continue to grow, driven by population growth, economic development, and the current low per capita energy consumption in developing countries. Second, energy technology advancements alone will not solve the problem. Energy-efficient technologies, renewable resource technologies, and advanced electric power technologies will all play a major role but will not be able to keep up with the growth in world energy demand. Third, environmental concerns will limit the energy technology choices. Increasing concern for environmental protection around the world will restrict primarily large, centralized energy supply facilities. The conclusion is that energy system diversity is the only solution. The energy system must be planned with consideration of both supply and demand technologies, must not rely on a single source of energy, must take advantage of all available technologies that are specially suited to unique local conditions, must be built with long-term perspectives, and must be able to adapt to change.

  20. Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures for All Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number of...

  1. Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    C9. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  2. Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    DIV. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures by Census Division, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number...

  3. Electricity Monthly Update - Energy Information Administration

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Overview Data Electricity Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting & mapping) Summary Sales (consumption), ... demand levels that occurred towards the end of the month. ...

  4. Energy Department - Electric Power Research Institute Cooperation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    energy efficiency and promoting the widespread adoption of electric energy demand response programs in an effort to curtail energy use during peak periods. "Through ongoing ...

  5. Design Configurations for a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Designed to Generate Electricity and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conference preceedings

    2006-07-01

    The High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor is being envisioned that will generate not just electricity, but also hydrogen to charge up fuel cells for cars, trucks and other mobile energy uses. INL engineers studied various heat-transfer working fluids—including helium and liquid salts—in seven different configurations. In computer simulations, serial configurations diverted some energy from the heated fluid flowing to the electric plant and hydrogen production plant. In anticipation of the design, development and procurement of an advanced power conversion system for HTGR, this study was initiated to identify the major design and technology options and their tradeoffs in the evaluation of power conversion system (PCS) coupled to hydrogen plant. In this study, we investigated a number of design configurations and performed thermal hydraulic analyses using various working fluids and various conditions (Oh, 2005). This paper includes a portion of thermal hydraulic results based on a direct cycle and a parallel intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) configuration option.

  6. Reduction of edge localized mode intensity on DIII-D by on-demand triggering with high frequency pellet injection and implications for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, L. R.; Commaux, N.; Jernigan, T. C.; Meitner, S. J.; Combs, S. K.; Isler, R. C.; Unterberg, E. A.; Brooks, N. H.; Evans, T. E.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; Parks, P. B.; Snyder, P. B.; Strait, E. J.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Loarte, A.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Futatani, S.

    2013-08-15

    The injection of small deuterium pellets at high repetition rates up to 12× the natural edge localized mode (ELM) frequency has been used to trigger high-frequency ELMs in otherwise low natural ELM frequency H-mode deuterium discharges in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The resulting pellet-triggered ELMs result in up to 12× lower energy and particle fluxes to the divertor than the natural ELMs. The plasma global energy confinement and density are not strongly affected by the pellet perturbations. The plasma core impurity density is strongly reduced with the application of the pellets. These experiments were performed with pellets injected from the low field side pellet in plasmas designed to match the ITER baseline configuration in shape and normalized β operation with input heating power just above the H-mode power threshold. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the injected pellets show that destabilization of ballooning modes by a local pressure perturbation is responsible for the pellet ELM triggering. This strongly reduced ELM intensity shows promise for exploitation in ITER to control ELM size while maintaining high plasma purity and performance.

  7. Reduction of Edge Localized Mode Intensity on DIII-D by On-demand triggering with High Frequency Pellet Injection and Implications for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, Larry R; Commaux, Nicolas JC; Jernigan, T. C.; Meitner, Steven J; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Isler, Ralph C; Unterberg, Ezekial A; Brooks, N. H.; Evans, T. E.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; Parks, P. B.; Snyder, P. B.; Strait, E. J.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Loarte, A.; Huijsmans, G. T.A.; Futantani, S.

    2013-01-01

    The injection of small deuterium pellets at high repetition rates up to 12 the natural edge localized mode (ELM) frequency has been used to trigger high-frequency ELMs in otherwise low natural ELM frequency H-mode deuterium discharges in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The resulting pellet-triggered ELMs result in up to 12 lower energy and particle fluxes to the divertor than the natural ELMs. The plasma global energy confinement and density are not strongly affected by the pellet perturbations. The plasma core impurity density is strongly reduced with the application of the pellets. These experiments were performed with pellets injected from the low field side pellet in plasmas designed to match the ITER baseline configuration in shape and normalized operation with input heating power just above the H-mode power threshold. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the injected pellets show that destabilization of ballooning modes by a local pressure perturbation is responsible for the pellet ELM triggering. This strongly reduced ELM intensity shows promise for exploitation in ITER to control ELM size while maintaining high plasma purity and performance.

  8. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-01

    water delivery and irrigation system efficiencies. These could potentially reduce demands substantially. However, overall demands remained high under our fossil-fuel-only tax policy. In contrast, when all carbon was priced, increases in agricultural water demands were smaller than under the fossil-fuel-only policy and were driven primarily by increased demands for water by non-biomass crops such as rice. Finally we estimate the geospatial pattern of water demands and find that regions such as China, India and other countries in south and east Asia might be expected to experience greatest increases in water demands.

  9. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-03

    The objective of this scoping study is: (1) to identify current market drivers and technology trends that can improve the demand responsiveness of commercial building lighting systems and (2) to quantify the energy, demand and environmental benefits of implementing lighting demand response and energy-saving controls strategies Statewide. Lighting systems in California commercial buildings consume 30 GWh. Lighting systems in commercial buildings often waste energy and unnecessarily stress the electrical grid because lighting controls, especially dimming, are not widely used. But dimmable lighting equipment, especially the dimming ballast, costs more than non-dimming lighting and is expensive to retrofit into existing buildings because of the cost of adding control wiring. Advances in lighting industry capabilities coupled with the pervasiveness of the Internet and wireless technologies have led to new opportunities to realize significant energy saving and reliable demand reduction using intelligent lighting controls. Manufacturers are starting to produce electronic equipment--lighting-application specific controllers (LAS controllers)--that are wirelessly accessible and can control dimmable or multilevel lighting systems obeying different industry-accepted protocols. Some companies make controllers that are inexpensive to install in existing buildings and allow the power consumed by bi-level lighting circuits to be selectively reduced during demand response curtailments. By intelligently limiting the demand from bi-level lighting in California commercial buildings, the utilities would now have an enormous 1 GW demand shed capability at hand. By adding occupancy and light sensors to the remotely controllable lighting circuits, automatic controls could harvest an additional 1 BkWh/yr savings above and beyond the savings that have already been achieved. The lighting industry's adoption of DALI as the principal wired digital control protocol for dimming ballasts and

  10. Demand Response Programs, 6. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-15

    The report provides a look at the past, present, and future state of the market for demand/load response based upon market price signals. It is intended to provide significant value to individuals and companies who are considering participating in demand response programs, energy providers and ISOs interested in offering demand response programs, and consultants and analysts looking for detailed information on demand response technology, applications, and participants. The report offers a look at the current Demand Response environment in the energy industry by: defining what demand response programs are; detailing the evolution of program types over the last 30 years; discussing the key drivers of current initiatives; identifying barriers and keys to success for the programs; discussing the argument against subsidization of demand response; describing the different types of programs that exist including:direct load control, interruptible load, curtailable load, time-of-use, real time pricing, and demand bidding/buyback; providing examples of the different types of programs; examining the enablers of demand response programs; and, providing a look at major demand response programs.

  11. Demand Response Research Center and Open Automated Demand Response

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Capacity Bidding Real- Dme Pricing Demand Response Opportunities: Advance Notice and Duration of Response End Use Type Modulate OnOff Max. Response Time HVAC Chiller ...

  12. VP 100: Smart Meters Will Help Customers Avoid High Electric Bills |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy Stephen Graff Former Writer & editor for Energy Empowers, EERE What does this project do? Puts the U.S. in position to produce 40 percent of the world's supply of advanced batteries by 2015 - up from it's current level of 2 percent Makes us less dependent on foreign oil Creates jobs in an emerging sector of manufacturing The electric-vehicle industry received more support Thursday when President Obama delivered remarks in Holland, Michigan, at the groundbreaking ceremony for an

  13. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetzler, William; Sutherland, Timothy; Reis, Callie

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  14. Emerging Issues and Challenges with Integrating High Levels of Solar into

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Electrical Generation and Transmission Systems | Department of Energy Electrical Generation and Transmission Systems Emerging Issues and Challenges with Integrating High Levels of Solar into the Electrical Generation and Transmission Systems Emerging Issues and Challenges with Integrating High Levels of Solar into the Electrical Generation and Transmission Systems Increasing the use of grid-flexibility options (improved grid management, demand response, and energy storage) could enable

  15. Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R; Alkadi, Nasr E; Letto, Daryl; Johnson, Brandon; Dowling, Kevin; George, Raoule; Khan, Saqib

    2013-01-01

    Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

  16. Fatigue of extracted lead zirconate titanate multilayer actuators under unipolar high field electric cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Hong; Lee, Sung Min; Wang, James L.; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2014-12-19

    Testing of large prototype lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stacks presents substantial technical challenges to electronic testing systems, so an alternative approach that uses subunits extracted from prototypes has been pursued. Extracted 10-layer and 20-layer plate specimens were subjected to an electric cycle test under an electric field of 3.0/0.0 kV/mm, 100 Hz to 10^8 cycles. The effects of measurement field level and stack size (number of PZT layers) on the fatigue responses of piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were observed. On-line monitoring permitted examination of the fatigue response of the PZT stacks. The fatigue rate (based on on-line monitoring) and themore » fatigue index (based on the conductance spectrum from impedance measurement or small signal measurement) were developed to quantify the fatigue status of the PZT stacks. The controlling fatigue mechanism was analyzed against the fatigue observations. The data presented can serve as input to design optimization of PZT stacks and to operation optimization in critical applications such as piezoelectric fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines.« less

  17. Fatigue of extracted lead zirconate titanate multilayer actuators under unipolar high field electric cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hong; Lee, Sung Min; Wang, James L.; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2014-12-19

    Testing of large prototype lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stacks presents substantial technical challenges to electronic testing systems, so an alternative approach that uses subunits extracted from prototypes has been pursued. Extracted 10-layer and 20-layer plate specimens were subjected to an electric cycle test under an electric field of 3.0/0.0 kV/mm, 100 Hz to 10^8 cycles. The effects of measurement field level and stack size (number of PZT layers) on the fatigue responses of piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were observed. On-line monitoring permitted examination of the fatigue response of the PZT stacks. The fatigue rate (based on on-line monitoring) and the fatigue index (based on the conductance spectrum from impedance measurement or small signal measurement) were developed to quantify the fatigue status of the PZT stacks. The controlling fatigue mechanism was analyzed against the fatigue observations. The data presented can serve as input to design optimization of PZT stacks and to operation optimization in critical applications such as piezoelectric fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines.

  18. Electric Power Annual 2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.A. Summer net internal demand, capacity resources, and capacity margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region" "1999 through 2011 actual, 2012-2016 projected" "megawatts and percent" "Interconnection","NERC Regional Assesment Area","Net Internal Demand (MW)[1] -- Summer" ,,"Actual",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Projected"

  19. Analysis of Residential Demand Response and Double-Auction Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-10-10

    Demand response and dynamic pricing programs are expected to play increasing roles in the modern Smart Grid environment. While direct load control of end-use loads has existed for decades, price driven response programs are only beginning to be explored at the distribution level. These programs utilize a price signal as a means to control demand. Active markets allow customers to respond to fluctuations in wholesale electrical costs, but may not allow the utility to control demand. Transactive markets, utilizing distributed controllers and a centralized auction can be used to create an interactive system which can limit demand at key times on a distribution system, decreasing congestion. With the current proliferation of computing and communication resources, the ability now exists to create transactive demand response programs at the residential level. With the combination of automated bidding and response strategies coupled with education programs and customer response, emerging demand response programs have the ability to reduce utility demand and congestion in a more controlled manner. This paper will explore the effects of a residential double-auction market, utilizing transactive controllers, on the operation of an electric power distribution system.

  20. Demand Response Technology Roadmap A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    meetings and workshops convened to develop content for the Demand Response Technology Roadmap. The project team has developed this companion document in the interest of providing...

  1. DemandDirect | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DemandDirect Place: Woodbury, Connecticut Zip: 6798 Sector: Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Services Product: DemandDirect provides demand response, energy efficiency, load...

  2. Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McParland, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Over the past several years, interest in large-scale control of peak energy demand and total consumption has increased. While motivated by a number of factors, this interest has primarily been spurred on the demand side by the increasing cost of energy and, on the supply side by the limited ability of utilities to build sufficient electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in electricity use through the use of price incentives. DR systems are also be design to shift or curtail energy demand at critical times when the generation, transmission, and distribution systems (i.e. the 'grid') are threatened with instabilities. To be effectively deployed on a large-scale, these proposed DR systems need to be automated. Automation will require robust and efficient data communications infrastructures across geographically dispersed markets. The present availability of widespread Internet connectivity and inexpensive, reliable computing hardware combined with the growing confidence in the capabilities of distributed, application-level communications protocols suggests that now is the time for designing and deploying practical systems. Centralized computer systems that are capable of providing continuous signals to automate customers reduction of power demand, are known as Demand Response Automation Servers (DRAS). The deployment of prototype DRAS systems has already begun - with most initial deployments targeting large commercial and industrial (C & I) customers. An examination of the current overall energy consumption by economic sector shows that the C & I market is responsible for roughly half of all energy consumption in the US. On a per customer basis, large C & I customers clearly have the most to offer - and to gain - by participating in DR programs to reduce peak demand. And, by concentrating on a small number of relatively sophisticated

  3. High-temperature electrically conductive ceramic composite and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, David E.; Gooch, Jack G.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Masters, David R.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention relates to a metal-oxide ceramic composition useful in induction heating applications for treating uranium and uranium alloys. The ceramic composition is electrically conductive at room temperature and is nonreactive with molten uranium. The composition is prepared from a particulate admixture of 20 to 50 vol. % niobium and zirconium oxide which may be stabilized with an addition of a further oxide such as magnesium oxide, calcium oxide, or yttria. The composition is prepared by blending the powders, pressing or casting the blend into the desired product configuration, and then sintering the casting or compact in an inert atmosphere. In the casting operation, calcium aluminate is preferably added to the admixture in place of a like quantity of zirconia for providing a cement to help maintain the integrity of the sintered product.

  4. Production of high quality steels using the scrap/electric arc furnace route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houpert, C.; Lanteri, V.; Jolivet, J.M.; Guttmann, M.; Birat, J.P.; Jallon, M.; Confente, M.

    1996-12-31

    Europe, after North America, is increasing the share of electric arc furnace steelmaking at the expense of integrated steel production and the trend appears to be long term. The driving forces for this change are strong: availability of scrap, social pressure to recycle materials and economic benefits to be reaped from the small structure associated with this short and slim production route. The increasing use of scrap does raise some problems however, in terms of the tramp element build up within the scrap deposit over time. Scrap pretreatment, which aims at separating steel from non-ferrous material during preparation, is thus attracting a lot of attention. The purpose of the present work was to investigate quantitatively the potential problems related to increased levels in tramp elements, with two objectives: identify, on a case by case basis, the currently existing practical limits and devise countermeasures to further extend these limits by better controlling process parameters for instance.

  5. Tips: Time-Based Electricity Rates | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Time-based electricity programs encourage you to use energy when the demand is low by giving you a lower price for electricity during those times. Time-based electricity programs...

  6. Microstructure investigation of 13Cr-2Mo ODS steel components obtained by high voltage electric discharge compaction technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogachev, Igor; Yudin, Artem; Grigoryev, Evgeniy; Chernov, Ivan; Staltsov, Maxim; Khasanov, Oleg; Olevsky, Eugene

    2015-11-02

    Refractory oxide dispersion strengthened 13Cr-2Mo steel powder was successfully consolidated to near theoretical density using high voltage electric discharge compaction. Cylindrical samples with relative density from 90% to 97% and dimensions of 10 mm in diameter and 10–15 mm in height were obtained. Consolidation conditions such as pressure and voltage were varied in some ranges to determine the optimal compaction regime. Three different concentrations of yttria were used to identify its effect on the properties of the samples. It is shown that the utilized ultra-rapid consolidation process in combination with high transmitted energy allows obtaining high density compacts, retaining the initial structure with minimal grain growth. The experimental results indicate some heterogeneity of the structure which may occur in the external layers of the tested samples due to various thermal and electromagnetic in-processing effects. As a result, the choice of the optimal parameters of the consolidation enables obtaining samples of acceptable quality.

  7. Energy Jobs: Electric Vehicle Charging Station Installer | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Electric Vehicle Charging Station Installer Energy Jobs: Electric Vehicle Charging Station Installer October 28, 2014 - 3:23pm Addthis As the demand for electric vehicles goes up, charging stations become more prevalent -- here an electric vehicle owner uses a local charging station. | Photo Courtesy of the Energy Department. As the demand for electric vehicles goes up, charging stations become more prevalent -- here an electric vehicle owner uses a local charging station. | Photo

  8. Electric power annual 1995. Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    This document summarizes pertinent statistics on various aspects of the U.S. electric power industry for the year and includes a graphic presentation. Data is included on electric utility retail sales and revenues, financial statistics, environmental statistics of electric utilities, demand-side management, electric power transactions, and non-utility power producers.

  9. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  10. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Development of High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cells for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Sion Power is developing a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, a potentially cost-effective alternative to the Li-Ion battery that could store 400% more energy per pound. All batteries have 3 key partsa positive and negative electrode and an electrolytethat exchange ions to store and release electricity. Using different materials for these components changes a batterys chemistry and its ability to power a vehicle. Traditional Li-S batteries experience adverse reactions between the electrolyte and lithium-based negative electrode that ultimately limit the battery to less than 50 charge cycles. Sion Power will sandwich the lithium- and sulfur-based electrode films around a separator that protects the negative electrode and increases the number of charges the battery can complete in its lifetime. The design could eventually allow for a battery with 400% greater storage capacity per pound than Li-Ion batteries and the ability to complete more than 500 recharge cycles.

  11. Neutron diffraction and electrical transport studies on magnetic ordering in terbium at high pressures and low temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas, Sarah A.; Montgomery, Jeffrey M.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; Chesnut, Gary N.; Weir, Samuel T.; Tulk, Christopher A.; dos Santos, Antonio M.

    2013-06-11

    Neutron diffraction and electrical transport measurements have been carried out on the heavy rare earth metal terbium at high pressures and low temperatures in order to elucidate the onset of ferromagnetic order as a function of pressure. The electrical resistance measurements show a change in slope as the temperature is lowered through the ferromagnetic Curie temperature. The temperature of this ferromagnetic transition decreases from approximately 240 K at ambient pressure at a rate of –16.7 K/GPa up to a pressure of 3.6 GPa, at which point the onset of ferromagnetic order is suppressed. Neutron diffraction measurements as a function ofmore » pressure at temperatures ranging from 90 K to 290 K confirm that the change of slope in the resistance is associated with the ferromagnetic ordering, since this occurs at pressures similar to those determined from the resistance results at these temperatures. Furthermore, a change in ferromagnetic ordering as the pressure is increased above 3.6 GPa is correlated with the phase transition from the ambient hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure to an α-Sm type structure at high pressures.« less

  12. Neutron diffraction and electrical transport studies on magnetic ordering in terbium at high pressures and low temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Sarah A.; Montgomery, Jeffrey M.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; Chesnut, Gary N.; Weir, Samuel T.; Tulk, Christopher A.; dos Santos, Antonio M.

    2013-06-11

    Neutron diffraction and electrical transport measurements have been carried out on the heavy rare earth metal terbium at high pressures and low temperatures in order to elucidate the onset of ferromagnetic order as a function of pressure. The electrical resistance measurements show a change in slope as the temperature is lowered through the ferromagnetic Curie temperature. The temperature of this ferromagnetic transition decreases from approximately 240 K at ambient pressure at a rate of –16.7 K/GPa up to a pressure of 3.6 GPa, at which point the onset of ferromagnetic order is suppressed. Neutron diffraction measurements as a function of pressure at temperatures ranging from 90 K to 290 K confirm that the change of slope in the resistance is associated with the ferromagnetic ordering, since this occurs at pressures similar to those determined from the resistance results at these temperatures. Furthermore, a change in ferromagnetic ordering as the pressure is increased above 3.6 GPa is correlated with the phase transition from the ambient hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure to an α-Sm type structure at high pressures.

  13. Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, ...

  14. Manufacturing High Temperature Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing and Scale Up Challenges Joseph Hartvigsen Ceramatec, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO February 28, 2014 Antipode Assertions * Electric power generation is not the limitation - To misquote Jay Leno "Use all you want, we'll make more" - http://atomicinsights.com/2013/02/use-all-the-electricity-you-want-well-make-more.html * High electric costs come from working the demand curve from below rather than above * "Grid Storage" is a misleading

  15. Electric power annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-08

    This report presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and state levels: generating capability and additions, net generation, fossil-fuel statistics, retail sales and revenue, finanical statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, demand side management, nonutility power producers. Purpose is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets.

  16. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California’s Dairy Processing Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homan, Gregory K.; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-30

    During periods of peak electrical demand on the energy grid or when there is a shortage of supply, the stability of the grid may be compromised or the cost of supplying electricity may rise dramatically, respectively. Demand response programs are designed to mitigate the severity of these problems and improve reliability by reducing the demand on the grid during such critical times. In 2010, the Demand Response Research Center convened a group of industry experts to suggest potential industries that would be good demand response program candidates for further review. The dairy industry was suggested due to the perception that the industry had suitable flexibility and automatic controls in place. The purpose of this report is to provide an initial description of the industry with regard to demand response potential, specifically automated demand response. This report qualitatively describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by dairy processing facilities in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use. Typical process equipment and controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Two case studies of demand response at dairy facilities in California and across the country are reviewed. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  17. ANUEADflM-31 Electric Power High-Voltage Transmission Lines:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... design options to reduce human exposure to EMFs from high-voltage transmission lines. ... assumed for the 345-kV designs: 150-R rights-of-way for overhead lines, 50-ft ...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Envia Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy lithium batteries...

  19. Project resumes: biological effects from electric fields associated with high-voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts of research projects are presented in the following areas: measurements and special facilities; cellular and subcellular studies; physiology; behavior; environmental effects; modeling, scaling and dosimetry; and high voltage direct current. (ACR)

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Seeo, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high-voltage solid polymer...

  1. Electric characteristics of germanium Vertical Multijunction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells under high intensity illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unishkov, V.A.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the performance evaluation of Vertical Multijunction (VMJ) germanium (Ge) photovoltaic (PV) cells. Vertical Multijunction Germanium Photovoltaic cells offer several advantages for Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications such as high intensity light conversion, low series resistance, more efficient coupling to lower temperature sources, high output voltage, simplified heat rejection system as well as potentially simple fabrication technology and low cost photovoltaic converter device. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Powerful, Efficient Electric Vehicle Chargers: Low-Cost, Highly-Integrated Silicon Carbide (SiC) Multichip Power Modules (MCPMs) for Plug-In Hybrid Electric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-14

    ADEPT Project: Currently, charging the battery of an electric vehicle (EV) is a time-consuming process because chargers can only draw about as much power from the grid as a hair dryer. APEI is developing an EV charger that can draw as much power as a clothes dryer, which would drastically speed up charging time. APEI's charger uses silicon carbide (SiC)-based power transistors. These transistors control the electrical energy flowing through the charger's circuits more effectively and efficiently than traditional transistors made of straight silicon. The SiC-based transistors also require less cooling, enabling APEI to create EV chargers that are 10 times smaller than existing chargers.

  3. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study- Past Workshops

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The project was initiated and informed by the results of two DOE workshops; one on energy storage and the other on demand response. The workshops were attended by members of the electric power industry, researchers, and policy makers; and the study design and goals reflect their contributions to the collective thinking of the project team.

  4. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  5. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and implement a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of demand response resources and to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to assess economic value of the realizable potential of demand response for ancillary services.

  6. Device for modular input high-speed multi-channel digitizing of electrical data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    VanDeusen, A.L.; Crist, C.E.

    1995-09-26

    A multi-channel high-speed digitizer module converts a plurality of analog signals to digital signals (digitizing) and stores the signals in a memory device. The analog input channels are digitized simultaneously at high speed with a relatively large number of on-board memory data points per channel. The module provides an automated calibration based upon a single voltage reference source. Low signal noise at such a high density and sample rate is accomplished by ensuring the A/D converters are clocked at the same point in the noise cycle each time so that synchronous noise sampling occurs. This sampling process, in conjunction with an automated calibration, yields signal noise levels well below the noise level present on the analog reference voltages. 1 fig.

  7. Device for modular input high-speed multi-channel digitizing of electrical data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    VanDeusen, Alan L. (Lee's Summit, MO); Crist, Charles E. (Waxahachie, TX)

    1995-09-26

    A multi-channel high-speed digitizer module converts a plurality of analog signals to digital signals (digitizing) and stores the signals in a memory device. The analog input channels are digitized simultaneously at high speed with a relatively large number of on-board memory data points per channel. The module provides an automated calibration based upon a single voltage reference source. Low signal noise at such a high density and sample rate is accomplished by ensuring the A/D converters are clocked at the same point in the noise cycle each time so that synchronous noise sampling occurs. This sampling process, in conjunction with an automated calibration, yields signal noise levels well below the noise level present on the analog reference voltages.

  8. ELECTRICAL LOAD ANTICIPATOR AND RECORDER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werme, J.E.

    1961-09-01

    A system is described in which an indication of the prevailing energy consumption in an electrical power metering system and a projected power demand for one demand in terval is provided at selected increments of time within the demand interval. Each watt-hour meter in the system is provided with an impulse generator that generates two impulses for each revolution of the meter disc. In each demand interval, for example, one half-hour, of the metering system, the total impulses received from all of the meters are continuously totaled for each 5-minute interval and multiplied by a number from 6 to 1 depending upon which 5- minute interval the impulses were received. This value is added to the total pulses received in the intervals preceding the current 5-minute interval within the half-hour demand interval tc thereby provide an indication of the projected power demand every 5 minutes in the demand interval.

  9. Electrical power inverter having a phase modulated, twin-inverter, high frequency link and an energy storage module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitel, I.J.

    1987-02-03

    The present invention provides an electrical power inverter method and apparatus, which includes a high frequency link, for converting DC power into AC power. Generally stated, the apparatus includes a first high frequency module which produces an AC voltage at a first output frequency, and a second high frequency inverter module which produces an AC voltage at a second output frequency that is substantially the same as the first output frequency. The second AC voltage is out of phase with the first AC voltage by a selected angular phase displacement. A mixer mixes the first and second output voltages to produce a high frequency carrier which has a selected base frequency impressed on the sidebands thereof. A rectifier rectifies the carrier, and a filter filters the rectified carrier. An output inverter inverts the filtered carrier to produce an AC line voltage at the selected base frequency. A phase modulator adjusts the relative angular phase displacement between the outputs of the first and second high frequency modules to control the base frequency and magnitude of the AC line voltage. 19 figs.

  10. Electrical power inverter having a phase modulated, twin-inverter, high frequency link and an energy storage module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitel, Ira J.

    1987-02-03

    The present invention provides an electrical power inverter method and apparatus, which includes a high frequency link, for converting DC power into AC power. Generally stated, the apparatus includes a first high frequency module which produces an AC voltage at a first output frequency, and a second high frequency inverter module which produces an AC voltage at a second output frequency that is substantially the same as the first output frequency. The second AC voltage is out of phase with the first AC voltage by a selected angular phase displacement. A mixer mixes the first and second output voltages to produce a high frequency carrier which has a selected base frequency impressed on the sidebands thereof. A rectifier rectifies the carrier, and a filter filters the rectified carrier. An output inverter inverts the filtered carrier to produce an AC line voltage at the selected base frequency. A phase modulator adjusts the relative angular phase displacement between the outputs of the first and second high frequency modules to control the base frequency and magnitude of the AC line voltage.

  11. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits

  12. Synthesis of uniform CdS nanowires in high yield and its single nanowire electrical property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Shancheng; Sun Litao; Qu Peng; Huang Ninping; Song Yinchen; Xiao Zhongdang

    2009-10-15

    Large-scale high quality CdS nanowires with uniform diameter were synthesized by using a rapid and simple solvothermal route. Field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the CdS nanowires have diameter of about 26 nm and length up to several micrometres. High resolution TEM (HRTEM) study indicates the single-crystalline nature of CdS nanowires with an oriented growth along the c-axis direction. The optical properties of the products were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence spectra and Raman spectra. The resistivity, electron concentration and electron mobility of single NW are calculated by fitting the symmetric I-V curves measured on single NW by the metal-semiconductor-metal model based on thermionic field emission theory. - Graphical abstract: Large-scale high quality CdS nanowires (NWs) with uniform diameter were synthesized by using a rapid and simple solvothermal route. The reaction time is reduced to 2 h, comparing to other synthesis which needed long reaction time up to 12 h. In addition, the as-prepared CdS nanowires have more uniform diameter and high yield. More importantly, the I-V curve of present single CdS nanowire has a good symmetric characteristic as expected by the theory.

  13. High-Efficiency Solar Cells for Large-Scale Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Olson, J.; Geisz, J.; Friedman, D.; McMahon, W.; Ptak, A.; Wanlass, M.; Kibbler, A.; Kramer, C.; Bertness, K.; Ward, S.; Duda, A.; Young, M.; Carapella, J.; Steiner, M.

    2008-09-26

    One strategy for helping the solar industry to grow faster is to use very high efficiency cells under concentrating optics. By using lenses or mirrors to concentrate the light, very small solar cells can be used, reducing the amount of semiconductor material and allowing use of higher efficiency cells, which are now >40% efficient.

  14. Electricity Capacity Expansion Modeling, Analysis, and Visualization. A Summary of High-Renewable Modeling Experience for China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, Nate; Zhou, Ella; Getman, Dan; Arent, Douglas J.

    2015-10-01

    Mathematical and computational models are widely used for the analysis and design of both physical and financial systems. Modeling the electric grid is of particular importance to China for three reasons. First, power-sector assets are expensive and long-lived, and they are critical to any country's development. China's electric load, transmission, and other energy-related infrastructure are expected to continue to grow rapidly; therefore it is crucial to understand and help plan for the future in which those assets will operate (NDRC ERI 2015). Second, China has dramatically increased its deployment of renewable energy (RE), and is likely to continue further accelerating such deployment over the coming decades. Careful planning and assessment of the various aspects (technical, economic, social, and political) of integrating a large amount of renewables on the grid is required. Third, companies need the tools to develop a strategy for their own involvement in the power market China is now developing, and to enable a possible transition to an efficient and high RE future.

  15. Electricity Capacity Expansion Modeling, Analysis, and Visualization: A Summary of High-Renewable Modeling Experiences (Chinese Translation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, Nate; Zhou, Ella; Getman, Dan; Arent, Douglas J.

    2015-10-01

    This is the Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-64831. Mathematical and computational models are widely used for the analysis and design of both physical and financial systems. Modeling the electric grid is of particular importance to China for three reasons. First, power-sector assets are expensive and long-lived, and they are critical to any country's development. China's electric load, transmission, and other energy-related infrastructure are expected to continue to grow rapidly; therefore it is crucial to understand and help plan for the future in which those assets will operate. Second, China has dramatically increased its deployment of renewable energy (RE), and is likely to continue further accelerating such deployment over the coming decades. Careful planning and assessment of the various aspects (technical, economic, social, and political) of integrating a large amount of renewables on the grid is required. Third, companies need the tools to develop a strategy for their own involvement in the power market China is now developing, and to enable a possible transition to an efficient and high RE future.

  16. Modeling of GE Appliances in GridLAB-D: Peak Demand Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-04-29

    The widespread adoption of demand response enabled appliances and thermostats can result in significant reduction to peak electrical demand and provide potential grid stabilization benefits. GE has developed a line of appliances that will have the capability of offering several levels of demand reduction actions based on information from the utility grid, often in the form of price. However due to a number of factors, including the number of demand response enabled appliances available at any given time, the reduction of diversity factor due to the synchronizing control signal, and the percentage of consumers who may override the utility signal, it can be difficult to predict the aggregate response of a large number of residences. The effects of these behaviors can be modeled and simulated in open-source software, GridLAB-D, including evaluation of appliance controls, improvement to current algorithms, and development of aggregate control methodologies. This report is the first in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE's demand response enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report will describe the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The second and third reports will explore the potential of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation and the effects on volt-var control schemes.

  17. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  18. Industrial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  19. Drivers of Future Energy Demand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drivers of Future Energy Demand in China Asian Energy Demand Outlook 2014 EIA Energy Conference July 14, 2014 Valerie J. Karplus MIT Sloan School of Management 2 www.china.org.cn www.flickr.com www.wikimedia.org globalchange.mit.edu Global Climate Change Human Development Local Pollution Industrial Development & Resource Needs How to balance? 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 1981 1991 2001 2011 Non-material Sectors/Other Construction Commercial consumption Residential consumption

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures: Operational Analysis of the Western Interconnection at Very High Renewable Penetrations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The goal of this work was to perform a detailed, sub-hourly analysis of very high penetration scenarios for a single interconnection (the Western Interconnection). The scenarios analyzed for this study included a variety of generation infrastructure buildouts and power system operational assumptions, with three different portfolios of renewable generators. The High scenario had approximately 82% renewable generation after curtailment, which included 41% of its generation coming from variable generation (VG) sources like wind and solar photovoltaics (PV). The remaining renewable generation came from hydropower, geothermal, and concentrating solar power (CSP). The Higher Baseload scenario adds CSP and geothermal to the High scenario to make 88% renewable generation. This study also included a Higher VG scenario with added wind and solar PV generation to get to 86% renewable generation. Both Higher scenarios added the same amount of possible generation, but the Higher VG scenario showed more curtailment from the incremental generation, leading to lower penetration levels after curtailment. The primary conclusion of this study is that sub-hourly operation of the grid is possible with renewable generation levels between 80% and 90%. Dynamic studies will need to be done to understand any impacts on reliability during contingencies and transient events.

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures:  Operational Analysis of the Western Interconnection at Very High Renewable Penetrations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The goal of this work was to perform a detailed, sub-hourly analysis of very high penetration scenarios for a single interconnection (the Western Interconnection). The scenarios analyzed for this study included a variety of generation infrastructure buildouts and power system operational assumptions, with three different portfolios of renewable generators. The High scenario had approximately 82% renewable generation after curtailment, which included 41% of its generation coming from variable generation (VG) sources like wind and solar photovoltaics (PV). The remaining renewable generation came from hydropower, geothermal, and concentrating solar power (CSP). The Higher Baseload scenario adds CSP and geothermal to the High scenario to make 88% renewable generation. This study also included a Higher VG scenario with added wind and solar PV generation to get to 86% renewable generation. Both Higher scenarios added the same amount of possible generation, but the Higher VG scenario showed more curtailment from the incremental generation, leading to lower penetration levels after curtailment. The primary conclusion of this study is that sub-hourly operation of the grid is possible with renewable generation levels between 80% and 90%. Dynamic studies will need to be done to understand any impacts on reliability during contingencies and transient events.

  2. Cost Effective, High Efficiency Integrated Systems Approach to Auxilliary Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy Kessinger Jr.; Keith Seymour; Kanchan Angal; Jason Wolf; Steve Brewer; Leonard Schrank

    2003-09-26

    The CARAT program, carried out by Kinetic Art & Technology Corporation (KAT), has been one of the most commercially successful KAT R&D programs to date. Based on previous development of its technology, KAT designed, constructed and tested a highly efficient motor and controller system under this CARAT program with supplemental commercial funding. Throughout this CARAT effort, the technical objectives have been refined and refocused. Some objectives have been greatly expanded, while others have been minimized. The determining factor in all decisions to refocus the objectives was the commercial need, primarily the needs of KAT manufacturing partners. Several companies are employing the resulting CARAT motor and controller designs in prototypes for commercial products. Two of these companies have committed to providing cost share in order to facilitate the development. One of these companies is a major manufacturing company developing a revolutionary new family of products requiring the ultra-high system efficiency achievable by the KAT motor and controller technologies (known as Segmented ElectroMagnetic Array, or SEMA technology). Another company requires the high efficiency, quiet operation, and control characteristics afforded by the same basic motor and controller for an advanced air filtration product. The combined annual production requirement projected by these two companies exceeds one million units by 2005.

  3. EIA's Energy in Brief: What is the electric power grid and what...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    enabled utilities to share the benefits of building larger and often jointly-owned electric generating units to serve their combined electricity demand at the lowest possible cost. ...

  4. Electrical Energy and Demand Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    space-conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) under an energy savings performance contract. ...

  5. Evaluation of the Demand Response Performance of Electric Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Steven A.; Pratt, Richard M.; Chassin, Forrest S.

    2015-03-17

    The purpose of this project is to verify or refute many of the concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large tank HPWHs to perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. This project was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of week-long laboratory experiments designed to demonstrate technical feasibility of individual large-tank HPWHs in providing DR services compared to large-tank ERWHs. In Phase 2, the individual behaviors of the water heaters were then extrapolated to a population by first calibrating readily available water heater models developed in GridLAB-D simulation software to experimental results obtained in Phase 1. These models were used to simulate a population of water heaters and generate annual load profiles to assess the impacts on system-level power and residential load curves. Such population modeling allows for the inherent and permanent load reduction accomplished by the more efficient HPWHs to be considered, in addition to the temporal DR services the water heater can provide by switching ON or OFF as needed by utilities. The economic and emissions impacts of using large-tank water heaters in DR programs are then analyzed from the utility and consumer perspective, based on National Impacts Analysis in Phase 3. Phase 1 is discussed in this report. Details on Phases 2 and 3 can be found in the companion report (Cooke et al. 2014).

  6. Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room for

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    N O R T H A M E R I C A N E L E C T R I C R E L I A B I L I T Y C O U N C I L P r i n c e t o n F o r r e s t a l V i l l a g e , 1 1 6 - 3 9 0 V i l l a g e B o u l e v a r d , P r i n c e t o n , N e w J e r s e y 0 8 5 4 0 - 5 7 3 1 Phone 609-452-8060 Fax 609-452-9550 URL www.nerc.com FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Contact: Ellen P. Vancko evancko@nerc.com Preliminary Disturbance Report August 14, 2003 Sequence of Events The following information represents a partial sequence of events based upon

  7. Table 11.2 Electricity: Components of Net Demand, 2010;

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... for which payment was not made, quantities purchased centrally within the company but separate from the reporting establishment, and quantities for which payment was made ...

  8. Table 11.1 Electricity: Components of Net Demand, 2010;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... for which payment was not made, quantities purchased centrally within the company but separate from the reporting establishment, and quantities for which payment was made ...

  9. From Ions to Wires to the Grid: The Transformational Science of LANL Research in High-Tc Superconducting Tapes and Electric Power Applications

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Marken, Ken [Superconductivity Technology Center, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States

    2010-01-08

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) has been tasked to lead national efforts to modernize the electric grid, enhance security and reliability of the energy infrastructure, and facilitate recovery from disruptions to energy supplies. LANL has pioneered the development of coated conductors ? high-temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes ? which permit dramatically greater current densities than conventional copper cable, and enable new technologies to secure the national electric grid. Sustained world-class research from concept, demonstration, transfer, and ongoing industrial support has moved this idea from the laboratory to the commercial marketplace.

  10. Jing Jin Electric JJE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Beijing Municipality, China Sector: Vehicles Product: Develops and manufactures high-performance electric motors and electric drive components for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV),...

  11. A High-Power Wireless Charging System Development and Integration for a Toyota RAV4 Electric Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onar, Omer C; Seiber, Larry Eugene; White, Cliff P; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Campbell, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    Several wireless charging methods are underdevelopment or available as an aftermarket option in the light-duty automotive market. However, there are not many studies detailing the vehicle integrations, particularly a complete vehicle integration with higher power levels. This paper presents the development, implementation, and vehicle integration of a high-power (>10 kW) wireless power transfer (WPT)-based electric vehicle (EV) charging system for a Toyota RAV4 vehicle. The power stages of the system are introduced with the design specifications and control systems including the active front-end rectifier with power factor correction (PFC), high frequency power inverter, high frequency isolation transformer, coupling coils, vehicle side full-bridge rectifier and filter, and the vehicle battery. The operating principles of the control, communications, and protection systems are also presented in addition to the alignment and the driver interface system. The physical limitations of the system are also defined that would prevent the system operating at higher levels. The experiments are carried out using the integrated vehicle and the results obtained to demonstrate the system performance including the stage-by-stage efficiencies with matched and interoperable primary and secondary coils.

  12. Ultrastable low-noise current amplifier: A novel device for measuring small electric currents with high accuracy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drung, D.; Krause, C.; Becker, U.; Scherer, H.; Ahlers, F. J.

    2015-02-15

    An ultrastable low-noise current amplifier (ULCA) is presented. The ULCA is a non-cryogenic instrument based on specially designed operational amplifiers and resistor networks. It involves two stages, the first providing a 1000-fold current gain and the second performing a current-to-voltage conversion via an internal 1 MΩ reference resistor or, optionally, an external standard resistor. The ULCA’s transfer coefficient is highly stable versus time, temperature, and current amplitude within the full dynamic range of ±5 nA. The low noise level of 2.4 fA/√Hz helps to keep averaging times short at small input currents. A cryogenic current comparator is used to calibrate both input current gain and output transresistance, providing traceability to the quantum Hall effect. Within one week after calibration, the uncertainty contribution from short-term fluctuations and drift of the transresistance is about 0.1 parts per million (ppm). The long-term drift is typically 5 ppm/yr. A high-accuracy variant is available that shows improved stability of the input gain at the expense of a higher noise level of 7.5 fA/√Hz. The ULCA also allows the traceable generation of small electric currents or the calibration of high-ohmic resistors.

  13. Microstructure investigation of 13Cr-2Mo ODS steel components obtained by high voltage electric discharge compaction technique

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bogachev, Igor; Yudin, Artem; Grigoryev, Evgeniy; Chernov, Ivan; Staltsov, Maxim; Khasanov, Oleg; Olevsky, Eugene

    2015-11-02

    Refractory oxide dispersion strengthened 13Cr-2Mo steel powder was successfully consolidated to near theoretical density using high voltage electric discharge compaction. Cylindrical samples with relative density from 90% to 97% and dimensions of 10 mm in diameter and 10–15 mm in height were obtained. Consolidation conditions such as pressure and voltage were varied in some ranges to determine the optimal compaction regime. Three different concentrations of yttria were used to identify its effect on the properties of the samples. It is shown that the utilized ultra-rapid consolidation process in combination with high transmitted energy allows obtaining high density compacts, retaining themore » initial structure with minimal grain growth. The experimental results indicate some heterogeneity of the structure which may occur in the external layers of the tested samples due to various thermal and electromagnetic in-processing effects. As a result, the choice of the optimal parameters of the consolidation enables obtaining samples of acceptable quality.« less

  14. Electrical Load Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Electricity consumer demand response and load control are playing an increasingly important role in the development of a smart grid. Smart grid load management technologies such as Grid FriendlyTM controls and real-time pricing are making their way into the conventional model of grid planning and operations. However, the behavior of load both affects, and is affected by load control strategies that are designed to support electric grid planning and operations. This chapter discussed the natural behavior of electric loads, how it interacts with various load control and demand response strategies, what the consequences are for new grid operation concepts and the computing issues these new technologies raise.

  15. Evolution of tritium from deuterided palladium subject to high electrical currents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claytor, T.N.; Tuggle, D.G.; Taylor, S.F.

    1992-12-31

    An increase in the tritium level was detected in deuterium when various configurations of palladium foil or powder and silicon wafers or powder were subject to a high pulsed current. The deuterium, at one atmosphere pressure, and was circulated in a sealed loop containing the cell and an ionization chamber to measure the tritium increase as a function of time. Over 4800 hours of data, spanning 10 cells (including deuterium and hydrogen controls), were collected with this system. Average tritium production has varied from 0.02 to 0.2 nCi/h. Due to experimental constraints we have not been able to measure neutron output with these cells while simultaneously measuring the tritium increase. The question of tritium contamination in the palladium has been primarily resolved by the development of techniques that allow the palladium powder or foil to be reused. Various methods for increasing the tritium production, such as, increased current density, surface modifiers, and higher deuterium loading, will be discussed. 8 refs, 5 figs.

  16. Evolution of tritium from deuterided palladium subject to high electrical currents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claytor, T.N.; Tuggle, D.G.; Taylor, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    An increase in the tritium level was detected in deuterium when various configurations of palladium foil or powder and silicon wafers or powder were subject to a high pulsed current. The deuterium, at one atmosphere pressure, and was circulated in a sealed loop containing the cell and an ionization chamber to measure the tritium increase as a function of time. Over 4800 hours of data, spanning 10 cells (including deuterium and hydrogen controls), were collected with this system. Average tritium production has varied from 0.02 to 0.2 nCi/h. Due to experimental constraints we have not been able to measure neutron output with these cells while simultaneously measuring the tritium increase. The question of tritium contamination in the palladium has been primarily resolved by the development of techniques that allow the palladium powder or foil to be reused. Various methods for increasing the tritium production, such as, increased current density, surface modifiers, and higher deuterium loading, will be discussed. 8 refs, 5 figs.

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, T.

    2012-11-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, T.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, T.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  1. The Development of the Electrically Controlled High Power RF Switch and Its Application to Active RF Pulse Compression Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jiquan; /SLAC

    2009-03-20

    In the past decades, there has been increasing interest in pulsed high power RF sources for building high-gradient high-energy particle accelerators. Passive RF pulse compression systems have been used in many applications to match the available RF sources to the loads requiring higher RF power but a shorter pulse. Theoretically, an active RF pulse compression system has the advantage of higher efficiency and compactness over the passive system. However, the key component for such a system an element capable of switching hundreds of megawatts of RF power in a short time compared to the compressed pulse width is still an open problem. In this dissertation, we present a switch module composed of an active window based on the bulk effects in semiconductor, a circular waveguide three-port network and a movable short plane, with the capability to adjust the S-parameters before and after switching. The RF properties of the switch module were analyzed. We give the scaling laws of the multiple-element switch systems, which allow the expansion of the system to a higher power level. We present a novel overmoded design for the circular waveguide three-port network and the associated circular-to-rectangular mode-converter. We also detail the design and synthesis process of this novel mode-converter. We demonstrate an electrically controlled ultra-fast high power X-band RF active window built with PIN diodes on high resistivity silicon. The window is capable of handling multi-megawatt RF power and can switch in 2-300ns with a 1000A current driver. A low power active pulse compression experiment was carried out with the switch module and a 375ns resonant delay line, obtaining 8 times compression gain with a compression ratio of 20.

  2. Summary of Second AEO 2014 Electricity Working Group Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... EIA would only have a single release that year. 6. A participant wanted to know if the 1% annual growth in electricity demand throughout the forecast incorporated demand response. ...

  3. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  4. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  5. Estimating Demand Response Market Potential Among Large Commercialand Industrial Customers:A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan,Bernie; Cappers, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Demand response is increasingly recognized as an essentialingredient to well functioning electricity markets. This growingconsensus was formalized in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT), whichestablished demand response as an official policy of the U.S. government,and directed states (and their electric utilities) to considerimplementing demand response, with a particular focus on "price-based"mechanisms. The resulting deliberations, along with a variety of stateand regional demand response initiatives, are raising important policyquestions: for example, How much demand response is enough? How much isavailable? From what sources? At what cost? The purpose of this scopingstudy is to examine analytical techniques and data sources to supportdemand response market assessments that can, in turn, answer the secondand third of these questions. We focus on demand response for large(>350 kW), commercial and industrial (C&I) customers, althoughmany of the concepts could equally be applied to similar programs andtariffs for small commercial and residential customers.

  6. The commercialization of magnetohydrodynamic electric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinstein, R.E.

    1993-12-31

    The successful development of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) will provide an ultra clean, highly efficient alternative to other methods of coal-fired electric Power generation. A development path that could bring coal-fired MHD electric power plants to competitive commercial status is described in this paper. The paper discusses the scale-ups, the timing, and technical hurdles that face this technology as it progresses from its present status of small-scale demonstrations and begins its competition for electric utility acceptance. Coal-fired MHD power has at least four major markets: (1) New utility generation. (2) Utility retrofit/repowering applications. (3) New independent power production (IPP). (4) Large industrial cogeneration application. Of these, the largest market for MHD is expected to be the new electric utility/IPP generation market, those new units required to supply growth in power demand and to replace retired capacity. This market sector is the focus of this discussion. This paper describes the commercial pressures and inertias that motivate the entry of any new technology into the generation supply market. It then shows a development path that could bring coal-fired MHD electric power plants to competitive commercial status in the electric power industry.

  7. SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY was awarded to Con Edison in 2009 as part of DOE's Smart Grid Demonstration Project (SGDP) grants funded by the Recovery Act. The objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate methodologies to enhance the ability of customer sited demand response resources, both conventional and renewable, to integrate more effectively with electric delivery companies.

  8. SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY was awarded to Con Edison in 2009 as part of DOE's Smart Grid Demonstration Project (SGDP) grants funded by the Recovery Act. The objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate methodologies to enhance the ability of customer sited demand response resources, both conventional and renewable, to integrate more effectively with electric delivery companies

  9. Electric power annual 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  10. Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Generating...

  11. Demand Management Institute (DMI) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Demand Management Institute (DMI) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Demand Management Institute (DMI) Address: 35 Walnut Street Place: Wellesley, Massachusetts Zip: 02481 Region:...

  12. Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies - January 16, 2011 (Text Version) Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies - January 16, 2011 (Text...

  13. Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Generating ...

  14. Final Scientific Technical Report: INTEGRATED PREDICTIVE DEMAND RESPONSE CONTROLLER FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenzel, Mike

    2013-10-14

    This project provides algorithms to perform demand response using the thermal mass of a building. Using the thermal mass of the building is an attractive method for performing demand response because there is no need for capital expenditure. The algorithms rely on the thermal capacitance inherent in the building?s construction materials. A near-optimal ?day ahead? predictive approach is developed that is meant to keep the building?s electrical demand constant during the high cost periods. This type of approach is appropriate for both time-of-use and critical peak pricing utility rate structures. The approach uses the past days data in order to determine the best temperature setpoints for the building during the high price periods on the next day. A second ?model predictive approach? (MPC) uses a thermal model of the building to determine the best temperature for the next sample period. The approach uses constant feedback from the building and is capable of appropriately handling real time pricing. Both approaches are capable of using weather forecasts to improve performance.

  15. Electric Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This album contains a variety of all-electric, plug-in hybrid electric and fuel cell electric vehicles. For a full list of all electric vehicles visit the EV Everywhere website.

  16. Commercial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  17. Promising Technology: Demand Control Ventilation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand control ventilation (DCV) measures carbon dioxide concentrations in return air or other strategies to measure occupancy, and accurately matches the ventilation requirement. This system reduces ventilation when spaces are vacant or at lower than peak occupancy. When ventilation is reduced, energy savings are accrued because it is not necessary to heat, cool, or dehumidify as much outside air.

  18. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2012-05-01

    While the traditional goal of an electric power system has been to control supply to fulfill demand, the demand-side can plan an active role in power systems via Demand Response (DR), defined by the Department of Energy (DOE) as “a tariff or program established to motivate changes in electric use by end-use customers in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to give incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high market prices or when grid reliability is jeopardized” [29]. DR can provide a variety of benefits including reducing peak electric loads when the power system is stressed and fast timescale energy balancing. Therefore, DR can improve grid reliability and reduce wholesale energy prices and their volatility. This dissertation focuses on analyzing both recent and emerging DR paradigms. Recent DR programs have focused on peak load reduction in commercial buildings and industrial facilities (C&I facilities). We present methods for using 15-minute-interval electric load data, commonly available from C&I facilities, to help building managers understand building energy consumption and ‘ask the right questions’ to discover opportunities for DR. Additionally, we present a regression-based model of whole building electric load, i.e., a baseline model, which allows us to quantify DR performance. We use this baseline model to understand the performance of 38 C&I facilities participating in an automated dynamic pricing DR program in California. In this program, facilities are expected to exhibit the same response each DR event. We find that baseline model error makes it difficult to precisely quantify changes in electricity consumption and understand if C&I facilities exhibit event-to-event variability in their response to DR signals. Therefore, we present a method to compute baseline model error and a metric to determine how much observed DR variability results from baseline model error rather than real

  19. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

    2014-04-01

    Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiency—the economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal level—strongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable

  20. Energy Department/Electric Power Research Institute Cooperation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    energy efficiency and promoting the widespread adoption of electric energy demand response programs in an effort to curtail energy use during peak periods. "Through ongoing ...

  1. Electric Power Research Institute Cooperation to Increase Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    needs by improving energy efficiency and promoting the widespread adoption of electric energy demand response programs in an effort to curtail energy use during peak periods. ...

  2. Making the most of Responsive Electricity Customer. Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Making the most of Responsive Electricity Customer. Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: How do we make the most out of using less energy? Making the most of Responsive ...

  3. FROM: Keith Dennis, National Rural Electric Cooperative Association...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    standards for large (>55 gallon) residential electric storage water heaters used in demand response and thermal energy storage programs (Docket No. EERE-2012-BT-STD-0022). ...

  4. Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants - Energy Information...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    and the environment All electricity data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Capacity and generation Costs, revenue and expense Demand Environment Fuel use...

  5. Lime Energy formerly Electric City Corporation | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    integrator of energy savings technologies and building automation systems. Specialist in demand response systems. References: Lime Energy (formerly Electric City Corporation)1...

  6. Electric Power Research Institute Cooperation to Increase Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    March 6, 2008 Memorandum of Understanding on Electric Utility Energy Efficiency, Demand Response, and the Smart Grid.pdf More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word -...

  7. "Annual Electric Power Industry Report (EIA-861 data file)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    FILES Electric power sales, revenue, and energy efficiency Form EIA-861 detailed data ... and demand-side management programs, green pricing and net metering programs, and ...

  8. Large-dimension, high-ZT Thermoelectric Nanocomposites for High-Power High-efficiency Waste Heat Recovery for Electricity Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large-dimension, high-ZT BiTe and Pb-based nanocomposites produced with a low-cost scalable process were used for development and testing of TE module prototypes, and demonstration of a waste heat recovery system

  9. Florida's electric industry and solar electric technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camejo, N.

    1983-12-01

    The Florida Electric Industry is in a process of diversifying its generation technology and its fuel mix. This is being done in an effort to reduce oil consumption, which in 1981 accounted for 46.5% of the electric generation by fuel type. This does not compare well with the rest of the nation where oil use is lower. New coal and nuclear units are coming on line, and probably more will be built in the near future. However, eventhough conservation efforts may delay their construction, new power plants will have to be built to accomodate the growing demand for electricity. Other alternatives being considered are renewable energy resources. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a research project in which 10 electric utilities in Florida and the Florida Electric Power Coordinating Group rated six Solar Electric options. The Solar Electric options considered are: 1) Wind, 2) P.V., 3) Solar thermal-electric, 4) OTEC, 5) Ocean current, and 6) Biomass. The questionaire involved rating the economic and technical feasibility, as well as, the potential environmental impact of these options in Florida. It also involved rating the difficulty in overcoming institutional barriers and assessing the status of each option. A copy of the questionaire is included after the references. The combined capacity of the participating utilities represent over 90% of the total generating capacity in Florida. A list of the participating utilities is also included. This research was done in partial fulfillment for the Mater's of Science Degree in Coastal Zone Management. This paper is complementary to another paper (in these condensed conference proceedings) titled COASTAL ZONE ENERGY MANAGEMENT: A multidisciplinary approach for the integration of Solar Electric Systems with Florida's power generation system, which present a summary of the Master's thesis.

  10. Examining Future Global Energy Demand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Examining Future Global Transportation Energy Demand For EIA Energy Conference July 11, 2016 | Washington, DC By John Maples Outline * Model overview - Passenger travel - Freight travel - Energy consumption for 16 regions: * USA, Canada, Mexico/Chile, OECD Europe, Japan, S. Korea, Australia/New Zealand * Russia, Non-OECD Europe/Eurasia, China, India, Non-OECD Asia, Middle East, Africa, Brazil, Other South/Central * IEO2016 Reference case transportation projections * Preliminary scenario results

  11. NREL: dGen: Distributed Generation Market Demand Model - Documentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Documentation The Distributed Generation Market Demand (dGen) model documentation summarizes the default data inputs and assumptions for the model. Input data for the model are regularly updated and include recent EIA Annual Energy Outlook projections, state-level net metering and incentive policies, and utility-level retail electricity rates. Note that the dGen model builds on, extends, and provides significant advances over NREL's deprecated SolarDS model. Documentation Outline Introduction

  12. Apparatus producing constant cable tension for intermittent demand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauritzen, T.

    1984-05-23

    This invention relates to apparatus for producing constant tension in cable or the like when it is unreeled and reeled from a drum or spool under conditions of intermittent demand. The invention is particularly applicable to the handling of superconductive cable, but the invention is also applicable to the unreeling and reeling of other strands, such as electrical cable, wire, cord, other cables, fish line, wrapping paper and numerous other materials.

  13. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  14. Hydrogen-or-Fossil-Combustion Nuclear Combined-Cycle Systems for Base- and Peak-Load Electricity Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W; Conklin, Jim

    2007-09-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is described that uses (1) heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor to meet base-load electrical demands and (2) heat from the same high-temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen to meet peak-load electrical demands. For base-load electricity production, fresh air is compressed; then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900 C by heat provided by a high-temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat-transport loop; and finally exits through a high-temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton-cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high-temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts, and heats the air to 1300 C-the operating conditions for a standard natural-gas-fired combined-cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until needed. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electric grid can vary from zero (i.e., when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. Because nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil-fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electric grid. This combined cycle uses the

  15. High-Efficiency Solar Cells for Large-Scale Electricity Generation & Design Considerations for the Related Optics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Olson, J.; Geisz, J.; Friedman, D.; McMahon, W.; Ptak, A.; Wanlass, M.k; Kibbler, A.; Kramer, C.; Ward, S.; Duda, A.; Young, M.; Carapella, J.

    2007-09-17

    The photovoltaic industry has been growing exponentially at an average rate of about 35%/year since 1979. Recently, multijunction concentrator cell efficiencies have surpassed 40%. Combined with concentrating optics, these can be used for electricity generation.

  16. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-06-21

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in the efficient and reliable operation of the electric grid. Modeling the dynamic behavior of a large population of responsive loads is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various demand response strategies. In this paper, a highly-accurate aggregated model is developed for a population of air conditioning loads. The model effectively includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with load heterogeneity, and accounts for second-order dynamics necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Based on the model, a novel aggregated control strategy is designed for the load population under realistic conditions. The proposed controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing end-use performance. The proposed aggregated modeling and control strategies are validated through realistic simulations using GridLAB-D. Extensive simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can effectively manage a large number of air conditioning systems to provide various demand response services, such as frequency regulation and peak load reduction.

  17. Field Demonstration of Automated Demand Response for Both Winter and Summer Events in Large Buildings in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao H.

    2011-11-11

    There are growing strains on the electric grid as cooling peaks grow and equipment ages. Increased penetration of renewables on the grid is also straining electricity supply systems and the need for flexible demand is growing. This paper summarizes results of a series of field test of automated demand response systems in large buildings in the Pacific Northwest. The objective of the research was two fold. One objective was to evaluate the use demand response automation technologies. A second objective was to evaluate control strategies that could change the electric load shape in both winter and summer conditions. Winter conditions focused on cold winter mornings, a time when the electric grid is often stressed. The summer test evaluated DR strategies in the afternoon. We found that we could automate both winter and summer control strategies with the open automated demand response communication standard. The buildings were able to provide significant demand response in both winter and summer events.

  18. Coordinating Interstate ElectricTransmission Siting: An Introduction to the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Debate | Department of Energy Coordinating Interstate ElectricTransmission Siting: An Introduction to the Debate Coordinating Interstate ElectricTransmission Siting: An Introduction to the Debate In recent years, experts have started drawing att ention to the need to improve the system that transmits electricity from power plants to demand centers. Congestion on existing lines, increased energy demand that suggests a need for new electric transmission and the challenge of connecting

  19. INNOVATIVE HYBRID GAS/ELECTRIC CHILLER COGENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd Kollross; Mike Connolly

    2004-06-30

    Engine-driven chillers are quickly gaining popularity in the market place (increased from 7,000 tons in 1994 to greater than 50,000 tons in 1998) due to their high efficiency, electric peak shaving capability, and overall low operating cost. The product offers attractive economics (5 year pay back or less) in many applications, based on areas cooling requirements and electric pricing structure. When heat is recovered and utilized from the engine, the energy resource efficiency of a natural gas engine-driven chiller is higher than all competing products. As deregulation proceeds, real time pricing rate structures promise high peak demand electric rates, but low off-peak electric rates. An emerging trend with commercial building owners and managers who require air conditioning today is to reduce their operating costs by installing hybrid chiller systems that combine gas and electric units. Hybrid systems not only reduce peak electric demand charges, but also allow customers to level their energy load profiles and select the most economical energy source, gas or electricity, from hour to hour. Until recently, however, all hybrid systems incorporated one or more gas-powered chillers (engine driven and/or absorption) and one or more conventional electric units. Typically, the cooling capacity of hybrid chiller plants ranges from the hundreds to thousands of refrigeration tons, with multiple chillers affording the user a choice of cooling systems. But this flexibility is less of an option for building operators who have limited room for equipment. To address this technology gap, a hybrid chiller was developed by Alturdyne that combines a gas engine, an electric motor and a refrigeration compressor within a single package. However, this product had not been designed to realize the full features and benefits possible by combining an engine, motor/generator and compressor. The purpose of this project is to develop a new hybrid chiller that can (1) reduce end-user energy

  20. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  1. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

  2. The Role of Demand Resources In Regional Transmission Expansion Planning and Reliable Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan J

    2006-07-01

    Investigating the role of demand resources in regional transmission planning has provided mixed results. On one hand there are only a few projects where demand response has been used as an explicit alternative to transmission enhancement. On the other hand there is a fair amount of demand response in the form of energy efficiency, peak reduction, emergency load shedding, and (recently) demand providing ancillary services. All of this demand response reduces the need for transmission enhancements. Demand response capability is typically (but not always) factored into transmission planning as a reduction in the load which must be served. In that sense demand response is utilized as an alternative to transmission expansion. Much more demand response is used (involuntarily) as load shedding under extreme conditions to prevent cascading blackouts. The amount of additional transmission and generation that would be required to provide the current level of reliability if load shedding were not available is difficult to imagine and would be impractical to build. In a very real sense demand response solutions are equitably treated in every region - when proposed, demand response projects are evaluated against existing reliability and economic criteria. The regional councils, RTOs, and ISOs identify needs. Others propose transmission, generation, or responsive load based solutions. Few demand response projects get included in transmission enhancement plans because few are proposed. But this is only part of the story. Several factors are responsible for the current very low use of demand response as a transmission enhancement alternative. First, while the generation, transmission, and load business sectors each deal with essentially the same amount of electric power, generation and transmission companies are explicitly in the electric power business but electricity is not the primary business focus of most loads. This changes the institutional focus of each sector. Second

  3. Providing Reliability Services through Demand Response: A Prelimnary Evaluation of the Demand Response Capabilities of Alcoa Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R; Kirby, Brendan J; Kueck, John D; Todd, Duane; Caulfield, Michael; Helms, Brian

    2009-02-01

    Demand response is the largest underutilized reliability resource in North America. Historic demand response programs have focused on reducing overall electricity consumption (increasing efficiency) and shaving peaks but have not typically been used for immediate reliability response. Many of these programs have been successful but demand response remains a limited resource. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) report, 'Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering' (FERC 2006) found that only five percent of customers are on some form of demand response program. Collectively they represent an estimated 37,000 MW of response potential. These programs reduce overall energy consumption, lower green house gas emissions by allowing fossil fuel generators to operate at increased efficiency and reduce stress on the power system during periods of peak loading. As the country continues to restructure energy markets with sophisticated marginal cost models that attempt to minimize total energy costs, the ability of demand response to create meaningful shifts in the supply and demand equations is critical to creating a sustainable and balanced economic response to energy issues. Restructured energy market prices are set by the cost of the next incremental unit of energy, so that as additional generation is brought into the market, the cost for the entire market increases. The benefit of demand response is that it reduces overall demand and shifts the entire market to a lower pricing level. This can be very effective in mitigating price volatility or scarcity pricing as the power system responds to changing demand schedules, loss of large generators, or loss of transmission. As a global producer of alumina, primary aluminum, and fabricated aluminum products, Alcoa Inc., has the capability to provide demand response services through its manufacturing facilities and uniquely through its aluminum smelting facilities. For a typical aluminum smelter, electric power

  4. The use of electrical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring the hydration products of Portland cement mortars with high percentage of pozzolans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz, J.M.; Fita, I.C.; Soriano, L.; Pay, J.; Borrachero, M.V.

    2013-08-15

    In this paper, mortars and pastes containing large replacement of pozzolan were studied by mechanical strength, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of metakaolin (35%) and fly ash (60%) was evaluated and compared with an inert mineral addition (andalusite). The portlandite content was measured, finding that the pozzolanic reaction produced cementing systems with all portlandite fixed. The EIS measurements were analyzed by the equivalent electrical circuit (EEC) method. An EEC with three branches in parallel was applied. The dc resistance was related to the degree of hydration and allowed us to characterize plain and blended mortars. A constant phase element (CPE) quantified the electrical properties of the hydration products located in the solidsolution interface and was useful to distinguish the role of inert and pozzolanic admixtures present in the cement matrix.

  5. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  6. Electric sales and revenue, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-21

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenues, and average revenue. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1990. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the revenue billed for the amount of kilowatthours sold, revenue from income, unemployment and other State and local taxes, energy or demand charges, consumer services charges, environmental surcharges, franchise fees, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  7. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Conference June 17, 2013 Chris Namovicz Assessing the Economic Value of New Utility-Scale Renewable Generation Projects Overview * Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) has been used by planners, analysts, policymakers, advocates and others to assess the economic competitiveness of technology options in the electric power sector * While of limited usefulness in the analysis of "conventional" utility systems, this approach is not generally appropriate when considering

  8. Novel Hybrid Materials with High Stability for Electrically Switched Ion Exchange: Carbon Nanotubes/Polyaniline/Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuehe; Cui, Xiaoli

    2005-04-21

    A novel and stable carbon nanotubes /polyaniline /nickel hexacyanoferrates composite film has been synthesized with electrodeposition method, and the possibility for removing cesium through an electrically switched ion exchange has been evaluated in a mixture containing NaNO3 and CsNO3.

  9. Chinese Oil Demand: Steep Incline Ahead

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Chinese Oil Demand: Steep Incline Ahead Malcolm Shealy Alacritas, Inc. April 7, 2008 Oil Demand: China, India, Japan, South Korea 0 2 4 6 8 1995 2000 2005 2010 Million BarrelsDay ...

  10. Making the most of Responsive Electricity Customer. Energy Efficiency and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response: How do we make the most out of using less energy? | Department of Energy Making the most of Responsive Electricity Customer. Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: How do we make the most out of using less energy? Making the most of Responsive Electricity Customer. Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: How do we make the most out of using less energy? Making the most of Responsive Electricity Customer. Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: How do we make the most out of

  11. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R.

    2014-09-30

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of ?1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50? load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation.

  12. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes existing research and discusses current practices, opportunities, and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response programs.

  13. Isotope Production in Light of Increasing Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, B.

    2004-10-05

    This presentation is a part of the panel discussion on isotope production in light of increasing demand.

  14. Energy demand and population changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.L.; Edmonds, J.A.

    1980-12-01

    Since World War II, US energy demand has grown more rapidly than population, so that per capita consumption of energy was about 60% higher in 1978 than in 1947. Population growth and the expansion of per capita real incomes have led to a greater use of energy. The aging of the US population is expected to increase per capita energy consumption, despite the increase in the proportion of persons over 65, who consume less energy than employed persons. The sharp decline in the population under 18 has led to an expansion in the relative proportion of population in the prime-labor-force age groups. Employed persons are heavy users of energy. The growth of the work force and GNP is largely attributable to the growing participation of females. Another important consequence of female employment is the growth in ownership of personal automobiles. A third factor pushing up labor-force growth is the steady influx of illegal aliens.

  15. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses. The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  16. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  17. Chilled Water Thermal Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granderson, Jessica; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-10-08

    The University of California at Merced is a unique campus that has benefited from intensive efforts to maximize energy efficiency, and has participated in a demand response program for the past two years. Campus demand response evaluations are often difficult because of the complexities introduced by central heating and cooling, non-coincident and diverse building loads, and existence of a single electrical meter for the entire campus. At the University of California at Merced, a two million gallon chilled water storage system is charged daily during off-peak price periods and used to flatten the load profile during peak demand periods. This makes demand response more subtle and challenges typical evaluation protocols. The goal of this research is to study demand response savings in the presence of storage systems in a campus setting. First, University of California at Merced summer electric loads are characterized; second, its participation in two demand response events is detailed. In each event a set of strategies were pre-programmed into the campus control system to enable semi-automated response. Finally, demand savings results are applied to the utility's DR incentives structure to calculate the financial savings under various DR programs and tariffs. A key conclusion to this research is that there is significant demand reduction using a zone temperature set point change event with the full off peak storage cooling in use.

  18. Clean Electricity Initiatives in California

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Edward Randolph Director, Energy Division California Public Utilities Commission July 14, 2014 2014 EIA Energy Conference Clean Electricity Policy Initiatives In California (Partial) * Wholesale Renewables : - Renewables Portfolio Standard - Feet in Tariffs (RAM & ReMAT) - All source procurement (under development) * Customer Renewable Generation - California Solar Initiative - Net Energy Metering - Green Tariffs - Energy Efficiency - Demand Response - Rate Reform - Storage - Retirement of

  19. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Topical report - results of sodium formate additive tests at New York State Electric & Gas Corporation`s Kintigh Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, J.

    1997-02-14

    Tests were conducted at New York State Gas & Electric`s (NYSEG`s) Kintigh Station to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency in the wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This test program was one of six conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate low-capital-cost upgrades to existing FGD systems as a means for utilities to comply with the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The upgrade option tested at Kintigh was sodium formate additive. Results from the tests were used to calibrate the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) to the Kintigh scrubber configuration. FGDPRISM was then used to predict system performance for evaluating conditions other than those tested. An economic evaluation was then done to determine the cost effectiveness of various high-efficiency upgrade options. These costs can be compared with the estimated market value of SO{sub 2} allowance or the expected costs of allowances generated by other means, such as fuel switching or new scrubbers, to arrive at the most cost-effective strategy for Clean Air Act compliance.

  20. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2015-07-07

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for advancing a borehole. High power laser drilling system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam through the electrical motor.

  1. Next Update: December 2011 Net Internal Demand

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    entity that oversee electric reliability. * NERC Regional names may be found on the EIA web page for electric reliability. 1. The ReliabilityFirst Corporation value for Net ...

  2. Current collapse imaging of Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by electric field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katsuno, Takashi Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2014-06-23

    Two-dimensional current collapse imaging of a Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor device was achieved by optical electric field-induced second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurements. EFISHG measurements can detect the electric field produced by carriers trapped in the on-state of the device, which leads to current collapse. Immediately after (e.g., 1, 100, or 800 μs) the completion of drain-stress voltage (200 V) in the off-state, the second-harmonic (SH) signals appeared within 2 μm from the gate edge on the drain electrode. The SH signal intensity became weak with time, which suggests that the trapped carriers are emitted from the trap sites. The SH signal location supports the well-known virtual gate model for current collapse.

  3. Local structural distortion and electrical transport properties of Bi(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3 perovskite under high pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Jinlong; Yang, Liuxiang; Wang, Hsiu -Wen; Zhang, Jianzhong; Yang, Wenge; Hong, Xinguo; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-12-16

    Perovskite-structure materials generally exhibit local structural distortions that are distinct from long-range, average crystal structure. The characterization of such distortion is critical to understanding the structural and physical properties of materials. In this work, we combined Pair Distribution Function (PDF) technique with Raman spectroscopy and electrical resistivity measurement to study Bi(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3 perovskite under high pressure. PDF analysis reveals strong local structural distortion at ambient conditions. As pressure increases, the local structure distortions are substantially suppressed and eventually vanish around 4 GPa, leading to concurrent changes in the electronic band structure and anomalies in the electrical resistivity. We find, consistent withmore » PDF analysis, Raman spectroscopy data suggest that the local structure changes to a higher ordered state at pressures above 4 GPa.« less

  4. Demand Response in the West: Lessons for States and Provinces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas C. Larson; Matt Lowry; Sharon Irwin

    2004-06-29

    OAK-B135 This paper is submitted in fulfillment of DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-015F22369 on the experience of western states/provinces with demand response (DR) in the electricity sector. Demand-side resources are often overlooked as a viable option for meeting load growth and addressing the challenges posed by the region's aging transmission system. Western states should work together with utilities and grid operators to facilitate the further deployment of DR programs which can provide benefits in the form of decreased grid congestion, improved system reliability, market efficiency, price stabilization, hedging against volatile fuel prices and reduced environmental impacts of energy production. This report describes the various types of DR programs; provides a survey of DR programs currently in place in the West; considers the benefits, drawbacks and barriers to DR; and presents lessons learned and recommendations for states/provinces.

  5. Electrical characterization of fluorinated benzothiadiazole based conjugated copolymer – a promising material for high-performance solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toušek, J. Toušková, J.; Chomutová, R.; Remeš, Z.; Čermák, J.; Helgesen, M.; Carlé, J. E.; Krebs, F. C.

    2015-12-15

    Measurements of electrical conductivity, electron work function, carrier mobility of holes and the diffusion length of excitons were performed on samples of conjugated polymers relevant to polymer solar cells. A state of the art fluorinated benzothiadiazole based conjugated copolymer (PBDT{sub THD} − DTBTff) was studied and benchmarked against the reference polymer poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT). We employed, respectively, four electrode conductivity measurements, Kelvin probe work function measurements, carrier mobility using charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (CELIV) measurements and diffusion length determinaton using surface photovoltage measurements.

  6. DSM Electricity Savings Potential in the Buildings Sector in APP Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, MIchael; Letschert, Virginie; Shen, Bo; Sathaye, Jayant; de la Ru du Can, Stephane

    2011-01-12

    .7 thousand TWh or 21percent of the 2030 projected base case electricity demand. Electricity savings potential ranges from a high of 38percent in India to a low of 9percent in Korea for the two sectors. Lighting, fans, and TV sets and lighting and refrigeration are the largest contributors to residential and commercial electricity savings respectively. This work presents a first estimates of the savings potential of DSM programs in APP countries. While the resulting estimates are based on detailed end-use data, it is worth keeping in mind that more work is needed to overcome limitation in data at this time of the project.

  7. Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Almeida, A.T.; Fisk, W.J.

    1997-07-01

    In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

  8. Electrical utilities model for determining electrical distribution capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritz, R. L.

    1997-09-03

    In its simplest form, this model was to obtain meaningful data on the current state of the Site`s electrical transmission and distribution assets, and turn this vast collection of data into useful information. The resulting product is an Electrical Utilities Model for Determining Electrical Distribution Capacity which provides: current state of the electrical transmission and distribution systems; critical Hanford Site needs based on outyear planning documents; decision factor model. This model will enable Electrical Utilities management to improve forecasting requirements for service levels, budget, schedule, scope, and staffing, and recommend the best path forward to satisfy customer demands at the minimum risk and least cost to the government. A dynamic document, the model will be updated annually to reflect changes in Hanford Site activities.

  9. Electrical Power Grid Delivery Dynamic Analysis: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diana K. Grauer; Michael E. Reed

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

  10. Electric sales and revenue: 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1993. Operating revenue includes energy charges, demand charges, consumer service charges, environmental surcharges, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. Because electric rates vary based on energy usage, average revenue per kilowatthour are affected by changes in the volume of sales. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  11. Optimization Based Data Mining Approah for Forecasting Real-Time Energy Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Li, Xueping; Zhou, Shengchao

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide concern over environmental degradation, increasing pressure on electric utility companies to meet peak energy demand, and the requirement to avoid purchasing power from the real-time energy market are motivating the utility companies to explore new approaches for forecasting energy demand. Until now, most approaches for forecasting energy demand rely on monthly electrical consumption data. The emergence of smart meters data is changing the data space for electric utility companies, and creating opportunities for utility companies to collect and analyze energy consumption data at a much finer temporal resolution of at least 15-minutes interval. While the data granularity provided by smart meters is important, there are still other challenges in forecasting energy demand; these challenges include lack of information about appliances usage and occupants behavior. Consequently, in this paper, we develop an optimization based data mining approach for forecasting real-time energy demand using smart meters data. The objective of our approach is to develop a robust estimation of energy demand without access to these other building and behavior data. Specifically, the forecasting problem is formulated as a quadratic programming problem and solved using the so-called support vector machine (SVM) technique in an online setting. The parameters of the SVM technique are optimized using simulated annealing approach. The proposed approach is applied to hourly smart meters data for several residential customers over several days.

  12. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, M.; Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

  13. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, M.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.

  17. AMI Communication Requirements to Implement Demand-Response: Applicability of Hybrid Spread Spectrum Wireless

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Mark D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2011-09-30

    While holistically defining the smart grid is a challenge, one area of interest is demand-response. In 2009, the Department of Energy announced over $4 billion in grant and project funding for the Smart Grid. A significant amount of this funding was allotted to utilities for cost sharing projects to deploy Smart Grid technologies, many of whom have deployed and are deploying advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI is an enabler to increase the efficiency of utilities and the bulk power grid. The bulk electrical system is unique in that it produces electricity as it is consumed. Most other industries have a delay between generation and consumption. This aspect of the power grid means that there must be enough generation capacity to meet the highest demand whereas other industries could over produce during off-peak times. This requires significant investment in generation capacity to cover the few days a year of peak consumption. Since bulk electrical storage doesn't yet exist at scale another way to curb the need for new peak period generation is through demand-response; that is to incentivize consumers (demand) to curtail (respond) electrical usage during peak periods. Of the various methods proposed for enabling demand-response, this paper will focus on the communication requirements for creating an energy market using transactional controls. More specifically, the paper will focus on the communication requirements needed to send the peak period notices and receive the response back from the consumers.

  18. A Full Demand Response Model in Co-Optimized Energy and

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that demand response will play an important role in reliable and economic operation of future power systems and electricity markets. Demand response can not only influence the prices in the energy market by demand shifting, but also participate in the reserve market. In this paper, we propose a full model of demand response in which demand flexibility is fully utilized by price responsive shiftable demand bids in energy market as well as spinning reserve bids in reserve market. A co-optimized day-ahead energy and spinning reserve market is proposed to minimize the expected net cost under all credible system states, i.e., expected total cost of operation minus total benefit of demand, and solved by mixed integer linear programming. Numerical simulation results on the IEEE Reliability Test System show effectiveness of this model. Compared to conventional demand shifting bids, the proposed full demand response model can further reduce committed capacity from generators, starting up and shutting down of units and the overall system operating costs.

  19. United States Electricity Industry Primer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The United States Electricity Industry Primer provides a high-level overview of the U.S. electricity supply chain, including generation, transmission, and distribution; markets and ownership structures, including utilities and regulatory agencies; and system reliability and vulnerabilities.

  20. The Role of Demand Response in Default Service Pricing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Chuck; Neenan, Bernie

    2006-03-10

    Dynamic retail electricity pricing, especially real-time pricing (RTP), has been widely heralded as a panacea for providing much-needed demand response in electricity markets. However, in designing default service for competitive retail markets, demand response often appears to be an afterthought. But that may be changing as states that initiated customer choice in the past 5-7 years reach an important juncture in retail market design. Most states with retail choice established an initial transitional period, during which utilities were required to offer a default or ''standard offer'' generation service, often at a capped or otherwise administratively-determined rate. Many retail choice states have reached, or are nearing, the end of their transitional period and several states have adopted an RTP-type default service for large commercial and industrial (C&I) customers. Are these initiatives motivated by the desire to induce greater demand response, or is RTP being called upon to serve a different role in competitive markets? Surprisingly, we found that in most cases, the primary reason for adopting RTP as the default service was not to encourage demand response, but rather to advance policy objectives related to the development of competitive retail markets. However, we also find that, if efforts are made in its design and implementation, default RTP service can also provide a solid foundation for developing price responsive demand, creating an important link between wholesale and retail market transactions. This paper, which draws from a lengthier report, describes the experience to date with default RTP in the U.S., identifying findings related to its actual and potential role as an instrument for cultivating price responsive demand [1]. For each of the five states currently with default RTP, we conducted a detailed review of the regulatory proceedings leading to its adoption. To further understand the intentions and expectations of those involved in its design

  1. Minnesota Valley Electric Cooperative -Residential Energy Resource...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    installation Heat pump installation Heat pump with high efficient gas furnace Electric heating solutions to supplement propane heat Electric heat product installations (i.e....

  2. Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Han, Junqiao; Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Asano, Hiroshi; Kiliccote, Sila

    2009-06-28

    This paper provides new regression models for demand reduction of Demand Response programs for the purpose of ex ante evaluation of the programs and screening for recruiting customer enrollment into the programs. The proposed regression models employ load sensitivity to outside air temperature and representative load pattern derived from cluster analysis of customer baseline load as explanatory variables. The proposed models examined their performances from the viewpoint of validity of explanatory variables and fitness of regressions, using actual load profile data of Pacific Gas and Electric Company's commercial and industrial customers who participated in the 2008 Critical Peak Pricing program including Manual and Automated Demand Response.

  3. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1986-01-01

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1,000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  4. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-11-16

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  5. Customer-Economics of Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Impact of High Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings with Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the US are often compensated at the customer's underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. There is growing interest in understanding how potential changes in rates may impact the value of bill savings from PV. This article uses a production cost and capacity expansion model to project California hourly wholesale electricity market prices under a reference scenario and a 33% renewables scenario. Second, based on the wholesale electricity market prices generated by the model, the article develops retail rates (i.e., flat, time-of-use, and real-time pricing) for each future scenario based on standard retail rate design principles. Finally, based on these retail rates, the bill savings from PV are estimated for 226 California residential customers under two types of net metering, for each scenario. The article finds that high renewable penetrations can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, together with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV.

  6. Spectroscopic investigation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of an electric field in plasma of a beam-type high-voltage discharge in helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demkin, V. P.; Mel'nichuk, S. V.

    2015-02-15

    In the present work, a method of determining the spatiotemporal characteristics of the electric field strength in an accelerating gap and a plasma flare of a beam-type high-voltage pulsed discharge in He at moderate pressure is presented. The method is based on spectroscopic data on the Stark splitting of π-components of He 2P–4Q transitions; Q = D(4921.93 Å), F(4920.35 Å) in the near-cathode region of the discharge and on the spatiotemporal characteristics of intensities of He(2s{sup 1}S–3p{sup 1}P{sup 0}) spectral lines with λ = 5015 Å and He{sup +}(3d–4f) spectral lines with λ = 4685 Å measured experimentally and calculated from the data of statistical simulation of the electron kinetics by the Monte Carlo method. The shape and strength of the electric field of the space charge in the interelectrode gap and the drift region of the discharge are estimated. It is demonstrated that the electric field created by the current pulse of uncompensated space charge in the near-anode region changes the discharge regime and causes degradation of the electron beam in the plasma flare. It is established that the flux of secondary electrons from the drift region to the anode has significant effect on the radiation intensity distribution in this region of the discharge.

  7. Automation of Capacity Bidding with an Aggregator Using Open Automated Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-10-01

    This report summarizes San Diego Gas& Electric Company?s collaboration with the Demand Response Research Center to develop and test automation capability for the Capacity Bidding Program in 2007. The report describes the Open Automated Demand Response architecture, summarizes the history of technology development and pilot studies. It also outlines the Capacity Bidding Program and technology being used by an aggregator that participated in this demand response program. Due to delays, the program was not fully operational for summer 2007. However, a test event on October 3, 2007, showed that the project successfully achieved the objective to develop and demonstrate how an open, Web?based interoperable automated notification system for capacity bidding can be used by aggregators for demand response. The system was effective in initiating a fully automated demand response shed at the aggregated sites. This project also demonstrated how aggregators can integrate their demand response automation systems with San Diego Gas& Electric Company?s Demand Response Automation Server and capacity bidding program.

  8. Non-destructive observation of intact bacteria and viruses in water by the highly sensitive frequency transmission electric-field method based on SEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogura, Toshihiko

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: We developed a high-sensitive frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) system. The output signal was highly enhanced by applying voltage to a metal layer on SiN. The spatial resolution of new FTE method is 41 nm. New FTE system enables observation of the intact bacteria and virus in water. - Abstract: The high-resolution structural analysis of biological specimens by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) presents several advantages. Until now, wet bacterial specimens have been examined using atmospheric sample holders. However, images of unstained specimens in water using these holders exhibit very poor contrast and heavy radiation damage. Recently, we developed the frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) method, which facilitates the SEM observation of biological specimens in water without radiation damage. However, the signal detection system presents low sensitivity. Therefore, a high EB current is required to generate clear images, and thus reducing spatial resolution and inducing thermal damage to the samples. Here a high-sensitivity detection system is developed for the FTE method, which enhances the output signal amplitude by hundredfold. The detection signal was highly enhanced when voltage was applied to the metal layer on silicon nitride thin film. This enhancement reduced the EB current and improved the spatial resolution as well as the signal-to-noise ratio. The spatial resolution of a high-sensitive FTE system is 41 nm, which is considerably higher than previous FTE system. New FTE system can easily be utilised to examine various unstained biological specimens in water, such as living bacteria and viruses.

  9. Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Rollout...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rollout Scenario Analysis Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Rollout Scenario Analysis Presentation by Margo Melendez at the 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for ...

  10. Demand Response Performance and Communication Strategy: AHRI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Demand Response Performance and Communication Strategy: AHRI and CEE DOE Building Technologies Office Conference NREL, Golden, Colorado, May 1, 2014 | 2 A Growing Crisis: Peak ...

  11. Demand Response - Policy | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    OE's mission includes assisting states and regions in developing policies that decrease demand on existing energy infrastructure. Appropriate cost-effective demandresponse ...

  12. Energy Efficiency, Demand Response, and Volttron

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ENERGY EFFICIENCY, DEMAND RESPONSE, AND VOLTTRON Presented by Justin Sipe SEEMINGLY SIMPLE STATEMENTS Utilities need more capacity to handle growth on the grid ...

  13. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LBNL-1470E Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool Ranjit Bharvirkar, Grayson Heffner and Charles Goldman Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Environmental Energy ...

  14. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing Logistics ...

  15. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Treatment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water ...

  16. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand response and energy storage resources present potentially important sources of bulk power system services that can aid in integrating variable renewable generation. While renewable...

  17. Demand Response in the ERCOT Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mark

    2011-10-25

    ERCOT grid serves 85% of Texas load over 40K+ miles transmission line. Demand response: voluntary load response, load resources, controllable load resources, and emergency interruptible load service.

  18. Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Using Social Media for Long-Term Branding Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies - January 16, 2011 (Text Version) Generating ...

  19. Geographically Based Hydrogen Consumer Demand and Infrastructure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geographically Based Hydrogen Consumer Demand and Infrastructure Analysis Final Report M. Melendez and A. Milbrandt Technical Report NRELTP-540-40373 October 2006 NREL is operated...

  20. BPA, Energy Northwest launch demand response pilot

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BPA-Energy-Northwest-launch-demand-response-pilot Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand...