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1

High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters Home Standards DOE Workshops Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference Proceedings Qualified Filter List News Items Related Sites HEPA Related Lessons Learned Contact Us HSS Logo High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters The HEPA Filter web site provides a forum for informing and reporting department-wide activities related to filtration and ventilation issues with special reference to the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters' use, inspection, and testing. This site contains essentials of DOE HEPA filter test program, procedures, requirements and quality assurance aspects applicable to HEPA filters used in DOE facilities. This site contains information about the DOE-accepted Filter Test Facility and its management, operation and quality assuranceprogram.

2

Implications of Low Particulate Matter Emissions on System Fuel Efficiency for High Efficiency Clean Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advanced diesel combustion regimes such as High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) offer the benefits of reduced engine out NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Lower PM emissions during advanced combustion reduce the demand on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and can, thereby, reduce the fuel penalty associated with DPF regeneration. In this study, a SiC DPF was loaded and regenerated on a 1.7-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes at different speed and load conditions. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a lean NOX trap (LNT) were also installed in the exhaust stream. Five steady-state speed and load conditions were weighted to estimate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) fuel efficiency. The DPF was loaded using lean-rich cycling with frequencies that resulted in similar levels of NOX emissions downstream of the LNT. The pressure drop across the DPF was measured at a standard point (1500 rpm, 5.0 bar) before and after loading, and a P rise rate was determined for comparison between conventional and advanced combustion modes. Higher PM emissions in conventional combustion resulted in a higher rate of backpressure rise across the DPF at all of the load points leading to more frequent DPF regenerations and higher fuel penalty. The fuel penalty during conventional combustion was 4.2% compared with 3.1% for a mixture of conventional and advanced modes.

Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using unmodified carbon dioxide has been explored as an alternative method for the extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters provide the final stage of containment on many exhaust systems in US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities by preventing the escape of chemical and radioactive materials entrained in the exhausted air. The efficiency of the filters is tested by the manufacturer and DOE using dioctylphthalate (DOP), a substance regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Therefore, the filters must be analyzed for semivolatile organics before disposal. Ninety-eight acid, base, and neutral semivolatile organics were spiked onto blank HEPA material and extracted using SFE, Soxhlet, automated Soxhlet, and sonication techniques. The SFE conditions were optimized using a Dionex SFE-703 instrument. Average recoveries for the 98 semivolatile compounds are 82.7% for Soxhlet, 74.0% for sonication, 70.2% for SFE, and 62.9% for Soxtec. Supercritical fluid extraction reduces the extraction solvent volume to 10--15 mL, a factor of 20--30 less than Soxhlet and more than 5 times less than Soxtec and sonication. Extraction times of 30--45 min are used compared to 16--18 h for Soxhlet extraction.

Schilling, J.B.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Fuel Efficient Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Modeling and Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project described in this report seeks to promote effective diesel particulate filter technology with minimum fuel penalty by enhancing fundamental understanding of filtration mechanisms through targeted experiments and computer simulations. The overall backpressure of a filtration system depends upon complex interactions of particulate matter and ash with the microscopic pores in filter media. Better characterization of these phenomena is essential for exhaust system optimization. The acicular mullite (ACM) diesel particulate filter substrate is under continuing development by Dow Automotive. ACM is made up of long mullite crystals which intersect to form filter wall framework and protrude from the wall surface into the DPF channels. ACM filters have been demonstrated to effectively remove diesel exhaust particles while maintaining relatively low backpressure. Modeling approaches developed for more conventional ceramic filter materials, such as silicon carbide and cordierite, have been difficult to apply to ACM because of properties arising from its unique microstructure. Penetration of soot into the high-porosity region of projecting crystal structures leads to a somewhat extended depth filtration mode, but with less dramatic increases in pressure drop than are normally observed during depth filtration in cordierite or silicon carbide filters. Another consequence is greater contact between the soot and solid surfaces, which may enhance the action of some catalyst coatings in filter regeneration. The projecting crystals appear to provide a two-fold benefit for maintaining low backpressures during filter loading: they help prevent soot from being forced into the throats of pores in the lower porosity region of the filter wall, and they also tend to support the forming filter cake, resulting in lower average cake density and higher permeability. Other simulations suggest that soot deposits may also tend to form at the tips of projecting crystals due to the axial velocity component of exhaust moving down the filter inlet channel. Soot mass collected in this way would have a smaller impact on backpressure than soot forced into the flow restrictions deeper in the porous wall structure. This project has focused on the development of computational, analytical, and experimental techniques that are generally applicable to a wide variety of exhaust aftertreatment technologies. By helping to develop improved fundamental understanding pore-scale phenomena affecting filtration, soot oxidation, and NOX abatement, this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has also assisted Dow Automotive in continuing development and commercialization of the ACM filter substrate. Over the course of this research project, ACM filters were successfully deployed on the Audi R10 TDI racecar which won the 24 Hours of LeMans endurance race in 2006, 2007, and 2008; and the 12 Hours of Sebring endurance race in 2006 and 2007. It would not have been possible for the R10 to compete in these traditionally gasoline-dominated events without reliable and effective exhaust particulate filtration. These successes demonstrated not only the performance of automotive diesel engines, but the efficacy of DPF technology as it was being deployed around the world to meet new emissions standards on consumer vehicles. During the course of this CRADA project, Dow Automotive commercialized their ACM DPF technology under the AERIFYTM DPF brand.

Stewart, Mark L.; Gallant, Thomas R.; Kim, Do Heui; Maupin, Gary D.; Zelenyuk, Alla

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Evaluation of ceramic filters for high-temperature/high-pressure fine particulate control. Final report Dec 75-Jun 76  

SciTech Connect

High temperature gas turbines used to generate electric power require gas streams virtually free of particulate matter. Gas streams from high temperature, high pressure coal processes, such as low Btu gasification and pressurized fluidized bed combustion, require considerable particulate removal. In order to maintain high thermal efficiency the particulate clean-up must be done at the high temperatures of the process. Many new concepts for fine particulate control at elevated temperatures are presently being proposed. One such concept utilizes ceramic membrane filters. The report gives results of a study to analyze and evaluate ceramic membrane filters as a new, fine particulate (<3 um) control concept for high-temperature (approx. 900/sup 0/C), high-pressure processes. Several ceramic filters were identified as potential candidates for fine particulate removal. There does not seem to be any inherent material limitation to high-temperature operation; however, no evidence of high-temperature filter application was found. The filters typically are 2-6 mm thick, cylindrical, and available with various pore sizes, increasing upward from 0.5 um. These elements may be suitable for fine particulate control in hot gas streams. The most promising, although undeveloped, idea for a ceramic filter is to use ceramic honeycomb monoliths similar to those available for catalyst supports and heat exchangers. The walls of the monoliths are about 0.2-0.4 mm thick and of varying pore size and porosity. Geometric configurations are available which would force the gas to flow through the membrane walls. Pressure losses would be very small relative to those of standard ceramic filter elements. The application of ceramic monoliths to high-temperature fine particulate control appears very promising. It is strongly recommended that this concept be investigated further.

Poe, G.G.; Evans, R.M.; Bonnett, W.S.; Waterland, L.R.

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

High Efficiency, Clean Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) technologies. To demonstrate the technology is compatible with B2

Donald Stanton

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

7

Single Wall Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Filtration Efficiency Studies Using Laboratory Generated Particles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diesel offers higher fuel efficiency, but produces higher exhaust particulate matter. Diesel particulate filters are presently the most efficient means to reduce these emissions. These filters typically trap particles in two basic modes: at the beginning of the exposure cycle the particles are captured in the filter holes, and at longer times the particles form a "cake" on which particles are trapped. Eventually the "cake" removed by oxidation and the cycle is repeated. We have investigated the properties and behavior of two commonly used filters: silicon carbide (SiC) and cordierite (DuraTrap® RC) by exposing them to nearly-spherical ammonium sulfate particles. We show that the transition from deep bed filtration to "cake" filtration can easily be identified by recording the change in pressure across the filters as a function of exposure. We investigated performance of these filters as a function of flow rate and particle size. The filters trap small and large particles more efficiently than particles that are ~80 to 200 nm in aerodynamic diameter. A comparison between the experimental data and a simulation using incompressible lattice-Boltzmann model shows very good qualitative agreement, but the model overpredicts the filter’s trapping efficiency.

Yang, Juan; Stewart, Marc; Maupin, Gary D.; Herling, Darrell R.; Zelenyuk, Alla

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

High efficiency photoionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 [+-] 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20 C. 6 figs.

Anderson, D.F.

1984-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

9

High efficiency photoionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36.+-.0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20.degree. C.

Anderson, David F. (3055 Trinity, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

HIGH EFFICIENCY SYNGAS GENERATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project investigated an efficient and low cost method of auto-thermally reforming natural gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Reforming is the highest cost step in producing products such as methanol and Fisher Tropsch liquids (i.e., gas to liquids); and reducing the cost of reforming is the key to reducing the cost of these products. Steam reforming is expensive because of the high cost of the high nickel alloy reforming tubes (i.e., indirectly fired reforming tubes). Conventional auto-thermal or Partial Oxidation (POX) reforming minimizes the size and cost of the reformers and provides a near optimum mixture of CO and hydrogen. However POX requires pure oxygen, which consumes power and significantly increases the cost to reforming. Our high efficiency process extracts oxygen from low-pressure air with novel oxygen sorbent and transfers the oxygen to a nickel-catalyzed reformer. The syngas is generated at process pressure (typically 20 to 40 bar) without nitrogen dilution and has a 1CO to 2H{sub 2} ratio that is near optimum for the subsequent production of Fisher-Tropsch liquid to liquids and other chemicals (i.e., Gas to Liquids, GTL). Our high process efficiency comes from the way we transfer the oxygen into the reformer. All of the components of the process, except for the oxygen sorbent, are commonly used in commercial practice. A process based on a longlived, regenerable, oxygen transfer sorbent could substantially reduce the cost of natural gas reforming to syngas. Lower cost syngas (CO + 2H{sub 2}) that is the feedstock for GTL would reduce the cost of GTL and for other commercial applications (e.g., methanol, other organic chemicals). The vast gas resources of Alaska's North Slope (ANS) offer more than 22 Tcf of gas and GTL production in this application alone, and could account for as much as 300,000 to 700,000 bpd for 20 to 30+ years. We developed a new sorbent, which is an essential part of the High Efficiency Oxygen Process (HOP). We tested the sorbent and observed that it has both a good oxygen capacity and operates as a highly effective reforming catalyst. We conducted a long duration tests of the sorbent (1,500 hours of continuous operation in the HOP cycle). Although the sorbent lost some oxygen capacity with cycling, the sorbent oxygen capacity stabilized after 1,000 hours and remained constant to the end of the test, 1,500 hour. The activity of the catalyst to reform methane to a hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixture was unchanged through the oxidation/reduction cycling. Our cost and performance analyses indicated a significant reduction in the cost of GTL production when using the HOP process integrated into a GTL plant.

Robert J. Copeland; Yevgenia Gershanovich; Brian Windecker

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

High Efficiency Steam Electrolyzer  

SciTech Connect

A novel steam electrolyzer has been developed. In conventional electrolyzers, oxygen produced from electrolysis is usually released in the air stream. In their novel design, natural gas is used to replace air in order to reduce the chemical potential difference across the electrolyzer, thus minimizing the electrical consumption. The oxygen from the electrolysis is consumed in either a total oxidation or a partial oxidation reaction with natural gas. Experiments performed on single cells shown a voltage reduction as much as 1 V when compared to conventional electrolyzers. Using thin film materials and high performance cathode and anode, electrolysis could be done at temperatures as low as 700 C with electrolytic current as high as 1 A/cm{sup 2} at a voltage of 0.5 V only. The 700 C operating temperature is favorable to the total oxidation of natural gas while minimizing the need for steam that is otherwise necessary to avoid carbon deposition. A novel tubular electrolyzer stack has been developed. The system was designed to produce hydrogen at high pressures, taking advantage of the simplicity and high efficiency of the electrochemical compressors. A complete fabrication process was developed for making electrolyzer tubes with thin film coatings. A 100 W stack is being built.

Pham, A.Q.

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

12

High efficiency virtual impactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Environmental monitoring of atmospheric air is facilitated by a single stage virtual impactor for separating an inlet flow (Q/sub 0/) having particulate contaminants into a coarse particle flow (Q/sub 1/) and a fine particle flow (Q/sub 2/) to enable collection of such particles on different filters for separate analysis. An inlet particle acceleration nozzle and coarse particle collection probe member having a virtual impaction opening are aligned along a single axis and spaced apart to define a flow separation region at which the fine particle flow (Q/sub 2/) is drawn radially outward into a chamber while the coarse particle flow (Q/sub 1/) enters the virtual impaction opening.

Loo, B.W.

1980-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

13

ALTERNATE HIGH EFFICIENCY PARTICULATE AIR (HEPA) FILTRATION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

In Phase IIA of this project, CeraMem has further developed and scaled up ceramic HEPA filters that are appropriate for use on filtration of vent gas from HLW tanks at DOE sites around the country. This work included procuring recrystallized SiC monoliths, developing membrane and cement materials, and defining a manufacturing process for the production of prototype full sizes HEPA filters. CeraMem has demonstrated that prototype full size filters can be manufactured by producing 9 full size filters that passed DOP aerosol testing at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. One of these filters was supplied to the Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC) for process tests using simulated HLW tank waste. SRTC has reported that the filter was regenerable (with some increase in pressure drop) and that the filter retained its HEPA retention capability. CeraMem has also developed a Regenerable HEPA Filter System (RHFS) design and acceptance test plan that was reviewed by DOE personnel. The design and acceptance test plan form the basis of the system proposal for follow-on work in Phase IIB of this project.

Bruce Bishop; Robert Goldsmith; Karsten Nielsen; Phillip Paquette

2002-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

14

High-Efficiency Steam Electrolyzer  

SciTech Connect

We are developing a novel high-efficiency, high-temperature steam electrolyzer. Although water or steam electrolysis is well known to be one of the cleanest ways to produce hydrogen, widespread utilization is hindered by high operational costs because of high electricity consumption. To decrease the electrical power input requirements in electrolysis, our approach uses natural gas as an anode depolarizer. This approach essentially replaces one unit of electricity with one equivalent-energy unit of natural gas at much lower cost. The direct use of natural gas on the electrolyzer enables very high system efficiency with respect to primary energy. Experiments performed on single cells have shown a voltage reduction as much as 1 V when compared to conventional electrolyzers. System efficiency has been estimated to be 50 to 80%, depending on the electrolytic current. A 200-W prototype unit is being developed.

Pham, A Q

2001-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

15

US Department of Energy`s high-temperature and high-pressure particulate cleanup for advanced coal-based power systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The availability of reliable, low-cost electricity is a cornerstone for the United States` ability to compete in the world market. The Department of Energy (DOE) projects the total consumption of electricity in the US to rise from 2.7 trillion kilowatt-hours in 1990 to 3.5 trillion in 2010. Although energy sources are diversifying, fossil fuel still produces 90 percent of the nation`s energy. Coal is our most abundant fossil fuel resource and the source of 56 percent of our electricity. It has been the fuel of choice because of its availability and low cost. A new generation of high-efficiency power systems has made it possible to continue the use of coal while still protecting the environment. Such power systems greatly reduce the pollutants associated with cola-fired plants built before the 1970s. To realize this high efficiency and superior environmental performance, advanced coal-based power systems will require gas stream cleanup under high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP) process conditions. Presented in this paper are the HTHP particulate capture requirements for the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) power systems, the HTHP particulate cleanup systems being implemented in the PFBC and IGCC Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Projects, and the currently available particulate capture performance results.

Dennis, R.A.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Advanced high efficiency concentrator cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research to develop the technology needed to demonstrate a monolithic, multijunction, two-terminal, concentrator solar cell with a terrestrial power conversion efficiency greater than 35%. Under three previous subcontracts, Varian developed many of the aspects of a technology needed to fabricate very high efficiency concentrator cells. The current project was aimed at exploiting the new understanding of high efficiency solar cells. Key results covered in this report are as follows. (1) A 1.93-eV AlGaAs/1.42-eV GaAs metal-interconnected cascade cell was manufactured with a one-sun efficiency at 27.6% at air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) global. (2) A 1.0eV InGaAs cell was fabricated on the reverse'' side of a low-doped GaAs substrate with a one-sun efficiency of 2.5% AM1.5 diffuse and a short-circuit current of 14.4 mA/cm{sup 2}. (3) Small-scale manufacturing of GaAs p/n concentrator cells was attempted and obtained an excellent yield of high-efficiency cells. (4) Grown-in tunnel junction cell interconnects that are transparent and thermally stable using C and Si dopants were developed. 10 refs.

Gale, R. (Varian Associates, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Varian Research Center)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND); Zhuang, Ye (Grand Forks, ND); Almlie, Jay C. (East Grand Forks, MN)

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

18

High Efficiency Engine Technologies Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Caterpillar's Product Development and Global Technology Division carried out a research program on waste heat recovery with support from DOE (Department of Energy) and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The objective of the program was to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that would demonstrate a minimum 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over a base heavy-duty on-highway diesel truck engine. The base engine for this program was a 2007 C15 15.2L series-turbocharged on-highway truck engine with a LPL (low-pressure loop) exhaust recirculation system. The focus of the program was on the development of high efficiency turbomachinery and a high efficiency turbocompound waste heat recovery system. The focus of each area of development was as follows: (1) For turbine stages, the focus was on investigation and development of technologies that would improve on-engine exhaust energy utilization compared to the conventional radial turbines in widespread use today. (2) For compressor stages, the focus was on investigating compressor wheel design parameters beyond the range typically utilized in production, to determine the potential efficiency benefits thereof. (3) For turbocompound, the focus was on the development of a robust bearing system that would provide higher bearing efficiencies compared to systems used in turbocompound power turbines in production. None of the turbocharger technologies investigated involved addition of moving parts, actuators, or exotic materials, thereby increasing the likelihood of a favorable cost-value tradeoff for each technology. And the turbocompound system requires less hardware addition than competing bottoming cycle technologies, making it a more attractive solution from a cost and packaging standpoint. Main outcomes of the program are as follows: (1) Two turbine technologies that demonstrated up to 6% improvement in turbine efficiency on gas stand and 1-3% improvement in thermal efficiency in on-engine testing. (2) A compressor technology that demonstrated 1.5% improvement in compressor efficiency on gas stand compared to production available compressors. (3) A power turbine with high efficiency bearing system that demonstrated excellent rotordynamic stability throughout the required speed range, up to 60,000 rpm. (4) A predicted improvement (using engine simulation) in engine thermal efficiency of 7% at the peak torque design point, when combining the technologies developed in this program.

Rich Kruiswyk

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

19

Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to explore the potential to improve the energy efficiency of spark-ignited engines operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. By taking advantage of the fuel properties of ethanol, such as high compression ratio and high latent heat of vaporization, it is possible to increase efficiency with ethanol blends. Increasing the efficiency with ethanol-containing blends aims to remove a market barrier of reduced fuel economy with E85 fuel blends, which is currently about 30% lower than with petroleum-derived gasoline. The same or higher engine efficiency is achieved with E85, and the reduction in fuel economy is due to the lower energy density of E85. By making ethanol-blends more efficient, the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85 can be reduced. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain components and subsystems as well as overcoming real-world implementation barriers. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise in non-traditional fuels and improving engine system efficiency for the next generation of internal combustion engines. Partnering to combine these knowledge bases was essential towards making progress to reducing the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, usually on a bi-weekly basis, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided substantial hardware support to the project by providing components for the single-cylinder engine experiments, engineering support for hardware modifications, guidance for operational strategies on engine research, and hardware support by providing a flexible multi-cylinder engine to be used for optimizing engine efficiency with ethanol-containing fuels.

Szybist, J.; Confer, K. (Delphi Automotive Systems)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Evaluating High Efficiency Motor Retrofit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the petrochemical and refining Industries, and most manufacturing plants, the reliable operation of AC motors always has been crucial to the continuous operation of the process. Now, the cost of operating these motors has also become a significant factor. Engineers Involved In motor specification can help lower plant operating costs and reduce electrical energy consumption dramatically by a relatively simple technique: retrofit of existing, standard-efficiency motors with new, high efficiency models. This article demonstrates strong reasons for motor retrofit, and explains step-by step how process and manufacturing engineering personnel can fully evaluate a retrofit decision.

Evans, T. A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high efficiency particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

High-Efficiency Steam Electrolyzer  

SciTech Connect

We are developing a novel high-efficiency, high-temperature steam electrolyzer. Although water or steam electrolysis is well known to be one of the cleanest ways to produce hydrogen, widespread utilization is hindered by high operational costs because of high electricity consumption. To decrease the electrical power input requirements in electrolysis, our approach uses natural gas as an anode depolarizer. This approach essentially replaces one unit of electricity with one equivalent-energy unit of natural gas at much lower cost. The direct use of natural gas on the electrolyzer enables very high system efficiency with respect to primary energy. Experiments performed on single cells have shown a voltage reduction as much as 1 V when compared to conventional electrolyzers. System efficiency has been estimated to be 50 to 80%, depending on the electrolytic current density. During FY02, we have accomplished several major milestones, including the development of a metal-to-ceramic seal that withstands 150 psi differential, the fabrication of the electrolyzer tubes of up to 16 inches in length, the improvement of single tube performance and the demonstration of the first electrolyzer stack.

Pham, A Q; See, E; Lenz, D; Martin, P; Glass, R

2002-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

22

Apparatus and method for removing particulate deposits from high temperature filters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion of a fuel-air mixture is used to provide a high-temperature and high-pressure pulse of gaseous combustion products for the back-flush cleaning of ceramic filter elements contained in a barrier filter system and utilized to separate particulates from particulate-laden process gases at high temperature and high pressure. The volume of gaseous combustion products provided by the combustion of the fuel-air mixture is preferably divided into a plurality of streams each passing through a sonic orifice and conveyed to the open end of each filter element as a high pressure pulse which passes through the filter elements and dislodges dust cake supported on a surface of the filter element.

Nakaishi, Curtis V. (Morgantown, WV); Holcombe, Norman T. (McMurray, PA); Micheli, Paul L. (Morgantown, WV)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Apparatus and method for removing particulate deposits from high temperature filters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The combustion of a fuel-air mixture is used to provide a high-temperature and high-pressure pulse of gaseous combustion products for the back-flush cleaning of ceramic filter elements contained in a barrier filter system and utilized to separate particulates from particulate-laden process gases at high temperature and high pressure. The volume of gaseous combustion products provided by the combustion of the fuel-air mixture is preferably divided into a plurality of streams each passing through a sonic orifice and conveyed to the open end of each filter element as a high pressure pulse which passes through the filter elements and dislodges dust cake supported on a surface of the filter element.

Nakaishi, C.V.; Holcombe, N.T.; Micheli, P.L.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

24

High-efficiency photoionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 +- 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20/sup 0/C.

Anderson, D.F.

1981-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

25

Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall goal of the project, Tailored Materials for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines, is to enable the implementation of new combustion strategies, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), that have the potential to significantly increase the energy efficiency of current diesel engines and decrease fuel consumption and environmental emissions. These strategies, however, are increasing the demands on conventional engine materials, either from increases in peak cylinder pressure (PCP) or from increases in the temperature of operation. The specific objective of this project is to investigate the application of a new material processing technology, friction stir processing (FSP), to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of engine components. The concept is to modify the surfaces of conventional, low-cost engine materials. The project focused primarily on FSP in aluminum materials that are compositional analogs to the typical piston and head alloys seen in small- to mid-sized CIDI engines. Investigations have been primarily of two types over the duration of this project: (1) FSP of a cast hypoeutectic Al-Si-Mg (A356/357) alloy with no introduction of any new components, and (2) FSP of Al-Cu-Ni alloys (Alloy 339) by physically stirring-in various quantities of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers or carbon fibers. Experimental work to date on aluminum systems has shown significant increases in fatigue lifetime and stress-level performance in aluminum-silicon alloys using friction processing alone, but work to demonstrate the addition of carbon nanotubes and fibers into aluminum substrates has shown mixed results due primarily to the difficulty in achieving porosity-free, homogeneous distributions of the particulate. A limited effort to understand the effects of FSP on steel materials was also undertaken during the course of this project. Processed regions were created in high-strength, low-alloyed steels up to 0.5 in. deep that showed significant grain refinement and homogeneous microstructures favorable to increased fracture toughness and fatigue performance. The final tasks of the project demonstrated that the FSP concept can be applied to a relevant part geometry by fabricating diesel piston crowns with FSP regions applied selectively to the edge of the bowl rim. This area of the piston typically suffers from conditions at high PCP that cause severe thermal fatigue issues. It is expected that, given the data from coupon testing, the durability of pistons modified by FSP will allow much higher fatigue lifetime and potentially also greater resistance to elevated stress-level effects on fatigue.

Grant, G.J.; Jana, S.

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

26

High Efficiency Fans and High Efficiency Electrical Motors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Replacing nominal efficient electrical motors with premium efficiency can save on electrical power costs in cotton gins. Connected horsepower load on industrial air fans is approximately 60% of the total horsepower in a typical cotton gin. By replacing old inefficient centrifugal fans with new higher efficiency fans, additional power savings can be achieved.

Breedlove, C. W.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

High-efficiency photovoltaic cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High efficiency solar converters comprised of a two cell, non-lattice matched, monolithic stacked semiconductor configuration using optimum pairs of cells having bandgaps in the range 1.6 to 1.7 eV and 0.95 to 1.1 eV, and a method of fabrication thereof, are disclosed. The high band gap subcells are fabricated using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to produce the required AlGaAs layers of optimized composition, thickness and doping to produce high performance, heteroface homojunction devices. The low bandgap subcells are similarly fabricated from AlGa(As)Sb compositions by LPE, MBE or MOCVD. These subcells are then coupled to form a monolithic structure by an appropriate bonding technique which also forms the required transparent intercell ohmic contact (IOC) between the two subcells. Improved ohmic contacts to the high bandgap semiconductor structure can be formed by vacuum evaporating to suitable metal or semiconductor materials which react during laser annealing to form a low bandgap semiconductor which provides a low contact resistance structure.

Yang, H.T.; Zehr, S.W.

1982-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

28

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

Adams, D.C.

1993-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

29

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Corrosion and degradation of ceramic particulate filters in direct coal-fired turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature ceramic filters show considerable promise for efficient particulate removal from coal combustion systems. Advanced coal utilization processes such as direct coal-fired turbines require particulate-free gas for successful operation. This paper describes the various ceramic particulate filters under development and reviews the degradation mechanisms expected when operated in coal combustion systems.

Sawyer, J. (Acurex Corp., Mountain View, CA (US)); Vass, R.J.; Brown, N.R.; Brown, J.J. (Center for Advanced Ceramic Materials, CIT TDC, Virginai Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (US))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Argonne TTRDC - Engines - Emissions Control - Advanced Diesel Particulate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration Systems Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration Systems The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations require that on-highway diesel vehicles have filtration systems to reduce tail-pipe soot emissions, known as particulate matter (PM). Diesel particulate filtration (DPF) systems are currently the most efficient at directly controlling PM. Argonne researchers, working with Corning, Inc., and Caterpillar, Inc., through a cooperative research and development agreement, are exploiting previously unavailable technology and research results on diesel PM filtration and regeneration processes, aiming to the technology transfer of advanced PM emission control to industry. Argonne's Research In operation of DPF systems, the filtration and regeneration of particulate emissions are the key processes to be controlled for high efficiency. Due to difficulties in accessing the micro-scaled structures of DPF membranes and monitoring particulate filtration and high-temperature thermal processes, however, research has been limited to macroscopic observation for the product.

33

Bringing Energy Efficiency to High Performance Computing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bringing Energy Efficiency to High Performance Computing Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Jaguar Supercomputer William Tschudi September 2013 The ability of high performance...

34

Al 2 TiO 5 Ceramics for New Diesel Particulate Filter and High ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... thermal durability, high filtration efficiency, low pressure drop-, and adequate ... In particular, DPF ideally combine low thermal expansion, low pressure drop ...

35

High-Efficiency Neutron Detection and Spectroscopy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... are also working on a large volume detector to use in the underground environment where high efficiency is more important that energy resolution. ...

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

36

High-Efficiency Neutron Detection and Spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-Efficiency Neutron Detection and Spectroscopy. ... such as searches for WIMP dark matter, neutrinoless double beta decay, and solar neutrinos. ...

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

37

Efficient high density train operations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference. During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

Gordon, Susanna P. (Oakland, CA); Evans, John A. (Hayward, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

High Efficiency New Metallurgical Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... The alumina leaching rate of calcium aluminate in residue is over 80%. .... Different types of plasma torches including a high power steam plasma torch ... for about 50% of the total NOX emissions in the iron and steel industry.

39

Multicolor, High Efficiency, Nanotextured LEDs  

SciTech Connect

We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and green for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the duration of the contract period include (i) heteroepitaxy of nitrogen-polar LEDs on sapphire, (ii) heteroepitaxy of semipolar (11{bar 2}2) green LEDs on sapphire, (iii) synthesis of quantum-dot loaded nanoporous GaN that emits white light without phosphor conversion, (iv) demonstration of the highest quality semipolar (11{bar 2}2) GaN on sapphire using orientation-controlled epitaxy, (v) synthesis of nanoscale GaN and InGaN medium, and (vi) development of a novel liftoff process for manufacturing GaN thin-film vertical LEDs. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

Jung Han; Arto Nurmikko

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

40

NETL: Control Technology: Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Under DOE-NETL sponsorship, the University of North Dakota, Energy and Environmental Research Center (UND-EERC) has developed a new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). In addition to DOE and the EERC, the project team includes W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc., and the Otter Tail Power Company. The AHPC utilizes both electrostatic collection and filtration in a unique geometric configuration that achieves ultrahigh particle collection with much less collection area than conventional particulate control devices. The primary technologies for state-of-the-art particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A major limitation of ESPs is that the fractional penetration of 0.1- to 1.0-µm particles is typically at least an order of magnitude greater than for 10-µm particles, so a situation exists where the particles that are of greatest health concern are collected with the lowest efficiency. Fabric filters are currently considered to be the best available control technology for fine particles, but emissions are dependent on ash properties and typically increase if the air-to-cloth (A/C) ratio is increased. In addition, many fabrics cannot withstand the rigors of high-SO2 flue gases, which are typical for bituminous fuels. Fabric filters may also have problems with bag cleanability and high pressure drop, which has resulted in conservatively designed, large, costly baghouses.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high efficiency particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

Brand, L.; Rose, W.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

Miller, S.J.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

High-efficiency silicon concentrator cell commercialization  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the first phase of a forty-one month program to develop a commercial, high-efficiency concentrator solar cell and facility for manufacturing it. The period covered is November 1, 1990 to December 31, 1991. This is a joint program between the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Sandia National Laboratories. (This report is also published by EPRI as EPRI report number TR-102035.) During the first year of the program, SunPower accomplished the following major objectives: (1) a new solar cell fabrication facility, which is called the Cell Pilot Line (CPL), (2) a baseline concentrator cell process has been developed, and (3) a cell testing facility has been completed. Initial cell efficiencies are about 23% for the baseline process. The long-range goal is to improve this efficiency to 27%.

Sinton, R.A.; Swanson, R.M. [SunPower Corp., Sunnyvale, CA (US)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Building Technologies Office: Highly Energy Efficient Wall Systems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Highly Energy Efficient Wall Systems Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Highly Energy Efficient Wall Systems Research Project on Facebook...

46

Vehicle Technologies Office: Materials for High Efficiency Combustion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Efficiency Combustion Engines to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Materials for High Efficiency Combustion Engines on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle...

47

Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Case study...

48

High efficiency inverter and ballast circuits  

SciTech Connect

A high efficiency push-pull inverter circuit employing a pair of relatively high power switching transistors is described. The switching on and off of the transistors is precisely controlled to minimize power losses due to common-mode conduction or due to transient conditions that occur in the process of turning a transistor on or off. Two current feed-back transformers are employed in the transistor base drives; one being saturable for providing a positive feedback, and the other being non-saturable for providing a subtractive feedback.

Nilssen, O.K.

1984-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

49

Multi-band high efficiency power amplifier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Baseline) Output Power (Transformer) Drain Efficiency (Performance Frequency (GHz) Output Power (Transformer) DrainEfficiency (Transformer) Output Power (Baseline) Drain

Besprozvanny, Randy-Alexander Randolph

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Building Technologies Office: High Efficiency, Low Emission Supermarket  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Efficiency, Low High Efficiency, Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: High Efficiency, Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: High Efficiency, Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: High Efficiency, Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: High Efficiency, Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: High Efficiency, Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: High

51

Highly Efficient Silicon Light Emitting Diode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we describe the fabrication, using standard silicon processing techniques, of silicon light-emitting diodes (LED) that efficiently emit photons with energy around the silicon bandgap. The improved efficiency had been explained by the spatial confinement of charge carriers due to a local strain field that is formed by dislocation loop arrays. The dependence of device electroluminescent properties on the annealing conditions is carefully examined as a high temperature process has profound influence on these dislocations. Increased luminescent intensity at higher device temperature, together with pure diffusion current conduction mechanism evidently shows the influence of the dislocation loops. The electrical properties of the diode are reasonable with low leakage reverse current.

Leminh Holleman Wallinga; P. Leminh; J. Holleman; H. Wallinga

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Case study describes an outline of energy efficiency opportunities in federal high performance computing data centers.

53

Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Summary report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

High efficiency compressor uses direct drive  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article focuses on the high efficiency of a compressor which uses only direct drive. This compressor was evaluated by judges and won Top Honors in the 1982 Chemical Processing magazine Vaaler Awards category of compressors, blowers and fans. Applications for the compressor include combustion air, process air and gas booster, incineration, fermentation, and vacuum filtration systems. In addition to a 50% reduction in power comsumption, the use of the compressor eliminated the need for a water seal, thus saving 200 gpm of water. And, since the elimination of the water seal reduced the necessary downtime for seal maintenance, on stream time was increased by 5%.

Not Available

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

High-efficiency concentrator silicon solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results from extensive process development in high-efficiency Si solar cells. An advanced design for a 1.56-cm{sup 2} cell with front grids achieved 26% efficiency at 90 suns. This is especially significant since this cell does not require a prismatic cover glass. New designs for simplified backside-contact solar cells were advanced from a status of near-nonfunctionality to demonstrated 21--22% for one-sun cells in sizes up to 37.5 cm{sup 2}. An efficiency of 26% was achieved for similar 0.64-cm{sup 2} concentrator cells at 150 suns. More fundamental work on dopant-diffused regions is also presented here. The recombination vs. various process and physical parameters was studied in detail for boron and phosphorous diffusions. Emitter-design studies based solidly upon these new data indicate the performance vs design parameters for a variety of the cases of most interest to solar cell designers. Extractions of p-type bandgap narrowing and the surface recombination for p- and n-type regions from these studies have a generality that extends beyond solar cells into basic device modeling. 68 refs., 50 figs.

Sinton, R.A.; Cuevas, A.; King, R.R.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Solid-State Electronics Lab.)

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown. In 2003, a large area, OLED based illumination source was demonstrated that could provide light with a quality, quantity, and efficiency on par with what can be achieved with traditional light sources. The demonstration source was made by tiling together 16 separate 6-inch x 6-inch blue-emitting OLEDs. The efficiency, total lumen output, and lifetime of the OLED based illumination source were the same as what would be achieved with an 80 watt incandescent bulb. The devices had an average efficacy of 15 LPW and used solution-processed OLEDs. The individual 6-inch x 6-inch devices incorporated three technology strategies developed specifically for OLED lighting -- downconversion for white light generation, scattering for outcoupling efficiency enhancement, and a scalable monolithic series architecture to enable large area devices. The downconversion approach consists of optically coupling a blue-emitting OLED to a set of luminescent layers. The layers are chosen to absorb the blue OLED emission and then luminescence with high efficiency at longer wavelengths. The composition and number of layers are chosen so that the unabsorbed blue emission and the longer wavelength re-emission combine to make white light. A downconversion approach has the advantage of allowing a wide variety of colors to be made from a limited set of blue emitters. In addition, one does not have to carefully tune the emission wavelength of the individual electro-luminescent species within the OLED device in order to achieve white light. The downconversion architecture used to develop the 15LPW large area light source consisted of a polymer-based blue-emitting OLED and three downconversion layers. Two of the layers utilized perylene based dyes from BASF AG of Germany with high quantum efficiency (>98%) and one of the layers consisted of inorganic phosphor particles (Y(Gd)AG:Ce) with a quantum efficiency of {approx}85%. By independently varying the optical density of the downconversion layers, the overall emission spectrum could be adjusted to maximize performance for lighting (e.g. blackbody temp

Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

58

White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

WHITE LED WITH HIGH PACKAGE WHITE LED WITH HIGH PACKAGE EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY Final Report Report Period Start Date: 10/01/2006 Report Period End Date: 09/30/2008 Authors: Yi Zheng and Matthew Stough Report Submission Date: November 2008 DOE Award Number: DE-FC26-06NT42935 Project Manager: Ryan Egidi OSRAM SYLVANIA Product Inc Central Research and Service Laboratory 71 Cherry Hill Dr., Beverly, MA 01915 2 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor an agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus,

59

Novel Nanophosphors for High Efficiency Fluorescent Lamps  

SciTech Connect

This is the Final Report of the Novel Nanophosphors for High Efficiency Fluorescent Lamps, Department of Energy (DOE). The overall goal of this three-year program is to develop novel hybrid phosphors by coating commercially available lamp phosphors with highly stable wide band-gap nanocrystalline phosphors (NCP). The prime technical approach is the development of NCP quantum-splitting phosphor (QSP) and ultra-violet (UV) emitting phosphors with quantum efficiencies exceeding that of the conventional phosphors at 185 nm. The novel hybrid phosphors will increase the efficiency of the fluorescent lamps by up to 32%, enabling total energy savings of 0.26 quads, the reduction in the U.S. energy bill by $6.5 billion and the reduction of the annual carbon emission by 4.1 billion kilogram. Our work started by investigating through modeling calculations the requirement for the particle size of the NCP. Our work to develop suitable nanocrystalline phosphors started with the known oxide quantum splitting and UV emitting phosphors. We demonstrated several synthesis techniques for the production of high quality nanocrystalline materials that crystallizes in the desired phase and with the desired particle size. In collaboration with our subcontractor we demonstrated the feasibility for the manufacture of NC phosphors. We also demonstrated novel techniques of coating the NCP on the surface of micron sized phosphors. Our chief achievement pertains to the successful testing of the coated hybrid phosphor systems in linear fluorescent lamps. In linear fluorescent lamp tests, we have demonstrated up to 7% increase in the efficacy of hybrid phosphors over the conventional (uncoated) phosphors. We have also demonstrated the improvement in the lumen maintenance of the coated phosphors. A hybrid phosphor system based on the commercial red emitting phosphor, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} did not show the anticipated improvement in lamp efficacy. We explored the reasons for this observation, which are detailed in this report. Within the program we have carried out fundamental investigations into the physical processes that determine the quantum splitting behavior of the Pr{sup 3+} ion in solids. Specifically, we have investigated the quantum splitting luminescence of this ion in the LaPO{sub 4}, SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} and LiLaP{sub 4}O{sub 12} host lattices. In this final report we summarize the technical work completed under the Program, summarize our findings about the performance limits of the various technologies we investigated, and outline promising paths for future work.

Alok Srivatava

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

60

Improving Real World Efficiency of High Performance Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improving Real World Efficiency of High Performance Buildings Buildings End-Use Energy Efficiency Research www.energy.ca.gov/research/buildings February 2012 The Issue Highperformance buildings efficiency in highperformance buildings, however, are not always realized in practice. Addressing

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high efficiency particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Highly Efficient Modeling of Dynamic Coronal Loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observational and theoretical evidence suggests that coronal heating is impulsive and occurs on very small cross-field spatial scales. A single coronal loop could contain a hundred or more individual strands that are heated quasi-independently by nanoflares. It is therefore an enormous undertaking to model an entire active region or the global corona. Three-dimensional MHD codes have inadequate spatial resolution, and 1D hydro codes are too slow to simulate the many thousands of elemental strands that must be treated in a reasonable representation. Fortunately, thermal conduction and flows tend to smooth out plasma gradients along the magnetic field, so "0D models" are an acceptable alternative. We have developed a highly efficient model called Enthalpy-Based Thermal Evolution of Loops (EBTEL) that accurately describes the evolution of the average temperature, pressure, and density along a coronal strand. It improves significantly upon earlier models of this type--in accuracy, flexibility, and capability. It ...

Klimchuk, J A; Cargill, P J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

High efficiency Brayton cycles using LNG  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A modified, closed-loop Brayton cycle power conversion system that uses liquefied natural gas as the cold heat sink media. When combined with a helium gas cooled nuclear reactor, achievable efficiency can approach 68 76% (as compared to 35% for conventional steam cycle power cooled by air or water). A superheater heat exchanger can be used to exchange heat from a side-stream of hot helium gas split-off from the primary helium coolant loop to post-heat vaporized natural gas exiting from low and high-pressure coolers. The superheater raises the exit temperature of the natural gas to close to room temperature, which makes the gas more attractive to sell on the open market. An additional benefit is significantly reduced costs of a LNG revaporization plant, since the nuclear reactor provides the heat for vaporization instead of burning a portion of the LNG to provide the heat.

Morrow, Charles W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

63

White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die and phosphor layer to recover inward yellow emission. At the end of the project we expect to recycle approximately 50% of the unrecovered backward light in current package construction, and develop a pcLED device with 80 lm/W{sub e} using our technology improvements and commercially available chip/package source. The success of the project will benefit luminous efficacy of white LEDs by increasing package extraction efficiency. In most phosphor-converting white LEDs, the white color is obtained by combining a blue LED die (or chip) with a powdered phosphor layer. The phosphor partially absorbs the blue light from the LED die and converts it into a broad green-yellow emission. The mixture of the transmitted blue light and green-yellow light emerging gives white light. There are two major drawbacks for current pcLEDs in terms of package extraction efficiency. The first is light scattering caused by phosphor particles. When the blue photons from the chip strike the phosphor particles, some blue light will be scattered by phosphor particles. Converted yellow emission photons are also scattered. A portion of scattered light is in the backward direction toward the die. The amount of this backward light varies and depends in part on the particle size of phosphors. The other drawback is that yellow emission from phosphor powders is isotropic. Although some backward light can be recovered by the reflector in current LED packages, there is still a portion of backward light that will be absorbed inside the package and further converted to heat. Heat generated in the package may cause a deterioration of encapsulant materials, affecting the performance of both the LED die and phosphor, leading to a decrease in the luminous efficacy over lifetime. Recent studies from research groups at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute found that, under the condition to obtain a white light, about 40% of the light is transmitted outward of the phosphor layer and 60% of the light is reflected inward.1,2 It is claimed that using scattered photon extraction (SPE) technique, luminous efficacy is increased by 60%. In this project, a transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor was used to replace the powdered phosphor layer. In the normal pcLED package, the powdered phosphor is mixed with silicone either to be deposited on the top of LED die forming a chip level conversion (CLC) white LED or to be casted in the package forming a volume conversion white LED. In the monolithic phosphors there are no phosphor powder/silicone interfaces so it can reduce the light scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is inserted in the white LED package between the blue LED die and phosphor layer. It will selectively transmit the blue light from the LED die and reflect the phosphor's yellow inward emission outward. The two technologies try to recover backward light to the outward direction in the pcLED package thereby improving the package extraction efficiency.

Yi Zheng; Matthew Stough

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

64

Highly Efficient Modeling of Dynamic Coronal Loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observational and theoretical evidence suggests that coronal heating is impulsive and occurs on very small cross-field spatial scales. A single coronal loop could contain a hundred or more individual strands that are heated quasi-independently by nanoflares. It is therefore an enormous undertaking to model an entire active region or the global corona. Three-dimensional MHD codes have inadequate spatial resolution, and 1D hydro codes are too slow to simulate the many thousands of elemental strands that must be treated in a reasonable representation. Fortunately, thermal conduction and flows tend to smooth out plasma gradients along the magnetic field, so "0D models" are an acceptable alternative. We have developed a highly efficient model called Enthalpy-Based Thermal Evolution of Loops (EBTEL) that accurately describes the evolution of the average temperature, pressure, and density along a coronal strand. It improves significantly upon earlier models of this type--in accuracy, flexibility, and capability. It treats both slowly varying and highly impulsive coronal heating; it provides the differential emission measure distribution, DEM(T), at the transition region footpoints; and there are options for heat flux saturation and nonthermal electron beam heating. EBTEL gives excellent agreement with far more sophisticated 1D hydro simulations despite using four orders of magnitude less computing time. It promises to be a powerful new tool for solar and stellar studies.

J. A. Klimchuk; S. Patsourakos; P. J. Cargill

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

High efficiency photodetection below the quantum noise limit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two low-noise, high quantum efficiency, high bandwidth photodetectors have constructed to form a balanced homodyne detector to detect squeezed light. The detectors have quantum efficiencies of 85% and 90%, a bandwidth of ...

Bullard, Elizabeth Caryn

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

High Efficiency Organic Light Emitting Devices for Lighting  

SciTech Connect

Incorporate internal scattering layers and microlens arrays in high efficiency OLED to achieve up to 70% EQE.

So, Franky; Tansu, Nelson; Gilchrist, James

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

67

High Efficiency Electrical Energy Storage Using Reversible Solid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Storage III: Materials, Systems and Applications Symposium. Presentation Title, High Efficiency Electrical Energy Storage Using Reversible ...

68

High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into high efficiency, low emission supermarket refrigeration technologies.

69

Highly Efficient Multigap Solar Cell Materials  

Scientists at Berkeley Lab have invented multiband gap semiconducting materials for developing solar cells that could achieve power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent or higher.

70

High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The direct gap of the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N alloy system extends continuously from InN (0.7 eV, in the near IR) to GaN (3.4 eV, in the mid-ultraviolet). This opens the intriguing possibility of using this single ternary alloy system in single or multi-junction (MJ) solar cells of the type used for space-based surveillance satellites. To evaluate the suitability of In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N as a material for space applications, high quality thin films were grown with molecular beam epitaxy and extensive damage testing with electron, proton, and alpha particle radiation was performed. Using the room temperature photoluminescence intensity as a indirect measure of minority carrier lifetime, it is shown that In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N retains its optoelectronic properties at radiation damage doses at least 2 orders of magnitude higher than the damage thresholds of the materials (GaAs and GaInP) currently used in high efficiency MJ cells. This indicates that the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N is well-suited for the future development of ultra radiation-hard optoelectronics. Critical issues affecting development of solar cells using this material system were addressed. The presence of an electron-rich surface layer in InN and In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N (0 < x < 0.63) was investigated; it was shown that this is a less significant effect at large x. Evidence of p-type activity below the surface in Mg-doped InN was obtained; this is a significant step toward achieving photovoltaic action and, ultimately, a solar cell using this material.

Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

2004-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

71

New and Underutilized Technology: Efficient High Bay Fluorescent Lighting |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Efficient High Bay Fluorescent Efficient High Bay Fluorescent Lighting New and Underutilized Technology: Efficient High Bay Fluorescent Lighting October 7, 2013 - 8:54am Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for efficient high bay fluorescent lighting within the Federal sector. Benefits Efficient high bay fluorescent lighting can include either T5 or T8 fluorescent lighting systems for high-bay applications currently using metal halide fixtures. Fluorescent fixtures offer better light distribution, better light maintenance over the life of the lamp, improved color quality, and on-off control (re-strike time) with lower energy consumption. Application Efficient high bay fluorescent lighting is applicable for facilities containing high bay areas. Key Factors for Deployment

72

High efficiency pulse motor drive for robotic propulsion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of this research is to improve the power efficiency of robotic locomotion through the use of series elastic actuation, with a focus on swimming motion. To achieve high efficiency, electromechanical drives need to ...

Sun, Zhen, M.S. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Techniques for high-efficiency outphasing power amplifiers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A trade-off between linearity and efficiency exists in conventional power amplifiers (PAs). The outphase amplifying concept overcomes this trade-off by enabling the use of high efficiency, non-linear power amplifiers for ...

Godoy, Philip (Philip Andrew)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Design of high efficiency Mid IR QCL lasers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The proposed research is a study of designing high-efficiency Mid-IR quantum cascade lasers (QCL). This thesis explores "injector-less" designs for achieving lower voltage defects and improving wall plug efficiencies through ...

Hsu, Allen Long

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

process efficiency (UoK, GA) · Estimate the size and cost of the process equipment (All) #12;s NERI H2 6 cycle analysis (SNL) · Develop detailed chemical flowsheet for selected process and determine projected UT-3 process is conceptually simple. . . l Invented at Univ. of Tokyo, being pursued in Japan, SI

77

Lessons learned from a review of post-accident sampling systems, high range effluent monitors and high concentration particulate iodine samplers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Post-accident sampling systems (PASS), high range gaseous effluent monitors and sampling systems for particulates and iodine in high concentrations have been reviewed at twenty-one licensee sites in Region I of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission which includes fifteen BWR's and fourteen PWR's. Although most of the installed PASS met the criteria, the highest operational readiness was found in on-line systems that were also used for routine sampling and analysis. The detectors used in the gaseous effluent monitors included external ion chambers, GM tubes, organic scintillators and Cd-Te solid state crystals. Although all were found acceptable, each had its own inherent limitations in the conversion of detector output to the time varying concentration of a post-accident mixture of noble gases. None of the installed particulate and iodine samplers fully met all of the criteria. Their principal limitations included a lack of documentation showing that they could obtain a representative sample and that many of them would collect of an excessive amount of activity at the design criteria. 10 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Hull, A.P.; Knox, W.H.; White, J.R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into high efficiency, low emission supermarket refrigeration technologies. Project Description The project involves the development of a supermarket refrigeration system that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption when compared to existing systems. The challenge is to design a system that is capable of achieving low refrigerant leak rates while significantly reducing both the energy consumption and the refrigerant charge size. Project Partners Research is being undertaken between DOE and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Project Goals

80

High-Efficiency Photovoltaics at Thin Film Costs  

Time (Years) 0-+ 5. 10. 15. 20. 25. Opportunity. Technology. ... • 15 years renewable energy business development ... High-Efficiency Photovoltaics at ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high efficiency particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Available Technologies: High Efficiency Spiral RF-Induction ...  

The spiral antennas efficient use of source geometry also ... Neutron and high energy gamma ... A typical RF-induction plasma generator with a ...

82

Titania Coated Silica Microspheres for High Efficiency Dye ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These microspheres, if used in DSSCs, can boost the efficiency of solar cell ... In- situ Characterization of Intercalation-induced Damage of High Purity Graphite ...

83

Energy Efficiency in Mineral Processing Industry Using High ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Energy Efficiency in Mineral Processing Industry Using High ... These studies were prepared by Tetra Tech on eight different projects at ...

84

Low Cost, High Efficiency Tandem Silicon Solar Cells and LEDs  

Wladek Walukiewicz, Joel Ager, and Kin Man Yu of Berkeley Lab have developed high-efficiency solar cells that leverage the well-established design and ...

85

Complex Oxides for Highly Efficient Solid-State Energy ...  

Complex Oxides for Highly Efficient Solid-State Energy ... Using complex oxides to directly convert thermal to electrical energy is both ... Thermal P ...

86

Available Technologies: High Quantum Efficiency Charge-Coupled ...  

Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a p-channel CCD with high quantum efficiency in the blue and near infrared wavelengths by combining a ...

87

Candidate Alloys for Cost-Effective, High-Efficiency, High ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

the efficiency of heat exchange in these fuel cells require both development and careful ..... 3rd EPRI Conference on Advances in Materials Technology for Fossil.

88

"Tuning" microalgae for high photosynthesis efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Tuning" Microalgae For High Photosynthesis Efficiency "Tuning" Microalgae For High Photosynthesis Efficiency "Tuning" microalgae for high photosynthesis efficiency Los Alamos scientist Richard Sayre and his team of researchers have recently developed more efficient microalgae. March 25, 2013 Shown here is a model for light absorption and use by algae as a function of antenna size. Shown here is a model for light absorption and use by algae as a function of antenna size. The team's work in this area is reported in a paper published in the journal Algal Research. Los Alamos scientist Richard Sayre of Bioenergy and Biome Sciences (B-11) and his team of researchers have recently developed more efficient microalgae. Microalgae have large rates of biomass accumulation due to their high photosynthetic efficiencies. This makes them attractive candidates for

89

"Tuning" microalgae for high photosynthesis efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Tuning" Microalgae For High Photosynthesis Efficiency "Tuning" Microalgae For High Photosynthesis Efficiency "Tuning" microalgae for high photosynthesis efficiency Los Alamos scientist Richard Sayre and his team of researchers have recently developed more efficient microalgae. March 25, 2013 Shown here is a model for light absorption and use by algae as a function of antenna size. Shown here is a model for light absorption and use by algae as a function of antenna size. The team's work in this area is reported in a paper published in the journal Algal Research. Los Alamos scientist Richard Sayre of Bioenergy and Biome Sciences (B-11) and his team of researchers have recently developed more efficient microalgae. Microalgae have large rates of biomass accumulation due to their high photosynthetic efficiencies. This makes them attractive candidates for

90

Catalytic fabric filtration for simultaneous NO{sub x} and particulate control. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the project proposed was to evaluate the catalyst-coated fabric filter concept for effective control of NO{sub 2} and particulate emissions simultaneously. General goals included demonstrating high removal efficiency of NO{sub x} and particulate matter, acceptable bag and catalyst life, and that process economics show a significant cost savings in comparison to a commercial SCR process and conventional particulate control. Specific goals included the following: reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 60 ppM or less; demonstrate particulate removal efficiency of >99.5%; demonstrate a bag/catalyst life of >1 year; Control ammonia slip to <25 ppM; show that catalytic fabric filtration can achieve a 50% cost savings over conventional fabric filtration and SCR control technology; determine compatibility with S0{sub 2} removal systems; and show that the concept results in a nonhazardous waste product.

Weber, G.F.; Dunham, G.E.; Laudal, D.L.; Ness, S.R.; Schelkoph, G.L.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

New ESP additive controls particulates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article reports that a conditioning agent enhanced precipitator performance after plant switched to low-sulfur coal. Firing low-sulfur coal at a power plant designed for medium- or high-sulfur coal will impact the downstream particulate control device. Since the performance of an electro-static precipitator (ESP) is a strong function of the sulfur content in the coal, switching to a low-sulfur coal will severely impact collection efficiency. Particle resistivity is the dominant parameter affecting the performance of an ESP. When the resistivity is too high, the ESP must be increased in size by a factor of two to three, resulting in proportionally increased capital and operating costs. Fly ash from low-sulfur coal is known to have a typical resistivity one or two orders of magnitude above that for ideal collection efficiency in a well-designed ESP. Therefore, when a utility burning a medium- or high-sulfur coal switches to a low-sulfur coal, the increase in particle resistivity resulting from the reduced SO{sub 3} concentration will lead to severe problems in the ESP. There have been many instances where utilities have switched from a high- to a low-sulfur coal, and the problems caused by the increased resistivity have had such a devastating effect on the performance of the ESP that emissions have increased by a factor of 10.

Durham, M.D.; Baldrey, K.E.; Bustard, C.J.; Martin, C.E.; Dharmarajan, N.N.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Spray nozzle pattern test for the DWPF HEME task technical plan. [Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), High-Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME)  

SciTech Connect

The DWPF melter off-gas systems have two High-Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME) upstream of the High-Efficiency Particulates Air filters (HEPA) to remove fine droplets and particulates from the off-gas. The HEMEs consist of three filter candles. Each filter candle consists of a 0.5 inch layer of 30 micron diameter glass fiber on the upstream face followed by a 2.5 inch layer of 8-micron-diameter glass fiber packed at 11 lbs per cubic foot. The coarse 30-micron filter serves as a prefilter and extends the life of the HEME filter. To have an acceptable fitter life and an efficient HEMIE operation, air atomized water is sprayed into the off-gas stream entering the 14EME and onto the HEMEE surface. The water spray keeps the HEME wet which would dissolve the soluble particulates and enhance the HEME efficiency. A properly designed spray nozzle should wet the three candies of the HEME filter completely.

Lee, L.

1991-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

Compact and highly efficient laser pump cavity  

SciTech Connect

A new, compact, side-pumped laser pump cavity design which uses non-conventional optics for injection of laser-diode light into a laser pump chamber includes a plurality of elongated light concentration channels. In one embodiment, the light concentration channels are compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) which have very small exit apertures so that light will not escape from the pumping chamber and will be multiply reflected through the laser rod. This new design effectively traps the pump radiation inside the pump chamber that encloses the laser rod. It enables more uniform laser pumping and highly effective recycle of pump radiation, leading to significantly improved laser performance. This new design also effectively widens the acceptable radiation wavelength of the diodes, resulting in a more reliable laser performance with lower cost.

Chang, Jim J. (Dublin, CA); Bass, Isaac L. (Castro Valley, CA); Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Compact and highly efficient laser pump cavity  

SciTech Connect

A new, compact, side-pumped laser pump cavity design which uses non-conventional optics for injection of laser-diode light into a laser pump chamber includes a plurality of elongated light concentration channels. In one embodiment, the light concentration channels are compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) which have very small exit apertures so that light will not escape from the pumping chamber and will be multiply reflected through the laser rod. This new design effectively traps the pump radiation inside the pump chamber that encloses the laser rod. It enables more uniform laser pumping and highly effective recycle of pump radiation, leading to significantly improved laser performance. This new design also effectively widens the acceptable radiation wavelength of the diodes, resulting in a more reliable laser performance with lower cost.

Chang, J.J.; Bass, I.L.; Zapata, L.E.

1999-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

95

Highly Energy Efficient Wall Systems Research Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Highly Energy Efficient Wall Systems Highly Energy Efficient Wall Systems Research Project Highly Energy Efficient Wall Systems Research Project The Department of Energy is currently conducting research into highly energy efficient wall systems. Walls with high R-values are better insulators, and their development can help buildings come closer to having zero net energy consumption. Project Description This project seeks to develop a commercially viable wall system up to R-40 through integration of vacuum technology with the exterior insulated façade system (EIFS). Dow Corning will develop a wall system configuration of expanded polystyrene vacuum isolation panels that can be specified for R-values of 20, 30, and 40. This project also aims to develop a unitized protection system of vacuum isolation panels and to validate current code

96

Department of Energy Lauds Highly Efficient Industrial Technology |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Department of Energy Lauds Highly Efficient Industrial Technology Department of Energy Lauds Highly Efficient Industrial Technology Department of Energy Lauds Highly Efficient Industrial Technology November 30, 2007 - 4:45pm Addthis DOE Celebrates One-Year Anniversary of Operation of the Energy Efficient "Super Boiler" WASHINGTON, DC - Representing important technology transfer from Department of Energy (DOE) labs to the marketplace, DOE today announced the successful one-year operation of the first generation "Super Boiler," which can deliver 94 percent thermal efficiency, while producing fewer emissions than conventional boiler technologies. By 2020, this technology could save more than 185 trillion British Thermal Units (Btus) of energy - equivalent to the natural gas consumed by more than two million households. The

97

Department of Energy Lauds Highly Efficient Industrial Technology |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lauds Highly Efficient Industrial Technology Lauds Highly Efficient Industrial Technology Department of Energy Lauds Highly Efficient Industrial Technology November 30, 2007 - 4:45pm Addthis DOE Celebrates One-Year Anniversary of Operation of the Energy Efficient "Super Boiler" WASHINGTON, DC - Representing important technology transfer from Department of Energy (DOE) labs to the marketplace, DOE today announced the successful one-year operation of the first generation "Super Boiler," which can deliver 94 percent thermal efficiency, while producing fewer emissions than conventional boiler technologies. By 2020, this technology could save more than 185 trillion British Thermal Units (Btus) of energy - equivalent to the natural gas consumed by more than two million households. The

98

Energy Efficiency Indicators for High Electric-Load Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency Indicators for High Electric-Load Buildings Energy Efficiency Indicators for High Electric-Load Buildings Speaker(s): Bernard Aebischer Date: February 6, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Kristina LaCommare Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indictor for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed. Prerequisites in order to be able to use these indicators in energy efficiency programmes are discussed. The opportunity of an internationally coordinated research activity is also presented. Since 1999, Dr. Bernard Aebischer has served as a senior scientist at CEPE (Centre for Energy Policy and Economics) of the Swiss Federal Institutes of

99

Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with two-phase forced convection Title Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with two-phase forced convection Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Ho, Tony, Samuel S. Mao, and Ralph Greif Journal International Journal of Energy Research Volume 34 Start Page 1257 Issue 14 Pagination 1257-1271 Date Published 11/2010 Keywords high-concentrator photovoltaic efficiency, two-phase flow cooling applications Abstract The potential of increasing high-concentrator photovoltaic cell efficiency by cooling with two-phase flow is analyzed. The governing energy equations were used to predict cell temperature distributions and cell efficiencies for a photovoltaic cell under 100 suns' concentration. Several design conditions were taken into consideration in the analysis, including cooling channel height, working fluid type (between water and R134a), working fluid inlet temperature, pressure, and mass flow rate. It was observed that the dominant parameter for increasing cell efficiency was the working fluid saturation temperature, which itself is affected by a number of the aforementioned design parameters. The results show R134a at low inlet pressures to be highly effective in this two-phase cooling design.

100

Feasibility of the detection of trace elements in particulate matter using online High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of using an online thermal-desorption electron-ionization high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) for the detection of particulate trace elements was investigated analyzing data from Mexico City obtained during the MILAGRO 2006 field campaign, where relatively high concentrations of trace elements have been reported. This potential application is of interest due to the real-time data provided by the AMS, its high sensitivity and time resolution, and the widespread availability and use of this instrument. High resolution mass spectral analysis, isotopic ratios, and ratios of different ions containing the same elements are used to constrain the chemical identity of the measured ions. The detection of Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sn, and Sb is reported. There was no convincing evidence for the detection of other trace elements commonly reported in PM. The elements detected tend to be those with lower melting and boiling points, as expected given the use of a vaporizer at 600oC in this instrument. Operation of the AMS vaporizer at higher temperatures is likely to improve trace element detection. The detection limit is estimated at approximately 0.3 ng m-3 for 5-min of data averaging. Concentration time series obtained from the AMS data were compared to concentration records determined from offline analysis of particle samples from the same times and locations by ICP (PM2.5) and PIXE (PM1.1 and PM0.3). The degree of correlation and agreement between the three instruments (AMS, ICP, and PIXE) varied depending on the element. The AMS shows promise for real-time detection of some trace elements, although additional work including laboratory calibrations with different chemical forms of these elements are needed to further develop this technique and to understand the differences with the ambient data from the other techniques. The trace elements peaked in the morning as expected for primary sources, and the many detected plumes suggest the presence of multiple point sources, probably industrial, in Mexico City which are variable in time and space, in agreement with previous studies.

Salcedo, D.; Laskin, Alexander; Shutthanandan, V.; Jimenez, Jose L.

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high efficiency particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Energy Efficiency Indicators for High Electric-Load Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency Indicators for High Electric-Load Buildings Speaker(s): Bernard Aebischer Date: February 6, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar HostPoint of Contact:...

102

Conversion efficiency, scaling and global optimization of high harmonic generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Closed form expressions for the high harmonic generation (HHG) conversion efficiency in the plateau and cut-off region are derived showing agreement with previous observations. Application of these results to optimal ...

Falcao-Filho, Edilson L.

103

III-V High-Efficiency Multijunction Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Capabilities fact sheet that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for III-V High-Efficiency Multijunction Photovoltaics at the National Center for Photovoltaics.

Not Available

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Durable and Highly Efficient Energy-harvesting Electrochromic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The resulting device performed three states: solar cell, transparent, and dark, and ... Anatase Nanostructures for High Efficiency Photocatalysis Application ... EBSD Study of Electromigration Damage in Idealized SnAgCu 305 Interconnects.

105

City of High Point Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The City of High Point offers the Hometown Green Program to help customers reduce energy use. Under this program, rebates are available for newly constructed energy efficient homes, heat pumps, and...

106

Highly efficient blue polyfluorene-based polymer light-emitting...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Physics Volume 42 Pagination 5 Abstract A highly efficient blue polymer light-emitting diode based on poly(9,9-di(2-(2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl)fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)...

107

NETL: News Release - Projects Selected to Study Coal Plant Particulate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5, 2004 5, 2004 Projects Selected to Study Coal Plant Particulate Matter, Human Health PITTSBURGH, PA - The Department of Energy has selected three projects to help determine whether fine particulates emitted from coal-fired power plants affect human health, and which components of the particulates may be most problematic. Past studies have established that particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns in diameter from all sources does affect human health, but there is scant information to provide a link between PM2.5 emitted specifically from coal plants and cardiac or respiratory health problems in humans. PM2.5 refers to particles-invisible to the eye-no more than 1/30th of the width of a human hair Coal plants emit only small quantities of "primary" PM2.5 (e.g., fly ash) because all plants have high-efficiency particulate-collection devices. However, coal plants are responsible for a great deal of "secondary" PM2.5, which forms in the atmosphere from emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Data collected in the new studies will be used to help design standards reviews and to devise strategies for controlling power plant emissions of PM2.5, SO2, and NOx.

108

Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials |  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights Highlight Archives News & Events Publications Contact BES Home 04.27.12 Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Scientific Achievement A newly synthesized bulk thermoelectric material that contains nanocrystals with the same orientation and structure as the host material breaks thermoelectric efficiency records by blocking thermal, but not electrical, conductivity. Significance and Impact A new strategy to design inexpensive materials that more efficiently convert heat to electricity. Research Details Thermoelectric materials directly generate electrical power from heat, but

109

Laclede Gas Company - Residential High Efficiency Heating Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential High Efficiency Heating Rebate Residential High Efficiency Heating Rebate Program Laclede Gas Company - Residential High Efficiency Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Heating System: 2 maximum Programmable Thermostats: 2 maximum Multi-Family Property Owners: 50 thermostat rebates, 50 furnace rebates over the life of the program Program Info State Missouri Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Gas Furnace: $150 - $200 Gas Boiler: $150 Programmable Setback Thermostat: $25 Gas Water Heater: $50 - $200 Provider Laclede Gas Company Laclede Gas Company offers various rebates to residential customers for investing in energy efficient equipment and appliances. Residential

110

Principles of energy efficiency in high performance computing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Performance Computing (HPC) is a key technology for modern researchers enabling scientific advances through simulation where experiments are either technically impossible or financially not feasible to conduct and theory is not applicable. However, ... Keywords: HPC, PUE, energy efficiency, high performance computing, power usage effectiveness

Axel Auweter; Arndt Bode; Matthias Brehm; Herbert Huber; Dieter Kranzlmüller

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

High Efficiency Solar Power via Separated Photo and Voltaic Pathways  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project demonstrates a novel nanostructured solar cell architecture capable of achieving high efficiency levels that is relatively simple and inexpensive to manufacture. The high efficiency will be achieved by the novel structure that separates the path of the photons from the path of the generated charge carriers. In this way, the photon path can be long for maximum light absorption, while the path for carriers can be short for maximum electronic energy harvesting. The combination of maximum light absorption coupled with maximum carrier harvesting is the basis for the expected high efficiency. The project will develop high efficiency solar cell prototypes utilizing this unique nanostructured architecture. The project addresses the fundamental limitation inherent in all current solar cell designs, and which opens a pathway to development for high efficiency solar cells at low cost. Realizing this goal will result in a levelized cost of electricity in the range of 10¢/kWh, which would achieve the long-sought goal of making photovoltaic electricity cost competitive with fossil-fuel generated electricity without any governmental subsidies. This breakthrough would spur the already rapid growth in the photovoltaic industry to an explosive pace, with significant, widespread benefit to the national economy and the nation’s energy security. The initial target of the program is to develop single-junction solar cells using ultrathin amorphous silicon with the performance approaching that of single crystal silicon cells.

Michael J. Naughton

2009-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

112

High Efficiency Adsorption Chillers: High Efficiency Adsorption Cooling Using Metal Organic Heat Carriers  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: PNNL is incorporating significant improvements in materials that adsorb liquids or gases to design more efficient adsorption chillers. An adsorption chiller is a type of air conditioner that is powered by heat, solar or waste heat, or combustion of natural gas. Unlike typical chillers, this type has few moving parts and uses almost no electricity to operate. PNNL is designing adsorbent materials at the molecular level with at least 3 times higher refrigerant capacity and up to 20 times faster kinetics than adsorbents used in current chillers. By using the new adsorbent, PNNL is able to create a chiller that is significantly smaller, has twice the energy efficiency, and lower costs for materials and assembly time compared to conventional adsorption chillers.

None

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

A high-efficiency thermoelectric converter for space applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents a concept for using high-temperature superconducting materials in thermoelectric generators (SCTE) to produce electricity at conversion efficiencies approaching 50% of the Carrot efficiency. The SCTE generator is applicable to systems operating in temperature ranges of high-temperature superconducting materials and thus would be a low-grade converter. Operating in cryogenic temperature ranges provides the advantage of inherently increasing the limits of the Carrot efficiency. Potential applications are for systems operating in space where the ambient temperatures are in the cryogenic temperature range. The advantage of using high-temperature superconducting material in a thermoelectric converter is that it would significantly reduce or eliminate the Joule heating losses in a thermoelectric element. This paper investigates the system aspects and the material requirements of the SCTE converter concept, and presents a conceptual design and an application for a space power system.

Metzger, J.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); El-Genk, M.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inst. for Space Nuclear Power Studies

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

114

Southwest Gas Corporation - Commercial High-Efficiency Equipment Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Southwest Gas Corporation - Commercial High-Efficiency Equipment Southwest Gas Corporation - Commercial High-Efficiency Equipment Rebate Program Southwest Gas Corporation - Commercial High-Efficiency Equipment Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Other Appliances & Electronics Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Water Heating Maximum Rebate General: 50% of price Boiler Steam Trap: 25% of price Program Info State Arizona Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Modulating Burner Control: $10,000 Boiler O2 Trim Control Pad: $10,000 Boiler Steam Trap: $250 Non-condensing Boiler: $1/MBtuh Condensing Boiler: $1.25/MBtuh Storage Water Heater: 50% of cost, up to $1,100 Tankless Water Heater: 50% of cost, up to $450 Griddle: 50% of cost, up to $600 Fryer: 50% of cost, up to $1,350

115

Home Performance with Energy Star High Efficiency Measure Incentive (HEMI)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Home Performance with Energy Star High Efficiency Measure Incentive Home Performance with Energy Star High Efficiency Measure Incentive (HEMI) Home Performance with Energy Star High Efficiency Measure Incentive (HEMI) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Cooling Appliances & Electronics Sealing Your Home Ventilation Manufacturing Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate $3,000 Program Info State New York Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount 10% of project costs Provider New York State Energy Research and Development Authority The New York State Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) offers an incentive for homeowners of 1-4 homes that participate in the Home Performance with Energy Star program. The program entitles the participant

116

A high-efficiency thermoelectric converter for space applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents a concept for using high-temperature superconducting materials in thermoelectric generators (SCTE) to produce electricity at conversion efficiencies approaching 50% of the Carrot efficiency. The SCTE generator is applicable to systems operating in temperature ranges of high-temperature superconducting materials and thus would be a low-grade converter. Operating in cryogenic temperature ranges provides the advantage of inherently increasing the limits of the Carrot efficiency. Potential applications are for systems operating in space where the ambient temperatures are in the cryogenic temperature range. The advantage of using high-temperature superconducting material in a thermoelectric converter is that it would significantly reduce or eliminate the Joule heating losses in a thermoelectric element. This paper investigates the system aspects and the material requirements of the SCTE converter concept, and presents a conceptual design and an application for a space power system.

Metzger, J.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); El-Genk, M.S. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inst. for Space Nuclear Power Studies)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

High efficiency III-nitride light-emitting diodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Tailored doping of barrier layers enables balancing of the radiative recombination among the multiple-quantum-wells in III-Nitride light-emitting diodes. This tailored doping enables more symmetric carrier transport and uniform carrier distribution which help to reduce electron leakage and thus reduce the efficiency droop in high-power III-Nitride LEDs. Mitigation of the efficiency droop in III-Nitride LEDs may enable the pervasive market penetration of solid-state-lighting technologies in high-power lighting and illumination.

Crawford, Mary; Koleske, Daniel; Cho, Jaehee; Zhu, Di; Noemaun, Ahmed; Schubert, Martin F; Schubert, E. Fred

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

118

High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a triple cell showing 10.7% stable efficiency. Figure 4-1 Schematic diagram of the Hot Wire CVD deposition. Task 7: High-rate deposition of a-Si based solar cells We have conducted extensive research using a hot1 High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells PHASE I Annual

Deng, Xunming

119

Bandgap Engineering in High-Efficiency Multijunction Concentrator Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses semiconductor device research paths under investigation with the aim of reaching the milestone efficiency of 40%. A cost analysis shows that achieving very high cell efficiencies is crucial for the realization of cost-effective photovoltaics, because of the strongly leveraging effect of efficiency on module packaging and balance-of systems costs. Lattice-matched (LM) GaInP/ GaInAs/ Ge 3-junction cells have achieved the highest independently confirmed efficiency at 175 suns, 25?C, of 37.3% under the standard AM1.5D, low-AOD terrestrial spectrum. Lattice-mismatched, or metamorphic (MM), materials offer still higher potential efficiencies, if the crystal quality can be maintained. Theoretical efficiencies well over 50% are possible for a MM GaInP/ 1.17-eV GaInAs/ Ge 3-junction cell limited by radiative recombination at 500 suns. The bandgap - open circuit voltage offset, (Eg/q) - Voc, is used as a valuable theoretical and experimental tool to characterize multijunction cells with subcell bandgaps ranging from 0.7 to 2.1 eV. Experimental results are presented for prototype 6-junction cells employing an active {approx}1.1-eV dilute nitride GaInNAs subcell, with active-area efficiency greater than 23% and over 5.3 V open-circuit voltage under the 1-sun AM0 space spectrum. Such cell designs have theoretical efficiencies under the terrestrial spectrum at 500 suns concentration exceeding 55% efficiency, even for lattice-matched designs.

King, R. R.; Sherif, R. A.; Kinsey, G. S.; Kurtz, S.; Fetzer, C. M.; Edmondson, K. M.; Law, D. C.; Cotal, H. L.; Krut, D. D.; Ermer, J. H.; Karam, N. H.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

Mark Leavitt

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high efficiency particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Properties of High Efficiency CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present experimental results in three areas. Solar cells with an efficiency of 19% have been fabricated with an absorber bandgap in the range of 1.1-1.2 eV. Properties of solar cells fabricated with and without an undoped ZnO layer were compared. The data show that high efficiency cells can be fabricated without using the high-resistivity or undoped ZnO layer. Properties of CIGS solar cells were fabricated from thin absorbers (1 {micro}m) deposited by the three-stage process and simultaneous co-deposition of all the elements. In both cases, solar cells with efficiencies of 16%-17% are obtained.

Ramanathan, K.; Keane, J.; Noufi, R.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Desalination of seawater using a high-efficiency jet ejector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary focus of seawater desalination research. There are numerous methods to desalinate water, including reverse osmosis, multi-stage flash distillation, and multi-effect evaporation. These methods cost more than potable water produced from natural resources; hence an attempt is made in this research project to produce potable water using a modified high-efficiency jet ejector in vapor-compression distillation. The greater efficiency of the jet ejector is achieved by properly mixing propelled and motive streams. From experiments conducted using air, the pressure rise across the jet ejector is better in case of one or two mixing vanes and the highest back pressure (pinch valve closed 83.33%). At other pinch valve closings, the air velocity through the jet ejector was high, so the extra surface area from the mixing vanes caused excessive friction and lowered the efficiency.

Vishwanathappa, Manohar D.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Area-efficient high-throughput MAP decoder architectures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Iterative decoders such as turbo decoders have become integral components of modern broadband communication systems because of their ability to provide substantial coding gains. A key computational kernel in iterative decoders is the maximum a posteriori ... Keywords: area efficient, block-interleaved pipelining, high throughput, parallel processing, pipeline, symbol-based decoding, turbo decoder, turbo equalizer

Seok-Jun Lee; Naresh R. Shanbhag; Andrew C. Singer

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Motor voltage high harmonics influence to efficient energy usage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of the effect of non-sinusoidal voltages on the three-phase induction motor is presented in the paper. When the induction motors are supplied by a rectangular shape of the voltage inverter with high levels of harmonic voltage (Uh,i ... Keywords: energy efficiency, harmonics, induction motor, non-sinusoidal voltage, power losses

Miloje M. Kostic; Branka B. Kostic

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Basic studies of 3-5 high efficiency cell components  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project's objective is to improve our understanding of the generation, recombination, and transport of carriers within III-V homo- and heterostructures. The research itself consists of fabricating and characterizing solar cell building blocks'' such as junctions and heterojunctions as well as basic measurements of material parameters. A significant effort is also being directed at characterizing loss mechanisms in high-quality, III-V solar cells fabricated in industrial research laboratories throughout the United States. The project's goal is to use our understanding of the device physics of high-efficiency cell components to maximize cell efficiency. A related goal is the demonstration of new cell structures fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The development of measurement techniques and characterization methodologies is also a project objective. This report describes our progress during the fifth and final year of the project. During the past five years, we've teamed a great deal about heavy doping effects in p[sup +] and n[sup +] GaAs and have explored their implications for solar cells. We have developed an understanding of the dominant recombination losses in present-day, high-efficiency cells. We've learned to appreciated the importance of recombination at the perimeter of the cell and have developed techniques for chemically passivating such edges. Finally, we've demonstrated that films grown by molecular beam epitaxy are suitable for high-efficiency cell research.

Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Pierret, R.F.; Carpenter, M.S.; Chuang, H.L.; Dodd, P.E.; Keshavarzi, A.; Klausmeier-Brown, M.E.; Lush, G.B.; Stellwag, T.B. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

it as chemical energy. This presents a route for renewable and carbon-neutral fuel production. However, currentSecond Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production Peer M. Schenk that are not only renewable, but also capable of sequestering atmospheric CO2. Currently, nearly all renewable

Kudela, Raphael M.

127

High-quantum efficiency, long-lived luminescing refractory oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A crystal having a high-quantum efficiency and a long period of luminescence is formed of an oxide selected from the group consisting of magnesium oxide and calcium oxide and possessing a concentration ratio of H.sup.- ions to F centers in the range of about 0.05 to about 10.

Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN); Gonzalez, Roberto (Knoxville, TN); Summers, Geoffrey P. (Stillwater, OK)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research to improve the understanding of amorphous silicon alloys and other relevant non-semiconductor materials for use in high-efficiency, large-area multijunction modules. The research produced an average subcell initial efficiency of 8.8% over a 1-ft{sup 2} area using same-band-gap, dual-junction cells deposited over a ZnO/AlSi back reflector. An initial efficiency of 9.6% was achieved using a ZnO/Ag back reflector over smaller substrates. A sputtering machine will be built to deposit a ZnO/Ag back reflector over a 1-ft{sup 2} area so that a higher efficiency can also be obtained on larger substrates. Calculations have been performed to optimize the grid pattern, bus bars, and cell interconnects on modules. With our present state of technology, we expect a difference of about 6% between the aperture-area and active-area efficiencies of modules. Preliminary experiments show a difference of about 8%. We can now predict the performance of single-junction cells after long-term light exposure at 50{degree}C by exposing cells to short-term intense light at different temperatures. We find that single-junction cells deposited on a ZnO/Ag back reflector show the highest stabilized efficiency when the thickness of the intrinsic layers is about 2000 {angstrom}. 8 refs.

Guha, S. (United Solar Systems Corp., Troy, MI (United States))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Ultra-Compact High-Efficiency Luminaire for General Illumination  

SciTech Connect

Cree has developed a new ultra-compact light emitting diode (LED) luminaire capable of providing high efficacy with excellent color quality that can lead to significant energy savings in todayâ??s commercial and retail applications. This success was based on an integrated development effort tailoring the LED component characteristics, optics, thermal management and driver design for the small footprint to achieve an overall system efficiency of â?¥ 70%. A new LED component was designed to provide high brightness and efficacy in a form factor that allowed for a small directional beam with a luminaire housing design able to dissipate the heat effectively using a small physical envelope. A very compact, 90% efficient driver was developed to meet the system performance while not taking away any thermal mass from the heat sink. A 91% efficient secondary optics was designed to maximize efficiency while providing a smooth beam. The reliability of the new LED component was robust under accelerated testing conditions. Luminaires were assembled integrating the novel LED component, secondary optics, heat sink and driver technology to demonstrate the system improvement. Cree has successfully completed this project by developing an ultra-compact LED luminaire that provided 380 lumens at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2822 K and color rendering index (CRI) of 94 with an efficacy of 94 lumens per watt (LPW) when operating at 4 W input power (steady state) with an overall system efficiency of 81%. At a higher input power of 9 Watts, the lamp provided 658 lumens at 71 LPW.

Ted Lowes

2012-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

130

Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Efficiency Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program By Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Rod Mahdavi, P.E. LEED A.P. September 2013 2 Contacts Rod Mahdavi, P.E. LEED AP Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (510) 495-2259 rmahdavi@lbl.gov For more information on FEMP: Will Lintner, P.E. Federal Energy Management Program U.S. Department of Energy (202) 586-3120 william.lintner@ee.doe.gov 3 Contents Executive Summary .................................................................................................... 6 Overview .................................................................................................................... 7

131

High-efficiency multidetector system for tumor scanning  

SciTech Connect

A high-efficiency detector system developed especially for medical imaging has three specially cut Ge(Li) coaxial detectors (total volume 249 cm$sup 3$). At 122 keV, the peak efficiency is 93 percent of that of a 7.6 x 7.6 cm NaI (Tl) detector. Degradation of the paralleled energy resolution is avoided and resolution is improved by 35 percent over that of conventional output-summing techniques by gating the detector outputs. In effect this multiplexes them to a single line output. (auth)

Kirby, J.A.; Phelps, P.L.; Armantrout, G.A.; Sawyer, D.; Beck, R.N.

1975-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

132

High Efficiency LED Lamp for Solid-State Lighting  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency, solid-state lamps based on gallium nitride/silicon carbide light-emitting diodes. Novel chip designs and fabrication processes are described for a new type of nitride light-emitting diode with the potential for very high efficiency. This work resulted in the demonstration of blue light-emitting diodes in the one watt class that achieved up to 495 mW of light output at 350 mA drive current, corresponding to quantum and wall plug efficiencies of 51% and 45%, respectively. When combined with a phosphor in Cree's 7090 XLamp package, these advanced blue-emitting devices resulted in white light-emitting diodes whose efficacy exceeded 85 lumens per watt. In addition, up to 1040 lumens at greater than 85 lumens per watt was achieved by combining multiple devices to make a compact white lamp module with high optical efficiency.

James Ibbetson

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

133

Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The challenging problem of ultra-high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and small-scale portable power generation is addressed here using a distinctive thermophotovoltaic energy conversion mechanism and chip-based system ...

Pilawa-Podgurski, R. C. N.

134

High Quality Down Lighting Luminaire with 73% Overall System Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work to develop a high flux, high efficiency LED-based downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-08NT01582. A new high power LED and electronic driver were developed for these downlights. The LED achieved 100 lumens per watt efficacy and 1700 lumen flux output at a correlated color temperature of 3500K. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.99, and total harmonic distortion <10%. Two styles of downlights using the LED and driver were shown to exceed the project targets for steady-state luminous efficacy and flux of 70 lumens per watt and 1300 lumens, respectively. Compared to similar existing downlights using compact fluorescent or LED sources, these downlights had much higher efficacy at nearly the same luminous flux.

Robert Harrison; Steven C. Allen; Joseph Bernier; Robert Harrison

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

135

A Perspective on the Future of High Efficiency Engines  

SciTech Connect

New fuel economy standards and emissions regulations are accelerating the development of new engine technologies, sensors, and on-board computing. These developments will enable unprecedented engine control, which will in turn enable real-world implementations of low temperature combustion, high-speed controls, and other high efficiency engine technologies. With this expanded flexibility in engine design and control, the challenge will now be the exponential increase in the design and calibration space and the need for the development of new simulations, optimization methods, and self-learning control methodologies. This manuscript provides historical and future perspectives on the opportunities and challenges of this unparalleled technology growth on the next generation of high efficiency engines.

Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Green Jr, Johney Boyd [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

High Quality Down Lighting Luminaire with 73% Overall System Efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes work to develop a high flux, high efficiency LED-based downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-08NT01582. A new high power LED and electronic driver were developed for these downlights. The LED achieved 100 lumens per watt efficacy and 1700 lumen flux output at a correlated color temperature of 3500K. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.99, and total harmonic distortion LED and driver were shown to exceed the project targets for steady-state luminous efficacy and flux of 70 lumens per watt and 1300 lumens, respectively. Compared to similar existing downlights using compact fluorescent or LED sources, these downlights had much higher efficacy at nearly the same luminous flux.

Robert Harrison; Steven C. Allen; Joseph Bernier; Robert Harrison

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

137

High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen he1 cells have been under development for a number of years and are now nearing commercial applications. Direct carbon fuel cells, heretofore, have not reached practical stages of development because of problems in fuel reactivity and cell configuration. The carbon/air fuel cell reaction (C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) has the advantage of having a nearly zero entropy change. This allows a theoretical efficiency of 100 % at 700-800 C. The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product do not change during consumption of the fuel. Consequently, the EMF is invariant; this raises the possibility of 100% fuel utilization in a single pass. (In contrast, the high-temperature hydrogen fuel cell has a theoretical efficiency of and changes in fuel activity limit practical utilizations to 75-85%.) A direct carbon fuel cell is currently being developed that utilizes reactive carbon particulates wetted by a molten carbonate electrolyte. Pure COZ is evolved at the anode and oxygen from air is consumed at the cathode. Electrochemical data is reported here for the carbon/air cell utilizing carbons derived from he1 oil pyrolysis, purified coal, purified bio-char and petroleum coke. At 800 O C, a voltage efficiency of 80% was measured at power densities of 0.5-1 kW/m2. Carbon and hydrogen fuels may be produced simultaneously at lugh efficiency from: (1) natural gas, by thermal decomposition, (2) petroleum, by coking or pyrolysis of distillates, (3) coal, by sequential hydrogasification to methane and thermal pyrolysis of the methane, with recycle of the hydrogen, and (4) biomass, similarly by sequential hydrogenation and thermal pyrolysis. Fuel production data may be combined with direct C and H2 fuel cell operating data for power cycle estimates. Thermal to electric efficiencies indicate 80% HHV [85% LHV] for petroleum, 75.5% HHV [83.4% LHV] for natural gas and 68.3% HHV [70.8% LHV] for lignite coal. Possible benefits of integrated carbon and hydrogen fuel cell power generation cycles are: (1) increased efficiency by a factor of up to 2 over many conventional fossil fuel steam plants, (2) reduced power generation cost, especially for increasing fossil fuel cost, (3) reduced CO2 emission per kWh, and (4) direct sequestration or reuse (e.g., in enhanced oil or NG recovery) of the CO{sub 2} product.

Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

138

Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the progress made during Phase 1 of research and development program to obtain high-efficiency amorphous silicon alloy multijunction modules. Using a large-area deposition system, double-and triple-junction cells were made on stainless steel substrates of over 1 ft{sup 2} area with Ag and ZnO predeposited back reflector. Modules of over 1 ft{sup 2} were produced with between 9.2% and 9.9 initial aperture-area efficiencies as measured under a USSC Spire solar simulator. Efficiencies as measured under the NREL Spire solar simulator were found to be typically 15% to 18% lower. The causes for this discrepancy are now being investigated. The modules show about 15% degradation after 600 hours of one-sun illumination at 50{degrees}C. To optimize devices for higher stabilized efficiency, a new method was developed by which the performance of single-junction cells after long-term, one-sun exposure at 50{degrees}C can be predicted by exposing cells to short-term intense light at different temperatures. This method is being used to optimize the component cells of the multijunction structure to obtain the highest light-degraded efficiency.

Banerjee, A.; Chen, E.; Clough, R.; Glatfelter, T.; Guha, S.; Hammond, G.; Hopson, M.; Jackett, N.; Lycette, M.; Noch, J.; Palmer, T.; Pawlikiewicz, A.; Rosenstein, I.; Ross, R.; Wolf, D.; Xu, X.; Yang, J.; Younan, K.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hybrid power cycle studies were conducted to identify a high efficiency, economically competitive system. A hybrid power cycle which generates power at an LHV efficiency > 70% was identified that includes an atmospheric pressure direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine, and a steam cycle. In this cycle, natural gas fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for reforming fuel. The mixed gas then flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell which generates about 70% of the power. The portion of the anode exhaust which is not recycled is burned and heat transferred through a heat exchanger (HX) to the compressed air from a gas turbine. The heated compressed air is then heated further in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 15% of the power. Half the exhaust from the turbine provides air for the anode exhaust burner. All of the turbine exhaust eventually flows through the fuel cell cathodes providing the O2 and CO2 needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the cathodes flows to a steam system (heat recovery steam generator, staged steam turbine generating 15% of the cycle power). Simulation of a 200 MW plant with a hybrid power cycle had an LHV efficiency of 72.6%. Power output and efficiency are insensitive to ambient temperature, compared to a gas turbine combined cycle; NOx emissions are 75% lower. Estimated cost of electricity for 200 MW is 46 mills/kWh, which is competitive with combined cycle where fuel cost is > $5.8/MMBTU. Key requirement is HX; in the 200 MW plant studies, a HX operating at 1094 C using high temperature HX technology currently under development by METC for coal gassifiers was assumed. A study of a near term (20 MW) high efficiency direct carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle has also been completed.

Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Sanderson, R.A. [Sanderson (Robert) and Associates, Wethersfield, CT (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). 4 figs.

Hou, H.Q.; Reinhardt, K.C.

1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

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141

High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD).

Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Kitt C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

Norris, Thomas R.

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

143

Integration of High Efficiency Solar Cells on Carriers for Concentrating System Applications .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??High efficiency multi-junction (MJ) solar cells were packaged onto receiver systems. The efficiency change of concentrator cells under continuous high intensity illumination was done. Also,… (more)

Chow, Simon Ka Ming

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

High-Efficiency Solar Cell Concepts: Physics, Materials, and Devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the area of high-efficiency multijunction solar cells, with the effort primarily directed at current-matched solar cells in tandem. The key materials issues here have been obtaining semiconductors with the required bandgaps for sequential absorption of light in the solar spectrum and that are lattice matched to readily available substrates. The GaInP/GaAs/Ge cell is a striking example of success achieved in this area. Recently, several new approaches for high-efficiency solar cell design have emerged, that involve novel methods for tailoring alloy bandgaps, as well as alternate technologies for hetero-epitaxy of III-V's on Si. The advantages and difficulties expected to be encountered with each approach will be discussed, addressing both the materials issues and device physics whilst contrasting them with other fourth-generation solar cell concepts.

Mascarenhas, A.; Francoeur, S.; Seong, M. J.; Fluegel, B.; Zhang, Y.; Wanlass, M. W.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

High Energy-Efficiency Retrofits to Baltimore's Row Homes  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the research project is to develop high-perfommnce, energy-eflicient retrofits of existing row homes in Baltimore, Maryland. These efficiency enhancements are to optimize building envelope improvements, mechanical equipment improvements and operational improvements to the highest cost-effective level. Furthermore, this project is to investigate and demonstrate the impact of high-performance energy-efficiency retrofit improvements on row homes in the Historic East area of Baltimore. Three homes awaiting renovation are planned to receive building envelope, mechanical system, and electrical system improvements that will improve their energy petiormance. An incremental additional cost ceiling of $4000 for the energy eftlciency improvements, beyond those normally installed, has been set by the project.

Chalk, J.; Johnson, A.L.; Lipscomb, L.; Wendt, R.

1999-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

146

Modelling and fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers the research conducted on modelling and development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells during the period May 1989 to August 1990. First, considerable effort was devoted toward developing a ray-tracing program for the photovoltaic community to quantify and optimize surface texturing for solar cells. Second, attempts were made to develop a hydrodynamic model for device simulation. Such a model is somewhat slower than drift-diffusion type models like PC-1D, but it can account for more physical phenomena in the device, such as hot carrier effects, temperature gradients, thermal diffusion, and lattice heat flow. In addition, Fermi-Dirac statistics have been incorporated into the model to deal with heavy doping effects more accurately. Third and final component of the research includes development of silicon cell fabrication capabilities and fabrication of high-efficiency silicon cells. 84 refs., 46 figs., 10 tabs.

Rohatgi, A.; Smith, A.W.; Salami, J. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical Engineering] [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical Engineering

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Fuel Cell/Turbine Ultra High Efficiency Power System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

FuelCell Energy, INC. (FCE) is currently involved in the design of ultra high efficiency power plants under a cooperative agreement (DE-FC26-00NT40) managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as part of the DOE's Vision 21 program. Under this project, FCE is developing a fuel cell/turbine hybrid system that integrates the atmospheric pressure Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) with an unfired Brayton cycle utilizing indirect heat recovery from the power plant. Features of the DFC/T{trademark} system include: high efficiency, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, no pressurization of the fuel cell, independent operating pressure of the fuel cell and turbine, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants at much smaller sizes. Objectives of the Vision 21 Program include developing power plants that will generate electricity with net efficiencies approaching 75 percent (with natural gas), while producing sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions of less than 0.01 lb/million BTU. These goals are significant improvements over conventional power plants, which are 35-60 percent efficient and produce emissions of 0.07 to 0.3 lb/million BTU of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The nitrogen oxide and sulfur emissions from the DFC/T system are anticipated to be better than the Vision 21 goals due to the non-combustion features of the DFC/T power plant. The expected high efficiency of the DFC/T will also result in a 40-50 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions compared to conventional power plants. To date, the R&D efforts have resulted in significant progress including proof-of-concept tests of a sub-scale power plant built around a state-of-the-art DFC stack integrated with a modified Capstone Model 330 Microturbine. The objectives of this effort are to investigate the integration aspects of the fuel cell and turbine and to obtain design information and operational data that will be utilized in the design of a 40-MW high efficiency Vision 21 power plant. Additionally, these tests are providing the valuable insight for DFC/Turbine power plant potential for load following, increased reliability, and enhanced operability.

Hossein, Ghezel-Ayagh

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

148

Symmetric quantum dots as efficient sources of highly entangled photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An ideal source of entangled photon pairs combines the perfect symmetry of an atom with the convenient electrical trigger of light sources based on semiconductor quantum dots. We create a naturally symmetric quantum dot cascade that emits highly entangled photon pairs on demand. Our source consists of strain-free GaAs dots self-assembled on a triangular symmetric (111)A surface. The emitted photons strongly violate Bell's inequality and reveal a fidelity to the Bell state as high as 86 (+-2) % without postselection. This result is an important step towards scalable quantum-communication applications with efficient sources.

T. Kuroda; T. Mano; N. Ha; H. Nakajima; H. Kumano; B. Urbaszek; M. Jo; M. Abbarachi; Y. Sakuma; K. Sakoda; I. Suemune; X. Marie; T. Amand

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

149

HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER  

SciTech Connect

OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has trace contaminants (primarily carbon monoxide) that are detrimental to precious metal catalyzed fuel cells, as is now recognized by many of the world's largest automobile companies. Thermochemical hydrogen will not contain carbon monoxide as an impurity at any level. Electrolysis, the alternative process for producing hydrogen using nuclear energy, suffers from thermodynamic inefficiencies in both the production of electricity and in electrolytic parts of the process. The efficiency of electrolysis (electricity to hydrogen) is currently about 80%. Electric power generation efficiency would have to exceed 65% (thermal to electrical) for the combined efficiency to exceed the 52% (thermal to hydrogen) calculated for one thermochemical cycle. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles have been studied, at various levels of effort, for the past 35 years. They were extensively studied in the late 70s and early 80s but have received little attention in the past 10 years, particularly in the U.S. While there is no question about the technical feasibility and the potential for high efficiency, cycles with proven low cost and high efficiency have yet to be developed commercially. Over 100 cycles have been proposed, but substantial research has been executed on only a few. This report describes work accomplished during a three-year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first phase was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most three) for further detailed consideration. During Phase 1, an exhaustive literature search was performed to locate all cycles previously proposed. The cycles located were screened using objective criteria to determine which could

BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has trace contaminants (primarily carbon monoxide) that are detrimental to precious metal catalyzed fuel cells, as is now recognized by many of the world's largest automobile companies. Thermochemical hydrogen will not contain carbon monoxide as an impurity at any level. Electrolysis, the alternative process for producing hydrogen using nuclear energy, suffers from thermodynamic inefficiencies in both the production of electricity and in electrolytic parts of the process. The efficiency of electrolysis (electricity to hydrogen) is currently about 80%. Electric power generation efficiency would have to exceed 65% (thermal to electrical) for the combined efficiency to exceed the 52% (thermal to hydrogen) calculated for one thermochemical cycle. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles have been studied, at various levels of effort, for the past 35 years. They were extensively studied in the late 70s and early 80s but have received little attention in the past 10 years, particularly in the U.S. While there is no question about the technical feasibility and the potential for high efficiency, cycles with proven low cost and high efficiency have yet to be developed commercially. Over 100 cycles have been proposed, but substantial research has been executed on only a few. This report describes work accomplished during a three-year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first phase was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most three) for further detailed consideration. During Phase 1, an exhaustive literature search was performed to locate all cycles previously proposed. The cycles located were screened using objective criteria to determine which could benefit, in terms of efficien

BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

In-Plant Testing of High-Efficiency Hydraulic Separators  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic separators are commonly used for particle size classification and gravity concentration of minerals and coal. Unfortunately, the efficiency of these processes can be quite low due to poor equipment design and variations in feed consistency. To help alleviate these problems, an industry-driven R&D program has been undertaken to develop a new generation of hydraulic separators that are more efficient and less costly to operate and maintain. These units, which are commercially called the CrossFlow separator and HydroFloat separator, have the potential to improve performance (separation efficiency and throughput) and reduce operating costs (power consumption, water and reagent usage). In Phase I of this project, laboratory and pilot-scale test units were evaluated at various industrial sites in both the coal and mineral industries. Based on promising results obtained from Phase I, full-scale prototypes were purchased and installed by a major U.S. phosphate producer and a large eastern U.S. coal company. The test data obtained from these sites demonstrate that significant performance improvements can be realized through the application of these high-efficiency separators.

G. H. Luttrell; R. Q. Honaker; R. C. Bratton; T. C. Westerfield; J. N. Kohmuench

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

152

IN-PLANT TESTING OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY HYDRAULIC SEPARATORS  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic separators are commonly used for particle size classification and gravity concentration of minerals and coal. Unfortunately, the efficiency of these processes can be quite low due to poor equipment design and variations in feed consistency. To help alleviate these problems, an industry-driven R&D program has been undertaken to develop a new generation of hydraulic separators that are more efficient and less costly to operate and maintain. These units, which are commercially called the CrossFlow separator and HydroFloat separator, have the potential to improve performance (separation efficiency and throughput) and reduce operating costs (power consumption, water and reagent usage). In Phase I of this project, laboratory and pilot-scale test units were evaluated at various industrial sites in both the coal and mineral industries. Based on promising results obtained from Phase I, full-scale prototypes were purchased and installed by a major U.S. phosphate producer and a large eastern U.S. coal company. The test data obtained from these sites demonstrate that significant performance improvements can be realized through the application of these high-efficiency separators.

G.H. Luttrell; R.Q. Honaker; R.C. Bratton; T.C. Westerfield; J.N. Kohmuench

2006-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

153

Particulate Matter Standards (Ohio)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This chapter of the law that establishes the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency sets the standards for particulate emissions from a variety of sources, including facilities that generate power. ...

154

System Effects of High Efficiency Filters in Homes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

System Effects of High Efficiency Filters in Homes System Effects of High Efficiency Filters in Homes Title System Effects of High Efficiency Filters in Homes Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-6144E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Walker, Iain S., Darryl J. Dickerhoff, David Faulkner, and William J. N. Turner Conference Name ASHRAE Annual Conference Date Published 03/2013 Abstract Occupant concern about indoor air quality (IAQ) issues has led to the increased use of more effective air filters in residential heating and cooling systems. A drawback of improved filtration is that better filters tend to have more flow resistance. This can lead to lower system airflows that reduce heat exchanger efficiency, increase duct pressure that leads to increased air leakage for ducts and, in some case s, increased blower power consumption. There is currently little knowledge on the magnitude of these effects. In this study, the performance of ten central forced air systems was monitored for a year. The systems used either a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) blower. Each system was operated with a range of filter efficiencies ranging from MERV 6 (the lowest currently permitted in ASHRAE Standard 62.2) up to MERV 16. Measurements were recorded every ten seconds for blower power, filter pressure drop, supply and return plenum pressures together with plenum and indoor temperatures. These detailed continuous measurements allowed observation of filter loading effects as well as the initial change in system performance when filters were swapped. The results of the field measurements were used in simulations to examine more general system performance effects for a wider range of climates. The field tests showed that system static pressures were highly influenced by filter selection, filter loading rates varied more from house to house than by MERV rating and overall were quite low in many of the homes. PSC motors showed reduced power and airflow as the filters loaded, but BPM motors attempted to maintain a constant airflow and increased their power to do so. The combined field test and simulation results from this study indicate that for MERV 10-13 filters the effects on energy use are small (5%) and usability. In systems using low MERV filters that are already close to blower performance limits the addition of a MERV 16 filter pushed the blowers to their performance limits.

155

Design of high efficiency blowers for future aerosol applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High efficiency air blowers to meet future portable aerosol sampling applications were designed, fabricated, and evaluated. A Centrifugal blower was designed to achieve a flow rate of 100 L/min (1.67 x 10^-3 m^3/s) and a pressure rise of WC " 4 (1000 PA). Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, FLUENT 6.1.22, was used extensively throughout the entire design cycle. The machine, Reynolds number (Re) , was around 10^5 suggesting a turbulent flow field. Renormalization Group (RNG) �ºâ���µ turbulent model was used for FLUENT simulations. An existing design was scaled down to meet the design needs. Characteristic curves showing static pressure rise as a function of flow rate through the impeller were generated using FLUENT and these were validated through experiments. Experimentally measured efficiency (�·EXP) for the base-design was around 10%. This was attributed to the low efficiency of the D.C. motor used. CFD simulations, using the �ºâ���µ turbulent model and standard wall function approach, over-predicted the pressure rise values and the percentage error was large. Enhanced wall function under-predicted the pressure rise but gave better agreement (less than 6% error) with experimental results. CFD predicted a blower scaled 70% in planar direction (XZ) and 28% in axial direction (Y) and running at 19200 rpm (70xz_28y@19.2k) as the most appropriate choice. The pressure rise is 1021 Pa at the design flow rate of 100 L/min. FLUENT predicts an efficiency value based on static head (�·FLU) as 53.3%. Efficiency value based on measured static pressure rise value and the electrical energy input to the motor (�·EXP) is 27.4%. This is almost a 2X improvement over the value that one gets with the hand held vacuum system blower.

Chadha, Raman

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

HIGH EFFICIENCY FOSSIL POWER PLANT (HEFPP) CONCEPTUALIZATION PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

This study confirms the feasibility of a natural gas fueled, 20 MW M-C Power integrated pressurized molten carbonate fuel cell combined in a topping cycle with a gas turbine generator plant. The high efficiency fossil power plant (HEFPP) concept has a 70% efficiency on a LHV basis. The study confirms the HEFPP has a cost advantage on a cost of electricity basis over the gas turbine based combined cycle plants in the 20 MW size range. The study also identifies the areas of further development required for the fuel cell, gas turbine generator, cathode blower, inverter, and power module vessel. The HEFPP concept offers an environmentally friendly power plant with minuscule emission levels when compared with the combined cycle power plant.

J.L. Justice

1999-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

157

Implications of high efficiency power cycles for fusion reactor design  

SciTech Connect

The implications of the High Efficiency Power Cycle for fusion reactors are examined. The proposed cycle converts most all of the high grade CTR heat input to electricity. A low grade thermal input (T approximately 100$sup 0$C) is also required, and this can be supplied at low cost geothermal energy at many locations in the U. S. Approximately 3 KW of low grade heat is required per KW of electrical output. The thermodynamics and process features of the proposed cycle are discussed. Its advantages for CTR's are that low Q machines (e.g. driven Tokamaks, mirrors) can operate with a high (approximately 80 percent) conversion of CTR fusion energy to electricity, where with conventional power cycles no plant output could be achieved with such low Q operation. (auth)

Powell, J.R.; Usher, J.; Salzano, F.J.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Predicting high harmonic ion cyclotron heating efficiency in Tokamak plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Observations of improved radio frequency (RF) heating efficiency in high-confinement (H-) mode plasmas on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) are investigated by whole-device linear simulation. We present the first full-wave simulation to couple kinetic physics of the well confined core plasma to the poorly confined scrape-off plasma. The new simulation is used to scan the launched fast-wave spectrum and examine the steady-state electric wave field structure for experimental scenarios corresponding to both reduced, and improved RF heating efficiency. We find that launching toroidal wave-numbers that required for fast-wave propagation excites large amplitude (kVm 1 ) coaxial standing modes in the wave electric field between the confined plasma density pedestal and conducting vessel wall. Qualitative comparison with measurements of the stored plasma energy suggest these modes are a probable cause of degraded heating efficiency. Also, the H-mode density pedestal and fast-wave cutoff within the confined plasma allow for the excitation of whispering gallery type eigenmodes localised to the plasma edge.

Green, David L [ORNL; Jaeger, E. F. [XCEL; Berry, Lee A [ORNL; Chen, Guangye [ORNL; Ryan, Philip Michael [ORNL; Canik, John [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Analysis of highly-efficient electric residential HPWHs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A scoping level analysis was conducted to identify electric HPWH concepts that have the potential to achieve or exceed 30% source energy savings compared to a gas tankless water heater (GTWH) representative of the type represented in version 0.9.5.2 beta of the BEopt software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The analysis was limited to evaluation of options to improve the energy efficiency of electric HPWH product designs currently on the market in the US. The report first defines the baseline GTWH system and determines its efficiency (source-energy-based adjusted or derated EF of ~0.71). High efficiency components (compressors, pumps, fans, heat exchangers, etc.) were identified and applied to current US HPWH products and analyzed to determine the viability of reaching the target EF. The target site-based energy factor (EF) required for an electric HPWH necessary to provide 30% source energy savings compared to the GTWH baseline unit is then determined to be ~3.19.

Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high efficiency particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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161

Airborne particulate discriminator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

Creek, Kathryn Louise (San Diego, CA); Castro, Alonso (Santa Fe, NM); Gray, Perry Clayton (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

162

Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized as having less than 10% change in transmission during the 15,000 hour test period; (3) demonstrated thin film encapsulation of a phosphorescent OLED device with 1,500 hours of lifetime at 60 C and 80% RH; (4) demonstrated that a thin film laminate encapsulation, in addition to the direct thin film deposition process, of a polymer OLED device was another feasible packaging strategy for OLED lighting. The thin film laminate strategy was developed to mitigate defects, demonstrate roll-to-roll process capability for high volume throughput (reduce costs) and to support a potential commercial pathway that is less dependent upon integrated manufacturing since the laminate could be sold as a rolled good; (5) demonstrated that low cost 'blue' glass substrates could be coated with a siloxane barrier layer for planarization and ion-protection and used in the fabrication of a polymer OLED lighting device. This study further demonstrated that the substrate cost has potential for huge cost reductions from the white borosilicate glass substrate currently used by the OLED lighting industry; (6) delivered four-square feet of white phosphorescent OLED technology, including novel high efficiency devices with 82 CRI, greater than 50 lm/W efficiency, and more than 1,000 hours lifetime in a product concept model shelf; (7) presented and or published more than twenty internal studies (for private use), three external presentations (OLED workshop-for public use), and five technology-related external presentations (industry conferences-for public use); and (8) issued five patent applications, which are in various maturity stages at time of publication. Delivery of thin film encapsulated white phosphorescent OLED lighting technology remains a challenging technical achievement, and it seems that commercial availability of thin, bright, white OLED light that meets market requirements will continue to require research and development effort. However, there will be glass encapsulated white OLED lighting products commercialized in niche markets during the 2008 calendar year. This commercializ

None

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

HIGH EFFICIENCY BIFACIAL BACK SURFACE FIELD SOLAR CELLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The first high efficiency p÷-n-n + bifacial solar cells are presented. Efficiencies of 15.7 % and 13.6 % were measured under front and back air mass one illumination respectively at 28 °C. At 7 air mass one illumination and 28 °C the front efficiency increases to 16.5%. A pilot production of 200 cells was made following a fabrication process as simple as that for conventional back surface field cells. Mean efficiencies of 13.4 % and 10.7 % were obtained under front and back illumination respectively. The production yield is higher than 80%. The advantages that bifacial cells present in some applications, compared with conventional cells, have been pointed out for static [1] and quasi-static [2] concentrating systems, for luminescent concentrators [3] and also for flat panels. A transistor-like structure (n+-p-n +) has already been developed as a bifacial cell [4]. We have also suggested [5] and theoretically analysed [6] the use of a back surface field (BSF) structure (n+-p-p ÷ or p+-n-n +) as a bifacial cell. The purpose here is to demonstrate the feasibility of high efficiency bifacial BSF solar cells. p+-n-n ÷ bifacial cells with a 5 cm 2 area were made on float-zone silicon wafers. The resistivity of the n-type base region was 10 ~2 cm and the thickness was 260 pm. The p ÷ and n + regions were formed by open-tube diffusions using BBr3 and POC13 sources, the resulting sheet resistance being 45- 60 ~2/[:] for the p ÷ layer and 20- 30 ~2/[:] for the n ÷ layer. A TiOx antireflection (AR) coating was spun onto both sides of the cell; Ti-Pd-Ag grids were sputtered and lift-off defined also on both faces. The metallization pattern was designed for the cells to operate inside static compound parabolic mirrors with a concentration factor of 5 and a non-uniform distribution of light intensity on the cell surface. The optimum grid has ten fingers per centimetre (each finger is 50- 70 pm wide) and produces a coverage factor in the illuminated area of about 5.5%.

A. Cuevas; A. Luque; J. Eguren; J. Del Alamo

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

High-Efficiency Nitride-Base Photonic Crystal Light Sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research activities performed in the framework of this project represent a major breakthrough in the demonstration of Photonic Crystals (PhC) as a competitive technology for LEDs with high light extraction efficiency. The goals of the project were to explore the viable approaches to manufacturability of PhC LEDS through proven standard industrial processes, establish the limits of light extraction by various concepts of PhC LEDs, and determine the possible advantages of PhC LEDs over current and forthcoming LED extraction concepts. We have developed three very different geometries for PhC light extraction in LEDs. In addition, we have demonstrated reliable methods for their in-depth analysis allowing the extraction of important parameters such as light extraction efficiency, modal extraction length, directionality, internal and external quantum efficiency. The information gained allows better understanding of the physical processes and the effect of the design parameters on the light directionality and extraction efficiency. As a result, we produced LEDs with controllable emission directionality and a state of the art extraction efficiency that goes up to 94%. Those devices are based on embedded air-gap PhC - a novel technology concept developed in the framework of this project. They rely on a simple and planar fabrication process that is very interesting for industrial implementation due to its robustness and scalability. In fact, besides the additional patterning and regrowth steps, the process is identical as that for standard industrially used p-side-up LEDs. The final devices exhibit the same good electrical characteristics and high process yield as a series of test standard LEDs obtained in comparable conditions. Finally, the technology of embedded air-gap patterns (PhC) has significant potential in other related fields such as: increasing the optical mode interaction with the active region in semiconductor lasers; increasing the coupling of the incident light into the active region of solar cells; increasing the efficiency of the phosphorous light conversion in white light LEDs etc. In addition to the technology of embedded PhC LEDs, we demonstrate a technique for improvement of the light extraction and emission directionality for existing flip-chip microcavity (thin) LEDs by introducing PhC grating into the top n-contact. Although, the performances of these devices in terms of increase of the extraction efficiency are not significantly superior compared to those obtained by other techniques like surface roughening, the use of PhC offers some significant advantages such as improved and controllable emission directionality and a process that is directly applicable to any material system. The PhC microcavity LEDs have also potential for industrial implementation as the fabrication process has only minor differences to that already used for flip-chip thin LEDs. Finally, we have demonstrated that achieving good electrical properties and high fabrication yield for these devices is straightforward.

James Speck; Evelyn Hu; Claude Weisbuch; Yong-Seok Choi; Kelly McGroddy; Gregor Koblmuller; Elison Matioli; Elizabeth Rangel; Fabian Rol; Dobri Simeonov

2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

165

High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency iii 11-Sept-2009 ListA Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency 11-Sept-2009 Topic /A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency 11-Sept-2009 Topic /

Singer, Brett C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Direct-energy-regenerated particulate trap technology. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this CRADA between Lockheed Martin and Cummins Engine Company was to develop fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC) composite materials for use as diesel engine particulate traps. Chemical vapor deposition techniques were used to partially densify and rigidize a thin fibrous substrate and produce the porous SiC- based filter. Microwave energy was used to directly couple to the deposited SiC to uniformly heat the filter and oxidize the collected carbon particulates. For commercial usage particulate traps must: (1) filter carbon particulates from a high temperature diesel exhaust at an acceptably low backpressure, (2) survive thousands of thermal transients due to regeneration or cleaning of the filter by oxidizing the collected carbon, (3) be durable and reliable over the expected life of the filter (300,000 miles or 10,000 hours), and (4) provide a low overall operating cost which is competitive with other filtering techniques. The development efforts performed as part of this CRADA have resulted in a very promising new technology for Cummins Engine Company. Ceramic fiber based filter papers were developed at Fleetguard, Inc., (a Cummins Subsidiary) and used to produce the spiral wound, corrugated filter cartridges. Optimized SiC coatings were developed at Lockheed Martin which couple with 2.45 GHz microwaves. Prototype particulate filter cartridges fabricated at Fleetguard and rigidized at Lockheed Martin performed well in single cylinder engine tests at Cummins. These prototype filters obtained filtering efficiencies greater than 80% at acceptably low backpressures and could be successfully headed and regenerated using a conventional in-home microwave oven.

Stinton, D.P.; Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yonushonis, T.M.; McDonald, A.C.; Wiczynski, P.D. [Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Haberkamp, W.C. [Fleetguard, Inc. (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial Hydraulic and Tooling Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial manufacturing in the U.S. accounts for roughly one third of the 98 quadrillion Btu total energy consumption. Motor system losses amount to 1.3 quadrillion Btu, which represents the largest proportional loss of any end-use category, while pumps alone represent over 574 trillion BTU (TBTU) of energy loss each year. The efficiency of machines with moving components is a function of the amount of energy lost to heat because of friction between contacting surfaces. The friction between these interfaces also contributes to downtime and the loss of productivity through component wear and subsequent repair. The production of new replacement parts requires additional energy. Among efforts to reduce energy losses, wear-resistant, low-friction coatings on rotating and sliding components offer a promising approach that is fully compatible with existing equipment and processes. In addition to lubrication, one of the most desirable solutions is to apply a protective coating or surface treatment to rotating or sliding components to reduce their friction coefficients, thereby leading to reduced wear. Historically, a number of materials such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), titanium nitride (TiN), titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), and tungsten carbide (WC) have been examined as tribological coatings. The primary objective of this project was the development of a variety of thin film nanocoatings, derived from the AlMgB14 system, with a focus on reducing wear and friction in both industrial hydraulics and cutting tool applications. Proof-of-concept studies leading up to this project had shown that the constituent phases, AlMgB14 and TiB2, were capable of producing low-friction coatings by pulsed laser deposition. These coatings combine high hardness with a low friction coefficient, and were shown to substantially reduce wear in laboratory tribology tests. Selection of the two applications was based largely on the concept of improved mechanical interface efficiencies for energy conservation. In mobile hydraulic systems, efficiency gains through low friction would translate into improved fuel economy and fewer greenhouse gas emissions. Stationary hydraulic systems, accordingly, would consume less electrical power. Reduced tooling wear in machining operations would translate to greater operating yields, while lowering the energy consumed during processing. The AlMgB14 nanocoatings technology progressed beyond baseline laboratory tests into measurable energy savings and enhancements to product durability. Three key hydraulic markets were identified over the course of the project that will benefit from implementation: industrial vane pumps, orbiting valve-in-star hydraulic motors, and variable displacement piston pumps. In the vane pump application, the overall product efficiency was improved by as much as 11%. Similar results were observed with the hydraulic motors tested, where efficiency gains of over 10% were noted. For variable displacement piston pumps, overall efficiency was improved by 5%. For cutting tools, the most significant gains in productivity (and, accordingly, the efficiency of the machining process as a whole) were associated with the roughing and finishing of titanium components for aerospace systems. Use of the AlMgB14 nanocoating in customer field tests has shown that the coated tools were able to withstand machining rates as high as 500sfm (limited only by the substrate material), with relatively low flank wear when compared to other industrial offerings. AlMgB14 coated tools exhibited a 60% improvement over similarly applied TiAlN thin films. Furthermore, AlMgB14-based coatings in these particular tests lasted twice as long than their TiAlN counterparts at the 500sfm feed rates. Full implementation of the technology into the industrial hydraulic and cutting tool markets equates to a worldwide energy savings of 46 trillion BTU/year by 2030. U.S.-based GHG emissions associated with the markets identified would fall accordingly, dropping by as much as 50,000 tonnes annually.

Clifton B. Higdon III

2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

168

The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymerorganic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electronhole pairs...

169

High Efficiency, Low Emissions Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of the High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Research Program for the U.S. Department of Energy. Work under this co-funded program began in August 2005 and finished in July 2010. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate a low emission, high thermal efficiency engine system that met 2010 EPA heavy-duty on-highway truck emissions requirements (0.2g/bhp-hr NOx, 0.14g/bhp-hr HC and 0.01g/bhp-hr PM) with a thermal efficiency of 46%. To achieve this goal, development of diesel homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion was the chosen approach. This report summarizes the development of diesel HCCI combustion and associated enabling technologies that occurred during the HECC program between August 2005 and July 2010. This program showed that although diesel HCCI with conventional US diesel fuel was not a feasible means to achieve the program objectives, the HCCI load range could be increased with a higher volatility, lower cetane number fuel, such as gasoline, if the combustion rate could be moderated to avoid excessive cylinder pressure rise rates. Given the potential efficiency and emissions benefits, continued research of combustion with low cetane number fuels and the effects of fuel distillation are recommended. The operation of diesel HCCI was only feasible at part-load due to a limited fuel injection window. A 4% fuel consumption benefit versus conventional, low-temperature combustion was realized over the achievable operating range. Several enabling technologies were developed under this program that also benefited non-HCCI combustion. The development of a 300MPa fuel injector enabled the development of extended lifted flame combustion. A design methodology for minimizing the heat transfer to jacket water, known as precision cooling, will benefit conventional combustion engines, as well as HCCI engines. An advanced combustion control system based on cylinder pressure measurements was developed. A Well-to-wheels analysis of the energy flows in a mobile vehicle system and a 2nd Law thermodynamic analysis of the engine system were also completed under this program.

None

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

170

Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

Boeder, A; Zimm, C

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

171

Discrete-element modeling of particulate aerosol flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiple-time step computational approach is presented for efficient discrete-element modeling of aerosol flows containing adhesive solid particles. Adhesive aerosol particulates are found in numerous dust and smoke contamination problems, including ... Keywords: Aerosols, Aggregation, Particle adhesion, Particulate flow

J. S. Marshall

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 16.9% have been achieved. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x.

Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA); Doshi, Parag (Atlanta, GA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure.

Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Doshi, Parag (Altanta, GA); Tate, John Keith (Lawrenceville, GA); Mejia, Jose (Atlanta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA)

1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

174

Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO{sub x}. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure. 28 figs.

Rohatgi, A.; Doshi, P.; Tate, J.K.; Mejia, J.; Chen, Z.

1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

175

Highly Efficient Small Form Factor LED Retrofit Lamp  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work to develop a high efficiency LED-based MR16 lamp downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-EE0000611. A new multichip LED package, electronic driver, and reflector optic were developed for these lamps. At steady-state, the lamp luminous flux was 409 lumens (lm), luminous efficacy of 87 lumens per watt (LPW), CRI (Ra) of 87, and R9 of 85 at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3285K. The LED alone achieved 120 lumens per watt efficacy and 600 lumen flux output at 25 C. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.90 at a power of only 5 watts. Compared to similar existing MR16 lamps using LED sources, these lamps had much higher efficacy and color quality. The objective of this work was to demonstrate a LED-based MR16 retrofit lamp for replacement of 35W halogen MR16 lamps having (1) luminous flux of 500 lumens, (2) luminous efficacy of 100 lumens per watt, (3) beam angle less than 40{sup o} and center beam candlepower of at least 1000 candelas, and (4) excellent color quality.

Steven Allen; Fred Palmer; Ming Li

2011-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

176

High Efficiency Driving Electronics for General Illumination LED Luminaires  

SciTech Connect

New generation of standalone LED driver platforms developed, which are more efficient These LED Drivers are more efficient (?90%), smaller in size ( 0.15 in3/watt), lower in cost ( 12 cents/watt in high volumes in millions of units). And these products are very reliable having an operating life of over 50,000 hours. This technology will enable growth of LED light sources in the use. This will also help in energy saving and reducing total life cycle cost of LED units. Two topologies selected for next generation of LED drivers: 1) Value engineered single stage Flyback topology. This is suitable for low powered LED drivers up to 50W power. 2) Two stage boost power factor correction (PFC) plus LLC half bridge platform for higher powers. This topology is suitable for 40W to 300W LED drivers. Three new product platforms were developed to cover a wide range of LED drivers: 1) 120V 40W LED driver, 2) Intellivolt 75W LED driver, & 3) Intellivolt 150W LED driver. These are standalone LED drivers for rugged outdoor lighting applications. Based on these platforms number of products are developed and successfully introduced in the market place meeting key performance, size and cost goals.

Upadhyay, Anand

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

177

Particulate Control Device (PCD) Testing at the Power Systems Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) objectives overseen by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to test systems and components for advanced coal-based power generation systems, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), and integrated gasification/fuel cell (IGFC) systems. Stringent particulate requirements for fuel gas for both combustion turbines and fuel cells that are integral to these systems. Particulates erode and chemically attack the blade surfaces in turbines, and cause blinding of the electrodes in fuel cells. Filtration of the hot, high-pressure, gasified coal is required to protect these units. Filtration can be accomplished by first cooling the gas, but the system efficiency is reduced. High-temperature, high-pressure, particulate control devices (PCDs) need to be developed to achieve high efficiency and to extend the lifetime of downstream components to acceptable levels. Demonstration of practical high-temperature PCDs is crucial to the evolution of advanced, high-efficiency, coal-based power generation systems. The intent at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is to establish a flexible test facility that can be used to (1) develop advanced power system components, such as high-temperature, high-pressure PCDs; (2) evaluate advanced power system configurations and (3) assess the integration and control issues of these advanced power systems.

Longanbach, J.R.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Development of A Microwave Assisted Particulate Filter Regeneration System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The need for active regeneration of diesel particulate filters and the advantages of microwave assisted regeneration are discussed. The current study has multiple objectives, which include developing a microwave assisted particulate filter regeneration system for future generation light-duty diesel applications, including PNGV type applications. A variable power 2.0 kW microwave system and a tuned waveguide were employed. Cavity geometry is being optimized with the aid of computational modeling and temperature measurements during microwave heating. A wall-flow ceramic-fiber filter with superior thermal shock resistance, high filtration efficiency, and high soot capacity was used. The microwave assisted particulate filter regeneration system has operated for more than 100 hours in an engine test-cell with a 5.9-liter diesel engine with automated split exhaust flow and by-pass flow capabilities. Filter regeneration was demonstrated using soot loads up to 10 g/liter and engine exhaust at idling flow rates as the oxygen source. A parametric study to determine the optimal combination of soot loading, oxidant flow rate, microwave power and heating time is underway. Preliminary experimental results are reported.

Popuri, Sriram

2001-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

179

Method and Apparatus for High-Efficiency Direct Contact Condensation  

clean energy. But continuing to produce geothermal power efficiently and economically requires innovative adjustments to the technology used to ...

180

High-efficiency photovoltaics based on semiconductor nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to exploit a variety of semiconductor nanostructures, specifically semiconductor quantum wells, quantum dots, and nanowires, to achieve high power conversion efficiency in photovoltaic devices. In a thin-film device geometry, the objectives were to design, fabricate, and characterize quantum-well and quantum-dot solar cells in which scattering from metallic and/or dielectric nanostructures was employed to direct incident photons into lateral, optically confined paths within a thin (~1-3um or less) device structure. Fundamental issues concerning nonequilibrium carrier escape from quantum-confined structures, removal of thin-film devices from an epitaxial growth substrate, and coherent light trapping in thin-film photovoltaic devices were investigated. In a nanowire device geometry, the initial objectives were to engineer vertical nanowire arrays to optimize optical confinement within the nanowires, and to extend this approach to core-shell heterostructures to achieve broadspectrum absorption while maintaining high opencircuit voltages. Subsequent work extended this approach to include fabrication of nanowire photovoltaic structures on low-cost substrates.

Yu, Paul K.L. [University of California, San Diego; Yu, Edward T. [University of Texas at Austin; Wang, Deli [University of California, San Diego

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high efficiency particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission, Integrated Process Heater System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The team of TIAX LLC, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, and Callidus Technologies, LLC conducted a six-year program to develop an ultra-low emission process heater burner and an advanced high efficiency heater design. This project addresses the critical need of process heater operators for reliable, economical emission reduction technologies to comply with stringent emission regulations, and for heater design alternatives that reduce process heater energy requirements without significant cost increase. The key project targets were NOx emissions of 10 ppm (@ 3% O2), and a heater thermal efficiency of 95 percent. The ultra low NOx burner was developed through a series of pilot-scale and field tests combined with computational fluid dynamic modeling to arrive at simultaneous low emissions and suitable flame shape and stability. Pilot scale tests were run at TIAX, at the 2 MMBtu/hr scale, and at Callidus at 8 MMBtu/hr. The full scale burner was installed on a 14 burner atmospheric pipestill furnace at an ExxonMobil refinery. A variety of burner configurations, gas tips and flame stabilizers were tested to determine the lowest emissions with acceptable flame shape and stability. The resulting NOx emissions were 22 ppm on average. Starting in 2001, Callidus commercialized the original ultra low NOx burner and made subsequent design improvements in a series of commercial burners evolving from the original concept and/or development. Emissions in the field with the ultra low-NOx burner over a broad spectrum of heater applications have varied from 5 ppm to 30 ppm depending on heater geometry, heater service, fuel and firing capacity. To date, 1550 of the original burners, and 2500 of subsequent generation burners have been sold by Callidus. The advanced heater design was developed by parametric evaluations of a variety of furnace and combustion air preheater configurations and technologies for enhancing convective and radiative heat transfer. The design evolution relied heavily on computational fluid dynamic predictions of design alternatives. The final design features modular separate radiant cells, each with one and two-side fired vertical tubes. The convection section configuration is vertical tube banks enclosed in the radiant channels. Commercial modular plate air preheaters are used. The predicted performance for the integrated advanced heater and Callidus burner is 95 percent efficiency with 9 ppm NOx emissions firing natural gas, and 12 ppm firing refinery gas. The total erected cost is less than a conventional heater with combustion air preheat.

Mason, Howard; Boral, Anindya; Chhotray, San; Martin, Matthew

2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

182

SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Efficiency Thermal Energy High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards CSP Research & Development Thermal Storage CSP Recovery Act

183

High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting  

SciTech Connect

In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light emitting diodes, and packaging them to produce a white light fixture. During the third and final year of the project, the LRC team investigated alternate packaging methods for the white LED device to achieve at least 25 percent more luminous efficacy than traditional white LEDs; conducted optical ray-tracing analyses and human factors studies to determine the best form factor for the white light source under development, in terms of high luminous efficacy and greater acceptance by subjects; and developed a new die encapsulant using silicone-epoxy resins that showed less yellowing and slower degradation. At the conclusion of this project, the LRC demonstrated a new packaging method, called scattered photon extraction (SPE), that produced an average luminous flux and corresponding average efficacy of 90.7 lm and 36.3 lm/W, respectively, compared with 56.5 lm and 22.6 lm/W for a similar commercial white LED package. At low currents, the SPE package emitted white light with an efficacy of over 80 lm/W and had chromaticity values very close to the blackbody locus. The SPE package showed an overall improvement of 61% for this particular comparison, exceeding the LRC's third-year goal of 25% improvement.

Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

184

Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion  

SciTech Connect

The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally, the transient demonstration was performed in Phase IV. The project demonstrated the achievement of meeting US10 emissions without NOx aftertreatment. The successful execution of the project has served to highlight the effectiveness of closely matched combustion predictive tools to engine testing. It has further served to highlight the importance of key technologies and future areas of research and development. In this regard, recommendations are made towards further improvements in the areas of engine hardware, fuel injection systems, controls and fuels.

Ojeda, William de

2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

185

Project: Novel Working Fluids for High-Efficiency HVAC&R ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of the best replacements for high-GWP hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants; and to demonstrate improved energy efficiency of chillers through ...

2012-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

186

Development of manufacturing capability for high-concentration, high-efficiency silicon solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents a summary of the major results from a program to develop a manufacturable, high-efficiency silicon concentrator solar cell and a cost-effective manufacturing facility. The program was jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute, Sandia National Laboratories through the Concentrator Initiative, and SunPower Corporation. The key achievements of the program include the demonstration of 26%-efficient silicon concentrator solar cells with design-point (20 W/cm{sup 2}) efficiencies over 25%. High-performance front-surface passivations; that were developed to achieve this result were verified to be absolutely stable against degradation by 475 days of field exposure at twice the design concentration. SunPower demonstrated pilot production of more than 1500 of these cells. This cell technology was also applied to pilot production to supply 7000 17.7-cm{sup 2} one-sun cells (3500 yielded wafers) that demonstrated exceptional quality control. The average efficiency of 21.3% for these cells approaches the peak efficiency ever demonstrated for a single small laboratory cell within 2% (absolute). Extensive cost models were developed through this program and calibrated by the pilot-production project. The production levels achieved indicate that SunPower could produce 7-10 MW of concentrator cells per year in the current facility based upon the cell performance demonstrated during the program.

Sinton, R.A.; Verlinden, P.J.; Crane, R.A.; Swanson, R.N. [SunPower Corp., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Available Technologies: Highly Efficient Multigap Solar Cell Materials  

Scientists at Berkeley Lab have invented multiband gap semiconducting materials for developing solar cells that could achieve power conversion efficiencies of 50 ...

188

Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection  

combustion piston engine. The increased efficiency is a result of recovering heat primarily from the engine exhaust gases, and also from the engine coolant.

189

Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

structure as the host material breaks thermoelectric efficiency records by blocking thermal, but not electrical, conductivity. Significance and Impact A new strategy to design...

190

High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tools to evaluate cost and energy implications of efficiencytools to evaluate cost and energy implications of efficiencyand low first cost, not energy efficiency. Utilization of “

Singer, Brett C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Rational Device Design for Highly Efficient Organic Photovoltaic Solar Cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abundant, scalable, environmentally-friendly organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology is increasingly promising in recent years. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of OPVs has been raised to around… (more)

Yang, Bin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for efficient and meaningful sub-metering. • Develop&architecture to facilitate sub-metering • Include sub-metersintermingled, making sub-metering expensive and complicated.

Singer, Brett C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

High Efficiency Multiple-Junction Solar Cells - Energy ...  

Technology Marketing Summary Single junction solar cells have limited efficiency and fail to extract maximum energy from photons outside of a specific ...

194

Southwest Gas Corporation - Commercial High-Efficiency Equipment...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

who purchase energy efficient natural gas equipment. Eligible equipment includes natural gas storage and tankless water heaters, boiler equipment, griddles, fryers, conveyor ovens,...

195

Sandia National Laboratories High Efficiency Multiple-Junction ...  

Sandia National Laboratories TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY Single junction solar cells have limited efficiency and fail to extract maximum energy from photons outside of a specific

196

HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING  

SciTech Connect

In this second annual report we summarize the progress in the second-year period of Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High- Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has recently made significant progress in the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV), resonant-cavity LEDs (RCLEDs), as well as lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) techniques to obtain large-area non-polar GaN films with low average dislocation density. The Rensselaer team has benchmarked the performance of commercially available LED systems and has also conducted efforts to develop an optimized RCLED packaging scheme, including development of advanced epoxy encapsulant chemistries.

Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

2003-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

197

Novel Morphology of Highly Efficient Two-phase Ferrite Cores for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This discovery may very well usher in a new chapter in high efficiency power cores for high frequency inductors, transformers, power supplies, converters, and

198

EVALUATION OF A LOW FRICTION - HIGH EFFICIENCY ROLLER BEARING ENGINE  

SciTech Connect

This Low Friction (High Efficiency Roller Bearing) Engine (LFE) report presents the work done by The Timken Company to conduct a technology demonstration of the benefits of replacing hydrodynamic bearings with roller bearings in the crankshaft and camshaft assemblies of an internal combustion engine for the purpose of collecting data sufficient to prove merit. The engines in the present study have been more extensively converted to roller bearings than any previous studies (40 needle roller bearings per engine) to gain understanding of the full potential of application of bearing technology. The project plan called for comparative testing of a production vehicle which was already respected for having demonstrated low engine friction levels with a rollerized version of that engine. Testing was to include industry standard tests for friction, emissions and fuel efficiency conducted on instrumented dynamometers. Additional tests for fuel efficiency, cold start resistance and other measures of performance were to be made in the actual vehicle. Comparative measurements of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), were planned, although any work to mitigate the suspected higher NVH level in the rollerized engine was beyond the scope of this project. Timken selected the Toyota Avalon with a 3.5L V-6 engine as the test vehicle. In an attempt to minimize cost and fabrication time, a ‘made-from’ approach was proposed in which as many parts as possible would be used or modified from production parts to create the rollerized engine. Timken commissioned its test partner, FEV Engine Technology, to do a feasibility study in which they confirmed that using such an approach was possible to meet the required dimensional restrictions and tolerances. In designing the roller bearing systems for the crank and cam trains, Timken utilized as many production engine parts as possible. The crankshafts were produced from production line forgings, which use Timken steel, modified with special machining and heat treatment. Timken designed and manufactured all of the roller bearing related components such as the thrust bearing package. The production connecting rods and camshafts could not be used for the roller bearing engine, so new ones were produced according to the team’s designs using Timken steel. The remaining miscellaneous components were designed and procured by FEV. Timken prepared a display version of the crankshaft portion of the production engine without connecting rods which could be driven by a motor through a cogged-belt and electrically actuated clutch arrangement. A modified version was also made in which the engine was outfitted with roller bearings on the main bearing positions. Preliminary tests showed that the rollerized engine was running with 1/3 less friction than the standard display engine. Additional friction testing and noise characterization was cut short because of shipping damage to the rollerized engine display and because of other project priorities. The team did successfully demonstrate the ability to package roller bearings satisfactorily in numerous locations in a typical automotive engine. The scope of this project did not include durability demonstration and that subject would have to be addressed in any follow-on work. In the actual test phase, the rollerized engine did show significantly less friction in motored dynamometer tests compared to its production equivalent. The 5-10% improvement measured in this study was about half that seen in other studies. However, the fired test results did not show a reduction in friction which did not match prior experience or expectations. Subsequent teardown and inspection of the rollerized engine revealed potential sources of excessive friction in the experimental application. These features would be eliminated in a design not based on modification of production parts. The team is confident (based on experience) that friction reduction would be realized with proper modifications.

Kolarik, Robert V. II; Shattuck, Charles W.; Copper, Anthony P.

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

199

Paleoreconstruction of Particulate Organic Carbon Inputs to the High-Arctic Colville River Delta, Beaufort Sea, Alaska  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Arctic permafrosted soils represent a massive sink in the global carbon cycle, accounting for twice as much carbon as what is currently stored as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. However, with current warming trends this sink is in danger of thawing and potentially releasing large amounts of carbon as both carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere. It is difficult to make predictions about the future of this sink without knowing how it has reacted to past temperature and climate changes. This dissertation summarizes the results of the first study to look at long term, fine scale organic carbon delivery by the high-Arctic Colville River into Simpson’s Lagoon in the near-shore Beaufort Sea. Modern delivery of organic carbon to the Lagoon was determined to come from a variety of sources through the use of a three end-member mixing model and sediment biomarker concentrations. These sources include the Colville River in the western area of the Lagoon near the river mouth, marine sources in areas of the Lagoon without protective barrier islands, and coastal erosional sources and the Mackenzie River in the eastern area of the Lagoon. Downcore organic carbon delivery was measured on two cores in the Lagoon, one taken near the mouth of the Colville River (spans about 1800 years of history) and one taken on the eastern end of the Lagoon (spans about 600 years of history). Bulk organic parameters and biomarkers were measured in both cores and analyzed with Principle Component Analysis to determine long-term trends in organic carbon delivery. It was shown that at various times in the past, highly degraded organic carbon inputs of what is likely soil and peat carbon were delivered to the Lagoon. At other times, inputs of fresher, non-degraded, terrestrially-derived organic carbon inputs of what are likely higher amounts of plant and vegetative material was delivered to the Lagoon. Inputs of degraded soil carbon were also shown to correspond to higher temperatures on the North Slope of Alaska, likely indicating that warmer temperatures lead to a thawing of permafrost and in turn organic carbon mobilization to the coastal Beaufort Sea.

Schreiner, Kathryn 1983-

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Design and global optimization of high-efficiency thermophotovoltaic systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite their great promise, small experimental thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems at 1000 K generally exhibit extremely low power conversion efficiencies (approximately 1%), due to heat losses such as thermal emission of ...

Bermel, Peter A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high efficiency particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Required Materials Properties for High-Efficiency CIGS Modules: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses material properties required for each CIGS device layer so that large-area CIGS modules can achieve efficiencies of >15%, substantially higher than the current state of the art.

Repins, I.; Glynn, S.; Duenow, J.; Coutts, T. J.; Metzger, W.; Contreras, M. A.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions Combustion Technology for Manufacturing Industries  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to develop and test a transformational combustion technology for high temperature furnaces to reduce the energy intensity and carbon footprint of U.S. manufacturing industries such as steel, aluminum, glass, metal casting, and petroleum refining. A new technology based on internal and/or external Flue Gas Recirculation (FGR) along with significant enhancement in flame radiation was developed. It produces "Radiative Flameless Combustion (RFC)" and offers tremendous energy efficiency and pollutant reduction benefits over and above the now popular "flameless combustion." It will reduce the energy intensity (or fuel consumption per unit system output) by more than 50% and double the furnace productivity while significantly reducing pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions (10^3 times reduction in NOx and 10 times reduction in CO & hydrocarbons and 3 times reduction in CO2). Product quality improvements are also expected due to uniform radiation, as well as, reduction in scale/dross formation is expected because of non-oxidative atmosphere. RFC is inexpensive, easy to implement, and it was successfully tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at the University of Michigan during the course of this work. A first-ever theory with gas and particulate radiation was also developed. Numerical programs were also written to design an industrial-scale furnace. Nine papers were published (or are in the process of publication). We believe that this early stage research adequately proves the concept through laboratory experiments, modeling and computational models. All this work is presented in the published papers. Important conclusions of this work are: (1) It was proved through experimental measurements that RFC is not only feasible but a very beneficial technology. (2) Theoretical analysis of RFC was done in (a) spatially uniform strain field and (b) a planar momentum jet where the strain rate is neither prescribed nor uniform. Four important non-dimensional parameters controlling RFC in furnaces were identified. These are: (i) The Boltzmann number; (ii) The Damkohler number, (iii) The dimensionless Arrhenius number, and (iv) The equivalence ratio. Together they define the parameter space where RFC is possible. It was also found that the Damkohler number must be small for RFC to exist and that the Boltzmann number expands the RFC domain. The experimental data obtained during the course of this work agrees well with the predictions made by the theoretical analysis. Interestingly, the equivalence ratio dependence shows that it is easier to establish RFC for rich mixtures than for lean mixtures. This was also experimentally observed. Identifying the parameter space for RFC is necessary for controlling the RFC furnace operation. It is hoped that future work will enable the methodology developed here to be applied to the operation of real furnaces, with consequent improvement in efficiency and pollutant reduction. To reiterate, the new furnace combustion technology developed enables intense radiation from combustion products and has many benefits: (i) Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions; (ii) Uniform and intense radiation to substantially increase productivity; (iii) Oxygen-free atmosphere to reduce dross/scale formation; (iv) Provides multi-fuel capability; and (v) Enables carbon sequestration if pure oxygen is used for combustion.

Atreya, Arvind

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

Program on Technology Innovation: Very High Efficiency Photovoltaics Research, 2009 Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the second interim annual summary report on the collaborative activities of CNRS and EDF RD to advance the state of high-efficiency photovoltaics (PV). This activity is principally concerned with basic research to enhance longer-term prospects of very high efficiency PV, but it also includes possible nearer-term outcomes of improved conversion efficiency for existing technologies.

2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

204

SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Storage System for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Efficiency Thermal Storage System for Solar Plants to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Storage System for Solar Plants on Facebook Tweet about...

205

Fluidizing device for solid particulates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

1984-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

206

Fluidizing device for solid particulates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Golden, CO)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycles  

SciTech Connect

Carbonate fuel cells developed in commercial 2.85 MW size, have an efficiency of 57.9%. Studies of higher efficiency hybrid power cycles were conducted to identify an economically competitive system and an efficiency over 65%. A hybrid power cycle was identified that includes a direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine, and a steam cycle, which generates power at a LHV efficiency over 70%; it is called a Tandem Technology Cycle (TTC). In a TTC operating on natural gas fuel, 95% of the fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for reforming the fuel, and flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell system which generates 72% of the power. The portion of fuel cell anode exhaust not recycled, is burned and heat is transferred to compressed air from a gas turbine, heating it to 1800 F. The stream is then heated to 2000 F in gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 13% of the power. Half the gas turbine exhaust flows to anode exhaust burner and the rest flows to the fuel cell cathodes providing the O2 and CO2 needed in the electrochemical reaction. Studies of the TTC for 200 and 20 MW size plants quantified performance, emissions and cost-of-electricity, and compared the TTC to gas turbine combined cycles. A 200-MW TTC plant has an efficiency of 72.6%; estimated cost of electricity is 45.8 mills/kWhr. A 20-MW TTC plant has an efficiency of 65.2% and a cost of electricity of 50 mills/kWhr.

Steinfeld, G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

208

Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

209

High-Efficiency, High-Capacity, Low-NOx Aluminum Melting Using Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development and application of a novel oxygen enhanced combustion system with an integrated vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) oxygen supply providing efficient, low NOx melting in secondary aluminum furnaces. The mainstay of the combustion system is a novel air-oxy-natural gas burner that achieves high productivity and energy efficiency with low NOx emissions through advanced mixing concepts and the use of separate high- and low-purity oxidizer streams. The technology was installed on a reverberatory, secondary aluminum melting plant at the Wabash Aluminum Alloy's Syracuse, N.Y. plant, where it is currently in operation. Field testing gave evidence that the new burner technology meets the stringent NOx emissions target of 0.323 lb NO2/ton aluminum, thus complying with regulations promulgated by Southern California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). Test results also indicated that the burner technology exceeded fuel efficiency and melting capacity goals. Economic modeling showed that the novel air-oxy-fuel (ADF) combustion technology provides a substantial increase in furnace profitability relative to air-fuel operation. Model results also suggest favorable economics for the air-oxy-fuel technology relative to a full oxy-fuel conversion of the furnace.

D'Agostini, M.D.

2000-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

210

High efficiency thin-film multiple-gap photovoltaic device  

SciTech Connect

A photovoltaic device includes at least two solar cells made from Group IV elements or their alloys in the amorphous state mounted on a substrate. The outermost or first cell has a larger bandgap than the second cell. Various techniques are utilized to improve the efficiency of the device.

Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

212

Small core axial compressors for high efficiency jet aircraft  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis quantifies mechanisms that limit efficiency in small core axial compressors, defined here as compressor exit corrected flow between 1.5 and 3.0 lbm/s. The first part of the thesis describes why a small engine ...

DiOrio, Austin Graf

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Power Efficiency in High Performance Computing Shoaib Kamil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of 192 cores per cabinet. The power feed to each cabinet is 208 VAC 3-phase and is capable of handling 25 KW per rack. Each cabinet has a single 92 percent efficient power supply at the bottom of the rack system performance (ssp) metric. LBNL Tech Report 58868, 2005. [13] L. Oliker, A. Canning, J. Carter, J

214

High-efficiency large-area CdTe panels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this three year effort has been to develop an improved materials technology and fabrication process for limited volume production of 1 ft{sup 2} and 4 ft{sup 2} CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules. The module stability objective by the end of this three year subcontract was to develop techniques to provide ten year life exploration with no greater than 10% degradation. In order to achieve these efficiency and stability objectives, the research program has been separated into tasks including: (1) analysis and characterization of CdS/CdTe Devices; (2) performance optimization on small cells; (3) encapsulation and stability testing; and (4) module efficiency optimization. 27 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Jordan, J.F. (Photon Energy, Inc., El Paso, TX (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

High-efficiency free-electron laser results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results obtained with a tapered-wiggler free-electron laser demonstrate the concepts proposed by Morton for enhanced efficiency and show deceleration of electrons by as much as 7%, and extraction of more than 3% of the total electron-beam energy as laser energy when the laser is operated as an amplifier. The experiment is presently being reconfigured to examine its performance as a laser oscillator.

Boyer, K.; Baru, C.A.; Newnam, B.E.; Stein, W.E.; Warren, R.W.; Winston, J.G.; Young, L.M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a road map for improving the energy efficiency of hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The report compiles input from a broad array of experts in healthcare facility design and operations. The initial section lists challenges and barriers to efficiency improvements in healthcare. Opportunities are organized around the following ten themes: understanding and benchmarking energy use; best practices and training; codes and standards; improved utilization of existing HVAC designs and technology; innovation in HVAC design and technology; electrical system design; lighting; medical equipment and process loads; economic and organizational issues; and the design of next generation sustainable hospitals. Achieving energy efficiency will require a broad set of activities including research, development, deployment, demonstration, training, etc., organized around 48 specific objectives. Specific activities are prioritized in consideration of potential impact, likelihood of near- or mid-term feasibility and anticipated cost-effectiveness. This document is intended to be broad in consideration though not exhaustive. Opportunities and needs are identified and described with the goal of focusing efforts and resources.

Singer, Brett C.; Tschudi, William F.

2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

217

Quantum Dot Solar Cells: High Efficiency through Multiple Exciton Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Impact ionization is a process in which absorbed photons in semiconductors that are at least twice the bandgap can produce multiple electron-hole pairs. For single-bandgap photovoltaic devices, this effect produces greatly enhanced theoretical thermodynamic conversion efficiencies that range from 45-85%, depending upon solar concentration, the cell temperature, and the number of electron-hole pairs produced per photon. For quantum dots (QDs), electron-hole pairs exist as excitons. We have observed astoundingly efficient multiple exciton generation (MEG) in QDs of PbSe (bulk Eg = 0.28 eV), ranging in diameter from 3.9 to 5.7nm (Eg = 0.73, 0.82, and 0.91 eV, respectively). The effective masses of electron and holes are about equal in PbSe, and the onset for efficient MEG occurs at about three times the QD HOMO-LUMO transition (its ''bandgap''). The quantum yield rises quickly after the onset and reaches 300% at 4 x Eg (3.64 eV) for the smallest QD; this means that every QD in the sample produces three electron-hole pairs/photon.

Hanna, M. C.; Ellingson, R. J.; Beard, M.; Yu, P.; Micic, O. I.; Nozik, A. J.; c.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Design and global optimization of high-efficiency solar thermal systems with tungsten cermets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar thermal, thermoelectric, and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems have high maximum theoretical efficiencies; experimental systems fall short because of losses by selective solar absorbers and TPV selective emitters. To ...

Chester, David A.

219

Alloy Design of 9% Cr Steel for High Efficiency Ultra-Supercritical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Alloy Design of 9% Cr Steel for High Efficiency Ultra- Supercritical Power Plants. Author(s), Fujio Abe. On-Site Speaker (Planned), Fujio Abe.

220

Scientists Confirm Robustness of Key Component in Ultra-High-Efficiency Solar Cell (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Scientists developed and tested a new, stable 1-eV metamorphic junction for a high efficiency multijunction III-V solar cell for CPV application.

Not Available

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high efficiency particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

High-Efficiency Solar Cells for Large-Scale Electricity Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One strategy for helping the solar industry to grow faster is to use very high efficiency cells under concentrating optics. By using lenses or mirrors to concentrate the light, very small solar cells can be used, reducing the amount of semiconductor material and allowing use of higher efficiency cells, which are now >40% efficient.

Kurtz, S.; Olson, J.; Geisz, J.; Friedman, D.; McMahon, W.; Ptak, A.; Wanlass, M.; Kibbler, A.; Kramer, C.; Bertness, K.; Ward, S.; Duda, A.; Young, M.; Carapella, J.; Steiner, M.

2008-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

222

Highly efficient photochemical HCOOH production from CO{sub 2} and water using an inorganic system  

SciTech Connect

We have constructed a system that uses solar energy to react CO{sub 2} with water to generate formic acid (HCOOH) at an energy conversion efficiency of 0.15%. It consists of an AlGaN/GaN anode photoelectrode and indium (In) cathode that are electrically connected outside of the reactor cell. High energy conversion efficiency is realized due to a high quantum efficiency of 28% at 300 nm, attributable to efficient electron-hole separation in the semiconductor's heterostructure. The efficiency is close to that of natural photosynthesis in plants, and what is more, the reaction product (HCOOH) can be used as a renewable energy source.

Yotsuhashi, Satoshi; Hashiba, Hiroshi; Deguchi, Masahiro; Zenitani, Yuji; Hinogami, Reiko; Yamada, Yuka [Advanced Technology Research Laboratory, Panasonic Corporation, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Deura, Momoko; Ohkawa, Kazuhiro [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

223

High-efficiency solar cells using HEM silicon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Developments in Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) technology for production of multicrystalline silicon ingot production have led to growth of larger ingots (55 cm square cross section) with lower costs and reliability in production. A single reusable crucible has been used to produce 18 multicrystalline 33 cm square cross section 40 kg ingots, and capability to produce 44 cm ingots has been demonstrated. Large area solar cells of 16.3% (42 cm{sup 2}) and 15.3% (100 cm{sup 2}) efficiency have been produced without optimization of the material production and the solar cell processing.

Khattak, C.P.; Schmid, F. [Crystal Systems, Inc., Salem, MA (United States); Schubert, W.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

224

High efficiency fuel cell/advanced turbine power cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The following figures are included: Westinghouse (W.) SOFC pilot manufacturing facility; cell scale-up plan; W. 25 kW SOFC unit at the utility`s facility on Rokko Island; pressure effect on SOFC power and efficiency; SureCELL{trademark} vs conventional gas turbine plants; SureCELL{trademark} product line for distributed power applications; 20 MW pressurized SOFC/gas turbine power plant; 10 MW SOFT/CT power plant; SureCELL{trademark} plant concept design requirements; and W. SOFC market entry.

Morehead, H.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

225

High Efficiency Gas Turbines Overcome Cogeneration Project Feasibility Hurdles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cogeneration project feasibility sometimes fails during early planning stages due to an electrical cycle efficiency which could be improved through the use of aeroderivative gas turbine engines. The aeroderivative engine offers greater degrees of freedom in terms of power augmentation through steam injection, NOx control without selective catalytic reduction, (SCR), reduced down time during maintenance and dispatchability. Other factors influencing enhanced aeroderivative economics are complete generator set packaging at the factory and full string testing before the delivery. A wide variety of hosts, including institutions, utilities, municipalities and industrial factories are observing that their cogeneration projects move faster by implementing aeroderivative gas turbine generation packages.

King, J.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Current-matched high-efficiency, multijunction monolithic solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The efficiency of a two-junction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic device is improved by adjusting (decreasing) the top cell thickness to achieve current matching. An example of the invention was fabricated out of Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P and GaAs. Additional lattice-matched systems to which the invention pertains include Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x /GaAS (x= 0.3-0.4), GaAs/Ge and Ga.sub.y In.sub.l-y P/Ga.sub.y+0.5 In.sub.0.5-y As (0

Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Kurtz, Sarah R. (Golden, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Efficient CO2 Fixation Pathways: Energy Plant: High Efficiency Photosynthetic Organisms  

SciTech Connect

PETRO Project: UCLA is redesigning the carbon fixation pathways of plants to make them more efficient at capturing the energy in sunlight. Carbon fixation is the key process that plants use to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere into higher energy molecules (such as sugars) using energy from the sun. UCLA is addressing the inefficiency of the process through an alternative biochemical pathway that uses 50% less energy than the pathway used by all land plants. In addition, instead of producing sugars, UCLA’s designer pathway will produce pyruvate, the precursor of choice for a wide variety of liquid fuels. Theoretically, the new biochemical pathway will allow a plant to capture 200% as much CO2 using the same amount of light. The pathways will first be tested on model photosynthetic organisms and later incorporated into other plants, thus dramatically improving the productivity of both food and fuel crops.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Void/particulate detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for detecting voids and particulates in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe may comprise: (a) a transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal into the stream, coupled to the pipe at a first location; (b) a second transducer for detecting the through-transmission of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a second location; (c) a third transducer for detecting the back-scattering of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a third location, said third location being upstream from said first location; (d) circuit means for normalizing the back-scattered signal from said third transducer to the through-transmitted signal from said second transducer; which normalized signal provides a measure of the voids and particulates flowing past said first location.

Claytor, T.N.; Karplus, H.B.

1983-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

229

Rigid particulate matter sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

230

Regenerable particulate filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making a three-dimensional lattice structure, such as a filter used to remove particulates from a gas stream, where the physical lattice structure is designed utilizing software simulation from pre-defined mass transfer and flow characteristics and the designed lattice structure is fabricated using a free-form fabrication manufacturing technique, where the periodic lattice structure is comprised of individual geometric elements.

Stuecker, John N. (Albuquerque, NM); Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, James E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

231

Optimization of high-performance superscalar architectures for energy efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years reducing power has become a critical design goal for high-performance microprocessors. This work attempts to bring the power issue to the earliest phase of high-performance microprocessor development. We propose a methodology for power-optimization ...

V. Zyuban; P. Kogge

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

High-efficiency spectral purity filter for EUV lithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An asymmetric-cut multilayer diffracts EUV light. A multilayer cut at an angle has the same properties as a blazed grating, and has been demonstrated to have near-perfect performance. Instead of having to nano-fabricate a grating structure with imperfections no greater than several tens of nanometers, a thick multilayer is grown on a substrate and then cut at an inclined angle using coarse and inexpensive methods. Effective grating periods can be produced this way that are 10 to 100 times smaller than those produced today, and the diffraction efficiency of these asymmetric multilayers is higher than conventional gratings. Besides their ease of manufacture, the use of an asymmetric multilayer as a spectral purity filter does not require that the design of an EUV optical system be modified in any way, unlike the proposed use of blazed gratings for such systems.

Chapman, Henry N. (Livermore, CA)

2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

233

High efficiency coaxial klystron-like relativistic backward wave oscillator with a premodulation cavity  

SciTech Connect

The klystron-like relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) combines the transition radiation with Cerenkov radiation and has demonstrated microwave output of high power and high efficiency. The coaxial slow wave structure device can produce microwave with a lower frequency in a smaller cross section. For the purpose of high efficiency, low frequency, and miniaturization, a coaxial klystron-like RBWO with a premodulation cavity is presented. Particle-in-cell simulations show that a microwave with power of 1.15 GW and frequency of 2.1 GHz is generated with conversion efficiency of 48%, whereas for the device with a reflector, the efficiency is 38%.

Xiao Renzhen; Teng Yan; Chen Changhua; Sun Jun [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

234

Program on Technology Innovation: Very High Efficiency Photovoltaics Research at IRDEP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is an interim report on the collaborative activities of Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and Electricité de France (EDF) R&D to advance the state of high-efficiency photovoltaics (PV). These efforts are principally concerned with basic research to enhance the longer-term prospects of very high-efficiency PV, but they may also produce nearer-term outcomes in the shape of improved conversion efficiency for existing technologies.

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

235

High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

June 15, 2013 | Singh * Thermal modeling will be conducted to establish the benefits of using a high thermal conducting graphite foams in conjunction with PCM and to develop a...

236

City of High Point Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of High Point. In order to qualify, the heat pump must be between 1 and 5 tons, have a SEER rating of 14 or more, and be installed by an authorizedlicensed electrical or HVAC...

237

Highly Efficient Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Using Graphene ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A30: Study on Super Stable All-solid-state Battery at High Temperature · A3: Investigation on Co-combustion Kinetics of Anthracite Coal and Biomass Char by  ...

238

Towards a high-efficiency micro-thermophotovoltaic generator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon fuels have such a high energy density that even a relatively inefficient converter of chemical energy into electrical can significantly exceed the energy density of state- of-the-art batteries. This work attempts ...

Walker, Chan (Walker R.)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Brian E soluble energy relay dyes with high molar extinction coefficients. KEYWORDS Solar cell, energy transfer-sensitized solar cells, the excited ERDs must be able to efficiently transfer energy to the sensitizing dyes

McGehee, Michael

240

Highly-efficient noise-assisted energy transport in classical oscillator systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photosynthesis is a biological process that involves the highly-efficient transport of energy captured from the sun to a reaction center, where conversion into useful biochemical energy takes place. Even though one can always use a quantum perspective to describe any physical process, since everything follows the laws of Quantum Mechanics, is the use of quantum theory imperative to explain this high efficiency? Several theoretical studies suggest that the high efficiency can only be understood as a result of the interplay between the quantum coherent evolution of the photosynthetic system, and noise introduced by its surrounding environment. Notwithstanding, we show here that noise-assisted highly-efficient energy transport can be found as well in purely classical systems; therefore, we might conclude that high efficiency energy transfer in photosynthetic systems could also be anticipated by classical models, without the need to resorting to quantum effects. Strikingly, the wider scope of applicability of the...

León-Montiel, R de J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high efficiency particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A high-efficiency indirect lighting system utilizing the solar 1000 sulfur lamp  

SciTech Connect

High-lumen light sources represent unique challenges and opportunities for the design of practical and efficient interior lighting systems. High-output sources require a means of large-scale distribution and avoidance of high-luminance glare while providing efficient delivery. An indirect lighting system has been developed for use with a 1,000 Watt sulfur lamp that efficiently utilizes the high-output source to provide quality interior lighting. This paper briefly describes the design and initial testing of this new system.

Siminovitch, M.; Gould, C.; Page, E.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Power efficiency for very high temperature solar thermal cavity receivers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is an improved solar energy cavity receiver for exposing materials and components to high temperatures. The receiver includes a housing having an internal reflective surface defining a cavity and having an inlet for admitting solar radiation thereto. A photothermal absorber is positioned in the cavity to receive radiation from the inlet. A reflective baffle is positioned between the absorber and the inlet to severely restrict the re-radiation of energy through the inlet. The front surface of the baffle defines a narrow annulus with the internal reflective surface of the housing. The front surface of the baffle is contoured to reflect incoming radiation onto the internal surface of the housing, from which it is reflected through the annulus and onto the front surface of the absorber. The back surface of the baffle intercepts infrared radiation from the front of the absorber. With this arrangement, a high percentage of the solar power input is retained in the cavity; thus, high internal temperatures are attained.

McDougal, Allan R. (LaCanada-Flintridge, CA); Hale, Robert R. (Upland, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

An Introduction to Particulate Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Fiscal Year 2014. Title An Introduction to Particulate Matter Publication Type Book Chapter Year of Publication 2009 Authors Prisco, Joe, Rich Hill, Pam Lembke, D. Moore,...

244

New III-V cell design approaches for very high efficiency  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes to examine new solar cell desip approaches for achieving very high conversion efficiencies. The program consists of two elements. The first centers on exploring new thin-film approaches specifically designed for M-III semiconductors. Substantial efficiency gains may be possible by employing light trapping techniques to confine the incident photons, as well as the photons emitted by radiative recombination. The thin-film approach is a promising route for achieving substantial performance improvements in the already high-efficiency, single-junction, III-V cell. The second element of the research involves exploring desip approaches for achieving high conversion efficiencies without requiring extremely high-quality material. This work has applications to multiple-junction cells, for which the selection of a component cell often involves a compromise between optimum band pp and optimum material quality. It could also be a benefit manufacturing environment by making the cell's efficiency less dependent on materialquality.

Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Lush, G.B.; Patkar, M.P.; Young, M.P. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Development of high efficiency collector plates. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Composite metal technology was used to manufacture intermetallic compound (IC) absorption surfaces and to combine them integrally with composite metal tube-in-sheet collector plates. Five material systems in which Al was one component metal and Fe, Cr, or Ni and their alloy was the other pair, were evaluated. All intermetallic compounds had high solar absorptance ..cap alpha.. approx. = 0.9. The AlNi was most promising and ..cap alpha.. > or = 0.95 and epsilon approx. = 0.3 were obtained over a broad range of compounding conditions. After eight months exposure in a flat plate collector enclosure the characteristic properties of AlNi surfaces remained virtually unchanged. Only LCS/Cu composite metal tube-in-sheet collector plates could be manufactured successfully. The technical difficulties associated with integrating the intermetallic compound and tube-in-sheet technologies make the manufacturing of composite metal collector plates at the time being economically unfeasible.

Santala, T.; Sabol, R.

1976-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

April 15. 2013 | Singh April 15. 2013 | Singh * Thermal modeling will be conducted to establish the benefits of using a high thermal conducting graphite foams in conjunction with PCM and to develop a design for a laboratory scale prototype. * Variety of characterizations will be carried out to qualify the materials (PCMs, alloys, coatings) for the prototype construction. * Process to infiltrate selected PCM into the foam will be developed. * Using the appropriate brazing/joining techniques, prototype will be assembled. * Performance testing of the TES system prototype to ensure a full- scale system will meet the SunShot goals. * Complete cost analysis of the proposed TES system * Complete laboratory scale prototype design * Develop SiC coating using polycarbosilanes for graphite

247

Plasma Aftertreatment for Simultaneous Control of NOx and Particulates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Plasma reactors can be operated as a particulate trap or as a NO{sub x} converter. The soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the trapped particulates can be utilized for the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}. The NO{sub 2} can then be used to non-thermally oxidize the carbon fraction of the particulates. This paper examines the energy density required for oxidation of the SOF hydrocarbons and the fate of NO{sub 2} during the oxidation of the particulate carbon. The energy density required for complete oxidation of the SOF hydrocarbons is shown to be unacceptably large. The reaction of NO{sub 2} with carbon is shown to lead mainly to backconversion of NO{sub 2} to NO. These results suggest that the use of a catalyst in combination with the plasma will be required to efficiently reduce the NO{sub x} and oxidize the SOF hydrocarbons.

Penetrante, B.M.; Brusasco, R.M.; Merritt, B.T.; Pitz, W.J.; Vogtlin, G.E.

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

248

New approaches for high-efficiency solar cells. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the activities carried out in this subcontract. These activities cover, first the atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) growth of GaAs, AlGaAs and InGaP at fairly low growth temperatures. This was followed by using ALE to achieve high levels of doping both n-type and p-type required for tunnel junctions (Tj) in the cascade solar cell structures. Then the authors studied the properties of AlGaAs/InGaP and AlGaAs/GaAs tunnel junctions and their performances at different growth conditions. This is followed by the use of these tunnel junctions in stacked solar cell structures. The effect of these tunnel junctions on the performance of stacked solar cells was studied at different temperatures and different solar fluences. Finally, the authors studied the effect of different types of black surface fields (BSF), both p/n and n/p GaInP solar cell structures, and their potential for window layer applications. Parts of these activities were carried in close cooperation with Dr. Mike Timmons of the Research Triangle Institute.

Bedair, S.M.; El-Masry, N.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Kieffer Paper Mill's Recycled Fiber Mill and PSI Energy's High Efficiency Motors Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The needs of electricity consumers along with the utility industry are rapidly changing. Consumers want electricity to perform more functions, improve efficiencies and help lower the cost of production, all in an environmentally responsible manner. In 1991, PSI Energy developed a comprehensive Demand-Side Management program, called Energy Matters™, aimed at improving the overall end-use efficiency of its customers. Its goal is to reduce summer peak demand 120 megawatts by the summer of 1995. Kieffer Paper Mills in Brownstown, IN had a need to address the efficiency of its new, state-of-the-art pulp processing mill that it was building. With over 4,000 horsepower of process motors going into the new plant, even a modest improvement in motor efficiency would yield significant energy savings. PSI Energy was able to help Kieffer examine the economics of high efficiency motors, and through the PSI Energy High Efficiency Motors Plan encouraged Kieffer Paper Mills to purchase energy efficient motors by helping pay part of the cost differential between high efficiency and standard efficiency models.

Myers, J. A.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Spatial and temporal distributions of particulate matter and particulate organic carbon, Northeast Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The distribution of particulate matter (PM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) was determined during the Northeast Gulf of Mexico Chemical Oceanography and Hydro-graphy program (NEGOM). The hydrography and physical forcing functions were examined to explain particulate matter distribution. PM and POC were determined for discrete samples, and PM was also compared with in situ beam attenuation measure-ments in order to make estimations of continuous particle concentration profiles. Measurements were made three times per year for three years, during 1997-1998, 1998-1999, and 1999-2000, but only the first two years' worth of results are reported here. PM distributions vary seasonally and interannually. General patterns tend to be fairly consistent spatially and temporally during fall and spring, but intensity changes accord-ing to season. Differences present at the surface appear to be due mainly to riverine input of nutrients and particles from the several major rivers that flow into the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Wind-forced circulation appears to be a minor influence on surface particulate distribution. Secondary eddies can have an effect upon distribution, as seen with an anticyclonic feature over the upper slope during Summer 1998 which entrained less saline, high particulate river water offshore. A similar effect was noted during Summer 1999, but to a lesser degree. A shelf edge current associated with anticyclonic flow seems to be a mechanism responsible for the appearance of nepheloid layers on the outer shelf.

Bernal, Christina Estefana

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

High efficiency wideband envelope tracking power amplifier for next-generation wireless communications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

maximum gate-to-source voltage requirements of the switcherthis high supply voltage requirement, 0.35-µm 30 V N-channelvoltage envelope amplifier efficiency of 72%, and the linearity requirements

Kwak, Myoungbo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

SunShot Initiative: Development and Productization of High-Efficiency,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development and Productization of Development and Productization of High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Building-Integrated PV Shingles Using Monocrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Development and Productization of High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Building-Integrated PV Shingles Using Monocrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Development and Productization of High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Building-Integrated PV Shingles Using Monocrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Development and Productization of High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Building-Integrated PV Shingles Using Monocrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Development and Productization of

253

High-efficiency second-harmonic generation in doubly-resonant ?[superscript (2)] microring resonators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By directly simulating Maxwell’s equations via the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we numerically demonstrate the possibility of achieving high-efficiency second harmonic generation (SHG) in a structure ...

Bi, Zhuan-Fang

254

High efficiency resonant dc/dc converter for solar power applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a new topology for a high efficiency dc/dc resonant power converter that utilizes a resistance compression network to provide simultaneous zero voltage switching and near zero current switching across ...

Inam, Wardah

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

High-Efficiency 6?? Multicrystalline Black Solar Cells Based on Metal-Nanoparticle-Assisted Chemical Etching  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) photovoltaic (PV) solar cells with nanoscale surface texturing by metal-nanoparticle-assisted etching are proposed to achieve high power efficiency. The investigation of average nanorod ...

Hsu, W. Chuck

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Full-Spectrum Semiconducting Material for Affordable, Highly Efficient Solar Cells  

Wladyslaw Walukiewicz and Kin Man Yu of Berkeley Lab have designed a new semiconducting material that will enable the fabrication of high efficiency solar cells at a fraction of the price of other technologies. 

257

Nonlinear Transmission Impairments in High-Spectral Efficiency Fiber-Optic Communications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and K. Higuma, "25.6-Tb/s WDM Transmission of Polarization-High-spectral-efficiency transmission systems," in OpticalFujita, "100-Gb/s DQPSK Transmission Experiment Without OTDM

Wang, Yi-Hsiang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Conversion Tower for Dispatchable Solar Power: High-Efficiency Solar-Electric Conversion Power Tower  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HEATS Project: Abengoa Solar is developing a high-efficiency solar-electric conversion tower to enable low-cost, fully dispatchable solar energy generation. Abengoa’s conversion tower utilizes new system architecture and a two-phase thermal energy storage media with an efficient supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) power cycle. The company is using a high-temperature heat-transfer fluid with a phase change in between its hot and cold operating temperature. The fluid serves as a heat storage material and is cheaper and more efficient than conventional heat-storage materials, like molten salt. It also allows the use of a high heat flux solar receiver, advanced high thermal energy density storage, and more efficient power cycles.

None

2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

259

An efficient fixed-point IMDCT algorithm for high-resolution audio appliances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose an efficient fixed-point IMDCT algorithm for high-resolution audio (or audio/video) appliances such as digital media receiver (DMR) and high-end portable media player (PMP). A novel block floating-point algorithm and a method ... Keywords: High-resolution audio, IMDCT, block floating-point, guard bits

Byoung Eul Kim; Jin-Yong Chung; Sun-Young Hwang

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Distillation: Energy Savings and Other Benefits From the Use of High Efficiency Packings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A great deal of attention has been focused lately on the use of high-efficiency packings for distillation applications. This paper discusses benefits that can be derived from the use of these devices. In particular, the reduction in energy requirements for a given separation is addressed for both new and retrofit applications. Pressure loss and product decomposition are also considered, and the basis for an alternative analysis is established. An example is shown in which an existing distillation tray column is retrofitted with a high-efficiency packing. The process advantages achieved, including energy savings, are discussed, as well as the factors governing the selection of the packing. The current limitations on design models for high-efficiency packings with respect to mass transfer efficiency, pressure drop, and capacity in distillation are mentioned briefly. Finally, the applications of these devices to alternative technologies such as liquid-liquid extraction are discussed.

Bravo, J. L.; Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high efficiency particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. An additional task was included in this project to evaluate mercury oxidation upstream of a dry scrubber by using mercury oxidants. This project demonstrated at the pilot-scale level a technology that provides a cost-effective technique to control mercury and, at the same time, greatly enhances fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution for improved fine particulate control combined with effective mercury control for a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Opening New Avenues for High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Coal Gasification |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Opening New Avenues for High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Coal Opening New Avenues for High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Coal Gasification Opening New Avenues for High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Coal Gasification April 10, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis A rendering of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne high pressure, dry-solids feed pump. A rendering of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne high pressure, dry-solids feed pump. Washington, DC - Gasification. It's a versatile technology that uses coal to produce power, chemicals, and fuels. Inherently low in air emissions, solid byproducts, and wastewater, commercial gasification plants have proven capable of exceeding the most stringent regulations for air- and solids-emissions. However, capital and operational costs have prohibited the widespread adoption of gasification, especially for power

263

High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

Antoniadis, H.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Research on stable, high-efficiency, large-area amorphous silicon based modules -- Task B  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents progress in developing a stable, high- efficiency, four-terminal hybrid tandem module. The module consists of a semi-transparent, thin-film silicon:hydrogen alloy (TFS) top circuit and a copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}) bottom circuit. Film deposition and patterning processes were successfully extended to 0.4-m{sup 2} substrates. A 33.2-W (8.4% efficient) module with a 3970-cm{sup 2} aperture area and a white back reflector was demonstrated; without the back reflector, the module produced 30.2 W (7.6% efficient). Placing a laminated, 31.6-W, 8.1%-efficient CuInSe{sub 2} module underneath this TFS module, with an air gap between the two, produces 11.2 W (2.9% efficient) over a 3883-cm{sup 2} aperture area. Therefore, the four-terminal tandem power output is 41.4 W, translating to a 10.5% aperture-area efficiency. Subsequently, a 37.8-W (9.7% aperture-area efficiency) CuInSe{sub 2} module was demonstrated with a 3905-cm{sup 2} aperture area. Future performances of single-junction and tandem modules of this size were modeled, and predicted power outputs exceed 50 W (13% efficient) for CuInSe{sub 2} and 65 W (17% efficient) for TFS/CuInSe{sub 2} tandem modules.

Mitchell, K.W.; Willet, D.R. (Siemens Solar Industries, Camarillo, CA (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Particulate control for coal-fueled diesel engine exhaust  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Core Separator is a cylindrical vessel having one tangential inlet and two outlets at the opposite end of the vessel. It contains an outlet for the clean flow and a second outlet for the recirculating flow. The solids-laden flue gas is introduced through a fan to the inlet of the Core Separator. Due to the swirling motion of the flow, solids move to the periphery as the central jet leaving the system through the central outlet is cleaned of particulates. The peripheral flow with most of the particles is exhausted to the cyclone and then recirculates back to the Core Separator by means of the fan. The processes of separation and solids collection are accomplished separately and in different components. The Core Separator cleans the flow discharged from the system and detains solids within the system If the Core Separator efficiency is high enough, particles cannot leave the system. They recirculate again and again until the cyclone finally collects them for removal. An analytical formula can be derived that defines the system performance. E = E{sub c}E{sub s}/1{minus}E{sub s}(1{minus}E{sub c}), where E, E{sub c}, and E{sub s} are the system, collector, and Core Separator partial separation efficiencies respectively. Examination of this equation shows that the system efficiency remains high even with poor performance in the collector, as long as the efficiency of the Core Separator is high. For example, if E{sub s} is 99% and E{sub c} is 30%, the system efficiency is 96.7%.

Smolensky, L.A.; Easom, B.H.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

New III-V cell design approaches for very high efficiency  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes progress during the first year of a three-year project. The objective of the research is to examine new design approaches for achieving very high conversion efficiencies. The program is divided into two areas. The first centers on exploring new thin-film approaches specifically designed for III-V semiconductors. The second area centers on exploring design approaches for achieving high conversion efficiencies without requiring extremely high quality material. Research activities consisted of an experimental study of minority carrier recombination in n-type, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-deposited GaAs, an assessment of the minority carrier lifetimes in n-GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and developing a high-efficiency cell fabrication process.

Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Lush, G.B.; O'Bradovich, G.J.; Young, M.P. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy (interfaces are everywhere) but the charges' journey as precarious (interfaces are everywhere). Instead, using a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy techniques, researchers have found that excitons may actually not fare so well in mixed domains but need access to pure aggregates to efficiently convert into charges. The smaller the aggregates, the better, allowing increased interfacial area and dramatic increases in device performance.

268

The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy (interfaces are everywhere) but the charges' journey as precarious (interfaces are everywhere). Instead, using a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy techniques, researchers have found that excitons may actually not fare so well in mixed domains but need access to pure aggregates to efficiently convert into charges. The smaller the aggregates, the better, allowing increased interfacial area and dramatic increases in device performance.

269

The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy (interfaces are everywhere) but the charges' journey as precarious (interfaces are everywhere). Instead, using a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy techniques, researchers have found that excitons may actually not fare so well in mixed domains but need access to pure aggregates to efficiently convert into charges. The smaller the aggregates, the better, allowing increased interfacial area and dramatic increases in device performance.

270

Time-domain approach to energy efficiency in high-performance network element design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy efficiency is a corner stone of sustainability in data center and high-performance networking. However, at present there is a notable structural mismatch between network silicon development targets and network equipment utilization patterns in the field. In particular, some aspects of network energy utilization (eg load-proportional energy consumption) routinely stay out of focus during system design and implementation. Drawing from hands-on research and development in high-speed and grid networking, we identify a novel approach to energy efficiency in network engineering. In this paper, we demonstrate how the problem of efficient network system design can be dissected into smaller sections based on timescales of traffic processing. The newly proposed approach allows R&D efforts to be tightly paired to resources and sustainability targets to improve energy efficiency in many classes of network and telecom devices.

Kharitonov, Daniel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Highly-Efficient Thermoelectronic Conversion of Solar Energy and Heat into Electric Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric power may, in principle, be generated in a highly efficient manner from heat created by focused solar irradiation, chemical combustion, or nuclear decay by means of thermionic energy conversion. As the conversion efficiency of the thermionic process tends to be degraded by electron space charges, the efficiencies of thermionic generators have amounted to only a fraction of those fundamentally possible. We show that this space-charge problem can be resolved by shaping the electric potential distribution of the converter such that the static electron space-charge clouds are transformed into an output current. Although the technical development of practical generators will require further substantial efforts, we conclude that a highly efficient transformation of heat to electric power may well be achieved.

Meir, S; Geballe, T H; Mannhart, J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Developing a Highly Efficient Multi-use Special Economic Zone in India  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Developing a Highly Efficient Multi-use Special Economic Zone in India Developing a Highly Efficient Multi-use Special Economic Zone in India Speaker(s): Jagadeesh Taluri Kushboo Modgil Date: June 3, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 LBNL is collaborating with Metro Valley to create the most energy efficient built environment in India. The proposed project is an ITES (Information Technology Enabled Services) Special Economic Zone which is a multi-tenanted campus consisting of work and support spaces for companies involved in research or knowledge processing. The goal of the project reaches beyond an energy efficient built environment for the Knowledge Industry to sustainability in the broadest sense: a sustainable environment, not just from the point of view of energy consumption, but also relative to the people who use it, the organizations that inhabit it,

273

Just the Basics: Particulate Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is Particulate is Particulate Matter? One of the major components of air pollution is particulate matter, or PM. PM refers to airborne particles that include dust, dirt, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. These particles can range in size from microscopic to large enough to be seen. PM is characterized by its size, with fine particles of less than 2.5 micrometers in size designated as PM 2.5 and coarser particles between 2.5 and 10 micrometers in size designated as PM 10 . PM arises from many sources, including combustion occurring in factories, power plants, cars, trucks, buses, trains, or wood fires; or through simple agitation of existing particulates by tilling of land, quarrying and stone-crushing, and off- road vehicular movement. Of particular interest is PM generated during diesel

274

Highly efficient coupling of photons from nanoemitters into single-mode optical fibers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Highly efficient coupling of photons from nanoemitters into single-mode optical fibers is demonstrated using tapered fibers. 7.4 +/- 1.2 % of the total emitted photons from single CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals were coupled into a 300-nm-diameter tapered fiber. The dependence of the coupling efficiency on the taper diameter was investigated and the coupling efficiency was found to increase exponentially with decreasing diameter. This method is very promising for nanoparticle sensing and single-photon sources.

Masazumi Fujiwara; Kiyota Toubaru; Tetsuya Noda; Hong-Quan Zhao; Shigeki Takeuchi

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

275

Program on Technology Innovation: High- Efficiency Photovoltaic Research at IRDEP, 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

 This report describes the advances of the High-Efficiency Photovoltaic (HEPV) program during 2011. The report focuses on the technical advances in the "up-conversion" program, addressing compounds with improved PV energy-conversion potential. Up-conversion uses materials with special optical properties to convert infrared light that cannot be used by standard PV cells into visible light that the cells can efficiently convert to electricity. Results of experiments on up-conversion ...

2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

276

ENGINEERED ELECTRODES AND ELECTRODE-ORGANIC INTERFACES FOR HIGH-EFFICIENCY ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells offer the ultimate promise of low cost, readily manufacturable, and durable solar power. While recent advances have led to cells with impressive performance levels, OPV cells have yet to break the double-digit efficiency barrier. Further gains in efficiency and durability, to that competitive with high-performance inorganic photovoltaics will require breakthroughs in transparent electrode and interfacial materials science and engineering. This project involved an integrated basic research effort carried out by an experienced and highly collaborative interdisciplinary team to address in unconventional ways, critical electrode-interfacial issues underlying OPV performance--controlling band offsets between transparent electrodes and organics, addressing current loss/leakage problems at interfaces, enhancing adhesion, interfacial stability, and device durability while minimizing cost. It synergistically combined materials and interfacial reagent synthesis, nanostructural and photovoltaic characterization, and high level quantum theory. The research foci were: 1) understanding of/development of superior transparent electrode materials and materials morphologies--i.e., better matched electronically and chemically to organic active layers, 2) understanding-based development of inorganic interfacial current-collecting/charge-blocking layers, and 3) understanding-based development of self-assembled adhesion/current-collecting/charge-blocking/cross-linking layers for high-efficiency OPV interfaces. Pursing the goal of developing the fundamental scientific understanding needed to design, fabricate, prototype and ultimately test high-efficiency OPV cells incorporating these new concepts, we achieved a record power conversion efficiency of 5.2% for an organic bulk-heterjunction solar cell.

Tobin J. Marks; R.P.H. Chang; Tom Mason; Ken Poeppelmeier; Arthur J. Freeman

2008-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

277

Advanced high efficiency concentrator cells. Final subcontractor report, 1 October 1988--31 March 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research to develop the technology needed to demonstrate a monolithic, multijunction, two-terminal, concentrator solar cell with a terrestrial power conversion efficiency greater than 35%. Under three previous subcontracts, Varian developed many of the aspects of a technology needed to fabricate very high efficiency concentrator cells. The current project was aimed at exploiting the new understanding of high efficiency solar cells. Key results covered in this report are as follows. (1) A 1.93-eV AlGaAs/1.42-eV GaAs metal-interconnected cascade cell was manufactured with a one-sun efficiency at 27.6% at air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) global. (2) A 1.0eV InGaAs cell was fabricated on the ``reverse`` side of a low-doped GaAs substrate with a one-sun efficiency of 2.5% AM1.5 diffuse and a short-circuit current of 14.4 mA/cm{sup 2}. (3) Small-scale manufacturing of GaAs p/n concentrator cells was attempted and obtained an excellent yield of high-efficiency cells. (4) Grown-in tunnel junction cell interconnects that are transparent and thermally stable using C and Si dopants were developed. 10 refs.

Gale, R. [Varian Associates, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Varian Research Center

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP ANL logo Photo of a black and white porous material magnified 50 times by a microscope. Microstructure of the highly thermal conductive foam that will be used for the prototype TES system. Image from ANL Argonne National Laboratory and project partner Ohio Aerospace Institute, under the National Laboratory R&D competitive funding opportunity, will design, develop, and test a prototype high-temperature and high-efficiency thermal energy storage (TES) system with rapid charging and discharging times. By increasing the efficiency of TES systems, this project aims to lower the capital costs of concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. Approach The research team is developing and evaluating a novel approach for TES at temperatures greater than 700ËšC for CSP systems. The approach uses high thermal conductivity and high-porosity graphite foams infiltrated with a phase change material (PCM) to provide TES in the form of latent heat.

279

JV Task 95-Particulate Control Consulting for Minnesota Ore Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the project was to assist U.S. Steel in the evaluation, selection, planning, design, and testing of potential approaches to help meet U.S. Steel's goal for low-particulate matter emissions and regulatory compliance. The energy-intensive process for producing iron pellets includes treating the pellets in high-temperature kilns in which the iron is converted from magnetite to hematite. The kilns can be fired with either natural gas or a combination of gas and coal or biomass fuel and are equipped with wet venturi scrubbers for particulate control. Particulate measurements at the inlet and outlet of the scrubbers and analysis of size-fractionated particulate samples led to an understanding of the effect of process variables on the measured emissions and an approach to meet regulatory compliance.

Stanley Miller

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

280

Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high efficiency particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

L&E: Participate in a field test for high-efficiency troffer lighting. |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lighting & Electrical » Participate Lighting & Electrical » Participate in a field test for high efficiency troffer lighting Activities Technology Solutions Teams Lighting & Electrical Space Conditioning Plug & Process Loads Food Service Refrigeration Laboratories Energy Management & Information Systems Public Sector Teams Market Solutions Teams Participate in a field test for high-efficiency troffer lighting 50% of all commercial fluorescent lighting fixtures are recessed troffers in 1'x4', 2'x2' and 2'x4' configurations, in operation for more than 10 hours a day on average and collectively consuming more than 87 TWh of electricity annually. The Lighting & Electrical team supported the market introduction of high-efficiency troffers by developing a specification that allows for

282

Measured impacts of high efficiency domestic clothes washers in a community  

SciTech Connect

The US market for domestic clothes washers is currently dominated by conventional vertical-axis washers that typically require approximately 40 gallons of water for each wash load. Although the current market for high efficiency clothes washers that use much less water and energy is quite small, it is growing slowly as manufacturers make machines based on tumble action, horizontal-axis designs available and as information about the performance and benefits of such machines is developed and made available to consumers. To help build awareness of these benefits and to accelerate markets for high efficiency washers, the Department of Energy (DOE), under its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Program and in cooperation with a major manufacturers of high efficiency washers, conducted a field evaluation of high efficiency washers using Bern, Kansas as a test bed. Baseline washing machine performance data as well as consumer washing behavior were obtained from data collected on the existing machines of more than 100 participants in this instrumented study. Following a 2-month initial study period, all conventional machines were replaced by high efficiency, tumble-action washers, and the study continued for 3 months. Based on measured data from over 20,000 loads of laundry, the impact of the washer replacement on (1) individual customers` energy and water consumption, (2) customers` laundry habits and perceptions, and (3) the community`s water supply and waste water systems were determined. The study, its findings, and how information from the experiment was used to improve national awareness of high efficiency clothes washer benefits are described in this paper.

Tomlinson, J.; Rizy, T.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

L&E - high efficiency lighting for parking structure | The Better Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

structure structure Activities Technology Solutions Teams Lighting & Electrical Space Conditioning Plug & Process Loads Food Service Refrigeration Laboratories Energy Management & Information Systems Public Sector Teams Market Solutions Teams Adopt high-efficiency lighting for your parking structure Parking structures and garages are typically lighted by older HID lighting technology without any energy-saving controls. The latest high-efficiency alternatives with energy-saving controls-including light-emitting diode (LED), induction, and fluorescent technology options-can save building owners over 40% on their parking lot lighting bills while delivering additional benefits such as better-lighted spaces. The Lighting & Electrical team developed a performance specification that

284

Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Refractory oxide hosts for a high power, broadly tunable laser with high quantum efficiency and method of making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Refractory oxide crystals having high-quantum efficiency and high thermal stability for use as broadly tunable laser host materials. The crystals are formed by removing hydrogen from a single crystal of the oxide material to a level below about 10/sup 12/ protons per cm/sup 3/ and subsequently thermochemically reducing the oxygen content of the crystal to form sufficient oxygen anion vacancies so that short-lived F/sup +/ luminescence is produced when the crystal is optically excited.

Chen, Yok; Gonzalez, R.

1985-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

286

Refractory oxide hosts for a high power, broadly tunable laser with high quantum efficiency and method of making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Refractory oxide crystals having high-quantum efficiency and high thermal stability for use as broadly tunable laser host materials. The crystals are formed by removing hydrogen from a single crystal of the oxide material to a level below about 10.sup.12 protons per cm.sup.3 and subsequently thermochemically reducing the oxygen content of the crystal to form sufficient oxygen anion vacancies so that short-lived F.sup.+ luminescence is produced when the crystal is optically excited.

Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN); Gonzalez, Roberto (Madrid, ES)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PILOT-SCALE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funding. In addition to DOE and the EERC, the project team includes W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc., and the Big Stone power station. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique approach to develop a compact but highly efficient system. Filtration and electrostatics are employed in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The objective of the AHPC is to provide >99.99% particulate collection efficiency for particle sizes from 0.01 to 50 {micro}m and be applicable for use with all U.S. coals at a lower cost than existing technologies. In previous field tests with the AHPC, some minor bag damage was observed that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Extensive studies were then carried out to determine the reason for the bag damage and to find possible solutions without compromising AHPC performance. The best solution to prevent the bag damage was found to be perforated plates installed between the electrodes and the bags, which can block the electric field from the bag surface and intercept current to the bags. The perforated plates not only solve the bag damage problem, but also offer many other advantages such as operation at higher A/C (air-to-cloth) ratios, lower pressure drop, and an even more compact geometric arrangement. For this project, AHPC pilot-scale tests were carried out to understand the effect of the perforated plate configuration on bag protection and AHPC overall performance and to optimize the perforated plate design. Five different perforated plate configurations were evaluated in a coal combustion system. The AHPC performed extremely well even at a low current level (1.5-3.0 mA) and a low pulse trigger pressure of 6.5 in. W.C. (1.62 kPa), resulting in a bag-cleaning interval of over 40 min at an A/C ratio of 12 ft/min (3.7 m/min) for most of the test period. The longest bag-cleaning interval was 594 min, which is the best to date. The residual drag was reduced to the range from 0.25 to 0.35 in. H{sub 2}O/ft/min, showing an excellent bag-cleaning ability under the perforated plate configurations. The K{sub 2}C{sub i} at the current level of 3 mA was as low as 1.0, indicating excellent ESP performance. All the results are the best achieved to date.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michael E. Collings; Michelle R. Olderbak

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

288

Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Brown, David B. (Brighton, MI)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

289

Status of SiC Power Devices for Compact High Efficiency High ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Si Circuits and, hence, 1- 3 % fuel savings for ... Distributed Systems in multiple locations for energy distribution and ... High temp/ density storage & ...

2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

290

Very High Efficiency Reactor (VHER) Concepts for Electrical Power Generation and Hydrogen Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of the Very High Efficiency Reactor study was to develop and analyze concepts for the next generation of nuclear power reactors. The next generation power reactor should be cost effective compared to current power generation plant, passively safe, and proliferation-resistant. High-temperature reactor systems allow higher electrical generating efficiencies and high-temperature process heat applications, such as thermo-chemical hydrogen production. The study focused on three concepts; one using molten salt coolant with a prismatic fuel-element geometry, the other two using high-pressure helium coolant with a prismatic fuel-element geometry and a fuel-pebble element design. Peak operating temperatures, passive-safety, decay heat removal, criticality, burnup, reactivity coefficients, and material issues were analyzed to determine the technical feasibility of each concept.

PARMA JR.,EDWARD J.; PICKARD,PAUL S.; SUO-ANTTILA,AHTI JORMA

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Effect of High Efficiency Lighting on Power Quality in Public Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This power quality (PQ) case study investigates the effect of high efficiency lighting on PQ in public buildings. The buildings scheduled for lighting retrofits that were involved in this study include a graduate center, a hospital facility, and a social services building.

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

292

Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts Eisa Engineering at University of New South Wales. #12;1 Introduction Gas-to-liquid (GTL) compounds are clean fuels for converting natural gas to the liquid hydrocarbons [1]. However, the reaction is a complex network of many

New South Wales, University of

293

The design of a high efficiency RF power amplifier for an MCM process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I addressed issues arising in the design of a high efficiency RF power amplifier for the Draper Laboratory multi-chip module (MCM) process. A design for a 2.3 GHz PCB amplifier using an enhancement-mode ...

Noonan, James (James Keating)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

2004 ASHRAE. 3 Standing column wells can be used as highly efficient  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

©2004 ASHRAE. 3 ABSTRACT Standing column wells can be used as highly efficient ground heat Performance Simon J. Rees, Ph.D. Jeffrey D. Spitler, Ph.D., P.E. Zheng Deng Member ASHRAE Member ASHRAE Student Member ASHRAE Carl D. Orio Carl N. Johnson, Ph.D. Member ASHRAE Member ASHRAE Simon J. Rees

295

High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN- sapphire interface M. H. Lo and optimization of a light-emitting diode projection micro-stereolithography three-dimensional manufacturingGaN micro-light emitting diodes Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 231110 (2012) A bright cadmium-free, hybrid organic

296

High efficient numerical techniques for the earthing design and the analysis of grounded phenomena  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

" or "earthing" system of an electrical substation comprises all interconnected grounding fa- cilitiesHigh efficient numerical techniques for the earthing design and the analysis of grounded phenomena for the computational design of grounding systems of electrical installations in uniform and layered soils

Colominas, Ignasi

297

Highly-efficient noise-assisted energy transport in classical oscillator systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photosynthesis is a biological process that involves the highly-efficient transport of energy captured from the sun to a reaction center, where conversion into useful biochemical energy takes place. Even though one can always use a quantum perspective to describe any physical process, since everything follows the laws of Quantum Mechanics, is the use of quantum theory imperative to explain this high efficiency? Making use of the quantum-classical correspondence of electronic energy transfer recently introduced by Eisfeld and Briggs [Phys. Rev. E 85, 046118 (2012)], we show here that the highly-efficient noise-assisted energy transport described by Rebentrost et al. [New J. Phys. 11, 033003 (2009)], and Plenio and Huelga [New J. Phys. 10, 113019 (2008)], as the result of the interplay between the quantum coherent evolution of the photosynthetic system and noise introduced by its surrounding environment, it can be found as well in purely classical systems. The wider scope of applicability of the enhancement of energy transfer assisted by noise might open new ways for developing new technologies aimed at enhancing the efficiency of a myriad of energy transfer systems, from information channels in micro-electronic circuits to long-distance high-voltage electrical lines.

R. de J. León-Montiel; Juan P. Torres

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

298

Energy efficient Phase Change Memory based main memory for future high performance systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phase Change Memory (PCM) has recently attracted a lot of attention as a scalable alternative to DRAM for main memory systems. As the need for high-density memory increases, DRAM has proven to be less attractive from the point of view of scaling and ... Keywords: DDR3 commodity DRAM memory system, energy efficient phase change memory, main memory, future high performance systems, energy consumption, latency issues, write energy, write endurance, cache, embedded DRAM

R. A. Bheda; Jason A. Poovey; J. G. Beu; T. M. Conte

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Rapid thermal processing of high-efficiency silicon solar cells with controlled in-situ annealing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 17.1%, 16.4%, 14.8%, and 14.9% have been achieved on FZ, Cz, multicrystalline (mc-Si), and dendritic web (DW) silicon, respectively, using simplified, cost-effective rapid thermal processing (RTP). These represent the highest reported efficiencies for solar cells processed with simultaneous front and back diffusion with no conventional high-temperature furnace steps. Appropriate diffusion temperature coupled with the added in-situ anneal resulted in suitable minority-carrier lifetime and diffusion profiles for high-efficiency cells. The cooling rate associated with the in-situ anneal can improve the lifetime and lower the reverse saturation current density (J{sub 0}), however, this effect is material and base resistivity specific. PECVD antireflection (AR) coatings provided low reflectance and efficient front surface and bulk defect passivation. Conventional cells fabricated on FZ silicon by furnace diffusions and oxidations gave an efficiency of 18.8% due to greater short wavelength response and lower J{sub 0}.

Doshi, P.; Rohatgi, A.; Ropp, M.; Chen, Z. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Univ. Center of Excellence for Photovoltaics Research and Education; Ruby, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meier, D.L. [EBARA Solar, Inc., Large, PA (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Evaluation of high-energy-efficiency powertrain approaches: the 1996 futurecar challenge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Twelve colleges and universities were selected to design, build, and develop a mid-size vehicle that could achieve high energy economy while maintaining the performance characteristics of today`s mid-size vehicle. Many of the teams were able to increase the fuel economy of their vehicles, but most of these increases came at the expense of decreased performance or worsened emissions. This paper evaluates and summarizes the high-energy-efficiency powertrain technology approaches that were utilized in the 1996 FutureCar Challenge, which was the first evaluation of these vehicles in a two-year program. Of the 11 vehicles evaluated in the competition, nine utilized hybrid electric vehicle approaches. This paper discusses the design trade- offs made by the teams to achieve high efficiency while trying to maintain stock performance.

Sluder, S.; Duoba, M.; Larsen, R.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high efficiency particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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301

High Temperature Superconducting Magnets for Efficient Low Energy Beam Transport Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modern ion accelerators and ion implantation systems need very short, highly versatile, Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) systems. The need for reliable and continuous operation requires LEBT designs to be simple and robust. The energy efficiency of available high temperature superconductors (HTS), with efficient and simple cryocooler refrigeration, is an additional attraction. Innovative, compact LEBT systems based on solenoids designed and built with high-temperature superconductor will be developed using computer models and prototyped. The parameters will be chosen to make this type of LEBT useful in a variety of ion accelerators, ion implantation systems, cancer therapy synchrotrons, and research accelerators, including the ORNL SNS. The benefits of solenoids made with HTS will be evaluated with analytical and numerical calculations for a two-solenoid configuration, as will be used in the SNS prototype LEBT that will replace the electrostatic one at SNS, and a single solenoid configuration, as was proposed...

Popovic, M; Johnson, R P; Nipper, J H

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Light Trapping for High Efficiency Heterojunction Crystalline Si Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Light trapping plays an important role to achieve high short circuit current density (Jsc) and high efficiency for amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction solar cells. Si heterojunction uses hydrogenated amorphous Si for emitter and back contact. This structure of solar cell posses highest open circuit voltage of 0.747 V at one sun for c-Si based solar cells. It also suggests that over 25% record-high efficiency is possible with further improvement of Jsc. Light trapping has two important tasks. The first one is to reduce the surface reflectance of light to zero for the solar spectrum that Si has a response. The second one is to increase the effective absorption length to capture all the photon. For Si heterojunction solar cell, surface texturing, anti-reflectance indium tin oxides (ITO) layer at the front and back are the key area to improve the light trapping.

Wang, Q.; Xu, Y.; Iwaniczko, E.; Page, M.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

A high resolution finite volume method for efficient parallel simulation of casting processes on unstructured meshes  

SciTech Connect

We discuss selected aspects of a new parallel three-dimensional (3-D) computational tool for the unstructured mesh simulation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) casting processes. This tool, known as {bold Telluride}, draws upon on robust, high resolution finite volume solutions of metal alloy mass, momentum, and enthalpy conservation equations to model the filling, cooling, and solidification of LANL castings. We briefly describe the current {bold Telluride} physical models and solution methods, then detail our parallelization strategy as implemented with Fortran 90 (F90). This strategy has yielded straightforward and efficient parallelization on distributed and shared memory architectures, aided in large part by new parallel libraries {bold JTpack9O} for Krylov-subspace iterative solution methods and {bold PGSLib} for efficient gather/scatter operations. We illustrate our methodology and current capabilities with source code examples and parallel efficiency results for a LANL casting simulation.

Kothe, D.B.; Turner, J.A.; Mosso, S.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ferrell, R.C. [Cambridge Power Computer Assoc. (United States)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Direct drive heavy-ion-beam inertial fusion at high coupling efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Issues with coupling efficiency, beam illumination symmetry, and Rayleigh-Taylor instability are discussed for spherical heavy-ion-beam-driven targets with and without hohlraums. Efficient coupling of heavy-ion beams to compress direct-drive inertial fusion targets without hohlraums is found to require ion range increasing several-fold during the drive pulse. One-dimensional implosion calculations using the LASNEX inertial confinement fusion target physics code shows the ion range increasing fourfold during the drive pulse to keep ion energy deposition following closely behind the imploding ablation front, resulting in high coupling efficiencies (shell kinetic energy/incident beam energy of 16% to 18%). Ways to increase beam ion range while mitigating Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are discussed for future work.

Logan, B.G.; Perkins, L.J.; Barnard, J.J.

2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

305

New concepts for high efficiency energy conversion: The avalanche heterostructure and superlattice solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes investigation into the theory and technology of a novel heterojunction or superlattice, single-junction solar cell, which injects electrons across the heterointerface to produce highly efficient impact ionization of carriers in the lowband-gap side of the junction, thereby conserving their total energy. Also, the superlattice structure has the advantage of relaxing the need for perfect lattice matching at the p-n interface and will inhibit the cross diffusion of dopant atoms that typically occurs in heavy doping. This structure avoids the use of tunnel junctions that make it very difficult to achieve the predicted efficiencies in cascade cells, thus making it possible to obtain energy efficiencies that are competitive with those predicted for cascade solar cells with reduced complexity and cost. This cell structure could also be incorporated into other solar cell structures designed for wider spectral coverage.

Summers, C.J.; Rohatgi, A.; Torabi, A.; Harris, H.M. (Georgia Tech Research Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

High Efficient Secret Key Distillation for Long Distance Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The continuous variable quantum key distribution is expected to provide high secret key rate without single photon source and detector, but the lack of the secure and effective key distillation method makes it unpractical. Here, we present a secure single-bit-reverse-reconciliation protocol combined with secret information concentration and post-selection, which can distill the secret key with high efficiency and low computational complexity. The simulation results show that this protocol can provide high secret key rate even when the transmission fiber is longer than 150km, which may make the continuous variable scheme to outvie the single photon one.

Yi-bo Zhao; Zheng-fu Han; Jin-jian Chen; You-zhen Gui; Guang-can Guo

2006-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

307

Phase II Final Project Report SBIR Project: "A High Efficiency PV to Hydrogen Energy System"  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The innovative research conducted for this project contributed greatly to the understanding of generating low-cost hydrogen from solar energy. The project’s research identified two highly leveraging and complementary pathways. The first pathway is to dramatically increase the efficiency of converting sunlight into electricity. Improving solar electric conversion efficiency directly increases hydrogen production. This project produced a world record efficiency for silicon solar cells and contributed to another world record efficiency for a solar concentrator module using multijunction solar cells. The project’s literature review identified a second pathway in which wasted heat from the solar concentration process augments the electrolysis process generating hydrogen. One way to do this is to use a “heat mirror” that reflects the heat-producing infrared and transmits the visible spectrum to the solar cells; this also increases solar cell conversion efficiency. An economic analysis of this concept confirms that, if long-term concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) and solid-oxide electrolyzer cost goals can be achieved, hydrogen will be produced from solar energy cheaper than the cost of gasoline. The potential public benefits from this project are significant. The project has identified a potential energy source for the nation’s future electricity and transportation needs that is entirely “home grown” and carbon free. As CPV enter the nation’s utility markets, the opportunity for this approach to be successful is greatly increased. Amonix strongly recommends further exploration of this project’s findings.

Slade, A; Turner, J; Stone, K; McConnell, R

2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

308

High efficiency multilayer blazed gratings for EUV and soft X-rays: Recent developments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multilayer coated blazed gratings with high groove density are the best candidates for use in high resolution EUV and soft x-ray spectroscopy. Theoretical analysis shows that such a grating can be potentially optimized for high dispersion and spectral resolution in a desired high diffraction order without significant loss of diffraction efficiency. In order to realize this potential, the grating fabrication process should provide a perfect triangular groove profile and an extremely smooth surface of the blazed facets. Here we report on recent progress achieved at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in fabrication of high quality multilayer coated blazed gratings. The blazed gratings were fabricated using scanning beam interference lithography followed by wet anisotropic etching of silicon. A 200 nm period grating coated with a Mo/Si multilayer composed with 30 bi-layers demonstrated an absolute efficiency of 37.6percent in the 3rd diffraction order at 13.6 nm wavelength. The groove profile of the grating was thoroughly characterized with atomic force microscopy before and after the multilayer deposition. The obtained metrology data were used for simulation of the grating efficiency with the vector electromagnetic PCGrate-6.1 code. The simulations showed that smoothing of the grating profile during the multilayer deposition is the main reason for efficiency losses compared to the theoretical maximum. Investigation of the grating with cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed a complex evolution of the groove profile in the course of the multilayer deposition. Impact of the shadowing and smoothing processes on growth of the multilayer on the surface of the sawtooth substrate is discussed.

Voronov, Dmitriy; Ahn, Minseung; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Chang, Chih-Hao; Goray, Leonid; Gullikson, Eric; Heilmann, Ralf; Salmassi, Farhad; Schattenburg, Mark; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

309

High-efficiency cadmium and zinc-telluride-based thin-film solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research into polycrystalline CdTe solar cells grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Efficiencies of {approximately}10% were achieved using both p-i-n and p-n structures. A pre-heat treatment of CdS/SnO{sub 2}/glass substrates at 450{degrees}C in hydrogen atmosphere prior to the CdTe growth was found to be essential for high performance because this heat treatment reduces oxygen-related defects from the CdS surface. However, this treatment also resulted in a Cd-deficient CdS surface, which may in part limit the CdTe cell efficiency to 10% due to Cd vacancy-related interface defects. Preliminary model calculations suggest that removing these states can increase the cell efficiency from 10% to 13.5%. Photon absorption in the CdS film also limits the cell performance, and eliminating this loss mechanism can result in CdTe efficiencies in excess of 18%. Polycrystalline, 1.7-e, CdZnTe films were also grown for tandem-cell applications. CdZnTe/CdS cells processed using the standard CdTe cell fabrication procedure resulted in 4.4% efficiency, high series resistance, and a band-gap shift to 1.55 eV. The formation of Zn-O at and near the CdZnTe surface is the source of high contact resistance. A saturated dichromate each prior to contact deposition was found to solve the contact resistance problem. The CdCl{sub 2} treatment was identified as the cause of the observed band-gap shift due to the preferred formation of ZnCl{sub 2}. 59 refs.

Rohatgi, A.; Sudharsanan, R.; Ringel, S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Importance of Domain Size The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 27 March 2013 00:00 The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy (interfaces are everywhere) but the charges' journey as precarious (interfaces are everywhere). Instead, using a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy techniques, researchers have found that excitons may actually not fare so well in mixed domains but need access to pure aggregates to efficiently convert into charges. The smaller the aggregates, the better, allowing increased interfacial area and dramatic increases in device performance.

311

Research on high-efficiency, single-junction, monolithic, thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document describes the progress made in obtaining stable, a-Si-based submodules that have a large area and high efficiency. Conversion efficiencies of up to 11.95% were obtained in small-area, single-junction a-Si solar cells using textured TiO{sub 2}, superlattice p-layers, graded carbon concentrations near the p/i interface, and highly reflective ITO/silver back contacts. Single- junction a-SiC and a-SiGe p-i-n cells were also fabricated that had conversion efficiencies of 9%--11%, and some recently fabricated stacked-junction cells had conversion efficiencies of about 10%. In materials research boron-doped microcrystalline SiC films were recently developed containing up to 6 at. % carbon with conductivities of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}/{Omega}-cm at room temperature and activation energies of 0.11 eV. Microcrystalline film growth was shown to be strongly influenced by the nature of the substrate, with nucleation occurring more readily on a-Si substrates than on TiO{sub 2}. Stability studies show that light-induced degradation is usually enhanced by the presence of carbon grading near the p/i interface. In general, adding either germanium (from GeH{sub 4}) or carbon (from CH{sub 4}) to the i-layer of a p-i-n cell leads to enhanced light-induced degradation. 13 refs., 80 figs., 17 tabs.

Catalano, A.W.; Carlson, D.E.; Ayra, R.R.; Bennett, M.S.; D'Aiello, R.V.; Dickson, C.R.; Fortmann, C.M.; Goldstein, B.; McVeigh, J.; Morris, J.; Newton, J.L.; Wiedeman, S. (Solarex Corp., Newtown, PA (USA). Thin Film Div.)

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Process for particulate removal from coal liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Suspended solid particulates are removed from liquefied coal products by first subjecting such products to hydroclone action for removal in the underflow of the larger size particulates, and then subjecting the overflow from said hydroclone action, comprising the residual finer particulates, to an electrostatic field in an electrofilter wherein such finer particulates are deposited in the bed of beads of dielectric material on said filter. The beads are periodically cleaned by backwashing to remove the accumulated solids.

Rappe, Gerald C. (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Asynchronous and Multiprecision Linear Solvers - Scalable and Fault-Tolerant Numerics for Energy Efficient High Performance Computing.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Asynchronous methods minimize idle times by removing synchronization barriers, and therefore allow the efficient usage of computer systems. The implied high tolerance with respect to… (more)

Anzt, Hartwig

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Highly Efficient 32.3% Monolithic GaInP/GaAs/Ge Triple Junction Concentrator Solar Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Based on recent cell improvements for space applications, multijunction cells apear to be ideal candidates for high efficiency, cost effective, PV concentrator systems.

Cotal, H. L.; Lillington, D. R.; Ermer, J. H.; King, R. R.; Karam, N. H.; Kurtz, S. R.; Friedman, D. J.; Olson, J. M.; Ward, S.; Duda, A.; Emery, K. A.; Moriarty, T.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Regulated Emissions from a High Efficiency Spark-Ignition with Maximum Engine Power at or Below 19 KW.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Previous research has developed a set of high efficiency generator engines converted from a stock automobile engine. These all employed different variations of squish and… (more)

Mackey, Travis J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

High-efficiency silicon solar cells for use with a prismatic cover at 160 suns  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For this program, Solarex developed a process sequence that could be used in a manufacturing environment to produce high-efficiency silicon concentrator cells. The cells had large gridlines to minimize series resistance losses and a prismatic cover to minimize shadowing. The front surface of the cell was textured to improve absorption of light and passivated to reduce front-surface recombination. Two separate diffusions steps were used: a deep emitter with a light surface concentration and a heavy diffusion to reduce recombination under the front contacts. Cell efficiencies as high as 22.25% were demonstrated at 75 suns and over 21.5% at 150 suns air mass 1.5 illumination. 16 refs., 31 figs., 10 tabs.

Silver, J.R.; Patel, B. (Solarex Corp., Rockville, MD (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Simulation of a High Efficiency Multi-bed Adsorption Heat Pump  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Attaining high energy efficiency with adsorption heat pumps is challenging due to thermodynamic losses that occur when the sorbent beds are thermally cycled without effective heat recuperation. The multi-bed concept described here effectively transfers heat from beds being cooled to beds being heated, which enables high efficiency in thermally driven heat pumps. A simplified lumped-parameter model and detailed finite element analysis are used to simulate the performance of an ammonia-carbon sorption compressor, which is used to project the overall heat pump coefficient of performance. The effects of bed geometry and number of beds on system performance are explored, and the majority of the performance benefit is obtained with four beds. Results indicate that a COP of 1.24 based on heat input is feasible at AHRI standard test conditions for residential HVAC equipment. When compared on a basis of primary energy input, performance equivalent to SEER 13 or 14 are theoretically attainable with this system.

TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Humble, Paul H.; Sweeney, J. B.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Test and Evaluation of a High Efficiency Residential Fuel Cell System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A confluence of industry drivers, including the availability of low-cost natural gas, is creating new market opportunities for natural gas-based distributed generation. Solid oxide fuel cell systems (SOFC) are a potentially attractive option because of their high electrical efficiency (50–60% lower heating value (LHV)). This report documents two years of testing and evaluation of a 1.5 kW SOFC residential system provided by Ceramics Fuel Cell Limited. Tests were conducted in collaboration with ...

2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

319

The high-efficiency ?-ray spectroscopy setup ?3 at HI?S  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existing Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) setup at the HI{\\gamma}S facility at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory at Duke University has been extended in order to perform {\\gamma}-{\\gamma} coincidence experiments. The new setup combines large volume LaBr3:Ce detectors and high resolution HPGe detectors in a very close geometry to offer high efficiency, high energy resolution as well as high count rate capabilities at the same time. The combination of a highly efficient {\\gamma}-ray spectroscopy setup with the mono-energetic high-intensity photon beam of HI{\\gamma}S provides a worldwide unique experimental facility to investigate the {\\gamma}-decay pattern of dipole excitations in atomic nuclei. The performance of the new setup has been assessed by studying the nucleus \\sulfur at 8.125 MeV beam energy. The {\\gamma}-decay branching ratio from the $1^+$ level at 8125.4 keV to the first excited $2^+$ state was determined to 15.7(3)%.

Bastian Löher; Vera Derya; Thomas Aumann; Jacob Beller; Nathan Cooper; Marc Duchene; Janis Endres; Enrico Fiori; Johann Isaak; John Kelley; Michael Knörzer; Norbert Pietralla; Christopher Romig; Marcus Scheck; Heiko Scheit; Joel Silva; Anton P. Tonchev; Werner Tornow; Henry Weller; Volker Werner; Andreas Zilges

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

320

Low cost, single crystal-like substrates for practical, high efficiency solar cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well established that high efficiency (20%) solar cells can be routinely fabricated using single crystal photovoltaic (PV) materials with low defect densities. Polycrystalline materials with small grain sizes and no crystallographic texture typically result in reduced efficiences. This has been ascribed primarily to the presence of grain boundaries and their effect on recombination processes. Furthermore, lack of crystallographic texture can result in a large variation in dopant concentrations which critically control the electronic properties of the material. Hence in order to reproducibly fabricate high efficiency solar cells a method which results in near single crystal material is desirable. Bulk single crystal growth of PV materials is cumbersome, expensive and difficult to scale up. We present here a possible route to achieve this if epitaxial growth of photovoltaic materials on rolling-assisted-biaxially textured-substrates (RABiTS) can be achieved. The RABiTS process uses well-established, industrially scaleable, thermomechanical processing to produce a biaxially textured or single-crystal-like metal substrate with large grains (50-100 {mu}m). This is followed by epitaxial growth of suitable buffer layers to yield chemically and structurally compatible surfaces for epitaxial growth of device materials. Using the RABiTS process it should be possible to economically fabricate single-crystal-like substrates of desired sizes. Epitaxial growth of photovoltaic devices on such substrates presents a possible route to obtaining low-cost, high performance solar cells.

Goyal, A.; Specht, E.D.; List, F.A. [and others

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high efficiency particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Cost Effective, High Efficiency Integrated Systems Approach to Auxilliary Electric Motors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The CARAT program, carried out by Kinetic Art & Technology Corporation (KAT), has been one of the most commercially successful KAT R&D programs to date. Based on previous development of its technology, KAT designed, constructed and tested a highly efficient motor and controller system under this CARAT program with supplemental commercial funding. Throughout this CARAT effort, the technical objectives have been refined and refocused. Some objectives have been greatly expanded, while others have been minimized. The determining factor in all decisions to refocus the objectives was the commercial need, primarily the needs of KAT manufacturing partners. Several companies are employing the resulting CARAT motor and controller designs in prototypes for commercial products. Two of these companies have committed to providing cost share in order to facilitate the development. One of these companies is a major manufacturing company developing a revolutionary new family of products requiring the ultra-high system efficiency achievable by the KAT motor and controller technologies (known as Segmented ElectroMagnetic Array, or SEMA technology). Another company requires the high efficiency, quiet operation, and control characteristics afforded by the same basic motor and controller for an advanced air filtration product. The combined annual production requirement projected by these two companies exceeds one million units by 2005.

Roy Kessinger Jr.; Keith Seymour; Kanchan Angal; Jason Wolf; Steve Brewer; Leonard Schrank

2003-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

322

Interfacial Engineering for Highly Efficient-Conjugated Polymer-Based Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of our proposal is to apply interface engineering approach to improve charge extraction, guide active layer morphology, improve materials compatibility, and ultimately allow the fabrication of high efficiency tandem cells. Specifically, we aim at developing: i. Interfacial engineering using small molecule self-assembled monolayers ii. Nanostructure engineering in OPVs using polymer brushes iii. Development of efficient light harvesting and high mobility materials for OPVs iv. Physical characterization of the nanostructured systems using electrostatic force microscopy, and conducting atomic force microscopy v. All-solution processed organic-based tandem cells using interfacial engineering to optimize the recombination layer currents vi. Theoretical modeling of charge transport in the active semiconducting layer The material development effort is guided by advanced computer modeling and surface/ interface engineering tools to allow us to obtain better understanding of the effect of electrode modifications on OPV performance for the investigation of more elaborate device structures. The materials and devices developed within this program represent a major conceptual advancement using an integrated approach combining rational molecular design, material, interface, process, and device engineering to achieve solar cells with high efficiency, stability, and the potential to be used for large-area roll-to-roll printing. This may create significant impact in lowering manufacturing cost of polymer solar cells for promoting clean renewable energy use and preventing the side effects from using fossil fuels to impact environment.

Alex Jen; David Ginger; Christine Luscombe; Hong Ma

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

323

High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrator Application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrators project seeks to provide new photovoltaic cells for Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV) Systems with higher cell efficiency, more favorable temperature coefficients and less sensitivity to changes in spectral distribution. The main objective of this project is to provide high efficiency III-V solar cells that will reduce the overall cost per Watt for power generation using CPV systems.This work is focused both on a potential near term application, namely the use of indium arsenide (InAs) QDs to spectrally "tune" the middle (GaAs) cell of a SOA triple junction device to a more favorable effective bandgap, as well as the long term goal of demonstrating intermediate band solar cell effects. The QDs are confined within a high electric field i-region of a standard GaAs solar cell. The extended absorption spectrum (and thus enhanced short circuit current) of the QD solar cell results from the increase in the sub GaAs bandgap spectral response that is achievable as quantum dot layers are introduced into the i-region. We have grown InAs quantum dots by OMVPE technique and optimized the QD growth conditions. Arrays of up to 40 layers of strain balanced quantum dots have been experimentally demonstrated with good material quality, low residual stain and high PL intensity. Quantum dot enhanced solar cells were grown and tested under simulated one sun AM1.5 conditions. Concentrator solar cells have been grown and fabricated with 5-40 layers of QDs. Testing of these devices show the QD cells have improved efficiency compared to baseline devices without QDs. Device modeling and measurement of thermal properties were performed using Crosslight APSYS. Improvements in a triple junction solar cell with the insertion of QDs into the middle current limiting junction was shown to be as high as 29% under one sun illumination for a 10 layer stack QD enhanced triple junction solar cell. QD devices have strong potential for net gains in efficiency at high concentration.

Hubbard, Seth

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

324

L&E: Adopt high-efficiency lighting for your parking lot | The Better  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

lot lot Activities Technology Solutions Teams Lighting & Electrical Space Conditioning Plug & Process Loads Food Service Refrigeration Laboratories Energy Management & Information Systems Public Sector Teams Market Solutions Teams Adopt high-efficiency lighting for your parking lot Most parking lots are illuminated by older high-intensity discharge (HID) lighting technology without any energy-saving controls. New light-emitting diode (LED) technology can cut parking lot lighting energy bills by 40%, or much more with controls, while delivering additional benefits including long life, reduced maintenance costs, and improved lighting uniformity. The Lighting & Electrical team developed a performance specification to help building owners take advantage of these improved lighting

325

Revolutionary systems for catalytic combustion and diesel catalytic particulate traps.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a summary of an LDRD project completed for the development of materials and structures conducive to advancing the state of the art for catalyst supports and diesel particulate traps. An ancillary development for bio-medical bone scaffolding was also realized. Traditionally, a low-pressure drop catalyst support, such as a ceramic honeycomb monolith, is used for catalytic reactions that require high flow rates of gases at high-temperatures. A drawback to the traditional honeycomb monoliths under these operating conditions is poor mass transfer to the catalyst surface in the straight-through channels. ''Robocasting'' is a unique process developed at Sandia National Laboratories that can be used to manufacture ceramic monoliths with alternative 3-dimensional geometries, providing tortuous pathways to increase mass transfer while maintaining low-pressure drops. These alternative 3-dimensional geometries may also provide a foundation for the development of self-regenerating supports capable of trapping and combusting soot particles from a diesel engine exhaust stream. This report describes the structures developed and characterizes the improved catalytic performance that can result. The results show that, relative to honeycomb monolith supports, considerable improvement in mass transfer efficiency is observed for robocast samples synthesized using an FCC-like geometry of alternating rods. Also, there is clearly a trade-off between enhanced mass transfer and increased pressure drop, which can be optimized depending on the particular demands of a given application. Practical applications include the combustion of natural gas for power generation, production of syngas, and hydrogen reforming reactions. The robocast lattice structures also show practicality for diesel particulate trapping. Preliminary results for trapping efficiency are reported as well as the development of electrically resistive lattices that can regenerate the structure by combusting the trapped soot. During this project an ancillary bio-medical application was discovered for lattices of hydroxyapatite. These structures show promise as bone scaffolds for the reparation of damaged bone. A case study depicting the manufacture of a customized device that fits into a damaged mandible is described.

Stuecker, John Nicholas; Witze, Peter O.; Ferrizz, Robert Matthew; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Miller, James Edward

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Advanced Alloys for Compact, High-Efficiency, High-Temperature Heat-Exchangers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted research and development for several years which has been focused on the behavior and performance improvements of sheets and foils of various alloys for compact heat-exchangers (recuperators) for advanced microturbines. The performance and reliability of such thin sections are challenged at 650-750 C by fine grain size causing excessive creep, and by moisture effects greatly enhancing oxidation attack in exhaust gas environments. Standard 347 stainless steel has been used successfully at or below 600 C, but has suffered from both of these kinds of degradation at 650 C and above. Alloys have been identified which can have very good properties for such heat-exchangers, especially with careful control of microstructure during processing, including alloy 625, HR120 and the new AL20-25+Nb. These alloys, and the mechanistic understanding behind their behavior, are also applicable to achieving the better heat-exchanger technology needed for fuel cells or other high-temperature, clean-energy applications.

Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Shingledecker, John P [ORNL; Evans, Neal D [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Simulation of Device Parameters of High Efficiency Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of the simulation of the reported experimental results of high efficiency multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells, using PC1D software, are reported in this study. Results obtained by various groups have been incorporated and compared in this study. The highest efficiency reported so far for mc-Si solar cells is 20{center_dot}4% and 17-18% by research laboratories and commercial houses, respectively. The efficiency can be further enhanced if passivation characteristics on both the front and back surface are improved. The role of back surface recombination has become more significant in light of the use of thin mc-Si wafers by the solar cell industry. Based on the passivation characteristics and considering the understanding of the past three decades of studies, the authors have proposed and simulated a structure for mc-Si solar cells to improve the performance of the same. The results of our modeled structure of mc-Si solar cell show an efficiency of 21{center_dot}88% with short-circuit current density, J{sub sc} = 39{center_dot}39 mA/cm2, and open circuit voltage, V{sub oc} = 0{center_dot}666 V.

Budhraja, V.; Misra, D.; Ravindra, N. M.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Development of high efficiency (14%) solar cell array module. Final report, November 1979-June 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

More effort was concentrated on development of procedures to provide large area (3 in. dia) high efficiency (16.5% AM1, 28/sup 0/C) P+NN+ solar cells. Intensive tests with 3 in. slices gave consistently lower efficiency (13.5%). The problems were identified as incomplete formation of an optimum back surface field (BSF), and interaction of the BSF process and the shallow P+ junction. The problem was shown not to be caused by reduced quality of silicon near the edges of the larger slices. A promising process sequence was identified. A reasonably large number of fairly efficient (13.5% average) 3 in. P+NN+ cells were made and combined with no problems with the module design developed for this project. In the module, one hundred and twenty (120) cells were connected, eight (8) in parallel and fifteen (15) in series. Six (6) modules were delivered with an average power output (per total module area of 6890 cm/sup 2/) of 75.3 watts and a module overall average efficiency of 10.9%.

Iles, P.A.; Khemthong, S.; Olah, S.; Sampson, W.J.; Ling, K.S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the environment, reducing the amount of fuel consumed and, for energy intensive manufacturers, boosting their profits (by reducing energy expenses). Compared to conventional power generation technologies such as internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and coal plants, fuel cells are extremely clean and more efficient, particularly at smaller scales.

Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

330

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Final report, January 1, 1992--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Adams Counter-current shale oil recovery process is an improved retorting technology enabling highly efficient oil recovery from oil shale. The high efficiency results primarily from the following facts: it (1) recovers the ash heat to preheat the feed ore; (2) burns and uses the coke energy and (3) operates without using hot ash recycling as a heat carrier. This latter feature is doubly important, contributing to high oil yield and to the generation of highly reactive coke which can be burned below 1000{degree}F, avoiding the endothermal calcination of the mineral carbonates and helping to clean the ash of contaminants. This project demonstrates that oil shale can be retorted under the specified conditions and achieve the objectives of very high efficiency. The project accomplished the following: 51 quartz sand rotary kiln runs provided significant engineering data. A heat transfer value of 107 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degree}F was obtained at optimum RPM; eight oil shale samples were obtained and preliminary shakedown runs were made. Five of the samples were selected for kiln processing and twelve pyrolysis runs were made on the five different oil shales;average off recovery was 109% of Fisher Assay; retorted residue from all five samples was oxidized at approximately 1000{degree}F. The ash from these runs was oxidized to varying extents, depending on the oil shale and oxidizing temperatures. While 1000{degree}F is adequately hot to provide process heat from coke combustion for these ores, some Eastern oil shales, without mineral carbonates, may be oxidized at higher temperatures, perhaps 100--300 degrees hotter, to obtain a more complete oxidation and utilization of the coke.

Adams, D.C.

1993-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

331

Design and development of a high-concentration and high-efficiency photovoltaic concentrator using a curved Fresnel lens  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermo Electron has designed a high concentration photovoltaic module that uses a domed, point-focus Fresnel lens. Their design, design optimization process, and results from lens and receiver tests are described in this report. A complete module has not been fabricated and probably will not be fabricated in the future; however, Thermo Electron's optical design, analysis, and testing of both secondary optical units and domed Fresnel lenses have made a significant contribution to our project. Tooling errors prevented the lens from reaching its potential efficiency by the end of the contract, and resolution of these tooling problems is currently being attempted with a follow-on contract, No. 68-9463.

Scharlack, R.S.; Moffat, A.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Recovery Act: Low-Cost, Highly Lambertian Reflector Composite For Improved LED Fixture Efficiency and Lifetime  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the program was to demonstrate a 98% or greater reflective, highly diffuse, low-cost composite material that significantly improves luminaire efficiency, is able to withstand 50,000 hours or greater luminaire operation under expected LED system thermal and environmental operating extremes and meets the cost targets required to be an effective commercial solution for the Solid State Lighting industry. This project met most of the goals defined and contributed to the understanding of high reflectance, white coatings. Research under this program increased the understanding of coatings development using particle size reduction techniques and preparation of coating solutions with a broad range of particle types. The research explored scale-up of coating systems and generated understanding of processing required for high volume manufacturing applications. The work demonstrated how coating formulation and application technique can translate to material durability and LED system lifetime. The research also demonstrated improvements in lighting efficiency to be gained using high reflectance white coatings.

Teather, Eric

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Highly efficient solar collector including means for preventing cover plate fluid condensation  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collector of low cost and high thermal efficiency is disclosed having a heat trap produced by zigzagging a thin strip of polyethylene terephthalate between opposite sides of the trap while wrapping the strip about rows of dowels positioned at opposite sides of the frame of the solar collector. A window of soda lime glass filters uv radiation to inhibit discoloration of the plastic heat trap walls. An absorber plate having fluid pipes therein is positioned underneath the heat trap and a first layer of fiberglass, and a second layer of polyurethane foam are positioned below the absorber plate. The fiberglass layer prevents overheating of the polyurethane foam layer to in turn inhibit the formation of toxic fluids, which may condense upon the underside of the window to reduce the efficiency of the collector.

Root, E.F.; Kunica, S.; Simmons, H.M.

1977-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

334

Demonstration of High Efficiency Elastocaloric Cooling with Large Delta- T Using NiTi Wires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vapor compression (VC) is by far the most dominant technology for meeting all cooling and refrigeration needs around the world. It is a mature technology with the efficiency of modern compressors approaching the theoretical limit, but its envi-ronmental footprint remains a global problem. VC refrigerants such as hydrochlo-roflurocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are a significant source of green house gas (GHG) emissions, and their global warming potential (GWP) is as high as 1000 times that of CO2. It is expected that building space cooling and re-frigeration alone will amount to {approx} 5% of primary energy consumption and {approx}5% of all CO2 emission in U.S. in 2030 . As such, there is an urgent need to develop an al-ternative high-efficiency cooling technology that is affordable and environmentally friendly. Among the proposed candidates, magnetocaloric cooling (MC) is currently received a lot of attention because of its high efficiency. However, MC is inherently expensive because of the requirement of large magnetic field and rare earth materi-als. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new type of solid-state cooling mechanism based on the latent heat of reversible martensitic transformation. We call it elasto-caloric cooling (EC) after the superelastic transformation of austenite it utilizes. The solid-state refrigerant of EC is cost-effective, and it completely eliminates the use of any refrigerants including HCFCs/HFCs. We show that the COP (coefficient of per-formance) of a jugular EC with optimized materials can be as high as > 10 with measured {Delta}T of 17 C.

Cui, Jun; Wu, Yiming; Muehlbauer, Jan; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Fackler, Sean; Wuttig, Manfred; Takeuchi, Ichiro

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

High efficiency vapor-fed AMTEC system for direct conversion. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) is a high temperature, high efficiency system for converting thermal to electrical energy, with no moving parts. It is based on the unique properties of {beta}{double_prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE), which is an excellent conductor of sodium ions, but an extremely poor conductor of electrons. When the inside of the BASE is maintained at a higher temperature and pressure, a concentration gradient is created across the BASE. Electrons and sodium atoms cannot pass through the BASE. However, the sodium atoms are ionized, and the sodium ions move through the BASE to the lower potential (temperature) region. The electrons travel externally to the AMTEC cell, providing power. There are a number of potential advantages to a wick-pumped, vapor-fed AMTEC system when compared with other designs. A wick-pumped system uses capillary forces to passively return liquid to the evaporator, and to distribute the liquid in the evaporator. Since the fluid return is self-regulating, multiple BASE tubes can use a single remote condenser, potentially improving efficiency in advanced AMTEC designs. Since the system is vapor-fed, sodium vapor is supplied at a uniform temperature and flux to the BASE tube, even with non-uniform heat fluxes and temperatures at the evaporator. The primary objective of the Phase 2 program was to develop wick-pumped AMTEC cells. During the program, procedures to fabricate wicks with smaller pore sizes were developed, to allow operation of an AMTEC cell at 800 C. A revised design was made for a High-Temperature, Wick-Fed AMTEC cell. In addition to the smaller wick pore size, several other changes were made to increase the cell efficiency: (1) internal artery return of condensate; (2) high temperature electrical feedthrough; and (3) separate heat pipe for providing heat to the BASE.

Anderson, W.G.; Bland, J.J.

1997-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

336

Time dependant quantum efficiency and dark current measurements in an RF photocathode injector with a high quantum efficiency cathode  

SciTech Connect

Studies of photo-emission and field emission behavior in an RF gun have been carried out. Unexpected phenomena were observed. In situ changes in the cathode's quantum efficiency and dark current with time were seen during operation of the photo-injector. These changes were correlated with the magnetostatic field at the cathode. In addition, multipacting has been observed under certain conditions. Recent measurements indicate a correlation between multipacting and anomalous photo- and field emission behavior.

Fliller, R.P., III; Edwards, H.; /Fermilab; Hartung, W.; /Michigan State U., NSCL

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

NEW CORDIERITE DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTERS FOR CATALYZED AND NON-CATALYZED APPLICATIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cordierite diesel particulate filters provide an economical approach to diesel emissions control. However, further reduction in the pressure drop of catalyzed and non-catalyzed cordierite filters is desirable. In order to derive a fundamental understanding of the relationship between clean and sootloaded pressure drop and the pore microstructure of the ceramic, and to optimize the microstructure for filter performance, cordierite filters have been fabricated spanning an extended range in porosity, pore size distribution, and pore connectivity. Analysis of the results has been applied to the development of several new cordierite diesel particulate filters that possess a unique combination of high filtration efficiency, high strength, and very low clean and soot-loaded pressure drop. Furthermore, catalyst systems have been developed that result in a minimal pressure drop increase of the catalyzed filter. Optimization of porosity and cell geometry has enabled fabrication o f filters with either high or low thermal mass appropriate to the regeneration strategy employed for a given engine management system.

Merkel, G; Cutler, W; Tao, T Chiffey, A; Phillips, P; Twigg, M; Walker, A

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

338

Highly ordered Zn-doped mesoporous silica: An efficient catalyst for transesterification reaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Designing highly ordered material with nanoscale periodicity is of great significance in the field of solid state chemistry. Herein, we report the synthesis of highly ordered 2D-hexagonal mesoporous zinc-doped silica using a mixture of anionic and cationic surfactants under hydrothermal conditions. Powder XRD, N{sub 2} sorption, TEM analysis revealed highly ordered 2D-hexagonal arrangements of the pores with very good surface area (762 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) in this Zn-rich mesoporous material. Chemical analysis shows very high loading of zinc (ca. 12.0 wt%) in the material together with retention of hexagonal pore structure. Interestingly, high temperature calcination resulted into zinc silicate phase, unlike any ZnO phase, which otherwise is expected under heat treatments. High surface area together with Zn loading in this mesoporous material has been found useful for the catalytic activity of the materials in the acid-catalyzed transesterification reactions of various esters under mild liquid phase conditions. - Graphical abstract: Zn-rich 2D-hexagonal mesoporous materials are synthesized hydrothermally, which show very good catalytic activity in the transesterification reaction under mild liquid phase reaction conditions. Highlights: > Zn-rich 2D-hexagonal mesoporous silica. > High surface area material. > Efficient catalyst in liquid phase transesterification reaction. > Biodiesel production.

Pal, Nabanita; Paul, Manidipa [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bhaumik, Asim, E-mail: msab@iacs.res.in [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

High-efficiency dc electromagnetic pumps and flow couplers for LMFBRs. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective for the study reported here was to evaluate high efficiency direct current electromagnetic pump concepts for use in pool-type liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. It was concluded that the conventional direct current pump would not be practical for the high flow rates required, primarily because of the adverse high-current low-voltage supply requirements. However, a relatively new concept - the flow coupler - appears to be much more promising. In this concept, the primary and intermediate fluid flows are linked magnetically - with the intermediate fluid acting as a generator of the current that is used in a pump to drive the primary fluid. In this way the requirement for an external direct current supply and associated busbars is eliminated. Techniques to analyze such flow couplers have been developed and show that overall efficiencies in excess of 60% are attainable in relatively small volumes (3.5m in length, 2.5m in dia). This may permit a reduction in the size of the reactor vessel. Several flow coupler concepts are described which require further evaluation.

McNab, I.R.; Alexion, C.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High- Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces Larry Brand Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) March 2012 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affiliated partners makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high efficiency particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August, 2000 - July 2001  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August 2000 - July 2001. Currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process is available for commercialization nor has such a process been identified. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. The benefits of this work will include the generation of a low-polluting transportable energy feedstock in an efficient method that has little or no implication for greenhouse gas emissions from a primary energy source whose availability and sources are domestically controlled. This will help to ensure energy for a future transportation/energy infrastructure that is not influenced/controlled by foreign governments. This report describes work accomplished during the second year (Phase 2) of a three year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first year (Phase 1) was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water, in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most, three) for further detailed consideration. Phase 1 met its goals and did select one process, the sulfur-iodine process, for investigation in Phases 2 and 3. The combined goals of Phases 2 and 3 were to select the advanced nuclear reactor best suited to driving the selected thermochemical process and to define the selected reactor and process to the point that capital costs, operating costs and the resultant cost of hydrogen can be estimated. During original contract negotiation, it was necessary to reduce work scope to meet funding limits. As a result, the reactor interface and process will not be iterated to the point that only hydrogen is produced. Rather, hydrogen and electricity will be co-generated and the hydrogen cost will be stated as a function of the electricity sales price.

Brown, L.C.

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August, 2000 - July 2001  

SciTech Connect

OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August 2000 - July 2001. Currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process is available for commercialization nor has such a process been identified. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. The benefits of this work will include the generation of a low-polluting transportable energy feedstock in an efficient method that has little or no implication for greenhouse gas emissions from a primary energy source whose availability and sources are domestically controlled. This will help to ensure energy for a future transportation/energy infrastructure that is not influenced/controlled by foreign governments. This report describes work accomplished during the second year (Phase 2) of a three year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first year (Phase 1) was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water, in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most, three) for further detailed consideration. Phase 1 met its goals and did select one process, the sulfur-iodine process, for investigation in Phases 2 and 3. The combined goals of Phases 2 and 3 were to select the advanced nuclear reactor best suited to driving the selected thermochemical process and to define the selected reactor and process to the point that capital costs, operating costs and the resultant cost of hydrogen can be estimated. During original contract negotiation, it was necessary to reduce work scope to meet funding limits. As a result, the reactor interface and process will not be iterated to the point that only hydrogen is produced. Rather, hydrogen and electricity will be co-generated and the hydrogen cost will be stated as a function of the electricity sales price.

Brown, L.C.

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Highly efficient blue organic light emitting devices with indium-free transparent anode on flexible substrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indium-free transparent conducting oxides may provide a lower cost solution for the transparent anode in flexible displays and energy efficient solid state lighting. We report herein a near room temperature sputtering process for generating an indium-free transparent conductive oxide (TCO) coating on a flexible substrate. Specifically, we deposited gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) uniformly over a 12” diameter area at room temperature on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). During deposition, the system heats to about 60oC due to the energetic sputtering conditions, without any noticeable damage to the PET substrate. The GZO films exhibit excellent physical, optical and electrical properties: roughness ~7 nm, transmittance >85% and resistivity ~ 10-3 ohm• cm. Phosphorescent blue organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) were fabricated on these substrates with comparable performance (16% external quantum efficiency and 33 lm/W power efficiency at 1mA/cm2) to that of devices fabricated on GZO (or ITO) deposited on glass substrates, suggesting flexible GZO/PET substrates may be used instead of high-cost and rigid ITO and glass for flexible displays and solid state lighting.

Wang, Liang; Swensen, James S.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Matson, Dean W.; Bonham, Charles C.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

344

High-Throughput Proteomics Using High Efficiency Multiple-Capillary Liquid Chromatography With On-Line High-Performance ESI FTICR Mass Spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the design and application of a high-efficiency multiple-capillary liquid chromatography (LC) system for high-throughput proteome analysis. The multiple-capillary LC system was operated at the pressure of 10,000 psi using commercial LC pumps to deliver the mobile phase and newly developed passive feedback valves to switch the mobile phase flow and introduce samples. The multiple-capillary LC system was composed of several serially connected dual-capillary column devices. The dual-capillary column approach was designed to eliminate the time delay for regeneration (or equilibrium) of the capillary column after its use under the mobile phase gradient condition (i.e. one capillary column was used in separation and the other was washed using mobile phase A). The serially connected dual-capillary columns and ESI sources were operated independently, and could be used for either''backup'' operation or with other mass spectrometer(s). This high-efficiency multiple-capillary LC system uses switching valves for all operations and is highly amenable to automation. The separations efficiency of dual-capillary column device, optimal capillary dimensions (column length and packed particle size), suitable mobile phases for electrospray, and the capillary re-generation were investigated. A high magnetic field (11.5 tesla) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was coupled on-line with this high-efficiency multiple-capillary LC system through an electrospray ionization source. The capillary LC provided a peak capacity of {approx}600, and the 2-D capillary LC-FTICR provided a combined resolving power of > 6 x 10 7 polypeptide isotopic distributions. For yeast cellular tryptic digests, > 100,000 polypeptides were typically detected, and {approx}1,000 proteins can be characterized in a single run.

Shen, Yufeng (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Tolic, Nikola (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Zhao, Rui (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Li, Lingjun (Illinois Univ Of-Urbana/Champa); Berger, Scott J. (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Harkewicz, Richard (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Anderson, Gordon A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Belov, Mikhail E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Smith, Richard D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Indium-Tin-Oxide-Based Transparent Conducting Layers for Highly Efficient Photovoltaic Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Additional hydrogen (H{sub 2}) annealing and subsequent electrochemical treatment are found to make tin-doped indium oxide (ITO)-based photoelectrodes suitable for highly efficient dye sensitized solar cells. The additional H{sub 2} annealing process recovered the electrical conductivity of the ITO film the same as its initial high conductivity, which enhanced the charge collecting property. Moreover, the employment of electrochemical oxidation of TiO{sub 2}/ITO photoelectrode improved the energy conversion efficiency of the ITO-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), higher than that of a conventional FTO-based DSSC. Electrochemical impedance analysis showed that the H2 annealing process reduced the internal resistance of the cell, i.e., the resistance of the ITO and the Schottky barrier at the TiO{sub 2}/ITO interface were reduced, and that the electrochemical treatment recovered the diodelike characteristics of the DSSC by retarding back electron transfer from the photoelectrode to the electrolyte. The present work demonstrates that thermally and electrochemically modified ITO-based photoelectrode is another alternative to the conventionally used FTO-based photoelectrode.

Lee, S.; Noh, J. H.; Bae, S. T.; Cho, I. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Shin, H.; Lee, J. K.; Jung, H. S.; Hong, K. S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Novel wide band gap materials for highly efficient thin film tandem solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Tandem solar cells (TSCs), which use two or more materials to absorb sunlight, have achieved power conversion efficiencies of >25% versus 11-20% for commercialized single junction solar cell modules. The key to widespread commercialization of TSCs is to develop the wide-band, top solar cell that is both cheap to fabricate and has a high open-circuit voltage (i.e. >1V). Previous work in TSCs has generally focused on using expensive processing techniques with slow growth rates resulting in costs that are two orders of magnitude too expensive to be used in conventional solar cell modules. The objective of the PLANT PV proposal was to investigate the feasibility of using Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) as the wide-bandgap absorber in the top cell of a thin film tandem solar cell (TSC). Despite being studied by very few in the solar community, AIGS solar cells have achieved one of the highest open-circuit voltages within the chalcogenide material family with a Voc of 949mV when grown with an expensive processing technique (i.e. Molecular Beam Epitaxy). PLANT PV�s goal in Phase I of the DOE SBIR was to 1) develop the chemistry to grow AIGS thin films via solution processing techniques to reduce costs and 2) fabricate new device architectures with high open-circuit voltage to produce full tandem solar cells in Phase II. PLANT PV attempted to translate solution processing chemistries that were successful in producing >12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by replacing copper compounds with silver. The main thrust of the research was to determine if it was possible to make high quality AIGS thin films using solution processing and to fully characterize the materials properties. PLANT PV developed several different types of silver compounds in an attempt to fabricate high quality thin films from solution. We found that silver compounds that were similar to the copper based system did not result in high quality thin films. PLANT PV was able to deposit AIGS thin films using a mixture of solution and physical vapor deposition processing, but these films lacked the p-type doping levels that are required to make decent solar cells. Over the course of the project PLANT PV was able to fabricate efficient CIGS solar cells (8.7%) but could not achieve equivalent performance using AIGS. During the nine-month grant PLANT PV set up a variety of thin film characterization tools (e.g. drive-level capacitance profiling) at the Molecular Foundry, a Department of Energy User Facility, that are now available to both industrial and academic researchers via the grant process. PLANT PV was also able to develop the back end processing of thin film solar cells at Lawrence Berkeley National Labs to achieve 8.7% efficient CIGS solar cells. This processing development will be applied to other types of thin film PV cells at the Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. While PLANT PV was able to study AIGS film growth and optoelectronic properties we concluded that AIGS produced using these methods would have a limited efficiency and would not be commercially feasible. PLANT PV did not apply for the Phase II of this grant.

Brian E. Hardin, Stephen T. Connor, Craig H. Peters

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

347

High efficiency thin film CdTe and a-Si based solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work done by the University of Toledo during the first year of this subcontract. During this time, the CdTe group constructed a second dual magnetron sputter deposition facility; optimized reactive sputtering for ZnTe:N films to achieve 10 ohm-cm resistivity and {approximately}9% efficiency cells with a copper-free ZnTe:N/Ni contact; identified Cu-related photoluminescence features and studied their correlation with cell performance including their dependence on temperature and E-fields; studied band-tail absorption in CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1{minus}x} films at 10 K and 300 K; collaborated with the National CdTe PV Team on (1) studies of high-resistivity tin oxide (HRT) layers from ITN Energy Systems, (2) fabrication of cells on the HRT layers with 0, 300, and 800-nm CdS, and (3) preparation of ZnTe:N-based contacts on First Solar materials for stress testing; and collaborated with Brooklyn College for ellipsometry studies of CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1{minus}x} alloy films, and with the University of Buffalo/Brookhaven NSLS for synchrotron X-ray fluorescence studies of interdiffusion in CdS/CdTe bilayers. The a-Si group established a baseline for fabricating a-Si-based solar cells with single, tandem, and triple-junction structures; fabricated a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe triple-junction solar cells with an initial efficiency of 9.7% during the second quarter, and 10.6% during the fourth quarter (after 1166 hours of light-soaking under 1-sun light intensity at 50 C, the 10.6% solar cells stabilized at about 9%); fabricated wide-bandgap a-Si top cells, the highest Voc achieved for the single-junction top cell was 1.02 V, and top cells with high FF (up to 74%) were fabricated routinely; fabricated high-quality narrow-bandgap a-SiGe solar cells with 8.3% efficiency; found that bandgap-graded buffer layers improve the performance (Voc and FF) of the narrow-bandgap a-SiGe bottom cells; and found that a small amount of oxygen partial pressure ({approximately}2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} torr) was beneficial for growing high-quality films from ITO targets.

Compaan, A. D.; Deng, X.; Bohn, R. G.

2000-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

348

Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

349

Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

350

Candidate alloys for cost-effective, high-efficiency, high-temperature compact/foil heat-exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) systems operate at high temperatures (up to 1000 C and 650 C, respectively), which makes them especially attractive sources for combined heat and power (CHP) cogeneration. However, improvements in the efficiency of heat exchange in these fuel cells require both development and careful processing of advanced cost-effective alloys for use in such high-temperature service conditions. The high-temperature properties of both sheet and foil forms of several alloys being considered for use in compact heat-exchangers (recuperators) have been characterized. Mechanical and creep-rupture testing, oxidation studies, and microstructural studies have been performed on commercially available sheet and foil forms of alloy 347, alloys 625, HR230, HR120, and the new AL20-25+Nb. These studies have led to a mechanistic understanding of the responses of these alloys to anticipated service conditions, and suggest that these alloys developed for gas- and micro-turbine recuperator applications are also suitable for use in fuel cell heat-exchangers. Additional work is still required to achieve foil forms with creep life comparable to thicker-section wrought product forms of the same alloys.

Evans, Neal D [ORNL; Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL; Shingledecker, John P [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Fast mode assignment for quality scalable extension of the high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard: a Bayesian approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The new compression standard, known as the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), aims at significantly improving the compression efficiency compared to previous standards. There has been significant interest in developing a scalable version of this standard. ... Keywords: low complexity compression, machine learning, scalable HEVC, video compression

H. R. Tohidypour, H. Bashashati, M. T. Pourazad, P. Nasiopoulos

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

High Efficiency Single Crystal CdTe Solar Cells: November 19, 2009 - January 31, 2011  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of the program was to develop single crystal CdTe-based top cells grown on Si solar cells as a platform for the subsequent manufacture of high efficiency tandem cells for CPV applications. The keys to both the single junction and the tandem junction cell architectures are the ability to grow high quality single-crystal CdTe and CdZnTe layers on p-type Si substrates, to dope the CdTe and CdZnTe controllably, both n and p-type, and to make low resistance ohmic front and back contacts. EPIR demonstrated the consistent MBE growth of CdTe/Si and CdZnTe/Si having high crystalline quality despite very large lattice mismatches; epitaxial CdTe/Si and CdZnTe/Si consistently showed state-of-the-art electron mobilities and good hole mobilities; bulk minority carrier recombination lifetimes of unintentionally p-doped CdTe and CdZnTe grown by MBE on Si were demonstrated to be consistently of order 100 ns or longer; desired n- and p-doping levels were achieved; solar cell series specific resistances <10 ?-cm2 were achieved; A single-junction solar cell having a state-of-the-art value of Voc and a unverified 16.4% efficiency was fabricated from CdZnTe having a 1.80 eV bandgap, ideal for the top junction in a tandem cell with a Si bottom junction.

Carmody, M.; Gilmore, A.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Methods of separating particulate residue streams  

SciTech Connect

A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Christopher T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

354

Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

355

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.

1988-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

357

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.

1988-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

358

High Efficiency Liquid-Desiccant Regenerator for Air Conditioning and Industrial Drying  

SciTech Connect

Over 2 quads of fossil fuels are used each year for moisture removal. This includes industrial and agricultural processes where feedstocks and final products must be dried, as well as comfort conditioning of indoor spaces where the control of humidity is essential to maintaining healthy, productive and comfortable working conditions. Desiccants, materials that have a high affinity for water vapor, can greatly reduce energy use for both drying and dehumidification. An opportunity exists to greatly improve the competitiveness of advanced liquid-desiccant systems by increasing the efficiency of their regenerators. It is common practice within the chemical process industry to use multiple stage boilers to improve the efficiency of thermal separation processes. The energy needed to regenerate a liquid desiccant, which is a thermal separation process, can also be reduced by using a multiple stage boiler. In this project, a two-stage regenerator was developed in which the first stage is a boiler and the second stage is a scavenging-air regenerator. The only energy input to this regenerator is the natural gas that fires the boiler. The steam produced in the boiler provides the thermal energy to run the second-stage scavenging-air regenerator. This two-stage regenerator is referred to as a 1?-effect regenerator. A model of the high-temperature stage of a 1?-effect regenerator for liquid desiccants was designed, built and successfully tested. At nominal operating conditions (i.e., 2.35 gpm of 36% lithium chloride solution, 307,000 Btu/h firing rate), the boiler removed 153 lb/h of water from the desiccant at a gas-based efficiency of 52.9 % (which corresponds to a COP of 0.95 when a scavenging-air regenerator is added). The steam leaving the boiler, when condensed, had a solids concentration of less than 10 ppm. This low level of solids in the condensate places an upper bound of about 6 lb per year for desiccant loss from the regenerator. This low loss will not create maintenance problems nor will it significantly increase operating expenses. An energy balance on the boiler showed that heat loss through the insulated jacket was 10%. This value is much higher than the 2% to 5% that is typical of most boilers and indicates a need to better insulate the unit. With insulation that brings jacket losses down to 5%, a 1?-effect regenerator that uses this boiler as its high-temperature stage will have a gas-based COP of 1.05. The estimated cost to manufacture a 300-lb/h, 1?-effect regenerator at 500 units per year is $17,140. Unfortunately, the very high cost for natural gas that now prevails in the U.S. makes it very difficult for a gas-fired LDAC to compete against an electric vapor-compression air conditioner in HVAC applications. However, there are important industrial markets that need very dry air where the high price of natural gas will encourage the sale of a LDAC with the 1?-effect regenerator since in these markets it competes against less efficient gas-fired desiccant technologies. A manufacturer of industrial dehumidification equipment is now negotiating a sales agreement with us that would include the 1?-effect regenerator.

Andrew Lowenstein

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

359

Ultra Clean 1.1MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dresser, Inc. (GE Energy, Waukesha gas engines) will develop, test, demonstrate, and commercialize a 1.1 Megawatt (MW) natural gas fueled combined heat and power reciprocating engine powered package. This package will feature a total efficiency > 75% and ultra low CARB permitting emissions. Our modular design will cover the 1 – 6 MW size range, and this scalable technology can be used in both smaller and larger engine powered CHP packages. To further advance one of the key advantages of reciprocating engines, the engine, generator and CHP package will be optimized for low initial and operating costs. Dresser, Inc. will leverage the knowledge gained in the DOE - ARES program. Dresser, Inc. will work with commercial, regulatory, and government entities to help break down barriers to wider deployment of CHP. The outcome of this project will be a commercially successful 1.1 MW CHP package with high electrical and total efficiency that will significantly reduce emissions compared to the current central power plant paradigm. Principal objectives by phases for Budget Period 1 include: • Phase 1 – market study to determine optimum system performance, target first cost, lifecycle cost, and creation of a detailed product specification. • Phase 2 – Refinement of the Waukesha CHP system design concepts, identification of critical characteristics, initial evaluation of technical solutions, and risk mitigation plans. Background

Zurlo, James; Lueck, Steve

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

360

Development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells and modeling the impact of system parameters on levelized cost of electricity .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this thesis is to develop low-cost high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells which are at the right intersection of cost and performance to… (more)

Kang, Moon Hee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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361

Extreme Chromatography: Faster, Hotter, SmallerChapter 5 High-efficiency Liquid Chromatography Separations Achieved by Monolithic Silica Columns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extreme Chromatography: Faster, Hotter, Smaller Chapter 5 High-efficiency Liquid Chromatography Separations Achieved by Monolithic Silica Columns Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books AOCS Press Downloada

362

High-Efficiency CdTe and CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cells: Highlights and Challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules of CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) have the potential to reach cost-effective PV-generated electricity. These technologies have transitioned from the laboratory to the market place. Pilot production and first-time manufacturing are ramping up to higher capacity and enjoying a flood of venture-capital funding. CIGS solar cells and modules have achieved 19.5% and 13% efficiencies, respectively. Likewise, CdTe cells and modules have reached 16.5% and 10.2% efficiencies, respectively. Even higher efficiencies from the laboratory and from the manufacturing line are only a matter of time. Manufacturing-line yield continues to improve and is surpassing 85%. Long-term stability has been demonstrated for both technologies; however, some failures in the field have also been observed, emphasizing the critical need for understanding degradation mechanisms and packaging options. These two thin-film technologies have a common device/module structure: substrate, base electrode, absorber, junction layer, top electrode, patterning steps for monolithic integration, and encapsulation. The monolithic integration of thin-film solar cells can lead to significant manufacturing cost reduction compared to crystalline Si technology. The CdTe and CIGS modules share common structural elements. In principle, this commonality should lead to similar manufacturing cost per unit area, and thus, the module efficiency becomes the discriminating factor that determines the cost per watt. The long-term potential of the two technologies require R&D emphasis on science and engineering-based challenges to find solutions to achieve targeted cost-effective module performance, and in-field durability. Some of the challenges are common to both, e.g., in-situ process control and diagnostics, thinner absorber, understanding degradation mechanisms, protection from water vapor, and innovation in high-speed processing and module design. Other topics are specific to the technology, such as lower-cost and fast-deposition processes for CIGS, and improved back contact and voltage for CdTe devices.

Noufi, R.; Zweibel, K.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Electrical heating of soils using high efficiency electrode patterns and power phases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Powerline-frequency electrical (joule) heating of soils using a high efficiency electrode configuration and power phase arrangement. The electrode configuration consists of several heating or current injection electrodes around the periphery of a volume of soil to be heated, all electrodes being connected to one phase of a multi-phase or a single-phase power system, and a return or extraction electrode or electrodes located inside the volume to be heated being connected to the remaining phases of the multi-phase power system or to the neutral side of the single-phase power source. This electrode configuration and power phase arrangement can be utilized anywhere where powerline frequency soil heating is applicable and thus has many potential uses including removal of volatile organic compounds such as gasoline and tricholorethylene (TCE) from contaminated areas.

Buettner, Harley M. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Development of UV-LED Phosphor Coatings for High Efficiency Solid State Lighting  

SciTech Connect

The University of Georgia, in collaboration with GE Global Research, is investigating the relevant quenching mechanism of phosphor coatings used in white light devices based on UV LEDs in a focused eighteen month program. The final goal is the design of high-efficacy white UV-LEDs through improved and optimized phosphor coatings. At the end of the first year, we have reached a fundamental understanding of quenching processes in UV-LED phosphors and have observed severe quenching in standard devices under extreme operating conditions. Relationships are being established that describe the performance of the phosphor as a function of photon flux, temperature, and phosphor composition. These relationships will provide a road map for the design of efficient white light LEDs during the final six months of the project.

U. Happek

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Ongoing Commissioning of a high efficiency supermarket with a ground coupled carbon dioxide refrigeration plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A significant reduction in the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of supermarkets can be reached by the combination of several innovative components and the continuous optimization of their operation. A German food retail chain developed a new supermarket concept combining several innovative solutions for the refrigeration, lighting and heating/ventilation with the goal to reduce the energy consumption by about 30% compared to a standard subsidiary. A highly insulated building envelope, the use of daylight and covered refrigeration units contribute jointly to reach the goals. The key component of the concept is a carbon dioxide refrigeration plant with waste heat recovery. To reduce the efficiency losses in supercritical operation, carbon dioxide is cooled through a borehole heat exchanger using the ground as a heat sink. In the paper the design concept, the results of simulation studies and of the first monitoring year are presented and discussed.

Rehault, N.; Kalz, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

High Energy Density Thermal Batteries: Thermoelectric Reactors for Efficient Automotive Thermal Storage  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: Sheetak is developing a new HVAC system to store the energy required for heating and cooling in EVs. This system will replace the traditional refrigerant-based vapor compressors and inefficient heaters used in today’s EVs with efficient, light, and rechargeable hot-and-cold thermal batteries. The high energy density thermal battery—which does not use any hazardous substances—can be recharged by an integrated solid-state thermoelectric energy converter while the vehicle is parked and its electrical battery is being charged. Sheetak’s converters can also run on the electric battery if needed and provide the required cooling and heating to the passengers—eliminating the space constraint and reducing the weight of EVs that use more traditional compressors and heaters.

None

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

367

Stabilization of High Efficiency CdTe Photovoltaic Modules in Controlled Indoor Light Soaking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance and stabilization of large-area, high-efficiency 9%, CdTe photovoltaic (PV) modules maintained under controlled light-soaking nominally at 800 Watts/m2 irradiance and 65C module temperature are investigated. Degradation of module performance occurs predominantly in the first few hundred hours of exposure under these conditions; these symptoms included losses in fill factor (FF), open-circuit voltage (Voc), and short-circuit current (Isc), which amount to between 7% and 15% total loss in performance. Higher stabilized performance was achieved with lower copper content in the back contact. Transient effects in module Voc and Isc were observed, suggesting partial annealing thereof when stored under low-light levels. Performance changes are analyzed, aided by monitoring the current-voltage characteristics in situ during exposure.

del Cueto, J. A.; Pruett, J.; Cunningham, D.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development  

SciTech Connect

The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50 percent over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

Hewes, T.; Peeks, B.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Microsoft PowerPoint - 15.1130_Jeff Baker_Final Ultra-High Efficiency Commercial Buildings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High Efficiency Commercial Buildings High Efficiency Commercial Buildings Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Research Support Facility Research Support Facility Defining a New National Building Energy Performance Standard Defining a New National Building Energy Performance Standard Using Performance-Based Design-Build Acquisition Jeffrey M. Baker Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy March 15, 2011 March 15, 2011 Energy Drives National Security, Economic C titi d E i t l Q lit Competitiveness, and Environmental Quality U.S. Energy Consumption U.S. Energy Supply U.S. Energy Consumption U.S. Energy Supply Two Key Components to Achieving Our National Energy Strategy: 2 Two Key Components to Achieving Our National Energy Strategy: * Increase Energy Efficiency Across All Sectors * Increase Contribution of Renewable Energy Supply

370

Rimac: A novel redundancybased hierarchical cache architecture for energy efficient, high performance storage systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy efficiency becomes increasingly important in today’s high-performance storage systems. It can be challenging to save energy and improve performance at the same time in conventional (i.e. single-rotation-rate) disk-based storage systems. Most existing solutions compromise performance for energy conservation. In this paper, we propose a redundancy-based, two-level I/O cache architecture called RIMAC to address this problem. The idea of RIMAC is to enable data on the standby disk to be recovered by accessing data in the two-level I/O cache or on currently active/idle disks. At both cache and disk levels, RIMAC dynamically transforms accesses toward standby disks by exploiting parity redundancy in parity-based redundant disk arrays. Because I/O requests that require physical accesses on standby disks involve long waiting time and high power consumption for disk spin-up (tens of seconds for SCSI disks), transforming those requests to accesses in a two-level, collaborative I/O cache or on active disks can significantly improve both energy efficiency and performance. In RIMAC, we developed i) two power-aware read request transformation schemes called Transformable Read in Cache (TRC) and Transformable Read on Disk (TRD), ii) a poweraware write request transformation policy for parity update and (iii) a second-chance parity cache replacement algorithm to improve request transformation rate. We evaluated RI-MAC by augmenting a validated storage system simulator, disksim. For several real-life server traces including HP’s cello99, TPC-D and SPC’s search engine, RIMAC is shown to reduce energy consumption by up to 33 % and simultaneously improve the average response time by up to 30%. 1.

Xiaoyu Yao; Jun Wang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Low temperature metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth processes for high-efficiency solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a program to develop a more complete understanding of the physical and chemical processes involved in low-temperature growth of III-V compounds by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and to develop a low-temperature process that is suitable for the growth of high-efficiency solar cells. The program was structured to develop a better understanding of the chemical reactions involved in MOCVD growth, to develop a model of the processes occurring in the gas phase, to understand the physical kinetics and reactions operative on the surface of the growing crystal, and to develop an understanding of the means by which these processes may be altered to reduce the temperature of growth and the utilization of toxic hydrides. The basic approach was to develop the required information about the chemical and physical kinetics operative in the gas phase and on the surface by the direct physical measurement of the processes whenever possible. The program included five tasks: (1) MOCVD growth process characterization, (2) photoenhanced MOCVD studies, (3) materials characterization, (4) device fabrication and characterization, and (5) photovoltaic training. Most of the goals of the program were met and significant progress was made in defining an approach that would allow both high throughput and high uniformity growth of compound semiconductors at low temperatures. The technical activity was focused on determining the rates of thermal decomposition of trimethyl gallium, exploring alternate arsenic sources for use MOCVD, and empirical studies of atomic layer epitaxy as an approach.

Dapkus, P.D. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Materials development and field demonstration of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction  

SciTech Connect

The project developed high-recycled-content concrete material with balanced structural and thermal attributes for use in energy-efficient building construction. Recycled plastics, tire, wool, steel and concrete were used as replacement for coarse aggregates in concrete and masonry production. With recycled materials the specific heat and thermal conductivity of concrete could be tailored to enhance the energy-efficiency of concrete buildings. A comprehensive field project was implemented which confirmed the benefits of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction.

Ostowari, Ken; Nosson, Ali

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

373

Research on stable, high-efficiency, amorphous silicon multijunction modules. Annual subcontract report, 1 May 1991--30 April 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work to demonstrate a multijunction module with a ``stabilized`` efficiency (600 h, 50{degrees}C, AM1.5) of 10.5%. Triple-junction devices and modules using a-Si:H alloys with carbon and germanium were developed to meet program goals. ZnO was used to provide a high optical transmission front contact. Proof of concept was obtained for several important advances deemed to be important for obtaining high (12.5%) stabilized efficiency. They were (1) stable, high-quality a-SiC:H devices and (2) high-transmission, textured ZnO. Although these developments were not scaled up and included in modules, triple-junction module efficiencies as high as 10.85% were demonstrated. NREL measured 9.62% and 9.00% indoors and outdoors, respectively. The modules are expected to lose no more than 20% of their initial performance. 28 refs.

Catalano, A.; Bennett, M.; Chen, L.; D`Aiello, R.; Fieselmann, B.; Li, Y.; Newton, J.; Podlesny, R.; Yang, L. [Solarex Corp., Newtown, PA (United States). Thin Film Div.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Hydrogen Production via a High-Efficiency Low-Temperature Reformer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells are promoted by the US government as a viable alternative for clean and efficient energy generation. It is anticipated that the fuel cell market will rise if the key technical barriers can be overcome. One of them is certainly fuel processing and purification. Existing fuel reforming processes are energy intensive, extremely complicated and capital intensive; these disadvantages handicap the scale-down of existing reforming process, targeting distributed or on-board/stationary hydrogen production applications. Our project involves the bench-scale demonstration of a high-efficiency low-temperature steam reforming process. Hydrogen production can be operated at 350 to 400ºC with our invention, as opposed to >800ºC of existing reforming. In addition, our proposed process improves the start-up deficiency of conventional reforming due to its low temperature operation. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the invented process concept via a bench scale unit and verify mathematical simulation for future process optimization study. Under this project, we have performed the experimental work to determine the adsorption isotherm, reaction kinetics, and membrane permeances required to perform the process simulation based upon the mathematical model developed by us. A ceramic membrane coated with palladium thin film fabricated by us was employed in this study. The adsorption isotherm for a selected hydrotalcite adsorbent was determined experimentally. Further, the capacity loss under cyclic adsorption/desorption was confirmed to be negligible. Finally a commercial steam reforming catalyst was used to produce the reaction kinetic parameters required for the proposed operating condition. With these input parameters, a mathematical simulation was performed to predict the performance of the invented process. According to our simulation, our invented hybrid process can deliver 35 to 55% methane conversion, in comparison with the 12 and 18-21% conversion of the packed bed and an adsorptive reactor respectively. In addition CO contamination with <10 to 120 ppm is predicted for the invented process depending upon the cycle time for the PSA type operation. In comparison, the adsorption reactor can also deliver a similar CO contaminant at the low end; however, its high end reaches as high as 300 ppm based upon the simulation of our proposed operating condition. Our experimental results for the packed bed and the membrane reactor deliver 12 and 18% conversion at 400°C, approaching the conversion by the mathematical simulation. Due to the time constraint, the experimental study on the conversion of the invented process has not been complete. However, our in-house study using a similar process concept for the water gas shift reaction has demonstrated the reliability of our mathematical simulation for the invented process. In summary, we are confident that the invented process can deliver efficiently high purity hydrogen at a low temperature (~400°C). According to our projection, the invented process can further achieve 5% energy savings and ~50% capital savings over conventional reforming for fuel cell applications. The pollution abatement potential associated with the implementation of fuel cells, including the elimination of nitrogen oxides and CO, and the reduction in volatile organics and CO2, can thus be realized with the implementation of this invented process. The projected total market size for equipment sale for the proposed process in US is $1.5 billion annually.

Paul KT Liu; Theo T. Tsotsis

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

Energy-Efficient, High-Color-Rendering LED Lamps Using Oxyfluoride and Fluoride Phosphors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

LED lamps using phosphor downconversion can be designed to replace incandescent or halogen sources with a 'warm-white' correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2700-3200 K and a color rendering index (CRI) greater than 90. However, these lamps have efficacies of {approx}70% of standard 'cool-white' LED packages (CCT = 4500-6000 K; CRI = 75-80). In this report, we describe structural and luminescence properties of fluoride and oxyfluoride phosphors, specifically a (Sr,Ca){sub 3}(Al,Si)O{sub 4}(F,O):Ce{sup 3+} yellow-green phosphor and a K{sub 2}TiF{sub 6}:Mn{sup 4+} red phosphor, that can reduce this gap and therefore meet the spectral and efficiency requirements for high-efficacy LED lighting. LED lamps with a warm-white color temperature (3088 K), high CRI (90), and an efficacy of {approx}82 lm/W are demonstrated using these phosphors. This efficacy is {approx}85% of comparable cool-white lamps using typical Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+}-based phosphors, significantly reducing the efficacy gap between warm-white and cool-white LED lamps that use phosphor downconversion.

Setlur, A.; Radkov, E; Henderson, C; Her, J; Srivastava, A; Karkada, N; Kishore, M; Kumar, N; Aesram, D; et al.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Electrically heated particulate filter propagation support methods and systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A propagation module estimates a propagation status of the combustion of the particulate matter based on a combustion temperature. A temperature adjustment module controls the combustion temperature by selectively increasing a temperature of exhaust that passes through the particulate filter.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

378

High-Efficiency Non-Polar GaN-Based LEDs  

SciTech Connect

Inlustra Technologies with subcontractor U.C. Santa Barbara conducted a project with the principle goal of demonstrating high internal quantum efficiency blue (430 nm) and green (540nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) on low-defect density non-polar GaN wafers. Inlustra pursued the fabrication of smooth thick a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as defect reduction techniques such as lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) to uniformly lower dislocation density in these films. Limited free-standing wafers were produced as well. By the end of the reporting period, Inlustra had met its milestone of dislocation reduction to < 5 x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}. Stacking faults were still present in appreciable density ({approx} 1 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup -1}), but were not the primary focus of defect reduction since there have been no published studies establishing their detrimental effects on LED performance. Inlustra's LEO progress built a solid foundation upon which further commercial development of GaN substrates will occur. UCSB encountered multiple delays in its LED growth and fabrication efforts due to unavoidable facilities outages imposed by ongoing construction in an area adjacent to the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) laboratory. This, combined with the large amount of ab initio optimization required for the MOCVD system used during the project, resulted in unsatisfactory LED progress. Although numerous blue-green photoluminescence results were obtained, only a few LED structures exhibited electroluminescence at appreciable levels. UCSB also conducting extensive modeling (led by Prof. Van de Walle) on the problem of non-radiative Auger recombination in GaN-based LED structures, which has been posited to contribute to LED efficiency 'droop' at elevated current density. Unlike previous modeling efforts, UCSB's approach was truly a first-principles ab initio methodology. Building on solid numerical foundations, the Auger recombination rates of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N alloys were calculated from first-principles density-functional and many-body-perturbation theory. The differing mechanisms of inter- and intra-band recombination were found to affect different parts of the emission spectrum. In the blue to green spectral region and at room temperature the Auger coefficient was calculated to be as large as 2 x 10{sup -30} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1}; in the infrared it is even larger. These results indicated that Auger recombination may be responsible for the loss of quantum efficiency that affects InGaN-based light emitters, whether on non-polar or polar crystal planes.

Paul Fini

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

379

High-Efficiency Non-Polar GaN-Based LEDs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inlustra Technologies with subcontractor U.C. Santa Barbara conducted a project with the principle goal of demonstrating high internal quantum efficiency blue (430 nm) and green (540nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) on low-defect density non-polar GaN wafers. Inlustra pursued the fabrication of smooth thick a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as defect reduction techniques such as lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) to uniformly lower dislocation density in these films. Limited free-standing wafers were produced as well. By the end of the reporting period, Inlustra had met its milestone of dislocation reduction to LED performance. Inlustra's LEO progress built a solid foundation upon which further commercial development of GaN substrates will occur. UCSB encountered multiple delays in its LED growth and fabrication efforts due to unavoidable facilities outages imposed by ongoing construction in an area adjacent to the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) laboratory. This, combined with the large amount of ab initio optimization required for the MOCVD system used during the project, resulted in unsatisfactory LED progress. Although numerous blue-green photoluminescence results were obtained, only a few LED structures exhibited electroluminescence at appreciable levels. UCSB also conducting extensive modeling (led by Prof. Van de Walle) on the problem of non-radiative Auger recombination in GaN-based LED structures, which has been posited to contribute to LED efficiency 'droop' at elevated current density. Unlike previous modeling efforts, UCSB's approach was truly a first-principles ab initio methodology. Building on solid numerical foundations, the Auger recombination rates of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N alloys were calculated from first-principles density-functional and many-body-perturbation theory. The differing mechanisms of inter- and intra-band recombination were found to affect different parts of the emission spectrum. In the blue to green spectral region and at room temperature the Auger coefficient was calculated to be as large as 2 x 10{sup -30} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1}; in the infrared it is even larger. These results indicated that Auger recombination may be responsible for the loss of quantum efficiency that affects InGaN-based light emitters, whether on non-polar or polar crystal planes.

Paul Fini

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

380

High Efficiency Thermionics (HET-IV) and Converter Advancement (CAP) programs. Final reports  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report contains the final report of the High Efficiency Thermionics (HET-IV) Program, Attachment A, performed at Rasor Associates, Inc. (RAI); and the final report of the Converter Advancement Program (CAP), performed at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Attachment B. The phenomenology of cesium-oxygen thermionic converters was elucidated in these programs, and the factors that had prevented the achievement of stable, enhanced cesium-oxygen converter performance for the previous thirty years were identified. Based on these discoveries, cesium-oxygen vapor sources were developed that achieved stable performance with factor-of-two improvements in power density and thermal efficiency, relative to conventional, cesium-only ignited mode thermionic converters. Key achievements of the HET-IV/CAP programs are as follows: a new technique for measuring minute traces of oxygen in cesium atmospheres; the determination of the proper range of oxygen partial pressures for optimum converter performance--10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup {minus}9} torr; the discovery, and analysis of the cesium-oxygen liquid migration and compositional segregation phenomena; the successful use of capillary forces to contain the migration phenomenon; the use of differential heating to control compositional segregation, and induce vapor circulation; the development of mechanically and chemically stable, porous reservoir structures; the development of precise, in situ oxygen charging methods; stable improvements in emitter performance, up to effective emitter bare work functions of 5.4 eV; stable improvements in barrier index, to value below 1.8 Volts; the development of detailed microscopic models for cesium-oxygen reservoir dynamics and collector work function behavior; and the discovery of new relationships between electrode geometry and Schock Instability.

Geller, C.B.; Murray, C.S.; Riley, D.R. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States)] [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States); Desplat, J.L.; Hansen, L.K.; Hatch, G.L.; McVey, J.B.; Rasor, N.S. [Rasor Associates, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)] [Rasor Associates, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high efficiency particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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381

High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Technical progress report, [1 July--30 September 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, {open_quotes}High Efficiency SO{sub 2} Removal Testing{close_quotes}, for the time period 1 July through 30 September, 1993. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The upgrades to be evaluated primarily involve the addition of organic acid buffers to the FGD systems. The {open_quotes}base{close_quotes} project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company Big Bend station. As of September 1993, all five potential options to the base program had been exercised by DOE, involving testing at the Hoosier Energy Merom Station (Option I), the Southwestern Electric Power Company Pirkey Station (Option II), the PSI Energy Gibson Station (Option III), the Duquesne Light Elrama Station (Option IV), and the New York State Electric and Gas Company Kintigh Station (Option V). As of September 1993, testing has been completed for the base project and for Options 1 and 2, has begun but not been completed for Options III and IV, and has not yet begun for Option V. This document is divided into five sections. After a brief introduction (Section 1), Section 2 (Project Summary) provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3 (Results) summarizes the outcome from these technical efforts during the quarter. Results for each site for which there were significant technical efforts or for which there are updated technical results are discussed in separate subsections. In Section 4 (Plans for the Next Reporting Period) an overview is provided of the technical progress that is anticipated for the fourth quarter of calendar year 1993. Section 5 includes a brief acknowledgement.

Blythe, G.

1993-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

382

High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Quarterly status report, October 1994--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, {open_quotes}High Efficiency SO{sub 2} Removal Testing{close_quotes}, for the time period 1 October through 31 December 1994. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low-capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The upgrades to be evaluated primAllily involve using additives in the FGD systems. The {open_quotes}base{close_quotes} project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company Big Bend station. AR five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at the Hoosier Energy Merom Station (Option I), the Southwestern Electric Power Company Pirkey Station (Option II), the PSI Energy Gibson Station (Option III), the Duquesne Light Elrama Station (Option IV), and the New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) Kintigh Station (Option V). By the beginning of the fourth quarter of 1994, testing had been completed for the base project and for all options. The remainder of this document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from these technical efforts during the quarter. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the first quarter of calendar year 1995. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgement.

Blythe, G.

1995-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

383

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fifth quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degrees}F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000{degrees}F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

Adams, D.C.

1993-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

384

High efficiency shale oil recovery. First quarter report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

Adams, D.C.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

Adams, D.C.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

386

Engines - 3-D Animation Shows Complex Geometry of Diesel Particulates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3-D Animation Shows Complex Geometry of Diesel Particulates Diesel particulate matter has a very complex geometry Most studies have observed these three-dimensional structures in...

387

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 3 - Particulate Emissions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 - Particulate Emissions from Industrial Processes (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 3 - Particulate Emissions from Industrial Processes (Rhode Island)...

388

Radiant zone heated particulate filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

389

Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings (TTBCs) for Low Emission, High Efficiency Diesel Engine Components  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program was to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating (TTBC) systems for application to low heat rejection diesel engine combustion chambers. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impede the application of thermal barrier coating to diesel engines.(1) Areas of TTBC technology examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coating composition, coating design, microstructure and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC "aging" effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Fifteen TTBC ceramic powders were evaluated. These powders were selected to investigate the effects of different chemistries, different manufacturing methods, lot-to-lot variations, different suppliers and varying impurity levels. Each of the fifteen materials has been sprayed using 36 parameters selected by a design of experiments (DOE) to determine the effects of primary gas (Ar and N2), primary gas flow rate, voltage, arc current, powder feed rate, carrier gas flow rate, and spraying distance. The deposition efficiency, density, and thermal conductivity of the resulting coatings were measured. A coating with a high deposition efficiency and low thermal conductivity is desired from an economic standpoint. An optimum combination of thermal conductivity and disposition efficiency was found for each lot of powder in follow-on experiments and disposition parameters were chosen for full characterization.(2) Strengths of the optimized coatings were determined using 4-point bending specimens. The tensile strength was determined using free-standing coatings made by spraying onto mild steel substrates which were subsequently removed by chemical etching. The compressive strengths of the coatings were determined using composite specimens of ceramic coated onto stainless steel substrates, tested with the coating in compression and the steel in tension. The strength of the coating was determined from an elastic bi-material analysis of the resulting failure of the coating in compression.(3) Altough initial comparisons of the materials would appear to be straight forward from these results, the results of the aging tests of the materials are necessary to insure that trends in properties remain after long term exposure to a diesel environment. Some comparisons can be made, such as the comparison between for lot-to-lot variation. An axial fatigue test to determine the high cycle fatigue behavior of TTBCs was developed at the University of Illinois under funding from this program.(4) A fatigue test apparatus has been designed and initial work performed which demonstrates the ability to provide a routine method of axial testing of coating. The test fixture replaces the normal load frame and fixtures used to transmit the hydraulic oil loading to the sample with the TTBC specimen itself. The TTBC specimen is a composite metal/coating with stainless steel ends. The coating is sprayed onto a mild steel center tube section onto which the stainless steel ends are press fit. The specimen is then machined. After machining, the specimen is placed in an acid bath which etches the mild steel away leaving the TTBC attached to the the stainless steel ends. Plugs are then installed in the ends and the composite specimen loaded in the test fixture where the hydraulic oil pressurizes each end to apply the load. Since oil transmits the load, bending loads are minimized. This test fixture has been modified to allow piston ends to be attached to the specimen which allows tensile loading as well as compressive loading of the specimen. In addition to the room temperature data, specimens have been tested at 800 Degrees C with the surprising result that at high temperature, the TTBC exhibits much higher fatigue strength. Testing of the TTBC using tension/compression cycling has been con

M. Brad Beardsley, Caterpillar Inc.; Dr. Darrell Socie, University of Illinois; Dr. Ed Redja, University of Illinois; Dr. Christopher Berndt, State University of New York at Stony Brook

2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

390

Materials-Enabled High-Efficiency (MEHE) Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UTBattelle, Inc. and Caterpillar, Inc. was to improve diesel engine efficiency by incorporating advanced materials to enable higher combustion pressures and temperatures necessary for improved combustion. The project scope also included novel materials for use in advanced components and designs associated with waste-heat recovery and other concepts for improved thermal efficiency. Caterpillar initially provided ORNL with a 2004 Tier 2 C15 ACERT diesel engine (designed for on-highway use) and two 600 hp motoring dynamometers. The first year of the CRADA effort was focused on establishing a heavy-duty experimental engine research cell. First year activities included procuring, installing and commissioning the cell infrastructure. Infrastructure components consisted of intake air handling system, water tower, exhaust handling system, and cell air conditioning. Other necessary infrastructure items included the fuel delivery system and bottled gas handling to support the analytical instrumentation. The second year of the CRADA focused on commissioning the dynamometer system to enable engine experimentation. In addition to the requirements associated with the dynamometer controller, the electrical system needed a power factor correction system to maintain continuity with the electrical grid. During the second year the engine was instrumented and baseline operated to confirm performance and commission the dynamometer. The engine performance was mapped and modeled according to requirements provided by Caterpillar. This activity was further supported by a Work-for-Others project from Caterpillar to evaluate a proprietary modeling system. A second Work-for-Others activity was performed to evaluate a novel turbocharger design. This project was highly successful and may lead to new turbocharger designs for Caterpillar heavy-duty diesel engines. During the third (and final) year of the CRADA, a novel valve material was evaluated to assess high temperature performance and durability. A series of prototype valves, composed of a unique nickel-alloy was placed in the engine head. The engine was aggressively operated using a transient test cycle for 200 hours. The valve recession was periodically measured to determine valve performance. Upon completion of the test the valves were removed and returned to Caterpillar for additional assessment. Industrial in-kind support was available throughout the project period. Review of the status and research results were carried out on a regular basis (meetings and telecons) which included direction for future work activities. A significant portion of the industrial support was in the form of information exchange and technical consultation.

Kass, M.; Veliz, M. (Caterpillar, Inc.)

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

391

Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to provide experimental combustion data of our target fuels at gas turbine conditions. Based on an initial assessment of premixer design requirements and challenges, the most promising sub-scale premixer concepts were evaluated both experimentally and computationally. After comprehensive screening tests, two best performing concepts were scaled up for further development. High pressure single nozzle tests were performed with the scaled premixer concepts at target gas turbine conditions with opportunity fuels. Single-digit NOx emissions were demonstrated for syngas fuels. Plasma-assisted pilot technology was demonstrated to enhance ignition capability and provide additional flame stability margin to a standard premixing fuel nozzle. However, the impact of plasma on NOx emissions was observed to be unacceptable given the goals of this program and difficult to avoid.

Venkatesan, Krishna

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

392

Monitoring and evaluation of replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency air conditioners in single-family detached houses in Austin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE initiated this project to evaluate the performance of an air conditioner retrofit program in Austin, Texas. The City's Austin's Resource Management Department pursued this project to quantify the retrofit effect of replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency air conditioners in single-family detached homes. If successfully implemented, this retrofit program could help defer construction of a new power plant which is a major goal of this department. The project compares data collected from 12 houses during two cooling seasons under pre-retrofit and then post-retrofit air conditioner units. The existing low-efficiency air conditioners were monitored during the 1987 cooling season, replaced during the 1987--88 heating season with new, smaller sized, high-efficiency units, and then monitored again during the 1988 cooling season. Results indicated that the air conditioner retrofits reduce the annual air conditioner electric consumption and peak electric demand by an average of 38%. When normalized to the nominal capacity of the air conditioner, average demand savings were 1.12 W/ft{sup 2} and estimated annual energy savings were 1.419 kWh/ft{sup 2}. Individual air conditioner power requirements were found to be a well defined function of outdoor temperature as expected. In the absence of detailed data, estimates of the peak demand reductions of new air conditioners can be made from the manufacturer's specifications. Air conditioner energy consumption proved to be strongly linear as a function of the outdoor temperature as expected when taken as an aggregate. No noticeable differences in the diversity factor of the air conditioner usage were found. Analysis of the retrofit effect using PRISM yields estimates of the reduction in normalized annual consumption (NAC) and annual cooling consumption of 12% and 30%. 2 refs., 11 figs., 17 tabs.

Burns, R.; Hough, R.E. (Fleming (W.S.) and Associates, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

Brand, L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Periodic Flow Gas Turbine for Distributed Energy Generation  

SciTech Connect

The proposed effort served as a feasibility study for an innovative, low-cost periodic flow gas turbine capable of realizing efficiencies in the 39-48% range.

Dr. Adam London

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

395

Engines - Particulate Studies - Revealing the True Nature of Diesel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engine Nanoparticle Research: Revealing the True Nature of Diesel Particulates Engine Nanoparticle Research: Revealing the True Nature of Diesel Particulates Thermophoretic sampling device Argonne's test engine with the thermophoretic sampling device attached. Nanostructure of graphitic diesel soot under high engine load A transmission electron microscope reveals the nanostructures of graphitic diesel soot sampled under high engine loads. Morphology of particles collected from diesel combustion with iso-paraffin-enriched fuel. Morphology of particles collected from diesel combution with iso-paraffin-enriched fuel. Amorphous soot particle collected from biodiesel combustion undera low-temperature condition. Amorphous soot particle collected from biodiesel combustion under low temperature conditions. Researchers have many ideas about how to reduce the soot produced by diesel

396

Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) from High Efficiency Clean Combustion: Catalytic Exhaust Treatment Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) strategies such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer much promise for the reduction of NOx and PM from diesel engines. While delivering low PM and low NOx, these combustion modes often produce much higher levels of CO and HC than conventional diesel combustion modes. In addition, partially oxygenated species such as formaldehyde (an MSAT) and other aldehydes increase with HECC modes. The higher levels of CO and HCs have the potential to compromise the performance of the catalytic aftertreatment, specifically at low load operating points. As HECC strategies become incorporated into vehicle calibrations, manufacturers need to avoid producing MSATs in higher quantities than found in conventional combustion modes. This paper describes research on two different HECC strategies, HCCI and PCCI. Engine-out data for several MSAT species (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, naphthalene, PAHs, diesel PM) as well as other HC species are presented and compared when possible with conventional operation. In addition, catalyst-out values were measured to assess the destruction of individual MSATs over the catalyst. At low engine loads, MSATs were higher and catalyst performance was poorer. Particle sizing results identify large differences between PM from conventional and HECC operation.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Hydrogen as a zero-emission, high-efficiency fuel: Uniqueness, experiments and simulations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The planned use of hydrogen as the energy carrier of the future introduces new challenges and opportunities, especially to the engine design community. Hydrogen is a bio-friendly fuel that can be produced from renewable resources and has no carbon dioxide combustion products; and in a properly designed ICE, almost zero NO{sub x} and hydrocarbon emissions can be achieved. Because of the unique properties of hydrogen combustion - in particular the highly wrinkled nature of the laminar flame front due to the preferential diffusion instability - modeling approaches for hydrocarbon gaseous fuels are not generally applicable to hydrogen combustion. This paper reports on the current progress to develop an engine design capability based on the KIVA family of codes for hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited engines in support of the National Hydrogen Program. A turbulent combustion model, based on a modified eddy-turnover model in conjunction with an intake flow valve model, is found to describe well the efficiency and NO{sub x} emissions for an experimental engine over a wide range of ignition timings. The NO{sub x} emissions of this engine satisfy the Equivalent Zero Vehicle (EZEV) standard established by the California Resource Board.

Johnson, N.L.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

2001-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

399

Measuring and tuning energy efficiency on large scale high performance computing platforms.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recognition of the importance of power in the field of High Performance Computing, whether it be as an obstacle, expense or design consideration, has never been greater and more pervasive. While research has been conducted on many related aspects, there is a stark absence of work focused on large scale High Performance Computing. Part of the reason is the lack of measurement capability currently available on small or large platforms. Typically, research is conducted using coarse methods of measurement such as inserting a power meter between the power source and the platform, or fine grained measurements using custom instrumented boards (with obvious limitations in scale). To collect the measurements necessary to analyze real scientific computing applications at large scale, an in-situ measurement capability must exist on a large scale capability class platform. In response to this challenge, we exploit the unique power measurement capabilities of the Cray XT architecture to gain an understanding of power use and the effects of tuning. We apply these capabilities at the operating system level by deterministically halting cores when idle. At the application level, we gain an understanding of the power requirements of a range of important DOE/NNSA production scientific computing applications running at large scale (thousands of nodes), while simultaneously collecting current and voltage measurements on the hosting nodes. We examine the effects of both CPU and network bandwidth tuning and demonstrate energy savings opportunities of up to 39% with little or no impact on run-time performance. Capturing scale effects in our experimental results was key. Our results provide strong evidence that next generation large-scale platforms should not only approach CPU frequency scaling differently, but could also benefit from the capability to tune other platform components, such as the network, to achieve energy efficient performance.

Laros, James H., III

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Research on stable, high-efficiency, large-area, amorphous-silicon-based submodules  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this subcontract is to develop the technology for same bandgap, amorphous silicon tandem junction photovoltaic modules having an area of at least 900 cm{sup 2} with the goal of achieving an aperture area efficiency of 9%. A further objective is to demonstrate modules that retain 95% of their under standard light soaking conditions. Our approach to the attainment of these objective is based on the following distinctive technologies: (a) in-house deposition of SiO{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2}:F onto soda lime glass by APCVD to provide a textured, transparent electrode, (b) single chamber r.f. flow discharge deposition of the a-Si:H layers onto vertical substrates contained with high package density in a box carrier'' to which the discharge is confined (c) sputter deposition of highly reflecting, ZnO-based back contacts, and (d) laser scribing of the a-Si:H and electrodes with real-time scribe tracking to minimize area loss. Continued development of single junction amorphous silicon was aggressively pursued as proving ground for various optical enhancement schemes, new p-layers, and i-layers quality. We have rigorously demonstrated that the introduction of a transitional i-layer does not impair stability and that the initial gain in performance is retained. We have demonstrated a small improvement in cell stability through a post-fabrication treatment consisting of multiple, intense light flashes followed by sufficient annealing. Finally, several experiments have indicated that long term stability can be improved by overcoating the SnO{sub 2} with ZnO. 25 refs., 17 figs.

Delahoy, A.E.; Tonon, T.; Macneil, J. (Chronar Corp., Princeton, NJ (USA))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Research on stable, high-efficiency, large-area, amorphous-silicon-based submodules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of this subcontract is to develop the technology for same bandgap, amorphous silicon tandem junction photovoltaic modules having an area of at least 900 cm{sup 2} with the goal of achieving an aperture area efficiency of 9%. A further objective is to demonstrate modules that retain 95% of their under standard light soaking conditions. Our approach to the attainment of these objective is based on the following distinctive technologies: (a) in-house deposition of SiO{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2}:F onto soda lime glass by APCVD to provide a textured, transparent electrode, (b) single chamber r.f. flow discharge deposition of the a-Si:H layers onto vertical substrates contained with high package density in a box carrier'' to which the discharge is confined (c) sputter deposition of highly reflecting, ZnO-based back contacts, and (d) laser scribing of the a-Si:H and electrodes with real-time scribe tracking to minimize area loss. Continued development of single junction amorphous silicon was aggressively pursued as proving ground for various optical enhancement schemes, new p-layers, and i-layers quality. We have rigorously demonstrated that the introduction of a transitional i-layer does not impair stability and that the initial gain in performance is retained. We have demonstrated a small improvement in cell stability through a post-fabrication treatment consisting of multiple, intense light flashes followed by sufficient annealing. Finally, several experiments have indicated that long term stability can be improved by overcoating the SnO{sub 2} with ZnO. 25 refs., 17 figs.

Delahoy, A.E.; Tonon, T.; Macneil, J. (Chronar Corp., Princeton, NJ (USA))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Hydrogen Production via a High-Efficiency Low-Temperature Reformer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fuel cells are promoted by the US government as a viable alternative for clean and efficient energy generation. It is anticipated that the fuel cell market will rise if the key technical barriers can be overcome. One of them is certainly fuel processing and purification. Existing fuel reforming processes are energy intensive, extremely complicated and capital intensive; these disadvantages handicap the scale-down of existing reforming process, targeting distributed or on-board/stationary hydrogen production applications. Our project involves the bench-scale demonstration of a high-efficiency low-temperature steam reforming process. Hydrogen production can be operated at 350 to 400ºC with our invention, as opposed to >800ºC of existing reforming. In addition, our proposed process improves the start-up deficiency of conventional reforming due to its low temperature operation. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the invented process concept via a bench scale unit and verify mathematical simulation for future process optimization study. Under this project, we have performed the experimental work to determine the adsorption isotherm, reaction kinetics, and membrane permeances required to perform the process simulation based upon the mathematical model developed by us. A ceramic membrane coated with palladium thin film fabricated by us was employed in this study. The adsorption isotherm for a selected hydrotalcite adsorbent was determined experimentally. Further, the capacity loss under cyclic adsorption/desorption was confirmed to be negligible. Finally a commercial steam reforming catalyst was used to produce the reaction kinetic parameters required for the proposed operating condition. With these input parameters, a mathematical simulation was performed to predict the performance of the invented process. According to our simulation, our invented hybrid process can deliver 35 to 55% methane conversion, in comparison with the 12 and 18-21% conversion of the packed bed and an adsorptive reactor respectively. In addition CO contamination with energy savings and ~50% capital savings over conventional reforming for fuel cell applications. The pollution abatement potential associated with the implementation of fuel cells, including the elimination of nitrogen oxides and CO, and the reduction in volatile organics and CO2, can thus be realized with the implementation of this invented process. The projected total market size for equipment sale for the proposed process in US is $1.5 billion annually.

Paul KT Liu; Theo T. Tsotsis

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

403

Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

404

Study of Energy and Demand Savings on a High Efficiency Hydraulic Pump System with Infinite Turn Down Technology (ITDT)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detailed field measurement and verification of electrical energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings is conducted on an injection molding machine used in typical plastic manufacturing facility retrofitted with a high efficiency hydraulic pump system. Significant energy usage and demand savings are verified for the retrofitted injection molding machine. The savings are realized by electronically attenuating the torque of a positive displacement pump irrespective of the volumetric flow required by the cycle. With help of a power analyzer, power quality issues are addressed. Some voltage distortion was observed due to the harmonic currents introduced by the control algorithm of the high efficiency hydraulic system. A comparative study of electrical energy and demand savings between an injection molding machine retrofitted with the high efficiency hydraulic pump system or variable frequency drive will also be presented.

Sfeir, R. A.; Kanungo, A.; Liou, S.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

ZnO PN Junctions for Highly-Efficient, Low-Cost Light Emitting Diodes  

SciTech Connect

By 2015, the US Department of Energy has set as a goal the development of advanced solid state lighting technologies that are more energy efficient, longer lasting, and more cost-effective than current technology. One approach that is most attractive is to utilize light-emitting diode technologies. Although III-V compound semiconductors have been the primary focus in pursuing this objective, ZnO-based materials present some distinct advantages that could yield success in meeting this objective. As with the nitrides, ZnO is a direct bandgap semiconductor whose gap energy (3.2 eV) can be tuned from 3.0 to 4 eV with substitution of Mg for higher bandgap, Cd for lower bandgap. ZnO has an exciton binding energy of 60 meV, which is larger than that for the nitrides, indicating that it should be a superior light emitting semiconductor. Furthermore, ZnO thin films can be deposited at temperatures on the order of 400-600 C, which is significantly lower than that for the nitrides and should lead to lower manufacturing costs. It has also been demonstrated that functional ZnO electronic devices can be fabricated on inexpensive substrates, such as glass. Therefore, for the large-area photonic application of solid state lighting, ZnO holds unique potential. A significant impediment to exploiting ZnO in light-emitting applications has been the absence of effective p-type carrier doping. However, the recent realization of acceptor-doped ZnO material overcomes this impediment, opening the door to ZnO light emitting diode development In this project, the synthesis and properties of ZnO-based pn junctions for light emitting diodes was investigated. The focus was on three issues most pertinent to realizing a ZnO-based solid state lighting technology, namely (1) achieving high p-type carrier concentrations in epitaxial and polycrystalline films, (2) realizing band edge emission from pn homojunctions, and (3) investigating pn heterojunction constructs that should yield efficient light emission. The project engaged established expertise at the University of Florida in ZnO film growth (D. Norton), device fabrication (F. Ren) and wide bandgap photonics (S. Pearton). It addressed p-type doping and junction formation in (Zn,Mg)O alloy thin films. The project employed pulsed laser deposition for film growth. The p-type dopant of interest was primarily phosphorus, given the recent results in our laboratory and elsewhere that this anions can yield p-type ZnO-based materials. The role of Zn interstitials, oxygen vacancies, and/or hydrogen complexes in forming compensating shallow donor levels imposes the need to simultaneously consider the role of in situ and post-growth processing conditions. Temperature-dependent Hall, Seebeck, C-V, and resistivity measurements was used to determine conduction mechanisms, carrier type, and doping. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence was used to determine the location of the acceptor level, injection efficiency, and optical properties of the structures. X-ray diffraction will used to characterize film crystallinity. Using these materials, the fabrication and characterization of (Zn,Mg)O pn homojunction and heterojunction devices was pursued. Electrical characterization of the junction capacitance and I-V behavior was used to extract junction profile and minority carrier lifetime. Electroluminescence from biased junctions was the primary property of interest.

David P. Norton; Stephen Pearton; Fan Ren

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

406

Criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters during and after design basis accidents  

SciTech Connect

We have reviewed the literature on the performance of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under normal and abnormal conditions to establish criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters in a DOE nonreactor nuclear facility during and after a Design Basis Accident (DBA). The literature review included the performance of new filters and parameters that may cause deterioration in the filter performance such as filter age, radiation, corrosive chemicals, seismic and rough handling, high temperature, moisture, particle clogging, high air flow and pressure pulses. The deterioration of the filter efficiency depends on the exposure parameters; in severe exposure conditions the filter will be structurally damaged and have a residual efficiency of 0%. Despite the many studies on HEPA filter performance under adverse conditions, there are large gaps and limitations in the data that introduce significant error in the estimates of HEPA filter efficiencies under DBA conditions. Because of this limitation, conservative values of filter efficiency were chosen when there was insufficient data.

Bergman, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); First, M.W. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Anderson, W.L. [Consultant, LaPlata, MD (United States); Gilbert, H. [Consultant, McLean, VA (United States); Jacox, J.W. [Consultant, Columbus, OH (United States)

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

A single diffractive optical element for implementing spectrum-splitting and beam-concentration functions simultaneously with high diffraction efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, a novel method is proposed, and employed to design a single diffractive optical element (DOE) for implementing spectrum-splitting and beam-concentration (SSBC) functions simultaneously. We develop an optimization algorithm, through which the SSBC DOE can be optimized within an arbitrary thickness range, according to the limitations of modern photolithography technology. Theoretical simulation results reveal that the designed SSBC DOE has a high optical focusing efficiency. It is expected that the designed SSBC DOE should have practical applications in high-efficiency solar cell systems.

Ye, Jia-Sheng; Huang, Qing-Li; Dong, Bi-Zhen; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Guo-Zhen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency N0x Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy and Environmental Research Corporation is developing a family of high efficiency and low cost NO{sub x} control technologies for coal fired utility boilers based on Advanced Reburning (AR), a synergistic integration of basic reburning with injection of an N-agent. In conventional AR, injection of the reburn fuel is followed by simultaneous N-agent and overfire air injection. The second generation AR systems incorporate several components which can be used in different combinations. These components include: (1) Reburning Injection of the reburn fuel and overfire air. (2) N-agent Injection The N-agent (ammonia or urea) can be injected at different locations: into the reburning zone, along with the overfire air, and downstream of the overfire air injection. (3) N-agent Promotion Several sodium compounds can considerably enhance the NO{sub x} control from N-agent injection. These ''promoters'' can be added to aqueous N-agents. (4) Two Stages of N-agent Injection and Promotion Two N-agents with or without promoters can be injected at different locations for deeper NO{sub x} control. AR systems are intended for post-RACT applications in ozone non-attainment areas where NO{sub x} control in excess of 80% is required. AR will provide flexible installations that allow NO{sub x} levels to be lowered when regulations become more stringent. The total cost of NO{sub x} control for AR systems is approximately half of that for SCR. Experimental and kinetic modeling results for development of these novel AR systems are presented. Tests have been conducted in a 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility with coal as the main fuel and natural gas as the reburning fuel. The results show that high efficiency NO{sub x} control, in the range 84-95%, can be achieved with various elements of AR. A comparative byproduct emission study was performed to compare the emissions from different variants of AR with commercial technologies (reburning and SNCR). For each technology sampling included: CO, SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, total hydrocarbons, NH{sub 3}, HCN, SO{sub 3}, fly ash mass loading and size distribution, PM10, and carbon in ash. AR technologies do not generate significant byproduct emissions in comparison with basic reburning and SNCR processes under similar conditions. In most cases, byproduct emissions were found to be lower for the AR technologies. Kinetic modeling predictions qualitatively explain the experimental trends observed in the combustion tests. The detailed reaction mechanism can describe the interaction of NO and ammonia in the reburning and overfire air zones, the effect of mixing times, and the sodium promotion effect.

Zamansky, Vladimir M.; Maly, Peter, M.; Sheldon, Mark; Seeker, W. Randall; Folsom, Blair A.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

409

Water/Wastewater Engineering Report (High Efficiency Pump/Motor Replacement - M2 Model)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pumping water or wastewater is the largest use of electricity for a municipal water supply or wastewater treatment plant. Increasing the overall efficiency of the pumping system can achieve significant energy savings. Overall pump system efficiency depends on the efficiency of the motor, the pump, and the design of the piping layout. The model developed in this document focuses on improvements mostly to the pumping system rather than a municipal piping system. Furthermore, this model primarily addresses electric motor-driven pumps, and does not include the pumps driven with gasoline or diesel engines.

Liu, Z.; Brumbelow, K.; Haberl, J. S.

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

410

Developing a next-generation community college curriculum forenergy-efficient high-performance building operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The challenges of increased technological demands in today's workplace require virtually all workers to develop higher-order cognitive skills including problem solving and systems thinking in order to be productive. Such ''habits of mind'' are viewed as particularly critical for success in the information-based workplace, which values reduced hierarchy, greater worker independence, teamwork, communications skills, non-routine problem solving, and understanding of complex systems. The need is particularly compelling in the buildings arena. To scope the problem, this paper presents the results of interviews and focus groups--conducted by Oakland California's Peralta Community College District and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory--in which approximately 50 industry stakeholders discussed contemporary needs for building operator education at the community college level. Numerous gaps were identified between the education tod