National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for high density polyethylene

  1. Radiation resistance testing of high-density polyethylene. [Gamma rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Adams, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical tests following gamma inrradiation and creep tests during irradiation have been conducted on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to assess the adequacy of this material for use in high-integrity containers (HICs). These tests were motivated by experience in nuclear power plants in which polyethylene electrical insulation detoriorated more rapidly than expected due to radiation-induced oxidation. This suggested that HDPE HICs used for radwaste disposal might degrade more rapidly than would be expected in the absence of the radiation field. Two types of HDPE, a highly cross-linked rotationally molded material and a non-cross-linked blow molded material, were used in these tests. Gamma-ray irradiations were performed at several dose rates in environments of air, Barnwell and Hanford backfill soils, and ion-exchange resins. The results of tensile and bend testing on these materials following irradiation will be presented along with preliminary results on creep during irradiation.

  2. Current Activities Assessing Butt Fusion Joint Integrity in High Density Polyethylene Piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Doctor, Steven R.; Denslow, Kayte M.

    2012-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, conducted initial studies to evaluate the effectiveness of nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing for assessing butt fusion joint integrity in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The work provided insightful information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques for detecting lack of fusion (LOF) conditions in the fusion joints. HDPE has been installed on a limited basis in American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Class 3, buried piping systems at several operating U.S. nuclear power plants and has been proposed for use in new construction. A comparison was made between the results from ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive examinations and the results from mechanical destructive evaluations, specifically the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test, for determining joint integrity. The data comparison revealed that none of the NDE techniques detected all of the lack-of-fusion conditions that were revealed by the destructive tests. Follow-on work has recently been initiated at PNNL to accurately characterize the NDE responses from machined flaws of varying size and location in PE 4710 materials as well as the LOF condition. This effort is directed at quantifying the ability of volumetric NDE techniques to detect flaws in relation to the critical flaw size associated with joint integrity. A status of these latest investigations is presented.

  3. Considerations for cold weather construction using high density polyethylene for corrosion control systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szklarz, K.E.; Baron, J.J.

    1995-12-01

    High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is commonly used as material for corrosion-resistant piping in the petroleum industry. It is used as thick-walled self-supporting linepipes, as internal liners for steel linepipe, and as protective jackets for insulated linepipes. In Canada, it is not uncommon for operations, such as pipeline installation, to be performed during the winter season when temperatures are in the 0 C to {minus}20 C range. Brittle failures of HDPE materials have been experienced during such sub-zero operations, particularly when pipe handling and bending is involved. This study evaluated the changes in HDPE mechanical properties within the temperature range of 10 C to {minus}40 C to understand any embrittlement phenomena that may be occurring. HDPE undergoes substantial increases in modulus and strength at lower temperatures and increasing strain rate. The changes are gradual and over a wide range of temperature with no sharp cut-off temperature at which brittle behavior will occur. Flexural properties behave in a similar manner. A notch, causing a local increased strain rate, has a significant effect on the failure behavior of HDPE material with a gradual transition in behavior of ductility and load at below 0 C.

  4. PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE DISPOSAL CELL HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE GEOMEMBRANE LONGEVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, M.

    2012-01-31

    It is anticipated that high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes will be utilized within the liner and closure cap of the proposed On-Site Disposal Cell (OSDC) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The likely longevity (i.e. service life) of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service is evaluated within the following sections of this report: (1) Section 2.0 provides an overview of HDPE geomembranes, (2) Section 3.0 outlines potential HDPE geomembranes degradation mechanisms, (3) Section 4.0 evaluates the applicability of HDPE geomembrane degradation mechanisms to the Portsmouth OSDC, (4) Section 5.0 provides a discussion of the current state of knowledge relative to the longevity (service life) of HDPE geomembranes, including the relation of this knowledge to the Portsmouth OSDC, and (5) Section 6.0 provides summary and conclusions relative to the anticipated service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service. Based upon this evaluation it is anticipated that the service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service would be significantly greater than the 200 year service life assumed for the OSDC closure cap and liner HDPE geomembranes. That is, a 200 year OSDC HDPE geomembrane service life is considered a conservative assumption.

  5. Thermal, tensile and rheological properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) processed and irradiated by gamma-ray in different atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferreto, H. F. R. E-mail: ana-feitoza@yahoo.com.br; Oliveira, A. C. F. E-mail: ana-feitoza@yahoo.com.br; Parra, D. F. E-mail: ablugao@ipen.br; Lugo, A. B. E-mail: ablugao@ipen.br; Gaia, R.

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate structural changes of high density polyethylene (HDPE) modified by ionizing radiation (gamma rays) in different atmospheres. The gamma radiation process for modification of commercial polymers is a widely applied technique to promote new physical-chemical and mechanical properties. Gamma irradiation originates free radicals which can induce chain scission or recombination, providing its annihilation, branching or crosslinking. This polymer was irradiated with gamma source of {sup 60}Co at doses of 5, 10, 20, 50 or 100 kGy at a dose rate of 5 kGy/h. The changes in molecular structure of HDPE, after gamma irradiations were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile machine and oscillatory rheology. The results showed the variations of the properties depending on the dose at each atmosphere.

  6. Effect of cooling rate on the properties of high density polyethylene/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, Dong; Harkin-Jones, Eileen; Linton, David

    2015-05-22

    High density polyethylene (HDPE)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites were prepared by melt mixing using twin-screw extrusion. The extruded pellets were compression moulded at 200°C for 5min followed by cooling at different cooling rates (20°C/min and 300°C/min respectively) to produce sheets for characterization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the MWCNTs are uniformly dispersed in the HDPE. At 4 wt% addition of MWCNTs composite modulus increased by over 110% compared with the unfilled HDPE (regardless of the cooling rate). The yield strength of both unfilled and filled HDPE decreased after rapid cooling by about 10% due to a lower crystallinity and imperfect crystallites. The electrical percolation threshold of composites, irrespective of the cooling rate, is between a MWCNT concentration of 1∼2 wt%. Interestingly, the electrical resistivity of the rapidly cooled composite with 2 wt% MWCNTs is lower than that of the slowly cooled composites with the same MWCNT loading. This may be due to the lower crystallinity and smaller crystallites facilitating the formation of conductive pathways. This result may have significant implications for both process control and the tailoring of electrical conductivity in the manufacture of conductive HDPE/MWCNT nanocomposites.

  7. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Cambridge, MA A new, continuous manufacturing ...

  8. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    conductivity polyethylene fibers and sheets will be developed to replace metals and ceramics in heat-transfer devices. Project innovations include using massively parallel...

  9. An atomistic description of the high-field degradation of dielectric polyethylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bealing, Clive R.; Ramprasad, R.

    2013-11-07

    A microscopic mechanism governing the initiating step in the high-field aging of crystalline polyethylene is proposed, based on density functional calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. It is assumed that electrons, holes, and excitons are present in the system. While the additional individual electrons or holes are not expected to lead to significant degradation, the presence of triplet excitons are concluded to be rather damaging. The electron and hole states of the exciton localize on a distorted region of polyethylene, significantly weakening nearby CH bonds and facilitating CH bond scission. The barrier to cleavage of the weakened CH bonds is estimated and is comparable to the thermal energy, suggesting that this mechanism may be responsible for the degradation of polyethylene when placed under electrical stress, e.g., in high-voltage cables.

  10. Method for making a low density polyethylene waste form for safe disposal of low level radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, P.; Kalb, P.D.

    1984-06-05

    In the method of the invention low density polyethylene pellets are mixed in a predetermined ratio with radioactive particulate material, then the mixture is fed through a screw-type extruder that melts the low density polyethylene under a predetermined pressure and temperature to form a homogeneous matrix that is extruded and separated into solid monolithic waste forms. The solid waste forms are adapted to be safely handled, stored for a short time, and safely disposed of in approved depositories.

  11. High Energy Density Microwaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, R.M. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)

    1999-04-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the RF98 Workshop entitled `High Energy Density Microwaves` held in California in October, 1998. The topics discussed were predominantly accelerator{minus}related. The Workshop dealt, for the most part, with the generation and control of electron beams, the amplification of RF signals, the design of mode converters, and the effect of very high RF field gradients. This Workshop was designed to address the concerns of the microwave tube industry worldwide, the plasma physicists who deal with very high beam currents and gigawatts of RF power, and researchers in accelerator centers around the world. Papers were presented on multibeam klystrons, gyrotron development, plasmas in microwave tubes, RF breakdown, and alternatives to conventional linear coliders at 1 TeV and above. The Workshop was partially sponsored by the US Department of Energy. There were 46 papers presented at the conference,out of which 19 have been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  12. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project to develop and validate a continuous manufacturing process for polyethylene fibers and sheets yielding a thermal conductivity value greater than 60 W/m.K.

  13. High Energy Density Capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Recapping is developing a capacitor that could rival the energy storage potential and price of todays best EV batteries. When power is needed, the capacitor rapidly releases its stored energy, similar to lightning being discharged from a cloud. Capacitors are an ideal substitute for batteries if their energy storage capacity can be improved. Recapping is addressing storage capacity by experimenting with the material that separates the positive and negative electrodes of its capacitors. These separators could significantly improve the energy density of electrochemical devices.

  14. High density photovoltaic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haigh, R.E.; Jacobson, G.F.; Wojtczuk, S.

    1997-10-14

    Photovoltaic technology can directly generate high voltages in a solid state material through the series interconnect of many photovoltaic diodes. We are investigating the feasibility of developing an electrically isolated, high-voltage power supply using miniature photovoltaic devices that convert optical energy to electrical energy.

  15. High energy density thermal cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, A.N.

    1980-04-29

    A thermal battery is described that uses a calcium anode and a catholyte consisting of a mixture of lithium, potassium, nitrate and chloride ions. The device is operable over a temperature range of about 150 to 600/sup 0/C and produces a long lasting, high energy density output.

  16. High-density fluid compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, D.C.

    1981-09-29

    Clear, high-density fluids suitable for use as well completion, packing, and perforation media comprise aqueous solutions of zinc bromide and calcium bromide having densities lying in the range of about 14.5 up to about 18.0 pounds per gallon and measured PH's lying in the range of about 3.5 up to about 6.0. Optionally, such fluids may also comprise calcium chloride and/or a soluble film-forming amine-based corrosion inhibitor. Such fluids under conditions of ordinary use exhibit low corrosion rates and have crystallization points lying well below the range of temperatures under which they are used.

  17. High Density Sensor Network Development | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Density Sensor Network Development

  18. Oxides having high energy densities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-09-10

    Certain disclosed embodiments generally relate to oxide materials having relatively high energy and/or power densities. Various aspects of the embodiments are directed to oxide materials having a structure B.sub.i(M.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2, for example, a structure Li.sub.j(Ni.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2 such as Li(Ni.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5)O.sub.2. In this structure, Y represents one or more atoms, each independently selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metals, transition metals, Group 14 elements, Group 15, or Group 16 elements. In some embodiments, such an oxide material may have an O3 crystal structure, and/or a layered structure such that the oxide comprises a plurality of first, repeating atomic planes comprising Li, and a plurality of second, repeating atomic planes comprising Ni and/or Y.

  19. Profiles in garbage: Polyethylene terephthalate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, C.

    1997-11-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a plastic resin used primarily to make bottles. Soft drinks -- along with salad dressing, fruit juices, peanut butter, and other household and consumer products -- use PET bottles. PET also is used for film, sheeting for cups and food trays, oven-safe trays, and other uses. PET is a relatively new packaging resin, first commercialized in the early 1970s. Because it is an ``engineered`` resin, PET is more expensive than commodity resins such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and, for the same reason, it is usually the highest valued plastic recyclable.

  20. High Density Fuel Development for Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Wachs; Dennis Keiser; Mitchell Meyer; Douglas Burkes; Curtis Clark; Glenn Moore; Jan-Fong Jue; Totju Totev; Gerard Hofman; Tom Wiencek; Yeon So Kim; Jim Snelgrove

    2007-09-01

    An international effort to develop, qualify, and license high and very high density fuels has been underway for several years within the framework of multi-national RERTR programs. The current development status is the result of significant contributions from many laboratories, specifically CNEA in Argentina, AECL in Canada, CEA in France, TUM in Germany, KAERI in Korea, VNIIM, RDIPE, IPPE, NCCP and RIARR in Russia, INL, ANL and Y-12 in USA. These programs are mainly engaged with UMo dispersion fuels with densities from 6 to 8 gU/cm3 (high density fuel) and UMo monolithic fuel with density as high as 16 gU/cm3 (very high density fuel). This paper, mainly focused on the French & US programs, gives the status of high density UMo fuel development and perspectives on their qualification.

  1. Screening potential in high density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amari, M.; Arranz, J. P.; Butaux, J.; Nguyen, H.

    1997-01-05

    On the basis of a two-ion center model, an accurate closed form of the screening potential is suggested for intermediate and high density plasmas.

  2. High Energy Density Ultracapacitors | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es038smith2011p.pdf (1.95 MB) More Documents & Publications High Energy Density Ultracapacitors ...

  3. Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-24

    High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

  4. High bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Globig, Michael A.; Story, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    A high bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system for measuring the density of an atomic vapor during one or more photoionization events. The system translates the measurements from a low frequency region to a high frequency, relatively noise-free region in the spectrum to provide improved signal to noise ratio.

  5. High density laser-driven target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindl, John D.

    1981-01-01

    A high density target for implosion by laser energy composed of a central quantity of fuel surrounded by a high-Z pusher shell with a low-Z ablator-pusher shell spaced therefrom forming a region filled with low-density material.

  6. High Energy Density Ultracapacitors | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. esp22smith.pdf (1.09 MB) More Documents & Publications High Energy Density Ultracapacitors High ...

  7. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    A high density peg which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  8. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-01-29

    A high density peg is disclosed which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 4 figs.

  9. High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. TRIDENT target chamber Sasi Palaniyappan, right, and Rahul Shah left inside a target chamber where the TRIDENT short pulse laser is aimed at a very thin diamond- foil target, a fraction of a micrometer thick. The

  10. High power density solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-10-12

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  11. Ultra-high density diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Padmore, Howard A.; Voronov, Dmytro L.; Cambie, Rossana; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2012-12-11

    A diffraction grating structure having ultra-high density of grooves comprises an echellette substrate having periodically repeating recessed features, and a multi-layer stack of materials disposed on the echellette substrate. The surface of the diffraction grating is planarized, such that layers of the multi-layer stack form a plurality of lines disposed on the planarized surface of the structure in a periodical fashion, wherein lines having a first property alternate with lines having a dissimilar property on the surface of the substrate. For example, in one embodiment, lines comprising high-Z and low-Z materials alternate on the planarized surface providing a structure that is suitable as a diffraction grating for EUV and soft X-rays. In some embodiments, line density of between about 10,000 lines/mm to about 100,000 lines/mm is provided.

  12. Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors 2012 ...

  13. Basic Research Needs for High Energy Density Laboratory Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory. Basic Research Needs for High Energy Density Laboratory Physics Report of the Workshop on High Energy Density Laboratory Physics Research Needs November ...

  14. High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program NNSA invests in next ...

  15. Method of high-density foil fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blue, Craig A.; Sikka, Vinod K.; Ohriner, Evan K.

    2003-12-16

    A method for preparing flat foils having a high density includes the steps of mixing a powdered material with a binder to form a green sheet. The green sheet is exposed to a high intensity radiative source adapted to emit radiation of wavelengths corresponding to an absorption spectrum of the powdered material. The surface of the green sheet is heated while a lower sub-surface temperature is maintained. An apparatus for preparing a foil from a green sheet using a radiation source is also disclosed.

  16. High density, high-aspect-ratio precision polyimide nanofilters | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory High density, high-aspect-ratio precision polyimide nanofilters December 1, 2009 Tweet EmailPrint Collaborative users from Creatv MicroTech, Inc. and Los Alamos National Laboratory, working with CNM's Nanofabrication & Devices Group, have demonstrated a novel fabrication process that produces high-porosity polymer nanofilters with smooth, uniform. and straight pores and high aspect ratios. Nanofilters have a wide range of applications for various size-exclusion-based

  17. High energy density redox flow device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Ho, Bryan Y; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  18. Extended length microchannels for high density high throughput electrophoresis systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    High throughput electrophoresis systems which provide extended well-to-read distances on smaller substrates, thus compacting the overall systems. The electrophoresis systems utilize a high density array of microchannels for electrophoresis analysis with extended read lengths. The microchannel geometry can be used individually or in conjunction to increase the effective length of a separation channel while minimally impacting the packing density of channels. One embodiment uses sinusoidal microchannels, while another embodiment uses plural microchannels interconnected by a via. The extended channel systems can be applied to virtually any type of channel confined chromatography.

  19. 2 x 2 Polyethylene Reflected and Moderated Highly Enriched Uranium System with Rhenium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Nichole Ellis; Jesson Hutchinson; John D. Bess; Dmitry N. Polyakov; Evgeny S. Glushkov; Alexey E. Glushkov

    2010-09-01

    The 2 2 array HEU-Re experiment was performed on the Planet universal critical assembly machine on November 4th, 2003 at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For this experiment, there were 10 units, each full unit containing four HEU foils and two rhenium foils. The top unit contained only two HEU foils and two rhenium foils. A total of 42 HEU foils were used for this experiment. Rhenium is a desirable cladding material for space nuclear power applications. This experiment consisted of HEU foils interleaved with rhenium foils and is moderated and reflected by polyethylene plates. A unit consisted of a polyethylene plate, which has a recess for rhenium foils, and four HEU foils in a single layer in the top recess of each polyethylene plate. The Planet universal criticality assembly machine has been previously used in experiments containing HEU foils interspersed with SiO2 (HEU-MET-THERM-001), Al (HEU-MET-THERM-008), MgO (HEU-MET-THERM-009), Gd foils (HEU-MET-THERM-010), 2 2 26 Al (HEU-MET-THERM-012), Fe (HEU-MET-THERM-013 and HEU-MET-THERM-015), 2 2 23 SiO2 (HEU-MET-THERM-014), 2 2 11 hastalloy plates (HEU-MET-THERM-016), and concrete (HEU-MET-THERM-018). The 2 2 array of HEU-Re is considered acceptable for use as a benchmark critical experiment.

  20. High Energy Density Utracapacitors: Low-Cost, High Energy and Power Density, Nanotube-Enhanced Ultracapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: FastCAP is improving the performance of an ultracapacitor—a battery-like electronic device that can complement, and possibly even replace, an HEV or EV battery pack. Ultracapacitors have many advantages over conventional batteries, including long lifespans (over 1 million cycles, as compared to 10,000 for conventional batteries) and better durability. Ultracapacitors also charge more quickly than conventional batteries, and they release energy more quickly. However, ultracapacitors have fallen short of batteries in one key metric: energy density—high energy density means more energy storage. FastCAP is redesigning the ultracapacitor’s internal structure to increase its energy density. Ultracapacitors traditionally use electrodes made of irregularly shaped, porous carbon. FastCAP’s ultracapacitors are made of tiny, aligned carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide a regular path for ions moving in and out of the ultracapacitor’s electrode, increasing the overall efficiency and energy density of the device.

  1. Density of sodium chloride solutions at high temperatures and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; SEAWATER; DENSITY; SODIUM CHLORIDES; AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; CORRELATIONS; EQUATIONS; HIGH ...

  2. High current density cathode for electrorefining in molten electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Shelly X.

    2010-06-29

    A high current density cathode for electrorefining in a molten electrolyte for the continuous production and collection of loose dendritic or powdery deposits. The high current density cathode eliminates the requirement for mechanical scraping and electrochemical stripping of the deposits from the cathode in an anode/cathode module. The high current density cathode comprises a perforated electrical insulated material coating such that the current density is up to 3 A/cm.sup.2.

  3. Normal and abnormal evolution of argon metastable density in high-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; You, S. J.

    2015-05-15

    A controversial problem on the evolution of Ar metastable density as a function of electron density (increasing trend versus decreasing trend) was resolved by discovering the anomalous evolution of the argon metastable density with increasing electron density (discharge power), including both trends of the metastable density [Daltrini et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Later, by virtue of an adequate physical explanation based on a simple global model, both evolutions of the metastable density were comprehensively understood as part of the abnormal evolution occurring at low- and high-density regimes, respectively, and thus the physics behind the metastable evolution has seemed to be clearly disclosed. In this study, however, a remarkable result for the metastable density behavior with increasing electron density was observed: even in the same electron density regime, there are both normal and abnormal evolutions of metastable-state density with electron density depending on the measurement position: The metastable density increases with increasing electron density at a position far from the inductively coupled plasma antenna but decreases at a position close to the antenna. The effect of electron temperature, which is spatially nonuniform in the plasma, on the electron population and depopulation processes of Argon metastable atoms with increasing electron density is a clue to understanding the results. The calculated results of the global model, including multistep ionization for the argon metastable state and measured electron temperature, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Durable high-density data storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stutz, R.A.; Lamartine, B.C.

    1996-09-01

    This paper will discuss the Focus Ion Beam (FIB) milling process, media life considerations, and methods of reading the micromilled data. The FIB process for data storage provides a new non-magnetic storage method for archiving large amounts of data. The process stores data on robust materials such as steel, silicon, and gold coated silicon. The storage process was developed to provide a method to insure the long term storage life of data. We estimate the useful life of data written on silicon or gold coated silicon to be a few thousand years. The process uses an ion beam to carve material from the surface much like stone cutting. The deeper information is carved into the media the longer the expected life of the information. The process can read information in three formats: (1) binary at densities of 3.5 Gbits/cm{sup 2}, (2) alphanumeric at optical or non-optical density, and (3) graphical at optical and non-optical density. The formats can be mixed on the same media; and thus it is possible to record, in a human readable format, instructions that can be read using an optical microscope. These instructions provide guidance on reading the higher density information.

  5. Polyethylene (PE) pipe electrofusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demonchy, M.Y. ); Fallou, M.J. )

    1990-09-01

    Gaz de France has developed a standardized electrofusion process for high quality polyethylene (PE) pipe assemblies. Techniques include an automated bar code and a self-regulating fusion process. The author discusses the electrofusion technique and pipe plugging, underpressure tie-in and repair applications and the influence of external factors.

  6. Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation vss058_fenske_2011_o.pdf (352.55 KB) More Documents & Publications Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Development of High Power Density

  7. Particle Gas Target for High Density Laser Produced Plasmas Charles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particle Gas Target for High Density Laser Produced Plasmas Charles H. Skinner, Nathaniel Fisch, and Ernest Valeo This invention is a novel "particle gas" cell for achieving plasma ...

  8. Ultra Low Density and Highly Crosslinked Biocompatible Shape...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biocompatible Shape Memory Polyurethane Foams Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Low Density and Highly Crosslinked Biocompatible Shape Memory Polyurethane Foams ...

  9. The Effects of Highly Structured Low Density Carbon Nanotube...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon Nanotube Networks on the Thermal Degradation Behaviour of Polysiloxanes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Effects of Highly Structured Low Density Carbon ...

  10. High power densities from high-temperature material interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Thermionic energy conversion (TEC) and metallic-fluid heat pipes (MFHPs) offer important and unique advantages in terrestrial and space energy processing. And they are well suited to serve together synergistically. TEC and MFHPs operate through working-fluid vaporization, condensation cycles that accept great thermal power densities at high temperatures. TEC and MFHPs have apparently simple, isolated performance mechanisms that are somewhat similar. And they also have obviously difficult, complected material problems that again are somewhat similar. Intensive investigation reveals that aspects of their operating cycles and material problems tend to merge: high-temperature material effects determine the level and lifetime of performance. Simplified equations verify the preceding statement for TEC and MFHPs. Material properties and interactions exert primary influences on operational effectiveness. And thermophysicochemical stabilities dictate operating temperatures which regulate the thermoemissive currents of TEC and the vaporization flow rates of MFHPs. Major high-temperature material problems of TEC and MFHPs have been solved. These solutions lead to productive, cost-effective applications of current TEC and MFHPs - and point to significant improvements with anticipated technological gains.

  11. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S.

    2015-04-15

    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth.

  12. FMC high power density electric drive technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    FMC has developed a unique capability in energy-efficient, high-performance AC induction electric drive systems for electric and hybrid vehicles. These drives will not only be important to future military ground combat vehicles, but will also provide significant competitive advantages to industrial and commercial machinery and vehicles. The product line under development includes drive motors and associated power converters directed at three power/vehicle weight classes. These drive systems cover a broad spectrum of potential vehicle applications, ranging from light pickup trucks to full-size transit buses. The drive motors and power converters are described.

  13. High energy density battery with cathode composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalewajek, D.; Eibeck, R. E.; Sukornick, B.

    1985-10-22

    A cell which employs an active metal anode such as lithium and a liquid organic electrolyte that is improved by the use of a cathode comprised of carbon fluoride chloride is described. The cathode comprises a carbon fluoride chloride of the general formula (C /SUB y/ F /SUB x/ Cl /SUB z/ ) /SUB n/ wherein y is 1 to 2, x is greater than 0 to 1.2, z is less than or equal to0.1 and n defines the number of repeating units occurring in the carbon fluoride chloride molecule of high molecular weight. The resulting battery has improved discharge and shelf-life characteristics.

  14. COLLOQUIUM: Frontiers in Plasma Science: A High Energy Density...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 13, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG AUDITORIUM COLLOQUIUM: Frontiers in Plasma Science: A High Energy Density Perspective Dr. Bruce A. Remington Lawrence Livermore ...

  15. Creating, Diagnosing and Controlling High-energy-density Matter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October 22, 2013, 3:00pm to 4:15pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium Creating, Diagnosing and Controlling High-energy-density Matter with Lasers Dr. Yuan Ping Lawrence Livermore National ...

  16. High power density fuel cell stack development for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pow, R.; Reindl, M.; Tilmetz, W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the joint development by Daimler-Benz and Ballard Power Systems of a high power-density fuel cell stack and its demonstration in a 6-passenger Minivan.

  17. High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program Steady advances in increasing the energy, power, and brightness of lasers and particle beams and advances in pulsed power systems have made possible the exploration of matter at extremely high energy density in the laboratory. Exciting new experimental regimes are being realized by exploiting the scientific capabilities of existing ICF Office facilities, as well as the relevant Department of Defense (DoD) and university

  18. High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas NNSA's Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion and DOE's Office of Science established a joint program in HEDLP in 2008. Initially, this program was a combination of work that was funded as part of the NNSA's Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program in the research area of high energy density physics and the DOE Office of Science's HEDLP Program and Innovative Confinement Concepts Program. Steady advances in increasing the

  19. Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beg, Farhat

    2015-01-06

    The Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2013) was held in Saint Malo, France, at the Palais du Grand Large on 25-28 June 2013 (http://web.luli.polytechnique.fr/ICHED2013/). This meeting was the fourth in a series which was first held in 2008. This conference covered all the important aspects of High Energy Density Physics including fundamental topics from strong-field physics to creating new states of matter (including radiation-dominated, high-pressure quantum and relativistic plasmas) and ultra-fast lattice dynamics on the timescale of atomic transitions.

  20. PREPARATION OF HIGH-DENSITY THORIUM OXIDE SPHERES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNees, R.A. Jr.; Taylor, A.J.

    1963-12-31

    A method of preparing high-density thorium oxide spheres for use in pellet beds in nuclear reactors is presented. Sinterable thorium oxide is first converted to free-flowing granules by means such as compression into a compact and comminution of the compact. The granules are then compressed into cubes having a density of 5.0 to 5.3 grams per cubic centimeter. The cubes are tumbled to form spheres by attrition, and the spheres are then fired at 1250 to 1350 deg C. The fired spheres are then polished and fired at a temperature above 1650 deg C to obtain high density. Spherical pellets produced by this method are highly resistant to mechanical attrition hy water. (AEC)

  1. Frontiers for Discovery in High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, R. C.; Katsouleas, T.; Arons, J.; Baring, M.; Deeney, C.; Di Mauro, L.; Ditmire, T.; Falcone, R.; Hammer, D.; Hill, W.; Jacak, B.; Joshi, C.; Lamb, F.; Lee, R.; Logan, B. G.; Melissinos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.; Mori, W.; Murnane, M.; Remington, B.; Rosner, R.; Schneider, D.; Silvera, I.; Stone, J.; Wilde, B.; Zajc. W.

    2004-07-20

    The report is intended to identify the compelling research opportunities of high intellectual value in high energy density physics. The opportunities for discovery include the broad scope of this highly interdisciplinary field that spans a wide range of physics areas including plasma physics, laser and particle beam physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science and condensed matter physics, intense radiation-matter interaction physics, fluid dynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics

  2. High density electronic circuit and process for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, William P.

    1999-01-01

    High density circuits with posts that protrude beyond one surface of a substrate to provide easy mounting of devices such as integrated circuits. The posts also provide stress relief to accommodate differential thermal expansion. The process allows high interconnect density with fewer alignment restrictions and less wasted circuit area than previous processes. The resulting substrates can be test platforms for die testing and for multi-chip module substrate testing. The test platform can contain active components and emulate realistic operational conditions, replacing shorts/opens net testing.

  3. High density electronic circuit and process for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, W.P.

    1999-06-29

    High density circuits with posts that protrude beyond one surface of a substrate to provide easy mounting of devices such as integrated circuits are disclosed. The posts also provide stress relief to accommodate differential thermal expansion. The process allows high interconnect density with fewer alignment restrictions and less wasted circuit area than previous processes. The resulting substrates can be test platforms for die testing and for multi-chip module substrate testing. The test platform can contain active components and emulate realistic operational conditions, replacing shorts/opens net testing. 8 figs.

  4. High Density Polymer-Based Integrated Electgrode Array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Davidson, James Courtney; Hamilton, Julie K.

    2006-04-25

    A high density polymer-based integrated electrode apparatus that comprises a central electrode body and a multiplicity of arms extending from the electrode body. The central electrode body and the multiplicity of arms are comprised of a silicone material with metal features in said silicone material that comprise electronic circuits.

  5. Rf Gun with High-Current Density Field Emission Cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-12-19

    High current-density field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes, with field-emission-transistor control, and with secondary electron channel multiplication in a ceramic facing structure, have been combined in a cold cathode for rf guns and diode guns. Electrodynamic and space-charge flow simulations were conducted to specify the cathode configuration and range of emission current density from the field emission cold cathode. Design of this cathode has been made for installation and testing in an existing S-band 2-1/2 cell rf gun. With emission control and modulation, and with current density in the range of 0.1-1 kA/cm2, this cathode could provide performance and long-life not enjoyed by other currently-available cathodes

  6. Flying-plate detonator using a high-density high explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stroud, John R.; Ornellas, Donald L.

    1988-01-01

    A flying-plate detonator containing a high-density high explosive such as benzotrifuroxan (BTF). The detonator involves the electrical explosion of a thin metal foil which punches out a flyer from a layer overlying the foil, and the flyer striking a high-density explosive pellet of BTF, which is more thermally stable than the conventional detonator using pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  7. High-density FRC formation studies on FRX-L.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taccetti, J. M.; Intrator, Thomas; Zhang, S.; Wurden, G. A.; Begay, D. W.; Mignardot, E. R.; Waganaar, W. J.; Siemon, R. E.; Tuszewski, M. G.; Sanchez, P. G.; Degnan, J. H.; Sommars, W.

    2002-01-01

    FRX-L (Field Reversed configuration experiment - Liner) is a magnetized-target injector for magnetized target fusion (MTF) experiments. It was designed with the goal of producing high-density n-1017 cm3 field reversed configurations (FRCs) and translating them into an aluminum liner (1-mm thick, 10-cm diameter cylindrical shell) for further compression to fusion conditions. Although operation at these high densities leads to shorter FRC lifetimes, our application requires thlat the plasma live only long enough to be translated and compressed, or on the order of 10-20 ps. Careful study of FRC formation in situ will be done in the present experiment to differentiate between effects introduced in future experiments by translation, trapping, and compression of the FRC. We present current results on the optimization of the FRC formation process on RX-L and compare the results with those from past experiments.

  8. Sparingly Solvating Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research July 11, 2016, Research Highlights Sparingly Solvating Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Precipitation-dissolution Li-S chemistry achieved by sparingly solvating electrolyte and various electrolyte design concepts Scientific Achievement This work presents the promising new concepts of using sparingly solvating electrolyte to enable Li-S battery operation at lean electrolyte condition, as well as the design rules

  9. Sparingly Solvating Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research August 24, 2016, Videos Sparingly Solvating Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries As JCESR scientists work to develop lighter and less expensive chemistries than those used in current lithium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur shows tremendous promise. However, current lithium-sulfur batteries require an excessive amount of electrolyte to achieve moderate cycle life. This perspective presents an alternate approach of

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTOR HAVING LOCALIZED AREAS OF HIGH THERMAL NEUTRON DENSITIES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newson, H.W.

    1958-06-01

    A nuclear reactor for the irradiation of materials designed to provide a localized area of high thermal neutron flux density in which the materials to be irradiated are inserted is described. The active portion of the reactor is comprised of a cubicle graphite moderator of about 25 feet in length along each axis which has a plurality of cylindrical channels for accommodatirg elongated tubular-shaped fuel elements. The fuel elements have radial fins for spacing the fuel elements from the channel walls, thereby providing spaces through which a coolant may be passed, and also to serve as a heatconductirg means. Ducts for accommnodating the sample material to be irradiated extend through the moderator material perpendicular to and between parallel rows of fuel channels. The improvement is in the provision of additional fuel element channels spaced midway between 2 rows of the regular fuel channels in the localized area surrounding the duct where the high thermal neutron flux density is desired. The fuel elements normally disposed in the channels directly adjacent the duct are placed in the additional channels, and the channels directly adjacent the duct are plugged with moderator material. This design provides localized areas of high thermal neutron flux density without the necessity of providing additional fuel material.

  11. A novel zirconium K{alpha} imager for high energy density physics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for high energy density physics research Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A novel zirconium Kalpha imager for high energy density physics research We report on the ...

  12. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shumlak, U. Golingo, R. P. Nelson, B. A. Bowers, C. A. Doty, S. A. Forbes, E. G. Hughes, M. C. Kim, B. Knecht, S. D. Lambert, K. K. Lowrie, W. Ross, M. P. Weed, J. R.

    2014-12-15

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and

  13. High density harp or wire scanner for particle beam diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritsche, C.T.; Krogh, M.L.

    1996-05-21

    Disclosed is a diagnostic detector head harp used to detect and characterize high energy particle beams using an array of closely spaced detector wires, typically carbon wires, spaced less than 0.1 cm (0.040 inch) connected to a hybrid microcircuit formed on a ceramic substrate. A method to fabricate harps to obtain carbon wire spacing and density not previously available utilizing hybrid microcircuit technology. The hybrid microcircuit disposed on the ceramic substrate connects electrically between the detector wires and diagnostic equipment which analyzes pulses generated in the detector wires by the high energy particle beams. 6 figs.

  14. High density harp or wire scanner for particle beam diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritsche, Craig T.; Krogh, Michael L.

    1996-05-21

    A diagnostic detector head harp (23) used to detect and characterize high energy particle beams using an array of closely spaced detector wires (21), typically carbon wires, spaced less than 0.1 cm (0.040 inch) connected to a hybrid microcircuit (25) formed on a ceramic substrate (26). A method to fabricate harps (23) to obtain carbon wire spacing and density not previously available utilizing hybrid microcircuit technology. The hybrid microcircuit (25) disposed on the ceramic substrate (26) connects electrically between the detector wires (21) and diagnostic equipment (37) which analyzes pulses generated in the detector wires (21) by the high energy particle beams.

  15. Note: High density pulsed molecular beam for cold ion chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kokish, M. G.; Rajagopal, V.; Marler, J. P.; Odom, B. C.

    2014-08-15

    A recent expansion of cold and ultracold molecule applications has led to renewed focus on molecular species preparation under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Meanwhile, molecular beams have been used to study gas phase chemical reactions for decades. In this paper, we describe an apparatus that uses pulsed molecular beam technology to achieve high local gas densities, leading to faster reaction rates with cold trapped ions. We characterize the beam's spatial profile using the trapped ions themselves. This apparatus could be used for preparation of molecular species by reactions requiring excitation of trapped ion precursors to states with short lifetimes or for obtaining a high reaction rate with minimal increase of background chamber pressure.

  16. Laser-Plasma Interactions in High-Energy-Density Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldis, H

    2006-10-17

    High temperature hohlraums (HTH) are designed to reach high radiation temperatures by coupling a maximum amount of laser energy into a small target in a short time. These 400-800 {micro}m diameter gold cylinders rapidly fill with hot plasma during irradiation with multiple beams in 1ns laser pulses. The high-Z plasmas are dense, (electron density, n{sub e}/n{sub c} {approx} 0.1-0.4), hot (electron temperature, T{sub e} {approx} 10keV) and are bathed in a high-temperature radiation field (radiation temperature, T{sub rad} {approx} 300eV). Here n{sub c}, the critical density, equals 9 x 10{sup 21}/cm{sup 3}. The laser beams heating this plasma are intense ({approx} 10{sup 15} - 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}). The coupling of the laser to the plasma is a rich regime for Laser-Plasma Interaction (LPI) physics. The LPI mechanisms in this study include beam deflection and forward scattering. In order to understand the LPI mechanisms, the plasma parameters must be known. An L-band spectrometer is used to measure the and electron temperature. A ride-along experiment is to develop the x-radiation emitted by the thin back wall of the half-hohlraum into a thermal radiation source.

  17. High energy density capacitors using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1992-08-01

    Today, many pulse power and industrial applications are limited by capacitor performance. While incremental improvements are anticipated from existing capacitor technologies, significant advances are needed in energy density to enable these applications for both the military and for American economic competitiveness. We propose a program to research and develop a novel technology for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Nano-structure multilayer technologies developed at LLNL may well provide a breakthrough in capacitor performance. Our controlled sputtering techniques are capable of laying down extraordinarily smooth sub-micron layers of dielectric and conductor materials. With this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density may be achievable. Well-understood dielectrics and new materials will be investigated for use with this technology. Capacitors developed by nano-structure multilayer technology are inherently solid state, exhibiting extraordinary mechanical and thermal properties. The conceptual design of a Notepad capacitor is discussed to illustrate capacitor and capacitor bank design and performance with this technology. We propose a two phase R&D program to address DNA`s capacitor needs for electro-thermal propulsion and similar pulse power programs. Phase 1 will prove the concept and further our understanding of dielectric materials and design tradeoffs with multilayers. Nano-structure multilayer capacitors will be developed and characterized. As our materials research and modeling prove successful, technology insertion in our capacitor designs will improve the possibility for dramatic performance improvements. In Phase 2, we will make Notepad capacitors, construct a capacitor bank and demonstrate its performance in a meaningful pulse power application. We will work with industrial partners to design full scale manufacturing and move this technology to industry for volume production.

  18. Method for providing a low density high strength polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.; Goods, Steven H.; Skala, Dawn M.; Henderson, Craig C.; Keifer, Patrick N.

    2013-06-18

    Disclosed is a method for making a polyurethane closed-cell foam material exhibiting a bulk density below 4 lbs/ft.sup.3 and high strength. The present embodiment uses the reaction product of a modified MDI and a sucrose/glycerine based polyether polyol resin wherein a small measured quantity of the polyol resin is "pre-reacted" with a larger quantity of the isocyanate in a defined ratio such that when the necessary remaining quantity of the polyol resin is added to the "pre-reacted" resin together with a tertiary amine catalyst and water as a blowing agent, the polymerization proceeds slowly enough to provide a stable foam body.

  19. An In-situ X-ray Scattering Study During Uniaxial Stretching of Ionic Liquid/Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    X Li; Y Mao; H Ma; F Zuo; B Hsiao; B Chu

    2011-12-31

    An ionic liquid (IL) 1-docosanyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was incorporated into ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and formed IL/UHMWPE blends by solution mixing. The structure evolution of these blends during uniaxial stretching was followed by in-situ synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. During deformation at room temperature, deformation-induced phase transformation from orthorhombic to monoclinic phase was observed in both IL/UHMWPE blends and neat UHMWPE. The elongation-to-break ratios of IL/UHMWPE blends were found to increase by 2-3 times compared with that of pure UHMWPE, while the tensile strength remained about the same. In contrast, during deformation at high temperature (120 C), no phase transformation was observed. However, the blend samples showed much better toughness, higher crystal orientation and higher tilting extent of lamellar structure at high strains.

  20. Development of technology of high density LEU dispersion fuel fabrication.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiencek, T.; Totev, T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Materials Fabrication Facilities at Argonne National Laboratory have been involved in development of LEU dispersion fuel for research and test reactors from the beginning of RERTR program. This paper presents development of technology of high density LEU dispersion fuel fabrication for full size plate type fuel elements. A brief description of Advanced Materials Fabrication Facilities where development of the technology was carried out is given. A flow diagram of the manufacturing process is presented. U-Mo powder was manufactured by the rotating electrode process. The atomization produced a U-Mo alloy powder with a relatively uniform size distribution and a nearly spherical shape. Test plates were fabricated using tungsten and depleted U-7 wt.% Mo alloy, 4043 Al and Al-2 wt% Si matrices with Al 6061 aluminum alloy for the cladding. During the development of the technology of manufacturing of full size high density LEU dispersion fuel plates special attention was paid to meet the required homogeneity, bonding, dimensions, fuel out of zone and other mechanical characteristics of the plates.

  1. Development of technology of high density LEU dispersion fuel fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiencek, Tom; Totev, Totju

    2008-07-15

    Advanced Materials Fabrication Facilities at Argonne National Laboratory have been involved in development of LEU dispersion fuel for research and test reactors from the beginning of RERTR program. This paper presents development of technology of high density LEU dispersion fuel fabrication for full size plate type fuel elements. A brief description of Advanced Materials Fabrication Facilities where development of the technology was carried out is given. A flow diagram of the manufacturing process is presented. U-Mo powder was manufactured by the rotating electrode process. The atomization produced a U-Mo alloy powder with a relatively uniform size distribution and a nearly spherical shape. Test plates were fabricated using tungsten and depleted U-7 wt.% Mo alloy, 4043 Al and Al-2 wt% Si matrices with Al 6061 aluminum alloy for the cladding. During the development of the technology of manufacturing of full size high density LEU dispersion fuel plates special attention was paid to meet the required homogeneity, bonding, dimensions, fuel out of zone and other mechanical characteristics of the plates. (author)

  2. DIAGNOSTICS FOR ION BEAM DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P.A.

    2010-01-04

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K{sup +} beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (VISAR), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High-Efficiency High-Density

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GaN-Based 6.6kW Bidirectional On-Board Charger for PEVs | Department of Energy High-Efficiency High-Density GaN-Based 6.6kW Bidirectional On-Board Charger for PEVs Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High-Efficiency High-Density GaN-Based 6.6kW Bidirectional On-Board Charger for PEVs Presentation given by Delta Products Corporation at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high-efficiency

  4. High-density percutaneous chronic connector for neural prosthetics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Kedar G.; Bennett, William J.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.

    2015-09-22

    A high density percutaneous chronic connector, having first and second connector structures each having an array of magnets surrounding a mounting cavity. A first electrical feedthrough array is seated in the mounting cavity of the first connector structure and a second electrical feedthrough array is seated in the mounting cavity of the second connector structure, with a feedthrough interconnect matrix positioned between a top side of the first electrical feedthrough array and a bottom side of the second electrical feedthrough array to electrically connect the first electrical feedthrough array to the second electrical feedthrough array. The two arrays of magnets are arranged to attract in a first angular position which connects the first and second connector structures together and electrically connects the percutaneously connected device to the external electronics, and to repel in a second angular position to facilitate removal of the second connector structure from the first connector structure.

  5. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Davis, Donald W.; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.; Wicker, Ryan B.; Medina, Francisco R.

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  6. Ultra-high current density thin-film Si diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang; Qi

    2008-04-22

    A combination of a thin-film .mu.c-Si and a-Si:H containing diode structure characterized by an ultra-high current density that exceeds 1000 A/cm.sup.2, comprising: a substrate; a bottom metal layer disposed on the substrate; an n-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited the bottom metal layer; an i-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the n-layer; a buffer layer of a-Si:H deposited on the i-layer, a p-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the buffer layer; and a top metal layer deposited on the p-layer.

  7. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  8. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-08-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  9. Urethane-based stabilizers for radiation-crosslinked polyethylene. [Electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkolnik, S.; Rajbenbach, L.A.

    1982-11-01

    Unsaturated urethane-based stabilizers for use in radiation-crosslinked polyethylene were synthesized. Aromatic amine moieties were attached to allylic and acrylic monomers by means of aromatic or aliphatic diisocyanates. The synthesized stabilizers were incorporated in high-density polyethylene films which were subjected to electron beam irradiation. The oxidative stability of the films prior to and after extraction was determined by DTA in the temperature range 185-210/sup 0/C and compared with samples treated with commercial amine-bearing antioxidants. Tensile strength and gel content were also determined. Best results were obtained with a stabilizer prepared from equimolecular amounts of allyl alcohol, tolylene-2,4-diisocyanate and N-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine. Estimated lifetimes at 70/sup 0/C of stabilized irradiated polyethylene samples were calculated.

  10. High-Density Infrared Surface Treatments of Refractories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiegs, T.N.

    2005-03-31

    Refractory materials play a crucial role in all energy-intensive industries and are truly a crosscutting technology for the Industries of the Future (IOF). One of the major mechanisms for the degradation of refractories and a general decrease in their performance has been the penetration and corrosion by molten metals or glass. Methods and materials that would reduce the penetration, wetting, and corrosive chemistry would significantly improve refractory performance and also maintain the quality of the processed liquid, be it metal or glass. This report presents the results of an R&D project aimed at investigating the use of high-density infrared (HDI) heating to surface treat refractories to improve their performance. The project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR). HDI is capable of heating the near-surface region of materials to very high temperatures where sintering, diffusion, and melting can occur. The intended benefits of HDI processing of refractories were to (1) reduce surface porosity (by essentially sealing the surface to prevent liquid penetration), (2) allow surface chemistry changes to be performed by bonding an adherent coating onto the underlying refractory (in order to inhibit wetting and/or improve corrosion resistance), and (3) produce noncontact refractories with high-emissivity surface coatings.

  11. Effects of argon gas pressure on its metastable-state density in high-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; You, S. J.

    2015-05-15

    The effect of argon gas pressure on its metastable density in inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) is investigated by using the laser-induced fluorescence method. Our results show that the metastable-state density of argon varies with the gas pressure depending on the measurement position; the density decreases with the pressure at a position far from the ICP antenna, whereas it increases with the pressure at a position near the antenna. This contrast in the metastable-state density trend with the pressure is explained by considering the electron temperature variations at the two measurement positions. The theoretical interpretation and calculation using a global model are also addressed in detail in this paper.

  12. Atomistic Simulation of High-Density Uranium Fuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Garcés, Jorge Eduardo; Bozzolo, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    We apply an atomistic modeling approach to deal with interfacial phenomena in high-density uranium fuels. The effects of Si, as additive to Al or as U-Mo-particles coating, on the behavior of the Al/U-Mo interface is modeled by using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloys. The basic experimental features characterizing the real system are identified, via simulations and atom-by-atom analysis. These include (1) the trend indicating formation of interfacial compounds, (2) much reduced diffusion of Al into U-Mo solid solution due to the high Si concentration, (3) Si depletion in the Al matrix, (4) an unexpected interaction between Mo and Simore » which inhibits Si diffusion to deeper layers in the U-Mo solid solution, and (5) the minimum amount of Si needed to perform as an effective diffusion barrier. Simulation results related to alternatives to Si dispersed in the Al matrix, such as the use of C coating of U-Mo particles or Zr instead of the Al matrix, are also shown. Recent experimental results confirmed early theoretical proposals, along the lines of the results reported in this work, showing that atomistic computational modeling could become a valuable tool to aid the experimental work in the development of nuclear fuels.« less

  13. Probing topological relations between high-density and low-density regions of 2MASS with hexagon cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yongfeng; Xiao, Weike

    2014-02-01

    We introduced a new two-dimensional (2D) hexagon technique for probing the topological structure of the universe in which we mapped regions of the sky with high and low galaxy densities onto a 2D lattice of hexagonal unit cells. We defined filled cells as corresponding to high-density regions and empty cells as corresponding to low-density regions. The numbers of filled cells and empty cells were kept the same by controlling the size of the cells. By analyzing the six sides of each hexagon, we could obtain and compare the statistical topological properties of high-density and low-density regions of the universe in order to have a better understanding of the evolution of the universe. We applied this hexagonal method to Two Micron All Sky Survey data and discovered significant topological differences between the high-density and low-density regions. Both regions had significant (>5?) topological shifts from both the binomial distribution and the random distribution.

  14. High Island Densities and Long Range Repulsive Interactions:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    long range repulsive interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and density functional theory calculations support this conclusion. In addition to answering an outstanding...

  15. Online diagnoses of high current-density beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilpatrick, J.D.

    1994-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has proposed several CW-proton-beam facilities for production of tritium or transmutation of nuclear waste with beam-current densities greater than 5 mA/mm{sup 2}. The primary beam-diagnostics-instrumentation requirement for these facilities is provision of sufficient beam information to understand and minimize beam-loss. To accomplish this task, the beam-diagnostics instrumentation must measure beam parameters such as the centroids and profiles, total integrated current, and particle loss. Noninterceptive techniques must be used for diagnosis of high-intensity CW beam at low energies due to the large quantity of power deposited in an interceptive diagnostic device by the beam. Transverse and longitudinal centroid measurements have been developed for bunched beams by measuring and processing image currents on the accelerator walls. Transverse beam-profile measurement-techniques have also been developed using the interaction of the particle beam with the background gases near the beam region. This paper will discuss these noninterceptive diagnostic Techniques.

  16. Metrology Challenges for High Energy Density Science Target Manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seugling, R M; Bono, M J; Davis, P

    2009-02-19

    Currently, High Energy Density Science (HEDS) experiments are used to support and qualify predictive physics models. These models assume ideal conditions such as energy (input) and device (target) geometry. The experiments rely on precision targets constructed from components with dimensions in the millimeter range, while having micrometer-scale, functional features, including planar steps, sine waves, and step-joint geometry on hemispherical targets. Future target designs will likely have features and forms that rival or surpass current manufacturing and characterization capability. The dimensional metrology of these features is important for a number of reasons, including qualification of sub-components prior to assembly, quantification of critical features on the as-built assemblies and as a feedback mechanism for fabrication process development. Variations in geometry from part to part can lead to functional limitations, such as unpredictable instabilities during an experiment and the inability to assemble a target from poorly matched sub-components. Adding to the complexity are the large number and variety of materials, components, and shapes that render any single metrology technique difficult to use with low uncertainty. Common materials include metal and glass foams, doped transparent and opaque plastics and a variety of deposited and wrought metals. A suite of metrology tools and techniques developed to address the many critical issues relevant to the manufacture of HEDS targets including interferometry, x-ray radiography and contact metrology are presented including two sided interferometry for absolute thickness metrology and low force probe technology for micrometer feature coordinate metrology.

  17. Upgrading of biorenewables to high energy density fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, John C; Batista, Enrique R; Chen, Weizhong; Currier, Robert P; Dirmyer, Matthew R; John, Kevin D; Kim, Jin K; Keith, Jason; Martin, Richard L; Pierpont, Aaron W; Silks Ill, L. A. "" Pete; Smythe, Mathan C; Sutton, Andrew D; Taw, Felicia L; Trovitch, Ryan J; Vasudevan, Kalyan V; Waidmann, Christopher R; Wu, Ruilian; Baker, R. Thomas; Schlaf, Marcel

    2010-12-07

    According to a recent report, lignocellulose is the most abundant renewable biological resource on earth, with an annual production of {approx} 200 x 10{sup 9} tons. Conversion of lignocellulosics derived from wood, agricultural wastes, and woody grasses into liquid fuels and value-added chemical feedstocks is an active area of research that has seen an explosion of effort due to the need to replace petroleum based sources. The carbohydrates D-glucose (C{sub 6}), L-arabinose (C{sub 5}), and D-xylose (C{sub 5}) are readily obtained from the hydrolysis of lignocellulose and constitute the most abundant renewable organic carbon source on the planet. Because they are naturally produced on such a large scale, these sugars have the greatest potential to displace petrochemical derived transportation fuel. Recent efforts in our laboratories aimed towards the production of high energy density transportation fuels from carbohydrates have been structured around the parameters of selective carbohydrate carbon chain extension chemistries, low reaction temperatures, and the desired use of water or neat substrate as the solvent. Some of our efforts in this regard will be presented.

  18. High-power Laser Interaction With Low-density C-Cu Foams (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-power Laser Interaction With Low-density C-Cu Foams Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-power Laser Interaction With Low-density C-Cu Foams You are accessing a ...

  19. High Density Nano-Electrode Array for Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mano Misra

    2010-05-07

    Bulk single crystals of Cd1-xZnxTe (x=0.04 to x=0.2) compound semiconductor is used for room temperature radiation detection. The production of large volume of Cd1-xZnxTe with low defect density is expensive. As a result there is a growing research interest in the production of nanostructured compound semiconductors such as Cd1-xZnxTe in an electrochemical route. In this investigation, Cd1-xZnxTe ternary compound semiconductor, referred as CZT, was electrodeposited in the form of nanowires onto a TiO2 nanotubular template from propylene carbonate as the non-aqueous electrolyte, using a pulse-reverse electrodeposition process at 130 C. The template acted as a support in growing ordered nanowire of CZT which acts as a one dimensional conductor. Cyclic Voltammogram (CV) studies were conducted in determining the potentials for the growth of nanowires of uniform stoichiometry. The morphologies and composition of CZT were characterized by using SEM, TEM and XRD. The STEM mapping carried out on the nanowires showed the uniform distribution of Cd, Zn and Te elements. TEM image showed that the nanowires were polycrystalline in nature. The Mott-Schottky analysis carried on the nanowires showed that the nanowires were a p-type semiconductor. The carrier density, band gap and resistivity of the Cd0.9Zn0.1Te nanowires were 4.29x1013 cm-3, 1.56 eV and 2.76x1011?-cm respectively. The high resistivity was attributed to the presence of deep defect states such as cadmium vacancies or Te antisites which were created by the anodic cycle of the pulse-reverse electrodeposition process. Stacks of series connected CZT nanowire arrays were tested with different bias potentials. The background current was in the order of tens of picoamperes. When exposed to radiation source Amerecium-241 (60 KeV, 4 ?Ci), the stacked CZT nanowires arrays showed sensing behavior. The sensitivity of the nanowire arrays increased as the number of stacks increased. The preliminary results indicate that the CZT

  20. Approved High Integrity Containers - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    review is performed during the waste stream profile review. Arrow Pak High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)HIC NUKEM Nuclear Technologies NUHIC-55 SEG Enduro Pak HDPE HIC SEG SQ113...

  1. Ultra Low Density and Highly Crosslinked Biocompatible Shape...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Low Density ... OSTI Identifier: 1111124 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-501951 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Journal ...

  2. Surface interactions involved in flashover with high density electronegative gases.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, Keith Conquest; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wallace, Zachariah Red; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the interactions involved with flashover along a surface in high density electronegative gases. The focus is on fast ionization processes rather than the later time ionic drift or thermalization of the discharge. A kinetic simulation of the gas and surface is used to examine electron multiplication and includes gas collision, excitation and ionization, and attachment processes, gas photoionization and surface photoemission processes, as well as surface attachment. These rates are then used in a 1.5D fluid ionization wave (streamer) model to study streamer propagation with and without the surface in air and in SF6. The 1.5D model therefore includes rates for all these processes. To get a better estimate for the behavior of the radius we have studied radial expansion of the streamer in air and in SF6. The focus of the modeling is on voltage and field level changes (with and without a surface) rather than secondary effects, such as, velocities or changes in discharge path. An experiment has been set up to carry out measurements of threshold voltages, streamer velocities, and other discharge characteristics. This setup includes both electrical and photographic diagnostics (streak and framing cameras). We have observed little change in critical field levels (where avalanche multiplication sets in) in the gas alone versus with the surface. Comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements are in agreement with this. We have examined streamer sustaining fields (field which maintains ionization wave propagation) in the gas and on the surface. Agreement of the gas levels with available literature is good and agreement between experiment and calculation is good also. Model calculations do not indicate much difference between the gas alone versus the surface levels. Experiments have identified differences in velocity between streamers on the surface and in the gas alone (the surface values being larger).

  3. Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometer electron density diagnostic for laser and pulsed power high energy density plasma experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I.; Theobald, W.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.; Klein, S. R.; Munoz-Cordoves, G.; et al

    2016-04-21

    Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometry has been developed as an electron density diagnostic for High Energy Density plasmas. The technique can deliver x-ray refraction, attenuation, elemental composition, and scatter information from a single Moiré image. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer was deployed using laser and x-pinch backlighters. Grating survival and electron density mapping was demonstrated for 25-29 J, 8-30 ps laser pulses using copper foil targets. Moire pattern formation and grating survival was also observed using a copper x-pinch driven at 400 kA, ~1 kA/ns. Lastly, these results demonstrate the potential of TXD as an electron density diagnostic for HED plasmas.

  4. A scheme to produce high density and high temperature plasma for opacity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yan; Wu, SiZhong; Zheng, WuDi

    2015-04-15

    The opacity of shock-compressed material is of general scientific interest for astrophysical plasmas and for inertial confinement fusion research. A proposal is suggested to produce high temperature plasma with density around 1 g/cm{sup −3}. Two types of opacity target (the sandwich target and the foam enhanced sandwich target) are investigated numerically. The foam enhanced sandwich target has structure of foam–solid-sample-solid-foam. The foam will increase laser absorption efficiency and the ablating pressure. Hydrodynamic simulations confirm that the laser can be fully absorbed by the under-critical-density foam and a faster shock is produced inside the CH layer. High intensity lasers heat opacity target from both sides. The CH layers must be thick enough to keep the laser away from the sample. The laser-driven shocks move inward and collide at the center. Part of their kinetic energy is converted into internal energy and high density and high temperature local thermodynamic equilibrium sample plasma is produced. The plasma produced by laser heating the foam enhanced sandwich target has higher sample temperature than by laser heating the sandwich target. It may be useful for measuring the opacity of shock compressed material in laboratory.

  5. High current density electropolishing in the preparation of highly smooth substrate tapes for coated conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreiskott, Sascha; Matias, Vladimir; Arendt, Paul N.; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.

    2009-03-31

    A continuous process of forming a highly smooth surface on a metallic tape by passing a metallic tape having an initial roughness through an acid bath contained within a polishing section of an electropolishing unit over a pre-selected period of time, and, passing a mean surface current density of at least 0.18 amperes per square centimeter through the metallic tape during the period of time the metallic tape is in the acid bath whereby the roughness of the metallic tape is reduced. Such a highly smooth metallic tape can serve as a base substrate in subsequent formation of a superconductive coated conductor.

  6. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freitas, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver>4kW/cm2 of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources.

  7. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freitas, B.L.

    1998-10-27

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver > 4kW/cm{sup 2} of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources. 13 figs.

  8. An x-ray backlit Talbot-Lau deflectometer for high-energy-density electron density diagnostics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.

    2016-02-10

    X-ray phase-contrast techniques can measure electron density gradients in high-energy-density plasmas through refraction induced phase shifts. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer consisting of free standing ultrathin gratings was deployed at an ultra-short, high-intensity laser system using K-shell emission from a 1-30 J, 8 ps laser pulse focused on thin Cu foil targets. Grating survival was demonstrated for 30 J, 8 ps laser pulses. The first x-ray deflectometry images obtained under laser backlighting showed up to 25% image contrast and thus enabled detection of electron areal density gradients with a maximum value of 8.1 ± 0.5 × 1023 cm₋3 in amore » low-Z millimeter sized sample. An electron density profile was obtained from refraction measurements with an error of <8%. We found the 50 ± 15 μm spatial resolution achieved across the full field of view was limited by the x-ray source-size, similar to conventional radiography.« less

  9. Multiaxial deformation of polyethylene and polyethylene/clay nanocomposites: In situ synchrotron small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurun, Bilge; Bucknall, David G.; Thio, Yonathan S.; Teoh, Chin Ching; Harkin-Jones, Eileen

    2013-01-10

    A unique in situ multiaxial deformation device has been designed and built specifically for simultaneous synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements. SAXS and WAXS patterns of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and HDPE/clay nanocomposites were measured in real time during in situ multiaxial deformation at room temperature and at 55 C. It was observed that the morphological evolution of polyethylene is affected by the existence of clay platelets as well as the deformation temperature and strain rate. Martensitic transformation of orthorhombic into monoclinic crystal phases was observed under strain in HDPE, which is delayed and hindered in the presence of clay nanoplatelets. From the SAXS measurements, it was observed that the thickness of the interlamellar amorphous region increased with increasing strain, which is due to elongation of the amorphous chains. The increase in amorphous layer thickness is slightly higher for the nanocomposites compared to the neat polymer.

  10. Device and method for electron beam heating of a high density plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thode, L.E.

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high density plasma in a small localized region are described. A relativistic electron beam generator produces a high voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10/sup 17/ to 10/sup 20/.

  11. Method For Enhanced Gas Monitoring In High Density Flow Streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Von Drasek, William A.; Mulderink, Kenneth A.; Marin, Ovidiu

    2005-09-13

    A method for conducting laser absorption measurements in high temperature process streams having high levels of particulate matter is disclosed. An impinger is positioned substantially parallel to a laser beam propagation path and at upstream position relative to the laser beam. Beam shielding pipes shield the beam from the surrounding environment. Measurement is conducted only in the gap between the two shielding pipes where the beam propagates through the process gas. The impinger facilitates reduced particle presence in the measurement beam, resulting in improved SNR (signal-to-noise) and improved sensitivity and dynamic range of the measurement.

  12. High energy density battery based on complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2016-04-26

    A battery and process of operating a battery system is provided using high hydrogen capacity complex hydrides in an organic non-aqueous solvent that allows the transport of hydride ions such as AlH.sub.4.sup.- and metal ions during respective discharging and charging steps.

  13. High-speed digital holography for neutral gas and electron density...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-speed digital holography for neutral gas and electron density imaging This content will become publicly available on May 17, 2017 Prev Next Title: High-speed digital ...

  14. Evidence of the existence of the high-density and low-density phases in deeply-cooled confined heavy water under high pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhe; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Harriger, Leland; Leo, Juscelino B.

    2014-07-07

    The average density of D{sub 2}O confined in a nanoporous silica matrix (MCM-41-S) is studied with neutron scattering. We find that below ?210 K, the pressure-temperature plane of the system can be divided into two regions. The average density of the confined D{sub 2}O in the higher-pressure region is about 16% larger than that in the lower-pressure region. These two regions could represent the so-called low-density liquid and high-density liquid phases. The dividing line of these two regions, which could represent the associated 1st order liquid-liquid transition line, is also determined.

  15. SCALING OF THE SUPERFLUID DENSITY IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOMES, C.C.

    2005-10-24

    A scaling relation N{sub c} {approx} 4.4{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} has been observed parallel and perpendicular to the copper-oxygen planes in the high-temperature superconductors; N{sub c} is the spectral weight and {sigma}{sub dc} is the dc conductivity just above the critical temperature T{sub c}. In addition, Nb and Pb also fall close to the this scaling line. The application of the Ferrell-Glover-Tinkham sum rule to the BCS optical properties of Nb above and below T{sub c} yields N{sub c} {approx} 8.1{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} when the normal-state scattering rate is much greater than the superconducting energy gap (1/{tau} > 2{Delta}, the ''dirty'' limit). This result implies that the high-temperature superconductors may be in the dirty limit. The superconductivity perpendicular to the planes is explained by the Josephson effect, which again yields N{sub c} {approx} 8.1{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} in the BCS formalism. The similar forms for the scaling relation in these two directions suggests that in some regime the dirty limit and the Josephson effect may be viewed as equivalent.

  16. Status of high-density fuel plates fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1989-09-01

    Progress has continued on the fabrication of fuel plates with fuel zone loadings approaching 9gU/cm{sup 3}. Using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPping) successful diffusion bonds have been made with 110 Al and 6061 Al alloys. These bonds demonstrated the most critical processing step for proof-of-concept hardware. Two types of prototype highly-loaded fuel plates have been fabricated. First, a fuel plate in which 0.030 in. (0.76 mm) uranium compound wires are bonded within an aluminum cladding and second, a dispersion fuel plate with uniform cladding and fuel zone thickness. The successful fabrication of these fuel plates derives from the unique ability of the HIPping process to produce diffusion bonds with minimal deformation. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  17. A High Power Density DC-DC Converter for Distributed PV Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed S. Agamy; Song Chi; Ahmed Elasser; Maja Harfman-Todorovic; Yan Jiang; Frank Mueller; Fengfeng Tao

    2012-06-01

    In order to maximize solar energy harvesting capabilities, power converters have to be designed for high efficiency and good MPPT and voltage/current performance. When many converters are used in distributed systems, power density also becomes an important factor as it allows for simpler system integration. In this paper a high power density string dc-dc converter suitable for distributed medium to large scale PV installation is presented. A simple partial power processing topology, implemented with all silicon carbide devices provides high efficiency as well as high power density. A 3.5kW, 100kHz converter is designed and tested to verify the proposed methods.

  18. High Current Density, Long Life Cathodes for High Power RF Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ives, Robert Lawrence; Collins, George; Falce, Lou; Schwartzkopf, Steve; Busbaher, Daniel

    2014-01-22

    This program was tasked with improving the quality and expanding applications for Controlled Porosity Reservoir (CPR) cathodes. Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. (CCR) initially developed CPR cathodes on a DOE-funded SBIR program to improve cathodes for magnetron injection guns. Subsequent funding was received from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The program developed design requirements for implementation of the technology into high current density cathodes for high frequency applications. During Phase I of this program, CCR was awarded the prestigious 2011 R&D100 award for this technology. Subsequently, the technology was presented at numerous technical conferences. A patent was issued for the technology in 2009. These cathodes are now marketed by Semicon Associates, Inc. in Lexington, KY. They are the world’s largest producer of cathodes for vacuum electron devices. During this program, CCR teamed with Semicon Associates, Inc. and Ron Witherspoon, Inc. to improve the fabrication processes and expand applications for the cathodes. Specific fabrications issues included the quality of the wire winding that provides the basic structure and the sintering to bond the wires into a robust, cohesive structure. The program also developed improved techniques for integrating the resulting material into cathodes for electron guns.

  19. Surface modification of polyethylene by functionalized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, S.; Marchant, R.E.

    1993-12-31

    The surface of low density polyethylene(PE) has been modified by functionalized plasma-polymerized N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PPNVP) and allyl alcohol(PPAA) thin films, PPNVP and PPAA(approx. 100 nm). The surface structure and functional groups of modified surfaces were characterized by water contact angle, ATR/FTIR and ESCA techniques. Plasma polymer modified PE surfaces exhibited significant water contact angle hysteresis and a much lower value of advancing water contact angle than that of unmodified polyethylene. Reduction of PPNVP and PPAA modified surfaces by sodium borohydride coverted into hydroxyl groups. The determined concentrations of hydroxyl groups on the reduced PPNVP and PPAA modified surfaces by ESCA after gas-phase derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) were about 25% and 30% of total oxygen content, respectively. Finally, the amine containing molecules such as amine-terminated polyethylene oxide (PEO) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) were coupled to the hydroxylated surfaces. These novel modified PE surfaces are suitable for immobilization of biomolecules.

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Density Lithium Battery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Binghamton U.-SUNY at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy density...

  1. High energy density capacitors for power electronic applications using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

    1995-09-01

    Power electronics applications are currently limited by capacitor size and performance. Only incremental improvements are anticipated in existing capacitor technologies, while significant performance advances are required in energy density and overall performance to meet the technical needs of the applications which are important for U.S. economic competitiveness. One application, the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB), promises a second electronics revolution in power electronic design. High energy density capacitors with excellent electrical thermal and mechanical performance represent an enabling technology in the PEBB concept. We propose a continuing program to research and develop LLNL`s nano-structure multilayer technologies for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Our controlled deposition techniques are capable of synthesizing extraordinarily smooth sub-micron thick layers of dielectric and conductor materials. We have demonstrated that, with this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density are achievable.

  2. High-pressure polymorphism as a step towards high density structures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    detected in LiAlHsub 4, a promising hydrogen storage compound, upon compression in ... COMPRESSION; DENSITY; DIAMONDS; HYDROGEN STORAGE; LITHIUM HYDRIDES; MONOCLINIC ...

  3. Report of the Interagency Task Force on High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-08-01

    Identifies the needs for improving Federal stewardship of specific aspects of high energy density physics, particularly the study of high energy density plasmas in the laboratory, and strengthening university activities in this latter discipline. The report articulates how HEDP fits into the portfolio of federally funded missions and includes agency actions to be taken that are necessary to further this area of study consistent with Federal priorities and plans, while being responsive to the needs of the scientific community.

  4. Volume generation of negative ions in high density hydrogen discharges. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiskes, J.R.; Karo, A.M.

    1983-11-11

    An optimized tandem two-chamber negative-ion source system is discussed. In the first chamber high energy (E > 20 eV) electron collisions provide for H/sub 2/ vibrational excitation, while in the second chamber negative ions are formed by dissociative attachment. The gas density, electron density, and system scale length are varied as independent parameters. The extracted negative ion current density passes through a maximum as electron and gas densities are varied. This maximum scales inversely with system scale length, R. The optimum extracted current densities occur for electron densities near nR = 10/sup 13/ electrons cm/sup -2/ and for gas densities, N/sub 2/R, in the range 10/sup 14/ to 10/sup 15/ molecules cm/sup -2/. The extracted current densities are sensitive to the atomic concentration in the discharge. The atomic concentration is parametrized by the wall recombination coefficient, ..gamma.., and scale length, R. As ..gamma.. ranges from 0.1 to 1.0 and for system scale lengths of one centimeter, extracted current densities range from 8.0 to 80. mA cm/sup -2/.

  5. Device and method for electron beam heating of a high density plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thode, Lester E.

    1981-01-01

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator produces a high voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target plasma is ionized prior to application of the electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region within the high density plasma target.

  6. Miniaturized, high-density, bead-based arrays are provided. Methods of producing and using clonal beads and producing and using miniaturized, high density, bead-based arrays are also provided.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Church, George M.; Shendure, Jay; Porreca, Gregory J.; Zhu, Jun

    2008-09-16

    Miniaturized, high-density, bead-based arrays are provided. Methods of producing and using clonal beads and producing and using miniaturized, high density, bead-based arrays are also provided.

  7. Power balance in a high-density field reversed configuration plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renneke, R. M.; Intrator, T. P.; Hsu, S. C.; Wurden, G. A.; Waganaar, W. J.; Ruden, E. L.; Grabowski, T. C.

    2008-06-15

    A global power balance analysis has been performed for the Field Reversed Experiment with Liner high density (>5x10{sup 22} m{sup -3}) field reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The analysis was based on a zero-dimensional power balance model [D. J. Rey and M. Tuszewski, Phys. Fluids 27, 1514 (1984)]. The key findings are as follows. First, the percentage of radiative losses relative to total loss is an order of magnitude lower than previous lower density FRC experiments. Second, Ohmic heating was found to correlate with the poloidal flux trapping at FRC formation, suggesting that poloidal flux dissipation is primarily responsible for plasma heating. Third, high density FRCs analyzed in this work reinforce the low-density adiabatic scaling, which shows that particle confinement time and flux confinement time are approximately equal.

  8. MEMS Fuel Cells--Low Temp--High Power Density - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search MEMS Fuel Cells--Low Temp--High Power Density Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Rechargeable batteries presently provide limited energy density and cyclical lifetime for portable power applications, with only incremental improvements forecasted in the foreseeable future. Furthermore, recharging requires access to electrical outlets via a tethered charger. The

  9. Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chiping

    2013-08-26

    High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  10. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Large-scale energy storage systems are crucial for substantial deployment of renewable energy sources. Energy storage systems with high energy density, high safety, and low cost and environmental friendliness are desired. To overcome the major limitations of the current aqueous redox flow battery systems, namely lower energy density (~25 Wh L-1) and presence of strong acids and/or other hazardous, a high energy density aqueous zinc/polyiodide flow battery (ZIB) is designed with near neutral ZnI2 solutions as catholytes. The energy density of ZIB could reach 322 Wh L-1 at the solubility limit of ZnI2 in water (~7 M). We demonstrate charge and discharge energy densities of 245.9 Wh/L and 166.7 Wh L-1 with ZnI2 electrolyte at 5.0 M, respectively. The addition of ethanol (EtOH) in ZnI2 electrolyte can effectively mitigate the growth of zinc dendrite at the anode and improve the stability of catholytes with wider temperature window (-20 to 50°C), which enable ZIB system to be a promising alternative as a high-energy and high- safety stationary energy storage system.

  11. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Large-scale energy storage systems are crucial for substantial deployment of renewable energy sources. Energy storage systems with high energy density, high safety, and low cost and environmental friendliness are desired. To overcome the major limitations of the current aqueous redox flow battery systems, namely lower energy density (~25 Wh L-1) and presence of strong acids and/or other hazardous, a high energy density aqueous zinc/polyiodide flow battery (ZIB) is designed with near neutral ZnI2 solutions as catholytes. The energy density of ZIB could reach 322 Wh L-1 at the solubility limit of ZnI2 in water (~7 M). We demonstrate charge andmore » discharge energy densities of 245.9 Wh/L and 166.7 Wh L-1 with ZnI2 electrolyte at 5.0 M, respectively. The addition of ethanol (EtOH) in ZnI2 electrolyte can effectively mitigate the growth of zinc dendrite at the anode and improve the stability of catholytes with wider temperature window (-20 to 50°C), which enable ZIB system to be a promising alternative as a high-energy and high- safety stationary energy storage system.« less

  12. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Large-scale energy storage systems are crucial for substantial deployment of renewable energy sources. Energy storage systems with high energy density, high safety, and low cost and environmental friendliness are desired. To overcome the major limitations of the current aqueous redox flow battery systems, namely lower energy density (~25 Wh L-1) and presence of strong acids and/or other hazardous, a high energy density aqueous zinc/polyiodide flow battery (ZIB) is designed with near neutral ZnI2 solutions as catholytes. The energy density of ZIB could reach 322 Wh L-1 at the solubility limit of ZnI2 in water (~7 M). We demonstrate charge and discharge energy densities of 245.9 Wh/L and 166.7 Wh L-1 with ZnI2 electrolyte at 5.0 M, respectively. The addition of ethanol (EtOH) in ZnI2 electrolyte can effectively mitigate the growth of zinc dendrite at the anode and improve the stability of catholytes with wider temperature window (-20 to 50°C), which enable ZIB system to be a promising alternative as a high-energy and high- safety stationary energy storage system.

  13. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenig, Clarence L.

    1994-01-01

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2200.degree. C. and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  14. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenig, C.L.

    1994-08-09

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2,200 C and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made. 1 fig.

  15. The final stage of gravitational collapse for high density fluid medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza, R. G.; De Campos, M.

    2013-03-25

    The High density high density fluids can be represented by a stiff matter state equation P={rho} and also by the Hagedorn state equation. The first is constructed using a lagrangian that allows bare nucleons to interact attractively via scalar meson exchange, and repulsively by a more massive vector meson exchange; the second consider that for large mass the spectrum of hadrons grows exponentially, namely {rho}(m) {approx}exp(m/T{sub H}), where T{sub H} is the Hagedorn temperature, resulting the state equation P = P{sub 0}+{rho}{sub 0}ln({rho}/{rho}{sub 0}). We study the gravitational collapse for a high density fluid, considering a Hagedorn state equation in a presence of a vacuum component.

  16. Particle visualization in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering. II. Absolute density dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britun, Nikolay Palmucci, Maria; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Snyders, Rony

    2015-04-28

    Time-resolved characterization of an Ar-Ti high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge has been performed. The present, second, paper of the study is related to the discharge characterization in terms of the absolute density of species using resonant absorption spectroscopy. The results on the time-resolved density evolution of the neutral and singly-ionized Ti ground state atoms as well as the metastable Ti and Ar atoms during the discharge on- and off-time are presented. Among the others, the questions related to the inversion of population of the Ti energy sublevels, as well as to re-normalization of the two-dimensional density maps in terms of the absolute density of species, are stressed.

  17. The impact of Hall physics on magnetized high energy density plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Seyler, C. E.; Atoyan, L.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Potter, W. M.; Schrafel, P. C.; Shelkovenko, T. A.

    2014-05-15

    Hall physics is often neglected in high energy density plasma jets due to the relatively high electron density of such jets (n{sub e} ∼ 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}). However, the vacuum region surrounding the jet has much lower densities and is dominated by Hall electric field. This electric field redirects plasma flows towards or away from the axis, depending on the radial current direction. A resulting change in the jet density has been observed experimentally. Furthermore, if an axial field is applied on the jet, the Hall effect is enhanced and ignoring it leads to serious discrepancies between experimental results and numerical simulations. By combining high currents (∼1 MA) and magnetic field helicity (15° angle) in a pulsed power generator such as COBRA, plasma jets can be magnetized with a 10 T axial field. The resulting field enhances the impact of the Hall effect by altering the density profile of current-free plasma jets and the stability of current-carrying plasma jets (e.g., Z-pinches)

  18. Forming high efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2014-09-09

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  19. Forming high-efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2015-07-07

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  20. US Heavy Ion Beam Research for High Energy Density Physics Applications and Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.; et al.

    2005-09-19

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers.

  1. High Island Densities and Long Range Repulsive Interactions: Fe on Epitaxial Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binz, Steven M.; Hupalo, Myron; Liu, Xiaojie; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Lu, Wen-Cai; Thiel, Kai-Ming; Conrad, E.H.; Tringides, Michael C.

    2012-07-13

    The understanding of metal nucleation on graphene is essential for promising future applications, especially of magnetic metals which can be used in spintronics or computer storage media. A common method to study the grown morphology is to measure the nucleated island density n as a function of growth parameters. Surprisingly, the growth of Fe on graphene is found to be unusual because it does not follow classical nucleation: n is unexpectedtly high, it increases continuously with the deposited amount θ and shows no temperature dependence. These unusual results indicate the presence of long range repulsive interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and density functional theory calculations support this conclusion. In addition to answering an outstanding question in epitaxial growth, i.e., to find systems where long range interactions are present, the high density of magnetic islands, tunable with θ, is of interest for nanomagnetism applications.

  2. Electron density profile measurements at a self-focusing ion beam with high current density and low energy extracted through concave electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujiwara, Y. Nakamiya, A.; Sakakita, H.; Innovative Plasma Technologies Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology , Ibaraki ; Hirano, Y.; Laboratory of Physics, College of Science and Technologies, Nihon University, Tokyo ; Kiyama, S.; Koguchi, H.

    2014-02-15

    The self-focusing phenomenon has been observed in a high current density and low energy ion beam. In order to study the mechanism of this phenomenon, a special designed double probe to measure the electron density and temperature is installed into the chamber where the high current density ion beam is injected. Electron density profile is successfully measured without the influence of the ion beam components. Estimated electron temperature and density are ?0.9 eV and ?8 10{sup 8} cm{sup ?3} at the center of ion beam cross section, respectively. It was found that a large amount of electrons are spontaneously accumulated in the ion beam line in the case of self-forcing state.

  3. A New Polyethylene Scattering Law Determined Using Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavelle, Christopher M [ORNL; Liu, C [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Stone, Matthew B [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo neutron transport codes such as MCNP rely on accurate data for nuclear physics cross-sections to produce accurate results. At low energy, this takes the form of scattering laws based on the dynamic structure factor, S (Q, E). High density polyethylene (HDPE) is frequently employed as a neutron moderator at both high and low temperatures, however the only cross-sections available are for T =300 K, and the evaluation has not been updated in quite some time. In this paper we describe inelastic neutron scattering measurements on HDPE at 5 and 300 K which are used to improve the scattering law for HDPE. We describe the experimental methods, review some of the past HDPE scattering laws, and compare computations using these models to the measured S (Q, E). The total cross-section is compared to available data, and the treatment of the carbon secondary scatterer as a free gas is assessed. We also discuss the use of the measurement itself as a scattering law via the 1 phonon approximation. We show that a scattering law computed using a more detailed model for the Generalized Density of States (GDOS) compares more favorably to this experiment, suggesting that inelastic neutron scattering can play an important role in both the development and validation of new scattering laws for Monte Carlo work.

  4. Joint Statement on Multinational Cooperation on High-Density Low-Enriched

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Uranium Fuel Development | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Joint Statement on Multinational Cooperation on High-Density Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Development March 25, 2014 The White House Office of the Press Secretary Belgium, France, Germany, the Republic of Korea and the United States, the parties to this joint statement recognize that the ultimate goal of nuclear security is advanced by minimizing highly-enriched uranium (HEU) in civilian use, which is affirmed in the

  5. Measurements of continuous mix evolution in a high energy density shear flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, E. Doss, F.; Flippo, K.; Fincke, J.

    2014-04-15

    We report on the novel integration of streaked radiography into a counter-flowing High Energy Density (HED) shear environment that continually measures a growing mix layer of Al separating two low-density CH foams. Measurements of the mix width allow us to validate compressible turbulence models and with streaked imaging, make this possible with a minimal number of experiments on large laser facilities. In this paper, we describe how the HED counter-flowing shear layer is created and diagnosed with streaked radiography. We then compare the streaked data to previous two-dimensional, single frame radiography and radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the experiment with inline compressible turbulent mix models.

  6. High-Density Plasma Arc Heating Studies of FePt Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, Amanda C; Thompson, Gregory; Harrell, J. W.; Weston, James; Ott, Ronald D

    2006-01-01

    The effect of pulsed-thermal-processing with high-density plasma arc heating is discussed for 20 nm thick nanocrystalline FePt thin films. The dependence of the A1 {yields} L1{sub 0} phase transformation on pulsed time and radiant energy of the pulse is quantified through x-ray diffraction and alternating gradient magnetometry. For 100 ms and 250 ms pulse widths, the phase transformation was observed. Higher radiant energy densities resulted in a larger measured coercivity associated with the L1{sub 0} phase.

  7. Theory of melting at high pressures: Amending density functional theory with quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shulenburger, L.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Mattsson, T. R.

    2014-10-01

    We present an improved first-principles description of melting under pressure based on thermodynamic integration comparing Density Functional Theory (DFT) and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) treatments of the system. The method is applied to address the longstanding discrepancy between density functional theory (DFT) calculations and diamond anvil cell (DAC) experiments on the melting curve of xenon, a noble gas solid where van der Waals binding is challenging for traditional DFT methods. The calculations show excellent agreement with data below 20 GPa and that the high-pressure melt curve is well described by a Lindemann behavior up to at least 80 GPa, a finding in stark contrast to DAC data.

  8. Density and x-ray emission profile relationships in highly ionized high-Z laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke Ugomori, Teruyuki; Tanaka, Nozomi; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi Kawasaki, Masato; Suzuki, Yuhei; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tomita, Kentaro; Hirose, Ryoichi; Ejima, Takeo; Ohashi, Hayato; Nishikino, Masaharu; Sunahara, Atsushi; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Yanagida, Tatsuya

    2015-03-23

    We present a benchmark measurement of the electron density profile in the region where the electron density is 10{sup 19?}cm{sup 3} and where the bulk of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission occurs from isotropically expanding spherical high-Z gadolinium plasmas. It was found that, due to opacity effects, the observed EUV emission is mostly produced from an underdense region. We have analyzed time-resolved emission spectra with the aid of atomic structure calculations and find the multiple ion charge states around 18+ during the laser pulse irradiation.

  9. Method of Fabrication of High Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2008-09-09

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O(LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  10. Particle visualization in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering. I. 2D density mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britun, Nikolay Palmucci, Maria; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Snyders, Rony

    2015-04-28

    Time-resolved characterization of an Ar-Ti high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge has been performed. This paper deals with two-dimensional density mapping in the discharge volume obtained by laser-induced fluorescence imaging. The time-resolved density evolution of Ti neutrals, singly ionized Ti atoms (Ti{sup +}), and Ar metastable atoms (Ar{sup met}) in the area above the sputtered cathode is mapped for the first time in this type of discharges. The energetic characteristics of the discharge species are additionally studied by Doppler-shift laser-induced fluorescence imaging. The questions related to the propagation of both the neutral and ionized discharge particles, as well as to their spatial density distributions, are discussed.

  11. High-brightness, high-current density cathode for induction linac FELs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, W.C.; Chen, Y.-J.; Nexsen, W.E.; Green, M.C.; Miram, G.; Nordquist, A.V.

    1988-09-28

    We have recently initiated an investigation to determine the intrinsic operating limits of an osmium coated dispenser cathode for use in free-electron lasers (FELs) driven by an induction linear accelerator. The experimental apparatus consists of a 5.1-cm-diam osmium coated dispenser cathode driven by a 250-kV, 10-..cap omega.., 35-ns Blumlein pulse line. The pepper pot technique is used to measure intrinsic cathode brightness and uniformity. Recent measurements have yielded brightness values exceeding 1 /times/ 10/sup 10/ A/m/sup 2/rad/sup 2/ for current densities up to 140 A/cm/sup 2/. We have also obtained quantitative data on cathode poisoning caused by a number of chemical agents of interest in the induction linac environment. 7 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. High Temperature, high pressure equation of state density correlations and viscosity correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapriyal, D.; Enick, R.; McHugh, M.; Gamwo, I.; Morreale, B.

    2012-07-31

    Global increase in oil demand and depleting reserves has derived a need to find new oil resources. To find these untapped reservoirs, oil companies are exploring various remote and harsh locations such as deep waters in Gulf of Mexico, remote arctic regions, unexplored deep deserts, etc. Further, the depth of new oil/gas wells being drilled has increased considerably to tap these new resources. With the increase in the well depth, the bottomhole temperature and pressure are also increasing to extreme values (i.e. up to 500 F and 35,000 psi). The density and viscosity of natural gas and crude oil at reservoir conditions are critical fundamental properties required for accurate assessment of the amount of recoverable petroleum within a reservoir and the modeling of the flow of these fluids within the porous media. These properties are also used to design appropriate drilling and production equipment such as blow out preventers, risers, etc. With the present state of art, there is no accurate database for these fluid properties at extreme conditions. As we have begun to expand this experimental database it has become apparent that there are neither equations of state for density or transport models for viscosity that can be used to predict these fundamental properties of multi-component hydrocarbon mixtures over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Presently, oil companies are using correlations based on lower temperature and pressure databases that exhibit an unsatisfactory predictive capability at extreme conditions (e.g. as great as {+-} 50%). From the perspective of these oil companies that are committed to safely producing these resources, accurately predicting flow rates, and assuring the integrity of the flow, the absence of an extensive experimental database at extreme conditions and models capable of predicting these properties over an extremely wide range of temperature and pressure (including extreme conditions) makes their task even more daunting.

  13. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee -Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-11

    Here we demonstrate for the first time that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190°C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh/kg, which is 3 times higher than that of conventional tubular Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 280°C, was obtained for planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 190°C over a long-term cell test (1000 cycles). The high energy density and superior cycle stability are attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials (NaCl and Ni) at 190°C. The results reported in this work demonstrate that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at anmore » intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.« less

  14. An innovative demonstration of high power density in a compact MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, H.J.; Lineberry, J.T.; Chapman, J.N.

    1990-06-01

    The present program was conducted by the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). It was by its nature a high risk experimental program to demonstrate the feasibility of high power density operation in a laboratory scale combustion driven MHD generator. Maximization of specific energy was not a consideration for the present program, but the results have implications in this regard by virtue of high energy fuel used. The power density is the ratio of the electrical energy output to the internal volume of the generator channel. The MHD process is a volumetric process and the power density is therefore a direct measure of the compactness of the system. Specific energy, is the ratio of the electrical energy output to consumable energy used for its production. The two parameters are conceptually interrelated. To achieve high power density and implied commensurate low system volume and weight, it was necessary to use an energetic fuel. The high energy fuel of choice was a mixture of powdered aluminum and carbon seeded with potassium carbonate and burned with gaseous oxygen. The solid fuel was burned in a hybrid combustion scheme wherein the fuel was cast within a cylindrical combustor in analogy with a solid propellant rocket motor. Experimental data is limited to gross channel output current and voltage, magnetic field strength, fuel and oxidizer flow rates, flow train external temperatures and combustor pressure. Similarly, while instantaneous oxidizer flow rates were measured, only average fuel consumption based on pre and post test component weights and dimensions was possible. 4 refs., 60 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A.; Lu, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/ΔE of order 10 000 and spatial resolution better than 10 μm. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  16. Morphological features of the copper surface layer under sliding with high density electric current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.; Rubtsov, V. Ye.; Aleutdinova, V. A.

    2015-10-27

    Conductivity and wear intensity of copper under the influence of dry friction and electric current with contact density higher 100 A/cm{sup 2} are presented. It is shown that an increase in hardness and heat outflow from a friction zone leads to the reduction of wear intensity and current contact density increase corresponding to the beginning of catastrophic wear. Structural changes, such as the formation of FeO oxide and α-Fe particles in the copper surface layer, have also been found. It is observed that a worn surface is deformed according to a viscous liquid mechanism. Such singularity is explained in terms of appearance of high-excited atomic states in deforming micro-volumes near contact spots that lead to easy stress relaxation by local plastic shears in the vicinity of stress concentrators. In common this effect allows to achieve high wear resistance.

  17. OSCAR experiment high-density network data report: Event 3 - April 16-17, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana, M.T.; Easter, R.C.; Thorp, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    The OSCAR (Oxidation and Scavenging Characteristics of April Rains) experiment, conducted during April 1981, was a cooperative field investigation of wet removal in cyclonic storm systems. The high-density component of OSCAR was located in northeast Indiana and included sequential precipitation chemistry measurements on a 100 by 100 km network, as well as airborne air chemistry and cloud chemistry measurements, surface air chemistry measurements, and supporting meteorological measurements. Four separate storm events were studied during the experiment. This report summarizes data taken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the third storm event, April 16-17. The report contains the high-density network precipitation chemistry data, air chemistry and cloud chemistry data from the PNL aircraft, and meteorological data for the event, including standard National Weather Service products and radar and rawindsonde data from the network. 4 references, 76 figures, 6 tables.

  18. Highly collimated monoenergetic target-surface electron acceleration in near-critical-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, J. Y.; Chen, L. M.; Huang, K.; Ma, Y.; Zhao, J. R.; Yan, W. C.; Ma, J. L.; Wei, Z. Y.; Li, D. Z.; Aeschlimann, M.; Zhang, J.

    2015-03-30

    Optimized-quality monoenergetic target surface electron beams at MeV level with low normalized emittance (0.03π mm mrad) and high charge (30 pC) per shot have been obtained from 3 TW laser-solid interactions at a grazing incidence. The 2-Dimension particle-in-cell simulations suggest that electrons are wake-field accelerated in a large-scale, near-critical-density preplasma. It reveals that a bubble-like structure as an accelerating cavity appears in the near-critical-density plasma region and travels along the target surface. A bunch of electrons are pinched transversely and accelerated longitudinally by the wake field in the bubble. The outstanding normalized emittance and monochromaticity of such highly collimated surface electron beams could make it an ideal beam for fast ignition or may serve as an injector in traditional accelerators.

  19. DUST EXTINCTION BIAS IN THE COLUMN DENSITY DISTRIBUTION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: HIGH COLUMN DENSITY, LOW-REDSHIFT GRBs ARE MORE HEAVILY OBSCURED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, Darach [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Jakobsson, Pall, E-mail: darach@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: pja@raunvis.hi.is [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 5, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2012-08-01

    The afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have more soft-X-ray absorption than expected from the foreground gas column in the Galaxy. While the redshift of the absorption can in general not be constrained from current X-ray observations, it has been assumed that the absorption is due to metals in the host galaxy of the GRB. The large sample of X-ray afterglows and redshifts now available allows the construction of statistically meaningful distributions of the metal column densities. We construct such a sample and show, as found in previous studies, that the typical absorbing column density (N{sub H{sub X}}) increases substantially with redshift, with few high column density objects found at low-to-moderate redshifts. We show, however, that when highly extinguished bursts are included in the sample, using redshifts from their host galaxies, high column density sources are also found at low-to-moderate redshift. We infer from individual objects in the sample and from observations of blazars that the increase in column density with redshift is unlikely to be related to metals in the intergalactic medium or intervening absorbers. Instead we show that the origin of the apparent increase with redshift is primarily due to dust extinction bias: GRBs with high X-ray absorption column densities found at z {approx}< 4 typically have very high dust extinction column densities, while those found at the highest redshifts do not. It is unclear how such a strongly evolving N{sub H{sub X}}/A{sub V} ratio would arise, and based on current data, remains a puzzle.

  20. A study of electromagnetic showers in the high density projection chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, E.; Berggren, M.; Cattai, A.; Fischer, H.G.; Flammier, M.; Gerutti, G.; Innocenti, P.G.; Iversen, P.S.

    1983-02-01

    A prototype module of a High density Projection Chamber (HPC) has been tested in an electron beam. The HPC, with the shower conversion separated from the charge collection, offers a simple, homogeneous large volume detector with an energy resolution of 12.5%/..sqrt..E and an exceptionally fine granularity both along and transverse to the shower axis. The results from the test are presented together with a description of the calorimeter system.

  1. High energy-density physics: From nuclear testing to the superlasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, E.M.; Holmes, N.C.; Libby, S.B.; Remington, B.A.; Teller, E.

    1995-10-20

    We describe the role for the next-generation ``superlasers`` in the study of matter under extremely high energy density conditions, in comparison to previous uses of nuclear explosives for this purpose. As examples, we focus on three important areas of physics that have unresolved issues which must be addressed by experiment: Equations of state, hydrodynamic mixing, and the transport of radiation. We will describe the advantages the large lasers will have in a comprehensive experimental program.

  2. The Time Domain Crossbar (TDX): A high speed, high density, FPGA design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, A.L.

    1993-12-31

    As system clock rates of electronic designs steadily increase, the need for high bandwidth communication between designs in the system becomes critical. The Time Domain Crossbar (TDX) provides programmable, high-speed communications bandwidth across the user I/O pins of a VME backplane. The TDX timemultiplexes 20MHz byte-wide data onto 80MHz byte-wide data for transmission between boards. A programmable register set allows the user to open and close virtual communicaton channels by configuring independent data paths between sets of boards. Because each additional TDX board provides another crossbar, the overall system bandwidth increases with the number of TDX boards.

  3. Experimental profile evolution of a high-density field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruden, E. L.; Zhang, Shouyin; Intrator, T. P.; Wurden, G. A.

    2006-12-15

    A field-reversed configuration (FRC) gains angular momentum over time, eventually resulting in an n=2 rotational instability (invariant under rotation by {pi}) terminating confinement. To study this, a laser interferometer probes the time history of line integrated plasma density along eight chords of the high-density ({approx}10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}) field-reversed configuration experiment with a liner. Abel and tomographic inversions provide density profiles during the FRC's azimuthally symmetric phase, and over a period when the rotational mode has saturated and rotates with a roughly fixed profile, respectively. During the latter part of the symmetric phase, the FRC approximates a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium, allowing the axial magnetic-field profile to be calculated from pressure balance. Basic FRC properties such as temperature and poloidal flux are then inferred. The subsequent two-dimensional n=2 density profiles provide angular momentum information needed to set bounds on prior values of the stability relevant parameter {alpha} (rotational to ion diamagnetic drift frequency ratio), in addition to a view of plasma kinematics useful for benchmarking plasma models of higher order than MHD.

  4. Conformable actively multiplexed high-density surface electrode array for brain interfacing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, John; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan

    2015-01-13

    Provided are methods and devices for interfacing with brain tissue, specifically for monitoring and/or actuation of spatio-temporal electrical waveforms. The device is conformable having a high electrode density and high spatial and temporal resolution. A conformable substrate supports a conformable electronic circuit and a barrier layer. Electrodes are positioned to provide electrical contact with a brain tissue. A controller monitors or actuates the electrodes, thereby interfacing with the brain tissue. In an aspect, methods are provided to monitor or actuate spatio-temporal electrical waveform over large brain surface areas by any of the devices disclosed herein.

  5. The high-energy-density counterpropagating shear experiment and turbulent self-heating

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Doss, F. W.; Fincke, J. R.; Loomis, E. N.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Flippo, K. A.

    2013-12-06

    The counterpropagating shear experiment has previously demonstrated the ability to create regions of shockdriven shear, balanced symmetrically in pressure and experiencing minimal net drift. This allows for the creation of a high-Mach-number high-energy-density shear environment. New data from the counterpropagating shear campaign is presented, and both hydrocode modeling and theoretical analysis in the context of a Reynolds-averaged-Navier-Stokes model suggest turbulent dissipation of energy from the supersonic flow bounding the layer is a significant driver in its expansion. A theoretical minimum shear flow Mach number threshold is suggested for substantial thermal-turbulence coupling.

  6. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hui E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Magee, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Stone, G.; Williams, G. J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M. E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Hill, K. W.; Kerr, S.

    2014-11-15

    Adapting a concept developed for magnetic confinement fusion experiments, an imaging crystal spectrometer has been designed and tested for HED plasmas. The instrument uses a spherically bent quartz [211] crystal with radius of curvature of 490.8 mm. The instrument was tested at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by irradiating titanium slabs with laser intensities of 10{sup 19}–10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. He-like and Li-like Ti lines were recorded, from which the spectrometer performance was evaluated. This spectrometer provides very high spectral resolving power (E/dE > 7000) while acquiring a one-dimensional image of the source.

  7. High temperature and current density induced degradation of multi-layer graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Baoming; Haque, M. A.; Mag-isa, Alexander E.; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hak-Joo

    2015-10-19

    We present evidence of moderate current density, when accompanied with high temperature, promoting migration of foreign atoms on the surface of multi-layer graphene. Our in situ transmission electron microscope experiments show migration of silicon atoms at temperatures above 800 °C and current density around 4.2 × 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}. Originating from the micro-machined silicon structures that clamp the freestanding specimen, the atoms are observed to react with the carbon atoms in the multi-layer graphene to produce silicon carbide at temperatures of 900–1000 °C. In the absence of electrical current, there is no migration of silicon and only pyrolysis of polymeric residue is observed.

  8. Measurements of ion stopping around the Bragg peak in high-energy-density plasmas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Frenje, J. A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-09

    For the first time, quantitative measurements of ion stopping at energies about the Bragg peak (or peak ion stopping, which occurs at an ion velocity comparable to the average thermal electron velocity), and its dependence on electron temperature (Te) and electron number density (ne) in the range of 0.5 – 4.0 keV and 3 × 1022 – 3 × 1023 cm-3 have been conducted, respectively. It is experimentally demonstrated that the position and amplitude of the Bragg peak varies strongly with Te with ne. As a result, the importance of including quantum diffraction is also demonstrated in the stopping-power modelingmore » of High-Energy-Density Plasmas.« less

  9. Schlieren technique applied to the arc temperature measurement in a high energy density cutting torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.

    2010-01-15

    Plasma temperature and radial density profiles of the plasma species in a high energy density cutting arc have been obtained by using a quantitative schlieren technique. A Z-type two-mirror schlieren system was used in this research. Due to its great sensibility such technique allows measuring plasma composition and temperature from the arc axis to the surrounding medium by processing the gray-level contrast values of digital schlieren images recorded at the observation plane for a given position of a transverse knife located at the exit focal plane of the system. The technique has provided a good visualization of the plasma flow emerging from the nozzle and its interactions with the surrounding medium and the anode. The obtained temperature values are in good agreement with those values previously obtained by the authors on the same torch using Langmuir probes.

  10. Measurements of ion stopping around the Bragg peak in high-energy-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenje, J. A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-09

    For the first time, quantitative measurements of ion stopping at energies about the Bragg peak (or peak ion stopping, which occurs at an ion velocity comparable to the average thermal electron velocity), and its dependence on electron temperature (Te) and electron number density (ne) in the range of 0.5 – 4.0 keV and 3 × 1022 – 3 × 1023 cm-3 have been conducted, respectively. It is experimentally demonstrated that the position and amplitude of the Bragg peak varies strongly with Te with ne. As a result, the importance of including quantum diffraction is also demonstrated in the stopping-power modeling of High-Energy-Density Plasmas.

  11. Three-dimensional modeling and analysis of a high energy density Kelvin-Helmholtz experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, K. S.; Hurricane, O. A.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Drake, R. P.; Krauland, C. M.; Kuranz, C. C.; Hansen, J. F.; Harding, E. C.

    2012-09-15

    A recent series of experiments on the OMEGA laser provided the first controlled demonstration of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability in a high-energy-density physics context [E. C. Harding et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 045005, (2009); O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 056305, (2009)]. We present 3D simulations which resolve previously reported discrepancies between those experiments and the 2D simulation used to design them. Our new simulations reveal a three-dimensional mechanism behind the low density 'bubble' structures which appeared in the experimental x-ray radiographs at late times but were completely absent in the 2D simulations. We also demonstrate that the three-dimensional expansion of the walls of the target is sufficient to explain the 20% overprediction by 2D simulation of the late-time growth of the KH rollups. The implications of these results for the design of future experiments are discussed.

  12. Theory of melting at high pressures: Amending density functional theory with quantum Monte Carlo

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shulenburger, L.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Mattsson, T. R.

    2014-10-01

    We present an improved first-principles description of melting under pressure based on thermodynamic integration comparing Density Functional Theory (DFT) and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) treatments of the system. The method is applied to address the longstanding discrepancy between density functional theory (DFT) calculations and diamond anvil cell (DAC) experiments on the melting curve of xenon, a noble gas solid where van der Waals binding is challenging for traditional DFT methods. The calculations show excellent agreement with data below 20 GPa and that the high-pressure melt curve is well described by a Lindemann behavior up to at least 80 GPa, amore » finding in stark contrast to DAC data.« less

  13. High current density ion beam obtained by a transition to a highly focused state in extremely low-energy region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirano, Y. E-mail: hirano.yoichi@phys.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp; Kiyama, S.; Koguchi, H.; Fujiwara, Y.; Sakakita, H.

    2015-11-15

    A high current density (≈3 mA/cm{sup 2}) hydrogen ion beam source operating in an extremely low-energy region (E{sub ib} ≈ 150–200 eV) has been realized by using a transition to a highly focused state, where the beam is extracted from the ion source chamber through three concave electrodes with nominal focal lengths of ≈350 mm. The transition occurs when the beam energy exceeds a threshold value between 145 and 170 eV. Low-level hysteresis is observed in the transition when E{sub ib} is being reduced. The radial profiles of the ion beam current density and the low temperature ion current density can be obtained separately using a Faraday cup with a grid in front. The measured profiles confirm that more than a half of the extracted beam ions reaches the target plate with a good focusing profile with a full width at half maximum of ≈3 cm. Estimation of the particle balances in beam ions, the slow ions, and the electrons indicates the possibility that the secondary electron emission from the target plate and electron impact ionization of hydrogen may play roles as particle sources in this extremely low-energy beam after the compensation of beam ion space charge.

  14. 12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics Experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density...

  15. 12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics Experiments A high contrast 12.6 keV Kr Kalpha source has been demonstrated on the petawatt-class Titan laser facility. ...

  16. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The overall objective of the program is the determination of the minimal processing requirements to produce High Energy Density Fuels (HEDF), meeting a minimal energy density of 130,000 Btu/gal (conventional jet fuels have energy densities in the vicinity of 115,000--120,000 Btu/gal) and having acceptable advanced fuel specifications in accordance with the three defined categories of HEDF. The program encompasses assessing current technology capability; selecting acceptable processing and refining schemes; and generating samples of advanced test fuels. A task breakdown structure was developed containing eight key tasks. This report summarizes the work that Amoco Oil Company (AOC), as key subcontractor, performed in the execution of Task 4, Proposed Upgrading Schemes for Advanced Fuel. The intent of the Task 4 study was to represent all the candidate processing options, that were either studied in the experimental efforts of Task 3 or were available from the prior art in the open literature, in a linear program (LP) model. The LP model would allow scaling of the bench-scale Task 3 results to commercial scale and would perform economic evaluations on any combination of the processes which might be used to make HEDF. Section 2.0 of this report summarizes the process and economic bases used. Sections 3.0 and 4.0 details the economics and processing sensitivities for HEDF production. 1 ref., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. High-density carbon ablator experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKinnon, A. J. Meezan, N. B.; Ross, J. S.; Le Pape, S.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Divol, L.; Ho, D.; Milovich, J.; Pak, A.; Ralph, J.; Döppner, T.; Patel, P. K.; Thomas, C.; Tommasini, R.; Haan, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; McNaney, J.; Caggiano, J.; Hatarik, R.; Bionta, R.; and others

    2014-05-15

    High Density Carbon (HDC) is a leading candidate as an ablator material for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules in x-ray (indirect) drive implosions. HDC has a higher density (3.5 g/cc) than plastic (CH, 1 g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator with a larger inner radius for a given capsule scale. This leads to higher x-ray absorption and shorter laser pulses compared to equivalent CH designs. This paper will describe a series of experiments carried out to examine the feasibility of using HDC as an ablator using both gas filled hohlraums and lower density, near vacuum hohlraums. These experiments have shown that deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium gas filled HDC capsules driven by a hohlraum filled with 1.2 mg/cc He gas, produce neutron yields a factor of 2× higher than equivalent CH implosions, representing better than 50% Yield-over-Clean (YoC). In a near vacuum hohlraum (He = 0.03 mg/cc) with 98% laser-to-hohlraum coupling, such a DD gas-filled capsule performed near 1D expectations. A cryogenic layered implosion version was consistent with a fuel velocity = 410 ± 20 km/s with no observed ablator mixing into the hot spot.

  18. High-density carbon ablator experiments on the National Ignition Facilitya)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Ross, J. S.; Le Pape, S.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Divol, L.; Ho, D.; Milovich, J.; Pak, A.; Ralph, J.; Döppner, T.; Patel, P. K.; Thomas, C.; Tommasini, R.; Haan, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; McNaney, J.; Caggiano, J.; Hatarik, R.; Bionta, R.; Ma, T.; Spears, B.; Rygg, J. R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Dewald, E. L.; Fittinghoff, D.; Jones, O. S.; Robey, H. R.; Moody, J. D.; Khan, S.; Callahan, D. A.; Hamza, A.; Biener, J.; Celliers, P. M.; Braun, D. G.; Erskine, D. J.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Wallace, R. J.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Sater, J.; Collins, G.; Storm, E.; Hsing, W.; Landen, O.; Atherton, J. L.; Lindl, J. D.; Edwards, M. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Rinderknecht, H.; Rosenberg, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Zylstra, A.; Knauer, J. P.; Grim, G.; Guler, N.; Merrill, F.; Olson, R.; Kyrala, G. A.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nikroo, A.; Moreno, K.; Hoover, D. E.; Wild, C.; Werner, E.

    2014-05-01

    High Density Carbon (HDC) is a leading candidate as an ablator material for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules in x-ray (indirect) drive implosions. HDC has a higher density (3.5 g/cc) than plastic (CH, 1 g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator with a larger inner radius for a given capsule scale. This leads to higher x-ray absorption and shorter laser pulses compared to equivalent CH designs. This paper will describe a series of experiments carried out to examine the feasibility of using HDC as an ablator using both gas filled hohlraums and lower density, near vacuum hohlraums. These experiments have shown that deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium gas filled HDC capsules driven by a hohlraum filled with 1.2 mg/cc He gas, produce neutron yields a factor of 2× higher than equivalent CH implosions, representing better than 50% Yield-over-Clean (YoC). In a near vacuum hohlraum (He = 0.03 mg/cc) with 98% laser-to-hohlraum coupling, such a DD gas-filled capsule performed near 1D expectations. A cryogenic layered implosion version was consistent with a fuel velocity = 410 ± 20 km/s with no observed ablator mixing into the hot spot.

  19. High-resolution Tangential AXUV Arrays for Radiated Power Density Measurements on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L; Bell, R E; Faust, I; Tritz, K; Diallo, A; Gerhardt, S P; Kozub, T A; LeBlanc, B P; Stratton, B C

    2014-07-01

    Precise measurements of the local radiated power density and total radiated power are a matter of the uttermost importance for understanding the onset of impurity-induced instabilities and the study of particle and heat transport. Accounting of power balance is also needed for the understanding the physics of various divertor con#12;gurations for present and future high-power fusion devices. Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can result from high Mach numbers and can impact the assessment of their flux-surface-average and hence vary the estimates of P[sub]rad (r, t) and (Z[sub]eff); the latter is used in the calculation of the neoclassical conductivity and the interpretation of non-inductive and inductive current fractions. To this end, the bolometric diagnostic in NSTX-U will be upgraded, enhancing the midplane coverage and radial resolution with two tangential views, and adding a new set of poloidally-viewing arrays to measure the 2D radiation distribution. These systems are designed to contribute to the near- and long-term highest priority research goals for NSTX-U which will integrate non-inductive operation at reduced collisionality, with high-pressure, long energy-confinement-times and a divertor solution with metal walls.

  20. Development of high-density helicon plasma sources and their applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinohara, Shunjiro; Hada, Tohru; Motomura, Taisei; Tanaka, Kenji; Tanikawa, Takao; Toki, Kyoichiro; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Shamrai, Konstantin P.

    2009-05-15

    We report on the development of unique, high-density helicon plasma sources and describe their applications. Characterization of one of the largest helicon plasma sources yet constructed is made. Scalings of the particle production efficiency are derived from various plasma production devices in open literature and our own data from long and short cylinder devices, i.e., high and low values of the aspect ratio A (the ratio of the axial length to the diameter), considering the power balance in the framework of a simple diffusion model. A high plasma production efficiency is demonstrated, and we clarify the structures of the excited waves in the low A region down to 0.075 (the large device diameter of 73.8 cm with the axial length as short as 5.5 cm). We describe the application to plasma propulsion using a new concept that employs no electrodes. A very small diameter (2.5 cm) helicon plasma with 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} density is produced, and the preliminary results of electromagnetic plasma acceleration are briefly described.

  1. Microstructural characterization of in situ MXCT images of high density foams under large strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Brian M; Gleiman, Seth; Marks, Trevor G; Milstein, Fredrick

    2009-01-01

    Foams are used in numerous applications, such as vibration damping and energy mitigation (e.g., packaging and helmets), wherein their mechanical properties are of critical importance. A typical compressive response of a high density elastomeric foam, shown in Fig 1, generally contains three regions of interest: (I) a linear-elastic region, governed by strut bending; (II) a relatively flat, or slowly increasing stress-strain response, accompanied by strut buckling and the localized collapse of pores; and (III) an exponentially increasing stress-strain curve wherein the collapse of the pore matrix leads to densification. Two material properties of interest, upon which considerable research has focused are the foam's Young's modulus, E{sub f}, defined as the slope of the stress-strain response in region I, and the collapse stress, {sigma}{sub f}, defined as the stress at which the response begins to deviate from linearity. It has been observed [1, 2, 3] that Young's modulus and the collapse stress are dependent on the material properties of the strut material and the non-dimensional relative-density of the foam, {rho}* = {rho}{sub f}/{rho}{sub m}, where {rho}{sub r} is the gross density of the foam and {rho}{sub m} is the density of the strut, or matrix, material. For foam of low relative-density, i.e, {rho}* < 0.1, the collapse stress and Young's modulus obey the relations {sigma}{sub c}/E{sub m} {proportional_to} ({rho}*){sup m} and E{sub f}/E{sub m} {proportional_to} ({rho}*){sup n} where E{sub m} is Young's modulus of the strut material and the bounds on the parameters m and n are 0.05 {le} m {le} 0.2 and 1 {le} n {le} 4 [4]. For open-celled foams, n = 2, whereas for closed-celled foams, n = 3. Theoretically, n = 1 for foams with an ''ideal strut'' configuration [6]. Foams of high relative-density ({rho}* > 0.1) require correcting terms to account for the axial contributions of the ''thick'' struts [5]. The above equations relate important foam properties to the

  2. Monochromatic radiography of high energy density physics experiments on the MAGPIE generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G. N. Burdiak, G. C.; Suttle, L.; Stuart, N. H.; Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Smith, R. A.; Patankar, S.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Grouchy, P. de; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Pickworth, L.; Skidmore, J.

    2014-11-15

    A monochromatic X-ray backlighter based on Bragg reflection from a spherically bent quartz crystal has been developed for the MAGPIE pulsed power generator at Imperial College (1.4 MA, 240ns) [I. H. Mitchell et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1533 (2005)]. This instrument has been used to diagnose high energy density physics experiments with 1.865 keV radiation (Silicon He-?) from a laser plasma source driven by a ?7 J, 1 ns pulse from the Cerberus laser. The design of the diagnostic, its characterisation and performance, and initial results in which the instrument was used to radiograph a shock physics experiment on MAGPIE are discussed.

  3. Differential heating: A versatile method for thermal conductivity measurements in high-energy-density matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping, Y.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Sio, H.; Correa, A.; Shepherd, R.; Landen, O.; London, R. A.; Sterne, P. A.; Whitley, H. D.; Fratanduono, D.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, G. W.

    2015-09-04

    We propose a method for thermal conductivity measurements of high energy density matter based on differential heating. A temperature gradient is created either by surface heating of one material or at an interface between two materials by different energy deposition. The subsequent heat conduction across the temperature gradient is observed by various time-resolved probing techniques. Conceptual designs of such measurements using laser heating, proton heating, and x-ray heating are presented. As a result, the sensitivity of the measurements to thermal conductivity is confirmed by simulations.

  4. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Yang; Zhu, Yimei; Cai, Sendan; Wu, Lijun; Yang, Weijing; Xie, Jingying; Wen, Wen; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Zheng, Yi

    2014-11-10

    Li/CFx primary possesses the highest energy density of 2180 W h kg⁻¹ among all primary lithium batteries. However, a key limitation for the utility of this type of battery is in its poor rate capability because the cathode material, CFx, is an intrinsically poor electronic conductor. Here, we report on our development of a controlled process of surface de-fluorination under mild hydrothermal conditions to modify the highly fluorinated CFx. The modified CFx, consisting of an in situ generated shell component of F-graphene layers, possesses good electronic conductivity and removes the transporting barrier for lithium ions, yielding a high-capacity performance and an excellent rate-capability. Indeed, a capacity of 500 mA h g⁻¹ and a maximum power density of 44 800 W kg⁻¹ can be realized at the ultrafast rate of 30 C (24 A g⁻¹), which is over one order of magnitude higher than that of the state-of-the-art primary lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Dynamics of ionization-induced electron injection in the high density regime of laser wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desforges, F. G.; Paradkar, B. S. Ju, J.; Audet, T. L.; Maynard, G.; Cros, B.; Hansson, M.; Senje, L.; Persson, A.; Lundh, O.; Wahlström, C.-G.; Dobosz-Dufrénoy, S.; Monot, P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2014-12-15

    The dynamics of ionization-induced electron injection in high density (∼1.2 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}) regime of laser wakefield acceleration is investigated by analyzing the betatron X-ray emission. In such high density operation, the laser normalized vector potential exceeds the injection-thresholds of both ionization-injection and self-injection due to self-focusing. In this regime, direct experimental evidence of early on-set of ionization-induced injection into the plasma wave is given by mapping the X-ray emission zone inside the plasma. Particle-In-Cell simulations show that this early on-set of ionization-induced injection, due to its lower trapping threshold, suppresses the trapping of self-injected electrons. A comparative study of the electron and X-ray properties is performed for both self-injection and ionization-induced injection. An increase of X-ray fluence by at least a factor of two is observed in the case of ionization-induced injection due to increased trapped charge compared to self-injection mechanism.

  6. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dai, Yang; Zhu, Yimei; Cai, Sendan; Wu, Lijun; Yang, Weijing; Xie, Jingying; Wen, Wen; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Zheng, Yi

    2014-11-10

    Li/CFx primary possesses the highest energy density of 2180 W h kg⁻¹ among all primary lithium batteries. However, a key limitation for the utility of this type of battery is in its poor rate capability because the cathode material, CFx, is an intrinsically poor electronic conductor. Here, we report on our development of a controlled process of surface de-fluorination under mild hydrothermal conditions to modify the highly fluorinated CFx. The modified CFx, consisting of an in situ generated shell component of F-graphene layers, possesses good electronic conductivity and removes the transporting barrier for lithium ions, yielding a high-capacity performance andmore » an excellent rate-capability. Indeed, a capacity of 500 mA h g⁻¹ and a maximum power density of 44 800 W kg⁻¹ can be realized at the ultrafast rate of 30 C (24 A g⁻¹), which is over one order of magnitude higher than that of the state-of-the-art primary lithium-ion batteries.« less

  7. Cryogenic THD and DT layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meezan, N. B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; Divol, L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Döppner, T.; Ho, D. D.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L.; Pak, A. E.; Ross, J. S.; Thomas, C. A.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Izumi, N.; Kyrala, G. A.; Moody, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ralph, J. E.; Rygg, J. R.; Sepke, S. M.; Spears, B. K.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P. J.; Biener, J.; Bionta, R. M.; Bond, E. J.; Caggiano, J. A.; Eckart, M. J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G. P.; Hamza, A. V.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hoover, D. E.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Kroll, J. J.; McNaney, J. M.; Nikroo, A.; Sayre, D. B.; Stadermann, M.; Wild, C.; Yoxall, B. E.; Landen, O. L.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2015-06-02

    High Density Carbon (HDC or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a DT layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a THD layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightly oblate hot spot shape. Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 x 10¹⁵ neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.

  8. Cryogenic THD and DT layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meezan, N. B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; Divol, L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Döppner, T.; Ho, D. D.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; et al

    2015-06-02

    High Density Carbon (HDC or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a DT layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a THD layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightlymore » oblate hot spot shape. Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 x 10¹⁵ neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.« less

  9. Note: Experimental platform for magnetized high-energy-density plasma studies at the omega laser facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiksel, G.; Agliata, A.; Barnak, D.; Brent, G.; Chang, P. -Y.; Folnsbee, L.; Gates, G.; Hasset, D.; Lonobile, D.; Magoon, J.; Mastrosimone, D.; Shoup, III, M. J.; Betti, R.

    2015-01-12

    Here, an upgrade of the pulsed magnetic field generator magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system [O. Gotchev et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 043504 (2009)] is described. The device is used to study magnetized high-energy-density plasma and is capable of producing a pulsed magnetic field of tens of tesla in a volume of a few cubic centimeters. The magnetic field is created by discharging a high-voltage capacitor through a small wire-wound coil. The coil current pulse has a duration of about 1 μs and a peak value of 40 kA. Compared to the original, the updated version has a larger energy storage and improved switching system. In addition, magnetic coils are fabricated using 3-D printing technology which allows for a greater variety of the magnetic field topology.

  10. Method and device for secure, high-density tritium bonded with carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wertsching, Alan Kevin; Trantor, Troy Joseph; Ebner, Matthias Anthony; Norby, Brad Curtis

    2016-04-05

    A method and device for producing secure, high-density tritium bonded with carbon. A substrate comprising carbon is provided. A precursor is intercalated between carbon in the substrate. The precursor intercalated in the substrate is irradiated until at least a portion of the precursor, preferably a majority of the precursor, is transmutated into tritium and bonds with carbon of the substrate forming bonded tritium. The resulting bonded tritium, tritium bonded with carbon, produces electrons via beta decay. The substrate is preferably a substrate from the list of substrates consisting of highly-ordered pyrolytic graphite, carbon fibers, carbon nanotunes, buckministerfullerenes, and combinations thereof. The precursor is preferably boron-10, more preferably lithium-6. Preferably, thermal neutrons are used to irradiate the precursor. The resulting bonded tritium is preferably used to generate electricity either directly or indirectly.

  11. OSCAR experiment high-density network data report: Event 1 - April 8-9, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana, M.T.; Easter, R.C.; Thorp, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    The OSCAR (Oxidation and Scavenging Characteristics of April Rains) experiment, conducted during April 1981, was a cooperative field investigation of wet removal in cyclonic storm systems. The high-densiy component of OSCAR was located in northeast Indiana and included sequential precipitation chemistry measurements on a 100 by 100 km network, as well as airborne air chemistry and cloud chemistry measurements, surface air chemistry measurements, and supporting meteorological measurements. Four separate storm events were studied during the experiment. This report summarizes data taken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the first storm event, April 8-9. The report contains the high-density network precipitation chemistry data, air chemistry data from the PNL aircraft, and meteorological data for the event, including standard National Weather Service products and radar data from the network. 4 references, 72 figures, 5 tables.

  12. Note: Experimental platform for magnetized high-energy-density plasma studies at the omega laser facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fiksel, G.; Agliata, A.; Barnak, D.; Brent, G.; Chang, P. -Y.; Folnsbee, L.; Gates, G.; Hasset, D.; Lonobile, D.; Magoon, J.; et al

    2015-01-12

    Here, an upgrade of the pulsed magnetic field generator magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system [O. Gotchev et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 043504 (2009)] is described. The device is used to study magnetized high-energy-density plasma and is capable of producing a pulsed magnetic field of tens of tesla in a volume of a few cubic centimeters. The magnetic field is created by discharging a high-voltage capacitor through a small wire-wound coil. The coil current pulse has a duration of about 1 μs and a peak value of 40 kA. Compared to the original, the updated version has a larger energymore » storage and improved switching system. In addition, magnetic coils are fabricated using 3-D printing technology which allows for a greater variety of the magnetic field topology.« less

  13. A novel zirconium K{alpha} imager for high energy density physics research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akli, K. U.; Jiang, S.; Storm, M. S.; Krygier, A.; Freeman, R. R.; Sanchez del Rio, M.; Stephens, R. B.; Pereira, N. R.; Baronova, E. O.; Theobald, W.; Ping, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Patel, P. K.; Key, M. H.

    2011-12-15

    We report on the development and characterization of a zirconium K{alpha} imager for high energy density physics research. The imager consists of a spherically bent quartz crystal operating at 15.7 keV photon energy. We compare the performance of the imager in terms of integrated reflectivity (R{sub int}) and temperature dependent collection efficiency ({eta}{sub Te}) to that of the widely used Cu K{alpha} imager. Our collisional-radiative simulations show that the new imager can be reliably used up to 250 eV plasma temperature. Monte Carlo simulations show that for a 25 {mu}m thick tracer layer of zirconium, the contribution to K{alpha} production from photo-pumping is only 2%. We present, for the first time, 2D spatially resolved images of zirconium plasmas generated by a high intensity short pulse laser interacting with Zr solid targets.

  14. Experimental and Computational Studies of High Energy Density Plasma Streams Ablated from Fine Wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenly, John B.; Seyler, Charles

    2014-03-30

    Experimental and computational studies of high energy density plasma streams ablated from fine wires. Laboratory of Plasma Studies, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University. Principal Investigators: Dr. John B. Greenly and Dr. Charles E. Seyler. This report summarizes progress during the final year of this project to study the physics of high energy density (HED) plasma streams of 10^17-10^20/cm3 density and high velocity (~100-500 km/s). Such streams are produced from 5-250 micrometer diameter wires heated and ionized by a 1 MA, 250 ns current pulse on the COBRA pulsed power facility at Cornell University. Plasma is ablated from the wires and is driven away to high velocity by unbalanced JxB force. A wire, or an array of wires, can persist as an essentially stationary, continuous source of this streaming plasma for >200 ns, even with driving magnetic fields of many Tesla and peak current densities in the plasma of many MA/cm2. At the heart of the ablation stream generation is the continuous transport of mass from the relatively cold, near-solid-density wire "core" into current-carrying plasma within 1 mm of the wire, followed by the magnetic acceleration of that plasma and its trapped flux to form a directed stream. In the first two years of this program, an advancing understanding of ablation physics led to the discovery of several novel wire ablation experimental regimes. In the final year, one of these new HED plasma regimes has been studied in quantitative detail. This regime studies highly reproducible magnetic reconnection in strongly radiating plasma with supersonic and superalfvenic flow, and shock structures in the outflow. The key discovery is that very heavy wires, e.g. 250 micrometer diameter Al or 150 micrometer Cu, behave in a qualitatively different way than the lighter wires typically used in wire-array Z-pinches. Such wires can be configured to produce a static magnetic X-point null geometry that stores magnetic and

  15. Upward shift of the vortex solid phase in high-temperature-superconducting wires through high density nanoparticle addition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miura, Masashi; Maiorov, Boris; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Kato, Takeharu; Sato, Michio; Takagi, Yuji; Izumi, Teruo; Civale, Leonardo

    2016-02-08

    Here, we show a simple and effective way to improve the vortex irreversibility line up to very high magnetic fields (60T) by increasing the density of second phase BaZrO3 nanoparticles. (Y0.77,Gd0.23)Ba2Cu3Oy films were grown on metal substrates with different concentration of BaZrO3 nanoparticles by the metal organic deposition method. We find that upon increase of the BaZrO3 concentration, the nanoparticle size remains constant but the twin-boundary density increases. Up to the highest nanoparticle concentration (n ~ 1.3 × 1022/m3), the irreversibility field (Hirr) continues to increase with no sign of saturation up to 60 T, although the vortices vastly outnumbermore » pinning centers. We find extremely high Hirr, namely Hirr = 30 T (H||45°) and 24 T (H||c) at 65 K and 58 T (H||45°) and 45 T (H||c) at 50K. The difference in pinning landscape shifts the vortex solid-liquid transition upwards, increasing the vortex region useful for power applications, while keeping the upper critical field, critical temperature and electronic mass anisotropy unchanged.« less

  16. APEX and ALPS, high power density technology programs in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, C.; Berk, S.; Abdou, M.; Mattas, R.

    1999-02-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1998 two new fusion technology programs were initiated in the US, with the goal of making marked progress in the scientific understanding of technologies and materials required to withstand high plasma heat flux and neutron wall loads. APEX is exploring new and revolutionary concepts that can provide the capability to extract heat efficiently from a system with high neutron and surface heat loads while satisfying all the fusion power technology requirements and achieving maximum reliability, maintainability, safety, and environmental acceptability. ALPS program is evaluating advanced concepts including liquid surface limiters and divertors on the basis of such factors as their compatibility with fusion plasma, high power density handling capabilities, engineering feasibility, lifetime, safety and R and D requirements. The APEX and ALPS are three-year programs to specify requirements and evaluate criteria for revolutionary approaches in first wall, blanket and high heat flux component applications. Conceptual design and analysis of candidate concepts are being performed with the goal of selecting the most promising first wall, blanket and high heat flux component designs that will provide the technical basis for the initiation of a significant R and D effort beginning in FY2001. These programs are also considering opportunities for international collaborations.

  17. Scalable sub-micron patterning of organic materials toward high density soft electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jaekyun; Kim, Myung -Gil; Kim, Jaehyun; Jo, Sangho; Kang, Jingu; Jo, Jeong -Wan; Lee, Woobin; Hwang, Chahwan; Moon, Juhyuk; Yang, Lin; Kim, Yun -Hi; Noh, Yong -Young; Yun Jaung, Jae; Kim, Yong -Hoon; Kyu Park, Sung

    2015-09-28

    The success of silicon based high density integrated circuits ignited explosive expansion of microelectronics. Although the inorganic semiconductors have shown superior carrier mobilities for conventional high speed switching devices, the emergence of unconventional applications, such as flexible electronics, highly sensitive photosensors, large area sensor array, and tailored optoelectronics, brought intensive research on next generation electronic materials. The rationally designed multifunctional soft electronic materials, organic and carbon-based semiconductors, are demonstrated with low-cost solution process, exceptional mechanical stability, and on-demand optoelectronic properties. Unfortunately, the industrial implementation of the soft electronic materials has been hindered due to lack of scalable fine-patterning methods. In this report, we demonstrated facile general route for high throughput sub-micron patterning of soft materials, using spatially selective deep-ultraviolet irradiation. For organic and carbon-based materials, the highly energetic photons (e.g. deep-ultraviolet rays) enable direct photo-conversion from conducting/semiconducting to insulating state through molecular dissociation and disordering with spatial resolution down to a sub-μm-scale. As a result, the successful demonstration of organic semiconductor circuitry promise our result proliferate industrial adoption of soft materials for next generation electronics.

  18. Scalable sub-micron patterning of organic materials toward high density soft electronics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Jaekyun; Kim, Myung -Gil; Kim, Jaehyun; Jo, Sangho; Kang, Jingu; Jo, Jeong -Wan; Lee, Woobin; Hwang, Chahwan; Moon, Juhyuk; Yang, Lin; et al

    2015-09-28

    The success of silicon based high density integrated circuits ignited explosive expansion of microelectronics. Although the inorganic semiconductors have shown superior carrier mobilities for conventional high speed switching devices, the emergence of unconventional applications, such as flexible electronics, highly sensitive photosensors, large area sensor array, and tailored optoelectronics, brought intensive research on next generation electronic materials. The rationally designed multifunctional soft electronic materials, organic and carbon-based semiconductors, are demonstrated with low-cost solution process, exceptional mechanical stability, and on-demand optoelectronic properties. Unfortunately, the industrial implementation of the soft electronic materials has been hindered due to lack of scalable fine-patterning methods. Inmore » this report, we demonstrated facile general route for high throughput sub-micron patterning of soft materials, using spatially selective deep-ultraviolet irradiation. For organic and carbon-based materials, the highly energetic photons (e.g. deep-ultraviolet rays) enable direct photo-conversion from conducting/semiconducting to insulating state through molecular dissociation and disordering with spatial resolution down to a sub-μm-scale. As a result, the successful demonstration of organic semiconductor circuitry promise our result proliferate industrial adoption of soft materials for next generation electronics.« less

  19. Durability of Low Platinum Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polevaya, Olga; Blanchet, Scott; Ahluwalia, Rajesh; Borup, Rod; Mukundan, Rangachary

    2014-03-19

    Understanding and improving the durability of cost-competitive fuel cell stacks is imperative to successful deployment of the technology. Stacks will need to operate well beyond today’s state-of-the-art rated power density with very low platinum loading in order to achieve the cost targets set forth by DOE ($15/kW) and ultimately be competitive with incumbent technologies. An accelerated cost-reduction path presented by Nuvera focused on substantially increasing power density to address non-PGM material costs as well as platinum. The study developed a practical understanding of the degradation mechanisms impacting durability of fuel cells with low platinum loading (≤0.2mg/cm2) operating at high power density (≥1.0W/cm2) and worked out approaches for improving the durability of low-loaded, high-power stack designs. Of specific interest is the impact of combining low platinum loading with high power density operation, as this offers the best chance of achieving long-term cost targets. A design-of-experiments approach was utilized to reveal and quantify the sensitivity of durability-critical material properties to high current density at two levels of platinum loading (the more conventional 0.45 mgPt.cm–1 and the much lower 0.2 mgPt.cm–2) across several cell architectures. We studied the relevance of selected component accelerated stress tests (AST) to fuel cell operation in power producing mode. New stress tests (NST) were designed to investigate the sensitivity to the addition of electrical current on the ASTs, along with combined humidity and load cycles and, eventually, relate to the combined city/highway drive cycle. Changes in the cathode electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and average oxygen partial pressure on the catalyst layer with aging under AST and NST protocols were compared based on the number of completed cycles. Studies showed elevated sensitivity of Pt growth to the potential limits and the initial particle size distribution. The ECSA loss

  20. Validating density-functional theory simulations at high energy-density conditions with liquid krypton shock experiments to 850 GPa on Sandia's Z machine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Ann E.; Shulenburger, Luke; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Flicker, Dawn G.

    2014-11-11

    We use Sandia's Z machine and magnetically accelerated flyer plates to shock compress liquid krypton to 850 GPa and compare with results from density-functional theory (DFT) based simulations using the AM05 functional. We also employ quantum Monte Carlo calculations to motivate the choice of AM05. We conclude that the DFT results are sensitive to the quality of the pseudopotential in terms of scattering properties at high energy/temperature. A new Kr projector augmented wave potential was constructed with improved scattering properties which resulted in excellent agreement with the experimental results to 850 GPa and temperatures above 10 eV (110 kK). Inmore » conclusion, we present comparisons of our data from the Z experiments and DFT calculations to current equation of state models of krypton to determine the best model for high energy-density applications.« less

  1. Validating density-functional theory simulations at high energy-density conditions with liquid krypton shock experiments to 850 GPa on Sandia's Z machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Ann E.; Shulenburger, Luke; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Flicker, Dawn G.

    2014-11-11

    We use Sandia's Z machine and magnetically accelerated flyer plates to shock compress liquid krypton to 850 GPa and compare with results from density-functional theory (DFT) based simulations using the AM05 functional. We also employ quantum Monte Carlo calculations to motivate the choice of AM05. We conclude that the DFT results are sensitive to the quality of the pseudopotential in terms of scattering properties at high energy/temperature. A new Kr projector augmented wave potential was constructed with improved scattering properties which resulted in excellent agreement with the experimental results to 850 GPa and temperatures above 10 eV (110 kK). In conclusion, we present comparisons of our data from the Z experiments and DFT calculations to current equation of state models of krypton to determine the best model for high energy-density applications.

  2. Poly(ethylene oxide) functionalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pratt, Russell Clayton

    2014-04-08

    A simple procedure is provided by which the hydroxyl termini of poly(ethylene oxide) can be appended with functional groups to a useful extent by reaction and precipitation. The polymer is dissolved in warmed toluene, treated with an excess of organic base and somewhat less of an excess of a reactive acylating reagent, reacted for several hours, then precipitated in isopropanol so that the product can be isolated as a solid, and salt byproducts are washed away. This procedure enables functionalization of the polymer while not requiring laborious purification steps such as solvent-solvent extraction or dialysis to remove undesirable side products.

  3. High-Energy Density science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Glenzer, S. H.; Fletcher, L. B.; Hastings, J. B.

    2016-03-01

    The Matter in Extreme Conditions end station at the Linac Coherent Light Source holds great promise for novel pump-probe experiments to make new discoveries in high- energy density science. Recently, our experiments have demonstrated the first spectrally- resolved measurements of plasmons using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam. Forward x-ray Thomson scattering spectra from isochorically heated solid aluminum show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV from the incident 8 keV elastic scattering feature. In this spectral range, the simultaneously measured backscatter spectrum shows no spectral features indicating observation of collective plasmon oscillations on amore » scattering length comparable to the screening length. Moreover, this technique is a prerequisite for Thomson scattering measurements in compressed matter where the plasmon shift is a sensitive function of the free electron density and where the plasmon intensity provides information on temperature.« less

  4. The formation of reverse shocks in magnetized high energy density supersonic plasma flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, S. V. E-mail: l.suttle10@imperial.ac.uk; Suttle, L.; Swadling, G. F.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Burdiak, G. C.; Chittenden, J. P.; Grouchy, P. de; Hall, G. N.; Hare, J. D.; Kalmoni, N.; Niasse, N.; Patankar, S.; Smith, R. A.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Burgess, D.; Clemens, A.; Ciardi, A.; Sheng, L.; Yuan, J.; and others

    2014-05-15

    A new experimental platform was developed, based on the use of supersonic plasma flow from the ablation stage of an inverse wire array z-pinch, for studies of shocks in magnetized high energy density physics plasmas in a well-defined and diagnosable 1-D interaction geometry. The mechanism of flow generation ensures that the plasma flow (Re{sub M} ∼ 50, M{sub S} ∼ 5, M{sub A} ∼ 8, V{sub flow} ≈ 100 km/s) has a frozen-in magnetic field at a level sufficient to affect shocks formed by its interaction with obstacles. It is found that in addition to the expected accumulation of stagnated plasma in a thin layer at the surface of a planar obstacle, the presence of the magnetic field leads to the formation of an additional detached density jump in the upstream plasma, at a distance of ∼c/ω{sub pi} from the obstacle. Analysis of the data obtained with Thomson scattering, interferometry, and local magnetic probes suggests that the sub-shock develops due to the pile-up of the magnetic flux advected by the plasma flow.

  5. Performance of bent-crystal x-ray microscopes for high energy density physics research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schollmeier, Marius S.; Geissel, Matthias; Shores, Jonathon E.; Smith, Ian C.; Porter, John L.

    2015-05-29

    We present calculations for the field of view (FOV), image fluence, image monochromaticity, spectral acceptance, and image aberrations for spherical crystal microscopes, which are used as self-emission imaging or backlighter systems at large-scale high energy density physics facilities. Our analytic results are benchmarked with ray-tracing calculations as well as with experimental measurements from the 6.151 keV backlighter system at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, the analytic expressions can be used for x-ray source positions anywhere between the Rowland circle and object plane. We discovered that this enables quick optimization of the performance of proposed but untested, bent-crystal microscope systems to find the best compromise between FOV, image fluence, and spatial resolution for a particular application.

  6. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Mizuno, Masaaki; Toyokuni, Shinya; Maruyama, Shoichi; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Adachi, Tetsuo; Kato, Masashi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2015-12-15

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established.

  7. Performance of bent-crystal x-ray microscopes for high energy density physics research

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schollmeier, Marius S.; Geissel, Matthias; Shores, Jonathon E.; Smith, Ian C.; Porter, John L.

    2015-05-29

    We present calculations for the field of view (FOV), image fluence, image monochromaticity, spectral acceptance, and image aberrations for spherical crystal microscopes, which are used as self-emission imaging or backlighter systems at large-scale high energy density physics facilities. Our analytic results are benchmarked with ray-tracing calculations as well as with experimental measurements from the 6.151 keV backlighter system at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, the analytic expressions can be used for x-ray source positions anywhere between the Rowland circle and object plane. We discovered that this enables quick optimization of the performance of proposed but untested, bent-crystal microscope systems to findmore » the best compromise between FOV, image fluence, and spatial resolution for a particular application.« less

  8. Process and system for producing high-density pellets from a gaseous medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Christopher A.

    1999-01-01

    A process and system for producing pellets of high density carbon dioxide or other gases utilize a chamber containing a plurality of cell-like freezing compartments within which ice is to be formed. A gas desired to be frozen into ice is introduced into the chamber while the internal pressure of the chamber is maintained at a level which is below the equilibrium triple pressure of the gas. The temperature of the freezing compartments is lowered to a temperature which is below the equilibrium vapor pressure temperature of the gas at the chamber pressure so that the gas condenses into ice within the compartments. The temperature of the freezing compartments is thereafter raised so that the ice is thereby released from and falls out of the compartments as pellets for collection.

  9. The National Ignition Facility: Ushering in a new age for high energy density science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E. I.; Boyd, R. N.; Remington, B. A.; Keane, C. J.; Al-Ayat, R.

    2009-04-15

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 012003 (2008); https://lasers.llnl.gov/], completed in March 2009, is the highest energy laser ever constructed. The high temperatures and densities achievable at NIF will enable a number of experiments in inertial confinement fusion and stockpile stewardship, as well as access to new regimes in a variety of experiments relevant to x-ray astronomy, laser-plasma interactions, hydrodynamic instabilities, nuclear astrophysics, and planetary science. The experiments will impact research on black holes and other accreting objects, the understanding of stellar evolution and explosions, nuclear reactions in dense plasmas relevant to stellar nucleosynthesis, properties of warm dense matter in planetary interiors, molecular cloud dynamics and star formation, and fusion energy generation.

  10. OVERVIEW OF HIGH-DENSITY FRC RESEARCH ON FRX-L AT LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taccetti, J. M.; Zhang, S. Y.; Wurden, G. A.; Maqueda, R. J.; Tuszewski, M.; Siemon, R.; Begay, D.; Mignardot, E.; Sanchez, P.; Waganaar, B.; Degnan, J. H.; Sommars, W.; Grabowski, C.

    2002-10-07

    We present an overview of the FRC research on the Field Reversed configuration eXperiment – Liner (FRX-L) device at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This is a target plasma ‘injector’ to be used for magnetized target fusion (MTF) applications. MTF is an approach to fusion wherein a magnetized target plasma is compressed to fusion conditions. Our target plasma is an FRC because it has the required closed-field-line topology, and is translatable and compressible. The existing empirical database also indicates that the type of FRC required for MTF would be achievable. FRX-L includes the formation and translation of the FRC into a mock target chamber. We are currently in the process of forming the high-density FRC.

  11. Visible bremsstrahlung tomographic diagnostic for the pulsed high density field-reversed configuration experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gota, H.; Andreason, S. P.; Votroubek, G. R.; Pihl, C. J.; Slough, J. T.

    2006-10-15

    A diagnostic suite for the source section of the pulsed high density field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment has been constructed to investigate the equilibrium and stability of FRC plasmas. In particular, a visible bremsstrahlung tomographic system has been designed and implemented. Three types of tomographic analyses for FRCs are performed: a Fourier fit method (Cormack-Granetz), a maximum entropy method, and a minimum Fisher method utilizing code developed for the TCV tokamak experiment in Switzerland [Anton et al., Plasma Phys. Controled Fusion 38, 1849 (1996)]. Results from the different methods and end-on imaging from the fast-framing camera are compared showing relative agreement of FRC internal structures between all measurements.

  12. High Energy Density Thermal Batteries: Thermoelectric Reactors for Efficient Automotive Thermal Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-15

    HEATS Project: Sheetak is developing a new HVAC system to store the energy required for heating and cooling in EVs. This system will replace the traditional refrigerant-based vapor compressors and inefficient heaters used in today’s EVs with efficient, light, and rechargeable hot-and-cold thermal batteries. The high energy density thermal battery—which does not use any hazardous substances—can be recharged by an integrated solid-state thermoelectric energy converter while the vehicle is parked and its electrical battery is being charged. Sheetak’s converters can also run on the electric battery if needed and provide the required cooling and heating to the passengers—eliminating the space constraint and reducing the weight of EVs that use more traditional compressors and heaters.

  13. Demonstration of x-ray fluorescence imaging of a high-energy-density plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, M. J. Gamboa, E. J.; Keiter, P. A.; Fein, J. R.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; LeFevre, H. J.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P.; Montgomery, D. S.; Biener, M. M.; Fournier, K. B.; Streit, J.

    2014-11-15

    Experiments at the Trident Laser Facility have successfully demonstrated the use of x-ray fluorescence imaging (XRFI) to diagnose shocked carbonized resorcinol formaldehyde (CRF) foams doped with Ti. One laser beam created a shock wave in the doped foam. A second laser beam produced a flux of vanadium He-α x-rays, which in turn induced Ti K-shell fluorescence within the foam. Spectrally resolved 1D imaging of the x-ray fluorescence provided shock location and compression measurements. Additionally, experiments using a collimator demonstrated that one can probe specific regions within a target. These results show that XRFI is a capable alternative to path-integrated measurements for diagnosing hydrodynamic experiments at high energy density.

  14. Research Opportunities in High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas on the NDCX-II Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, John; Cohen, Ron; Friedman, Alex; Grote, Dave; Lund, Steven; Sharp, Bill; Bieniosek, Frank; Ni, Pavel; Roy, Prabir; Henestroza, Enrique; Jung, Jin-Young; Kwan, Joe; Lee, Ed; Leitner, Matthaeus; Lidia, Steven; Logan, Grant; Seidl, Peter; Vay, Jean-Luc; Waldron, Will

    2009-03-23

    Intense beams of heavy ions offer a very attractive tool for fundamental research in high energy density physics and inertial fusion energy science. These applications build on the significant recent advances in the generation, compression and focusing of intense heavy ion beams in the presence of a neutralizing background plasma. Such beams can provide uniform volumetric heating of the target during a time-scale shorter than the hydrodynamic response time, thereby enabling a significant suite of experiments that will elucidate the underlying physics of dense, strongly-coupled plasma states, which have been heretofore poorly understood and inadequately diagnosed, particularly in the warm dense matter regime. The innovations, fundamental knowledge, and experimental capabilities developed in this basic research program is also expected to provide new research opportunities to study the physics of directly-driven ion targets, which can dramatically reduce the size of heavy ion beam drivers for inertial fusion energy applications. Experiments examining the behavior of thin target foils heated to the warm dense matter regime began at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 2008, using the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment - I (NDCX-I) facility, and its associated target chamber and diagnostics. The upgrade of this facility, called NDCX-II, will enable an exciting set of scientific experiments that require highly uniform heating of the target, using Li{sup +} ions which enter the target with kinetic energy in the range of 3 MeV, slightly above the Bragg peak for energy deposition, and exit with energies slightly below the Bragg peak. This document briefly summarizes the wide range of fundamental scientific experiments that can be carried out on the NDCX-II facility, pertaining to the two charges presented to the 2008 Fusion Energy Science Advisory Committee (FESAC) panel on High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas (HEDLP). These charges include: (1) Identify

  15. Observation of finite-wavelength screening in high-energy-density matter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, D. A.; Vorberger, J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Baggott, R. A.; Divol, L.; Döppner, T.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gregori, G.; Guymer, T. M.; et al

    2015-04-23

    A key component for the description of charged particle systems is the screening of the Coulomb interaction between charge carriers. First investigated in the 1920s by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes, charge screening is important for determining the structural and transport properties of matter as diverse as astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, nuclear matter such as quark-gluon plasmas, electrons in solids, planetary cores and charged macromolecules. For systems with negligible dynamics, screening is still mostly described using a Debye–Hückel-type approach. Here, we report the novel observation of a significant departure from the Debye–Hückel-type model in high-energy-density matter by probing laser-driven, shock-compressedmore » plastic with high-energy X-rays. We use spectrally resolved X-ray scattering in a geometry that enables direct investigation of the screening cloud, and demonstrate that the observed elastic scattering amplitude is only well described within a more general approach.« less

  16. Observation of finite-wavelength screening in high-energy-density matter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, D. A.; Vorberger, J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Baggott, R. A.; Divol, L.; Döppner, T.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gregori, G.; Guymer, T. M.; et al

    2015-04-23

    A key component for the description of charged particle systems is the screening of the Coulomb interaction between charge carriers. First investigated in the 1920s by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes, charge screening is important for determining the structural and transport properties of matter as diverse as astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, nuclear matter such as quark-gluon plasmas, electrons in solids, planetary cores and charged macromolecules. For systems with negligible dynamics, screening is still mostly described using a Debye–Hückel-type approach. Here, we report the novel observation of a significant departure from the Debye–Hückel-type model in high-energy-density matter by probing laser-driven, shock-compressedmore »plastic with high-energy X-rays. We use spectrally resolved X-ray scattering in a geometry that enables direct investigation of the screening cloud, and demonstrate that the observed elastic scattering amplitude is only well described within a more general approach.« less

  17. First test of BNL electron beam ion source with high current density electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikin, Alexander Alessi, James G. Beebe, Edward N.; Shornikov, Andrey; Mertzig, Robert; Wenander, Fredrik; Scrivens, Richard

    2015-01-09

    A new electron gun with electrostatic compression has been installed at the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) Test Stand at BNL. This is a collaborative effort by BNL and CERN teams with a common goal to study an EBIS with electron beam current up to 10 A, current density up to 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} and energy more than 50 keV. Intensive and pure beams of heavy highly charged ions with mass-to-charge ratio < 4.5 are requested by many heavy ion research facilities including NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL and HIE-ISOLDE at CERN. With a multiampere electron gun, the EBIS should be capable of delivering highly charged ions for both RHIC facility applications at BNL and for ISOLDE experiments at CERN. Details of the electron gun simulations and design, and the Test EBIS electrostatic and magnetostatic structures with the new electron gun are presented. The experimental results of the electron beam transmission are given.

  18. High Density Infrared (HDI) Transient Liquid Coatings for Improved Wear and Corrosion Resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald W. Smith

    2007-07-05

    This report documents a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Materials Resources International and an industry team of participants to develop, evaluate and understand how high density infrared heating technology could be used to improve infiltrated carbide wear coatings and/or to densify sprayed coatings. The research included HDI fusion evaluations of infiltrated carbide suspensions such (BrazeCoat S), composite suspensions with tool steel powders, thermally sprayed Ni-Cr- B-Si (self fluxing alloy) and nickel powder layers. The applied work developed practical HDI / transient liquid coating (TLC) procedures on test plates that demonstrated the ability to fuse carbide coatings for industrial applications such as agricultural blades, construction and mining vehicles. Fundamental studies helped create process models that led to improved process understanding and control. The coating of agricultural blades was demonstrated and showed the HDI process to have the ability to fuse industrial scale components. Sliding and brasive wear tests showed that high degree of wear resistance could be achieved with the addition of tool steel powders to carbide particulate composites.

  19. Observation of finite-wavelength screening in high-energy-density matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, D. A.; Vorberger, J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Baggott, R. A.; Divol, L.; Döppner, T.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gregori, G.; Guymer, T. M.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; Pak, A. E.; Gericke, D. O.

    2015-04-23

    A key component for the description of charged particle systems is the screening of the Coulomb interaction between charge carriers. First investigated in the 1920s by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes, charge screening is important for determining the structural and transport properties of matter as diverse as astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, nuclear matter such as quark-gluon plasmas, electrons in solids, planetary cores and charged macromolecules. For systems with negligible dynamics, screening is still mostly described using a Debye–Hückel-type approach. Here, we report the novel observation of a significant departure from the Debye–Hückel-type model in high-energy-density matter by probing laser-driven, shock-compressed plastic with high-energy X-rays. We use spectrally resolved X-ray scattering in a geometry that enables direct investigation of the screening cloud, and demonstrate that the observed elastic scattering amplitude is only well described within a more general approach.

  20. Analysis by oxygen atom number density measurement of high-speed hydrophilic treatment of polyimide using atmospheric pressure microwave plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, S.

    2015-03-30

    This paper describes the fundamental experimental data of the plasma surface modification of the polyimide using atmospheric pressure microwave plasma source. The experimental results were discussed from the point of view of the radicals behavior, which significantly affects the modification mechanism. The purpose of the study is to examine how the value of the oxygen atom density will affect the hydrophilic treatment in the upstream region of the plasma where gas temperature is very high. The surface modification experiments were performed by setting the polyimide film sample in the downstream region of the plasma. The degree of the modification was measured by a water contact angle measurement. The water contact angle decreased less than 30 degrees within 1 second treatment time in the upstream region. Very high speed modification was observed. The reason of this high speed modification seems that the high density radical which contributes the surface modification exist in the upstream region of the plasma. This tendency is supposed to the measured relatively high electron density (~10{sup 15}cm{sup ?3}) at the center of the plasma. We used the electric heating catalytic probe method for oxygen radical measurement. An absolute value of oxygen radical density was determined by catalytic probe measurement and the results show that ~10{sup 15}cm{sup ?3} of the oxygen radical density in the upstream region and decreases toward downstream region. The experimental results of the relation of the oxygen radical density and hydrophilic modification of polyimide was discussed.

  1. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-10-02

    Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

  2. Catalyzed Nano-Framework Stablized High Density Reversible Hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Xia; Opalka, Susanne M.; Mosher, Daniel A; Laube, Bruce L; Brown, Ronald J; Vanderspurt, Thomas H; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Ronnebro, Ewa; Boyle, Tim; Cordaro, Joseph

    2010-06-30

    A wide range of high capacity on-board rechargeable material candidates have exhibited non-ideal behavior related to irreversible hydrogen discharge / recharge behavior, and kinetic instability or retardation. This project addresses these issues by incorporating solvated and other forms of complex metal hydrides, with an emphasis on borohydrides, into nano-scale frameworks of low density, high surface area skeleton materials to stabilize, catalyze, and control desorption product formation associated with such complex metal hydrides. A variety of framework chemistries and hydride / framework combinations were investigated to make a relatively broad assessment of the method's potential. In this project, the hydride / framework interactions were tuned to decrease desorption temperatures for highly stable compounds or increase desorption temperatures for unstable high capacity compounds, and to influence desorption product formation for improved reversibility. First principle modeling was used to explore heterogeneous catalysis of hydride reversibility by modeling H2 dissociation, hydrogen migration, and rehydrogenation. Atomic modeling also demonstrated enhanced NaTi(BH4)4 stabilization at nano-framework surfaces modified with multi-functional agents. Amine multi-functional agents were found to have more balanced interactions with nano-framework and hydride clusters than other functional groups investigated. Experimentation demonstrated that incorporation of Ca(BH4)2 and Mg(BH4)2 in aerogels enhanced hydride desorption kinetics. Carbon aerogels were identified as the most suitable nano-frameworks for hydride kinetic enhancement and high hydride loading. High loading of NaTi(BH4)4 ligand complex in SiO2 aerogel was achieved and hydride stability was improved with the aerogel. Although improvements of desorption kinetics was observed, the incorporation of Ca

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV’s Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Farasis at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy density Li-ion cells for...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV’s Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Farasis Energy, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy density Li...

  5. A comparison of parametric decay of oblique Langmuir wave in high and low density magneto-plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahid, M.; Hussain, A.; Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore-54000 ; Murtaza, G.

    2013-09-15

    The parametric decay instability of an obliquely propagating Langmuir wave into the low-frequency electromagnetic shear Alfven wave and the Left-Handed Circularly Polarized wave has been investigated in an electron-ion plasma, immersed in a uniform external magnetic field. Quantum magneto-hydrodynamic model has been used to find the linear and non-linear response of a high density quantum magneto-plasma. Going to the classical limit (??0) retrieves the results for low density classical plasma. Nonlinear dispersion relations and growth rates are derived with analytically and numerically. It is observed that growth rate in the high density degenerate magneto-plasma increases exponentially, while in the low density classical case it increases logarithmically.

  6. Neutron diffraction measurements of dislocation density in copper crystals deformed at high strain rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Mala N.; Chaplot, S. L.; Rawat, S.

    2013-02-05

    Neutron diffraction measurements of the rocking curves were carried out for single crystals of copper subjected to dynamic compression at 10{sup 3}/s strain rate. The line broadening is expected to be produced by dislocations, and an analysis of this broadening gives the dislocation density. Dislocation density is found to increase with increase of pressure.

  7. Corrosion, passivity and breakdown of alloys used in high energy density batteries: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, J.

    1987-10-01

    The objective of this research is to further the understanding of the passivity of metals and alloys in non-aqueous and mixed solvents. There is a lack of data in this area, despite its importance to applications such as the construction materials for high energy density batteries. There have been a number of corrosion-related problems reported in the construction materials of such batteries. As demands for longevity for these batteries increase, problems associated with corrosion will become increasingly important. This work is concerned with analyzing the nature, mode of formation, and mode of breakdown of passive films that exist on alloys in non-aqueous and mixed solvents. Work during Year I has concentrated upon generating cyclic voltammograms and potentiodynamic curves as baseline data on Au and Armco Fe in water/propylene carbonate mixtures. In addition, Scanning Electron Microscopy has been performed in order to characterize the attack observed and to correlate it to the electrochemical parameters measured. 3 refs., 15 figs.

  8. Investigating the Effects of Anisotropic Mass Transport on Dendrite Growth in High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Jinwang; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Ferris, Kim F.; Ryan, Emily M.

    2016-01-01

    Dendrite formation on the electrode surface of high energy density lithium (Li) batteries causes safety problems and limits their applications. Suppressing dendrite growth could significantly improve Li battery performance. Dendrite growth and morphology is a function of the mixing in the electrolyte near the anode interface. Most research into dendrites in batteries focuses on dendrite formation in isotropic electrolytes (i.e., electrolytes with isotropic diffusion coefficient). In this work, an anisotropic diffusion reaction model is developed to study the anisotropic mixing effect on dendrite growth in Li batteries. The model uses a Lagrangian particle-based method to model dendrite growth in an anisotropic electrolyte solution. The model is verified by comparing the numerical simulation results with analytical solutions, and its accuracy is shown to be better than previous particle-based anisotropic diffusion models. Several parametric studies of dendrite growth in an anisotropic electrolyte are performed and the results demonstrate the effects of anisotropic transport on dendrite growth and morphology, and show the possible advantages of anisotropic electrolytes for dendrite suppression.

  9. Phonon densities of states and related thermodynamic properties of high temperature ceramics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loong, C.-K.

    1998-08-28

    Structural components and semiconductor devices based on silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and gallium nitride are expected to function more reliably at elevated temperatures and at higher levels of performance because of the strong atomic bonding in these materials. The degree of covalency, lattice specific heat, and thermal conductivity are important design factors for the realization of advanced applications. We have determined the phonon densities of states of these ceramics by the method of neutron scattering. The results provide a microscopic interpretation of the mechanical and thermal properties. Moreover, experimental data of the static, structures, and dynamic excitations of atoms are essential to the validation of interparticle potentials employed for molecular-dynamics simulations of high-temperature properties of multi-component ceramic systems. We present an overview of neutron-scattering investigations of the atomic organization, phonon excitations, as well as calculations of related thermodynamic properties of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, {beta}-sialon, AlN and GaN. The results are compared with those of the oxide analogs such as SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  10. Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.

    2012-05-15

    Recently, novel experiments on magnetic reconnection have been conducted in laser-produced plasmas in a high-energy-density regime. Individual plasma bubbles self-generate toroidal, mega-gauss-scale magnetic fields through the Biermann battery effect. When multiple bubbles are created at small separation, they expand into one another, driving reconnection of this field. Reconnection in the experiments was reported to be much faster than allowed by both Sweet-Parker, and even Hall-MHD theories, when normalized to the nominal magnetic fields self-generated by single bubbles. Through particle-in-cell simulations (both with and without a binary collision operator), we model the bubble interaction at parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments. This paper discusses in detail the reconnection regime of the laser-driven experiments and reports the qualitative features of simulations. We find substantial flux-pileup effects, which boost the relevant magnetic field for reconnection in the current sheet. When this is accounted for, the normalized reconnection rates are much more in line with standard two-fluid theory of reconnection. At the largest system sizes, we additionally find that the current sheet is prone to breakup into plasmoids.

  11. High Energy Density Na-S/NiCl2 Hybrid Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Lemmon, John P.; Kim, Jin Yong; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-15

    High temperature (250-350C) sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) are attractive energy storage devices for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications. Currently, two technologies are commercially available in NBBs, e.g., sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries. In this study, we investigated the combination of these two chemistries with a mixed cathode. In particular, the cathode of the cell consisted of molten NaAlCl4 as a catholyte and a mixture of Ni, NaCl and Na2S as active materials. During cycling, two reversible plateaus were observed in cell voltage profiles, which matched electrochemical reactions for Na-S and Na-NiCl2 redox couples. An irreversible reaction between sulfur species and Ni was identified during initial charge at 280C, which caused a decrease in cell capacity. The final products on discharge included Na2Sn with 1< n < 3, which differed from Na2S3 found in traditional Na-S battery. Reduction of sulfur in the mixed cathode led to an increase in overall energy density over ZEBRA batteries. Despite of the initial drop in cell capacity, the mixed cathode demonstrated relatively stable cycling with more than 95% of capacity retained over 60 cycles under 10mA/cm2. Optimization of the cathode may lead to further improvements in battery performance.

  12. Device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive fast liners

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thode, Lester E.

    1981-01-01

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy and momentum into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. Fast liners disposed in the high-density target plasma are explosively or ablatively driven to implosion by a heated annular plasma surrounding the fast liner which is generated by an annular relativistic electron beam. An azimuthal magnetic field produced by axial current flow in the annular plasma, causes the energy in the heated annular plasma to converge on the fast liner.

  13. Low-Density and High Porosity Hydrogen Storage Materials Built from Ultra-Light Elements. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Pingyun

    2014-01-10

    A number of significant advances have been achieved, opening up new opportunities for the synthetic development of novel porous materials and their energy-related applications including gas storage and separation and catalysis. These include lithium-based metal-organic frameworks, magnesium-based metal-organic frameworks, and high gas uptake in porous frameworks with high density of open donor sites.

  14. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chain orientation in drawn polymer Chain orientation in amorphous polymer Polymer microstructure 1 S. Shen, A. Henry, J. Tong, R. Zheng, and G. Chen, Nat Nano 5, (4), (2010). ...

  15. High-efficiency acceleration in the laser wakefield by a linearly increasing plasma density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Kegong; Wu, Yuchi; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Zhimeng; Zhao, Zongqing; Zhou, Weimin; Hong, Wei; Cao, Leifeng; Gu, Yuqiu

    2014-12-15

    The acceleration length and the peak energy of the electron beam are limited by the dephasing effect in the laser wakefield acceleration with uniform plasma density. Based on 2D-3V particle in cell simulations, the effects of a linearly increasing plasma density on the electron acceleration are investigated broadly. Comparing with the uniform plasma density, because of the prolongation of the acceleration length and the gradually increasing accelerating field due to the increasing plasma density, the electron beam energy is twice higher in moderate nonlinear wakefield regime. Because of the lower plasma density, the linearly increasing plasma density can also avoid the dark current caused by additional injection. At the optimal acceleration length, the electron energy can be increased from 350 MeV (uniform) to 760 MeV (linearly increasing) with the energy spread of 1.8%, the beam duration is 5 fs and the beam waist is 1.25 μm. This linearly increasing plasma density distribution can be achieved by a capillary with special gas-filled structure, and is much more suitable for experiment.

  16. Effect of electron density profile on power absorption of high frequency electromagnetic waves in plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xi Yanbin; Liu Yue [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Considering different typical electron density profiles, a multi slab approximation model is built up to study the power absorption of broadband (0.75-30 GHz) electromagnetic waves in a partially ionized nonuniform magnetized plasma layer. Based on the model, the power absorption spectra for six cases are numerically calculated and analyzed. It is shown that the absorption strongly depends on the electron density fluctuant profile, the background electron number density, and the collision frequency. A potential optimum profile is also analyzed and studied with some particular parameters.

  17. Time-resolved compression of a capsule with a cone to high density for fast-ignition laser fusion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Anderson, K. S.; Beg, F. N.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Giraldez, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Habara, H.; et al

    2014-12-12

    The advent of high-intensity lasers enables us to recreate and study the behaviour of matter under the extreme densities and pressures that exist in many astrophysical objects. It may also enable us to develop a power source based on laser-driven nuclear fusion. Achieving such conditions usually requires a target that is highly uniform and spherically symmetric. Here we show that it is possible to generate high densities in a so-called fast-ignition target that consists of a thin shell whose spherical symmetry is interrupted by the inclusion of a metal cone. Using picosecond-time-resolved X-ray radiography, we show that we can achievemore » areal densities in excess of 300 mg cm -2 with a nanosecond-duration compression pulse -- the highest areal density ever reported for a cone-in-shell target. Such densities are high enough to stop MeV electrons, which is necessary for igniting the fuel with a subsequent picosecond pulse focused into the resulting plasma.« less

  18. Time-resolved compression of a capsule with a cone to high density for fast-ignition laser fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Anderson, K. S.; Beg, F. N.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Giraldez, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Habara, H.; Ivancic, S.; Jarrott, L. C.; Marshall, F. J.; McKiernan, G.; McLean, H. S.; Mileham, C.; Nilson, P. M.; Patel, P. K.; Pérez, F.; Sangster, T. C.; Santos, J. J.; Sawada, H.; Shvydky, A.; Stephens, R. B.; Wei, M. S.

    2014-12-12

    The advent of high-intensity lasers enables us to recreate and study the behaviour of matter under the extreme densities and pressures that exist in many astrophysical objects. It may also enable us to develop a power source based on laser-driven nuclear fusion. Achieving such conditions usually requires a target that is highly uniform and spherically symmetric. Here we show that it is possible to generate high densities in a so-called fast-ignition target that consists of a thin shell whose spherical symmetry is interrupted by the inclusion of a metal cone. Using picosecond-time-resolved X-ray radiography, we show that we can achieve areal densities in excess of 300 mg cm#2;-2 with a nanosecond-duration compression pulse -- the highest areal density ever reported for a cone-in-shell target. Such densities are high enough to stop MeV electrons, which is necessary for igniting the fuel with a subsequent picosecond pulse focused into the resulting plasma.

  19. Extremely scaled high-k/In?.??Ga?.??As gate stacks with low leakage and low interface trap densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chobpattana, Varistha; Mikheev, Evgeny; Zhang, Jack Y.; Mates, Thomas E.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2014-09-28

    Highly scaled gate dielectric stacks with low leakage and low interface trap densities are required for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology with III-V semiconductor channels. Here, we show that a novel pre-deposition technique, consisting of alternating cycles of nitrogen plasma and tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium, allows for HfO? and ZrO? gate stacks with extremely high accumulation capacitance densities of more than 5 ?F/cm? at 1 MHz, low leakage current, low frequency dispersion, and low midgap interface trap densities (10cm?eV?range). Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that the interface contains TiO? and small quantities of In?O?, but no detectable Ga- or As-oxides, or As-As bonding. The results allow for insights into the microscopic mechanisms that control leakage and frequency dispersion in high-k/III-V gate stacks.

  20. High-Areal-Density Fuel Assembly in Direct-Drive Cryogenic Implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangster, T.C.; Goncharov, V.N.; Radha, P.B.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Betti, R.; Craxton, R.S.; Delettrez, J.A.; Edgell, D.H.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Harding, D.R.; Jacobs-Perkins, D.; Knauer, J.P.; Marshall, F.J.; McCrory, R.L.; McKenty, P.W.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Regan, S.P.; Seka, W.; Short, R.W.; Skupsky, S.; Soures, J.M.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.

    2008-05-27

    The first observation of ignition-relevant areal-density deuterium from implosions of capsules with cryogenic fuel layers at ignition-relevant adiabats is reported. The experiments were performed on the 60-beam, 30-kJUV OMEGA Laser System [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Neutron-averaged areal densities of 202+-7 mg/cm^2 and 182+-7 mg/cm^2 (corresponding to estimated peak fuel densities in excess of 100 g/cm^3) were inferred using an 18-kJ direct-drive pulse designed to put the converging fuel on an adiabat of 2.5. These areal densities are in good agreement with the predictions of hydrodynamic simulations indicating that the fuel adiabat can be accurately controlled under ignition-relevant conditions.

  1. Stimulated scattering in laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, L. Albright, B. J.; Rose, H. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Finnegan, S. M.; Bergen, B.; Bowers, K. J.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Milovich, J.

    2014-09-15

    In laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments, one often encounters a k?{sub D} range of 0.15?

  2. High-density grids for efficient data collection from multiple crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Aguila, Laura; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Barnes, Christopher O.; Bonagura, Christopher A.; Brehmer, Winnie; Brunger, Axel T.; Calero, Guillermo; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Degrado, William F.; Fraser, James S.; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Kern, Jan; Kobilka, Brian K.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Larsson, Karl M.; Lemke, Heinrik T.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Manglik, Aashish; McPhillips, Scott E.; Norgren, Erik; Pang, Siew S.; Soltis, S. M.; Song, Jinhu; Thomaston, Jessica; Tsai, Yingssu; Weis, William I.; Woldeyes, Rahel A.; Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Zouni, Athina; Cohen, Aina E.

    2016-01-01

    Higher throughput methods to mount and collect data from multiple small and radiation-sensitive crystals are important to support challenging structural investigations using microfocus synchrotron beamlines. Furthermore, efficient sample-delivery methods are essential to carry out productive femtosecond crystallography experiments at X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). To address these needs, a high-density sample grid useful as a scaffold for both crystal growth and diffraction data collection has been developed and utilized for efficient goniometer-based sample delivery at synchrotron and XFEL sources. A single grid contains 75 mounting ports and fits inside an SSRL cassette or uni-puck storage container. The use of grids with an SSRL cassette expands the cassette capacity up to 7200 samples. Grids may also be covered with a polymer film or sleeve for efficient room-temperature data collection from multiple samples. New automated routines have been incorporated into theBlu-Ice/DCSSexperimental control system to support grids, including semi-automated grid alignment, fully automated positioning of grid ports, rastering and automated data collection. Specialized tools have been developed to support crystallization experiments on grids, including a universal adaptor, which allows grids to be filled by commercial liquid-handling robots, as well as incubation chambers, which support vapor-diffusion and lipidic cubic phase crystallization experiments. Experiments in which crystals were loaded into grids or grown on grids using liquid-handling robots and incubation chambers are described. Crystals were screened at LCLS-XPP and SSRL BL12-2 at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures.

  3. High-density grids for efficient data collection from multiple crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Aguila, Laura; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Barnes, Christopher O.; Bonagura, Christopher A.; Brehmer, Winnie; Brunger, Axel T.; Calero, Guillermo; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Degrado, William F.; Fraser, James S.; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Kern, Jan; Kobilka, Brian K.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Larsson, Karl M.; Lemke, Heinrik T.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Manglik, Aashish; McPhillips, Scott E.; Norgren, Erik; Pang, Siew S.; Soltis, S. M.; Song, Jinhu; Thomaston, Jessica; Tsai, Yingssu; Weis, William I.; Woldeyes, Rahel A.; Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Zouni, Athina; Cohen, Aina E.

    2015-11-03

    Higher throughput methods to mount and collect data from multiple small and radiation-sensitive crystals are important to support challenging structural investigations using microfocus synchrotron beamlines. Furthermore, efficient sample-delivery methods are essential to carry out productive femtosecond crystallography experiments at X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). To address these needs, a high-density sample grid useful as a scaffold for both crystal growth and diffraction data collection has been developed and utilized for efficient goniometer-based sample delivery at synchrotron and XFEL sources. A single grid contains 75 mounting ports and fits inside an SSRL cassette or uni-puck storage container. The use of grids with an SSRL cassette expands the cassette capacity up to 7200 samples. Grids may also be covered with a polymer film or sleeve for efficient room-temperature data collection from multiple samples. New automated routines have been incorporated into theBlu-Ice/DCSSexperimental control system to support grids, including semi-automated grid alignment, fully automated positioning of grid ports, rastering and automated data collection. Specialized tools have been developed to support crystallization experiments on grids, including a universal adaptor, which allows grids to be filled by commercial liquid-handling robots, as well as incubation chambers, which support vapor-diffusion and lipidic cubic phase crystallization experiments. Experiments in which crystals were loaded into grids or grown on grids using liquid-handling robots and incubation chambers are described. As a result, crystals were screened at LCLS-XPP and SSRL BL12-2 at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures.

  4. High density array fabrication and readout method for a fiber optic biosensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, Daniel; Gray, Joe; Albertson, Donna G.

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to the fabrication and use of biosensors comprising a plurality of optical fibers each fiber having attached to its "sensor end" biological "binding partners" (molecules that specifically bind other molecules to form a binding complex such as antibody-antigen, lectin-carbohydrate, nucleic acid-nucleic acid, biotin-avidin, etc.). The biosensor preferably bears two or more different species of biological binding partner. The sensor is fabricated by providing a plurality of groups of optical fibers. Each group is treated as a batch to attach a different species of biological binding partner to the sensor ends of the fibers comprising that bundle. Each fiber, or group of fibers within a bundle, may be uniquely identified so that the fibers, or group of fibers, when later combined in an array of different fibers, can be discretely addressed. Fibers or groups of fibers are then selected and discretely separated from different bundles. The discretely separated fibers are then combined at their sensor ends to produce a high density sensor array of fibers capable of assaying simultaneously the binding of components of a test sample to the various binding partners on the different fibers of the sensor array. The transmission ends of the optical fibers are then discretely addressed to detectors--such as a multiplicity of optical sensors. An optical signal, produced by binding of the binding partner to its substrate to form a binding complex, is conducted through the optical fiber or group of fibers to a detector for each discrete test. By examining the addressed transmission ends of fibers, or groups of fibers, the addressed transmission ends can transmit unique patterns assisting in rapid sample identification by the sensor.

  5. High density array fabrication and readout method for a fiber optic biosensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, Daniel; Gray, Joe

    1997-01-01

    The invention relates to the fabrication and use of biosensors comprising a plurality of optical fibers each fiber having attached to its "sensor end" biological "binding partners" (molecules that specifically bind other molecules to form a binding complex such as antibody-antigen, lectin-carbohydrate, nucleic acid-nucleic acid, biotin-avidin, etc.). The biosensor preferably bears two or more different species of biological binding partner. The sensor is fabricated by providing a plurality of groups of optical fibers. Each group is treated as a batch to attach a different species of biological binding partner to the sensor ends of the fibers comprising that bundle. Each fiber, or group of fibers within a bundle, may be uniquely identified so that the fibers, or group of fibers, when later combined in an array of different fibers, can be discretely addressed. Fibers or groups of fibers are then selected and discretely separated from different bundles. The discretely separated fibers are then combined at their sensor ends to produce a high density sensor array of fibers capable of assaying simultaneously the binding of components of a test sample to the various binding partners on the different fibers of the sensor array. The transmission ends of the optical fibers are then discretely addressed to detectors--such as a multiplicity of optical sensors. An optical signal, produced by binding of the binding partner to its substrate to form a binding complex, is conducted through the optical fiber or group of fibers to a detector for each discrete test. By examining the addressed transmission ends of fibers, or groups of fibers, the addressed transmission ends can transmit unique patterns assisting in rapid sample identification by the sensor.

  6. High density array fabrication and readout method for a fiber optic biosensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, D.; Gray, J.

    1997-11-25

    The invention relates to the fabrication and use of biosensors comprising a plurality of optical fibers each fiber having attached to its ``sensor end`` biological ``binding partners`` (molecules that specifically bind other molecules to form a binding complex such as antibody-antigen, lectin-carbohydrate, nucleic acid-nucleic acid, biotin-avidin, etc.). The biosensor preferably bears two or more different species of biological binding partner. The sensor is fabricated by providing a plurality of groups of optical fibers. Each group is treated as a batch to attach a different species of biological binding partner to the sensor ends of the fibers comprising that bundle. Each fiber, or group of fibers within a bundle, may be uniquely identified so that the fibers, or group of fibers, when later combined in an array of different fibers, can be discretely addressed. Fibers or groups of fibers are then selected and discretely separated from different bundles. The discretely separated fibers are then combined at their sensor ends to produce a high density sensor array of fibers capable of assaying simultaneously the binding of components of a test sample to the various binding partners on the different fibers of the sensor array. The transmission ends of the optical fibers are then discretely addressed to detectors--such as a multiplicity of optical sensors. An optical signal, produced by binding of the binding partner to its substrate to form a binding complex, is conducted through the optical fiber or group of fibers to a detector for each discrete test. By examining the addressed transmission ends of fibers, or groups of fibers, the addressed transmission ends can transmit unique patterns assisting in rapid sample identification by the sensor. 9 figs.

  7. High density array fabrication and readout method for a fiber optic biosensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, Daniel; Gray, Joe; Albertson, Donna G.

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to the fabrication and use of biosensors comprising a plurality of optical fibers each fiber having attached to its "sensor end" biological "binding partners" (molecules that specifically bind other molecules to form a binding complex such as antibody-antigen, lectin-carbohydrate, nucleic acid-nucleic acid, biotin-avidin, etc.). The biosensor preferably bears two or more different species of biological binding partner. The sensor is fabricated by providing a plurality of groups of optical fibers. Each group is treated as a batch to attach a different species of biological binding partner to the sensor ends of the fibers comprising that bundle. Each fiber, or group of fibers within a bundle, may be uniquely identified so that the fibers, or group of fibers, when later combined in an array of different fibers, can be discretely addressed. Fibers or groups of fibers are then selected and discretely separated from different bundles. The discretely separated fibers are then combined at their sensor ends to produce a high density sensor array of fibers capable of assaying simultaneously the binding of components of a test sample to the various binding partners on the different fibers of the sensor array. The transmission ends of the optical fibers are then discretely addressed to detectors--such as a multiplicity of optical sensors. An optical signal, produced by binding of the binding partner to its substrate to form a binding complex, is conducted through the optical fiber or group of fibers to a detector for each discrete test. By examining the addressed transmission ends of fibers, or groups of fibers, the addressed transmission ends can transmit unique patterns assisting in rapid sample identification by the sensor.

  8. Association of lipoarabinomannan with high density lipoprotein in blood: Implications for diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakamuri, Rama Murthy; Price, Dominique N.; Lee, Myungsun; Cho, Sang Nae; Barry, Clifton E.; Via, Laura E.; Swanson, Basil I.; Mukundan, Harshini

    2013-02-14

    Understanding the pathophysiology of tuberculosis, and the bio-distribution of pathogen-associated molecules in the host is essential for the development of efficient methods of intervention. One of the key virulence factors in the pathology of tuberculosis infection is Lipoarabinomannan (LAM). Previously, we have demonstrated the reliable detection of LAM in urine from tuberculosis patients in a sandwich immunoassay format. We also applied an ultra-sensitive detection strategy developed for amphiphilic biomarkers, membrane insertion, to the detection of LAM with a limit of detection of 10 fM. Herein, we evaluate the application of membrane insertion to the detection of LAM in patient serum, and demonstrate that the circulating concentrations of ‘monomeric’ LAM in serum are very low, despite significantly higher concentrations in the urine. Using spiked samples, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is due to the association of LAM with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nanodiscs in human serum. Indeed, pull-down of HDL nanodiscs from human serum allows for the recovery of HDL-associated LAM. These studies suggest that LAM is likely associated with carrier molecules such as HDL in the blood of patients infected with tuberculosis. Furthermore, this phenomenon may not be limited to LAM in that many pathogen-associated molecular patterns like LAM are amphiphilic in nature and may also be associated with host lipid carriers. Such interactions are likely to affect host–pathogen interactions, pathogen bio-distribution and clearance in the host, and must be thoroughly understood for the effective design of vaccines and diagnostics.

  9. Association of lipoarabinomannan with high density lipoprotein in blood: Implications for diagnostics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sakamuri, Rama Murthy; Price, Dominique N.; Lee, Myungsun; Cho, Sang Nae; Barry, Clifton E.; Via, Laura E.; Swanson, Basil I.; Mukundan, Harshini

    2013-02-14

    Understanding the pathophysiology of tuberculosis, and the bio-distribution of pathogen-associated molecules in the host is essential for the development of efficient methods of intervention. One of the key virulence factors in the pathology of tuberculosis infection is Lipoarabinomannan (LAM). Previously, we have demonstrated the reliable detection of LAM in urine from tuberculosis patients in a sandwich immunoassay format. We also applied an ultra-sensitive detection strategy developed for amphiphilic biomarkers, membrane insertion, to the detection of LAM with a limit of detection of 10 fM. Herein, we evaluate the application of membrane insertion to the detection of LAM in patient serum,more » and demonstrate that the circulating concentrations of ‘monomeric’ LAM in serum are very low, despite significantly higher concentrations in the urine. Using spiked samples, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is due to the association of LAM with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nanodiscs in human serum. Indeed, pull-down of HDL nanodiscs from human serum allows for the recovery of HDL-associated LAM. These studies suggest that LAM is likely associated with carrier molecules such as HDL in the blood of patients infected with tuberculosis. Furthermore, this phenomenon may not be limited to LAM in that many pathogen-associated molecular patterns like LAM are amphiphilic in nature and may also be associated with host lipid carriers. Such interactions are likely to affect host–pathogen interactions, pathogen bio-distribution and clearance in the host, and must be thoroughly understood for the effective design of vaccines and diagnostics.« less

  10. High-density grids for efficient data collection from multiple crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Aguila, Laura; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Barnes, Christopher O.; Bonagura, Christopher A.; Brehmer, Winnie; Brunger, Axel T.; Calero, Guillermo; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Chatterjee, Ruchira; et al

    2015-11-03

    Higher throughput methods to mount and collect data from multiple small and radiation-sensitive crystals are important to support challenging structural investigations using microfocus synchrotron beamlines. Furthermore, efficient sample-delivery methods are essential to carry out productive femtosecond crystallography experiments at X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). To address these needs, a high-density sample grid useful as a scaffold for both crystal growth and diffraction data collection has been developed and utilized for efficient goniometer-based sample delivery at synchrotron and XFEL sources. A single grid contains 75 mounting ports and fits inside an SSRL cassettemore » or uni-puck storage container. The use of grids with an SSRL cassette expands the cassette capacity up to 7200 samples. Grids may also be covered with a polymer film or sleeve for efficient room-temperature data collection from multiple samples. New automated routines have been incorporated into theBlu-Ice/DCSSexperimental control system to support grids, including semi-automated grid alignment, fully automated positioning of grid ports, rastering and automated data collection. Specialized tools have been developed to support crystallization experiments on grids, including a universal adaptor, which allows grids to be filled by commercial liquid-handling robots, as well as incubation chambers, which support vapor-diffusion and lipidic cubic phase crystallization experiments. Experiments in which crystals were loaded into grids or grown on grids using liquid-handling robots and incubation chambers are described. As a result, crystals were screened at LCLS-XPP and SSRL BL12-2 at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures.« less

  11. “Nodal Gap” induced by the incommensurate diagonal spin density modulation in underdoped high- Tc superconductors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Tao; Gao, Yi; Zhu, Jian -Xin

    2015-03-07

    Recenmore » tly it was revealed that the whole Fermi surface is fully gapped for several families of underdoped cuprates. The existence of the finite energy gap along the d-wave nodal lines (nodal gap) contrasts the common understanding of the d-wave pairing symmetry, which challenges the present theories for the high-Tcsuperconductors. Here we propose that the incommensurate diagonal spin-density-wave order can account for the above experimental observation. The Fermi surface and the local density of states are also studied. Our results are in good agreement with many important experiments in high-Tcsuperconductors.« less

  12. Hierarchy of beam plasma instabilities up to high beam densities for fast ignition scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bret, A.; Deutsch, C.

    2005-08-15

    The hierarchy of electromagnetic instabilities suffered by a relativistic electron beam passing through a plasma is investigated. The fluid approximation is used and beam densities up to the plasma one are considered. The hierarchy between instabilities is established in terms of two parameters only: the beam relativistic factor and the ratio n{sub b}/n{sub p} of the beam density to the plasma one. It is found that for n{sub b}/n{sub p} < or approx. 0.53, the most unstable modes are a mix between filamentation and two-stream instabilities. Beyond this limit, filamentation instability may dominate, depending on the beam relativistic factor. The largest growth rates are found for a beam density slightly smaller than the plasma one.

  13. High density crystalline boron prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenig, Clarence L.

    1993-01-01

    Boron powder is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid boron monolith with a bulk density at least 2.22 g/cc and up to or greater than 2.34 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed or chemical vapor deposited onto a powder compact. Hot isostatic pressing at 1800.degree. C. and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for four hours produces a bulk density of 2.34 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  14. High density crystalline boron prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenig, C.L.

    1993-08-31

    Boron powder is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid boron monolith with a bulk density at least 2.22 g/cc and up to or greater than 2.34 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed or chemical vapor deposited onto a powder compact. Hot isostatic pressing at 1,800 C and 30 PSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for four hours produces a bulk density of 2.34 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  15. Applications of Robust, Radiation Hard AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices in Space Exploration and High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, K.

    2011-05-04

    This slide show presents: space exploration applications; high energy density physics applications; UV LED and photodiode radiation hardness; UV LED and photodiode space qualification; UV LED AC charge management; and UV LED satellite payload instruments. A UV LED satellite will be launched 2nd half 2012.

  16. High-Density and Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Have Opposing Roles in Regulating Tumor-Initiating Cells and Sensitivity to Radiation in Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, Adam R.; Atkinson, Rachel L.; Reddy, Jay P.; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Larson, Richard; Li, Li; Masuda, Hiroko; Brewer, Takae; Atkinson, Bradley J.; Brewster, Abeena; Ueno, Naoto T.; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: We previously demonstrated that cholesterol-lowering agents regulate radiation sensitivity of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cell lines in vitro and are associated with less radiation resistance among IBC patients who undergo postmastectomy radiation. We hypothesized that decreasing IBC cellular cholesterol induced by treatment with lipoproteins would increase radiation sensitivity. Here, we examined the impact of specific transporters of cholesterol (ie lipoproteins) on the responses of IBC cells to self-renewal and to radiation in vitro and on clinical outcomes in IBC patients. Methods and Materials: Two patient-derived IBC cell lines, SUM 149 and KPL4, were incubated with low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), or high-density lipoproteins (HDL) for 24 hours prior to irradiation (0-6 Gy) and mammosphere formation assay. Cholesterol panels were examined in a cohort of patients with primary IBC diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Lipoprotein levels were then correlated to patient outcome, using the log rank statistical model, and examined in multivariate analysis using Cox regression. Results: VLDL increased and HDL decreased mammosphere formation compared to untreated SUM 149 and KPL4 cells. Survival curves showed enhancement of survival in both of the IBC cell lines when pretreated with VLDL and, conversely, radiation sensitization in all cell lines when pretreated with HDL. In IBC patients, higher VLDL values (>30 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than normal values (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.9 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.45], P=.035). Lower-than-normal patient HDL values (<60 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than values higher than 60 mg/dL (HR = 3.21 [95% CI: 1.25-8.27], P=.015). Conclusions: This study discovered a relationship among the plasma levels of lipoproteins, overall patient response, and radiation resistance in IBC patients

  17. Bounds on the density of sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2013-05-01

    We derive lower bounds on the density of sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from the lack of significant clustering in the arrival directions of the highest energy events detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The density of uniformly distributed sources of equal intrinsic intensity was found to be larger than ∼ (0.06−5) × 10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −3} at 95% CL, depending on the magnitude of the magnetic deflections. Similar bounds, in the range (0.2−7) × 10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −3}, were obtained for sources following the local matter distribution.

  18. A kinetic approach to modeling the manufacture of high density strucutral foam: Foaming and polymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Rekha R.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Noble, David R.; Brunini, Victor; Roberts, Christine Cardinal; Long, Kevin Nicholas; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; Celina, Mathias C.; Wyatt, Nicholas B.; Thompson, Kyle R.; Tinsley, James

    2015-09-01

    We are studying PMDI polyurethane with a fast catalyst, such that filling and polymerization occur simultaneously. The foam is over-packed to tw ice or more of its free rise density to reach the density of interest. Our approach is to co mbine model development closely with experiments to discover new physics, to parameterize models and to validate the models once they have been developed. The model must be able to repres ent the expansion, filling, curing, and final foam properties. PMDI is chemically blown foam, wh ere carbon dioxide is pr oduced via the reaction of water and isocyanate. The isocyanate also re acts with polyol in a competing reaction, which produces the polymer. A new kinetic model is developed and implemented, which follows a simplified mathematical formalism that decouple s these two reactions. The model predicts the polymerization reaction via condensation chemis try, where vitrification and glass transition temperature evolution must be included to correctly predict this quantity. The foam gas generation kinetics are determined by tracking the molar concentration of both water and carbon dioxide. Understanding the therma l history and loads on the foam due to exothermicity and oven heating is very important to the results, since the kinetics and ma terial properties are all very sensitive to temperature. The conservation eq uations, including the e quations of motion, an energy balance, and thr ee rate equations are solved via a stabilized finite element method. We assume generalized-Newtonian rheology that is dependent on the cure, gas fraction, and temperature. The conservation equations are comb ined with a level set method to determine the location of the free surface over time. Results from the model are compared to experimental flow visualization data and post-te st CT data for the density. Seve ral geometries are investigated including a mock encapsulation part, two configur ations of a mock stru ctural part, and a bar geometry to

  19. High density hexagonal boron nitride prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenig, Clarence L.

    1992-01-01

    Boron nitride powder with less than or equal to the oxygen content of starting powder (down to 0.5% or less) is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce hexagonal boron nitride with a bulk density greater than 2.0 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed or chemical vapor deposited onto a powder compact. Hot isostatic pressing at 1800.degree. C. and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for four hours produces a bulk density of 2.21 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  20. Microstructural Characterization of Irradiated U-7Mo/Al-5Si Dispersion to High Fission Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Gan; B. D. Miller; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; A. B. Robinson; J. W. Madden; P. G. Medvedev; D. M. Wachs

    2014-11-01

    The fuel development program for research and test reactors calls for improved knowledge on the effect of microstructure on fuel performance in reactors. This work summarizes the recent TEM microstructural characterization of an irradiated U-7Mo/Al-5Si dispersion fuel plate (R3R050) irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory to 5.21021 fissions/cm3. While a large fraction of the fuel grains is decorated with large bubbles, there is no evidence showing interlinking of these large bubbles at the specified fission density. The attachment of solid fission product precipitates to the bubbles is likely the result of fission product diffusion into these bubbles. The process of fission gas bubble superlattice collapse appears through bubble coalescence. The results are compared with the previous TEM work of the dispersion fuels irradiated to lower fission density from the same fuel plate.

  1. High speed measurements of neutral beam turn-on and impact of beam modulation on measurements of ion density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grierson, B. A. Grisham, L.; Burrell, K. H.; Crowley, B.; Scoville, J. T.

    2014-10-15

    Modulation of neutral beams on tokamaks is performed routinely, enabling background rejection for active spectroscopic diagnostics, and control of injected power and torque. We find that there exists an anomalous initial transient in the beam neutrals delivered to the tokamak that is not accounted for by the accelerator voltage and power supply current. Measurements of the charge-exchange and beam photoemission on the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] at high speed (200 ?s) reveal that the energy of the beam neutrals is constant, but the density of beam neutrals displays dramatic variation in the first 23 ms following beam turn-on. The impact of this beam density variation on inferred ion densities and impurity transport is presented, with suggested means to correct for the anomalous transient.

  2. Shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave phononic device with high density filling material for ultra-low power sensing applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, M.; Bhethanabotla, V. R.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.

    2014-06-23

    Finite element simulations of a phononic shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor based on ST 90-X Quartz reveal a dramatic reduction in power consumption. The phononic sensor is realized by artificially structuring the delay path to form an acoustic meta-material comprised of a periodic microcavity array incorporating high-density materials such as tantalum or tungsten. Constructive interference of the scattered and secondary reflected waves at every microcavity interface leads to acoustic energy confinement in the high-density regions translating into reduced power loss. Tantalum filled cavities show the best performance while tungsten inclusions create a phononic bandgap. Based on our simulation results, SAW devices with tantalum filled microcavities were fabricated and shown to significantly decrease insertion loss. Our findings offer encouraging prospects for designing low power, highly sensitive portable biosensors.

  3. Long pulse acceleration of MeV class high power density negative H{sup −} ion beam for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umeda, N. Kojima, A.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Hiratsuka, J.; Watanabe, K.; Dairaku, M.; Yamanaka, H.; Hanada, M.

    2015-04-08

    R and D of high power density negative ion beam acceleration has been carried out at MeV test facility in JAEA to realize ITER neutral beam accelerator. The main target is H{sup −} ion beam acceleration up to 1 MeV with 200 A/m{sup 2} for 60 s whose pulse length is the present facility limit. For long pulse acceleration at high power density, new extraction grid (EXG) has been developed with high cooling capability, which electron suppression magnet is placed under cooling channel similar to ITER. In addition, aperture size of electron suppression grid (ESG) is enlarged from 14 mm to 16 mm to reduce direct interception on the ESG and emission of secondary electron which leads to high heat load on the upstream acceleration grid. By enlarging ESG aperture, beam current increased 10 % at high current beam and total acceleration grid heat load reduced from 13 % to 10 % of input power at long pulse beam. In addition, heat load by back stream positive ion into the EXG is measured for the first time and is estimated as 0.3 % of beam power, while heat load by back stream ion into the source chamber is estimated as 3.5 ~ 4.0 % of beam power. Beam acceleration up to 60 s which is the facility limit, has achieved at 683 keV, 100 A/m{sup 2} of negative ion beam, whose energy density increases two orders of magnitude since 2011.

  4. Polymeric compositions incorporating polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    A polymeric composition comprising a polymeric material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the composition is useful in making molded and/or coated materials such as flooring, tiles, wall panels and the like; paints containing polyethylene glycols or end-capped polyethylene glycols are also disclosed.

  5. Identifying high energy density stream-reaches through refined geospatial resolution in hydropower resource assessment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pasha, M. Fayzul K.; Yang, Majntxov; Yeasmin, Dilruba; Saetern, Sen; Kao, Shih -Chieh; Smith, Brennan T.

    2016-01-07

    Benefited from the rapid development of multiple geospatial data sets on topography, hydrology, and existing energy-water infrastructures, the reconnaissance level hydropower resource assessment can now be conducted using geospatial models in all regions of the US. Furthermore, the updated techniques can be used to estimate the total undeveloped hydropower potential across all regions, and may eventually help identify further hydropower opportunities that were previously overlooked. To enhance the characterization of higher energy density stream-reaches, this paper explored the sensitivity of geospatial resolution on the identification of hydropower stream-reaches using the geospatial merit matrix based hydropower resource assessment (GMM-HRA) model. GMM-HRAmore » model simulation was conducted with eight different spatial resolutions on six U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 8-digit hydrologic units (HUC8) located at three different terrains; Flat, Mild, and Steep. The results showed that more hydropower potential from higher energy density stream-reaches can be identified with increasing spatial resolution. Both Flat and Mild terrains exhibited lower impacts compared to the Steep terrain. Consequently, greater attention should be applied when selecting the discretization resolution for hydropower resource assessments in the future study.« less

  6. Access to a New Plasma Edge State with High Density and Pressures using Quiescent H-mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, Wayne M.; Snyder, P. B.; Burrell, K. H.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Garofalo, A. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Loarte, A.; McKee, G. R.; Nazikian, R; Osborne, T. H.

    2014-07-01

    A path to a new high performance regime has been discovered in tokamaks that could improve the attractiveness of a fusion reactor. Experiments on DIII-D using a quiescent H-mode edge have navigated a valley of improved edge peeling-ballooning stability that opens up with strong plasma shaping at high density, leading to a doubling of the edge pressure over standard edge localized mode (ELM)ing H-mode at these parameters. The thermal energy confinement time increases both as a result of the increased pedestal height and improvements in the core transport and reduced low-k turbulence. Calculations of the pedestal height and width as a function of density using constraints imposed by peeling-ballooning and kinetic-ballooning theory are in quantitative agreement with the measurements.

  7. LANAI HIGH-DENSITY IRRADIANCE SENSOR NETWORK FOR CHARACTERIZING SOLAR RESOURCE VARIABILITY OF MW-SCALE PV SYSTEM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LANAI HIGH-DENSITY IRRADIANCE SENSOR NETWORK FOR CHARACTERIZING SOLAR RESOURCE VARIABILITY OF MW-SCALE PV SYSTEM Scott Kuszamaul 1 , Abraham Ellis 1 , Joshua Stein 1 , and Lars Johnson 2 1 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA 2 SunPower Corporation, Richmond, CA, USA ABSTRACT Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and SunPower Corporation (SunPower) have completed design and deployment of an autonomous irradiance monitoring system based on wireless mesh communications and a battery

  8. Long-Range Electric Vehicle Batteries: High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: In a battery, metal ions move between the electrodes through the electrolyte in order to store energy. Envia Systems is developing new silicon-based negative electrode materials for Li-Ion batteries. Using this technology, Envia will be able to produce commercial EV batteries that outperform todays technology by 2-3 times. Many other programs have attempted to make anode materials based on silicon, but have not been able to produce materials that can withstand charge/discharge cycles multiple times. Envia has been able to make this material which can successfully cycle hundreds of times, on a scale that is economically viable. Today, Envias batteries exhibit world-record energy densities.

  9. One-dimensional time-dependent fluid model of a very high density low-pressure inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaplin, Vernon H.; Bellan, Paul M.

    2015-12-28

    A time-dependent two-fluid model has been developed to understand axial variations in the plasma parameters in a very high density (peak ne~ > 5x1019 m–3) argon inductively coupled discharge in a long 1.1 cm radius tube. The model equations are written in 1D, with radial losses to the tube walls accounted for by the inclusion of effective particle and energy sink terms. The ambipolar diffusion equation and electron energy equation are solved to find the electron density ne(z,t) and temperature Te(z,t), and the populations of the neutral argon 4s metastable, 4s resonant, and 4p excited state manifolds are calculated in order to determine the stepwise ionization rate and calculate radiative energy losses. The model has been validated through comparisons with Langmuir probe ion saturation current measurements; close agreement between the simulated and measured axial plasma density profiles and the initial density rise rate at each location was obtained at pAr = 30-60 mTorr. Lastly, we present detailed results from calculations at 60 mTorr, including the time-dependent electron temperature, excited state populations, and energy budget within and downstream of the radiofrequency (RF) antenna.

  10. One-dimensional time-dependent fluid model of a very high density low-pressure inductively coupled plasma

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chaplin, Vernon H.; Bellan, Paul M.

    2015-12-28

    A time-dependent two-fluid model has been developed to understand axial variations in the plasma parameters in a very high density (peak ne~ > 5x1019 m–3) argon inductively coupled discharge in a long 1.1 cm radius tube. The model equations are written in 1D, with radial losses to the tube walls accounted for by the inclusion of effective particle and energy sink terms. The ambipolar diffusion equation and electron energy equation are solved to find the electron density ne(z,t) and temperature Te(z,t), and the populations of the neutral argon 4s metastable, 4s resonant, and 4p excited state manifolds are calculated inmore » order to determine the stepwise ionization rate and calculate radiative energy losses. The model has been validated through comparisons with Langmuir probe ion saturation current measurements; close agreement between the simulated and measured axial plasma density profiles and the initial density rise rate at each location was obtained at pAr = 30-60 mTorr. Lastly, we present detailed results from calculations at 60 mTorr, including the time-dependent electron temperature, excited state populations, and energy budget within and downstream of the radiofrequency (RF) antenna.« less

  11. High Energy Density Physics and Applications with a State-of-the-Art Compact X-Pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beg, Farhat N

    2013-08-14

    Recent advances in technology has made possible to create matter with extremely high energy density (energy densities and pressure exceeding 1011 J/m3 and 1 Mbar respectively). The field is new and complex. The basic question for high energy density physics (HEDP) is how does matter behave under extreme conditions of temperature, pressure, density and electromagnetic radiation? The conditions for studying HEDP are normally produced using high intensity short pulse laser, x-rays, particle beams and pulsed power z-pinches. Most of these installations occupy a large laboratory floor space and require a team consisting of a large number of scientists and engineers. This limits the number of experiments that can be performed to explore and understand the complex physics. A novel way of studying HEDP is with a compact x-pinch in university scale laboratory. The x-pinch is a configuration in which a pulsed current is passed through two or more wires placed between the electrodes making the shape of the letter ‘X’. Extreme conditions of magnetic field (> 200 MGauss for less than 1 ns), temperature (1 keV) and density (~ 1022 cm-3) are produced at the cross-point, where two wires make contact. Further, supersonic jets are produced on either side of the cross-point. The physics of the formation of the plasma at the cross-point is complex. It is not clear what role radiation plays in the formation of high energy density plasma (>> 1011 J/m3) at the cross-point. Nor it is understood how the supersonic jets are formed. Present numerical codes do not contain complex physics that can take into account some of these aspects. Indeed, a comprehensive experimental study could answer some of the questions, which are relevant to wide-ranging fields such as inertial confinement fusion, astrophysical plasmas, high intensity laser plasma interactions and radiation physics. The main aim of the proposal was to increase the fundamental understanding of high energy density physics and

  12. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to Ignition, High Energy Density Science and Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2011-03-25

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is a Nd:Glass laser facility capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. This world's most energetic laser system is now operational with the goals of achieving thermonuclear burn in the laboratory and exploring the behavior of matter at extreme temperatures and energy densities. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in the interiors of planetary and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, NIF performed the first integrated ignition experiment which demonstrated the successful coordination of the laser, the cryogenic target system, the array of diagnostics and the infrastructure required for ignition. Many more experiments have been completed since. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and the international communities are examining the implication of achieving ignition on NIF for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a 10% electrical-optical efficiency laser, as well as further advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection and tracking, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in 10- to 15-years. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) baseline design and examining various technology choices for LIFE power plant This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF, the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the start of fundamental science experiments and plans to transition NIF to an international user facility

  13. High density culture of white bass X striped bass fingerlings in raceways using power plant heated effluent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, C.M.; Burton, G.L.; Schweinforth, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    White bass (Morone chrysops) X striped bass (M. saxatilis) hybrids weighing 1691/lb were initially stocked in five 24 ft/sup 3/ floating screen cages for 20 days. Hybrids averaging one inch in total length and 361 fish/lb were released in four 614 ft/sup 3/ concrete raceways. Two stocking densities, 2.6 and 5.1 fish/ft/sup 3/, were evaluated in the 94-day study using a flow rate of 300 gpm/raceway. Water temperatures averaged 79/sup 0/F and water quality was adequate throughout the production period. Fish were hand fed to satiation daily. Columnaris and Aeromonas hydrophila caused the most serious disease problems. Gas supersaturation was suspect in high mortality levels during cage culture of hybrid bass fry. Cannibalism may have been responsible for unaccountable losses prior to raceway stocking and at harvest. The study yielded 5773 hybrids weighing 658 lb. The high density treatment showed greater weight gain, average weight, average length and percent survival as well as improved food conversion. Results suggest that higher stocking densities and periodic grading may increase production and suppress cannibalism. 10 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) community responses to herbicides, burning, and high-density loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.B. Harrington; L.T. Rader-Dixon; J.W. Taylor, Jr.

    2003-11-01

    Kudzu is an aggressive, nonnative vine that currently dominates an estimated 810,000 ha of mesic forest communities in the eastern United States. To test an integrated method of weed control, abundances of kudzu and other plant species were compared during 4 yr after six herbicide treatments (clopyralid, triclopyr, metsulfuron, picloram 1 2,4-D, tebuthiuron, and a nonsprayed check), in which loblolly pines were planted at three densities (0, 1, and 4 seedlings m22) to induce competition and potentially delay kudzu recovery. This split-plot design was replicated on each of the four kudzu-dominated sites near Aiken, SC. Relative light intensity (RLI) and soil water content (SWC) were measured periodically to identify mechanisms of interference among plant species. Two years after treatment (1999), crown coverage of kudzu averaged , 2% in herbicide plots compared with 93% in the nonsprayed check, and these differences were maintained through 2001, except in clopyralid plots where kudzu cover increased to 15%. In 2001, pine interference was associated with 33, 56, and 67% reductions in biomass of kudzu, blackberry, and herbaceous vegetation, respectively. RLI in kudzu-dominated plots (4 to 15% of full sun) generally was less than half that of herbicide-treated plots. SWC was greatest in tebuthiuron plots, where total vegetation cover averaged 26% compared with 77 to 111% in other plots. None of the treatments eradicated kudzu, but combinations of herbicides and induced pine competition delayed its recovery.

  15. Nano-structure multilayer technology fabrication of high energy density capacitors for the power electronic building book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W.; Johnson, G.W.; Wagner, A.V.

    1997-10-21

    Commercially available capacitors do not meet the specifications of the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB) concept. We have applied our propriety nanostructure multilayer materials technology to the fabrication of high density capacitors designed to remove this impediment to PEBB progress. Our nanostructure multilayer capacitors will also be enabling technology in many industrial and military applications. Examples include transient suppression (snubber capacitors), resonant circuits, and DC filtering in PEBB modules. Additionally, weapon applications require compact energy storage for detonators and pulsed-power systems. Commercial applications run the gamut from computers to lighting to communications. Steady progress over the last five years has brought us to the threshold of commercial manufacturability. We have demonstrated a working dielectric energy density of > 11 J/cm3 in 20 nF devices designed for 1 kV operation.

  16. Multi-dimensional collective effects in high-current relativistic beams relevant to High Density Laboratory Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shvets, Gennady

    2014-05-09

    In summary, an analytical model describing the self-pinching of a relativistic charge-neutralized electron beam undergoing the collisionless Weibel instability in an overdense plasma has been developed. The model accurately predicts the final temperature and size of the self-focused filament. It is found that the final temperature is primarily defined by the total beams current, while the filaments radius is shown to be smaller than the collisionless skin depth in the plasma and primarily determined by the beams initial size. The model also accurately predicts the repartitioning ratio of the initial energy of the beams forward motion into the magnetic field energy and the kinetic energy of the surrounding plasma. The density profile of the final filament is shown to be a superposition of the standard Bennett pinch profile and a wide halo surrounding the pinch, which contains a significant fraction of the beams electrons. PIC simulations confirm the key assumption of the analytic theory: the collisionless merger of multiple current filaments in the course of the Weibel Instability provides the mechanism for Maxwellization of the beams distribution function. Deviations from the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution are explained by incomplete thermalization of the deeply trapped and halo electrons. It is conjectured that the simple expression derived here can be used for understanding collsionless shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification in astrophysical plasmas.

  17. A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Bowden, Mark E.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-15

    Alkali metal-sulfur batteries are attractive for energy storage applications because of their high energy density. Among the batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries typically use liquid in the battery electrolyte, which causes problems in both performance and safety. Sodium-sulfur batteries can use a solid electrolyte such as beta alumina but this requires a high operating temperature. Here we report a novel potassium-sulfur battery with K+-conducting beta-alumina as the electrolyte. Our studies indicate that liquid potassium exhibits much better wettability on the surface of beta-alumina compared to liquid sodium at lower temperatures. Based on this observation, we develop a potassium-sulfur battery that can operate at as low as 150°C with excellent performance. In particular, the battery shows excellent cycle life with negligible capacity fade in 1000 cycles because of the dense ceramic membrane. This study demonstrates a new battery with a high energy density, long cycle life, low cost and high safety, which is ideal for grid-scale energy storage.

  18. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet; Dylla, III, Henry Frederick

    1997-01-01

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  19. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III

    1997-11-04

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

  20. A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Vijayakumar, M.; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang; Hu, Jian Z.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-05-01

    Low cost, high performance redox flow batteries are highly demanded for up to multi-megawatt levels of renewable and grid energy storage. Here, we report a new vanadium redox flow battery with a significant improvement over the current technologies. This new battery utilizes a sulfate-chloride mixed solution, which is capable of dissolving more than 2.5 M vanadium or about a 70% increase in the energy storage capacity over the current vanadium sulfate system. More importantly, the new electrolyte remains stable over a wide temperature range of -5 to 60oC, potentially eliminating the need of active heat management. Its high energy density, broad operational temperature window, and excellent electrochemical performance would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of energy storage, thus accelerating its market penetration.

  1. Update On The Development, Testing, And Manufacture Of High Density LEU-Foil Targets For The Production Of Mo-99

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creasy, John T

    2015-05-12

    This project has the objective to reduce and/or eliminate the use of HEU in commerce. Steps in the process include developing a target testing methodology that is bounding for all Mo-99 target irradiators, establishing a maximum target LEU-foil mass, developing a LEU-foil target qualification document, developing a bounding target failure analysis methodology (failure in reactor containment), optimizing safety vs. economics (goal is to manufacture a safe, but relatively inexpensive target to offset the inherent economic disadvantage of using LEU in place of HEU), and developing target material specifications and manufacturing QC test criteria. The slide presentation is organized under the following topics: Objective, Process Overview, Background, Team Structure, Key Achievements, Experiment and Activity Descriptions, and Conclusions. The High Density Target project has demonstrated: approx. 50 targets irradiated through domestic and international partners; proof of concept for two front end processing methods; fabrication of uranium foils for target manufacture; quality control procedures and steps for manufacture; multiple target assembly techniques; multiple target disassembly devices; welding of targets; thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical modeling; robust target assembly parametric studies; and target qualification analysis for insertion into very high flux environment. The High Density Target project has tested and proven several technologies that will benefit current and future Mo-99 producers.

  2. Direct photoetching of polymers using radiation of high energy density from a table-top extreme ultraviolet plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barkusky, Frank; Bayer, Armin; Peth, Christian; Mann, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    In order to perform material interaction studies with intense extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, a Schwarzschild mirror objective coated with Mo/Si multilayers was adapted to a compact laser-driven EUV plasma source utilizing a solid Au target. By 10x demagnified imaging of the plasma a maximum pulse energy density of {approx}0.73 J/cm{sup 2} at a wavelength of 13.5 nm can be achieved in the image plane of the objective at a pulse duration of 8.8 ns. In this paper we present EUV photoetching rates measured for polymethyl methacrylate, polycarbonate, and polytetrafluoroethylene at various fluence levels. A linear dependence between etch depth and applied EUV pulse number could be observed without the necessity for any incubation pulses. By evaluating the slope of these data, etch rates were determined, revealing also a linear behavior for low fluences. A threshold energy density could not be observed. The slope of the linear etch regime as well as deviations from the linear trend at higher energy densities are discussed and compared to data known from deep UV laser ablation. Furthermore, the surface roughness of the structured polymers was measured by atomic force microscopy and compared to the nonirradiated polymer surface, indicating a rather smooth etch process (roughness increase of 20%-30%). The different shapes of the etch craters observed for the three polymers at high energy densities can be explained by the measured fluence dependence of the etch rates, having consequences for the proper use of polymer ablation for beam profiling of focused EUV radiation.

  3. Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries: Low-Cost Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries with High Energy Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Pellion Technologies is developing rechargeable magnesium batteries that would enable an EV to travel 3 times farther than it could using Li-ion batteries. Prototype magnesium batteries demonstrate excellent electrochemical behavior; delivering thousands of charge cycles with very little fade. Nevertheless, these prototypes have always stored too little energy to be commercially viable. Pellion Technologies is working to overcome this challenge by rapidly screening potential storage materials using proprietary, high-throughput computer models. To date, 12,000 materials have been identified and analyzed. The resulting best materials have been electrochemically tested, yielding several very promising candidates.

  4. High-power laser interaction with low-density C–Cu foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pérez, F.; Colvin, J. D.; May, M. J.; Charnvanichborikarn, S.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Fournier, K. B.; Felter, T. E.

    2015-11-15

    We study the propagation of high-power laser beams in micro-structured carbon foams by monitoring the x-ray output from deliberately introduced Cu content. In particular, we characterize this phenomenon measuring absolute time-resolved x-ray yields, time-resolved x-ray imaging, and x-ray spectroscopy. New experimental results for C–Cu foams show a faster heat front velocity than simulation that assumed homogeneous plasma. We suggest the foam micro-structure may explain this trend.

  5. Combining harmonic generation and laser chirping to achieve high spectral density in Compton sources

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Terzić, Balša; Reeves, Cody; Krafft, Geoffrey A.

    2016-04-25

    Recently various laser-chirping schemes have been investigated with the goal of reducing or eliminating ponderomotive line broadening in Compton or Thomson scattering occurring at high laser intensities. Moreover, as a next level of detail in the spectrum calculations, we have calculated the line smoothing and broadening expected due to incident beam energy spread within a one-dimensional plane wave model for the incident laser pulse, both for compensated (chirped) and unchirped cases. The scattered compensated distributions are treatable analytically within three models for the envelope of the incident laser pulses: Gaussian, Lorentzian, or hyperbolic secant. We use the new results tomore » demonstrate that the laser chirping in Compton sources at high laser intensities: (i) enables the use of higher order harmonics, thereby reducing the required electron beam energies; and (ii) increases the photon yield in a small frequency band beyond that possible with the fundamental without chirping. We found that this combination of chirping and higher harmonics can lead to substantial savings in the design, construction and operational costs of the new Compton sources. This is of particular importance to the widely popular laser-plasma accelerator based Compton sources, as the improvement in their beam quality enters the regime where chirping is most effective.« less

  6. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass

  7. High-Density EMI Filter Design for DC-Fed Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Rixin; Maillet, Yoann; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Fei; Burgos, Rolando; Boroyevich, Dushan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents strategies to reduce both differential-mode (DM) and common-mode (CM) noise using a passive filter in a dc-fed motor drive. The paper concentrates on the type of grounding and the components to optimize filter size and performance. Grounding schemes, material comparison between ferrite and nanocrystalline cores, and a new integrated filter structure are presented. The integrated structure maximizes the core window area and increases the leakage inductance by integrating both CM and DM inductances onto one core. Small-signal and large-signal experiments validate the structure, showing it to have reduced filter size and good filtering performance when compared with standard filters at both low and high frequencies.

  8. Turbo-alternator-compressor design for supercritical high density working fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.

    2013-03-19

    Techniques for generating power are provided. Such techniques involve a thermodynamic system including a housing, a turbine positioned in a turbine cavity of the housing, a compressor positioned in a compressor cavity of the housing, and an alternator positioned in a rotor cavity between the turbine and compressor cavities. The compressor has a high-pressure face facing an inlet of the compressor cavity and a low-pressure face on an opposite side thereof. The alternator has a rotor shaft operatively connected to the turbine and compressor, and is supported in the housing by bearings. Ridges extending from the low-pressure face of the compressor may be provided for balancing thrust across the compressor. Seals may be positioned about the alternator for selectively leaking fluid into the rotor cavity to reduce the temperature therein.

  9. Oxide 2D electron gases as a route for high carrier densities on (001) Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kornblum, Lior; Jin, Eric N.; Kumah, Divine P.; Walker, Fred J.; Ernst, Alexis T.; Broadbridge, Christine C.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2015-05-18

    Two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) formed at the interfaces of oxide heterostructures draw considerable interest owing to their unique physics and potential applications. Growing such heterostructures on conventional semiconductors has the potential to integrate their functionality with semiconductor device technology. We demonstrate 2DEGs on a conventional semiconductor by growing GdTiO{sub 3}-SrTiO{sub 3} on silicon. Structural analysis confirms the epitaxial growth of heterostructures with abrupt interfaces and a high degree of crystallinity. Transport measurements show the conduction to be an interface effect, ∼9 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} electrons per interface. Good agreement is demonstrated between the electronic behavior of structures grown on Si and on an oxide substrate, validating the robustness of this approach to bridge between lab-scale samples to a scalable, technologically relevant materials system.

  10. Extended performance gas Cherenkov detector for gamma-ray detection in high-energy density experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, H. W. Kim, Y. H.; Young, C. S.; Fatherley, V. E.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Batha, S. H.; Malone, R. M.; Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Stoeffl, W.; Zylstra, A. B.; Shmayda, W. T.

    2014-11-15

    A new Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) with low-energy threshold and high sensitivity, currently known as Super GCD (or GCD-3 at OMEGA), is being developed for use at the OMEGA Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Super GCD is designed to be pressurized to ?400 psi (absolute) and uses all metal seals to allow the use of fluorinated gases inside the target chamber. This will allow the gamma energy threshold to be run as low at 1.8 MeV with 400 psi (absolute) of C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, opening up a new portion of the gamma ray spectrum. Super GCD operating at 20 cm from TCC will be ?400 more efficient at detecting DT fusion gammas at 16.7 MeV than the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic at NIF (GRH-6m) when operated at their minimum thresholds.

  11. LDRD ER Final Report: Recreating Planetary Cores in the Laboratory: New Techniques to Extremely High Density States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, G; Celliers, P; Hicks, D; Cauble, R; Bradley, D; MacKinnon, A; Moon, S; Young, D; Chau, R; Eggert, J; Willi, P; Pasley, J; Jeanloz, R; Lee, K; Bennedetti, R; Koenig, M; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Batani, D; Loubeyre, P; Hubbard, W

    2003-02-07

    An accurate equation of state (EOS) for planetary constituents at extreme conditions is the key to any credible model of planets or low mass stars. However, very few materials have their high pressure (>few Mbar) EOS experimentally validated, and even then, only on the principal Hugoniot. For planetary and stellar interiors, compression occurs from gravitational force so that material states follow a line of isotropic compression (ignoring phase separation) to ultra-high densities. An example of the hydrogen phase space composing Jupiter and one particular Brown Dwarf is shown. At extreme densities, material states are predicted to have quite unearthly properties such as high temperature superconductivity and low temperature fusion. High density experiments on Earth are achieved with either static compression techniques (i.e. diamond anvil cells) or dynamic compression techniques using large laser facilities, gas guns, or explosives. The ultimate goal of this multi-directorate and multi-institutional proposal was to develop techniques that will enable us to understand material states that previously only existed at the core of giant planets, stars, or speculative theories. Our effort was a complete success, meeting all of the objectives set out in our proposals. First we focused on developing accurate Hugoniot techniques to be used for constraining the equation of state at high pressure/temperature. We mapped out an accurate water EOS and measured that the ionic->electronic conduction transition occurs at lower pressures than models predict. These data and their impact are fully described in the first enclosed paper ''The Equation of State and Optical Properties of Water Compressed by Strong Shock Waves.'' Currently models used to construct planetary isentropes are constrained by only the planet radius, outer atmospheric spectroscopy, and space probe gravitational moment and magnetic field data. Thus these data, which provide rigid constraints to these models, will

  12. Effect of process variables on the density and durability of the pellets made from high moisture corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2014-03-01

    A flat die pellet mill was used to understand the effect of high levels of feedstock moisture content in the range of 28–38% (w.b.), with die rotational speeds of 40–60 Hz, and preheating temperatures of 30–110 °C on the pelleting characteristics of 4.8 mm screen size ground corn stover using an 8 mm pellet die. The physical properties of the pelletised biomass studied are: (a) pellet moisture content, (b) unit, bulk and tapped density, and (c) durability. Pelletisation experiments were conducted based on central composite design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that feedstock moisture content influenced all of the physical properties at P < 0.001. Pellet moisture content decreased with increase in preheating temperature to about 110 °C and decreasing the feedstock moisture content to about 28% (w.b.). Response surface models developed for quality attributes with respect to process variables has adequately described the process with coefficient of determination (R2) values of >0.88. The other pellet quality attributes such as unit, bulk, tapped density, were maximised at feedstock moisture content of 30–33% (w.b.), die speeds of >50 Hz and preheating temperature of >90 °C. In case of durability a medium moisture content of 33–34% (w.b.) and preheating temperatures of >70 °C and higher die speeds >50 Hz resulted in high durable pellets. It can be concluded from the present study that feedstock moisture content, followed by preheating, and die rotational speed are the interacting process variables influencing pellet moisture content, unit, bulk and tapped density and durability.

  13. DENSITY WAVES EXCITED BY LOW-MASS PLANETS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. II. HIGH-RESOLUTION SIMULATIONS OF THE NONLINEAR REGIME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong Ruobing; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R. E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu

    2011-11-01

    We investigate numerically the propagation of density waves excited by a low-mass planet in a protoplanetary disk in the nonlinear regime, using two-dimensional local shearing box simulations with the grid-based code Athena at high spatial resolution (256 grid points per scale height h). The nonlinear evolution results in the wave steepening into a shock, causing damping and angular momentum transfer to the disk. On long timescales this leads to spatial redistribution of the disk density, causing migration feedback and potentially resulting in gap opening. Previous numerical studies concentrated on exploring these secondary phenomena as probes of the nonlinear wave evolution. Here we focus on exploring the evolution of the basic wave properties, such as its density profile evolution, shock formation, and post-shock wave behavior, and provide comparison with analytical theory. The generation of potential vorticity at the shock is computed analytically and is subsequently verified by simulations and used to pinpoint the shock location. We confirm the theoretical relation between the shocking length and the planet mass (including the effect of the equation of state), and the post-shock decay of the angular momentum flux carried by the wave. The post-shock evolution of the wave profile is explored, and we quantitatively confirm its convergence to the theoretically expected N-wave shape. The accuracy of various numerical algorithms used to compute the nonlinear wave evolution is also investigated: we find that higher order spatial reconstruction and high resolution are crucial for capturing the shock formation correctly.

  14. High throughput screening using acoustic droplet ejection to combine protein crystals and chemical libraries on crystallization plates at high density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teplitsky, Ella; Joshi, Karan; Ericson, Daniel L.; Scalia, Alexander; Mullen, Jeffrey D.; Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S.

    2015-07-01

    We describe a high throughput method for screening up to 1728 distinct chemicals with protein crystals on a single microplate. Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) was used to co-position 2.5 nL of protein, precipitant, and chemicals on a MiTeGen in situ-1 crystallization plate™ for screening by co-crystallization or soaking. ADE-transferred droplets follow a precise trajectory which allows all components to be transferred through small apertures in the microplate lid. The apertures were large enough for 2.5 nL droplets to pass through them, but small enough so that they did not disrupt the internal environment created by the mother liquor. Using this system, thermolysin and trypsin crystals were efficiently screened for binding to a heavy-metal mini-library. Fluorescence and X-ray diffraction were used to confirm that each chemical in the heavy-metal library was correctly paired with the intended protein crystal. Moreover, a fragment mini-library was screened to observe two known lysozyme We describe a high throughput method for screening up to 1728 distinct chemicals with protein crystals on a single microplate. Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) was used to co-position 2.5 nL of protein, precipitant, and chemicals on a MiTeGen in situ-1 crystallization plate™ for screening by co-crystallization or soaking. ADE-transferred droplets follow a precise trajectory which allows all components to be transferred through small apertures in the microplate lid. The apertures were large enough for 2.5 nL droplets to pass through them, but small enough so that they did not disrupt the internal environment created by the mother liquor. Using this system, thermolysin and trypsin crystals were efficiently screened for binding to a heavy-metal mini-library. Fluorescence and X-ray diffraction were used to confirm that each chemical in the heavy-metal library was correctly paired with the intended protein crystal. A fragment mini-library was screened to observe two known lysozyme

  15. High throughput screening using acoustic droplet ejection to combine protein crystals and chemical libraries on crystallization plates at high density

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Teplitsky, Ella; Joshi, Karan; Ericson, Daniel L.; Scalia, Alexander; Mullen, Jeffrey D.; Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S.

    2015-07-01

    We describe a high throughput method for screening up to 1728 distinct chemicals with protein crystals on a single microplate. Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) was used to co-position 2.5 nL of protein, precipitant, and chemicals on a MiTeGen in situ-1 crystallization plate™ for screening by co-crystallization or soaking. ADE-transferred droplets follow a precise trajectory which allows all components to be transferred through small apertures in the microplate lid. The apertures were large enough for 2.5 nL droplets to pass through them, but small enough so that they did not disrupt the internal environment created by the mother liquor. Using thismore » system, thermolysin and trypsin crystals were efficiently screened for binding to a heavy-metal mini-library. Fluorescence and X-ray diffraction were used to confirm that each chemical in the heavy-metal library was correctly paired with the intended protein crystal. Moreover, a fragment mini-library was screened to observe two known lysozyme We describe a high throughput method for screening up to 1728 distinct chemicals with protein crystals on a single microplate. Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) was used to co-position 2.5 nL of protein, precipitant, and chemicals on a MiTeGen in situ-1 crystallization plate™ for screening by co-crystallization or soaking. ADE-transferred droplets follow a precise trajectory which allows all components to be transferred through small apertures in the microplate lid. The apertures were large enough for 2.5 nL droplets to pass through them, but small enough so that they did not disrupt the internal environment created by the mother liquor. Using this system, thermolysin and trypsin crystals were efficiently screened for binding to a heavy-metal mini-library. Fluorescence and X-ray diffraction were used to confirm that each chemical in the heavy-metal library was correctly paired with the intended protein crystal. A fragment mini-library was screened to observe two known

  16. Postirradiation analysis of the latest high uranium density miniplate test: RERTR 8.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofman, G. L.; Kim, Y. S.; Rest, J.; Robinson, A. B.

    2008-01-01

    Results of destructive examination of fuel miniplates irradiated in the RERTR-8 test are discussed. Metallographic features of dispersion fuel containing fuel particles of U-7wt%Mo with 1wt% Ti or 2wt% Zr are analyzed. It is hypothesized that Zr, either as alloy addition or fission product, may have a destabilizing effect on fission gas behavior. The purpose of miniplate test RERTR-8 was to obtain irradiation performance data on monolithic fuel plates fabricated by friction bonding (FB) and isostatic hot pressing (HIP), as well as dispersion fuel plates that contain U-7Mo fuel particles alloyed with small amounts of Zr or Ti (see Fig. 1). The results of the monolithic plates destructively examined to date were presented at the 2007 RERTR meeting in Prague. This paper presents the first results on the dispersion plates with Ti and Zr additions to U-7Mo. The effect of Ti and Zr additions to U-7wt%Mo on the extent of fuel-aluminum interdiffusion, although measureable, is small in absolute terms because of the overwhelming effect of the 5% Si addition to the Al matrix. Ti additions to the U-7wt%Mo have no discernable effect on swelling behavior of the fuel. However, there are indications that the addition of Zr may have a destabilizing effect on fission gas behavior at high burnup.

  17. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Marvin

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily skimmed'' from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  18. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily ``skimmed`` from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  19. Sensitivity effects of void density and arrangements in a REBO high explosive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, Stuart Davis; Germann, Timothy C; Gronbech - Jensen, Niels

    2010-09-28

    The shock response of two-dimensional model, high explosive crystals with various arrangements of circular voids is explored. We simulate a piston impact using molecular dynamics simulations with a Reactive Empirical Bond Order (REBO) model potential for a sub-micron, sub-ns exothermic reaction in a diatomic molecular solid. In square lattices of voids all of one size, reducing that size or increasing the porosity while holding the other parameter fixed causes the hotspots to consume the material more quickly and detonation to occur sooner and at lower piston velocities. The early time behavior is seen to follow a very simple ignition and growth model. The hotspots are seen to collectively develop a broad pressure wave (a sonic, diffuse deflagration front) that, upon merging with the lead shock, transforms it into a detonation. The reaction yields produced by triangular lattices are not significantly different. With random void arrangements, the mean time to detonation is 15.5% larger than with the square lattice; the standard deviation of detonation delays is just 5.1%.

  20. Three-dimensional charge density wave order in YBa2Cu3O6.67 at high magnetic fields

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gerber, S.; Jang, H.; Nojiri, H.; Matsuzawa, S.; Yasumura, H.; Bonn, D. A.; Liang, R.; Hardy, W. N.; Islam, Z.; Mehta, A.; et al

    2015-11-20

    In this study, charge density wave (CDW) correlations have recently been shown to universally exist in cuprate superconductors. However, their nature at high fields inferred from nuclear magnetic resonance is distinct from that measured by x-ray scattering at zero and low fields. Here we combine a pulsed magnet with an x-ray free electron laser to characterize the CDW in YBa2Cu3O6.67 via x-ray scattering in fields up to 28 Tesla. While the zero-field CDW order, which develops below T ~ 150 K, is essentially two-dimensional, at lower temperature and beyond 15 Tesla, another three-dimensionally ordered CDW emerges. The field-induced CDW onsetsmore » around the zero-field superconducting transition temperature, yet the incommensurate in-plane ordering vector is field-independent. This implies that the two forms of CDW and high-temperature superconductivity are intimately linked.« less

  1. Radiation from Ag high energy density Z-pinch plasmas and applications to lasing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weller, M. E. Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Shrestha, I.; Stafford, A.; Keim, S. F.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Osborne, G. C.; Petkov, E. E.; Apruzese, J. P.; Giuliani, J. L.; Chuvatin, A. S.

    2014-03-15

    Silver (Ag) wire arrays were recently introduced as efficient x-ray radiators and have been shown to create L-shell plasmas that have the highest electron temperature (>1.8?keV) observed on the Zebra generator so far and upwards of 30?kJ of energy output. In this paper, results of single planar wire arrays and double planar wire arrays of Ag and mixed Ag and Al that were tested on the UNR Zebra generator are presented and compared. To further understand how L-shell Ag plasma evolves in time, a time-gated x-ray spectrometer was designed and fielded, which has a spectral range of approximately 3.55.0?. With this, L-shell Ag as well as cold L{sub ?} and L{sub ?} Ag lines was captured and analyzed along with photoconducting diode (PCD) signals (>0.8?keV). Along with PCD signals, other signals, such as filtered XRD (>0.2?keV) and Si-diodes (SiD) (>9?keV), are analyzed covering a broad range of energies from a few eV to greater than 53?keV. The observation and analysis of cold L{sub ?} and L{sub ?} lines show possible correlations with electron beams and SiD signals. Recently, an interesting issue regarding these Ag plasmas is whether lasing occurs in the Ne-like soft x-ray range, and if so, at what gains? To help answer this question, a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) kinetic model was utilized to calculate theoretical lasing gains. It is shown that the Ag L-shell plasma conditions produced on the Zebra generator at 1.7 maximum current may be adequate to produce gains as high as 6?cm{sup ?1} for various 3p???3s transitions. Other potential lasing transitions, including higher Rydberg states, are also included in detail. The overall importance of Ag wire arrays and plasmas is discussed.

  2. Comparison of real-time and linear-response time-dependent density functional theories for molecular chromophores ranging from sparse to high densities of states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tussupbayev, Samat; Govind, Niranjan; Lopata, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Christopher J.

    2015-03-10

    We assess the performance of real-time time-dependent density functional theory (RT-TDDFT) for the calculation of absorption spectra of 12 organic dye molecules relevant to photovoltaics and dye sensitized solar cells with 8 exchange-correlation functionals (3 traditional, 3 global hybrids, and 2 range-separated hybrids). We compare the calculations with traditional linear-response (LR) TDDFT. In addition, we demonstrate the efficacy of the RT-TDDFT approach to calculate wide absorption spectra of two large chromophores relevant to photovoltaics and molecular switches.

  3. Observation and modeling of mixing-layer development in high-energy-density, blast-wave-driven shear flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Stefano, C. A. Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P.; Malamud, G.; Henry de Frahan, M. T.; Johnsen, E.; Shimony, A.; Shvarts, D.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Martinez, D.

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we examine the hydrodynamics of high-energy-density (HED) shear flows. Experiments, consisting of two materials of differing density, use the OMEGA-60 laser to drive a blast wave at a pressure of ∼50 Mbar into one of the media, creating a shear flow in the resulting shocked system. The interface between the two materials is Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable, and a mixing layer of growing width develops due to the shear. To theoretically analyze the instability's behavior, we rely on two sources of information. First, the interface spectrum is well-characterized, which allows us to identify how the shock front and the subsequent shear in the post-shock flow interact with the interface. These observations provide direct evidence that vortex merger dominates the evolution of the interface structure. Second, simulations calibrated to the experiment allow us to estimate the time-dependent evolution of the deposition of vorticity at the interface. The overall result is that we are able to choose a hydrodynamic model for the system, and consequently examine how well the flow in this HED system corresponds to a classical hydrodynamic description.

  4. High Energy Density Ultracapacitors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  5. Three-Dimensional Charge Density Wave Order in YBa2Cu3O6.67 at High Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, S.; Jang, H.; Nojiri, H.; Matsuzawa, S.; Yasumura, H.; Bonn, D. A.; Liang, R.; Hardy, W.; Islam, Z.; Lee, W. -S.; Zhu, D.; Lee, J. -S.

    2015-11-20

    Charge density wave (CDW) correlations have been shown to universally exist in cuprate superconductors. However, their nature at high fields inferred from nuclear magnetic resonance is distinct from that measured by x-ray scattering at zero and low fields. Here we combine a pulsed magnet with an x-ray free electron laser to characterize the CDW in YBa2Cu3O6.67 via x-ray scattering in fields up to 28 Tesla. While the zero-field CDW order, which develops below T ~ 150 K, is essentially two-dimensional, at lower temperature and beyond 15 Tesla, another three-dimensionally ordered CDW emerges. The field-induced CDW onsets around the zero-field superconducting transition temperature, yet the incommensurate inplane ordering vector is field-independent. This implies that the two forms of CDW and hightemperature superconductivity are intimately linked.

  6. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  7. Compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam probe system for measurement of two-dimensional electron density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, Y. Manabe, T.; Ohno, N.; Takagi, M.; Kajita, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Morisaki, T.

    2014-09-15

    A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ∼4 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −2} s{sup −1} when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.

  8. FORMALDEHYDE AND METHANOL DEUTERATION IN PROTOSTARS: FOSSILS FROM A PAST FAST HIGH-DENSITY PRE-COLLAPSE PHASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taquet, V.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C.

    2012-03-20

    Extremely high deuteration of several molecules has been observed around low-mass protostars for a decade. Among them, formaldehyde and methanol present particularly high deuteration, with observations of abundant doubly and triply deuterated forms. Both species are thought to be mainly formed on interstellar grains during the low-temperature and dense pre-collapse phase by H and D atom additions on the iced CO. We present here a theoretical study of the formaldehyde and methanol deuteration obtained with our gas-grain model, GRAINOBLE. This model takes into account the multilayer nature of the mantle and explores the robustness of the results against the uncertainties of poorly constrained chemical and surface model parameters. The comparison of the model predictions with the observations leads to two major results: (1) the observed high deuteration is obtained during the last phase of the pre-collapse stage, when the density reaches {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cm{sup -3}, and this phase is fast, lasting only several thousands years; and (2) D and H abstraction and substitution reactions are crucial in making up the observed deuteration ratios. This work shows the power of chemical composition as a tool to reconstruct the past history of protostars.

  9. Crosslinked polymer gel electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol methacrylate and ionic liquid for lithium battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Chen; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by copolymerization polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of a room temperature ionic liquid, methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MPPY TFSI). The physical properties of gel polymer electrolytes were characterized by thermal analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests. The ionic conductivities of the gel polymer electrolytes increased linearly with the amount of MPPY TFSI and were mainly attributed to the increased ion mobility as evidenced by the decreased glass transition temperatures. Li||LiFePO4 cells were assembled using the gel polymer electrolytes containing 80 wt% MPPY TFSI via an in situ polymerization method. A reversible cell capacity of 90 mAh g 1 was maintained under the current density of C/10 at room temperature, which was increased to 130 mAh g 1 by using a thinner membrane and cycling at 50 C.

  10. Patterned functional carbon fibers from polyethylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, Marcus A; Saito, Tomonori; Brown, Rebecca H; Kumbhar, Amar S; Naskar, Amit K

    2012-01-01

    Patterned, continuous carbon fibers with controlled surface geometry were produced from a novel melt-processible carbon precursor. This portends the use of a unique technique to produce such technologically innovative fibers in large volume for important applications. The novelties of this technique include ease of designing and fabricating fibers with customized surface contour, the ability to manipulate filament diameter from submicron scale to a couple of orders of magnitude larger scale, and the amenable porosity gradient across the carbon wall by diffusion controlled functionalization of precursor. The geometry of fiber cross-section was tailored by using bicomponent melt-spinning with shaped dies and controlling the melt-processing of the precursor polymer. Circular, trilobal, gear-shaped hollow fibers, and solid star-shaped carbon fibers of 0.5 - 20 um diameters, either in self-assembled bundle form, or non-bonded loose filament form, were produced by carbonizing functionalized-polyethylene fibers. Prior to carbonization, melt-spun fibers were converted to a char-forming mass by optimizing the sulfonation on polyethylene macromolecules. The fibers exhibited distinctly ordered carbon morphologies at the outside skin compared to the inner surface or fiber core. Such order in carbon microstructure can be further tuned by altering processing parameters. Partially sulfonated polyethylene-derived hollow carbon fibers exhibit 2-10 fold surface area (50-500 m2/g) compared to the solid fibers (10-25 m2/g) with pore sizes closer to the inside diameter of the filaments larger than the sizes on the outer layer. These specially functionalized carbon fibers hold promise for extraordinary performance improvements when used, for example, as composite reinforcements, catalyst support media, membranes for gas separation, CO2 sorbents, and active electrodes and current collectors for energy storage applications.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Complex Targets for High-Energy- Density Experiments with Ion Beams and other Drivers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Koniges, Alice; Liu, Wangyi; Lidia, Steven; Schenkel, Thomas; Barnard, John; Friedman, Alex; Eder, David; Fisher, Aaron; Masters, Nathan

    2016-03-01

    We explore the simulation challenges and requirements for experiments planned on facilities such as the NDCX-II ion accelerator at LBNL, currently undergoing commissioning. Hydrodynamic modeling of NDCX-II experiments include certain lower temperature effects, e.g., surface tension and target fragmentation, that are not generally present in extreme high-energy laser facility experiments, where targets are completely vaporized in an extremely short period of time. Target designs proposed for NDCX-II range from metal foils of order one micron thick (thin targets) to metallic foam targets several tens of microns thick (thick targets). These high-energy-density experiments allow for the study of fracture as wellmore » as the process of bubble and droplet formation. We incorporate these physics effects into a code called ALE-AMR that uses a combination of Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrodynamics and Adaptive Mesh Refinement. Inclusion of certain effects becomes tricky as we must deal with non-orthogonal meshes of various levels of refinement in three dimensions. A surface tension model used for droplet dynamics is implemented in ALE-AMR using curvature calculated from volume fractions. Thick foam target experiments provide information on how ion beam induced shock waves couple into kinetic energy of fluid flow. Although NDCX-II is not fully commissioned, experiments are being conducted that explore material defect production and dynamics.« less

  12. Moiré deflectometry using the Talbot-Lau interferometer as refraction diagnostic for High Energy Density plasmas at energies below 10 keV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.

    2014-07-15

    The highly localized density gradients expected in High Energy Density (HED) plasma experiments can be characterized by x-ray phase-contrast imaging in addition to conventional attenuation radiography. Moiré deflectometry using the Talbot-Lau grating interferometer setup is an attractive HED diagnostic due to its high sensitivity to refraction induced phase shifts. We report on the adaptation of such a system for operation in the sub-10 keV range by using a combination of free standing and ultrathin Talbot gratings. This new x-ray energy explored matches well the current x-ray backlighters used for HED experiments, while also enhancing phase effects at lower electron densities. We studied the performance of the high magnification, low energy Talbot-Lau interferometer, for single image phase retrieval using Moiré fringe deflectometry. Our laboratory and simulation studies indicate that such a device is able to retrieve object electron densities from phase shift measurements. Using laboratory x-ray sources from 7 to 15 μm size we obtained accurate simultaneous measurements of refraction and attenuation for both sharp and mild electron density gradients.

  13. High-density genetic map of the BRCA1 region of chromosome 17q12-q21

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, L.A.; Friedman, L.; Lynch, E.; King, M.C. ); Osborne-Lawrence, S.; Bowcock, A. ); Weissenbach, J. )

    1993-09-01

    To facilitate the positional cloning of the breast-ovarian cancer gene BRCA1, the authors constructed a high-density genetic map of the 8.3-cM interval between D17S250 and GIP on chromosome 17q12-q21. Markers were mapped by linkage in the CEPH and in extended kindreds in the breast cancer series. The map comprises 33 ordered polymorphisms, including 12 genes and 21 anonymous markers, yielding an average of one polymorphism every 250 kb. Twenty-five of the markers are PCR-based systems. The order of polymorphic genes and markers is cen-D17S250-D17S518-HER2-THRA1-RARA-D17S80-KRT10-[D17S800-D17S857]-GAS-D17S856-EDH17B-D17S855-D17S859-D17S858-[PPY-D17S78]-D17S183-EPB3-D17S579-D17S509-[D17S508-D17S190 = D17S810]-D17S791-[D17S181 = D17S806]-D17S797-HOX2B-GP3A-[D17S507 = GIP]-qter. BRCA1 lies in the middle of the interval, between THRA1 and D17S183. Markers from this map can be used to determine whether cancer is linked to BRCA1 in families, to evaluate whether tumors have lost heterozygosity at loci in the region, and to identify probes for characterizing chromosomal rearrangements from patients and from tumors. 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Lanai high-density irradiance sensor network for characterizing solar resource variability of MW-scale PV system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Johnson, Lars; Ellis, Abraham; Kuszmaul, Scott S.

    2012-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and SunPower Corporation (SunPower) have completed design and deployment of an autonomous irradiance monitoring system based on wireless mesh communications and a battery operated data acquisition system. The Lanai High-Density Irradiance Sensor Network is comprised of 24 LI-COR{reg_sign} irradiance sensors (silicon pyranometers) polled by 19 RF Radios. The system was implemented with commercially available hardware and custom developed LabVIEW applications. The network of solar irradiance sensors was installed in January 2010 around the periphery and within the 1.2 MW ac La Ola PV plant on the island of Lanai, Hawaii. Data acquired at 1 second intervals is transmitted over wireless links to be time-stamped and recorded on SunPower data servers at the site for later analysis. The intent is to study power and solar resource data sets to correlate the movement of cloud shadows across the PV array and its effect on power output of the PV plant. The irradiance data sets recorded will be used to study the shape, size and velocity of cloud shadows. This data, along with time-correlated PV array output data, will support the development and validation of a PV performance model that can predict the short-term output characteristics (ramp rates) of PV systems of different sizes and designs. This analysis could also be used by the La Ola system operator to predict power ramp events and support the function of the future battery system. This experience could be used to validate short-term output forecasting methodologies.

  15. Characterisation of a MeV Bremsstrahlung x-ray source produced from a high intensity laser for high areal density object radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courtois, C.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Bazzoli, S.; Bourgade, J. L.; Gazave, J.; Lagrange, J. M.; Landoas, O.; Dain, L. Le; Pichoff, N.; Edwards, R.; Aedy, C.; Mastrosimone, D.; Pien, G.; Stoeckl, C.

    2013-08-15

    Results of an experiment to characterise a MeV Bremsstrahlung x-ray emission created by a short (<10 ps) pulse, high intensity (1.4 × 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser are presented. X-ray emission is characterized using several diagnostics; nuclear activation measurements, a calibrated hard x-ray spectrometer, and dosimeters. Results from the reconstructed x-ray energy spectra are consistent with numerical simulations using the PIC and Monte Carlo codes between 0.3 and 30 MeV. The intense Bremsstrahlung x-ray source is used to radiograph an image quality indicator (IQI) heavily filtered with thick tungsten absorbers. Observations suggest that internal features of the IQI can be resolved up to an external areal density of 85 g/cm{sup 2}. The x-ray source size, inferred by the radiography of a thick resolution grid, is estimated to be approximately 400 μm (full width half maximum of the x-ray source Point Spread Function)

  16. Radiation-induced grafting of sulfonates on polyethylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkolnik, S.; Behar, D.

    1982-06-01

    Indirect methods for introducing sulfonate groups into polyethylene, using the preirradiation technique, were studied. One of the methods involved graft polymerization of 2,3-epoxypropylacrylate into polyethylene followed by sulfonation of the epoxy ring with bisulfite. The hydroxy sulfonate thus obtained was unstable in an acid or base environment and hydrolyzed at the esteric bond. The second method involved hydrophylization of the polyethylene by forming a pregraft of polyacrylic acid or polyvinyl alcohol, followed by preirradiation grafting with sodium styrene sulfonate or, less successfully, with sodium vinyl sulfonate. The sulfonates thus obtained were resistant to acids and bases. The acid capacity, water absorption, and water permeability of the grafted films were determined.

  17. Identification of Catalysts and Materials for a High-Energy Density Biochemical Fuel Cell: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-345

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghirardi, M.; Svedruzic, D.

    2013-07-01

    The proposed research attempted to identify novel biochemical catalysts, catalyst support materials, high-efficiency electron transfer agents between catalyst active sites and electrodes, and solid-phase electrolytes in order to maximize the current density of biochemical fuel cells that utilize various alcohols as substrates.

  18. AlGaN UV LED and Photodiodes Radiation Hardness and Space Qualifications and Their Applications in Space Science and High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, K. X.

    2011-05-31

    This presentation provides an overview of robust, radiation hard AlGaN optoelectronic devices and their applications in space exploration & high energy density physics. Particularly, deep UV LED and deep UV photodiodes are discussed with regard to their applications, radiation hardness and space qualification. AC charge management of UV LED satellite payload instruments, which were to be launched in late 2012, is covered.

  19. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bennett, N L; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; Genoni, T. C.; Gomez, M. R.; Greiser, G. W.; Gruner, F. R.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jennings, C. A.; Jobe, D. O.; Jones, B. M.; Jones, M. C.; Jones, P. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Lash, J. S.; LeChien, K. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Leeper, R. J.; Lewis, S. A.; Long, F. W.; Lucero, D. J.; Madrid, E. A.; Martin, M. R.; Matzen, M. K.; Mazarakis, M. G.; McBride, R. D.; McKee, G. R.; Miller, C. L.; Moore, J. K.; Mostrom, C. B.; Mulville, T. D.; Peterson, K. J.; Porter, J. L.; Reisman, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Rochau, G. E.; Rose, D. V.; Savage, M. E.; Sceiford, M. E.; Schmit, P. F.; Schneider, R. F.; Schwarz, J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Thoma, C.; Vesey, R. A.; Wakeland, P. E.; Welch, D. R.; Wisher, M. L.; Woodworth, J. R.; Bailey, J. E.; Rovang, D. C.

    2015-11-30

    ) simulations suggest Z 300 will deliver 4.3 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 18 MJ. Z 800 is 52 m in diameter and stores 130 MJ. This accelerator generates 890 TW at the output of its LTD system, and delivers 65 MA in 113 ns to a MagLIF target. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF liner is 2500 TW. The principal goal of Z 800 is to achieve high-yield thermonuclear fusion; i.e., a yield that exceeds the energy initially stored by the accelerator’s capacitors. 2D MHD simulations suggest Z 800 will deliver 8.0 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 440 MJ. Z 300 and Z 800, or variations of these accelerators, will allow the international high-energy-density-physics community to conduct advanced inertial-confinement-fusion, radiation-physics, material-physics, and laboratory-astrophysics experiments over heretofore-inaccessible parameter regimes.

  20. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bennett, N L; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; et al

    2015-11-30

    ) simulations suggest Z 300 will deliver 4.3 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 18 MJ. Z 800 is 52 m in diameter and stores 130 MJ. This accelerator generates 890 TW at the output of its LTD system, and delivers 65 MA in 113 ns to a MagLIF target. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF liner is 2500 TW. The principal goal of Z 800 is to achieve high-yield thermonuclear fusion; i.e., a yield that exceeds the energy initially stored by the accelerator’s capacitors. 2D MHD simulations suggest Z 800 will deliver 8.0 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 440 MJ. Z 300 and Z 800, or variations of these accelerators, will allow the international high-energy-density-physics community to conduct advanced inertial-confinement-fusion, radiation-physics, material-physics, and laboratory-astrophysics experiments over heretofore-inaccessible parameter regimes.« less

  1. OZSPEC-2: An improved broadband high-resolution elliptical crystal x-ray spectrometer for high-energy density physics experiments (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, R. F.; Anderson, S. G.; Booth, R.; Brown, G. V.; Emig, J.; Fulkerson, S.; McCarville, T.; Norman, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Young, B. K. F.

    2008-10-15

    A novel time, space, and energy-resolved x-ray spectrometer has been developed which produces, in a single snapshot, a broadband and relatively calibrated spectrum of the x-ray emission from a high-energy density laboratory plasma. The opacity zipper spectrometer (OZSPEC-1) records a nearly continuous spectrum for x-ray energies from 240 to 5800 eV in a single shot. The second-generation OZSPEC-2, detailed in this work, records fully continuous spectra on a single shot from any two of these three bands: 270-650, 660-1580, and 1960-4720 eV. These instruments thus record thermal and line radiation from a wide range of plasmas. These instruments' single-shot bandwidth is unmatched in a time-gated spectrometer; conversely, other broadband instruments are either time-integrated (using crystals or gratings), lack spectral resolution (diode arrays), or cover a lower energy band (gratings). The OZSPECs are based on the zipper detector, a large-format (100x35 mm) gated microchannel plate detector, with spectra dispersed along the 100 mm dimension. OZSPEC-1 and -2 both use elliptically bent crystals of OHM, RAP, and/or PET. Individual spectra are gated in 100 ps. OZSPEC-2 provides one-dimensional spatial imaging with 30-50 {mu}m resolution over a 1500 {mu}m field of view at the source. The elliptical crystal design yields broad spectral coverage with resolution E/{delta}E>500, strong rejection of hard x-ray backgrounds, and negligible source broadening for extended sources. Near-term applications include plasma opacity measurements, detailed spectra of inertial fusion Hohlraums, and laboratory astrophysics experiments.

  2. Polyethylene/Boron Composites for Radiation Shielding Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Courtney; Grulke, Eric; Burgett, Eric; Hertel, Nolan

    2008-01-21

    Multifunctional composites made with boron are absorbers of low energy nuetrons, and could be used for structural shielding materials. Polyethylene/boron carbide composites were fabricated using conventional polymer processing techniques, and were evaluated for mechanical and radiation shielding properties. Addition of neat boron carbide (powder and nanoparticles) to an injection molding grade HPDE showed superior mechanical properties compared to neat HDPE. Radiation shielding measurements of a 2 wt% boron carbide composite were improved over those of the neat polyethylene.

  3. Development of a high-density gas-jet target for nuclear astrophysics and reaction studies with rare isotope beams. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uwe, Greife

    2014-08-12

    The purpose of this project was to develop a high-density gas jet target that will enable a new program of transfer reaction studies with rare isotope beams and targets of hydrogen and helium that is not currently possible and will have an important impact on our understanding of stellar explosions and of the evolution of nuclear shell structure away from stability. This is the final closeout report for the project.

  4. Nanocomposites for ultra high density information storage, devices including the same, and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Shin, Junsoo

    2014-04-01

    A nanocomposite article that includes a single-crystal or single-crystal-like substrate and heteroepitaxial, phase-separated layer supported by a surface of the substrate and a method of making the same are described. The heteroepitaxial layer can include a continuous, non-magnetic, crystalline, matrix phase, and an ordered, magnetic magnetic phase disposed within the matrix phase. The ordered magnetic phase can include a plurality of self-assembled crystalline nanostructures of a magnetic material. The phase-separated layer and the single crystal substrate can be separated by a buffer layer. An electronic storage device that includes a read-write head and a nanocomposite article with a data storage density of 0.75 Tb/in.sup.2 is also described.

  5. Suppression of external quantum efficiency roll-off of nanopatterned organic-light emitting diodes at high current densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuwae, Hiroyuki; Kasahara, Takashi; Nitta, Atsushi; Yoshida, Kou; Inoue, Munetomo; Matsushima, Toshinori; Adachi, Chihaya; Shoji, Shuichi; Mizuno, Jun

    2015-10-21

    We developed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with nanopatterned current flow regions using electron-beam lithography with the aim of suppressing singlet–polaron annihilation (SPA). Nanopatterns composed of lines and circles were used in the current flow regions of nano-line and nano-dot OLEDs, respectively. Excitons partially escape from the current flow regions where SPA takes place. As such, current densities where external quantum efficiencies were half of their initial values (J{sub 0}) increased as line width and circle diameter were decreased to close to the exciton diffusion length. Circles were more efficient at enhancing exciton escape and increasing J{sub 0} than lines. The J{sub 0} increase in the nano-dot OLEDs containing nanopatterned circles with a diameter of 50 nm was approximately 41-fold that of a conventional OLED with a current flow region of 4 mm{sup 2}. The dependence of J{sub 0} on the size and shape of the nanopatterns was well explained by an SPA model that considered exciton diffusion. Nanopatterning of OLEDs is a feasible method of obtaining large J{sub 0}.

  6. Feasibility of a super high-energy-density battery of the Li/Br/F sub 3 electrochemical system. Final report, 15 August 1989-14 May 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frysz, C.A.; Pyszczek, M.F.; Ebel, S.J.

    1990-08-16

    Feasibility studies on the practical aspects of developing a lithium/bromine trifluoride battery have been studied. Efforts directed toward identifying materials for porous electrode separators, glasses for insulated electrical feed-throughs, and metals for lid, case and current collector fabrication via electrochemical testing techniques have resulted in a list of materials suitable for these applications. Prototype cells utilizing a spirally wound electrode configuration have been constructed and discharged. The use of lithium salts as an electrolyte additive has been explored, and has shown a positive effect on discharge performance. Through the use of currently available technology, however, the lithium/bromine trifluoride couple has not delivered energy density comparable to other high energy density lithium systems. This investigation has revealed that practical Li/BrF3 cell development will require further extensive fundamental electrochemical research.

  7. Flow directions and hydraulic gradients in the variable density flow system at the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site in the Texas panhandle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bair, E.S.; O'Donnell, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    Bedded salt, welded tuff, and basalt are the three rock types proposed as possible host rock for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. Regional flow at the proposed bedded salt site in the Texas Panhandle is unique because it contains waters with highly variable fluid density. The site area is underlain by three regional hydrostratigraphic units: a shallow aquifer system developed in the Ogallala Formation and Dockum Group containing waters with less than 1500 mg/1 TDS, a shale and evaporite aquitard associated with the target salt horizon commonly containing waters with 300,000 mg/1 TDS, and a deep aquifer system developed in the Wolfcamp Series and Pennsylvanian System commonly containing waters with 50,000 to 200,000 mg/1 TDS. The associated fluid density variations can lead to miscalculation of flow directions, hydraulic gradients, and travel times. Pressure-depth diagrams based on shut-in pressure and specific-gravity data from drill-stem tests indicate that regionally the potential for downward flow exists in the shale and evaporite aquitard and the potential for horizontal flow exists in the deep aquifer system. Determination of the direction and magnitude of the vertical hydraulic gradient across the target salt horizon based on a method that solely uses pressure data and which incorporates the effects of variable fluid density indicates a downward-oriented hydraulic gradient at the proposed Texas Panhandle site. These methods do not require calculation of hydraulic head and, therefore, are a more realistic way of determining flow characteristics in variable density flow systems.

  8. Time dependent Doppler shifts in high-order harmonic generation in intense laser interactions with solid density plasma and frequency chirped pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, E. C.; Zhang, P.; He, Z.-H.; Dollar, F.; Krushelnick, K.; Thomas, A. G. R.

    2015-05-15

    High order harmonic generation from solid targets is a compelling route to generating intense attosecond or even zeptosecond pulses. However, the effects of ion motion on the generation of harmonics have only recently started to be considered. Here, we study the effects of ion motion in harmonics production at ultrahigh laser intensities interacting with solid density plasma. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we find that there is an optimum density for harmonic production that depends on laser intensity, which scales linearly with a{sub 0} with no ion motion but with a reduced scaling if ion motion is included. We derive a scaling for this optimum density with ion motion and also find that the background ion motion induces Doppler red-shifts in the harmonic structures of the reflected pulse. The temporal structure of the Doppler shifts is correlated to the envelope of the incident laser pulse. We demonstrate that by introducing a frequency chirp in the incident pulse we are able to eliminate these Doppler shifts almost completely.

  9. Relativistic self-focusing of ultra-high intensity X-ray laser beams in warm quantum plasma with upward density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibi, M.; Ghamari, F.

    2014-05-15

    The results of a numerical study of high-intensity X-ray laser beam interaction with warm quantum plasma (WQP) are presented. By means of an upward ramp density profile combined with quantum factors specially the Fermi velocity, we have demonstrated significant relativistic self-focusing (RSF) of a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in the WQP where the Fermi temperature term in the dielectric function is important. For this purpose, we have considered the quantum hydrodynamics model that modifies refractive index of inhomogeneous WQPs with the inclusion of quantum correction through the quantum statistical and diffraction effects in the relativistic regime. Also, to better illustration of the physical difference between warm and cold quantum plasmas and their effect on the RSF, we have derived the envelope equation governing the spot size of X-ray laser beam in Q-plasmas. In addition to the upward ramp density profile, we have found that the quantum effects would be caused much higher oscillation and better focusing of X-ray laser beam in the WQP compared to that of cold quantum case. Our computational results reveal the importance of the use of electrons density profile and Fermi speed in enhancing self-focusing of laser beam.

  10. A photon shield capsule design for an {sup 241}Am/Be ({alpha},n) source using high density tungsten alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clement, R.S.; Hsu, H.H.; Olsher, R.S.; Aikin, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    A photon shield capsule made of high density tungsten alloy was designed for a 400 GBq {sup 241}Am/Be ({alpha},n) NIST-traceable source using Monte Carlo calculations. The {sup 241}Am/Be ({alpha},n) source replaces a {sup 239}Pu/Be ({alpha},n) source used in the Los Alamos Neutron Well for dose rate calibrations of portable and fixed neutron rem meters. Potential operator exposure due to {sup 241}Am photon emission (E{sub {gamma}} = 59.5 keV, Y{sub {gamma}} = 0.357 {gamma} d{sup -1}) is a major practical concern in using this type of source. This has been recognized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 8529:1989), which recommends wrapping the source in a 1 mm thick lead shield. However, the optimum photon shield capsule design depends on source construction and other considerations. These considerations include minimizing source spectrum degradation and inelastic gamma production from shielding, structural integrity, toxicity, and cost effectiveness of available materials and construction. Investigations of several materials and combinations using stainless steel, high density tungsten alloy (composed of 90%W, 6% Ni and 4% Cu) and lead with various capsule thicknesses were simulated using the Los Alamos Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code. The final design was based on a 2 mm thick capsule using the high density tungsten alloy. This material resulted in a small change in the neutron spectrum accompanied with only a slight increase in inelastic gamma production, and unobservable 59.5 keV photon emissions compared to the bare {sup 241}Am/Be ({alpha},n) source.

  11. Polyethylene composites containing a phase change material having a C14 straight chain hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1987-01-01

    A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyethylene matrix having a straight chain alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein, said polyethylene being crosslinked to such a degree that said polyethylene matrix is form stable and said polyethylene matrix is capable of absorbing at least 10% by weight of said straight chain alkyl hydrocarbon; the composite is useful in forming pellets or sheets having thermal energy storage characteristics.

  12. Reliability of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on low dislocation density bulk GaN substrate: Implications of surface step edges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killat, N. E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk; Montes Bajo, M.; Kuball, M. E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk; Paskova, T.; Materials Science and Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 ; Evans, K. R.; Leach, J.; Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 ; Li, X.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.; Chabak, K. D.; Crespo, A.; Gillespie, J. K.; Fitch, R.; Kossler, M.; Walker, D. E.; Trejo, M.; Via, G. D.; Blevins, J. D.

    2013-11-04

    To enable gaining insight into degradation mechanisms of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, devices grown on a low-dislocation-density bulk-GaN substrate were studied. Gate leakage current and electroluminescence (EL) monitoring revealed a progressive appearance of EL spots during off-state stress which signify the generation of gate current leakage paths. Atomic force microscopy evidenced the formation of semiconductor surface pits at the failure location, which corresponds to the interaction region of the gate contact edge and the edges of surface steps.

  13. High-Resolution PFPE-based Molding Techniques for Nanofabrication of High-Pattern Density, Sub-20 nm Features: A Fundamental Materials Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Stuart S.; Retterer, Scott; Lopez, Rene; Ruiz, Ricardo; Samulski, Edward T.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2010-04-14

    Several perfluoropolyether (PFPE)-based elastomers for high-resolution replica molding applications are explored. The modulus of the elastomeric materials was increased through synthetic and additive approaches while maintaining relatively low surface tension values (<25 mN/m). Using large area (>4 in.{sup 2}) master templates, we experimentally show the relationship between mold resolution and material properties such as modulus and surface tension for materials used in this study. A composite mold approach was used to form flexible molds out of stiff, high modulus materials that allow for replication of sub-20 nm post structures. Sub-100 nm line grating master templates, formed using e-beam lithography, were used to determine the experimental stability of the molding materials. It was observed that as the feature spacing decreased, high modulus PFPE tetramethacrylate (TMA) composite molds were able to effectively replicate the nanograting structures without cracking or tear-out defects that typically occur with high modulus elastomers.

  14. Production and characterization of a composite insulation material from waste polyethylene teraphtalates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtulmus, Erhan; Karaboyac?, Mustafa; Yigitarslan, Sibel

    2013-12-16

    The pollution of polyethylene teraphtalate (PET) is in huge amounts due to the most widely usage as a packaging material in several industries. Regional pumice has several desirable characteristics such as porous structure, low-cost and light-weight. Considering the requirements approved by the Ministry of Public Works on isolation, composite insulation material consisting of PET and pumice was studied. Sheets of composites differing both in particle size of pumice and composition of polymer were produced by hot-molding technique. Characterization of new composite material was achieved by measuring its weight, density, flammability, endurance against both to common acids and bases, and to a force applied, heat insulation and water adsorption capacity. The results of the study showed that produced composite material is an alternative building material due to its desirable characteristics; low weight, capability of low heat conduction.

  15. Cryogenic tritium-hydrogen-deuterium and deuterium-tritium layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meezan, N. B. Hopkins, L. F. Berzak; Pape, S. Le; Divol, L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Döppner, T.; Ho, D. D.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L.; Pak, A. E.; Ross, J. S.; Thomas, C. A.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; and others

    2015-06-15

    High Density Carbon (or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a deuterium-tritium (DT) layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightly oblate hot spot shape. Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 × 10{sup 15} neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.

  16. Developing a bright 17 keV x-ray source for probing high-energy-density states of matter at high spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, R.; Braun, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Remington, B. A.; Hohenberger, M.; Regan, S. P.

    2015-04-15

    A set of experiments were performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to develop and optimize a bright, 17 keV x-ray backlighter probe using laser-irradiated Nb foils. High-resolution one-dimensional imaging was achieved using a 15 μm wide slit in a Ta substrate to aperture the Nb He{sub α} x-rays onto an open-aperture, time integrated camera. To optimize the x-ray source for imaging applications, the effect of laser pulse shape and spatial profile on the target was investigated. Two laser pulse shapes were used—a “prepulse” shape that included a 3 ns, low-intensity laser foot preceding the high-energy 2 ns square main laser drive, and a pulse without the laser foot. The laser spatial profile was varied by the use of continuous phase plates (CPPs) on a pair of shots compared to beams at best focus, without CPPs. A comprehensive set of common diagnostics allowed for a direct comparison of imaging resolution, total x-ray conversion efficiency, and x-ray spectrum between shots. The use of CPPs was seen to reduce the high-energy tail of the x-ray spectrum, whereas the laser pulse shape had little effect on the high-energy tail. The measured imaging resolution was comparably high for all combinations of laser parameters, but a higher x-ray flux was achieved without phase plates. This increased flux was the result of smaller laser spot sizes, which allowed us to arrange the laser focal spots from multiple beams and produce an x-ray source which was more localized behind the slit aperture. Our experiments are a first demonstration of point-projection geometry imaging at NIF at the energies (>10 keV) necessary for imaging denser, higher-Z targets than have previously been investigated.

  17. Electron density and currents of AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with thin GaN/AlN buffer layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bairamis, A.; Zervos, Ch.; Georgakilas, A.; Adikimenakis, A.; Kostopoulos, A.; Kayambaki, M.; Tsagaraki, K.; Konstantinidis, G.

    2014-09-15

    AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures with thin GaN/AlN buffer layer have been analyzed theoretically and experimentally, and the effects of the AlN barrier and GaN buffer layer thicknesses on two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density and transport properties have been evaluated. HEMT structures consisting of [300?nm GaN/ 200?nm AlN] buffer layer on sapphire were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and exhibited a remarkable agreement with the theoretical calculations, suggesting a negligible influence of the crystalline defects that increase near the heteroepitaxial interface. The 2DEG density varied from 6.8??10{sup 12} to 2.1 10{sup 13} cm{sup ?2} as the AlN barrier thickness increased from 2.2 to 4.5?nm, while a 4.5?nm AlN barrier would result to 3.1??10{sup 13} cm{sup ?2} on a GaN buffer layer. The 3.0?nm AlN barrier structure exhibited the highest 2DEG mobility of 900?cm{sup 2}/Vs for a density of 1.3??10{sup 13} cm{sup ?2}. The results were also confirmed by the performance of 1??m gate-length transistors. The scaling of AlN barrier thickness from 1.5?nm to 4.5?nm could modify the drain-source saturation current, for zero gate-source voltage, from zero (normally off condition) to 0.63?A/mm. The maximum drain-source current was 1.1?A/mm for AlN barrier thickness of 3.0?nm and 3.7?nm, and the maximum extrinsic transconductance was 320 mS/mm for 3.0?nm AlN barrier.

  18. Confinement analyses of the high-density field-reversed configuration plasma in the field-reversed configuration experiment with a liner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Shouyin; Intrator, T.P.; Wurden, G.A.; Waganaar, W.J.; Taccetti, J.M.; Renneke, R.; Grabowski, C.; Ruden, E.L.

    2005-05-15

    The focus of the field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment with a liner (FRX-L) is the formation of a target FRC plasma for magnetized target fusion experiments. An FRC plasma with density of 10{sup 23} m{sup -3}, total temperature in the range of 150-300 eV, and a lifetime of {approx_equal}20 {mu}s is desired. Field-reversed {theta}-pinch technology is used with programed cusp fields at {theta}-coil ends to achieve non-tearing field line reconnections during FRC formation. Well-formed FRCs with density between (2-4)x10{sup 22} m{sup -3}, lifetime in the range of 15-20 {mu}s, and total temperature between 300-500 eV are reproducibly created. Key FRC parameters have standard deviation in the mean of 10% during consecutive shots. The FRCs are formed at 50 mTorr deuterium static fill using 2 kG net reversed bias field inside the {theta}-coil confinement region, with external main field unexpectedly ranging between 15-30 kG. The high-density FRCs confinement properties are approximately in agreement with empirical scaling laws obtained from previous experiments with fill pressure mostly less than 20 mTorr. Analyses in this paper reveal that reducing the external main field modulation and/or extending the {theta}-coil length in the FRX-L device are critical in achieving higher FRC parameters for application in magnetized target fusion.

  19. Unraveling the Voltage-Fade Mechanism in High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries: Origin of the Tetrahedral Cations for Spinel Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Abraham, Daniel P.; Huq, Ashfia; Payzant, E. Andrew; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2014-09-30

    Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cation intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct →LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct → LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Unraveling the Voltage-Fade Mechanism in High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries: Origin of the Tetrahedral Cations for Spinel Conversion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Abraham, Daniel P.; Huq, Ashfia; Payzant, E. Andrew; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2014-09-30

    Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cationmore » intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct →LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct → LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.« less

  1. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merritt, E. C. Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-06-15

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varying two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. We also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.

  2. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Merritt, E. C.; Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-06-24

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varyingmore » two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. In addition, we also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.« less

  3. Efficient high density train operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference. During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  4. Planar high density sodium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lemmon, John P.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.

    2016-03-01

    A method of making a molten sodium battery is disclosed. A first metallic interconnect frame having a first interconnect vent hole is provided. A second metallic interconnect frame having a second interconnect vent hole is also provided. An electrolyte plate having a cathode vent hole and an anode vent hole is interposed between the metallic interconnect frames. The metallic interconnect frames and the electrolyte plate are sealed thereby forming gaseous communication between an anode chamber through the anode vent hole and gaseous communication between a cathode chamber through the cathode vent hole.

  5. Proposal for the Study of Thermophysical Properties of High-Energy-Density Matter Using Current and Future Heavy-Ion Accelerator Facilities at GSI Darmstadt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tahir, N.A.; Spiller, P.; Deutsch, C.; Fortov, V.E.; Gryaznov, V.; Kulish, M.; Lomonosov, I.V.; Mintsev, V.; Nikolaev, D.; Shilkin, N.; Shutov, A.; Ternovoi, V.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Ni, P.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D.; Piriz, A.R.; Temporal, M.

    2005-07-15

    The subject of high-energy-density (HED) states in matter is of considerable importance to numerous branches of basic as well as applied physics. Intense heavy-ion beams are an excellent tool to create large samples of HED matter in the laboratory with fairly uniform physical conditions. Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, is a unique worldwide laboratory that has a heavy-ion synchrotron, SIS18, that delivers intense beams of energetic heavy ions. Construction of a much more powerful synchrotron, SIS100, at the future international facility for antiprotons and ion research (FAIR) at Darmstadt will lead to an increase in beam intensity by 3 orders of magnitude compared to what is currently available. The purpose of this Letter is to investigate with the help of two-dimensional numerical simulations, the potential of the FAIR to carry out research in the field of HED states in matter.

  6. Argon–germane in situ plasma clean for reduced temperature Ge on Si epitaxy by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Douglas, Erica A.; Sheng, Josephine J.; Verley, Jason C.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2015-06-04

    We found that the demand for integration of near infrared optoelectronic functionality with silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has for many years motivated the investigation of low temperature germanium on silicon deposition processes. Our work describes the development of a high density plasma chemical vapor deposition process that uses a low temperature (<460 °C) in situ germane/argon plasma surface preparation step for epitaxial growth of germanium on silicon. It is shown that the germane/argon plasma treatment sufficiently removes SiOx and carbon at the surface to enable germanium epitaxy. Finally, the use of this surface preparation step demonstrates anmore » alternative way to produce germanium epitaxy at reduced temperatures, a key enabler for increased flexibility of integration with CMOS back-end-of-line fabrication.« less

  7. Argon–germane in situ plasma clean for reduced temperature Ge on Si epitaxy by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, Erica A.; Sheng, Josephine J.; Verley, Jason C.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2015-06-04

    We found that the demand for integration of near infrared optoelectronic functionality with silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has for many years motivated the investigation of low temperature germanium on silicon deposition processes. Our work describes the development of a high density plasma chemical vapor deposition process that uses a low temperature (<460 °C) in situ germane/argon plasma surface preparation step for epitaxial growth of germanium on silicon. It is shown that the germane/argon plasma treatment sufficiently removes SiOx and carbon at the surface to enable germanium epitaxy. Finally, the use of this surface preparation step demonstrates an alternative way to produce germanium epitaxy at reduced temperatures, a key enabler for increased flexibility of integration with CMOS back-end-of-line fabrication.

  8. Polyethylene encapsulation full-scale technology demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, P.D.; Lageraaen, P.R.

    1994-10-01

    A full-scale integrated technology demonstration of a polyethylene encapsulation process, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD), was conducted at the Environmental & Waste Technology Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL.) in September 1994. As part of the Polymer Solidification National Effort, polyethylene encapsulation has been developed and tested at BNL as an alternative solidification technology for improved, cost-effective treatment of low-level radioactive (LLW), hazardous and mixed wastes. A fully equipped production-scale system, capable of processing 900 kg/hr (2000 lb/hr), has been installed at BNL. The demonstration covered all facets of the integrated processing system including pre-treatment of aqueous wastes, precise feed metering, extrusion processing, on-line quality control monitoring, and process control.

  9. High resolution PFPE-based molding High resolution PFPE-based molding High resolution PFPE-based molding techniques for nanofabrication of high pattern density sub-20 nm features: A fundamental materials approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Stuart S [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Samulski, Edward [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Lopez, Renee [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Ruiz, Ricardo [Hitachi; DeSimone, Joseph [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Described herein is the development and investigation of PFPE-based elastomers for high resolution replica molding applications. The modulus of the elastomeric materials was increased through synthetic and additive approaches while maintaining relatively low surface energies (<25 mN/m). Using practically relevant large area master templates, we show that the resolution of the molds is strongly dependant upon the elastomeric mold modulus. A composite mold approach was used to form flexible molds out of stiff, high modulus materials that allow for replication of sub-20 nm post structures. Sub-100 nm line grating master templates, formed using e-beam lithography, were used to determine the experimental stability of the molding materials. It was observed that as the feature spacing decreased, high modulus composite molds were able to effectively replicate the nano-grating structures without cracking or tear-out defects that typically occur with high modulus elastomers.

  10. Void morphology in polyethylene/carbon black composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, D.W.M.; Wartenberg, M.; Schwartz, K.B.

    1996-12-31

    A combination of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and contrast matching techniques is used to determine the size and quantity of voids incorporated during fabrication of polyethylene/carbon black composites. The analysis used to extract void morphology from SANS data is based on the three-phase model of microcrack determination via small angle x-rayscattering (SAXS) developed by W.Wu{sup 12} and applied to particulate reinforced composites.

  11. Comparison of growth texture in round Bi2212 and flat Bi2223 wires and its relation to high critical current density development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kametani, F.; Jiang, J.; Matras, M.; Abraimov, D.; Hellstrom, E. E.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2015-02-10

    Why Bi₂Sr₂CaCu₂Ox (Bi2212) allows high critical current density Jc in round wires rather than only in the anisotropic tape form demanded by all other high temperature superconductors is important for future magnet applications. Here we compare the local texture of state-of-the-art Bi2212 and Bi2223 ((Bi,Pb)₂Sr₂Ca₂Cu₃O₁₀), finding that round wire Bi2212 generates a dominant a-axis growth texture that also enforces a local biaxial texture (FWHM <15°) while simultaneously allowing the c-axes of its polycrystals to rotate azimuthally along and about the filament axis so as to generate macroscopically isotropic behavior. By contrast Bi2223 shows only a uniaxial (FWHM <15°) c-axis texture perpendicular to the tape plane without any in-plane texture. Consistent with these observations, a marked, field-increasing, field-decreasing Jc(H) hysteresis characteristic of weak-linked systems appears in Bi2223 but is absent in Bi2212 round wire. Growth-induced texture on cooling from the melt step of the Bi2212 Jc optimization process appears to be the key step in generating this highly desirable microstructure.

  12. Comparison of growth texture in round Bi2212 and flat Bi2223 wires and its relation to high critical current density development

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kametani, F.; Jiang, J.; Matras, M.; Abraimov, D.; Hellstrom, E. E.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2015-02-10

    Why Bi₂Sr₂CaCu₂Ox (Bi2212) allows high critical current density Jc in round wires rather than only in the anisotropic tape form demanded by all other high temperature superconductors is important for future magnet applications. Here we compare the local texture of state-of-the-art Bi2212 and Bi2223 ((Bi,Pb)₂Sr₂Ca₂Cu₃O₁₀), finding that round wire Bi2212 generates a dominant a-axis growth texture that also enforces a local biaxial texture (FWHM <15°) while simultaneously allowing the c-axes of its polycrystals to rotate azimuthally along and about the filament axis so as to generate macroscopically isotropic behavior. By contrast Bi2223 shows only a uniaxial (FWHM <15°) c-axis texturemore » perpendicular to the tape plane without any in-plane texture. Consistent with these observations, a marked, field-increasing, field-decreasing Jc(H) hysteresis characteristic of weak-linked systems appears in Bi2223 but is absent in Bi2212 round wire. Growth-induced texture on cooling from the melt step of the Bi2212 Jc optimization process appears to be the key step in generating this highly desirable microstructure.« less

  13. Spatiotemporal temperature and density characterization of high-power atmospheric flashover discharges over inert poly(methyl methacrylate) and energetic pentaerythritol tetranitrate dielectric surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, V.; Grant, C. D.; McCarrick, J. F.; Zaug, J. M.; Glascoe, E. A.; Wang, H.

    2012-03-01

    A flashover arc source that delivered up to 200 mJ on the 100s-of-ns time-scale to the arc and a user-selected dielectric surface was characterized for studying high-explosive kinetics under plasma conditions. The flashover was driven over thin pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) dielectric films and the resultant plasma was characterized in detail. Time- and space-resolved temperatures and electron densities of the plasma were obtained using atomic emission spectroscopy. The hydrodynamics of the plasma was captured through fast, visible imaging. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the films pre- and post-shot for any chemical alterations. Time-resolved infrared spectroscopy (TRIR) provided PETN depletion data during the plasma discharge. For both types of films, temperatures of 1.6-1.7 eV and electron densities of {approx}7-8 x 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 3}{approx}570 ns after the start of the discharge were observed with temperatures of 0.6-0.7 eV persisting out to 15 {mu}s. At 1.2 {mu}s, spatial characterization showed flat temperature and density profiles of 1.1-1.3 eV and 2-2.8 x 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 3} for PETN and PMMA films, respectively. Images of the plasma showed an expanding hot kernel starting from radii of {approx}0.2 mm at {approx}50 ns and reaching {approx}1.1 mm at {approx}600 ns. The thin films ablated or reacted several hundred nm of material in response to the discharge. First TRIR data showing the in situ reaction or depletion of PETN in response to the flashover arc were successfully obtained, and a 2-{mu}s, 1/e decay constant was measured. Preliminary 1 D simulations compared reasonably well with the experimentally determined plasma radii and temperatures. These results complete the first steps to resolving arc-driven PETN reaction pathways and their associated kinetic rates using in situ spectroscopy techniques.

  14. The effect of clay catalyst on the chemical composition of bio-oil obtained by co-pyrolysis of cellulose and polyethylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solak, Agnieszka; Rutkowski, Piotr

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Non-catalytic and catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose/polyethylene blend was carried out in a laboratory scale reactor. • Optimization of process temperature was done. • Optimization of clay catalyst type and amount for co-pyrolysis of cellulose and polyethylene was done. • The product yields and the chemical composition of bio-oil was investigated. - Abstract: Cellulose/polyethylene (CPE) mixture 3:1, w/w with and without three clay catalysts (K10 – montmorillonite K10, KSF – montmorillonite KSF, B – Bentonite) addition were subjected to pyrolysis at temperatures 400, 450 and 500 °C with heating rate of 100 °C/s to produce bio-oil with high yield. The pyrolytic oil yield was in the range of 41.3–79.5 wt% depending on the temperature, the type and the amount of catalyst. The non-catalytic fast pyrolysis at 500 °C gives the highest yield of bio-oil (79.5 wt%). The higher temperature of catalytic pyrolysis of cellulose/polyethylene mixture the higher yield of bio-oil is. Contrarily, increasing amount of montmorillonite results in significant, almost linear decrease in bio-oil yield followed by a significant increase of gas yield. The addition of clay catalysts to CPE mixture has a various influence on the distribution of bio-oil components. The addition of montmorillonite K10 to cellulose/polyethylene mixture promotes the deepest conversion of polyethylene and cellulose. Additionally, more saturated than unsaturated hydrocarbons are present in resultant bio-oils. The proportion of liquid hydrocarbons is the highest when a montmorillonite K10 is acting as a catalyst.

  15. Investigation of the on-axis atom number density in the supersonic gas jet under high gas backing pressure by simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Guanglong; Xu, Yi; Cao, Yunjiu; Mi, Yiming; Zhang, Xiuli; Wang, Lili; Boldarev, A. S.; Geng, Xiaotao; Kim, Dong Eon

    2015-10-15

    The supersonic gas jets from conical nozzles are simulated using 2D model. The on-axis atom number density in gas jet is investigated in detail by comparing the simulated densities with the idealized densities of straight streamline model in scaling laws. It is found that the density is generally lower than the idealized one and the deviation between them is mainly dependent on the opening angle of conical nozzle, the nozzle length and the gas backing pressure. The density deviation is then used to discuss the deviation of the equivalent diameter of a conical nozzle from the idealized d{sub eq} in scaling laws. The investigation on the lateral expansion of gas jet indicates the lateral expansion could be responsible for the behavior of the density deviation. These results could be useful for the estimation of cluster size and the understanding of experimental results in laser-cluster interaction experiments.

  16. Cementitious building material incorporating end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    A cementitious composition comprising a cementitious material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the compositions are useful in making pre-formed building materials such as concrete blocks, brick, dry wall and the like or in making poured structures such as walls or floor pads; the glycols can be encapsulated to reduce their tendency to retard set.

  17. Deuterated polyethylene coatings for ultra-cold neutron applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenner, Th.; Geltenbort, P.; Fierlinger, P.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Hollering, A.; Petzoldt, G.; Ruhstorfer, D.; Stuiber, St.; Taubenheim, B.; Windmayer, D.; Lauer, T.; Schroffenegger, J.; Zechlau, T.; Seemann, K. M.; Soltwedel, O.

    2015-09-21

    We report on the fabrication and use of deuterated polyethylene as a coating material for ultra-cold neutron (UCN) storage and transport. The Fermi potential has been determined to be 214 neV, and the wall loss coefficient η is 1.3 × 10{sup 4} per wall collision. The coating technique allows for a wide range of applications in this field of physics. In particular, flexible and quasi-massless UCN guides with slit-less shutters and seamless UCN storage volumes become possible. These properties enable the use in next-generation measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  18. Ultrasonic inspection of polyethylene butt-fussion joints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    House, L.J.; Day, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Researchers investigated nondestructive pulse-echo, pitch-catch, and spectroscopic ultrasonic methods for determining voids and inclusions, lack of bond, and inadequate fusion in heat-fused polyethylene butt joints in 4-in. gas distribution pipe. The pulse-echo method, using a 2.25-MHz, cylindrically focused transducer, provided the best sensitivity to the joint defects, detecting flaws as small as 0.014 in. in diameter. No correlation was established between the ultrasonic spectroscopy results and the cohesive strength of incompletely fused joints in the 1.2-3.2 MHz frequency range.

  19. Ferromagnetism of manganese-doped indium tin oxide films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Toshihiro; Isozaki, Shinichi; Tanabe, Kohei; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2009-04-01

    Mn-doped indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The magnetic, electrical, and optical properties of the films deposited on PEN substrates were investigated by comparing with the properties of films grown on glass substrates at the same growth conditions. Thin films on PEN substrates exhibited low electrical resistivity of the order of 10{sup -4} {omega} cm and high optical transmittance between 75% and 90% in the visible region. Ferromagnetic hysteresis loops were observed at room temperature for the samples grown on PEN substrates. Mn-doped ITO films can be one of the most promising candidates of transparent ferromagnetic materials for flexible spintronic devices.

  20. Density variations and anomalies in palladium compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, D.; Jones, T.; Ransick, M.; Walburg, T.; Werkmeister, D.

    1992-05-14

    Low-density compacts of palladium powder have relative densities of about 30{plus minus}10% TD. The variations in density are of concern for operations such as chemical/hydrogen pump systems because heat, mass, and momentum transport properties can be affected. Variations in density result from the inherent nature and interacting forces of UASA compaction of powder in cylinders. In addition to these expected variations, discontinuous density anomalies, such as cracks or high density ridges, are also found. An anomaly of particular concern was found to resemble a steer's head.'' it is a symmetrical region of low density located at or near the center of a compact. Typically, this region is surrounded by a band of high density, compacted palladium that sometimes exceeds the density of the surrounding compact matrix by a factor of three. This report examines these density variations and anomalies both theoretically and empirically.

  1. Density variations and anomalies in palladium compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, D.; Jones, T.; Ransick, M.; Walburg, T.; Werkmeister, D.

    1992-05-14

    Low-density compacts of palladium powder have relative densities of about 30{plus_minus}10% TD. The variations in density are of concern for operations such as chemical/hydrogen pump systems because heat, mass, and momentum transport properties can be affected. Variations in density result from the inherent nature and interacting forces of UASA compaction of powder in cylinders. In addition to these expected variations, discontinuous density anomalies, such as cracks or high density ridges, are also found. An anomaly of particular concern was found to resemble a ``steer`s head.`` it is a symmetrical region of low density located at or near the center of a compact. Typically, this region is surrounded by a band of high density, compacted palladium that sometimes exceeds the density of the surrounding compact matrix by a factor of three. This report examines these density variations and anomalies both theoretically and empirically.

  2. An innovative high-power constant-current pulsed-arc power-supply for a high-density pulsed-arc-plasma ion-source using a LaB{sub 6}-filament

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, A.; Oguri, H.; Ikegami, K.; Namekawa, Y.; Ohkoshi, K.; Tokuchi, A.

    2010-02-15

    An innovative high-power constant-current (CC) pulsed-arc (PA) power-supply (PS) indispensable for a high-density PA plasma ion-source using a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB{sub 6}) filament was devised by combining a constant-voltage (CV) PA-PS, which is composed of an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switch, a CV direct-current (dc) PS and a 270 mF capacitor with a CC-PA-PS, which is composed of an IGBT-switch, a CC-dc-PS and a 400 {mu}H inductor, through the inductor. The hybrid-CC-PA-PS succeeded in producing a flat arc-pulse with a peak power of 56 kW (400 Ax140 V) and a duty factor of more than 1.5%(600 {mu}sx25 Hz) for Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) H{sup -} ion-source stably. It also succeeded in shortening the 99% rising-time of the arc-pulse-current to about 20 {mu}s and tilting up or down the arc-pulse-current arbitrarily and almost linearly by changing the setting voltage of its CV-dc-PS.

  3. High energy neutron Computed Tomography developed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High energy neutron Computed Tomography developed High energy neutron Computed Tomography developed LANSCE now has a high-energy neutron imaging capability that can be deployed on WNR flight paths for unclassified and classified objects. May 9, 2014 Neutron tomography horizontal "slice" of a tungsten and polyethylene test object containing tungsten carbide BBs. Neutron tomography horizontal "slice" of a tungsten and polyethylene test object containing tungsten carbide BBs.

  4. An in situ tensile test apparatus for polymers in high pressure hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvine, K. J. Kafentzis, T. A.; Pitman, S. G.; Johnson, K. I.; Skorski, D.; Tucker, J. C.; Roosendaal, T. J.; Dahl, M. E.

    2014-10-15

    Degradation of material properties by high-pressure hydrogen is an important factor in determining the safety and reliability of materials used in high-pressure hydrogen storage and delivery. Hydrogen damage mechanisms have a time dependence that is linked to hydrogen outgassing after exposure to the hydrogen atmosphere that makes ex situ measurements of mechanical properties problematic. Designing in situ measurement instruments for high-pressure hydrogen is challenging due to known hydrogen incompatibility with many metals and standard high-power motor materials such as Nd. Here we detail the design and operation of a solenoid based in situ tensile tester under high-pressure hydrogen environments up to 42 MPa (6000 psi). Modulus data from high-density polyethylene samples tested under high-pressure hydrogen at 35 MPa (5000 psi) are also reported as compared to baseline measurements taken in air.

  5. An In-situ Tensile Test Apparatus for Polymers in High Pressure Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Pitman, Stan G.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Tucker, Joseph C.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Dahl, Michael E.

    2014-10-10

    Degradation of material properties by high-pressure hydrogen is an important factor in determining the safety and reliability of materials used in high-pressure hydrogen storage and delivery. Hydrogen damage mechanisms have a time dependence that is linked to hydrogen outgassing after exposure to the hydrogen atmosphere that makes ex-situ measurements of mechanical properties problematic. Designing in-situ measurement instruments for high-pressure hydrogen is challenging due to known hydrogen incompatibility with many metals and standard high-power motor materials like Nd. Here we detail the design and operation of a solenoid based in-situ tensile tester under high-pressure hydrogen environments up to 5,000 psi. Modulus data from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) samples tested under high-pressure hydrogen are also reported as compared to baseline measurements taken in air.

  6. Mesophases in polyethylene, polypropylene, and poly(1-butene)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Androsch, Rene J; Di Lorenzo, Maria; Schick, Christoph; Wunderlich, Bernhard {nmn}

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains new views about the amorphous and partially ordered phases of the three polymers listed in the title. The discussion is based on information on structure, thermodynamic stability, and large-amplitude molecular motion. Polyethylene is the basic backbone of all alkene polymers, and the other two are the first members of the vinyl polymers which have stereospecifically placed alkyl side chains. Their multiphase structures consist of metastable crystals, mesophases, and surrounding rigid and mobile amorphous fractions. All these phases have sizes ranging from micrometer dimensions down to nanometers. Besides the phase structures, information about the molecular coupling between the phases must be considered. Depending on temperature, the polymer phases can vary from solid (rigid) to liquid (mobile). New knowledge is also gained by cross-comparison of the title polymers. The experimental information was gained from (a) various forms of slow, fast, and temperature-modulated thermal analysis to identify equilibrium and non-equilibrium states, (b) measurement of structure and morphology at various length scales, and (c) tracing of the large-amplitude molecular motion, the kinetics of order/disorder changes, and the liquid/solid transitions (glass transitions). It is shown that much more needs to be known about the various phases and their coupling to characterize a given polymer and to fine-tune its properties for a given application.

  7. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Factors of NaOH treatment were studied by orthogonal and single factor experiments. • Mechanism of alkaline treatment for facilitating flotation was manifested. • Flotation separation of PET was achieved with high purity and efficiency. • A flow sheet of purification PET from MWP was designed. - Abstract: Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L{sub 9} (3{sup 4}) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70 °C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics.

  8. Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Booth, J. P.

    2013-07-15

    Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} at 0.1 vol. %.

  9. Matching field effects at tesla-level magnetic fields in critical current density in high-Tc superconductors containing self-assembled columnar defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, J.; Zuev, Yuri L; Cantoni, Claudia; Wee, Sung Hun; Varanasi, C. V.; Thompson, James R; Christen, David K

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the superconductive transport properties of YBa2Cu3O7 films containing self-assembled columnar arrays of second phase SrZrO3 or BaSnO3 precipitates. A matching condition between columnar pinning sites (aligned at or near the c axis) and external magnetic flux, tilted with respect to them, is identified in the critical current JC.H/ data. The results for the material containing SrZrO3-based pins are analyzed within a simple intuitive model. At matching, the critical current is enhanced above the model prediction. In complementary contact-free investigations of BaSnO3-doped material, matching effects are observed over a wide range of temperatures in the field dependence of JC.H/. The deduced matching fields agree reasonably well with the densities of columnar pins directly observed by scanning electron microscopy.

  10. Diagnosing collisions of magnetized, high energy density plasma flows using a combination of collective Thomson scattering, Faraday rotation, and interferometry (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swadling, G. F. Lebedev, S. V.; Hall, G. N.; Patankar, S.; Stewart, N. H.; Smith, R. A.; Burdiak, G. C.; Grouchy, P. de; Skidmore, J.; Suttle, L.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Bland, S. N.; Kwek, K. H.; Pickworth, L.; Bennett, M.; Hare, J. D.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Rozmus, W.; Yuan, J.

    2014-11-15

    A suite of laser based diagnostics is used to study interactions of magnetised, supersonic, radiatively cooled plasma flows produced using the Magpie pulse power generator (1.4 MA, 240 ns rise time). Collective optical Thomson scattering measures the time-resolved local flow velocity and temperature across 7–14 spatial positions. The scattering spectrum is recorded from multiple directions, allowing more accurate reconstruction of the flow velocity vectors. The areal electron density is measured using 2D interferometry; optimisation and analysis are discussed. The Faraday rotation diagnostic, operating at 1053 nm, measures the magnetic field distribution in the plasma. Measurements obtained simultaneously by these diagnostics are used to constrain analysis, increasing the accuracy of interpretation.

  11. New Electrode Manufacturing Process Equipment: Novel High Energy Density Lithium-Ion Cell Designs via Innovative Manufacturing Process Modules for Cathode and Integrated Separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Applied Materials is developing new tools for manufacturing Li-Ion batteries that could dramatically increase their performance. Traditionally, the positive and negative terminals of Li-Ion batteries are mixed with glue-like materials called binders, pressed onto electrodes, and then physically kept apart by winding a polymer mesh material between them called a separator. With the Applied Materials system, many of these manually intensive processes will be replaced by next generation coating technology to apply each component. This process will improve product reliability and performance of the cells at a fraction of the current cost. These novel manufacturing techniques will also increase the energy density of the battery and reduce the size of several of the batterys components to free up more space within the cell for storage.

  12. Technical Note: Exploring the limit for the conversion of energy-subtracted CT number to electron density for high-atomic-number materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Masatoshi; Tsukihara, Masayoshi

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: For accurate tissue inhomogeneity correction in radiotherapy treatment planning, the authors had previously proposed a novel conversion of the energy-subtracted CT number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide ρ{sub e} range. The purpose of this study is to address the limitations of the conversion method with respect to atomic number (Z) by elucidating the role of partial photon interactions in the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion process. Methods: The authors performed numerical analyses of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion for 105 human body tissues, as listed in ICRU Report 46, and elementary substances with Z = 1–40. Total and partial attenuation coefficients for these materials were calculated using the XCOM photon cross section database. The effective x-ray energies used to calculate the attenuation were chosen to imitate a dual-source CT scanner operated at 80–140 kV/Sn under well-calibrated and poorly calibrated conditions. Results: The accuracy of the resultant calibrated electron density,ρ{sub e}{sup cal}, for the ICRU-46 body tissues fully satisfied the IPEM-81 tolerance levels in radiotherapy treatment planning. If a criterion of ρ{sub e}{sup cal}/ρ{sub e} − 1 is assumed to be within ±2%, the predicted upper limit of Z applicable for the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion under the well-calibrated condition is Z = 27. In the case of the poorly calibrated condition, the upper limit of Z is approximately 16. The deviation from the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} linearity for higher Z substances is mainly caused by the anomalous variation in the photoelectric-absorption component. Conclusions: Compensation among the three partial components of the photon interactions provides for sufficient linearity of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion to be applicable for most human tissues even for poorly conditioned scans in which there exists a large variation of effective x

  13. Method for making high-critical-current-density YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7 superconducting layers on metallic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Roeland (Knoxville, TN); Christen, David (Oak Ridge, TN); Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A method is disclosed for fabricating YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7 superconductor layers with the capability of carrying large superconducting currents on a metallic tape (substrate) supplied with a biaxially textured oxide buffer layer. The method represents a simplification of previously established techniques and provides processing requirements compatible with scale-up to long wire (tape) lengths and high processing speeds. This simplification has been realized by employing the BaF.sub.2 method to grow a YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7 film on a metallic substrate having a biaxially textured oxide buffer layer.

  14. Improved Performance of High Areal Density Indirect Drive Implosions at the National Ignition Facility using a Four-Shock Adiabat Shaped Drive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, D. T.; Milovich, J. L.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Clark, D. S.; Robey, H. F.; Pak, A.; MacPhee, A. G.; Baker, K. L.; Weber, C. R.; Ma, T.; Park, H. -S.; Döppner, T.; Callahan, D. A.; Haan, S. W.; Patel, P. K.; Peterson, J. L.; Hoover, D.; Nikroo, A.; Yeamans, C. B.; Merrill, F. E.; Volegov, P. L.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Grim, G. P.; Edwards, M. J.; Landen, O. L.; Lafortune, K. N.; MacGowan, B. J.; Widmayer, C. C.; Sayre, D. B.; Hatarik, R.; Bond, E. J.; Nagel, S. R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S.; Bachmann, B.; Spears, B. K.; Cerjan, C. J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.

    2015-09-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities can cause capsule defects and other perturbations to grow and degrade implosion performance in ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Here, we show the first experimental demonstration that a strong unsupported first shock in indirect drive implosions at the NIF reduces ablation front instability growth leading to a 3 to 10 times higher yield with fuel ρR > 1 g=cm2. This work shows the importance of ablation front instability growth during the National Ignition Campaign and may provide a path to improved performance at the high compression necessary for ignition.

  15. Improved Performance of High Areal Density Indirect Drive Implosions at the National Ignition Facility using a Four-Shock Adiabat Shaped Drive

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Casey, D. T.; Milovich, J. L.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Clark, D. S.; Robey, H. F.; Pak, A.; MacPhee, A. G.; Baker, K. L.; Weber, C. R.; Ma, T.; et al

    2015-09-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities can cause capsule defects and other perturbations to grow and degrade implosion performance in ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Here, we show the first experimental demonstration that a strong unsupported first shock in indirect drive implosions at the NIF reduces ablation front instability growth leading to a 3 to 10 times higher yield with fuel ρR > 1 g=cm2. This work shows the importance of ablation front instability growth during the National Ignition Campaign and may provide a path to improved performance at the high compression necessary for ignition.

  16. Visualization of electronic density

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grosso, Bastien; Cooper, Valentino R.; Pine, Polina; Hashibon, Adham; Yaish, Yuval; Adler, Joan

    2015-04-22

    An atom’s volume depends on its electronic density. Although this density can only be evaluated exactly for hydrogen-like atoms, there are many excellent numerical algorithms and packages to calculate it for other materials. 3D visualization of charge density is challenging, especially when several molecular/atomic levels are intertwined in space. We explore several approaches to 3D charge density visualization, including the extension of an anaglyphic stereo visualization application based on the AViz package to larger structures such as nanotubes. We will describe motivations and potential applications of these tools for answering interesting questions about nanotube properties.

  17. Visualization of electronic density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosso, Bastien; Cooper, Valentino R.; Pine, Polina; Hashibon, Adham; Yaish, Yuval; Adler, Joan

    2015-04-22

    An atoms volume depends on its electronic density. Although this density can only be evaluated exactly for hydrogen-like atoms, there are many excellent numerical algorithms and packages to calculate it for other materials. 3D visualization of charge density is challenging, especially when several molecular/atomic levels are intertwined in space. We explore several approaches to 3D charge density visualization, including the extension of an anaglyphic stereo visualization application based on the AViz package to larger structures such as nanotubes. We will describe motivations and potential applications of these tools for answering interesting questions about nanotube properties.

  18. Capillary Break Beneath a Slab: Polyethylene Sheeting over Aggregate; Southwestern Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-07-01

    This document provides content for three areas of the Building America Solution Center. First, "Insulating Closed Crawlspace Walls and Band Joist Area" describes how to install rigid foam insulation on the interior perimeter walls and band joist area in closed crawlspace foundations of homes. Second, "Removing Construction Debris from Flexible Ducts" describes how to clean flexible ducts after construction or major renovation of a home to remove debris resulting from building materials, particularly airborne dust and particulates. Third, images, CAD drawings, and a case study illustrate right and wrong ways to apply polyethylene sheeting over aggregate. Similarly, a CAD drawing is included that illustrates the use of a concrete slab over polyethylene.

  19. Density-dependent covariant energy density functionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalazissis, G. A.

    2012-10-20

    Relativistic nuclear energy density functionals are applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena at and away fromstability line. Isoscalar monopole, isovector dipole and isoscalar quadrupole giant resonances are calculated using fully self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle randomphase approximation, based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubovmodel. The impact of pairing correlations on the fission barriers in heavy and superheavy nuclei is examined. The role of pion in constructing desnity functionals is also investigated.

  20. “Nodal Gap” induced by the incommensurate diagonal spin density modulation in underdoped high- Tc superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Tao; Gao, Yi; Zhu, Jian -Xin

    2015-03-07

    Recently it was revealed that the whole Fermi surface is fully gapped for several families of underdoped cuprates. The existence of the finite energy gap along the d-wave nodal lines (nodal gap) contrasts the common understanding of the d-wave pairing symmetry, which challenges the present theories for the high-Tcsuperconductors. Here we propose that the incommensurate diagonal spin-density-wave order can account for the above experimental observation. The Fermi surface and the local density of states are also studied. Our results are in good agreement with many important experiments in high-Tcsuperconductors.

  1. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. Generation of High Density Sample Array

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-08-15

    An analytical procedure was developed for manipulation of a large number of samples using the Beckman BIOMEK 1000 workstation. The RUR software was written to create a number of different script files for control of robotic movement commands, which are read and executed via the Beckman Biorun3 program. This setup has the capability of creating arrays of as many as one million samples per day.

  3. Spatiotemporal temperature and density characterization of high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... OSTI Identifier: 22036817 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 111; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: (c) ...

  4. High energy density redox flow device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, William Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

  5. High energy density redox flow device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet -Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2015-10-06

    Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

  6. Search for High Energy Density Cathode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  7. High Power Density Integrated Traction Machine Drive

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  8. High Power Density Integrated Traction Machine Drive

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  9. High density electrical card connector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haggard, J. Eric; Trotter, Garrett R.

    2000-01-01

    An electrical circuit board card connection system is disclosed which comprises a wedge-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. An extrusion along the edge of the circuit board mates with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit board during insertion/extraction and provides a constant mating force once the circuit board is positioned and the wedge inserted. The disclosed connection system is a simple solution to the need for a greater number of electrical signal connections.

  10. Density Equalizing Map Projections

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    A geographic map is mathematically transformed so that the subareas of the map are proportional to a given quantity such as population. In other words, population density is equalized over the entire map. The transformed map can be used as a display tool, or it can be statistically analyzed. For example, cases of disease plotted on the transformed map should be uniformly distributed at random, if disease rates are everywhere equal. Geographic clusters of diseasemore » can be readily identified, and their statistical significance determined, on a density equalized map.« less

  11. Pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste comprising polyethylene-terephthalate and polyethylene to sequentially recover [monomers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1998-10-13

    A process is described for using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feed stream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent. 83 figs.

  12. Three-dimensional charge density wave order in YBa2Cu3O6.67 at high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, S.; Jang, H.; Nojiri, H.; Matsuzawa, S.; Yasumura, H.; Bonn, D. A.; Liang, R.; Hardy, W. N.; Islam, Z.; Mehta, A.; Song, S.; Sikorski, M.; Stefanescu, D.; Feng, Y.; Kivelson, S. A.; Devereaux, T. P.; Shen, Z. -. X.; Kao, C. -C.; Lee, W. -S.; Zhu, D.; Lee, J. -S.

    2015-11-20

    In this study, charge density wave (CDW) correlations have recently been shown to universally exist in cuprate superconductors. However, their nature at high fields inferred from nuclear magnetic resonance is distinct from that measured by x-ray scattering at zero and low fields. Here we combine a pulsed magnet with an x-ray free electron laser to characterize the CDW in YBa2Cu3O6.67 via x-ray scattering in fields up to 28 Tesla. While the zero-field CDW order, which develops below T ~ 150 K, is essentially two-dimensional, at lower temperature and beyond 15 Tesla, another three-dimensionally ordered CDW emerges. The field-induced CDW onsets around the zero-field superconducting transition temperature, yet the incommensurate in-plane ordering vector is field-independent. This implies that the two forms of CDW and high-temperature superconductivity are intimately linked.

  13. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  14. Energy in density gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vranjes, J.; Kono, M.

    2015-01-15

    Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work, the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindrical configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and, in particular, in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit volume (per second) in quiet regions in the corona. Consequently, within the life-time of a magnetic structure such energy losses can easily be compensated by the stochastic drift wave heating.

  15. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  16. Density Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Density Log Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Density Log Details Activities (7) Areas (6) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration...

  17. Rock Density | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Density Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Rock Density Details Activities (2) Areas (2) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique...

  18. Evidence for composition variations and impurity segregation at grain boundaries in high current-density polycrystalline K- and Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yoon-Jun; Weiss, Jeremy D.; Hellstrom, Eric E.; Larbalestier, David C.; Seidman, David N.

    2014-10-20

    Some polycrystalline forms of the K- and Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and SrFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} superconductors now have a critical current density (J{sub c}) within a factor of ∼5 of that required for real applications, even though it is known that some grain boundaries (GBs) block current, thus, raising the question of whether this blocking is intrinsic or extrinsically limited by artefacts amenable to improvement by better processing. Herein, we utilize atom-probe tomography (APT) to study the grain and GB composition in high J{sub c} K- and Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} polycrystals. We find that all GBs studied show significant compositional variations on the scale of a few coherence lengths (ξ), as well as strong segregation of oxygen impurities, which we believe are largely introduced in the starting materials. Importantly, these findings demonstrate that APT enables quantitative analysis of the highest J{sub c} K-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} samples, where analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) fails because of the great reactivity of thin TEM samples. The observations of major chemical perturbations at GBs make us cautiously optimistic that there is a large extrinsic component to the GB current blocking, which will be ameliorated by better processing, for which APT will likely be a crucial instrument.

  19. Gedanken densities and exact constraints in density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perdew, John P.; Department of Chemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 ; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Sun, Jianwei; Burke, Kieron

    2014-05-14

    Approximations to the exact density functional for the exchange-correlation energy of a many-electron ground state can be constructed by satisfying constraints that are universal, i.e., valid for all electron densities. Gedanken densities are designed for the purpose of this construction, but need not be realistic. The uniform electron gas is an old gedanken density. Here, we propose a spherical two-electron gedanken density in which the dimensionless density gradient can be an arbitrary positive constant wherever the density is non-zero. The Lieb-Oxford lower bound on the exchange energy can be satisfied within a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) by bounding its enhancement factor or simplest GGA exchange-energy density. This enhancement-factor bound is well known to be sufficient, but our gedanken density shows that it is also necessary. The conventional exact exchange-energy density satisfies no such local bound, but energy densities are not unique, and the simplest GGA exchange-energy density is not an approximation to it. We further derive a strongly and optimally tightened bound on the exchange enhancement factor of a two-electron density, which is satisfied by the local density approximation but is violated by all published GGA's or meta-GGA’s. Finally, some consequences of the non-uniform density-scaling behavior for the asymptotics of the exchange enhancement factor of a GGA or meta-GGA are given.

  20. Synthesis of high molecular weight PEO using non-metal initiators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Jin; Sivanandan, Kulandaivelu; Pistorino, Jonathan; Eitouni, Hany Basam

    2015-05-19

    A new synthetic method to prepare high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) with a very narrow molecular weight distribution (PDI<1.5) is described. The method involves a metal free initiator system, thus avoiding dangerous, flammable organometallic compounds.

  1. Experiments and Simulations of the Use of Time-Correlated Thermal Neutron Counting to Determine the Multiplication of an Assembly of Highly Enriched Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David L. Chichester; Mathew T. Kinlaw; Scott M. Watson; Jeffrey M. Kalter; Eric C. Miller; William A. Noonan

    2014-11-01

    A series of experiments and numerical simulations using thermal-neutron time-correlated measurements has been performed to determine the neutron multiplication, M, of assemblies of highly enriched uranium available at Idaho National Laboratory. The experiments used up to 14.4 kg of highly-enriched uranium, including bare assemblies and assemblies reflected with high-density polyethylene, carbon steel, and tungsten. A small 252Cf source was used to initiate fission chains within the assembly. Both the experiments and the simulations used 6-channel and 8-channel detector systems, each consisting of 3He proportional counters moderated with polyethylene; data was recorded in list mode for analysis. 'True' multiplication values for each assembly were empirically derived using basic neutron production and loss values determined through simulation. A total of one-hundred and sixteen separate measurements were performed using fifty-seven unique measurement scenarios, the multiplication varied from 1.75 to 10.90. This paper presents the results of these comparisons and discusses differences among the various cases.

  2. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, J.D.

    1991-11-19

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 [mu]m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process. 8 figures.

  3. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular from which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

  4. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

  5. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aubert, James H.; Clough, Roger L.; Curro, John G.; Quintana, Carlos A.; Russick, Edward M.; Shaw, Montgomery T.

    1987-01-01

    Low density, microporous polymer foams are provided by a process which comprises forming a solution of polymer and a suitable solvent followed by rapid cooling of the solution to form a phase-separated system and freeze the phase-separated system. The phase-separated system comprises a polymer phase and a solvent phase, each of which is substantially continuous within the other. The morphology of the polymer phase prior to and subsequent to freezing determine the morphology of the resultant foam. Both isotropic and anisotropic foams can be produced. If isotropic foams are produced, the polymer and solvent are tailored such that the solution spontaneously phase-separates prior to the point at which any component freezes. The morphology of the resultant polymer phase determines the morphology of the resultant foam and the morphology of the polymer phase is retained by cooling the system at a rate sufficient to freeze one or both components of the system before a change in morphology can occur. Anisotropic foams are produced by forming a solution of polymer and solvent that will not phase separate prior to freezing of one or both components of the solution. In such a process, the solvent typically freezes before phase separation occurs. The morphology of the resultant frozen two-phase system determines the morphology of the resultant foam. The process involves subjecting the solution to essentially one-dimensional cooling. Means for subjecting such a solvent to one-dimensional cooling are also provided. Foams having a density of less than 0.1 g/cc and a uniform cell size of less than 10 .mu.m and a volume such that the foams have a length greater than 1 cm are provided.

  6. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aubert, J.H.; Clough, R.L.; Curro, J.G.; Quintana, C.A.; Russick, E.M.; Shaw, M.T.

    1985-10-02

    Low density, microporous polymer foams are provided by a process which comprises forming a solution of polymer and a suitable solvent followed by rapid cooling of the solution to form a phase-separated system and freeze the phase-separated system. The phase-separated system comprises a polymer phase and a solvent phase, each of which is substantially continuous within the other. The morphology of the polymer phase prior to and subsequent to freezing determine the morphology of the resultant foam. Both isotropic and anisotropic foams can be produced. If isotropic foams are produced, the polymer and solvent are tailored such that the solution spontaneously phase-separates prior to the point at which any component freezes. The morphology of the resultant polymer phase determines the morphology of the reusltant foam and the morphology of the polymer phase is retained by cooling the system at a rate sufficient to freeze one or both components of the system before a change in morphology can occur. Anisotropic foams are produced by forming a solution of polymer and solvent that will not phase separate prior to freezing of one or both components of the solution. In such a process, the solvent typically freezes before phase separation occurs. The morphology of the resultant frozen two-phase system determines the morphology of the resultant foam. The process involves subjecting the solution to essentially one-dimensional cooling. Foams having a density of less than 0.1 g/cc and a uniform cell size of less than 10 ..mu..m and a volume such that the foams have a length greater than 1 cm are provided.

  7. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) surface modification by deep UV (172 nm) irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhengmao Zhua; Michael J. Kelley

    2004-09-01

    The prospects of obtaining desired surface-mediated characteristics while retaining bulk-mediated physical properties and avoiding potential environmental issues with wet chemical technology lends considerable appeal to photochemical approaches. We investigated the response of poly(ethylene terephthalate) to 172 nm UV from a xenon excimer lamp in the absence of oxygen, using XPS, ToF/SIMS, and AFM. The main effects are increasing loss of a C=O moiety and carboxylic acid production without effect on topography up to a total fluence of 16 J/cm2. Above this level no further change in surface chemistry was evident, but surfaces became rougher, suggesting the onset of etching.

  8. Technology Solutions Case Study: Capillary Break Beneath a Slab: Polyethylene Sheeting over Aggregate, Southwestern Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-07-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS worked with a builder of single- and multifamily homes in southwestern Pennsylvania (climate zone 5) to understand its methods of successfully using polyethylene sheeting over aggregate as a capillary break beneath the slab in new construction. This builder’s homes vary in terms of whether they have crawlspaces or basements. However, in both cases, the strategy protects the home from water intrusion via capillary action (e.g., water wicking into cracks and spaces in the slab), thereby helping to preserve the durability of the home.

  9. Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granados, Carlos G.; Weiss, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

  10. PACKAGING AND DISPOSAL OF A RADIUM BERYLLIUM SOURCE USING DEPLETED URANIUM POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITE SHIELDING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RULE,K.; KALB,P.; KWASCHYN,P.

    2003-02-23

    Two, 111 GBq (3 Curie) radium-beryllium (RaBe) sources were in underground storage at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) since 1988. These sources originated from Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) where they were used to calibrate neutron detection diagnostics. In 1999, PPPL and BNL began a collaborative effort to expand the use of an innovative pilot-scale technology and bring it to full-scale deployment to shield these sources for eventual transport and burial at the Hanford Burial site. The transport/disposal container was constructed of depleted uranium oxide encapsulated in polyethylene to provide suitable shielding for both gamma and neutron radiation. This new material can be produced from recycled waste products (DU and polyethylene), is inexpensive, and can be disposed with the waste, unlike conventional lead containers, thus reducing exposure time for workers. This paper will provide calculations and information that led to the initial design of the shielding. We will also describe the production-scale processing of the container, cost, schedule, logistics, and many unforeseen challenges that eventually resulted in the successful fabrication and deployment of this shield. We will conclude with a description of the final configuration of the shielding container and shipping package along with recommendations for future shielding designs.

  11. Packaging and Disposal of a Radium-beryllium Source using Depleted Uranium Polyethylene Composite Shielding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith Rule; Paul Kalb; Pete Kwaschyn

    2003-02-11

    Two, 111-GBq (3 Curie) radium-beryllium (RaBe) sources were in underground storage at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) since 1988. These sources originated from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) where they were used to calibrate neutron detection diagnostics. In 1999, PPPL and BNL began a collaborative effort to expand the use of an innovative pilot-scale technology and bring it to full-scale deployment to shield these sources for eventual transport and burial at the Hanford Burial site. The transport/disposal container was constructed of depleted uranium oxide encapsulated in polyethylene to provide suitable shielding for both gamma and neutron radiation. This new material can be produced from recycled waste products (depleted uranium and polyethylene), is inexpensive, and can be disposed with the waste, unlike conventional lead containers, thus reducing exposure time for workers. This paper will provide calculations and information that led to the initial design of the shielding. We will also describe the production-scale processing of the container, cost, schedule, logistics, and many unforeseen challenges that eventually resulted in the successful fabrication and deployment of this shield. We will conclude with a description of the final configuration of the shielding container and shipping package along with recommendations for future shielding designs.

  12. Probability density function method for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence and mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakosi, Jozsef; Ristorcelli, Raymond J

    2010-01-01

    Probability density function (PDF) methods are extended to variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. We apply the new method to compute the joint PDF of density and velocity in a non-premixed binary mixture of different-density molecularly mixing fluids under gravity. The full time-evolution of the joint PDF is captured in the highly non-equilibrium flow: starting from a quiescent state, transitioning to fully developed turbulence and finally dissipated by molecular diffusion. High-Atwood-number effects (as distinguished from the Boussinesq case) are accounted for: both hydrodynamic turbulence and material mixing are treated at arbitrary density ratios, with the specific volume, mass flux and all their correlations in closed form. An extension of the generalized Langevin model, originally developed for the Lagrangian fluid particle velocity in constant-density shear-driven turbulence, is constructed for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven flows. The persistent small-scale anisotropy, a fundamentally 'non-Kolmogorovian' feature of flows under external acceleration forces, is captured by a tensorial diffusion term based on the external body force. The material mixing model for the fluid density, an active scalar, is developed based on the beta distribution. The beta-PDF is shown to be capable of capturing the mixing asymmetry and that it can accurately represent the density through transition, in fully developed turbulence and in the decay process. The joint model for hydrodynamics and active material mixing yields a time-accurate evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress anisotropy without resorting to gradient diffusion hypotheses, and represents the mixing state by the density PDF itself, eliminating the need for dubious mixing measures. Direct numerical simulations of the homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor instability are used for model validation.

  13. Capillary Break Beneath a Slab: Polyethylene Sheeting over Aggregate, Southwestern Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Capillary Break Beneath a Slab: Polyethylene Sheeting Over Aggregate Southwestern Pennsylvania PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Capillary Break Beneath a Slab: Polyethylene Sheeting Over Aggregate Location: Southwestern PA Type: Residential Partners: Builder is confidential Building America Team: IBACOS, www.ibacos.com Building Component: Foundation, water management Application: New construction; single- and multifamily homes Year Tested: 2013 Applicable Climate Zone(s): All except dry

  14. Quantum crystallographic charge density of urea

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wall, Michael E.

    2016-07-01

    Standard X-ray crystallography methods use free-atom models to calculate mean unit-cell charge densities. Real molecules, however, have shared charge that is not captured accurately using free-atom models. To address this limitation, a charge density model of crystalline urea was calculated using high-level quantum theory and was refined against publicly available ultra-high-resolution experimental Bragg data, including the effects of atomic displacement parameters. The resulting quantum crystallographic model was compared with models obtained using spherical atom or multipole methods. Despite using only the same number of free parameters as the spherical atom model, the agreement of the quantum model with the datamore » is comparable to the multipole model. The static, theoretical crystalline charge density of the quantum model is distinct from the multipole model, indicating the quantum model provides substantially new information. Hydrogen thermal ellipsoids in the quantum model were very similar to those obtained using neutron crystallography, indicating that quantum crystallography can increase the accuracy of the X-ray crystallographic atomic displacement parameters. Lastly, the results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of integrating fully periodic quantum charge density calculations into ultra-high-resolution X-ray crystallographic model building and refinement.« less

  15. CORRELATION BETWEEN GROUP LOCAL DENSITY AND GROUP LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng Xinfa; Yu Guisheng

    2012-11-10

    In this study, we investigate the correlation between group local number density and total luminosity of groups. In four volume-limited group catalogs, we can conclude that groups with high luminosity exist preferentially in high-density regions, while groups with low luminosity are located preferentially in low-density regions, and that in a volume-limited group sample with absolute magnitude limit M{sub r} = -18, the correlation between group local number density and total luminosity of groups is the weakest. These results basically are consistent with the environmental dependence of galaxy luminosity.

  16. Local environment in poly(ethylene oxide)-zinc bromide complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chintipalli, S.; Frech, R.; Grady, B.

    1996-12-31

    This study examines atomic-level local environments in Poly(ethylene oxide)-zinc bromide+lithium bromide (PEO){sub 20}[(ZnBr{sub 2}){sub 1-x} (LiBr){sub x}] complexes using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Specific features in the Raman spectra were used to show that the zinc bromide species changes from ZnBr{sub 2} to ZnBr{sub 3}{sup -} to ZnBr{sub 4}{sup 2-} when x is varied from 0 to 0.8. XAS showed a similar change in oxygen coordination number from 4 to 0 when x is varied from 0 to 0.8. This study shows that lithium atoms displace zinc atoms from ether oxygen speciation indicating that lithium coordination to ether oxygens is thermodynamically favored. The effect of adding polar plasticizers is also discussed.

  17. Monte Carlo evaluation of CTDI{sub {infinity}} in infinitely long cylinders of water, polyethylene and PMMA with diameters from 10 mm to 500 mm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou Hong; Boone, John M.

    2008-06-15

    Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the radiation dose to infinitely long cylinders of water, polyethylene, and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) from 10 to 500 mm in diameter. Radiation doses were computed by simulating a 10 mm divergent primary beam striking the cylinder at z=0, and the scattered radiation in the -z and +z directions was integrated out to infinity. Doses were assessed using the total energy deposited divided by the mass of the 10-mm-thick volume of material in the primary beam. This approach is consistent with the notion of the computed tomography dose index (CTDI) integrated over infinite z, which is equivalent to the dose near the center of an infinitely long CT scan. Monoenergetic x-ray beams were studied from 5 to 140 keV, allowing polyenergetic x-ray spectra to be evaluated using a weighted average. The radiation dose for a 10-mm-thick CT slice was assessed at the center, edge, and over the entire diameter of the phantom. The geometry of a commercial CT scanner was simulated, and the computed results were in good agreement with measured doses. The absorbed dose in water for 120 kVp x-ray spectrum with no bow tie filter for a 50 mm cylinder diameter was about 1.2 mGy per mGy air kerma at isocenter for both the peripheral and center regions, and dropped to 0.84 mGy/mGy for a 500-mm-diam water phantom at the periphery, where the corresponding value for the center location was 0.19 mGy/mGy. The influence of phantom composition was studied. For a diameter of 100 mm, the dose coefficients were 1.23 for water, 1.02 for PMMA, and 0.94 for polyethylene (at 120 kVp). For larger diameter phantoms, the order changed--for a 400 mm phantom, the dose coefficient of polyethylene (0.25) was greater than water (0.21) and PMMA (0.16). The influence of the head and body bow tie filters was also studied. For the peripheral location, the dose coefficients when no bow tie filter was used were high (e.g., for a water phantom at 120 kVp at a diameter of 300

  18. Category:Rock Density | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock Density Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Rock Density page? For detailed information on Rock Density as...

  19. Research on calorimeter for high-power microwave measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Hu; Ning, Hui; Yang, Wensen; Tian, Yanmin; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Yang, Meng; Yan, Feng; Cui, Xinhong

    2015-12-15

    Based on measurement of the volume increment of polar liquid that is a result of heating by absorbed microwave energy, two types of calorimeters with coaxial capacitive probes for measurement of high-power microwave energy are designed in this paper. The first is an “inline” calorimeter, which is placed as an absorbing load at the end of the output waveguide, and the second is an “offline” calorimeter that is placed 20 cm away from the radiation horn of the high-power microwave generator. Ethanol and high density polyethylene are used as the absorbing and housing materials, respectively. Results from both simulations and a “cold test” on a 9.3 GHz klystron show that the “inline” calorimeter has a measurement range of more than 100 J and an energy absorption coefficient of 93%, while the experimental results on a 9.3 GHz relativistic backward-wave oscillator show that the device’s power capacity is approximately 0.9 GW. The same experiments were also carried out for the “offline” calorimeter, and the results indicate that it can be used to eliminate the effects of the shock of the solenoid on the measurement curves and that the device has a higher power capacity of 2.5 GW. The results of the numerical simulations, the “cold tests,” and the experiments show good agreement.

  20. A DENSITY-INDEPENDENT FORMULATION OF SMOOTHED PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Makino, Junichiro

    2013-05-01

    The standard formulation of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) assumes that the local density distribution is differentiable. This assumption is used to derive the spatial derivatives of other quantities. However, this assumption breaks down at the contact discontinuity. At the contact discontinuity, the density of the low-density side is overestimated while that of the high-density side is underestimated. As a result, the pressure of the low-density (high-density) side is overestimated (underestimated). Thus, unphysical repulsive force appears at the contact discontinuity, resulting in the effective surface tension. This tension suppresses fluid instabilities. In this paper, we present a new formulation of SPH, which does not require the differentiability of density. Instead of the mass density, we adopt the internal energy density (pressure) and its arbitrary function, which are smoothed quantities at the contact discontinuity, as the volume element used for the kernel integration. We call this new formulation density-independent SPH (DISPH). It handles the contact discontinuity without numerical problems. The results of standard tests such as the shock tube, Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, point-like explosion, and blob tests are all very favorable to DISPH. We conclude that DISPH solved most of the known difficulties of the standard SPH, without introducing additional numerical diffusion or breaking the exact force symmetry or energy conservation. Our new SPH includes the formulation proposed by Ritchie and Thomas as a special case. Our formulation can be extended to handle a non-ideal gas easily.

  1. Attractor comparisons based on density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, T. L.

    2015-01-15

    Recognizing a chaotic attractor can be seen as a problem in pattern recognition. Some feature vector must be extracted from the attractor and used to compare to other attractors. The field of machine learning has many methods for extracting feature vectors, including clustering methods, decision trees, support vector machines, and many others. In this work, feature vectors are created by representing the attractor as a density in phase space and creating polynomials based on this density. Density is useful in itself because it is a one dimensional function of phase space position, but representing an attractor as a density is also a way to reduce the size of a large data set before analyzing it with graph theory methods, which can be computationally intensive. The density computation in this paper is also fast to execute. In this paper, as a demonstration of the usefulness of density, the density is used directly to construct phase space polynomials for comparing attractors. Comparisons between attractors could be useful for tracking changes in an experiment when the underlying equations are too complicated for vector field modeling.

  2. Phenomenological Relativistic Energy Density Functionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalazissis, G. A.; Kartzikos, S.; Niksic, T.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.

    2009-08-26

    The framework of relativistic nuclear energy density functionals is applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena, not only in spherical and deformed nuclei along the valley of beta-stability, but also in exotic systems with extreme isospin values and close to the particle drip-lines. Dynamical aspects of exotic nuclear structure is explored using the fully consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. Recent applications of energy density functionals with explicit density dependence of the meson-nucleon couplings are presented.

  3. Low density carbonized composite foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Fung-Ming

    1993-01-01

    A carbonized composite foam having a density less than about 50 mg/cm.sup.3 and individual cell sizes no greater than about 1 .mu.m in diameter is described, and the process of making it.

  4. Low density carbonized composite foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Fung-Ming

    1991-01-01

    A carbonized composite foam having a density less than about 50 mg/cm.sup.3 and individual cell sizes no greater than about 1 .mu.m in diameter is described, and the process of making it.

  5. Low density metal hydride foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maienschein, Jon L.; Barry, Patrick E.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a low density foam having a porosity of from 0 to 98% and a density less than about 0.67 gm/cc, prepared by heating a mixture of powered lithium hydride and beryllium hydride in an inert atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 455 to about 490 K for a period of time sufficient to cause foaming of said mixture, and cooling the foam thus produced. Also disclosed is the process of making the foam.

  6. Charge density stabilised local electron spin pair states in insulating polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serra, S.; Dissado, L. A.

    2014-12-14

    A model is presented that addresses the energy stability of localized electron states in insulating polymers with respect to delocalized free electron-like states at variable charge densities. The model was derived using an effective Hamiltonian for the total energy of electrons trapped in large polarons and spin-paired bipolarons, which includes the electrostatic interaction between charges that occurs when the charge density exceeds the infinite dilution limit. The phase diagram of the various electronic states with respect to the charge density is derived using parameters determined from experimental data for polyethylene, and it is found that a phase transition from excess charge in the form of stable polarons to a stable state of bipolarons with charge = 2 and spin number S = 0 is predicted for a charge density between 0.2 C/m{sup 3} and ∼2 C/m{sup 3}. This transition is consistent with a change from low mobility charge transport to charge transport in the form of pulses with a mobility orders of magnitude higher that has been observed in several insulating polymers.

  7. Investigation of density limit processes in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maingi, R.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Petrie, T.W.

    1999-02-01

    A series of experiments has been conducted in DIII-D to investigate density-limiting processes. The authors have studied divertor detachment and MARFEs on closed field lines and find semi-quantitative agreement with theoretical calculations of onset conditions. They have shown that the critical density for MARFE onset at low edge temperature scales as I{sub p}/a{sup 2}, i.e. similar to Greenwald scaling. They have also shown that the scaling of the critical separatrix density with heating power at partial detachment onset agrees with Borass` model. Both of these processes yield high edge density limits for reactors such as ITER. By using divertor pumping and pellet fueling they have avoided these and other processes and accessed densities > 1.5{times} Greenwald limit scaling with H-mode confinement, demonstrating that the Greenwald limit is not a fundamental limit on the core density.

  8. Effect of Chemical Pressure on the Charge Density Wave Transition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The charge density wave transition is investigated in the bilayer family of rare-earth tritelluride RTesub 3 compounds (RSm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm) via high-resolution ...

  9. A Comprehensive Study Of Fracture Patterns And Densities In The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    specific knowledge of these in the Geysers area. (2)By locating zones of high fracture density it will be possible to reduce the cost of geothermal power development with the...

  10. ?Linear Gas Jet with Tailored Density Profile"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNAN, Mahadevan

    2012-12-10

    Supersonic, highly collimated gas jets and gas-filled capillary discharge waveguides are two primary targets of choice for Laser Plasma Accelerators (LPA) . Present gas jets have lengths of only 2-4 mm at densities of 1-4E19 cm-3, sufficient for self trapping and electron acceleration to energies up to ~150 MeV. Capillary structures 3 cm long have been used to accelerate beams up to 1 GeV. Capillary discharges used in LPAs serve to guide the pump laser and optimize the energy gain. A wall-stabilized capillary discharge provides a transverse profile across the channel that helps guide the laser and combat diffraction. Gas injection via a fast nozzle at one end provides some longitudinal density control, to improve the coupling. Gas jets with uniform or controlled density profiles may be used to control electron bunch injection and are being integrated into capillary experiments to add tuning of density. The gas jet for electron injection has not yet been optimized. Our Ph-I results have provided the LPA community with an alternative path to realizing a 2-3GeV electron bunch using just a gas jet. For example, our slit/blade combination gives a 15-20mm long acceleration path with tunable density profile, serving as an alternative to a 20-mm long capillary discharge with gas injection at one end. In Ph-II, we will extend these results to longer nozzles, to see whether we can synthesize 30 or 40-mm long plasma channels for LPAs.

  11. Benchmark models and experimental data for a U(20) polyethylene-moderated critical system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, Larry; Busch, Robert D.; Bowen, Douglas G

    2015-01-01

    This work involves the analysis of recent experiments performed on the Aerojet General Nucleonics (AGN)-201M (AGN) polyethylene-moderated research reactor at the University of New Mexico (UNM). The experiments include 36 delayed critical (DC) configurations and 11 positive-period and rod-drop measurements (transient sequences). The Even Parity Neutron Transport (EVENT) radiation transport code was chosen to analyze these steady state and time-dependent experimental configurations. The UNM AGN specifications provided in a benchmark calculation report (2007) were used to initiate AGN EVENT model development and to test the EVENT AGN calculation methodology. The results of the EVENT DC experimental analyses compared well with the experimental data; the average AGN EVENT calculation bias in the keff is –0.0048% for the Legrendre Flux Expansion Order of 11 (P11) cases and +0.0119% for the P13 cases. The EVENT transient analysis also compared well with the AGN experimental data with respect to predicting the reactor period and control rod worth values. This paper discusses the benchmark models used, the recent experimental configurations, and the EVENT experimental analysis.

  12. Enhanced autonomic shutdown of Li-ion batteries by polydopamine coated polyethylene microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baginska, Marta; Blaiszik, Benjamin J.; Rajh, Tijana; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.

    2014-07-17

    Thermally triggered autonomic shutdown of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is demonstrated using polydopamine (PDA)-coated polyethylene microspheres applied onto a battery anode. The microspheres are dispersed in a buffered 10 mM dopamine salt solution and the pH is raised to initiate the polymerization and coat the microspheres. Coated microspheres are then mixed with an aqueous binder, applied onto a battery anode surface, dried, and incorporated into Li-ion coin cells. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy are used to verify the presence of the polydopamine on the surface of the microspheres. Scanning electron microscopy is used to examine microsphere surface morphology and resulting anode coating quality. Charge and discharge capacity, as well as impedance, are measured for Li-ion coin cells as a function of microsphere content. Autonomous shutdown is achieved by applying 1.7 mg cm–2 of PDA-coated microspheres to the electrode. Furthermore, the PDA coating significantly reduces the mass of microspheres for effective shutdown compared to our prior work with uncoated microspheres.

  13. Enhanced autonomic shutdown of Li-ion batteries by polydopamine coated polyethylene microspheres

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baginska, Marta; Blaiszik, Benjamin J.; Rajh, Tijana; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.

    2014-07-17

    Thermally triggered autonomic shutdown of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is demonstrated using polydopamine (PDA)-coated polyethylene microspheres applied onto a battery anode. The microspheres are dispersed in a buffered 10 mM dopamine salt solution and the pH is raised to initiate the polymerization and coat the microspheres. Coated microspheres are then mixed with an aqueous binder, applied onto a battery anode surface, dried, and incorporated into Li-ion coin cells. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy are used to verify the presence of the polydopamine on the surface of the microspheres. Scanning electron microscopy is used to examine microsphere surface morphology and resulting anodemore » coating quality. Charge and discharge capacity, as well as impedance, are measured for Li-ion coin cells as a function of microsphere content. Autonomous shutdown is achieved by applying 1.7 mg cm–2 of PDA-coated microspheres to the electrode. Furthermore, the PDA coating significantly reduces the mass of microspheres for effective shutdown compared to our prior work with uncoated microspheres.« less

  14. Dynamics of Water Associated with Lithium Ions Distributed in Polyethylene Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhe; Ohl, Michael; Diallo, Souleymane O.; Jalarvo, Niina H.; Hong, Kunlun; Han, Youngkyu; Smith, Gregory S.; Do, Changwoo

    2015-11-03

    We studied the dynamics of water in polyethylene oxide (PEO)/LiCl solution with quasielastic neutron scattering experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Two different time scales of water diffusion representing interfacial water and bulk water dynamics have been identified. Furthermore, the measured diffusion coefficient of interfacial water remained 5–10 times smaller than that of bulk water, but both were slowed by approximately 50% in the presence of Li+. Detailed analysis of MD trajectories suggests that Li+ is favorably found at the surface of the hydration layer, and the probability to find the caged Li+ configuration formed by the PEO is lower than for the noncaged Li+-PEO configuration. In both configurations, however, the slowing down of water molecules is driven by reorienting water molecules and creating water-Li+ hydration complexes. Moreover, performing the MD simulation with different ions (Na+ and K+) revealed that smaller ionic radius of the ions is a key factor in disrupting the formation of PEO cages by allowing spaces for water molecules to come in between the ion and PEO.

  15. Dynamics of Water Associated with Lithium Ions Distributed in Polyethylene Oxide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Zhe; Ohl, Michael; Diallo, Souleymane O.; Jalarvo, Niina H.; Hong, Kunlun; Han, Youngkyu; Smith, Gregory S.; Do, Changwoo

    2015-11-03

    We studied the dynamics of water in polyethylene oxide (PEO)/LiCl solution with quasielastic neutron scattering experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Two different time scales of water diffusion representing interfacial water and bulk water dynamics have been identified. Furthermore, the measured diffusion coefficient of interfacial water remained 5–10 times smaller than that of bulk water, but both were slowed by approximately 50% in the presence of Li+. Detailed analysis of MD trajectories suggests that Li+ is favorably found at the surface of the hydration layer, and the probability to find the caged Li+ configuration formed by the PEO is lowermore » than for the noncaged Li+-PEO configuration. In both configurations, however, the slowing down of water molecules is driven by reorienting water molecules and creating water-Li+ hydration complexes. Moreover, performing the MD simulation with different ions (Na+ and K+) revealed that smaller ionic radius of the ions is a key factor in disrupting the formation of PEO cages by allowing spaces for water molecules to come in between the ion and PEO.« less

  16. Inductor Geometry With Improved Energy Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, H; Ngo, KDT; Moss, J; Lim, MHF; Rey, E

    2014-10-01

    The "constant-flux" concept is leveraged to achieve high magnetic-energy density, leading to inductor geometries with height significantly lower than that of conventional products. Techniques to shape the core and to distribute the winding turns to shape a desirable field profile are described for the two basic classes of magnetic geometries: those with the winding enclosed by the core and those with the core enclosed by the winding. A relatively constant flux distribution is advantageous not only from the density standpoint, but also from the thermal standpoint via the reduction of hot spots, and from the reliability standpoint via the suppression of flux crowding. In this journal paper on a constant-flux inductor (CFI) with enclosed winding, the foci are operating principle, dc analysis, and basic design procedure. Prototype cores and windings were routed from powder-iron disks and copper sheets, respectively. The design of CFI was validated by the assembled inductor prototype.

  17. Global coherence of dust density waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killer, Carsten; Melzer, Andr

    2014-06-15

    The coherence of self-excited three-dimensional dust density waves has been experimentally investigated by comparing global and local wave properties. For that purpose, three-dimensional dust clouds have been confined in a radio frequency plasma with thermophoretic levitation. Global wave properties have been measured from the line-of-sight integrated dust density obtained from homogenous light extinction measurements. Local wave properties have been obtained from thin, two-dimensional illuminated laser slices of the cloud. By correlating the simultaneous global and local wave properties, the spatial coherence of the waves has been determined. We find that linear waves with small amplitudes tend to be fragmented, featuring an incoherent wave field. Strongly non-linear waves with large amplitudes, however, feature a strong spatial coherence throughout the dust cloud, indicating a high level of synchronization.

  18. Current density fluctuations and ambipolarity of transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, W.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.

    1991-10-01

    The fluctuation in the plasma current density is measured in the MIST reversed field pinch experiment. Such fluctuations, and the measured radial profile of the k spectrum of magnetic fluctuations, supports the view and that low frequency fluctuations (f < 30 kHz) are tearing modes and high frequency fluctuations (30 kHz < f < 250 kHz) are localized turbulence in resonance with the local equilibrium magnetic field (i.e., k {center_dot} B = 0). Correlation of current density and magnetic fluctuations (< {tilde j}{parallel}{tilde B}{sub r} >) demonstrates that radial particle transport from particle motion parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field is ambipolar over the full frequency range.

  19. Current density fluctuations and ambipolarity of transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, W.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.

    1991-10-01

    The fluctuation in the plasma current density is measured in the MIST reversed field pinch experiment. Such fluctuations, and the measured radial profile of the k spectrum of magnetic fluctuations, supports the view and that low frequency fluctuations (f < 30 kHz) are tearing modes and high frequency fluctuations (30 kHz < f < 250 kHz) are localized turbulence in resonance with the local equilibrium magnetic field (i.e., k {center dot} B = 0). Correlation of current density and magnetic fluctuations (< {tilde j}{parallel}{tilde B}{sub r} >) demonstrates that radial particle transport from particle motion parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field is ambipolar over the full frequency range.

  20. Plasma digital density determining device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien C.; Lovell, Thomas W.; Holly, Donald J.

    1976-01-01

    The density of a decaying plasma in an electrically conducting enclosure is determined by applying an excitation to the cavity formed by the enclosure and counting digitally the number of resonant frequencies traversed by the combination of the cavity and the decaying plasma.

  1. Statistical density modification using local pattern matching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2007-01-23

    A computer implemented method modifies an experimental electron density map. A set of selected known experimental and model electron density maps is provided and standard templates of electron density are created from the selected experimental and model electron density maps by clustering and averaging values of electron density in a spherical region about each point in a grid that defines each selected known experimental and model electron density maps. Histograms are also created from the selected experimental and model electron density maps that relate the value of electron density at the center of each of the spherical regions to a correlation coefficient of a density surrounding each corresponding grid point in each one of the standard templates. The standard templates and the histograms are applied to grid points on the experimental electron density map to form new estimates of electron density at each grid point in the experimental electron density map.

  2. Influence of nuclear interactions in polyethylene range compensators for carbon-ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki Koba, Yusuke; Ogata, Risa; Himukai, Takeshi

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: A recent study revealed that polyethylene (PE) would cause extra carbon-ion attenuation per range shift by 0.45%/cm due to compositional differences in nuclear interactions. The present study aims to assess the influence of PE range compensators on tumor dose in carbon-ion radiotherapy. Methods: Carbon-ion radiation was modeled to be composed of primary carbon ions and secondary particles, for each of which the dose and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) were estimated at a tumor depth in the middle of spread-out Bragg peak. Assuming exponential behavior for attenuation and yield of these components with depth, the PE effect on dose was calculated for clinical carbon-ion beams and was partly tested by experiment. The two-component model was integrated into a treatment-planning system and the PE effect was estimated in two clinical cases. Results: The attenuation per range shift by PE was 0.1%0.3%/cm in dose and 0.2%0.4%/cm in RBE-weighted dose, depending on energy and range-modulation width. This translates into reduction of RBE-weighted dose by up to 3% in extreme cases. In the treatment-planning study, however, the effect on RBE-weighted dose to tumor was typically within 1% reduction. Conclusions: The extra attenuation of primary carbon ions in PE was partly compensated by increased secondary particles for tumor dose. In practical situations, the PE range compensators would normally cause only marginal errors as compared to intrinsic uncertainties in treatment planning, patient setup, beam delivery, and clinical response.

  3. ARM - Lesson Plans: Air Density and Temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Air Density and Temperature Objective The objective of this activity is to investigate the effect of temperature on the density of air. ...

  4. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional VaryMatrix.png Collaboration with mathematicians and computational...

  5. Symmetry Energy as a Function of Density and Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danielewicz, Pawel; Lee, Jenny

    2007-10-26

    Energy in nuclear matter is, in practice, completely characterized at different densities and asymmetries, when the density dependencies of symmetry energy and of energy of symmetric matter are specified. The density dependence of the symmetry energy at subnormal densities produces mass dependence of nuclear symmetry coefficient and, thus, can be constrained by that latter dependence. We deduce values of the mass dependent symmetry coefficients, by using excitation energies to isobaric analog states. The coefficient systematic, for intermediate and high masses, is well described in terms of the symmetry coefficient values of a{sub a}{sup V} = (31.5-33.5) MeV for the volume coefficient and a{sub a}{sup S} = (9-12) MeV for the surface coefficient. These two further correspond to the parameter values describing density dependence of symmetry energy, of L{approx}95 MeV and K{sub sym}{approx}25 MeV.

  6. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z.

    2015-04-24

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 µm electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.57×10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3}) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  7. Dynamics and diffusion mechanism of low-density liquid silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, B.; Wang, Z. Y.; Dong, F.; Guo, Y. R.; Zhang, R. J.; Zheng, Y. X.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.; Chen, L. Y.

    2015-11-05

    A first-order phase transition from a high-density liquid to a low-density liquid has been proposed to explain the various thermodynamic anomies of water. It also has been proposed that such liquid–liquid phase transition would exist in supercooled silicon. Computer simulation studies show that, across the transition, the diffusivity drops roughly 2 orders of magnitude, and the structures exhibit considerable tetrahedral ordering. The resulting phase is a highly viscous, low-density liquid silicon. Investigations on the atomic diffusion of such a novel form of liquid silicon are of high interest. Here we report such diffusion results from molecular dynamics simulations using the classical Stillinger–Weber (SW) potential of silicon. We show that the atomic diffusion of the low-density liquid is highly correlated with local tetrahedral geometries. We also show that atoms diffuse through hopping processes within short ranges, which gradually accumulate to an overall random motion for long ranges as in normal liquids. There is a close relationship between dynamical heterogeneity and hopping process. We point out that the above diffusion mechanism is closely related to the strong directional bonding nature of the distorted tetrahedral network. Here, our work offers new insights into the complex behavior of the highly viscous low density liquid silicon, suggesting similar diffusion behaviors in other tetrahedral coordinated liquids that exhibit liquid–liquid phase transition such as carbon and germanium.

  8. Dynamics and diffusion mechanism of low-density liquid silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shen, B.; Wang, Z. Y.; Dong, F.; Guo, Y. R.; Zhang, R. J.; Zheng, Y. X.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.; Chen, L. Y.

    2015-11-05

    A first-order phase transition from a high-density liquid to a low-density liquid has been proposed to explain the various thermodynamic anomies of water. It also has been proposed that such liquid–liquid phase transition would exist in supercooled silicon. Computer simulation studies show that, across the transition, the diffusivity drops roughly 2 orders of magnitude, and the structures exhibit considerable tetrahedral ordering. The resulting phase is a highly viscous, low-density liquid silicon. Investigations on the atomic diffusion of such a novel form of liquid silicon are of high interest. Here we report such diffusion results from molecular dynamics simulations using themore » classical Stillinger–Weber (SW) potential of silicon. We show that the atomic diffusion of the low-density liquid is highly correlated with local tetrahedral geometries. We also show that atoms diffuse through hopping processes within short ranges, which gradually accumulate to an overall random motion for long ranges as in normal liquids. There is a close relationship between dynamical heterogeneity and hopping process. We point out that the above diffusion mechanism is closely related to the strong directional bonding nature of the distorted tetrahedral network. Here, our work offers new insights into the complex behavior of the highly viscous low density liquid silicon, suggesting similar diffusion behaviors in other tetrahedral coordinated liquids that exhibit liquid–liquid phase transition such as carbon and germanium.« less

  9. Probability distribution of the vacuum energy density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duplancic, Goran; Stefancic, Hrvoje; Glavan, Drazen

    2010-12-15

    As the vacuum state of a quantum field is not an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian density, the vacuum energy density can be represented as a random variable. We present an analytical calculation of the probability distribution of the vacuum energy density for real and complex massless scalar fields in Minkowski space. The obtained probability distributions are broad and the vacuum expectation value of the Hamiltonian density is not fully representative of the vacuum energy density.

  10. DENSITY CONTROL IN A REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, J. Jr.

    1961-10-24

    A reactor is described in which natural-uranium bodies are located in parallel channels which extend through the graphite mass in a regular lattice. The graphite mass has additional channels that are out of the lattice and contain no uranium. These additional channels decrease in number per unit volume of graphite from the center of the reactor to the exterior and have the effect of reducing the density of the graphite more at the center than at the exterior, thereby spreading neutron activity throughout the reactor. (AEC)

  11. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on blown polyethylene films with plasma-treated surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beom Lee, Gyeong; Sik Son, Kyung; Won Park, Suk; Hyung Shim, Joon; Choi, Byoung-Ho

    2013-01-15

    In this study, a layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was deposited on blown polyethylene films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at low temperatures, and the surface characteristics of these Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated blown polyethylene films were analyzed. In order to examine the effects of the plasma treatment of the surfaces of the blown polyethylene films on the properties of the films, both untreated and plasma-treated film samples were prepared under various processing conditions. The surface characteristics of the samples were determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as by measuring their surface contact angles. It was confirmed that the surfaces of the plasma-treated samples contained a hydroxyl group, which helped the precursor and the polyethylene substrate to bind. ALD of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was performed through sequential exposures to trimethylaluminum and H{sub 2}O at 60 Degree-Sign C. The surface morphologies of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated blown polyethylene films were observed using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Further, it was confirmed that after ALD, the surface of the plasma-treated film was covered with alumina grains more uniformly than was the case for the surface of the untreated polymer film. It was also confirmed via the focused ion beam technique that the layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} conformed to the surface of the blown polyethylene film.

  12. Density impact on performance of composite Si/graphite electrodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dufek, Eric J.; Picker, Michael; Petkovic, Lucia M.

    2016-01-27

    The ability of alkali-substituted binders for composite Si and graphite negative electrodes to minimize capacity fade for lithium ion batteries is investigated. Polymer films and electrodes are described and characterized by FTIR following immersion in electrolyte (1:2 EC:DMC) for 24 h. FTIR analysis following electrode formation displayed similar alkali-ion dependent shifts in peak location suggesting that changes in the vibrational structure of the binder are maintained after electrode formation. The Si and graphite composite electrodes prepared using the alkali-substituted polyacrylates were also exposed to electrochemical cycling and it has been found that the performance of the Na-substituted binder is superiormore » to a comparable density K-substituted system. However, in comparing performance across many different electrode densities attention needs to be placed on making comparisons at similar densities, as low density electrodes tend to exhibit lower capacity fade over cycling. This is highlighted by a 6% difference between a low density K-substituted electrode and a high density Na-substituted sample. As a result, this low variance between the two systems makes it difficult to quickly make a direct evaluation of binder performance unless electrode density is tightly controlled.« less

  13. On the density limit in the helicon plasma sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotelnikov, Igor A.

    2014-12-15

    Existence of the density limit in the helicon plasma sources is revisited. The low- and high-frequency regimes of a helicon plasma source operation are distinguished. In the low-frequency regime with ω<√(ω{sub ci}ω{sub ce}), the density limit is deduced from the Golant-Stix criterion of the accessibility of the lower hybrid resonance. In the high-frequency case, ω>√(ω{sub ci}ω{sub ce}), an appropriate limit is given by the Shamrai-Taranov criterion. Both these criteria are closely related to the phenomenon of the coalescence of the helicon wave with the Trivelpiece-Gould mode. We draw a conclusion that the derived density limits are not currently achieved in existing devices, perhaps, because of high energy cost of gas ionization.

  14. Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  15. PREPARATION OF HIGH-DENSITY, COMPACTIBLE THORIUM OXIDE PARTICLES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCorkle, K.H.; Kleinsteuber, A.T.; Schilling, C.E.; Dean, O.C.

    1962-05-22

    A method is given for preparing millimeter-size, highdensity thorium oxide particles suitable for fabrication into nuclear reactor feel elements by means of vibratory compaction. A thorium oxide gel containing 3.7 to 7 weight per cent residual volatile nitrate and water is prepared by drying a thorium oxide sol. The gel is then slowly heated to a temperature of about 450DEC, and the resulting gel fragments are calcined. The starting sol is prepared by repeated dispersion of oxalate-source thorium oxide in a nitrate system or by dispersion of steam-denitrated thorium oxide in water. (AEC)

  16. Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    This Site Budget IG Web Policy Privacy No Fear Act Accessibility FOIA Sitemap Federal Government The White House DOE.gov USA.gov Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA...

  17. Basic Research Needs for High Energy Density Laboratory Physics

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    On the cover: Invisible infrared light from the 200-trillion watt Trident Laser enters from the bottom to interact with a one-micrometer thick foil target in the center of the photo. The laser pulse produces a plasma - an ionized gas - many times hotter than the center of the sun, which lasts for a trillionth of a second. During this time some electrons from the foil are accelerated to virtually the speed of light, and some ions are accelerated to energies of tens of millions of volts. In this

  18. High power density fuel cell comprising an array of microchannels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopchak, David A; Morse, Jeffrey D; Upadhye, Ravindra S; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T

    2014-05-06

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell according to one embodiment includes an array of microchannels defined by a porous electrolyte support structure extending between bottom and upper support layers, the microchannels including fuel and oxidant microchannels; fuel electrodes formed along some of the microchannels; and air electrodes formed along other of the microchannels. A method of making a phosphoric acid fuel cell according to one embodiment includes etching an array of microchannels in a substrate, thereby forming walls between the microchannels; processing the walls to make the walls porous, thereby forming a porous electrolyte support structure; forming anode electrodes along some of the walls; forming cathode electrodes along other of the walls; and filling the porous electrolyte support structure with a phosphoric acid electrolyte. Additional embodiments are also disclosed.

  19. Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  20. Lanai high-density irradiance sensor network for characterizing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    deployment of an autonomous irradiance monitoring system based on wireless mesh ... SYSTEMS; DESIGN; FORECASTING; HAWAII; MONITORING; PERFORMANCE; PYRANOMETERS; RADIANT ...

  1. The Effects of Highly Structured Low Density Carbon Nanotube...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J P ; Worsley, M A ; Finnie, J A ; Ashmore, M ; Mason, H E ; Baumann, T F ; Maxwell, R S ; Albo, R F Publication Date: 2013-09-30 OSTI Identifier: 1144767 Report...

  2. HIGH-DENSITY, BIO-COMPATIBLE, AND HERMETIC ELECTRICAL FEEDTHROUGHS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 42 ENGINEERING; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; ACTUATORS; BODY; CARDIAC PACEMAKERS; ENVIRONMENT; EQUIPMENT; HEAD; LASERS; LEAKS; METALS; MOISTURE; OPTIMIZATION; PARTICLES; ...

  3. Cell Analysis … High-Energy Density Cathodes and Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  4. Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy FAME biodiesel will likely remain a part of the global diesel pool for the coming years and the use of biodiesel can lead to lubrication issues. deer09_lauterwasser.pdf (1.36 MB) More Documents & Publications The Road to Improved Heavy Duty Fuel Economy Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Oil Dilution Energy

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual

  5. PLZT Nano-Precursors for High Energy Density Applications - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PJM©2012 1 www.pjm.com Markets, Regulation and Energy Storage: A Match Made in Heaven? EIA 2013 Energy Conference June 17, 2013 Craig Glazer Vice President PJM Interconnection PJM©2012 2 www.pjm.com "We're Mad as Hell and We're Not Going to Take It Anymore!" PJM©2012 3 www.pjm.com * Need slide that is black. PJM©2012 4 www.pjm.com And What Were They Mad About??? At the Wholesale Level... * Transmission access - Negotiation of "wheeling rights" - Discriminatory treatment -

  6. High-density grids for efficient data collection from multiple...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a universal adaptor, which allows grids to be filled by commercial liquid-handling robots, as well as incubation chambers, which support vapor-diffusion more and lipidic...

  7. LANAI HIGH-DENSITY IRRADIANCE SENSOR NETWORK FOR CHARACTERIZING...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The intent is to study power and solar resource data sets to correlate the movement of cloud shadows across the PV array and its effect on power output of the PV plant. The ...

  8. A high energy density relaxor antiferroelectric pulsed capacitor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lasup 3+ doping and excess PbO were used to produce relaxor antiferroelectric behavior with slim and slanted hysteresis loops to reduce the dielectric hysteresis loss, to ...

  9. Novel and Optimized Materials Phases for High Energy Density Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  10. High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    selected embody the breadth of research in HEDLP science, ranging from the study of magnetized astrophysical jets to large-scale simulation of kinetic laser plasma interactions.

  11. HIGH-DENSITY, BIO-COMPATIBLE, AND HERMETIC ELECTRICAL FEEDTHROUGHS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 42 ENGINEERING; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; ACTUATORS; CARDIAC PACEMAKERS; LASERS; MOISTURE; OPTIMIZATION; SENSORS; SUBSTRATES; TESTING Word Cloud More ...

  12. HIGH-DENSITY, BIO-COMPATIBLE, AND HERMETIC ELECTRICAL FEEDTHROUGHS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 42 ... POWER; RANGE; SENSORS; SIGNALS; SUBSTRATES; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0065-0273 K; TESTING; USES

  13. High power density fuel cell comprising an array of microchannels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2013-10-15

    A fuel cell according to one embodiment includes a porous electrolyte support structure defining an array of microchannels, the microchannels including fuel and oxidant microchannels; fuel electrodes formed along some of the microchannels; and oxidant electrodes formed along other of the microchannels. A method of making a fuel cell according to one embodiment includes forming an array of walls defining microchannels therebetween using at least one of molding, stamping, extrusion, injection and electrodeposition; processing the walls to make the walls porous, thereby creating a porous electrolyte support structure; forming anode electrodes along some of the microchannels; and forming cathode electrodes along other of the microchannels. Additional embodiments are also disclosed.

  14. Properties of the {phi} meson at high temperatures and densities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada) Publication Date: 2009-10-15 OSTI Identifier: 21293972 Resource Type: Journal ...

  15. PREPARATION OF HIGH DENSITY UO$sub 2$

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, J.M.

    1959-09-29

    A method is presented for the preparation of highdensity UO/sub 2/ from UF/sub 6/. In accordance with the invention, UF/sub 6/ is reacted with water and concentrated ammonium hydroxide is added to the resulting aqueous solution of UO/ sub 2/F/sub 2/. The resulting precipitate is calcined to U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ an d the U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is reduced to UO/sub 2/ with a gaseous mixture comprised of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide at a temperature of from 1600 to 1900 deg C.

  16. HIGH-DENSITY CIRCUMSTELLAR INTERACTION IN THE LUMINOUS TYPE IIn...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States) CASA, University of Colorado, 593UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States) Steward ...

  17. Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  18. Method of fabricating high-density hermetic electrical feedthroughs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Kedar G.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.; Delima, Terri L.

    2015-06-02

    A method of fabricating electrical feedthroughs selectively removes substrate material from a first side of an electrically conductive substrate (e.g. a bio-compatible metal) to form an array of electrically conductive posts in a substrate cavity. An electrically insulating material (e.g. a bio-compatible sealing glass) is then flowed to fill the substrate cavity and surround each post, and solidified. The solidified insulating material is then exposed from an opposite second side of the substrate so that each post is electrically isolated from each other as well as the bulk substrate. In this manner a hermetic electrically conductive feedthrough construction is formed having an array of electrical feedthroughs extending between the first and second sides of the substrate from which it was formed.

  19. High density printed electrical circuit board card connection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumbaugh, A.E.

    1997-05-06

    A zero insertion/extraction force printed circuit board card connection system comprises a cam-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. The extrusions along the circuit board mate with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The card connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit board during insertion/extraction and provides a constant mating force once the circuit board is positioned. The card connection system provides a simple solution to the need for a greater number of electrical signal connections. 12 figs.

  20. Virtual electrodes for high-density electrode arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cela, Carlos J.; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2015-10-13

    The present embodiments are directed to implantable electrode arrays having virtual electrodes. The virtual electrodes may improve the resolution of the implantable electrode array without the burden of corresponding complexity of electronic circuitry and wiring. In a particular embodiment, a virtual electrode may include one or more passive elements to help steer current to a specific location between the active electrodes. For example, a passive element may be a metalized layer on a substrate that is adjacent to, but not directly connected to an active electrode. In certain embodiments, an active electrode may be directly coupled to a power source via a conductive connection. Beneficially, the passive elements may help to increase the overall resolution of the implantable array by providing additional stimulation points without requiring additional wiring or driver circuitry for the passive elements.

  1. High density printed electrical circuit board card connection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumbaugh, Alan E.

    1997-01-01

    A zero insertion/extraction force printed circuit board card connection system comprises a cam-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. The extrusions along the circuit board mate with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The card connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit board during insertion/extraction and provides a constant mating force once the circuit board is positioned. The card connection system provides a simple solution to the need for a greater number of electrical signal connections.

  2. Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Reactor Conversion is part of NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) to develop and implement technologies to minimize and, to the extent possible, eliminate the civilian ...

  3. Update on US High Density Fuel Fabrication Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.R. Clark; G.A. Moore; J.F. Jue; B.H. Park; N.P. Hallinan; D.M. Wachs; D.E. Burkes

    2007-03-01

    Second generation uranium molybdenum fuel has shown excellent in-reactor irradiation performance. This metallic fuel type is capable of being fabricated at much higher loadings than any presently used research reactor fuel. Due to the broad range of fuel types this alloy system encompasses—fuel powder to monolithic foil and binary fuel systems to multiple element additions—significant amounts of research and development have been conducted on the fabrication of these fuels. This paper presents an update of the US RERTR effort to develop fabrication techniques and the fabrication methods used for the RERTR-9A miniplate test.

  4. High strength and density tungsten-uranium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell

    1993-01-01

    Alloys of tungsten and uranium and a method for making the alloys. The amount of tungsten present in the alloys is from about 55 vol % to about 85 vol %. A porous preform is made by sintering consolidated tungsten powder. The preform is impregnated with molten uranium such that (1) uranium fills the pores of the preform to form uranium in a tungsten matrix or (2) uranium dissolves portions of the preform to form a continuous uranium phase containing tungsten particles.

  5. High power density capacitor and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuncer, Enis

    2012-11-20

    A ductile preform for making a drawn capacitor includes a plurality of electrically insulating, ductile insulator plates and a plurality of electrically conductive, ductile capacitor plates. Each insulator plate is stacked vertically on a respective capacitor plate and each capacitor plate is stacked on a corresponding insulator plate in alignment with only one edge so that other edges are not in alignment and so that each insulator plate extends beyond the other edges. One or more electrically insulating, ductile spacers are disposed in horizontal alignment with each capacitor plate along the other edges and the pattern is repeated so that alternating capacitor plates are stacked on alternating opposite edges of the insulator plates. A final insulator plate is positioned at an extremity of the preform. The preform may then be drawn to fuse the components and decrease the dimensions of the preform that are perpendicular to the direction of the draw.

  6. Spectroscopic Feedback for High Density Data Storage and Micromachining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Christopher W.; Demos, Stavros; Feit, Michael D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.

    2008-09-16

    Optical breakdown by predetermined laser pulses in transparent dielectrics produces an ionized region of dense plasma confined within the bulk of the material. Such an ionized region is responsible for broadband radiation that accompanies a desired breakdown process. Spectroscopic monitoring of the accompanying light in real-time is utilized to ascertain the morphology of the radiated interaction volume. Such a method and apparatus as presented herein, provides commercial realization of rapid prototyping of optoelectronic devices, optical three-dimensional data storage devices, and waveguide writing.

  7. Neutron Reference Benchmark Field Specifications: ACRR Polyethylene-Lead-Graphite (PLG) Bucket Environment (ACRR-PLG-CC-32-CL).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vega, Richard Manuel; Parm, Edward J.; Griffin, Patrick J.; Vehar, David W.

    2015-07-01

    This report was put together to support the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) REAL- 2016 activity to validate the dosimetry community’s ability to use a consistent set of activation data and to derive consistent spectral characterizations. The report captures details of integral measurements taken in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) central cavity with the Polyethylene-Lead-Graphite (PLG) bucket, reference neutron benchmark field. The field is described and an “a priori” calculated neutron spectrum is reported, based on MCNP6 calculations, and a subject matter expert (SME) based covariance matrix is given for this “a priori” spectrum. The results of 37 integral dosimetry measurements in the neutron field are reported.

  8. Conductivity and optical band gaps of polyethylene oxide doped with Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapi, Sharanappa Raghu, S. Subramanya, K. Archana, K. Mini, V. Devendrappa, H.

    2014-04-24

    The conductivity and optical properties of Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doped polyethylene oxide (PEO) films were studied. The polymer electrolyte films are prepared using solution casting technique. The material phase change was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Optical absorption study was conducted using UV- Vis. Spectroscopy in the wavelength range 190–1100nm on pure and doped PEO films. The direct and indirect optical band gaps were found decreased from 5.81–4.51eV and 4.84–3.43eV respectively with increasing the Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The conductivity found to increases with increasing the dopant concentration due to strong hopping mechanism at room temperature.

  9. On the reversal of star formation rate-density relation at z = 1: Insights from simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Cen, Renyue E-mail: cen@astro.princeton.edu

    2014-06-20

    Recent surveys have found a reversal of the star formation rate (SFR)-density relation at z = 1 from that at z = 0, while the sign of the slope of the color-density relation remains unchanged. We use adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of a 21 × 24 × 20 h {sup –3} Mpc{sup 3} region to examine the SFR-density and color-density relations of galaxies at z = 0 and z = 1. The local environmental density is defined by the dark matter mass in spheres of radius 1 h {sup –1} Mpc, and we probe two decades of environmental densities. Our simulations produce a large increase of SFR with density at z = 1, as in the Elbaz et al. observations. We also find a significant evolution to z = 0, where the SFR-density relation is much flatter. The simulated color-density relation is consistent from z = 1 to z = 0, in agreement with observations. We find that the increase in SFR with local density at z = 1 is due to a growing population of star-forming galaxies in higher-density environments. At z = 0 and z = 1 both the SFR and cold gas mass are correlated with the galaxy halo mass, and therefore the correlation between median halo mass and local density is an important cause of the SFR-density relation at both redshifts. However, at z = 0 the local density on 1 h {sup –1} Mpc scales affects galaxy SFRs as much as halo mass. Finally, we find indications that while at z = 0 high-density environments depress galaxy SFRs, at z = 1 high-density environments tend to increase SFRs.

  10. SU-F-18C-11: Diameter Dependency of the Radial Dose Distribution in a Long Polyethylene Cylinder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakalyar, D; McKenney, S; Feng, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The radial dose distribution in the central plane of a long cylinder following a long CT scan depends upon the diameter and composition of the cylinder. An understanding of this behavior is required for determining the spatial average of the dose in the central plane. Polyethylene, the material for construction of the TG200/ICRU phantom (30 cm in diameter) was used for this study. Size effects are germane to the principles incorporated in size specific dose estimates (SSDE); thus diameter dependency was explored as well. Method: ssuming a uniform cylinder and cylindrically symmetric conditions of irradiation, the dose distribution can be described using a radial function. This function must be an even function of the radial distance due to the conditions of symmetry. Two effects are accounted for: The direct beam makes its weakest contribution at the center while the contribution due to scatter is strongest at the center and drops off abruptly at the outer radius. An analytic function incorporating these features was fit to Monte Carlo results determined for infinite polyethylene cylinders of various diameters. A further feature of this function is that it is integrable. Results: Symmetry and continuity dictate a local extremum at the center which is a minimum for the larger sizes. The competing effects described above can Resultin an absolute maximum occurring between the center and outer edge of the cylinders. For the smallest cylinders, the maximum dose may occur at the center. Conclusion: An integrable, analytic function can be used to characterize the radial dependency of dose for cylindrical CT phantoms of various sizes. One use for this is to help determine average dose distribution over the central cylinder plane when equilibrium dose has been reached.

  11. Direct Measurements of Pore Fluid Density by Vibrating Tube Densimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw {Mirek} S; Rother, Gernot; Wesolowski, David J; Cole, David R; Wallacher, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The densities of pore-confined fluids were measured for the first time by means of a vibrating tube method. Isotherms of total adsorption capacity were measured directly making the method complementary to the conventional gravimetric or volumetric/piezometric adsorption techniques, which yield the excess adsorption (the Gibbsian surface excess). A custom-made high-pressure, high-temperature vibrating tube densimeter (VTD) was used to measure the densities of subcritical and supercritical propane (between 35 C and 97 C) and supercritical carbon dioxide (between 32 C and 50 C) saturating hydrophobic silica aerogel (0.2 g/cm3, 90% porosity) synthesized inside Hastelloy U-tubes. Additionally, excess adsorption isotherms for supercritical CO2 and the same porous solid were measured gravimetrically using a precise magnetically-coupled microbalance. Pore fluid densities and total adsorption isotherms increased monotonically with increasing density of the bulk fluid, in contrast to excess adsorption isotherms, which reached a maximum at a subcritical density of the bulk fluid, and then decreased towards zero or negative values at supercritical densities. Compression of the confined fluid significantly beyond the density of the bulk liquid at the same temperature was observed at subcritical temperatures. The features of the isotherms of confined fluid density are interpreted to elucidate the observed behavior of excess adsorption. The maxima of excess adsorption were found to occur below the critical density of the bulk fluid at the conditions corresponding to the beginning of the plateau of total adsorption, marking the end of the transition of pore fluid to a denser, liquid-like pore phase. The results for propane and carbon dioxide showed similarity in the sense of the principle of corresponding states. No measurable effect of pore confinement on the liquid-vapor critical point was found. Quantitative agreement was obtained between excess adsorption isotherms determined

  12. Investigation of physical processes limiting plasma density in H-mode on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maingi, R.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Jernigan, T.C.

    1996-12-01

    A series of experiments was conducted on the DIII-D tokamak to investigate the physical processes which limit density in high confinement mode (H-mode) discharges. The typical H-mode to low confinement mode (L-mode) transition limit at high density near the empirical Greenwald density limit was avoided by divertor pumping, which reduced divertor neutral pressure and prevented formation of a high density, intense radiation zone (MARFE) near the X-point. It was determined that the density decay time after pellet injection was independent of density relative to the Greenwald limit and increased non-linearly with the plasma current. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity in pellet-fueled plasmas was observed at all power levels, and often caused unacceptable confinement degradation, except when the neutral beam injected (NBI) power was {le} 3 MW. Formation of MARFEs on closed field lines was avoided with low safety factor (q) operation but was observed at high q, qualitatively consistent with theory. By using pellet fueling and optimizing discharge parameters to avoid each of these limits, an operational space was accessed in which density {approximately} 1.5 {times} Greenwald limit was achieved for 600 ms, and good H-mode confinement was maintained for 300 ms of the density flattop. More significantly, the density was successfully increased to the limit where a central radiative collapse was observed, the most fundamental density limit in tokamaks.

  13. Method and apparatus for measuring lung density by Compton backscattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W.; Goulding, Frederick S.

    1991-01-01

    The density of the lung of a patient suffering from pulmonary edema is monitored by irradiating the lung by a single collimated beam of monochromatic photons and measuring the energies of photons Compton backscattered from the lung by a single high-resolution, high-purity germanium detector. A compact system geometry and a unique data extraction scheme are utilized to monimize systematic errors due to the presence of the chestwall and multiple scattering.

  14. Method and apparatus for measuring lung density by Compton backscattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.

    1988-03-11

    The density of the lung of a patient suffering from pulmonary edema is monitored by irradiating the lung by a single collimated beam of monochromatic photons and measuring the energies of photons compton back-scattered from the lung by a single high-resolution, high-purity germanium detector. A compact system geometry and a unique data extraction scheme are utilized to minimize systematic errors due to the presence of the chestwall and multiple scattering. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Low density microcellular carbon foams and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Aubert, James H.; Clough, Roger L.; Rand, Peter B.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    A low density, open-celled microcellular carbon foam is disclosed which is prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer or copolymer in a solvent, pouring the solution into a mold, cooling the solution, removing the solvent, and then carbonizing the polymer or copolymer in a high temperature oven to produce the foam. If desired, an additive can be introduced in order to produce a doped carbon foam, and the foams can be made isotropic by selection of a suitable solvent. The low density, microcellular foams produced by this process are particularly useful in the fabrication of inertial confinement fusion targets, but can also be used as catalysts, absorbents, and electrodes.

  16. Low density microcellular carbon foams and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Aubert, J.H.; Clough, R.L.; Rand, P.B.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    A low density, open-celled microcellular carbon foam is disclosed which is prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer or copolymer in a solvent, pouring the solution into a mold, cooling the solution, removing the solvent, and then carbonizing the polymer or copolymer in a high temperature oven to produce the foam. If desired, an additive can be introduced in order to produce a doped carbon foam, and the foams can be made isotropic by selection of a suitable solvent. The low density, microcellular foams produced by this process are particularly useful in the fabrication of inertial confinement fusion targets, but can also be used as catalysts, absorbents, and electrodes.

  17. Quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Stephen J.; Wiczer, James J.; Cernosek, Richard W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Gebert, Charles T.; Casaus, Leonard; Mitchell, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.

  18. The Quantum Energy Density: Improved E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krogel, Jaron; Yu, Min; Kim, Jeongnim; Ceperley, David M.

    2013-01-01

    We establish a physically meaningful representation of a quantum energy density for use in Quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The energy density operator, dened in terms of Hamiltonian components and density operators, returns the correct Hamiltonian when integrated over a volume containing a cluster of particles. This property is demonstrated for a helium-neon \\gas," showing that atomic energies obtained from the energy density correspond to eigenvalues of isolated systems. The formation energies of defects or interfaces are typically calculated as total energy dierences. Using a model of delta-doped silicon (where dopant atoms form a thin plane) we show how interfacial energies can be calculated more eciently with the energy density, since the region of interest is small. We also demonstrate how the energy density correctly transitions to the bulk limit away from the interface where the correct energy is obtainable from a separate total energy calculation.

  19. Method of synthesizing a low density material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lorensen, L.E.; Monaco, S.B.

    1987-02-27

    A novel method of synthesizing a polymeric material of low density of the order of 50mg/cc or less. Such a low density material has applications in many areas including laser target fabrication. The method comprises preparing a polymer blend of two incompatible polymers as a major and a minor phase by mixing them and extruding the mixture, and then selectively extracting the major component, to yield a fine, low density structure.

  20. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.

    2014-09-10

    This grant had two components: Density functional theory and pairing and Nuclear reactions. This final report summarizes the activities for this SciDAC-2 project.