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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Vacuum Outgassing of High Density Polyethylene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature programmed decomposition (TPD) was employed to identify the outgassing species, the total amount of outgassing, and the outgassing kinetics of high density polyethylene (HDPE) in a vacuum environment. The isoconversional kinetic analysis was then used to analyze the outgassing kinetics and to predict the long-term outgassing of HDPE in vacuum applications at ambient temperature. H{sub 2}O and C{sub n}H{sub x} with n as high as 9 and x centering around 2n are the major outgassing species from solid HDPE, but the quantities evolved can be significantly reduced by vacuum baking at 368 K for a few hours prior to device assembly.

Dinh, L N; Sze, J; Schildbach, M A; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Raboin, P; McLean II, W



Nondestructive Evaluation: High-Density Polyethylene NDE Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BackgroundThis report summarizes the results of a study to evaluate and document the process of creating a manufacturing specification for producing quantifiable cold fusion controlled flaws of varying severity in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) fusion joints. This report is a continuation of previous research where nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and flaws representing inclusions and cold fusion were ...



Fire Testing of High-Density Polyethylene Pipe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results in this report are intended to demonstrate a method that can be used to protect high-density polyethylene (HDPE) piping located aboveground from postulated fire events. This includes protecting both pipe and pipe fittings (for example, elbows, tees, and valves) from the fire environmentincluding the heat transmitted from pipe supportsand preventing the fire environment from passing through building wall or floor penetrations. The report is intended to be complementary to other ongoing Electr...



Nondestructive Evaluation: Ultrasonic Examination Techniques for High Density Polyethylene Pipes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe has been used as a replacement material for buried carbon steel pipe in non-safety-related systems. Using the current butt fusion procedure that uses heat and pressure to melt and join two sections of plastic pipe, concerns have been raised that would indicate that the presence of decreased bond strength when the welding parameters for fusion set forth by the plastic pipe industry were not followed. Currently two utilities, Ameren UE at Callaway and Duke-Energy at Ca...



Fracture behavior of kaolin-reinforced high density polyethylene  

SciTech Connect

The addition of the low-cost mineral filler kaolin to high-density polyethylene (HDPE) creates a composite with both improved stiffness and toughness properties. This study focuses on two aspects of the toughness of these composites: the fracture toughness increment produced by work at the fracture surface and the directionality induced by the injection molding fabrication process. The Essential Work of Fracture (EWF) method gives results which show that a higher volume fraction of kaolin produces more surface work, consistent with earlier work using Compact Tension (CT) tests. The EWF method also demonstrates that a lower volume fraction can produce a higher overall plastic work and apparent toughness. A heat treatment that removes the orientation of the matrix but not that of the particles was applied to study the effect of matrix crystallinity. The results indicate that the matrix supramolecular structure (crystallinity and skin-core effect) is responsible for the directionality of toughness, and that a heat treatment can be used to produce high toughness behavior in both major directions.

Wetherhold, R.C.; Mouzakis, D.E.



High density polyethylene (HDPE) containers as an alternative to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles for solar disinfection of drinking water in northern region, Ghana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the technical feasibility of high density polyethylene (HDPE) containers as an alternative to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles for the solar disinfection of drinking water ...

Yazdani, Iman



An Assessment of Industry Data Related to Essential Variables for Fusing High Density Polyethylene Pipe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has expressed concern about the essential variables used for fusing safety-related nuclear power plant piping systems constructed of high density polyethylene (HDPE). The essential variables detailed in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code Case N-755-1, “Use of Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe,” were considered to be incomplete. In addition, there were questions about using data in the Plastic Pipe Institute (PPI) report TR-33 ...



Design and Qualification of High-Density Polyethylene for ASME Safety Class 3 Piping Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report identifies the activities necessary and recommends a plan to gather needed data to establish design and qualification methods that will serve as the basis for ASME and regulatory approvals for allowing the nuclear power industry to use high-density polyethylene for Safety Class 3 applications.



Nondestructive Evaluation: NDE for High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Pipe for Cold Fusion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past several years, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been investigating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to volumetrically examine butt fusion joints in high density polyethylene (HDPE) piping. The interest in this comes from AmerenUE’s Callaway Plant and Duke Energy‘s Catawba Plant both submitting relief requests to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for using HDPE in place of carbon steel piping in Section III, Class 3 systems in accordance with Code Case N-...



Applicability of High-Density Polyethylene in Nuclear Piping Systems with Internal Radionuclides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report serves as a preliminary evaluation on the long-term impact of radiation on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) piping for nuclear power plant applications. A short literature review is provided on the impact of radiation on HDPE material, followed by a Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) model of internal radiation exposure from radionuclides commonly encountered at nuclear power facilities. Ultimately, this work seeks to provide guidance on the applicability of HDPE piping in radioactive ...



Current Activities Assessing Butt Fusion Joint Integrity in High Density Polyethylene Piping  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, conducted initial studies to evaluate the effectiveness of nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing for assessing butt fusion joint integrity in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The work provided insightful information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques for detecting lack of fusion (LOF) conditions in the fusion joints. HDPE has been installed on a limited basis in American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Class 3, buried piping systems at several operating U.S. nuclear power plants and has been proposed for use in new construction. A comparison was made between the results from ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive examinations and the results from mechanical destructive evaluations, specifically the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test, for determining joint integrity. The data comparison revealed that none of the NDE techniques detected all of the lack-of-fusion conditions that were revealed by the destructive tests. Follow-on work has recently been initiated at PNNL to accurately characterize the NDE responses from machined flaws of varying size and location in PE 4710 materials as well as the LOF condition. This effort is directed at quantifying the ability of volumetric NDE techniques to detect flaws in relation to the critical flaw size associated with joint integrity. A status of these latest investigations is presented.

Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Doctor, Steven R.; Denslow, Kayte M.




Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is anticipated that high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes will be utilized within the liner and closure cap of the proposed On-Site Disposal Cell (OSDC) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The likely longevity (i.e. service life) of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service is evaluated within the following sections of this report: (1) Section 2.0 provides an overview of HDPE geomembranes, (2) Section 3.0 outlines potential HDPE geomembranes degradation mechanisms, (3) Section 4.0 evaluates the applicability of HDPE geomembrane degradation mechanisms to the Portsmouth OSDC, (4) Section 5.0 provides a discussion of the current state of knowledge relative to the longevity (service life) of HDPE geomembranes, including the relation of this knowledge to the Portsmouth OSDC, and (5) Section 6.0 provides summary and conclusions relative to the anticipated service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service. Based upon this evaluation it is anticipated that the service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service would be significantly greater than the 200 year service life assumed for the OSDC closure cap and liner HDPE geomembranes. That is, a 200 year OSDC HDPE geomembrane service life is considered a conservative assumption.

Phifer, M.



Kinetics of Moisture Absorption for Alkali Extracted Steam-Exploded Fiber Filled High-Density Polyethylene Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Acacia mangium wood fiber derived from steam-explosion and fiber fractionation treatment was used as fillers for high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The alkali extracted steam-exploded fibers (AEF) obtained were acetylated to produce acetylated fibers (AAEF) having three different weight percent gain (WPG). Composites of AEF or AAEF and HDPE were prepared via 2-roll mill, compression molded and cut into dumbbell specimens. All samples were immersed in water at room temperature for 30 days. The process of absorption of water by all composites followed the kinetics and mechanisms described by the Fick's theory. Diffusion coefficient (D) values increased with filler loading but decreased with increasing WPG of the AAEF fiber. Further decrease was observed when maleated polyethylene (MAPE) was added to the composite system. This was due to improved fiber-matrix adhesion that restricts movement of water molecules from further penetrate inside the composite structures.

Taib, R. M.; Ramarad, S.; Ishak, Z. A. M. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Rozman, H. D. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)



Form-stable crystalline polymer pellets for thermal energy storage: high density polyethylene intermediate products. Final report, October 1, 1977--January 31, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objectives of this program were to demonstrate: (1) that form-stable high density polyethylene (HDPE), which has been shown to have desirable properties as a phase-change type of thermal energy storage material, could be produced by processing in a polyethylene plant for a projected price near 26 cents/lb; and (2) that the raw material, ethylene, will be available in the very long-term from alternate sources (other than petroleum and natural gas). These objectives were accomplished. Production of useful, form-stable HDPE pellets by radiation cross-linking was demonstrated. Such pellets are estimated to be obtainable at 26 cents/lb, using large-volume (> or equal to 10,000,000 lb/yr) in-plant processing. Well-developed technologies exist for obtaining ethylene from coal and plant (or biomass) sources, thus assuring its long-term availability and therefore that of polyethylene. A cost-benefit analysis of the HDPE thermal energy storage system was conducted over its 120 to 140/sup 0/C optimum operating range which is most suited for absorption air conditioning. The HDPE is more cost effective than either rocks, ethylene glycol, or pressurized water and is even competitive with a hypothetical 5 cents/lb salt-hydrate melting in this temperature range. These results applied, as appropriate, to both air and liquid transfer systems.

Botham, R.A.; Ball, G.L. III; Jenkins, G.H.; Salyer, I.O.



Enhancement of mechanical strength of TiO{sub 2}/high-density polyethylene composites for bone repair with silane-coupling treatment  

SciTech Connect

Mechanical properties of composites made up of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and silanated TiO{sub 2} particles for use as a bone-repairing material were investigated in comparison with those of the composites of HDPE with unsilanized TiO{sub 2} particles. The interfacial morphology and interaction between silanated TiO{sub 2} and HDPE were analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The absorption in spectral bands related to the carboxyl bond in the silane-coupling agent, the vinyl group in the HDPE, and the formation of the ether bond was studied in order to assess the influence of the silane-coupling agent. The SEM micrograph showed that the 'bridging effect' between HDPE and TiO{sub 2} was brought about by the silane-coupling agent. The use of the silane-coupling agent and the increase of the hot-pressing pressure for shaping the composites facilitated the penetration of polymer into cavities between individual TiO{sub 2} particles, which increased the density of the composite. Therefore, mechanical properties such as bending yield strength and Young's modulus increased from 49 MPa and 7.5 GPa to 65 MPa and 10 GPa, respectively, after the silane-coupling treatment and increase in the hot-pressing pressure.

Hashimoto, Masami [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)]. E-mail: masami@jfcc.or.jp; Takadama, Hiroaki [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)]. E-mail: takadama@jfcc.or.jp; Mizuno, Mineo [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)]. E-mail: mizuno@jfcc.or.jp; Kokubo, Tadashi [Research Institute for Science and Technology, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: kokubo@isc.chubu.ac.jp



Criticality Evaluation of Plutonium-239 Moderated by High-Density Polyethylene in Stainless Steel and Aluminum Containers Suitable for Non-Exclusive Use Transport  

SciTech Connect

Research is conducted at the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Facility (JASPER) on the effects of high pressure and temperature environments on plutonium-239, in support of the stockpile stewardship program. Once an experiment has been completed, it is necessary to transport the end products for interim storage or final disposition. Federal shipping regulations for nonexclusive use transportation require that no more than 180 grams of fissile material are present in at least 360 kilograms of contiguous non-fissile material. To evaluate the conservatism of these regulatory requirements, a worst-case scenario of 180g {sup 239}Pu and a more realistic scenario of 100g {sup 239}Pu were modeled using one of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Monte Carlo transport codes known as COG 10. The geometry consisted of {sup 239}Pu spheres homogeneously mixed with high-density polyethylene surrounded by a cube of either stainless steel 304 or aluminum. An optimized geometry for both cube materials and hydrogen-to-fissile isotope (H/X) ratio were determined for a single unit. Infinite and finite 3D arrays of these optimized units were then simulated to determine if the systems would exceed criticality. Completion of these simulations showed that the optimal H/X ratio for the most reactive units ranged from 800 to 1600. A single unit of either cube type for either scenario would not reach criticality. An infinite array was determined to reach criticality only for the 180g case. The offsetting of spheres in their respective cubes was also considered and showed a considerable decrease in the number of close-packed units needed to reach criticality. These results call into question the current regulations for fissile material transport, which under certain circumstances may not be sufficient in preventing the development of a critical system. However, a conservative, theoretical approach was taken in all assumptions and such idealized configurations may not be likely to be encountered in actual packaging, transportation, and storage configurations. Modeling of realistic, as-built configurations is beyond the scope of this study.

Watson, T T



Reduced Water Density in a Poly(ethylene oxide) Brush  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) brush system, prepared by spreading a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PEO-PnBA) amphiphilic diblock copolymer onto an air-water interface, was investigated under various grafting density conditions by using the X-ray reflectivity (XR) technique. The overall electron density profiles of the PEO-PnBA monolayer in the direction normal to the air-water interface were determined from the XR data. From this analysis, it was found that inside of the PEO brush, the water density is significantly lower than that of bulk water, in particular, in the region close to the PnBA-water interface. Separate XR measurements with a PnBA homopolymer monolayer confirm that the reduced water density within the PEO-PnBA monolayer is not due to unfavorable contacts between the PnBA surface and water. The above result, therefore, lends support to the notion that PEO chains provide a hydrophobic environment for the surrounding water molecules when they exist as polymer brush chains.

Lee, Hoyoung; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Hae-Woong; Mahynski, Nathan A.; Kim, Kyungil; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Won, You-Yeon (Purdue); (UC)



Treatment of Wine Distillery Wastewater Using an Anaerobic Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor with Low Density of Polyethylene Support  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor filled with small and low density polyethylene support as biofilm carrier was operated to treat wine distillery wastewater for nearly 8 months. The support packed in the reactor is Bioflow 30 with density 0.92g/cm3 ... Keywords: Anaerobic digestion, moving bed biofilm reactor, low density polyethylene support, wine distillery wastewater

Chai Sheli; Rene Moletta



Characterization of mechanical properties: low-density polyethylene nanocomposite using nanoalumina particle as filler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanocomposites based on low-density polyethylene (LDPE), containing 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 5wt% of nanoalumina, were prepared by melt-mixing at 125°C and hot melt-pressing to thin polymer film at 125°C. To enhance the interfacial interaction between ...

Ching Yern Chee, N. L. Song, Luqman Chuah Abdullah, Thomas S. Y. Choong, Azowa Ibrahim, T. R. Chantara



Method for making a low density polyethylene waste form for safe disposal of low level radioactive material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the method of the invention low density polyethylene pellets are mixed in a predetermined ratio with radioactive particulate material, then the mixture is fed through a screw-type extruder that melts the low density polyethylene under a predetermined pressure and temperature to form a homogeneous matrix that is extruded and separated into solid monolithic waste forms. The solid waste forms are adapted to be safely handled, stored for a short time, and safely disposed of in approved depositories.

Colombo, P.; Kalb, P.D.


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Polyethylene Encapsulated Depleted Uranium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Poly DU Poly DU Polyethylene Encapsulated Depleted Uranium Technology Description: Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has completed preliminary work to investigate the feasibility of encapsulating DU in low density polyethylene to form a stable, dense product. DU loadings as high as 90 wt% were achieved. A maximum product density of 4.2 g/cm3 was achieved using UO3, but increased product density using UO2 is estimated at 6.1 g/cm3. Additional product density improvements up to about 7.2 g/cm3 were projected using DU aggregate in a hybrid technique known as micro/macroencapsulation.[1] A U.S. patent for this process has been received.[2] Figure 1 Figure 1: DU Encapsulated in polyethylene samples produced at BNL containing 80 wt % depleted UO3 A recent DU market study by Kapline Enterprises, Inc. for DOE thoroughly identified and rated potential applications and markets for DU metal and oxide materials.[3] Because of its workability and high DU loading capability, the polyethylene encapsulated DU could readily be fabricated as counterweights/ballast (for use in airplanes, helicopters, ships and missiles), flywheels, armor, and projectiles. Also, polyethylene encapsulated DU is an effective shielding material for both gamma and neutron radiation, with potential application for shielding high activity waste (e.g., ion exchange resins, glass gems), spent fuel dry storage casks, and high energy experimental facilities (e.g., accelerator targets) to reduce radiation exposures to workers and the public.


Tapanuli Organoclay Addition Into Linear Low Density Polyethylene-Pineapple Fiber Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Linear low density polyethylene-Tapanuli organoclay-pineapple fiber composites were succesfully synthesized by a melt intercalation method. The clay was modified as an organoclay by a cation exchange reaction using hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMABr) surfactant. The X-ray diffraction results of the organoclay exhibited a higher basal spacing of 1.87 nm compared to the unmodified clay of 1.46 nm. The composite tensile strength was enhanced up to 46.4% with the 1 wt% organoclay addition. Both tensile and flexural moduli increased up to 150.6% and 43% with the 3 wt% organoclay addition to the composites. However, the flexural strength of the composites was not improved with the organoclay addition. The addition of organoclay has also decreased the heat deflection temperature of the composites.

Adawiyah, Robiatul; Juwono, Ariadne L. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Roseno, Seto [Center of Material Technology, Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology, Jl. M.H. Thamrin No.8, Jakarta 10340 (Indonesia)



Highly Enriched Uranium Metal Annuli and Cylinders with Polyethylene Reflectors and/or Internal Polyethylene Moderator  

SciTech Connect

A variety of critical experiments were constructed of enriched uranium metal during the 1960s and 1970s at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility in support of criticality safety operations at the Y-12 Plant. The purposes of these experiments included the evaluation of storage, casting, and handling limits for the Y-12 Plant and providing data for verification of calculation methods and cross-sections for nuclear criticality safety applications. These included solid cylinders of various diameters, annuli of various inner and outer diameters, two and three interacting cylinders of various diameters, and graphite and polyethylene reflected cylinders and annuli. Of the hundreds of delayed critical experiments, experiments of uranium metal annuli with and without polyethylene reflectors and with the central void region either empty or filled with polyethylene were evaluated under ICSBEP Identifier HEU-MET-FAST-076. The outer diameter of the uranium annuli varied from 9 to 15 inches in two-inch increments. In addition, there were uranium metal cylinders with diameters varying from 7 to 15 inches with complete reflection and reflection on one flat surface to simulate floor reflection. Most of the experiments were performed between February 1964 and April 1964. Five partially reflected (reflected on the top only) experiments were assembled in November 1967, but are judged by the evaluators not to be of benchmark quality. Twenty-four of the twenty-five experiments have been determined to have fast spectra. The only exception has a mixed spectrum. Analyses were performed in which uncertainty associated with five different parameters associated with the uranium parts and three associated with the polyethylene parts was evaluated. Included were uranium mass, height, diameter, isotopic content, and impurity content and polyethylene mass, diameter, and impurity content. There were additional uncertainties associated with assembly alignment, support structure, and the value for ßeff. In addition to the idealizations made by the experimenters (removal of a diaphragm), a few simplifications were also made to the benchmark models that resulted in a small bias and additional uncertainty. Simplifications included omission of the support structure, possible surrounding equipment, and the walls, floor, and ceiling of the experimental cell. Bias values that result from these simplifications were determined and associated uncertainty in the bias values were included in the overall uncertainty in benchmark keff values. Bias values ranged from 0.0002 ?k to 0.0093 ?k below the experimental value. Overall uncertainties range from ? 0.0002 to ? 0.0011. Major contributors to the overall uncertainty include uncertainty in the support structure and the polyethylene parts. A comparison of experimental, benchmark-model, and MCNP-model keff values is shown in Figure 1. The experimental keff values are derived from the original reactivities reported by the principal experimentalist. The benchmark-model keff values are the experimental keff values adjusted to account for biases that were introduced by removing the support structure and surroundings. The MCNP-model keff values are simply the values found from MCNP calculations using the benchmark specifications and ENDF/B-VI cross-section data. Figure 1. Comparison of Experimental, Benchmark-Model and MCNP-Model keff value. Calculated results for most of the experiments are

Tyler Sumner; J. Blair Briggs; Leland Montierth



Polyethylene Pipe Failure in the Arctic - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the current study, a new high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe in the Arctic region of ... Heat Tint Effects on General Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels .


High Energy Density Capacitors  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: Recapping is developing a capacitor that could rival the energy storage potential and price of today’s best EV batteries. When power is needed, the capacitor rapidly releases its stored energy, similar to lightning being discharged from a cloud. Capacitors are an ideal substitute for batteries if their energy storage capacity can be improved. Recapping is addressing storage capacity by experimenting with the material that separates the positive and negative electrodes of its capacitors. These separators could significantly improve the energy density of electrochemical devices.




High density photovoltaic  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photovoltaic technology can directly generate high voltages in a solid state material through the series interconnect of many photovoltaic diodes. We are investigating the feasibility of developing an electrically isolated, high-voltage power supply using miniature photovoltaic devices that convert optical energy to electrical energy.

Haigh, R.E.; Jacobson, G.F.; Wojtczuk, S. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)



Equipment evaluation for low density polyethylene encapsulated nitrate salt waste at the Rocky Flats Plant  

SciTech Connect

Mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) are subject to regulation by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Polymer solidification is being developed as a final treatment technology for several of these mixed wastes, including nitrate salts. Encapsulation nitrate salts with low density polyethylene (LDPE) has been the preliminary focus of the RFP polymer solidification effort. Literature reviews, industry surveys, and lab-scale and pilot-scale tests have been conducted to evaluate several options for encapsulating nitrate salts with LDPE. Most of the effort has focused on identifying compatible drying and extrusion technologies. Other processing options, specifically meltration and non-heated compounding machines, were also investigated. The best approach appears to be pretreatment of the nitrate salt waste brine in either a vertical or horizontal thin film evaporator followed by compounding of the dried waste with LDPE in an intermeshing, co-rotating, twin-screw extruder. Additional pilot-scale tests planned for the fall of 1993 should further support this recommendation. Preliminary evaluation work indicates that meltration is not possible at atmospheric pressure with the LDPE (Chevron PE-1409) provided by RFP. However, meltration should be possible at atmospheric pressure using another LDPE formulation with altered physical and rheological properties: Lower molecular weight and lower viscosity (Epoline C-15). Contract modifications are now in process to allow a follow-on pilot scale demonstration. Questions regarding changed safety and physical properties of the resultant LDPE waste form due to use of the Epoline C-15 will be addressed. No additional work with non-heated mixer compounder machines is planned at this time.

Yamada, W.I.; Faucette, A.M.; Jantzen, R.C.; Logsdon, B.W.; Oldham, J.H.; Saiki, D.M.; Yudnich, R.J.



ORIGINAL PAPER BambooFiber Filled High Density Polyethylene Composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and China. Bamboo is one of the fastest renewable plants with a maturity cycle of 3­4 years. Bamboo has and low G. Han College of Material Science and Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China Y. Lei Á Q. Wu (&) School of Renewable Natural Resources, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center


Dynamic Tensile Extrusion of High-density Polyethylene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Depending on the extrusion ratios and velocities HDPE damage varies gross ... Characterization of the Dynamic Behavior of Recycled Polypropylene-based Composites ... Shock Compression Behavior of Bi-material Powder Composites with ...


Critical masses of highly enriched uranium diluted with Gd and polyethylene  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments have been performed containing highly enriched uranium, hydrogenous moderator (polyethylene), and gadolinium as a neutron absorber. The purpose of the experiments is to provide additional criticality data that can be used to verify and validate criticality safety evaluations in support of the National Spent Fuel Program. In addition, the experiments were also designed to provide criticality data for heterogeneous systems as noted in reference 1.

Sanchez, R. G. (Rene G.); Loaiza, D. J. (David J.); Bennion, J. (John)



Profiles in garbage: Polyethylene terephthalate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a plastic resin used primarily to make bottles. Soft drinks -- along with salad dressing, fruit juices, peanut butter, and other household and consumer products -- use PET bottles. PET also is used for film, sheeting for cups and food trays, oven-safe trays, and other uses. PET is a relatively new packaging resin, first commercialized in the early 1970s. Because it is an ``engineered`` resin, PET is more expensive than commodity resins such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and, for the same reason, it is usually the highest valued plastic recyclable.

Miller, C. [Environmental Industry Associations, Washington, DC (United States)



Oxides having high energy densities  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Certain disclosed embodiments generally relate to oxide materials having relatively high energy and/or power densities. Various aspects of the embodiments are directed to oxide materials having a structure B.sub.i(M.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2, for example, a structure Li.sub.j(Ni.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2 such as Li(Ni.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5)O.sub.2. In this structure, Y represents one or more atoms, each independently selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metals, transition metals, Group 14 elements, Group 15, or Group 16 elements. In some embodiments, such an oxide material may have an O3 crystal structure, and/or a layered structure such that the oxide comprises a plurality of first, repeating atomic planes comprising Li, and a plurality of second, repeating atomic planes comprising Ni and/or Y.

Ceder, Gerbrand; Kang, Kisuk



High Density Fuel Development for Research Reactors  

SciTech Connect

An international effort to develop, qualify, and license high and very high density fuels has been underway for several years within the framework of multi-national RERTR programs. The current development status is the result of significant contributions from many laboratories, specifically CNEA in Argentina, AECL in Canada, CEA in France, TUM in Germany, KAERI in Korea, VNIIM, RDIPE, IPPE, NCCP and RIARR in Russia, INL, ANL and Y-12 in USA. These programs are mainly engaged with UMo dispersion fuels with densities from 6 to 8 gU/cm3 (high density fuel) and UMo monolithic fuel with density as high as 16 gU/cm3 (very high density fuel). This paper, mainly focused on the French & US programs, gives the status of high density UMo fuel development and perspectives on their qualification.

Daniel Wachs; Dennis Keiser; Mitchell Meyer; Douglas Burkes; Curtis Clark; Glenn Moore; Jan-Fong Jue; Totju Totev; Gerard Hofman; Tom Wiencek; Yeon So Kim; Jim Snelgrove



High Energy Density Secondary Lithium Batteries  

High Energy Density Secondary Lithium Batteries Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this intellectual property may


High density laser-driven target  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high density target for implosion by laser energy composed of a central quantity of fuel surrounded by a high-Z pusher shell with a low-Z ablator-pusher shell spaced therefrom forming a region filled with low-density material.

Lindl, John D. (San Ramon, CA)



High density load bearing insulation peg  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high density peg is disclosed which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 4 figs.

Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.



High density load bearing insulation peg  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high density peg which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

Nowobilski, Jeffert J. (Orchard Park, NY); Owens, William J. (Kenmore, NY)



Phase diagram of amorphous solid water: Low-density, high-density, and very-high-density amorphous ices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the understanding of the transformation between the different amorphous ices and the two hypothesized phasesPhase diagram of amorphous solid water: Low-density, high-density, and very-high-density amorphous ices Nicolas Giovambattista,1,2 H. Eugene Stanley,2 and Francesco Sciortino3 1 Department of Chemical

Sciortino, Francesco


High-density Fuel Development for High Performance Research ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, High density UMo (7-12wt% Mo) fuel for high performance research ... High Energy X-ray Diffraction Study of Deformation Behavior of Alloy HT9.


High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids /science-innovation/_assets/images/icon-science.jpg High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. TRIDENT target chamber Sasi Palaniyappan, right, and Rahul Shah left inside a target chamber where the TRIDENT short pulse laser is aimed at a very thin diamond- foil target, a fraction of a micrometer thick. The laser delivers a power on target of 150 Terawatts focused into a 7 micrometer spot, yielding laser brilliance over 100 times more intense than needed to make the target electrons fully relativistic. These experiments test novel methods of producing intense

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program | National Nuclear...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program Home > High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas...


Relation between the High Density Phase and the Very-High Density Phase of Amorphous Solid Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relation between the High Density Phase and the Very-High Density Phase of Amorphous Solid Water; published 18 March 2005) It has been suggested that high-density amorphous (HDA) ice is a structurally arrested form of high- density liquid (HDL) water, while low-density amorphous ice is a structurally

Sciortino, Francesco


2 x 2 Polyethylene Reflected and Moderated Highly Enriched Uranium System with Rhenium  

SciTech Connect

The 2 × 2 array HEU-Re experiment was performed on the Planet universal critical assembly machine on November 4th, 2003 at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For this experiment, there were 10 ½ units, each full unit containing four HEU foils and two rhenium foils. The top unit contained only two HEU foils and two rhenium foils. A total of 42 HEU foils were used for this experiment. Rhenium is a desirable cladding material for space nuclear power applications. This experiment consisted of HEU foils interleaved with rhenium foils and is moderated and reflected by polyethylene plates. A unit consisted of a polyethylene plate, which has a recess for rhenium foils, and four HEU foils in a single layer in the top recess of each polyethylene plate. The Planet universal criticality assembly machine has been previously used in experiments containing HEU foils interspersed with SiO2 (HEU-MET-THERM-001), Al (HEU-MET-THERM-008), MgO (HEU-MET-THERM-009), Gd foils (HEU-MET-THERM-010), 2 × 2 × 26 Al (HEU-MET-THERM-012), Fe (HEU-MET-THERM-013 and HEU-MET-THERM-015), 2 × 2 × 23 SiO2 (HEU-MET-THERM-014), 2 × 2 × 11 hastalloy plates (HEU-MET-THERM-016), and concrete (HEU-MET-THERM-018). The 2 × 2 array of HEU-Re is considered acceptable for use as a benchmark critical experiment.

A. Nichole Ellis; Jesson Hutchinson; John D. Bess; Dmitry N. Polyakov; Evgeny S. Glushkov; Alexey E. Glushkov



Kinetics driving high-density chlorine plasmas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple fluid model was developed in order to investigate the driving kinetics of neutral and charged species in high-density chlorine plasmas. It was found that the dissociation degree of Cl{sub 2} molecules is directly linked to the power balance of the discharge which controls the electron density. The model was also used to identify those reactions that could be neglected in the particle balance of charged species and those that must be included. Our results further indicate that diffusion losses need to be considered up to a pressure that depends on magnetic-field intensity and reactor aspect ratio. Finally, it is shown that the dominant charged carriers are linked to the dissociation level of Cl{sub 2} molecules.

Stafford, L.; Margot, J.; Vidal, F.; Chaker, M.; Giroux, K.; Poirier, J.-S.; Quintal-Leonard, A.; Saussac, J. [Department de physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); INRS-Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, Varennes, Quebec (Canada); Department de physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)



Ohmically heated high-density Z pinch  

SciTech Connect

The gross properties of a high-density (n approximately equal to 10$sup 27$ m$sup -3$), small-radius, (r = 10$sup -4$ m) gas-imbedded Z pinch have been examined considering only classical processes. The rate equation using only ohmic heating along with bremsstrahlung and radial heat transport shows that ohmic heating will rapidly take the pinch to thermonuclear temperatures for currents, I, greater than 1 MA. The radial heat loss for the pinch is very small for I greater than 1.5 MA. This suggests that the pinch could tolerate being driven to a nearby wall by an m = 1 kink. The laser technology for initiation of the small-diameter filament and the high-voltage technology for giving a 30-ns rise to a MA or more are available now. Some reactor considerations have been included. (auth)

Hammel, J.E.



Phase Diagram of Amorphous Solid Water: Low-Density, High-Density, and Very-High-Density Amorphous Ices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the phase diagram of amorphous solid water by performing molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulations follow different paths in the phase diagram: isothermal compression/decompression, isochoric cooling/heating and isobaric cooling/heating. We are able to identify low-density amorphous (LDA), high-density amorphous (HDA), and very-high density amorphous (VHDA) ices. The density $\\rho$ of these glasses at different pressure $P$ and temperature $T$ agree well with experimental values. We also study the radial distribution functions of glassy water. We obtain VHDA by isobaric heating of HDA, as in experiment. We also find that ``other forms'' of glassy water can be obtained upon isobaric heating of LDA, as well as amorphous ices formed during the transformation of LDA to HDA. We argue that these other forms of amorphous ices, as well as VHDA, are not altogether new glasses but rather are the result of aging induced by heating. Samples of HDA and VHDA with different densities are recovered at normal $P$, showing that there is a continuum of glasses. Furthermore, the two ranges of densities of recovered HDA and recovered VHDA overlap at ambient $P$. Our simulations are consistent with the possibility of HDA$\\to$LDA and VHDA$\\to$LDA transformations, reproducing the experimental findings. We do not observe a VHDA$\\to$HDA transformation.

Nicolas Giovambattista; H. Eugene Stanley; Francesco Sciortino



High Energy Density Utracapacitors: Low-Cost, High Energy and Power Density, Nanotube-Enhanced Ultracapacitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: FastCAP is improving the performance of an ultracapacitor—a battery-like electronic device that can complement, and possibly even replace, an HEV or EV battery pack. Ultracapacitors have many advantages over conventional batteries, including long lifespans (over 1 million cycles, as compared to 10,000 for conventional batteries) and better durability. Ultracapacitors also charge more quickly than conventional batteries, and they release energy more quickly. However, ultracapacitors have fallen short of batteries in one key metric: energy density—high energy density means more energy storage. FastCAP is redesigning the ultracapacitor’s internal structure to increase its energy density. Ultracapacitors traditionally use electrodes made of irregularly shaped, porous carbon. FastCAP’s ultracapacitors are made of tiny, aligned carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide a regular path for ions moving in and out of the ultracapacitor’s electrode, increasing the overall efficiency and energy density of the device.




Reference material RM 7811-7 for identification cards with high coercivity high density magnetic stripes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reference material RM 7811-7 for identification cards with high coercivity high density magnetic stripes

Albrecht, M



Structural and Thermal Characterization of Ti+O Ion Implanted UltraHigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)  

SciTech Connect

In this work, Metal-Gas Hybrid Ion Implantation technique was used as a tool for the surface modification of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE). Samples were Ti+O ion implanted by using Metal-Vapour Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion implanter to a fluence of 5x10{sup 16} ion/cm{sup 2} for each species and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Untreated and surface treated samples were investigated by Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) Spectrometry, Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Results indicate that Ti+O ion implantation can be applied on UHMWPE surfaces successfully. ATR-FTIR spectra indicate that the C-H concentration on the surface decreased after Ti+O implantation. Thermal characterization with TGA and DSC shows that polymeric decomposition temperature is shifted after ion implantation.

Oztarhan, A.; Urkac, E. Sokullu; Kaya, N. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey); Tihminlioglu, F. [Chemical Engineering Department, Izmir Institute of High Technology, Gulbahcekoyu Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Ila, D.; Chhay, B.; Muntele, C. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal, Huntsville AL 35762 (United States); Budak, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762 (United States); Oks, E.; Nikolaev, A. [High Current Electrnonics, Institute , Tomsk (Russian Federation)



Anomalous evolution of Ar metastable density with electron density in high density Ar discharge  

SciTech Connect

Recently, an anomalous evolution of argon metastable density with plasma discharge power (electron density) was reported [A. M. Daltrini, S. A. Moshkalev, T. J. Morgan, R. B. Piejak, and W. G. Graham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Although the importance of the metastable atom and its density has been reported in a lot of literature, however, a basic physics behind the anomalous evolution of metastable density has not been clearly understood yet. In this study, we investigated a simple global model to elucidate the underlying physics of the anomalous evolution of argon metastable density with the electron density. On the basis of the proposed simple model, we reproduced the anomalous evolution of the metastable density and disclosed the detailed physics for the anomalous result. Drastic changes of dominant mechanisms for the population and depopulation processes of Ar metastable atoms with electron density, which take place even in relatively low electron density regime, is the clue to understand the result.

Park, Min; Chang, Hong-Young [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); You, Shin-Jae; Kim, Jung-Hyung [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon, 305-306 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yong-Hyeon



047 Glass-Ceramic Composites for High Energy Density Capacitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

047 Glass-Ceramic Composites for High Energy Density Capacitors .... 150 Analysis of Hf-Ta Alloys for Oxidation Protection in Ultra High Temperature ...


Design of annular fuel for high power density BWRs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Enabling high power density in the core of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) is economically profitable for existing or new reactors. In this work, we examine the potential for increasing the power density in BWR plants by ...

Morra, Paolo



Innovative fuel designs for high power density pressurized water reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the ways to lower the cost of nuclear energy is to increase the power density of the reactor core. Features of fuel design that enhance the potential for high power density are derived based on characteristics of ...

Feng, Dandong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology



Lattice QCD and High Baryon Density State  

SciTech Connect

We report our recent studies on the finite density QCD obtained from lattice QCD simulation with clover-improved Wilson fermions of two flavor and RG-improved gauge action. We approach the subject from two paths, i.e., the imaginary and chemical potentials.

Nagata, Keitaro [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Research Institute for Information Science and Education, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Nakamura, Atsushi; Motoki, Shinji [Research Institute for Information Science and Education, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Saito, Takuya [Integrated Information Center, Kochi University, Kochi, 780-8520 (Japan)



Inexpensive Production of High Density Thin Ceramic Films on ...  

Steven Visco, Lutgard DeJonghe, and Craig Jacobson have developed a simple, inexpensive method for producing high density, crack-free, thin ceramic ...


Aluminum Oxynitride Dielectrics for High Energy Density Capacitor ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 15, 2006 ... Aluminum Oxynitride Dielectrics for High Energy Density Capacitor Applications by Kevin R. Bray, Richard L.C. Wu, Sandra Fries-Carr, and ...


Device Fabrication Method for High Power Density Capacitors  

Device Fabrication Method for High Power Density Capacitors Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this intellectual ...


Amplifying Magnetic Fields in High Energy Density Plasmas | U...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Amplifying Magnetic Fields in High Energy Density Plasmas Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) FES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of FES Funding Opportunities...



Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery ...


High power densities from high-temperature material interactions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermionic energy conversion (TEC) and metallic-fluid heat pipes (MFHPs) offer important and unique advantages in terrestrial and space energy processing. And they are well suited to serve together synergistically. TEC and MFHPs operate through working-fluid vaporization, condensation cycles that accept great thermal power densities at high temperatures. TEC and MFHPs have apparently simple, isolated performance mechanisms that are somewhat similar. And they also have obviously difficult, complected material problems that again are somewhat similar. Intensive investigation reveals that aspects of their operating cycles and material problems tend to merge: high-temperature material effects determine the level and lifetime of performance. Simplified equations verify the preceding statement for TEC and MFHPs. Material properties and interactions exert primary influences on operational effectiveness. And thermophysicochemical stabilities dictate operating temperatures which regulate the thermoemissive currents of TEC and the vaporization flow rates of MFHPs. Major high-temperature material problems of TEC and MFHPs have been solved. These solutions lead to productive, cost-effective applications of current TEC and MFHPs - and point to significant improvements with anticipated technological gains.

Morris, J.F.


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Effect of seawater environmental exposure on fatigue properties of polyethylene pipe  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One laboratory study at NIT was reported to show an unexpected decrease in crystallinity for a polyethylene material exposed to fatigue loading in a synthetic seawater solution. High density polyethylene Sclairpipe, from the OTEC-1 cold water pipe, was evaluated for resistance to corrosion fatigue in natural seawater. Intermediate crystallinity measurements (via bulk density) showed no effect of corrosion fatigue exposure. Heat of fusion (a relative indicator of crystallinity) also showed no effect of the exposure. Seawater exposure produced no significant change in tensile strength. One failure was observed during the corrosion fatigue tests and was attributed to porosity observed by fractography. These data suggest that high density polyethylene is not significantly sensitive to degradation of fatigue strength in natural seawater.

Tipton, D G



Available Technologies: Ultra-High Density Diffraction ...  

The researchers have demonstrated that an extremely high diffraction intensity ... www.lbl.gov/Tech-Transfer/licensing/index ... OF ENERGY • OFFICE OF ...


Innovative High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential for Clean  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Innovative High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential Innovative High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential for Clean Energy Applications Innovative High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential for Clean Energy Applications June 10, 2011 - 4:46pm Addthis Similar system to the clustering tool that will manufacture TroyCap’s High Energy Density Nanolaminate Capacitor | Credit: TroyC Similar system to the clustering tool that will manufacture TroyCap's High Energy Density Nanolaminate Capacitor | Credit: TroyC Ben Squires Analyst, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Can you imagine a photovoltaic module that's able to generate and store electricity on its own? Or an electric vehicle (EV) powered by a technology more durable than the advanced batteries in today's EVs? Malvern,


Innovative High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential for Clean  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential for Clean Energy Applications Innovative High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential for Clean Energy Applications June 10, 2011 - 4:46pm Addthis Similar system to the clustering tool that will manufacture TroyCap’s High Energy Density Nanolaminate Capacitor | Credit: TroyC Similar system to the clustering tool that will manufacture TroyCap's High Energy Density Nanolaminate Capacitor | Credit: TroyC Ben Squires Analyst, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Can you imagine a photovoltaic module that's able to generate and store electricity on its own? Or an electric vehicle (EV) powered by a technology more durable than the advanced batteries in today's EVs? Malvern, Pennsylvania's TroyCap, LLC is using nanolaminate technology patented by


Thermal Behaviour of W+C Ion Implanted Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work was to examine thermal behavior of the surface modified Ultra High Molecular Weight Poly Ethylene (UHMWPE ) in order to understand the effect of ion implantation on the properties of this polymer which is widely used especially for biomedical applications. UHMWPE samples were Tungsten and Carbon (W+C) hybrid ion implanted by using Metal Vapour Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion implantation technique with a fluence of 10 17 ions/cm2 and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Untreated and surface-treated samples were investigated by Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) Analysis, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectrometry, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). This study has shown that ion implantation represents a powerful tool on modifying thermal properties of UHMWPE surfaces. This combination of properties can make implanted UHMWPE a preferred material for biomedical applications.

Urkac, E. Sokullu; Oztarhan, A. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey); Tihminlioglu, F. [Chemical Engineering Department, Izmir Institute of High Technology, Gulbahcekoyu Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Ila, D.; Chhay, B.; Muntele, C. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal, Huntsville AL 35762 (United States); Budak, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762 (United States); Oks, E.; Nikolaev, A. [High Current Electrnonics, Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation)



The spectral density of the scattering matrix for high energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We determine the density of eigenvalues of the scattering matrix of the Schrodinger operator with a short range potential in the high energy asymptotic regime. We give an explicit formula for this density in terms of the X-ray transform of the potential.

Daniel Bulger; Alexander Pushnitski



The spectral density of the scattering matrix for high energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We determine the density of eigenvalues of the scattering matrix of the Schrodinger operator with a short range potential in the high energy asymptotic regime. We give an explicit formula for this density in terms of the X-ray transform of the potential.

Bulger, Daniel



Magnetic Fields in High-Density Stellar Matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I briefly review some aspects of the effect of magnetic fields in the high density regime relevant to neutron stars, focusing mainly on compact star structure and composition, superconductivity, combustion processes, and gamma ray bursts.

German Lugones



Demonstration of Commissioning Tests for Extra-High Voltage Cross-Linked Polyethylene Cable Systems at Los Angeles Department of Wat er and Power  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Today, utilities are installing an increasing number of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) transmission cables with system voltages ranging from 115 kV up to 345 kV. This report summarizes field partial discharge measurements and high-voltage ac commissioning tests performed on a Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) 230-kV XLPE transmission cable system. The commissioning tests were performed with a field transportable, variable frequency, series resonant test set at 1.4 times rated voltage.



High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program | National Nuclear Security  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Program | National Nuclear Security Program | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program Home > High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program Steady advances in increasing the energy, power, and brightness of lasers and particle beams and advances in pulsed power systems have made possible



DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of preparing high-density thorium oxide spheres for use in pellet beds in nuclear reactors is presented. Sinterable thorium oxide is first converted to free-flowing granules by means such as compression into a compact and comminution of the compact. The granules are then compressed into cubes having a density of 5.0 to 5.3 grams per cubic centimeter. The cubes are tumbled to form spheres by attrition, and the spheres are then fired at 1250 to 1350 deg C. The fired spheres are then polished and fired at a temperature above 1650 deg C to obtain high density. Spherical pellets produced by this method are highly resistant to mechanical attrition hy water. (AEC)

McNees, R.A. Jr.; Taylor, A.J.



LANL | Physics | Inertial Confinement Fusion and High Energy Density  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Inertial confinement and high density Inertial confinement and high density plasma physics Using the world's most powerful lasers, Physics Division scientists are aiming to create thermonuclear burn in the laboratory. The experimental research of the Physics Division's Inertial Confinement Fusion program is conducted at the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester, and the Trident Laser Facility at Los Alamos. Within inertial confinement fusion and the high energy density area, Los Alamos specializes in hohlraum energetics, symmetry tuning, warm dense matter physics, and hydrodynamics in ultra-extreme conditions. When complete, this research will enable the exploitation of fusion as an energy resource and will enable advanced research in stockpile stewardship


High density electronic circuit and process for making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High density circuits with posts that protrude beyond one surface of a substrate to provide easy mounting of devices such as integrated circuits are disclosed. The posts also provide stress relief to accommodate differential thermal expansion. The process allows high interconnect density with fewer alignment restrictions and less wasted circuit area than previous processes. The resulting substrates can be test platforms for die testing and for multi-chip module substrate testing. The test platform can contain active components and emulate realistic operational conditions, replacing shorts/opens net testing. 8 figs.

Morgan, W.P.



Neutron spectroscopy of high-density amorphous ice.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vibrational spectra of high-density amorphous ice (hda-ice) for H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O samples were measured by inelastic neutron scattering. The measured spectra of hda-ice are closer to those for high-pressure phase ice-VI, but not for low-density ice-Ih. This result suggests that similar to ice-VI the structure of hda-ice should consist of two interpenetrating hydrogen-bonded networks having no hydrogen bonds between themselves.

Kolesnikov, A. I.



High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas | National Nuclear Security  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

| National Nuclear Security | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog HEDLP High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Home > About Us > Our Programs > Defense Programs > Office of Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation > University Partnerships / Academic Alliances > High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas


Thin liquid lithium targets for high power density  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thin liquid lithium targets for high power density applications: heavy ion beam strippers and beta Hilton Malmö City #12;Outline Liquid Lithium Stripper idea for FRIB Brief theory of film stability Thickness measurement results Next Steps Beta-beams 2 #12;Liquid Lithium Stripper for FRIB: Advantages

McDonald, Kirk


Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The challenging problem of ultra-high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and small-scale portable power generation is addressed here using a distinctive thermophotovoltaic energy conversion mechanism and chip-based system ...

Pilawa-Podgurski, R. C. N.


Laboratory testing of high energy density capacitors for electric vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laboratory tests of advanced, high energy density capacitors in the Battery Test Laboratory of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory have been performed to investigate their suitability for load-leveling the battery in an electric vehicle. Two types of devices were tested -- 3 V, 70 Farad, spiral wound, carbon-based, single cell devices and 20 V, 3. 5 Farad, mixed-oxide, multi-cell bipolar devices. The energy density of the devices, based on energy stored during charge to the rated voltage, was found to be 1--2 Wh/kg, which agreed well with that claimed by the manufacturers. Constant power discharge tests were performed at power densities up to 1500 W/kg. Discharges at higher power densities could have been performed had equipment been available to maintain constant power during discharges of less than one second. It was found that the capacitance of the devices were rate dependent with the rate dependency of the carbon-based devices being higher than that of the mixed-oxide devices. The resistance of both types of devices were relatively low being 20--30 milliohms. Testing done in the study showed that the advanced high energy density capacitors can be charged and discharged over cycles (PSFUDS) which approximate the duty cycle that would be encountered if the devices are used to load-level the battery in an electric vehicle. Thermal tests of the advanced capacitors in an insulated environment using the PSFUDS cycle showed the devices do not overheat with their temperatures increasing only 4--5{degrees}C for tests that lasted 5--7 hours. 7 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

Burke, A.F.




DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor for the irradiation of materials designed to provide a localized area of high thermal neutron flux density in which the materials to be irradiated are inserted is described. The active portion of the reactor is comprised of a cubicle graphite moderator of about 25 feet in length along each axis which has a plurality of cylindrical channels for accommodatirg elongated tubular-shaped fuel elements. The fuel elements have radial fins for spacing the fuel elements from the channel walls, thereby providing spaces through which a coolant may be passed, and also to serve as a heatconductirg means. Ducts for accommnodating the sample material to be irradiated extend through the moderator material perpendicular to and between parallel rows of fuel channels. The improvement is in the provision of additional fuel element channels spaced midway between 2 rows of the regular fuel channels in the localized area surrounding the duct where the high thermal neutron flux density is desired. The fuel elements normally disposed in the channels directly adjacent the duct are placed in the additional channels, and the channels directly adjacent the duct are plugged with moderator material. This design provides localized areas of high thermal neutron flux density without the necessity of providing additional fuel material.

Newson, H.W.



High Energy Density Physics and Exotic Acceleration Schemes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The High Energy Density and Exotic Acceleration working group took as our goal to reach beyond the community of plasma accelerator research with its applications to high energy physics, to promote exchange with other disciplines which are challenged by related and demanding beam physics issues. The scope of the group was to cover particle acceleration and beam transport that, unlike other groups at AAC, are not mediated by plasmas or by electromagnetic structures. At this Workshop, we saw an impressive advancement from years past in the area of Vacuum Acceleration, for example with the LEAP experiment at Stanford. And we saw an influx of exciting new beam physics topics involving particle propagation inside of solid-density plasmas or at extremely high charge density, particularly in the areas of laser acceleration of ions, and extreme beams for fusion energy research, including Heavy-ion Inertial Fusion beam physics. One example of the importance and extreme nature of beam physics in HED research is the requirement in the Fast Ignitor scheme of inertial fusion to heat a compressed DT fusion pellet to keV temperatures by injection of laser-driven electron or ion beams of giga-Amp current. Even in modest experiments presently being performed on the laser-acceleration of ions from solids, mega-amp currents of MeV electrons must be transported through solid foils, requiring almost complete return current neutralization, and giving rise to a wide variety of beam-plasma instabilities. As keynote talks our group promoted Ion Acceleration (plenary talk by A. MacKinnon), which historically has grown out of inertial fusion research, and HIF Accelerator Research (invited talk by A. Friedman), which will require impressive advancements in space-charge-limited ion beam physics and in understanding the generation and transport of neutralized ion beams. A unifying aspect of High Energy Density applications was the physics of particle beams inside of solids, which is proving to be a very important field for diverse applications such as muon cooling, fusion energy research, and ultra-bright particle and radiation generation with high intensity lasers. We had several talks on these and other subjects, and many joint sessions with the Computational group, the EM Structures group, and the Beam Generation group. We summarize our groups' work in the following categories: vacuum acceleration schemes; ion acceleration; particle transport in solids; and applications to high energy density phenomena.

Cowan, T.; /General Atomics, San Diego; Colby, E.; /SLAC


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


High density harp or wire scanner for particle beam diagnostics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A diagnostic detector head harp (23) used to detect and characterize high energy particle beams using an array of closely spaced detector wires (21), typically carbon wires, spaced less than 0.1 cm (0.040 inch) connected to a hybrid microcircuit (25) formed on a ceramic substrate (26). A method to fabricate harps (23) to obtain carbon wire spacing and density not previously available utilizing hybrid microcircuit technology. The hybrid microcircuit (25) disposed on the ceramic substrate (26) connects electrically between the detector wires (21) and diagnostic equipment (37) which analyzes pulses generated in the detector wires (21) by the high energy particle beams.

Fritsche, Craig T. (Overland Park, KS); Krogh, Michael L. (Lee' s Summit, MO)



Explanation of persistent high frequency density structure in coalesced bunches  

SciTech Connect

It has been observed that after the Main Ring rf manipulation of coalescing (where 5 to 13 primary bunches are transferred into a single rf bucket) the new secondary bunch displays evidence of high frequency density structure superimposed on the approximately Gaussian longitudinal bunch length distribution. This structure is persistent over a period of many seconds (hundreds of synchrotron oscillation periods). With the help of multiparticle simulation programs, an explanation of this phenomenon is given in terms of single particle longitudinal phase space dynamics. No coherent effects need be taken into account. 6 refs., 10 figs.

Jackson, Gerald P.



Method for providing a low density high strength polyurethane foam  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a method for making a polyurethane closed-cell foam material exhibiting a bulk density below 4 lbs/ft.sup.3 and high strength. The present embodiment uses the reaction product of a modified MDI and a sucrose/glycerine based polyether polyol resin wherein a small measured quantity of the polyol resin is "pre-reacted" with a larger quantity of the isocyanate in a defined ratio such that when the necessary remaining quantity of the polyol resin is added to the "pre-reacted" resin together with a tertiary amine catalyst and water as a blowing agent, the polymerization proceeds slowly enough to provide a stable foam body.

Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.; Goods, Steven H.; Skala, Dawn M.; Henderson, Craig C.; Keifer, Patrick N.



A Cherenkov Radiation Detector with High Density Aerogels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have designed a threshold Cherenkov detector at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory to identify muons with momenta between 230 and 350 MeV/c. We investigated the properties of three aerogels for the design. The nominal indexes of refraction were n = 1.03, 1.07, 1.12, respectively. Two of the samples are of high density aerogel not commonly used for Cherenkov light detection. We present results of an examination of some optical properties of the aerogel samples and present basic test beam results.

Cremaldi, Lucien; Sonnek, Peter; Summers, Donald J; Reidy, Jim



Communal Polyethylene Biogas Systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? In Lembang, a farming community on western Java, family-sized, plug-flow, polyethylene biogas systems fed with cow dung, are being used as an integrated solution… (more)

Stoddard, Isak




Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Table 2: Principal mineral phases found in the granite rock. Mineral phase. ... Table 4. Average density of 12 granite rocks by Archimedes and CT. ...



Pulsed power drivers for ICF and high energy density physics  

SciTech Connect

Nanosecond Pulsed Power Science and Technology has its origins in the 1960s and over the past decade has matured into a flexible and robust discipline capable of addressing key physics issues of importance to ICF and high Energy Density Physics. The major leverage provided by pulsed power is its ability to generate and deliver high energy and high power at low cost and high efficiency. A low-cost, high-efficiency driver is important because of the very large capital investment required for multi-megajoule ignition-class systems. High efficiency is of additional importance for a commercially viable inertial fusion energy option. Nanosecond pulsed power has been aggressively and successfully developed at Sandia over the past twenty years. This effort has led to the development of unique multi-purpose facilities supported by highly capable diagnostic, calculational and analytic capabilities. The Sandia Particle-beam Fusion Program has evolved as part of an integrated national ICF Program. It applies the low-cost, high-efficiency leverage provided by nanosecond pulsed power systems to the longer-term goals of the national program, i.e., the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and Inertial Fusion Energy. A separate effort has led to the application of nanosecond pulsed power to the generation of intense, high-energy laboratory x-ray sources for application to x-ray laser and radiation effects science research. Saturn is the most powerful of these sources to date. It generates {approximately}500 kilojoules of x-rays from a magnetically driven implosion (Z-pinch). This paper describes results of x-ray physics experiments performed on Saturn, plans for a new Z-pinch drive capability for PBFA-II, and a design concept for the proposed {approximately}15 MJ Jupiter facility. The opportunities for ICF-relevant research using these facilities will also be discussed.

Ramirez, J.J.; Matzen, M.K.; McDaniel, D.H.



TRIDENT high-energy-density facility experimental capabilities and diagnostics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The newly upgraded TRIDENT high-energy-density (HED) facility provides high-energy short-pulse laser-matter interactions with powers in excess of 200 TW and energies greater than 120 J. In addition, TRIDENT retains two long-pulse (nanoseconds to microseconds) beams that are available for simultaneous use in either the same experiment or a separate one. The facility's flexibility is enhanced by the presence of two separate target chambers with a third undergoing commissioning. This capability allows the experimental configuration to be optimized by choosing the chamber with the most advantageous geometry and features. The TRIDENT facility also provides a wide range of standard instruments including optical, x-ray, and particle diagnostics. In addition, one chamber has a 10 in. manipulator allowing OMEGA and National Ignition Facility (NIF) diagnostics to be prototyped and calibrated.

Batha, S. H.; Aragonez, R.; Archuleta, F. L.; Archuleta, T. N.; Benage, J. F.; Cobble, J. A.; Cowan, J. S.; Fatherley, V. E.; Flippo, K. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Gonzales, R. P.; Greenfield, S. R.; Hegelich, B. M.; Hurry, T. R.; Johnson, R. P.; Kline, J. L.; Letzring, S. A.; Loomis, E. N.; Lopez, F. E.; Luo, S. N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS E526, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] (and others)



A thermal analysis model for high power density beam stops  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is presently designing and building the 2.5 MeV injector for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The design includes various beam intercepting devices such as beam stops and slits. The target power densities can be as high as 500 kW/cm{sup 2} with a beam stopping range of 25 to 30 microns, producing stresses well above yield in most materials. In order to analyze the induced temperatures and stresses, a finite element model has been developed. The model has been written parametrically to allow the beam characteristics, target material, dimensions, angle of incidence and mesh densities to be easily adjusted. The heat load is applied to the model through the use of a 3-dimensional table containing the calculated volumetric heat rates. The load is based on a bi-gaussian beam shape which is absorbed by the target according to a Bragg peak distribution. The results of several analyses using the SNS Front End beam are presented.

Virostek, S.; Oshatz, D.; Staples, J.



Ultra-high current density thin-film Si diode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combination of a thin-film .mu.c-Si and a-Si:H containing diode structure characterized by an ultra-high current density that exceeds 1000 A/cm.sup.2, comprising: a substrate; a bottom metal layer disposed on the substrate; an n-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited the bottom metal layer; an i-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the n-layer; a buffer layer of a-Si:H deposited on the i-layer, a p-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the buffer layer; and a top metal layer deposited on the p-layer.

Wang; Qi (Littleton, CO)




SciTech Connect

This annual report summarizes the activities of the Cornell Center for Pulsed-Power-Driven High-Energy-Density Plasma Studies, for the 12-month period October 1, 2005-September 30, 2006. This period corresponds to the first year of the two-year extension (awarded in October, 2005) to the original 3-year NNSA/DOE Cooperative Agreement with Cornell, DE-FC03-02NA00057. As such, the period covered in this report also corresponds to the fourth year of the (now) 5-year term of the Cooperative Agreement. The participants, in addition to Cornell University, include Imperial College, London (IC), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), the University of Rochester (UR), the Weizmann Institute of Science (WSI), and the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Moscow. A listing of all faculty, technical staff and students, both graduate and undergraduate, who participated in Center research activities during the year in question is given in Appendix A.

Professor Bruce R. Kusse; Professor David A. Hammer



High-Density Infrared Surface Treatments of Refractories  

SciTech Connect

Refractory materials play a crucial role in all energy-intensive industries and are truly a crosscutting technology for the Industries of the Future (IOF). One of the major mechanisms for the degradation of refractories and a general decrease in their performance has been the penetration and corrosion by molten metals or glass. Methods and materials that would reduce the penetration, wetting, and corrosive chemistry would significantly improve refractory performance and also maintain the quality of the processed liquid, be it metal or glass. This report presents the results of an R&D project aimed at investigating the use of high-density infrared (HDI) heating to surface treat refractories to improve their performance. The project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR). HDI is capable of heating the near-surface region of materials to very high temperatures where sintering, diffusion, and melting can occur. The intended benefits of HDI processing of refractories were to (1) reduce surface porosity (by essentially sealing the surface to prevent liquid penetration), (2) allow surface chemistry changes to be performed by bonding an adherent coating onto the underlying refractory (in order to inhibit wetting and/or improve corrosion resistance), and (3) produce noncontact refractories with high-emissivity surface coatings.

Tiegs, T.N.



High power density supercapacitors using locally aligned carbon nanotube electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B E 1999 Electrochemical Supercapacitor ( New York: Kluwer–power density of a supercapacitor is its most remarkablepower density of a supercapacitor is given by P max = V i

Du, C S; Yeh, J; Pan, Ning



Fatigue Weak-Link Density and Strength Distribution in High ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Fatigue and Corrosion Damage in Metallic Materials: Fundamentals, Modeling and Prevention. Presentation Title, Fatigue Weak-Link Density and ...


Inexpensive Production of High Density Thin Ceramic Films ...  

For Industry; For Researchers; Success Stories; About Us; Available Technologies. Browse By Category Advanced Materials; ... density of the ceramic ...


High fidelity field simulations using density and pressure based approaches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Density-based and pressure-based approaches in solving the Navier-Stokes equations for computational field simulations for compressible and incompressible flows have been presented. For the density-based flow solver, a generalized grid based framework ... Keywords: CFD, Density-based method, Pressure-based method

Gary C. Cheng; Roy P. Koomullil; Bharat K. Soni



Argonne CNM Highlight: High density, high-aspect-ratio precision polyimide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High density, high-aspect-ratio precision polyimide nanofilters High density, high-aspect-ratio precision polyimide nanofilters Polyimide Nanofilter SEM of a polyimide film with holes ~250 nm in diameter and ~10 µm deep. The cross-sectional cut of the channels in the front are made visible by focused ion-beam milling. Collaborative users from Creatv MicroTech, Inc. and Los Alamos National Laboratory, working with CNM's Nanofabrication & Devices Group, have demonstrated a novel fabrication process that produces high-porosity polymer nanofilters with smooth, uniform. and straight pores and high aspect ratios. Nanofilters have a wide range of applications for various size-exclusion-based separations in bioseparation and nanomedicine, such as laboratory assays, removing bacteria and viruses, drug delivery devices,


Tilescope: online analysis pipeline for high-density tiling microarray data Zhengdong D. Zhang1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Tilescope: online analysis pipeline for high-density tiling microarray data Zhengdong D. Zhang1 pipeline Key words: high-density tiling microarray, high-density oligonucleotide microarray, microarray processing pipeline for analyzing tiling array data (http://tilescope.gersteinlab.org). In a completely

Gerstein, Mark


Anomalously High Density of Adsorbed Hydrogen on Surface ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The amount of adsorbed hydrogen at 20 K under relative pressure = 0.9 was about 11 mass%, indicating that the hydrogen density of the adsorbed state should ...


Metrology Challenges for High Energy Density Science Target Manufacture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Currently, High Energy Density Science (HEDS) experiments are used to support and qualify predictive physics models. These models assume ideal conditions such as energy (input) and device (target) geometry. The experiments rely on precision targets constructed from components with dimensions in the millimeter range, while having micrometer-scale, functional features, including planar steps, sine waves, and step-joint geometry on hemispherical targets. Future target designs will likely have features and forms that rival or surpass current manufacturing and characterization capability. The dimensional metrology of these features is important for a number of reasons, including qualification of sub-components prior to assembly, quantification of critical features on the as-built assemblies and as a feedback mechanism for fabrication process development. Variations in geometry from part to part can lead to functional limitations, such as unpredictable instabilities during an experiment and the inability to assemble a target from poorly matched sub-components. Adding to the complexity are the large number and variety of materials, components, and shapes that render any single metrology technique difficult to use with low uncertainty. Common materials include metal and glass foams, doped transparent and opaque plastics and a variety of deposited and wrought metals. A suite of metrology tools and techniques developed to address the many critical issues relevant to the manufacture of HEDS targets including interferometry, x-ray radiography and contact metrology are presented including two sided interferometry for absolute thickness metrology and low force probe technology for micrometer feature coordinate metrology.

Seugling, R M; Bono, M J; Davis, P


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Upgrading of biorenewables to high energy density fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

According to a recent report, lignocellulose is the most abundant renewable biological resource on earth, with an annual production of {approx} 200 x 10{sup 9} tons. Conversion of lignocellulosics derived from wood, agricultural wastes, and woody grasses into liquid fuels and value-added chemical feedstocks is an active area of research that has seen an explosion of effort due to the need to replace petroleum based sources. The carbohydrates D-glucose (C{sub 6}), L-arabinose (C{sub 5}), and D-xylose (C{sub 5}) are readily obtained from the hydrolysis of lignocellulose and constitute the most abundant renewable organic carbon source on the planet. Because they are naturally produced on such a large scale, these sugars have the greatest potential to displace petrochemical derived transportation fuel. Recent efforts in our laboratories aimed towards the production of high energy density transportation fuels from carbohydrates have been structured around the parameters of selective carbohydrate carbon chain extension chemistries, low reaction temperatures, and the desired use of water or neat substrate as the solvent. Some of our efforts in this regard will be presented.

Gordon, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Weizhong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Currier, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dirmyer, Matthew R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; John, Kevin D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Jin K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keith, Jason [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pierpont, Aaron W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Silks Ill, L. A. "" Pete [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smythe, Mathan C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sutton, Andrew D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taw, Felicia L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trovitch, Ryan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vasudevan, Kalyan V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waidmann, Christopher R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, Ruilian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, R. Thomas [UNIV OF OTTAWWA; Schlaf, Marcel [UNIV OF GUELPH



High Density Nano-Electrode Array for Radiation Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bulk single crystals of Cd1-xZnxTe (x=0.04 to x=0.2) compound semiconductor is used for room temperature radiation detection. The production of large volume of Cd1-xZnxTe with low defect density is expensive. As a result there is a growing research interest in the production of nanostructured compound semiconductors such as Cd1-xZnxTe in an electrochemical route. In this investigation, Cd1-xZnxTe ternary compound semiconductor, referred as CZT, was electrodeposited in the form of nanowires onto a TiO2 nanotubular template from propylene carbonate as the non-aqueous electrolyte, using a pulse-reverse electrodeposition process at 130 ºC. The template acted as a support in growing ordered nanowire of CZT which acts as a one dimensional conductor. Cyclic Voltammogram (CV) studies were conducted in determining the potentials for the growth of nanowires of uniform stoichiometry. The morphologies and composition of CZT were characterized by using SEM, TEM and XRD. The STEM mapping carried out on the nanowires showed the uniform distribution of Cd, Zn and Te elements. TEM image showed that the nanowires were polycrystalline in nature. The Mott-Schottky analysis carried on the nanowires showed that the nanowires were a p-type semiconductor. The carrier density, band gap and resistivity of the Cd0.9Zn0.1Te nanowires were 4.29x1013 cm-3, 1.56 eV and 2.76x1011?-cm respectively. The high resistivity was attributed to the presence of deep defect states such as cadmium vacancies or Te antisites which were created by the anodic cycle of the pulse-reverse electrodeposition process. Stacks of series connected CZT nanowire arrays were tested with different bias potentials. The background current was in the order of tens of picoamperes. When exposed to radiation source Amerecium-241 (60 KeV, 4 ?Ci), the stacked CZT nanowires arrays showed sensing behavior. The sensitivity of the nanowire arrays increased as the number of stacks increased. The preliminary results indicate that the CZT nanowire arrays can be used as a potential X-ray and low energy gamma ray detector material at room temperature with a much low bias potential (0.7 – 4V) as against 300 – 500 V applied in the commercial bulk detector materials.

Mano Misra



Surface interactions involved in flashover with high density electronegative gases.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines the interactions involved with flashover along a surface in high density electronegative gases. The focus is on fast ionization processes rather than the later time ionic drift or thermalization of the discharge. A kinetic simulation of the gas and surface is used to examine electron multiplication and includes gas collision, excitation and ionization, and attachment processes, gas photoionization and surface photoemission processes, as well as surface attachment. These rates are then used in a 1.5D fluid ionization wave (streamer) model to study streamer propagation with and without the surface in air and in SF6. The 1.5D model therefore includes rates for all these processes. To get a better estimate for the behavior of the radius we have studied radial expansion of the streamer in air and in SF6. The focus of the modeling is on voltage and field level changes (with and without a surface) rather than secondary effects, such as, velocities or changes in discharge path. An experiment has been set up to carry out measurements of threshold voltages, streamer velocities, and other discharge characteristics. This setup includes both electrical and photographic diagnostics (streak and framing cameras). We have observed little change in critical field levels (where avalanche multiplication sets in) in the gas alone versus with the surface. Comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements are in agreement with this. We have examined streamer sustaining fields (field which maintains ionization wave propagation) in the gas and on the surface. Agreement of the gas levels with available literature is good and agreement between experiment and calculation is good also. Model calculations do not indicate much difference between the gas alone versus the surface levels. Experiments have identified differences in velocity between streamers on the surface and in the gas alone (the surface values being larger).

Hodge, Keith Conquest; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wallace, Zachariah Red; Lehr, Jane Marie



An evolutionary fuel assembly design for high power density BWRs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An evolutionary BWR fuel assembly design was studied as a means to increase the power density of current and future BWR cores. The new assembly concept is based on replacing four traditional assemblies and large water gap ...

Karahan, Aydin



The design of high power density annular fuel for LWRs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel performance models have been developed to assess the performance of internally and externally cooled LWR annular fuel. Such fuel may be operated at 30-50% higher core power density than the current operating LWRs, and ...

Yuan, Yi, 1975-




DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work builds upon discoveries by the University of Pennsylvania and others pertaining to the oxidation of dry hydrocarbon fuels in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The work reported here was restricted primarily to dry methane and confirms that YSZ-based cells, having ceria in the anode as a catalyst and copper in the anode as a current collector, can operate on dry methane for extended periods. Thirty-three lab-scale cells of various designs were fabricated and operated under a variety of conditions. The longest-lived cell gave stable performance on dry methane at 800 C for over 305 hours. Only slight carbon deposition was noted at the completion of the test. A corresponding nickel/YSZ-based anode would have lasted for less than an hour under these test conditions (which included open circuit potential measurements) before carbon fouling essentially destroyed the cell. The best performing cell achieved 112 mW/cm{sub 2} on dry methane at 800 C. Several problems were encountered with carbon fouling and declining open circuit voltages in many of the test cells after switching from operation on hydrogen to dry methane. Although not rigorously confirmed by experimentation, the results suggested that air infiltration through less than perfect perimeter seals or pinholes in the electrolytes, or both gave rise to conditions that caused the carbon fouling and OCV decline. Small amounts of air reacting with methane in a partial oxidation reaction could produce carbon monoxide that, in turn, would deposit the carbon. If this mechanism is confirmed, it implies that near perfect hardware is required for extended operation. Some evidence was also found for the formation of electrical shorts, probably from carbon deposits bridging the electrolyte. Work with odorized methane and with methane containing 100-ppm hydrogen sulfide confirmed that copper is stable at 800 C in dry hydrocarbon fuels in the presence of sulfur. In a number of cases, but not exclusively, the performance life on dry methane with sulfur compounds was much longer than with dry methane alone. The effect of sulfur compounds in these cases appeared to correlate with inhibition of carbon deposition. Mixed results were obtained for the effect of the sulfur compounds on power density. Progress also was made in understanding the mechanisms involved in direct utilization of dry natural gas. Evidence was developed for three possible mechanisms for dry methane utilization in addition to the usually cited mechanism--direct oxidation of methane by oxygen anions. Further work is required at a fundamental level before the knowledge gained here can be translated into higher levels of performance.

K.Krist; O. Spaldon-Stewart; R. Remick



High Energy Density Lithium Capacitors Using Carbon-Carbon ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate a lithium capacitor which is capable of achieving high energy ... 3D Nanostructured Bicontinuous Electrodes: Path to Ultra-High Power and ...


National Research Council Study on Frontiers in High-Energy-Density Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Fusion Fusion Power Associates Washington, DC 19­21 November 2003 #12;E12541 High-energy-density physicsNational Research Council Study on Frontiers in High-Energy-Density Physics David D. Meyerhofer (HEDP) is a rapidly growing research area · Pressures in excess of 1 Mbar constitute high-energy


Application of Critical Strain Energy Density to Predicting High-Burnup Fuel Rod Failure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents responses to Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff concerning application of critical strain energy density (CSED) to predicting high-burnup fuel rod failure.



High uranium density dispersion fuel for the reduced enrichment of research and test reactors program.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work describes the fabrication of a high uranium density fuel for the Reduced Enrichment of Research and Test Reactors Program. In an effort to… (more)

[No author



ESS 2012 Peer Review - Low Cost, High-Energy Density Flywheel...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Boeing Management Company. Copyright 2011 Boeing. All rights reserved. | 1 Low-Cost, High-Energy Density Flywheel Storage Grid Demonstration" Mike Strasik Program...


High Energy Density Anode Materials Based on SiO-SnCo/FeC for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, High energy density anode material SiO-SnCoC is synthesized by mechanical alloying method and tested for lithium battery applications.


Interferometric measurements of plasma density in high-. beta. plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The coupled-cavity laser interferometer technique is particularly applicable to the measurement of pulsed plasma densities. This technique is based on the fact that if a small fraction of a gas laser's output radiation is reflected into the laser with an external mirror, the intensity of the laser output is modulated. These amplitude or intensity modulations are produced by changes in the laser gain. A rotating corner mirror or an oscillating mirror can be used to produce a continuous feedback modulation of the interferometer which produces a continuous background fringe pattern. The presence of plasma in the outer cavity causes an additional change which results in a phase shift of the regular period of the background fringe pattern. The integral of the plasma density along the line of sight can be evaluated by comparison of the time history of the fringes obtained with and without plasma.

Quinn, W.E.



The Nuclear Equation of State at high densities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ab inito calculations for the nuclear many-body problem make predictions for the density and isospin dependence of the nuclear equation-of-state (EOS) far away from the saturation point of nuclear matter. I compare predictions from microscopic and phenomenological approaches. Constraints on the EOS derived from heavy ion reactions, in particular from subthreshold kaon production, as well as constraints from neutron stars are discussed.

Christian Fuchs



Metrology of High Current Density Electron Field Emitters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... through a biasing grid. These thermal electron sources have limitations due to the required high operating temperature, power consumption, and ...



Thulium heat source for high-endurance and high-energy density power systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We are studying the performance characteristics of radioisotope heat source designs for high-endurance and high-energy-density power systems that use thulium-170. Heat sources in the power range of 5--50 kW{sub th} coupled with a power conversion efficiency of {approximately}30%, can easily satisfy current missions for autonomous underwater vehicles. New naval missions will be possible because thulium isotope power systems have a factor of one-to-two hundred higher endurance and energy density than chemical and electrochemical systems. Thulium-170 also has several other attractive features, including the fact that it decays to stable ytterbium-170 with a half-life of four months. For terrestrial applications, refueling on that time scale should be acceptable in view of the advantage of its benign decay. The heat source designs we are studying account for the requirements of isotope production, shielding, and integration with power conversion components. These requirements are driven by environmental and safety considerations. Thulium is present in the form of thin refractory thulia disks that allow power conversion at high peak temperature. We give estimates of power system state points, performance, mass, and volume characteristics. Monte Carlo radiation analysis provides a detailed assessment of shield requirements and heat transfer under normal and distressed conditions is also considered. 11 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Walter, C.E.; Kammeraad, J.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.



Kaon condensation in neutron stars and high density behaviour of nuclear symmetry energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the influence of a high density behaviour of the nuclear symmetry energy on a kaon condensation in neutron stars. We find that the symmetry energy typical for several realistic nuclear potentials, which decreases at high densities, inhibits kaon condensation for weaker kaon-nucleon couplings. There exists a threshold coupling above which the kaon condensate forms at densities exceeding some critical value. This is in contrast to the case of rising symmetry energy, as e.g. for relativistic mean field models, when the kaon condensate can form for any coupling at a sufficiently high density. Properties of the condensate are also different in both cases.

S. Kubis; M. Kutschera



Low Loss, High Power Density Magnetics in Inductor/Transformer ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The former power requirements motivate high efficiency materials for use in bulk scale inductors and transformers. The magnetic material requirements include ...


Piezoelectric Films for High Density Switching Arrays for Logic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Specific to this work is the functionality of the high aspect ratio piezoelectric ... and Their Electrochemical Performance for Energy Storage Applications.


High Energy Density Fused Cladding for Corrosion Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corrosion in Biodiesel Production Process Using High Free Fatty Acid Feedstocks · Corrosion Prediction in the Oil and Gas Industry Using Handheld X- ray ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Basic Research Needs for High Energy Density Laboratory Physics  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

those of high-power lasers, pulsed-power machines and particle accelerators, and advanced energy systems. Furthermore, the program will help develop the workforce needed for future...


Enabling High Energy Density Redox Chemistries and 3D Electrode ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon-Sulfur Nanocomposite Cathode Materials for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries · Carbonized ... Graphenic Material for High Performance Li-Ion Battery Electrodes .


High density phase change data on flexible substrates by thermal curing type nanoimprint lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, high density phase change nano-pillar device (Tera-bit per inch^2 data density) was fabricated on flexible substrates by thermal curing type nanoimprint lithography with high throughput at a relatively low temperature (120^oC). Phase change ... Keywords: Flexible nano-device, Nanoimprint lithography, Phase change memory, Phase change nano-pillar device, Tera-bit record

Sung-Hoon Hong; Jun-Ho Jeong; Kang-In Kim; Heon Lee



Replication of high density optical disc using injection mold with MEMS heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, an injection mold equipped with a MEMS heater was designed and constructed to raise the stamper surface temperature over the glass transition temperature during the filling stage of the injection molding. First, high density optical disc ... Keywords: High density optical disc, Injection mold, MEMS RTD sensor, MEMS heater, Solidified layer, Stamper surface temperature

Youngmin Kim; Yong Choi; Shinill Kang



High Energy Density Film-on-foil Capacitor Fabrication Utilizing ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... process, which promised high voltage operations of the PLZT based film-on-foil capacitors. ... A Study on Hydrostatic Extrusion of a High Strength Bimetal Pin ... Consolidation of Silica/Graphene Oxide Composite by Spark Plasma Sintering .... Phase Equilibria and Tie-line Compositions of the ? and (?, ?, ?) Phases in the ...


Street-facing Dwelling Units and Livability: The Impacts of Emerging Building Types in Vancouver's New High-density Residential Neighbourhoods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

s New High-density Residential Neighbourhoods Elizabeths New High-density Residential Neighbourhoods ELIZABETHbuilding new high-density residential neighbourhoods around

Macdonald, Elizabeth



herbicides, burning, and high-density loblolly pine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Kudzu is an aggressive, nonnative vine that currently dominates an estimated 810,000 ha of mesic forest communities in the eastern United States. To test an integrated method of weed control, abundances of kudzu and other plant species were compared during 4 yr after six herbicide treatments (clopyralid, triclopyr, metsulfuron, picloram 1 2,4-D, tebuthiuron, and a nonsprayed check), in which loblolly pines were planted at three densities (0, 1, and 4 seedlings m22) to induce competition and potentially delay kudzu recovery. This split-plot design was replicated on each of the four kudzu-dominated sites near Aiken, SC. Relative light intensity (RLI) and soil water content (SWC) were measured periodically to identify mechanisms of interference among plant species. Two years after treatment (1999), crown coverage of kudzu averaged , 2% in herbicide plots compared with 93% in the nonsprayed check, and these differences were maintained through 2001, except in clopyralid plots where kudzu cover increased to 15%. In 2001, pine interference was associated with 33, 56, and 67% reductions in biomass of kudzu, blackberry, and herbaceous vegetation, respectively. RLI in kudzu-dominated plots (4 to 15% of full sun) generally was less than half that of herbicide-treated plots. SWC was greatest in tebuthiuron plots, where total vegetation cover averaged 26% compared with 77 to 111% in other plots. None of the treatments eradicated kudzu, but combinations of herbicides and induced pine competition delayed its recovery.

T.B. Harrington; L.T. Rader-Dixon; J.W. Taylor, Jr.



Raman spectroscopy on simple molecular systems at very high density  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present an overview of how Raman spectroscopy is done on simple molecular substances at high pressures. Raman spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools for studying these substances. It is often the quickest means to explore changes in crystal and molecular structures, changes in bond strength, and the formation of new chemical species. Raman measurements have been made at pressures up to 200 GPa (2 Mbar). Even more astonishing is the range of temperatures (4-5200/degree/K) achieved in various static and dynamic (shock-wave) pressure experiments. One point we particularly wish to emphasize is the need for a good theoretical understanding to properly interpret and use experimental results. This is particularly true at ultra-high pressures, where strong crystal field effects can be misinterpreted as incipient insulator-metal transitions. We have tried to point out apparatus, techniques, and results that we feel are particularly noteworthy. We have also included some of the /open quotes/oral tradition/close quotes/ of high pressure Raman spectroscopy -- useful little things that rarely or never appear in print. Because this field is rapidly expanding, we discuss a number of exciting new techniques that have been informally communicated to us, especially those that seem to open new possibilities. 58 refs., 18 figs.

Schiferl, D.; LeSar, R.S.; Moore, D.S.




Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scaling relation N{sub c} {approx} 4.4{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} has been observed parallel and perpendicular to the copper-oxygen planes in the high-temperature superconductors; N{sub c} is the spectral weight and {sigma}{sub dc} is the dc conductivity just above the critical temperature T{sub c}. In addition, Nb and Pb also fall close to the this scaling line. The application of the Ferrell-Glover-Tinkham sum rule to the BCS optical properties of Nb above and below T{sub c} yields N{sub c} {approx} 8.1{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} when the normal-state scattering rate is much greater than the superconducting energy gap (1/{tau} > 2{Delta}, the ''dirty'' limit). This result implies that the high-temperature superconductors may be in the dirty limit. The superconductivity perpendicular to the planes is explained by the Josephson effect, which again yields N{sub c} {approx} 8.1{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} in the BCS formalism. The similar forms for the scaling relation in these two directions suggests that in some regime the dirty limit and the Josephson effect may be viewed as equivalent.




Production of high-density high-temperature plasma by collapsing small solid-density plasma shell with two ultra-intense laser pulses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that the anisotropic collapse of a plasma microshell by impact of two oppositely directed intense laser pulses can create at the center of the shell cavity a submicron-sized plasma of high density and temperature suitable for generating fusion neutrons.

Xu, H. [National Laboratory for Parallel and Distributed Processing, School of Computer Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Yu Wei [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yu, M. Y. [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, Bochum D-44780 (Germany); Wong, A. Y. [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Sheng, Z. M.; Zhang, J. [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Murakami, M. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)



Polyaniline modified graphene and carbon nanotube composite electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors of high energy density  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

supercapacitors of high energy density Qian Cheng a,b , Jie Tang a,b,**, Norio Shinya b , Lu-Chang Qin c as supercapacitor electrodes. Energy density of 188 Wh kgÃ?1 has been obtained. Graphene composite with carbon April 2013 Keywords: Supercapacitor Graphene Carbon nanotube PANI a b s t r a c t Graphene and single

Qin, Lu-Chang


The spectral density of the scattering matrix of the magnetic Schrodinger operator for high energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The scattering matrix of the Schrodinger operator with smooth short-range electric and magnetic potentials is considered. The asymptotic density of the eigenvalues of this scattering matrix in the high energy regime is determined. An explicit formula for this density is given. This formula involves only the magnetic vector-potential.

Daniel Bulger; Alexander Pushnitski




E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a promising new fuel for high power density light water reactors, the feasibility of using annular fuel for BWR services is explored from both thermal hydraulic and neutronic points of view. Keeping the bundle size ...

Morra, P.


Short-Term Probabilistic Forecasts of Ceiling and Visibility Utilizing High-Density Surface Weather Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automated statistical system that utilizes regional high-density surface observations to forecast low ceiling and visibility events in the upper Midwest is presented. The system is based solely upon surface observations as predictors, ...

Stephen M. Leyton; J. Michael Fritsch



4D-HD for high energy density plasmas: shedding light into rapidly...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

D-HD for high energy density plasmas: shedding light into rapidly changing, opaque plasmas Wednesday, July 24, 2013 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Marta Fajardo,...


The Materials genome : rapid materials screening for renewable energy using high-throughput density functional theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis relates to the emerging field of high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) computation for materials design and optimization. Although highthroughput DFT is a promising new method for materials discovery, ...

Jain, Anubhav, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology



Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel Production: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Fact Sheets > Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel ... Fact Sheet Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel


Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel Production: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Fact Sheets > Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel ... Fact Sheet Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel


Interplay between Spin Polarization and Color Superconductivity in High Density Quark Matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Here, it is suggested that a four-point interaction of the tensor type may lead to spin polarization in quark matter at high density. It is found that the two-flavor superconducting phase and the spin polarized phase correspond to distinct local minima of a certain generalized thermodynamical potential. It follows that the transition from one to the other phase occurs passing through true minima with both a spin polarization and a color superconducting gap. It is shown that the quark spin polarized phase is realized at rather high density, while the two-flavor color superconducting phase is realized at a lower density region.

Y. Tsue; J. da Providencia; C. Providencia; M. Yamamura; H. Bohr



Device and method for electron beam heating of a high density plasma  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator produces a high voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target plasma is ionized prior to application of the electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region within the high density plasma target.

Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)


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A Model for the Origin of High Density in Loop-top X-ray Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Super-hot looptop sources, detected in some large solar flares, are compact sources of HXR emission with spectra matching thermal electron populations exceeding 30 megakelvins. High observed emission measure, as well as inference of electron thermalization within the small source region, both provide evidence of high densities at the looptop; typically more than an order of magnitude above ambient. Where some investigators have suggested such density enhancement results from a rapid enhancement in the magnetic field strength, we propose an alternative model, based on Petschek reconnection, whereby looptop plasma is heated and compressed by slow magnetosonic shocks generated self-consistently through flux retraction following reconnection. Under steady conditions such shocks can enhance density by no more than a factor of four. These steady shock relations (Rankine-Hugoniot relations) turn out to be inapplicable to Petschek's model owing to transient effects of thermal conduction. The actual density enhancemen...

Longcope, D W



ESS 2012 Peer Review - Novel High Energy Density Dielectrics for Scalable Capacitor Needs - Geoff Brennecka, SNL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Novel High Energy Density Novel High Energy Density Dielectrics for Scalable Capacitor Needs 27 September 2012 Geoff Brennecka The author gratefully acknowledges the support of Dr. Imre Gyuk and the Department of Energy's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability. 400nF 2000V Project  Currently-available capacitor options force undesired choices:  (power, capacitance) vs. reliability  performance vs. (temperature, voltage) stability  Capacitors are often not deployed where they could be beneficial, or are deployed and fail (or are severely derated)  Stationary storage and related applications can realize significant value via improved capacitor performance and reliability  Improve reliability and efficiency of high temperature power electronics


Short-range tensor interaction and high-density nuclear symmetry energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of the short-range tensor interaction on the density-dependence of nuclear symmetry energy are examined by applying an approximate expression for the second-order tensor contribution to the symmetry energy derived earlier by G.E. Brown and R. Machleidt. It is found that the uncertainty in the short-range tensor force leads directly to a divergent high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy.

Li, Ang



Shock waves in a Z-pinch and the formation of high energy density plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Z-pinch liner, imploding onto a target plasma, evolves in a step-wise manner, producing a stable, magneto-inertial, high-energy-density plasma compression. The typical configuration is a cylindrical, high-atomic-number liner imploding onto a low-atomic-number target. The parameters for a terawatt-class machine (e.g., Zebra at the University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada Terawatt Facility) have been simulated. The 2-1/2 D MHD code, MACH2, was used to study this configuration. The requirements are for an initial radius of a few mm for stable implosion; the material densities properly distributed, so that the target is effectively heated initially by shock heating and finally by adiabatic compression; and the liner's thickness adjusted to promote radial current transport and subsequent current amplification in the target. Since the shock velocity is smaller in the liner, than in the target, a stable-shock forms at the interface, allowing the central load to accelerate magnetically and inertially, producing a magneto-inertial implosion and high-energy density plasma. Comparing the implosion dynamics of a low-Z target with those of a high-Z target demonstrates the role of shock waves in terms of compression and heating. In the case of a high-Z target, the shock wave does not play a significant heating role. The shock waves carry current and transport the magnetic field, producing a high density on-axis, at relatively low temperature. Whereas, in the case of a low-Z target, the fast moving shock wave preheats the target during the initial implosion phase, and the later adiabatic compression further heats the target to very high energy density. As a result, the compression ratio required for heating the low-Z plasma to very high energy densities is greatly reduced.

Rahman, H. U. [Magneto-Inertial Fusion Technologies Inc. (MIFTI), Irvine, California 92612 (United States) and Department of Physics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Wessel, F. J. [Department of Physics, University of California Irvine, Irvine California 92697 (United States); Ney, P. [Mount San Jacinto College, Menifee, California 92584 (United States); Presura, R. [University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, Nevada 89557-0208 (United States); Ellahi, Rahmat [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, FBAS, IIU, Islamabad (Pakistan) and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Shukla, P. K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Center for Energy Research, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)



Incipient and Progressive Damage in Polyethylene Under Extreme Tensile Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion (Dyn-Ten-Ext) test was developed at LANL by Gray and coworkers to probe the tensile response of materials at large strains (>1) and high strain-rates (>1000/s) by firing projectiles through a conical die at 300-700 m/s. This technique has recently been applied to various polymers, such as the fluoropolymers PTFE (Teflon) and the chemically similar PCTFE, which respectively exhibited catastrophic fragmentation and distributed dynamic necking. This work details investigations of the Dyn-Ten-Ext response of high density polyethylene, both to failure and sub-critical conditions. At large extrusion ratios ({approx}7.4) and high velocities, such as those previously employed, HDPE catastrophically fragmented in a craze-like manner in the extruded jet. At more modest extrusion ratios and high velocities the specimen extruded a stable jet that ruptured cleanly, and at lower velocities was recovered intact after sustaining substantial internal damage. Thermomechanical finite element simulations showed that the damage corresponded to a locus of shear stress in the presence of hydrostatic tension. X-ray computed tomography corroborated the prediction of a shear damage mechanism by finding the region of partially damaged material to consist of macroscopic shear-mode cracks nearly aligned with the extrusion axis, originating from the location of damage inception.

Furmanski, Jevan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trujillo, Carl P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Daniel Tito [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray, George T. III [Los Alamos National Laboratory



The final stage of gravitational collapse for high density fluid medium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The High density high density fluids can be represented by a stiff matter state equation P={rho} and also by the Hagedorn state equation. The first is constructed using a lagrangian that allows bare nucleons to interact attractively via scalar meson exchange, and repulsively by a more massive vector meson exchange; the second consider that for large mass the spectrum of hadrons grows exponentially, namely {rho}(m) {approx}exp(m/T{sub H}), where T{sub H} is the Hagedorn temperature, resulting the state equation P = P{sub 0}+{rho}{sub 0}ln({rho}/{rho}{sub 0}). We study the gravitational collapse for a high density fluid, considering a Hagedorn state equation in a presence of a vacuum component.

Souza, R. G. [Physics Department , Roraima Federal University, 69304-000 Boa Vista, RR (Brazil); De Campos, M. [Physics Department, Roraima Federal University, 69304-000 Boa Vista, RR (Brazil) and Astronomy Department, Sao Paulo University, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)



Atomic Scale Deformation Mechanisms of Amorphous Polyethylene ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic Scale Deformation Mechanisms of Amorphous Polyethylene under Tensile Loading · Atomistic Predictions of Age Hardening in Al-Cu Alloys.


High Island Densities and Long Range Repulsive Interactions: Fe on Epitaxial Graphene  

SciTech Connect

The understanding of metal nucleation on graphene is essential for promising future applications, especially of magnetic metals which can be used in spintronics or computer storage media. A common method to study the grown morphology is to measure the nucleated island density n as a function of growth parameters. Surprisingly, the growth of Fe on graphene is found to be unusual because it does not follow classical nucleation: n is unexpectedtly high, it increases continuously with the deposited amount ? and shows no temperature dependence. These unusual results indicate the presence of long range repulsive interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and density functional theory calculations support this conclusion. In addition to answering an outstanding question in epitaxial growth, i.e., to find systems where long range interactions are present, the high density of magnetic islands, tunable with ?, is of interest for nanomagnetism applications.

Binz, Steven M.; Hupalo, Myron; Liu, Xiaojie; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Lu, Wen-Cai; Thiel, Kai-Ming; Conrad, E.H.; Tringides, Michael C.



High density of electronic excitation in nanometric scale: transformation of the matter.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

density density of electronic excitation in nanometric scale: transformation of the matter. Marcel Toulemonde CIMAP, Caen, France Within the several possibilities of producing high electronic excitation, swift heavy ions allow to create a high electronic density in nanometer scale. The energy deposited on the electrons along the ion path comes down to the lattice and transform the matter in a cylinder of around 10 nm in diameter (figure on left) After a review of selected experimental results concerning insulating materials, a transient thermal process will be developed to quantify the track size. In this model, the energy given to the electrons relaxes to the lattice atoms via the electron-phonon interaction. When considering the input parameters in this model, the main one will be the electron-phonon mean free path that defines the length of energy that diffuses on the electrons prior


Observations of High Ground Flash Densities of Positive Lightning in Summertime Thunderstorms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of summertime thunderstorms indicate that positive polarity cloud-to-ground lightning activity can occur with rates as high as 67 flashes in 5 min and spatial densities up to 0.60 flashes per square kilometer per hour. All ground ...

Maribeth Stolzenburg



Commissioning of a magnetic suspension densitometer for high-accuracy density measurements of natural gas mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-accuracy density measurement data are required to validate equations of state (EOS) for use in custody transfer of natural gas through pipelines. The AGA8-DC92 EOS, which is the current industry standard has already been validated against a databank of natural gas mixtures with compositions containing up to 0.2 mole percent of the heavier C6+ fraction and is expected to predict densities of natural gas mixtures containing higher mole percentages of the C6+ fraction with the same accuracy. With the advances in exploration, drilling and production, natural gas streams containing higher percentages of the C6+ fraction have become available from the deepwater and ultra-deepwater Gulf of Mexico in recent years. High-accuracy, density data for such natural gas mixtures are required to check if the AGA8-DC92 EOS covers the entire range of pressure, temperature and compositions encountered in custody transfer. A state-of-the-art, high pressure, high temperature, compact single-sinker magnetic suspension densitometer has been used to measure densities of two simulated natural gas mixtures named M91C1 and M94C1 after validating its operation by measuring densities of pure argon, nitrogen and methane in the range (270 to 340) K [(26.33 to152.33) oF, (-3.15 to 66.85) oC] and (3.447 to 34.474) MPa [(500 to 5,000) psia]. Measured densities of M91C1, not containing the C6+ fraction show larger than expected relative deviations from the AGA8-DC92 EOS predictions in regions 1 and 2 but agree well with predictions from the recently developed REFPROP EOS, implyingthat the AGA8-DC92 EOS may be unreliable in its present state even for natural gas mixtures not containing the C6+ fraction. Measured densities of M94C1 containing more than 0.2 mole percent of the C6+ fraction deviate from the AGA8-DC92 EOS predictions by more than the expected values in region 1 which is not surprising but the agreement with AGA8-DC92 EOS predictions in region 2 is misleading which becomes evident when the measured densities are compared to the REFPROP EOS predictions. The measured data can be used to recalibrate the parameters of the AGA8-DC92 EOS or to validate an entirely new EOS.

Patil, Prashant Vithal



Equation-of-state for fluids at high densities-hydrogen isotope measurements and thermodynamic derivations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen isotopes play an important role in energy technologies, in particular, the compression to high densities for initiation of controlled thermonuclear fusion energy. At high densities the properties of the compressed hydrogen isotopes depart drastically from ideal thermodynamic predictions. The measurement of accurate data including the author's own recent measurements of n-H/sub 2/ and n-D/sub 2/ in the range 75 to 300 K and 0.2 to 2.0 GPa (2 to 20 kbar) is reviewed. An equation-of-state of the Benedict type is fit to these data with a double-process least-squares computer program. The results are reviewed and compared with existing data and with a variety of theoretical work reported for fluid hydrogens. A new heuristic correlation is presented for simplicity in predicting volumes and sound velocity at high pressures. 9 figures, 1 table.

Liebenberg, D.H.; Mills, R.L.; Bronson, J.C.



Method of Fabrication of High Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O(LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)



Low temperature high density Si3N4 MIM capacitor technology for MMMIC and RF-MEMs applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, a novel, high quality, high-density, deposited at room temperature ultra thin 5 nm Si3N4 metal insulator metal (MIM) capacitor process for monolithic millimetre-wave integrated circuit (MMMIC) applications ... Keywords: RF MEMs, RF MIM capacitors, dielectric films, high density capacitors, room temperature ultra thin silicon nitride films metal insulator metal capacitors

K. Elgaid; H. Zhou; C. D. W. Wilkinson; I. G. Thayne



Thermodynamics and Structural Properties of the High Density Gaussian Core Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We numerically study thermodynamic and structural properties of the one-component Gaussian core model (GCM) at very high densities. The solid-fluid phase boundary is carefully determined. We find that the density dependence of both the freezing and melting temperatures obey the asymptotic relation, $\\log T_f$, $\\log T_m \\propto -\\rho^{2/3}$, where $\\rho$ is the number density, which is consistent with Stillinger's conjecture. Thermodynamic quantities such as the energy and pressure and the structural functions such as the static structure factor are also investigated in the fluid phase for a wide range of temperature above the phase boundary. We compare the numerical results with the prediction of the liquid theory with the random phase approximation (RPA). At high temperatures, the results are in almost perfect agreement with RPA for a wide range of density, as it has been already shown in the previous studies. In the low temperature regime close to the phase boundary line, although RPA fails to describe the structure factors and the radial distribution functions at the length scales of the interparticle distance, it successfully predicts their behaviors at shorter length scales. RPA also predicts thermodynamic quantities such as the energy, pressure, and the temperature at which the thermal expansion coefficient becomes negative, almost perfectly. Striking ability of RPA to predict thermodynamic quantities even at high densities and low temperatures is understood in terms of the decoupling of the length scales which dictate thermodynamic quantities from the interparticle distance which dominates the peak structures of the static structure factor due to the softness of the Gaussian core potential.

Atsushi Ikeda; Kunimasa Miyazaki



High Temperature, high pressure equation of state density correlations and viscosity correlations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global increase in oil demand and depleting reserves has derived a need to find new oil resources. To find these untapped reservoirs, oil companies are exploring various remote and harsh locations such as deep waters in Gulf of Mexico, remote arctic regions, unexplored deep deserts, etc. Further, the depth of new oil/gas wells being drilled has increased considerably to tap these new resources. With the increase in the well depth, the bottomhole temperature and pressure are also increasing to extreme values (i.e. up to 500 F and 35,000 psi). The density and viscosity of natural gas and crude oil at reservoir conditions are critical fundamental properties required for accurate assessment of the amount of recoverable petroleum within a reservoir and the modeling of the flow of these fluids within the porous media. These properties are also used to design appropriate drilling and production equipment such as blow out preventers, risers, etc. With the present state of art, there is no accurate database for these fluid properties at extreme conditions. As we have begun to expand this experimental database it has become apparent that there are neither equations of state for density or transport models for viscosity that can be used to predict these fundamental properties of multi-component hydrocarbon mixtures over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Presently, oil companies are using correlations based on lower temperature and pressure databases that exhibit an unsatisfactory predictive capability at extreme conditions (e.g. as great as {+-} 50%). From the perspective of these oil companies that are committed to safely producing these resources, accurately predicting flow rates, and assuring the integrity of the flow, the absence of an extensive experimental database at extreme conditions and models capable of predicting these properties over an extremely wide range of temperature and pressure (including extreme conditions) makes their task even more daunting.

Tapriyal, D.; Enick, R.; McHugh, M.; Gamwo, I.; Morreale, B.



Calcium balance and bone density in immature horses fed a high protein diet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies in other species indicate high protein diets increase urinary calcium (Ca) excretion and may lead to negative calcium balance and reduced bone density. As overfeeding of protein is commonplace in the horse industry, this study was undertaken to determine the effects of excess dietary protein on growth, physiologic response, mineral balance, bone density, and bone geometry in immature horses. Sixteen 10-month-old American Quarter Horses were blocked by age and sex into two dietary treatments. The control diet was formulated to provide the NRC (1989) recommended concentration of crude protein, while the high protein diet provided 130% of NRC (1989) recommendations. All other nutrients were formulated at or slightly above NRC (1989) recommendations. Blood samples, feces, and urine were collected during the 116-day study to determine any diet effect on pH and mineral balance. Radiographs were made of the left third metacarpal (MCIII) to determine bone density via radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE), and bone geometry was determined metrically from the radiographs. Urine pH decreased over time (p < 0.001), but there were no diet effects on blood pH or urine pH. Conversely, when normalized to day 0 values, fecal pH was reduced by feeding the high protein treatment (p < 0.02). Density of dorsal and palmar cortices increased over time (p < 0.001), but no differences were observed between diets. But, normalized total medial-lateral (ML) width of the MCIII was higher in the control diet (p < 0.05). Fecal Ca loss was greater in horses fed the high protein diet (p < 0.005), while Ca absorption and retention were lower for horses on the high protein treatment (p < 0.02). Phosphorus (P) balance was not different between diets, although feeding the high protein diet resulted in higher P intake overall (p < 0.001). While excess dietary protein may decrease fecal pH, increase fecal Ca excretion, and decrease Ca absorption and retention, there was no consistent effect of the high protein diet on bone density over the course of this study. Further research is necessary to determine if feeding high-protein diets is detrimental to bone quality in the growing horse.

Spooner, Holly Sue



An innovative demonstration of high power density in a compact MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) generator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present program was conducted by the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). It was by its nature a high risk experimental program to demonstrate the feasibility of high power density operation in a laboratory scale combustion driven MHD generator. Maximization of specific energy was not a consideration for the present program, but the results have implications in this regard by virtue of high energy fuel used. The power density is the ratio of the electrical energy output to the internal volume of the generator channel. The MHD process is a volumetric process and the power density is therefore a direct measure of the compactness of the system. Specific energy, is the ratio of the electrical energy output to consumable energy used for its production. The two parameters are conceptually interrelated. To achieve high power density and implied commensurate low system volume and weight, it was necessary to use an energetic fuel. The high energy fuel of choice was a mixture of powdered aluminum and carbon seeded with potassium carbonate and burned with gaseous oxygen. The solid fuel was burned in a hybrid combustion scheme wherein the fuel was cast within a cylindrical combustor in analogy with a solid propellant rocket motor. Experimental data is limited to gross channel output current and voltage, magnetic field strength, fuel and oxidizer flow rates, flow train external temperatures and combustor pressure. Similarly, while instantaneous oxidizer flow rates were measured, only average fuel consumption based on pre and post test component weights and dimensions was possible. 4 refs., 60 figs., 9 tabs.

Schmidt, H.J.; Lineberry, J.T.; Chapman, J.N.



High Thermal Energy Storage Density LiNO3-NaNO3-KNO3-KNO2 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, High Thermal Energy Storage Density LiNO3-NaNO3-KNO3- KNO2 Quaternary Molten Salts for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Generation.


Development of a method for measuring the density of liquid sulfur at high pressures using the falling-sphere technique  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new method for the in situ measurement of the density of a liquid at high pressure and high temperature using the falling-sphere technique. Combining synchrotron radiation X-ray radiography with a large-volume press, the newly developed falling-sphere method enables the determination of the density of a liquid at high pressure and high temperature based on Stokes' flow law. We applied this method to liquid sulfur and successfully obtained the density at pressures up to 9 GPa. Our method could be used for the determination of the densities of other liquid materials at higher static pressures than are currently possible.

Funakoshi, Ken-ichi; Nozawa, Akifumi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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Durability of Low Pt Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SPIRE Program Kickoff SPIRE Program Kickoff Topic 3A. Cell Degradation Studies / Degradation Studies Durability of Low Pt Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density US DOE Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting DOE Award: DE-EE0000469 October 1 st , 2009 Program Objectives The objective of this program is to study and identify strategies to assure durability of fuel cells designed to meet DOE cost targets. Technical Barriers Barrier Approach Strategy A. Durability Reinforced, Stabilized Membrane MEA Partner Durability-Enhanced Electrodes Electrocatalyst/MEA Partner Optimized Operating Conditions Parametric model & experimental studies B. Cost Low Pt Loadings (0.2 mg/cm 2 ) Electrocatalyst/MEA Partner High Power Density (>1.0W/cm 2 ) Open Flowfield Stack Metallic Stack Architecture Incumbent Derivative


Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density and Viscosity Ratios  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density and Viscosity Ratios Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density and Viscosity Ratios Seckin Gokaltun, Dwayne McDaniel and David Roelant Florida International University, Miami, FL Background As a result of atomic weapons production, millions of gallons of radioactive waste was generated and stored in underground tanks at various U.S. Department of Energy sites. Department of Energy is currently in the process of transferring the waste from single shell tanks to double shell tanks. Various waste retrieval and processing methods are employed during the transfer of the waste. One such method, pulsed-air mixing, involves injection of discrete pulses of compressed air or inert gas at the bottom of the tank to produce large bubbles that rise due to buoyancy and mix the waste in the tank



SciTech Connect

The afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have more soft-X-ray absorption than expected from the foreground gas column in the Galaxy. While the redshift of the absorption can in general not be constrained from current X-ray observations, it has been assumed that the absorption is due to metals in the host galaxy of the GRB. The large sample of X-ray afterglows and redshifts now available allows the construction of statistically meaningful distributions of the metal column densities. We construct such a sample and show, as found in previous studies, that the typical absorbing column density (N{sub H{sub X}}) increases substantially with redshift, with few high column density objects found at low-to-moderate redshifts. We show, however, that when highly extinguished bursts are included in the sample, using redshifts from their host galaxies, high column density sources are also found at low-to-moderate redshift. We infer from individual objects in the sample and from observations of blazars that the increase in column density with redshift is unlikely to be related to metals in the intergalactic medium or intervening absorbers. Instead we show that the origin of the apparent increase with redshift is primarily due to dust extinction bias: GRBs with high X-ray absorption column densities found at z {approx}< 4 typically have very high dust extinction column densities, while those found at the highest redshifts do not. It is unclear how such a strongly evolving N{sub H{sub X}}/A{sub V} ratio would arise, and based on current data, remains a puzzle.

Watson, Darach [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Jakobsson, Pall, E-mail: darach@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: pja@raunvis.hi.is [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 5, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland)




Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the results of HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 4-3 transition line observations of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 1614, obtained with ALMA Cycle 0. We find that high density molecular gas traced with these lines shows a velocity structure such that the northern (southern) side of the nucleus is redshifted (blueshifted) with respect to the nuclear velocity of this galaxy. The redshifted and blueshifted emission peaks are offset by {approx}0.''6 at the northern and southern sides of the nucleus, respectively. At these offset positions, observations at infrared >3 {mu}m indicate the presence of active dusty starbursts, supporting the picture that high-density molecular gas is the site of active starbursts. The enclosed dynamical mass within the central {approx}2'' in radius, derived from the dynamics of the high-density molecular gas, is {approx}10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, which is similar to previous estimates. Finally, the HCN emission is weaker than HCO{sup +} but stronger than HNC for J = 4-3 for all starburst regions of NGC 1614, as seen for J = 1-0 transition lines in starburst-dominated galaxies.

Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Nakanishi, Kouichiro, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura 763-0355, Santiago (Chile)



SAND2011-6616A Page 1 Session 2: High Energy Density, Plasmas, Magnetic Fields  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

616A 616A Page 1 Session 2: High Energy Density, Plasmas, Magnetic Fields Dynamical Materials Experiments on Sandia's Z Machine: Obtaining Data with High Precision at HED Conditions Thomas R. Mattsson and Seth Root Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM USA Summary: The Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories has successfully been used to study a wide range of materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, we will discuss the methodology resulting in high-pressure measurements at multi-Mbar pressures as well as present experimental data for shock compression of poly methyl-pentene, a hydrocarbon plastic. Introduction During the last few years, there has been a notable increase in the interest of high-pressure science. The increase in interest has been driven by the remarkable capabilities of new and improved platforms like


A Microelectromechanical High-Density Energy Storage/Rapid Release System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, Jim J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Sam L.



Two-dimensional modeling of high plasma density inductively coupled sources for materials processing  

SciTech Connect

Inductively coupled plasma sources are being developed to address the need for high plasma density (10[sup 11]--10[sup 12] cm[sup [minus]3]), low pressure (a few to 10--20 mTorr) etching of semiconductor materials. One such device uses a flat spiral coil of rectangular cross section to generate radio-frequency (rf) electric fields in a cylindrical plasma chamber, and capacitive rf biasing on the substrate to independently control ion energies incident on the wafer. To investigate these devices we have developed a two-dimensional hybrid model consisting of electromagnetic, electron Monte Carlo, and hydrodynamic modules; and an off line plasma chemistry Monte Carlo simulation. The results from the model for plasma densities, plasma potentials, and ion fluxes for Ar, O[sub 2], Ar/CF[sub 4]/O[sub 2] gas mixtures will be presented.

Ventzek, P.L.G.; Hoekstra, R.J.; Kushner, M.J. (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States))



Schlieren technique applied to the arc temperature measurement in a high energy density cutting torch  

SciTech Connect

Plasma temperature and radial density profiles of the plasma species in a high energy density cutting arc have been obtained by using a quantitative schlieren technique. A Z-type two-mirror schlieren system was used in this research. Due to its great sensibility such technique allows measuring plasma composition and temperature from the arc axis to the surrounding medium by processing the gray-level contrast values of digital schlieren images recorded at the observation plane for a given position of a transverse knife located at the exit focal plane of the system. The technique has provided a good visualization of the plasma flow emerging from the nozzle and its interactions with the surrounding medium and the anode. The obtained temperature values are in good agreement with those values previously obtained by the authors on the same torch using Langmuir probes.

Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B. [Departamento Ing. Electromecanica, Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Regional Venado Tuerto, Las Heras 644, Venado Tuerto, Santa Fe 2600 (Argentina); Artana, G. [Departamento Ing. Mecanica, Laboratorio de Fluidodinamica, Facultad de Ingenieria (UBA), Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kelly, H. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Fisica del Plasma (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (UBA), Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)



Optimization of Polymer-based Nanocomposites for High Energy Density Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Monolithic materials are not meeting the increasing demand for flexible, lightweight and compact high energy density dielectrics. This limitation in performance is due to the trade-off between dielectric constant and dielectric breakdown. Insulating polymers are of interest owing to their high inherent electrical resistance, low dielectric loss, flexibility, light weight, and low cost; however, capacitors produced with dielectric polymers are limited to an energy density of ~1-2 J/cc. Polymer nanocomposites, i.e., high dielectric particles embedded into a high dielectric breakdown polymer, are promising candidates to overcome the limitations of monolithic materials for energy storage applications. The main objective of this dissertation is to simultaneously increase the dielectric permittivity and dielectric breakdown without increasing the loss, resulting in a significant enhancement in the energy density over the unmodified polymer. The key is maintaining a low volume content to ensure a high inter-particle distance, effectively minimizing the effect of local field on the composite's dielectric breakdown. The first step is studying the particle size and aspect ratio effects on the dielectric properties to ensure a judicious choice in order to obtain the highest enhancement. The best results, as a combination of dielectric constant, loss and dielectric breakdown, were with the particles with the highest aspect ratio. Further improvement in the dielectric behavior is observed when the nanoparticles surface is chemically tailored to tune transport properties. The particles treatment leads to better dispersion, planar distribution and stronger interaction with the polymer matrix. The planar distribution of the high aspect ratio particles is essential to limit the enhancement of local fields, where minimum local fields result in higher dielectric breakdown in the composite. The most significant improvement in the dielectric properties is achieved with chemically-treated nano TiO2 with an aspect ratio of 14 at a low 4.6 vol% loading, where the energy density increased by 500% compared to pure PVDF. At this loading, simultaneous enhancement in the dielectric constant and dielectric breakdown occurs while the dielectric loss remains in the same range as that of the pristine polymer.

Barhoumi Ep Meddeb, Amira



Rhodium dihydride (RhH[subscript 2]) with high volumetric hydrogen density  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Materials with very high hydrogen density have attracted considerable interest due to a range of motivations, including the search for chemically precompressed metallic hydrogen and hydrogen storage applications. Using high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction technique and theoretical calculations, we have discovered a new rhodium dihydride (RhH{sub 2}) with high volumetric hydrogen density (163.7 g/L). Compressing rhodium in fluid hydrogen at ambient temperature, the fcc rhodium metal absorbs hydrogen and expands unit-cell volume by two discrete steps to form NaCl-typed fcc rhodium monohydride at 4 GPa and fluorite-typed fcc RhH{sub 2} at 8 GPa. RhH{sub 2} is the first dihydride discovered in the platinum group metals under high pressure. Our low-temperature experiments show that RhH{sub 2} is recoverable after releasing pressure cryogenically to 1 bar and is capable of retaining hydrogen up to 150 K for minutes and 77 K for an indefinite length of time.

Li, Bing; Ding, Yang; Kim, Duck Young; Ahuja, Rajeev; Zou, Guangtian; Mao, Ho-Kwang (Jilin); (Uppsala); (Cambridge); (CIW)



High-Resolution Simulations of Gas-Solids Jet Penetration Into a High Density Riser Flow  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution simulations of a gas-solids jet in a 0.3 m diameter and 15.9 m tall circulating fluidized bed (CFB) riser were conducted with the open source software-MFIX. In the numerical simulations, both gas and solids injected through a 1.6 cm diameter radial-directed tube 4.3 m above the bottom distributor were tracked as tracers, which enable the analysis of the characteristics of a two-phase jet. Two jetting gas velocities of 16.6 and 37.2 m/s were studied with the other operating conditions fixed. Reasonable flow hydrodynamics with respect to overall pressure drop, voidage, and solids velocity distributions were predicted. Due to the different dynamic responses of gas and particles to the crossflow, a significant separation of gas and solids within the jet region was predicted for both cases. In addition, the jet characteristics based on tracer concentration and tracer mass fraction profiles at different downstream levels are discussed. Overall, the numerical predictions compare favorably to the experimental measurements made at NETL.

Li, Tingwen



Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the program is the determination of the minimal processing requirements to produce High Energy Density Fuels (HEDF), meeting a minimal energy density of 130,000 Btu/gal (conventional jet fuels have energy densities in the vicinity of 115,000--120,000 Btu/gal) and having acceptable advanced fuel specifications in accordance with the three defined categories of HEDF. The program encompasses assessing current technology capability; selecting acceptable processing and refining schemes; and generating samples of advanced test fuels. A task breakdown structure was developed containing eight key tasks. This report summarizes the work that Amoco Oil Company (AOC), as key subcontractor, performed in the execution of Task 4, Proposed Upgrading Schemes for Advanced Fuel. The intent of the Task 4 study was to represent all the candidate processing options, that were either studied in the experimental efforts of Task 3 or were available from the prior art in the open literature, in a linear program (LP) model. The LP model would allow scaling of the bench-scale Task 3 results to commercial scale and would perform economic evaluations on any combination of the processes which might be used to make HEDF. Section 2.0 of this report summarizes the process and economic bases used. Sections 3.0 and 4.0 details the economics and processing sensitivities for HEDF production. 1 ref., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

Not Available



A Novel VLSI Technology to Manufacture High-Density Thermoelectric Cooling Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a novel integrated circuit technology to manufacture high-density thermoelectric devices on a semiconductor wafer. With no moving parts, a thermoelectric cooler operates quietly, allows cooling below ambient temperature, and may be used for temperature control or heating if the direction of current flow is reversed. By using a monolithic process to increase the number of thermoelectric couples, the proposed solid-state cooling technology can be combined with traditional air cooling, liquid cooling, and phase-change cooling to yield greater heat flux and provide better cooling capability.

H. Chen; L. Hsu; X. Wei



Symmetry energy effects on the mixed hadron-quark phase at high baryon density  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phase transition of hadronic to quark matter at high baryon and isospin density is analyzed. Relativistic mean-field models are used to describe hadronic matter, and the MIT bag model is adopted for quark matter. The boundaries of the mixed phase and the related critical points for symmetric and asymmetric matter are obtained. Due to the different symmetry term in the two phases, isospin effects appear to be rather significant. With increasing isospin asymmetry the binodal transition line of the (T,{rho}{sub B}) diagram is lowered to a region accessible through heavy-ion collisions in the energy range of the new planned facilities (e.g., the FAIR/NICA projects). Some observable effects are suggested, in particular an isospin distillation mechanism with a more isospin asymmetric quark phase, to be seen in charged meson yield ratios, and an onset of quark number scaling of the meson-baryon elliptic flows. The presented isospin effects on the mixed phase appear to be robust with respect to even large variations of the poorly known symmetry term at high baryon density in the hadron phase. The dependence of the results on a suitable treatment of isospin contributions in effective QCD Lagrangian approaches, at the level of explicit isovector parts and/or quark condensates, is discussed.

Di Toro, M.; Greco, V.; Plumari, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud INFN, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Pysics and Astronomy Department, University of Catania (Italy); Liu, B. [IHEP, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Scientific Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Baran, V. [Pysics Faculty, University of Bucharest and NIPNE-HH (Romania); Colonna, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud INFN, I-95123 Catania (Italy)



Mapping Metal-Enriched High Velocity Clouds to Very Low HI Column Densities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our galaxy is the nearest known quasar absorption line system, and it uniquely provides us with an opportunity to probe multiple lines of sight through the same galaxy. This is essential for our interpretations of the complex kinematic profiles seen in the MgII absorption due to lines of sight through intermediate redshift galaxies. The Milky Way halo has never been probed for high velocity clouds below the 21-cm detection threshold of N(HI)~10^18 cm-2. Through a survey of MgII absorption looking toward the brightest AGNs and quasars, it will be possible to reach down a few orders of magnitude in HI column density. The analogs to the high velocity components of the MgII absorption profiles due to intermediate redshift galaxies should be seen. We describe a program we are undertaking, and present some preliminary findings.

Chris Churchill; Jane Charlton; Joe Masiero



Extended CO Solid: A New Class of High Energy Density Material  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Covalently bonded extended phases of molecular solids made of first- and second-row elements at high pressures are a new class of materials with advanced optical, mechanical and energetic properties. The existence of such extended solids has recently been demonstrated using diamond anvil cells in several systems, including N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2},and CO. However, the microscopic quantities produced at the formidable high-pressure/temperature conditions have limited the characterization of their predicted novel properties including high-energy content. In this paper, we present the first experimental evidence that these extended low-Z solids are indeed high energy density materials via milligram-scale high-pressure synthesis, recovery and characterization of polymeric CO (p-CO). Our spectroscopic data reveal that p-CO is a random polymer made of lactonic entities and conjugated C=C with an energy content rivaling or exceeding that of HMX. Solid p-CO explosively decomposes to CO{sub 2} and glassy carbon and thus might be used as an advanced energetic material.

Lipp, M J; Evans, W J; Baer, B J; Yoo, C



Experimental characterization of railgun-driven supersonic plasma jets motivated by high energy density physics applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report experimental results on the parameters, structure, and evolution of high-Mach-number (M) argon plasma jets formed and launched by a pulsed-power-driven railgun. The nominal initial average jet parameters in the data set analyzed are density Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}, electron temperature Almost-Equal-To 1.4 eV, velocity Almost-Equal-To 30 km/s, M Almost-Equal-To 14, ionization fraction Almost-Equal-To 0.96, diameter Almost-Equal-To 5 cm, and length Almost-Equal-To 20 cm. These values approach the range needed by the Plasma Liner Experiment, which is designed to use merging plasma jets to form imploding spherical plasma liners that can reach peak pressures of 0.1-1 Mbar at stagnation. As these jets propagate a distance of approximately 40 cm, the average density drops by one order of magnitude, which is at the very low end of the 8-160 times drop predicted by ideal hydrodynamic theory of a constant-M jet.

Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Awe, T. J.; Davis, J. S.; Dunn, J. P. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Brockington, S. J. E.; Case, A.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D. [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, Virginia 20151 (United States); Cassibry, J. T. [Propulsion Research Center, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States); Gilmore, M. A.; Lynn, A. G. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)



High Energy Density Thermal Batteries: Thermoelectric Reactors for Efficient Automotive Thermal Storage  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: Sheetak is developing a new HVAC system to store the energy required for heating and cooling in EVs. This system will replace the traditional refrigerant-based vapor compressors and inefficient heaters used in today’s EVs with efficient, light, and rechargeable hot-and-cold thermal batteries. The high energy density thermal battery—which does not use any hazardous substances—can be recharged by an integrated solid-state thermoelectric energy converter while the vehicle is parked and its electrical battery is being charged. Sheetak’s converters can also run on the electric battery if needed and provide the required cooling and heating to the passengers—eliminating the space constraint and reducing the weight of EVs that use more traditional compressors and heaters.




Behavior of a plasma in a high-density gas-embedded Z-pinch configuration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The theoretical analysis of a high density Z-pinch (HDZP) begins with an examination of the steady state energy balance between ohmic heating and bremsstrahlung radiation losses for a plasma column in pressure equilibrium. The model is then expanded to include the time-varying internal energy and results in a quasi-equilibrium prescription for the load current through a constant radius plasma channel. This set of current waveforms is useful in the design of experimental systems. The behavior of a plasma for physically realizable conditions is first examined by allowing adiabatic changes in the column radius. A more complete model is then developed by incorporating inertial effects into the momentum equation, and the resultant global MHD computational model is compared with more sophisticated, and costly, one- and two-dimensional computer simulations. These comparisons demonstrate the advantages of the global MHD description over previously developed zero-dimensional models.

Shlachter, J.S.



High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Process and system for producing high-density pellets from a gaseous medium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and system for producing pellets of high density carbon dioxide or other gases utilize a chamber containing a plurality of cell-like freezing compartments within which ice is to be formed. A gas desired to be frozen into ice is introduced into the chamber while the internal pressure of the chamber is maintained at a level which is below the equilibrium triple pressure of the gas. The temperature of the freezing compartments is lowered to a temperature which is below the equilibrium vapor pressure temperature of the gas at the chamber pressure so that the gas condenses into ice within the compartments. The temperature of the freezing compartments is thereafter raised so that the ice is thereby released from and falls out of the compartments as pellets for collection.

Foster, Christopher A. (Clinton, TN)



Fabrication and characterization of a new high density Sc/Si multilayer sliced grating  

SciTech Connect

State of the art soft x-ray spectroscopy techniques like Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) require diffraction gratings which can provide extremely high spectral resolution of 105-106. This problem may be addressed with a sliced multilayer grating with an ultra-high groove density (up to 50,000 mm-1) proposed in the recent publication [Voronov, D. L., Cambie, R., Feshchenko, R. M., Gullikson, E., Padmore, H. A., Vinogradov, A. V., Yashchuk, V. V., Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050E (2007)]. It has been suggested to fabricate such a grating by deposition of a soft x-ray multilayer on a substrate which is a blazed saw-tooth grating (echellette) with low groove density. Subsequent polishing applied to the coated grating removes part of the coating and forms an oblique-cut multiline structure that is a sliced multilayer grating. The resulting grating has a short-scale periodicity of lines (bilayers), which is defined by the multilayer period and the oblique-cut angle. We fabricated and tested a Sc/Si multilayer sliced grating suitable for EUV applications, which is a first prototype based on the suggested technique. In order to fabricate an echellette substrate, we used anisotropic KOH etching of a Si wafer. The etching regime was optimized to obtain smooth and flat echellette facets. A Sc/Si multilayer was deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering, and after that it was mechanically polished using a number of diamond pastes. The resulting sliced grating prototype with ~;;270 nm line period has demonstrated a dispersive ability in the 41-49 nm photon wavelength range with a diffraction efficiency of ~;;7percent for the optimized 38th order assigned to the echellette grating of 10 mu m period.

Advanced Light Source; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Cambie, Rossana; Gullikson, Eric; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard; Pershin, Yuri; Ponomarenko, Alexander; Kondratenko, Valeriy



Carbonate fuel cell monolith design for high power density and low cost  

SciTech Connect

Objective is higher power density operation and cost reduction. This is accomplished by the design of a bipolar plate where the separate corrugated current collectors are eliminated; cost reduction was also derived through higher power density and reduced material usage. The higher volumetric power density operation was achieved through lower cell resistance, increased active component surface area, and reduced cell height.

Allen, J.; Doyon, J.



Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil



Assessment of an ORION-based experimental platform for measuring the opacity of high-temperature and high-density plasma  

SciTech Connect

The following provides an assessment of an experimental platform based on the ORION laser at AWE Aldermasten, England, for measuring the opacity of high-temperature and high-density LTE plasmas. The specific points addressed are (1) the range of electron density and temperature that can be achieved with short-pulse beams alone, as well as (2) by means of compression with a long-pulse beam; (3) the accuracy with which electron density, electron temperature, and absolute emissivity can be measured; (4) the use of pulse shaping to increase the sample density to above solid density; (5) the effect that target materials and target design have on maintaining spatial uniformity of the sample, and (6) the need for additional diagnostics to produce and characterize samples for decisive measurements.

Beiersdorfer, P; Schneider, M; Shepherd, R



Composite Cathode for High-Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reduction of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operating temperature will play a key role in reducing the stack cost by allowing the use of low-cost metallic interconnects and new approaches to sealing, while making applications such as transportation more feasible. Reported results for anode-supported SOFCs show that cathode polarization resistance is the primary barrier to achieving high power densities at operating temperatures of 700 C and lower. This project aims to identify and develop composite cathodes that could reduce SOFC operating temperatures below 700 C. This effort focuses on study and use of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O{sub 3} (LSCF) based composite cathodes, which have arguably the best potential to substantially improve on the currently-used, (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3}-Yttria-stabilized Zirconia. During this Phase I, it was successfully demonstrated that high performances can be achieved with LSCF/Gadolinium-Doped Ceria composite cathodes on Ni-based anode supported cells operating at 700 C or lower. We studied electrochemical reactions at LSCF/Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) interfaces, and observed chemical reactions between LSCF and YSZ. By using ceria electrolytes or YSZ electrolytes with ceria diffusion barrier layers, the chemical reactions between LSCF and electrolytes were prevented under cathode firing conditions necessary for the optimal adhesion of the cathodes. The protection provided by ceria layer is expected to be adequate for stable long-term cathode performances, but more testing is needed to verify this. Using ceria-based barrier layers, high performance Ni-YSZ anode supported cells have been demonstrated with maximum power densities of 0.8W/cm2 at 700 C and 1.6W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Ni-SDC anode supported cells with SDC electrolytes yielded >1W/cm{sup 2} at 600 C. We speculate that the power output of Ni-YSZ anode supported cell at 700 C and lower, was limited by the quality of the Ceria and Ceria YSZ interface. Improvements in the low-temperature performances are expected based on further development of barrier layer fabrication processes and optimization of cathode microstructure.

Ilwon Kim; Scott Barnett; Yi Jiang; Manoj Pillai; Nikkia McDonald; Dan Gostovic; Zhongryang Zhan; Jiang Liu




DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with Ni + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode, YSZ-samaria-doped ceria (SDC) bi-layer electrolyte and Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC) + SDC cathode were fabricated. Fuel used consisted of H{sub 2} diluted with He, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O or CO{sub 2}, mixtures of H{sub 2} and CO, and mixtures of CO and CO{sub 2}. Cell performance was measured at 800 C with above-mentioned fuel gas mixtures and air as oxidant. For a given concentration of the diluent, the cell performance was higher with He as the diluent than with N{sub 2} as the diluent. Mass transport through porous Ni-YSZ anode for H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, CO-CO{sub 2} binary systems and H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-diluent gas ternary systems was analyzed using multicomponent gas diffusion theory. At high concentrations of the diluent, the maximum achievable current density was limited by the anodic concentration polarization. From this measured limiting current density, the corresponding effective gas diffusivity was estimated. Highest effective diffusivity was estimated for fuel gas mixtures containing H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-He mixtures ({approx}0.34 cm{sup 2}/s), and the lowest for CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures ({approx}0.07 cm{sup 2}/s). The lowest performance was observed with CO-CO{sub 2} mixture as a fuel, which in part was attributed to the lowest effective diffusivity of the fuels tested.

Anil V. Virkar



Catalyzed Nano-Framework Stablized High Density Reversible Hydrogen Storage Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A wide range of high capacity on-board rechargeable material candidates have exhibited non-ideal behavior related to irreversible hydrogen discharge / recharge behavior, and kinetic instability or retardation. This project addresses these issues by incorporating solvated and other forms of complex metal hydrides, with an emphasis on borohydrides, into nano-scale frameworks of low density, high surface area skeleton materials to stabilize, catalyze, and control desorption product formation associated with such complex metal hydrides. A variety of framework chemistries and hydride / framework combinations were investigated to make a relatively broad assessment of the method'Â?s potential. In this project, the hydride / framework interactions were tuned to decrease desorption temperatures for highly stable compounds or increase desorption temperatures for unstable high capacity compounds, and to influence desorption product formation for improved reversibility. First principle modeling was used to explore heterogeneous catalysis of hydride reversibility by modeling H{sub 2} dissociation, hydrogen migration, and rehydrogenation. Atomic modeling also demonstrated enhanced NaTi(BH{sub 4}){sub 4} stabilization at nano-framework surfaces modified with multi-functional agents. Amine multi-functional agents were found to have more balanced interactions with nano-framework and hydride clusters than other functional groups investigated. Experimentation demonstrated that incorporation of Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} and Mg(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} in aerogels enhanced hydride desorption kinetics. Carbon aerogels were identified as the most suitable nano-frameworks for hydride kinetic enhancement and high hydride loading. High loading of NaTi(BH{sub 4}){sub 4} ligand complex in SiO{sub 2} aerogel was achieved and hydride stability was improved with the aerogel. Although improvements of desorption kinetics was observed, the incorporation of Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} and Mg(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} in nano-frameworks did not improve their H{sub 2} absorption due to the formation of stable alkaline earth B12H12 intermediates upon rehydrogenation. This project primarily investigated the effect of nano-framework surface chemistry on hydride properties, while the effect of pore size is the focus area of other efforts (e.g., HRL, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) etc.) within the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The projects were complementary in gaining an overall understanding of the influence of nano-frameworks on hydride behavior.

Xia Tang , Susanne M. Opalka , Daniel A. Mosher, Bruce L. Laube, Ronald J. Brown, Thomas H. Vanderspurt, Sarah Arsenault, Robert Wu, Jamie Strickler, Ewa. Ronnebro, Tim. Boyle and Joseph Cordaro



Device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive fast liners  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy and momentum into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. Fast liners disposed in the high-density target plasma are explosively or ablatively driven to implosion by a heated annular plasma surrounding the fast liner which is generated by an annular relativistic electron beam. An azimuthal magnetic field produced by axial current flow in the annular plasma, causes the energy in the heated annular plasma to converge on the fast liner.

Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)



Radioprotective effect of polyethylene glycol  

SciTech Connect

Polyethylene glycol of molecular weight 400 (PEG-400) had a radioprotective effect of about 20% against lethality when given ip 20 min prior to single or fractionated X-ray doses to the head and neck. Dose modification factors (DMF) based on LD50/15 values ranged from 1.14 to 1.24. A similar DMF of 1.12 based on LD50/30 values was obtained using single doses of whole-body X irradiation. Mice given head and neck irradiation had significantly reduced rectal temperatures (31.3 +/- 3.0/sup 0/C) 9 days post irradiation compared with unirradiated controls (35.4 +/- 0.6/sup 0/C). No such reduction was observed when PEG-400 was given with radiation (36.3 +/- 0.9/sup 0/C). PEG-400 also lessened, but not significantly, the frequency of shivering in irradiated animals. Histopathologic examination of the oral structures demonstrated only marginal protection by PEG-400. Estimation of the alpha/beta ratio from LD50 data on head and neck-irradiated mice yielded values of 4.4 +/- 1.9 (95% confidence limits) Gy without PEG-400 and 7.9 +/- 1.4 Gy with PEG-400. Since it is a non-thiol radioprotector, PEG-400 may be more useful when combined with more conventional thiol-containing radioprotectors.

Shaeffer, J.; Schellenberg, K.A.; Seymore, C.H.; Schultheiss, T.E.; el-Mahdi, A.M.



Gold charge state distributions in highly ionized, low-density beam plasmas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a systematic study of Au charge state distributions (CSDs) from low density, nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas created in the Livermore electron beam ion traps (EBIT-I and EBIT-II). X-ray emission from Ni-like to Kr-like Au ions has been recorded from monoenergetic electron beam plasmas having E{sub beam}=2.66, 2.92, 3.53, and 4.54 keV, and the CSDs of the beam plasmas have been inferred by fitting the collisionally excited line transitions and radiative recombination emission features with synthetic spectra. We have modeled the beam plasmas using a collisional-radiative code with various treatments of the atomic structure for the complex M- and N-shell ions and find that only models with extensive doubly excited states can properly account for the dielectronic recombination (DR) channels that control the CSDs. This finding would be unremarkable for plasmas with thermal electron distributions, where many such states are sampled, and the importance of DR is well established. But in an EBIT source, the beam is resonant with only a subset of such states having spectator electrons in orbitals with high principal quantum number n (8{<=}n{<=}20). The inclusion of such states in the model was also necessary to obtain agreement with observed stabilizing transitions in the x-ray spectra.

May, M. J.; Scofield, J.; Schneider, M.; Wong, K.; Beiersdorfer, P. [PO Box 808 L260, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore California 94551 (United States); Hansen, S. B. [Sandia National Laboratories, ICF Target Design, Albuquerque New Mexico, 87185-1186 (United States)



High Energy Density Na-S/NiCl2 Hybrid Battery  

SciTech Connect

High temperature (250-350°C) sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) are attractive energy storage devices for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications. Currently, two technologies are commercially available in NBBs, e.g., sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries. In this study, we investigated the combination of these two chemistries with a mixed cathode. In particular, the cathode of the cell consisted of molten NaAlCl4 as a catholyte and a mixture of Ni, NaCl and Na2S as active materials. During cycling, two reversible plateaus were observed in cell voltage profiles, which matched electrochemical reactions for Na-S and Na-NiCl2 redox couples. An irreversible reaction between sulfur species and Ni was identified during initial charge at 280°C, which caused a decrease in cell capacity. The final products on discharge included Na2Sn with 1< n < 3, which differed from Na2S3 found in traditional Na-S battery. Reduction of sulfur in the mixed cathode led to an increase in overall energy density over ZEBRA batteries. Despite of the initial drop in cell capacity, the mixed cathode demonstrated relatively stable cycling with more than 95% of capacity retained over 60 cycles under 10mA/cm2. Optimization of the cathode may lead to further improvements in battery performance.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Lemmon, John P.; Kim, Jin Yong; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo (Gary) [Gary



High density quark matter in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with dimensional versus cutoff regularization  

SciTech Connect

We investigate color superconducting phase at high density in the extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for two-flavor quarks. Because of the nonrenormalizability of the model, physical observables may depend on the regularization procedure; that is why we apply two types of regularization, the cutoff and the dimensional one to evaluate the phase structure, the equation of state, and the relationship between the mass and the radius of a dense star. To obtain the phase structure we evaluate the minimum of the effective potential at finite temperature and chemical potential. The stress tensor is calculated to derive the equation of state. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation, we show the relationship between the mass and the radius of a dense star. The dependence on the regularization is found not to be small, interestingly. The dimensional regularization predicts color superconductivity phase at rather large values of {mu} (in agreement with perturbative QCD in contrast to the cutoff regularization), in the larger temperature interval, the existence of heavier and larger quark stars.

Fujihara, T.; Kimura, D.; Inagaki, T.; Kvinikhidze, A. [Department of Physics, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Information Media Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); A. Razmadze Mathematical Institute of Georgian Academy of Sciences, M. Alexidze Str. 1, 380093 Tbilisi (Georgia)



DEGAS 2 Neutral Transport Modeling of High Density, Low Temperature Plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutral transport in the high density, low temperature plasma regime is examined using the degas 2 Monte Carlo neutral transport code. Degas 2 is shown to agree with an analytic fluid neutral model valid in this regime as long as the grid cell spacing is less than twice the neutral mean-free path. Using new atomic physics data provided by the collisional radiative code cramd, degas 2 is applied to a detached Alcator C-Mod discharge. A model plasma with electron temperature # 1 eV along detached flux tubes, between the target and the ionization front, is used to demonstrate that recombination is essential to matching the experimental data. With the cramd data, # 20% of the total recombination is due to molecular activated recombination. # Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Plasma Fusion Center, 167 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA + Also at I. V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy 1 Kurchatov Sq., Moscow 123098, Russia # Presently at McKinsey & Company, Inc., London...

D. P. Stotler; A. Yu. Pigarov; C. F. F. Karney; S. I. Krasheninnikov; B. LaBombard; B. Lipschultz; G. M. McCracken; A. Niemczewski; J. A. Snipes; J. L. Terry; R. A. Vesey



Collective Focusing of Intense Ion Beam Pulses for High-energy Density Physics Applications  

SciTech Connect

The collective focusing concept in which a weak magnetic lens provides strong focusing of an intense ion beam pulse carrying a neutralizing electron background is investigated by making use of advanced particle-in-cell simulations and reduced analytical models. The original analysis by Robertson Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 149 (1982) is extended to the parameter regimes of particular importance for several high-energy density physics applications. The present paper investigates (1) the effects of non-neutral collective focusing in a moderately strong magnetic field; (2) the diamagnetic effects leading to suppression of the applied magnetic field due to the presence of the beam pulse; and (3) the influence of a finite-radius conducting wall surrounding the beam cross-section on beam neutralization. In addition, it is demonstrated that the use of the collective focusing lens can significantly simplify the technical realization of the final focusing of ion beam pulses in the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-I (NDCX-I) , and the conceptual designs of possible experiments on NDCX-I are investigated by making use of advanced numerical simulations. 2011 American Institute of Physics

Mikhail A. Dorf, Igor D. Kaganovich, Edward A. Startsev and Ronald C. Davidson



The phase diagram of nuclear and quark matter at high baryon density  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review theoretical approaches to explore the phase diagram of nuclear and quark matter at high baryon density. We first look over the basic properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and address how to describe various states of QCD matter. In our discussions on nuclear matter we cover the relativistic mean-field model, the chiral perturbation theory, and the approximation based on the large-Nc limit where Nc is the number of colors. We then explain the liquid-gas phase transition and the inhomogeneous meson condensation in nuclear matter with emphasis put on the relevance to quark matter. We commence the next part focused on quark matter with the bootstrap model and the Hagedorn temperature. Then we turn to properties associated with chiral symmetry and exposit theoretical descriptions of the chiral phase transition. There emerge some quark-matter counterparts of phenomena seen in nuclear matter such as the liquid-gas phase transition and the inhomogeneous structure of the chiral condensate. The third regime that is being recognized recently is what is called quarkyonic matter, which has both aspects of nuclear and quark matter. We closely elucidate the basic idea of quarkyonic matter in the large-Nc limit and its physics implications. Finally, we discuss some experimental indications for the QCD phase diagram and close the review with outlooks.

Kenji Fukushima; Chihiro Sasaki



Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Recently, novel experiments on magnetic reconnection have been conducted in laser-produced plasmas in a high-energy-density regime. Individual plasma bubbles self-generate toroidal, mega-gauss-scale magnetic fields through the Biermann battery effect. When multiple bubbles are created at small separation, they expand into one another, driving reconnection of this field. Reconnection in the experiments was reported to be much faster than allowed by both Sweet-Parker, and even Hall-MHD theories, when normalized to the nominal magnetic fields self-generated by single bubbles. Through particle-in-cell simulations (both with and without a binary collision operator), we model the bubble interaction at parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments. This paper discusses in detail the reconnection regime of the laser-driven experiments and reports the qualitative features of simulations. We find substantial flux-pileup effects, which boost the relevant magnetic field for reconnection in the current sheet. When this is accounted for, the normalized reconnection rates are much more in line with standard two-fluid theory of reconnection. At the largest system sizes, we additionally find that the current sheet is prone to breakup into plasmoids.

Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K. [Center for Integrated Computation and Analysis of Reconnection and Turbulence, and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States)



Monte Carlo calculations of the effective area and directional response of a polyethylene-moderated neutron counter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two recent reports on Monte Carlo studies have examined the angular response of a multiple-rod neutron scintillator and the energy response of a moderated {sup 3}He neutron counter. This report extends those studies to provide calculations of the effective area and angular sensitivity of a polyethylene-moderated neutron detector that has multiple {sup 3}He tubes. The results (1) provide a more accurate and general determination of the sensor`s detection efficiency, (2) suggest new techniques for obtaining information about the source direction, and (3) allow evaluation of proposals to improve the high-energy detection efficiency by using the production of (n,2n) neutrons in high-density material added to the moderator.

Not Available



Effect of electron density profile on power absorption of high frequency electromagnetic waves in plasma  

SciTech Connect

Considering different typical electron density profiles, a multi slab approximation model is built up to study the power absorption of broadband (0.75-30 GHz) electromagnetic waves in a partially ionized nonuniform magnetized plasma layer. Based on the model, the power absorption spectra for six cases are numerically calculated and analyzed. It is shown that the absorption strongly depends on the electron density fluctuant profile, the background electron number density, and the collision frequency. A potential optimum profile is also analyzed and studied with some particular parameters.

Xi Yanbin; Liu Yue [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)



High density array fabrication and readout method for a fiber optic biosensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to the fabrication and use of biosensors comprising a plurality of optical fibers each fiber having attached to its "sensor end" biological "binding partners" (molecules that specifically bind other molecules to form a binding complex such as antibody-antigen, lectin-carbohydrate, nucleic acid-nucleic acid, biotin-avidin, etc.). The biosensor preferably bears two or more different species of biological binding partner. The sensor is fabricated by providing a plurality of groups of optical fibers. Each group is treated as a batch to attach a different species of biological binding partner to the sensor ends of the fibers comprising that bundle. Each fiber, or group of fibers within a bundle, may be uniquely identified so that the fibers, or group of fibers, when later combined in an array of different fibers, can be discretely addressed. Fibers or groups of fibers are then selected and discretely separated from different bundles. The discretely separated fibers are then combined at their sensor ends to produce a high density sensor array of fibers capable of assaying simultaneously the binding of components of a test sample to the various binding partners on the different fibers of the sensor array. The transmission ends of the optical fibers are then discretely addressed to detectors--such as a multiplicity of optical sensors. An optical signal, produced by binding of the binding partner to its substrate to form a binding complex, is conducted through the optical fiber or group of fibers to a detector for each discrete test. By examining the addressed transmission ends of fibers, or groups of fibers, the addressed transmission ends can transmit unique patterns assisting in rapid sample identification by the sensor.

Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA); Gray, Joe (San Francisco, CA); Albertson, Donna G. (Lafayette, CA)


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


High density array fabrication and readout method for a fiber optic biosensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to the fabrication and use of biosensors comprising a plurality of optical fibers each fiber having attached to its "sensor end" biological "binding partners" (molecules that specifically bind other molecules to form a binding complex such as antibody-antigen, lectin-carbohydrate, nucleic acid-nucleic acid, biotin-avidin, etc.). The biosensor preferably bears two or more different species of biological binding partner. The sensor is fabricated by providing a plurality of groups of optical fibers. Each group is treated as a batch to attach a different species of biological binding partner to the sensor ends of the fibers comprising that bundle. Each fiber, or group of fibers within a bundle, may be uniquely identified so that the fibers, or group of fibers, when later combined in an array of different fibers, can be discretely addressed. Fibers or groups of fibers are then selected and discretely separated from different bundles. The discretely separated fibers are then combined at their sensor ends to produce a high density sensor array of fibers capable of assaying simultaneously the binding of components of a test sample to the various binding partners on the different fibers of the sensor array. The transmission ends of the optical fibers are then discretely addressed to detectors--such as a multiplicity of optical sensors. An optical signal, produced by binding of the binding partner to its substrate to form a binding complex, is conducted through the optical fiber or group of fibers to a detector for each discrete test. By examining the addressed transmission ends of fibers, or groups of fibers, the addressed transmission ends can transmit unique patterns assisting in rapid sample identification by the sensor.

Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA); Gray, Joe (San Francisco, CA); Albertson, Donna G. (Lafayette, CA)



Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

Nguyen-Tuong, Viet (Seaford, VA); Dylla, III, Henry Frederick (Yorktown, VA)



Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III



Development of optimized core design and analysis methods for high power density BWRs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increasing the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy is vital to its future. Improving the economics of BWRs is the main goal of this work, focusing on designing cores with higher power density, to reduce the BWR ...

Shirvan, Koroush



Evaluation of high power density annular fuel application in the Korean OPR-1000 reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compared to the traditional solid fuel geometry for PWRs, the internally and externally cooled annular fuel offers the potential to increase the core power density while maintaining or increasing safety margins. It is ...

Zhang, Liang, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology



Assessment of helical-cruciform fuel rods for high power density LWRs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to significantly increase the power density of Light Water Reactors (LWRs), the helical-cruciform (HC) fuel rod assembly has been proposed as an alternative to traditional fuel geometry. The HC assembly is a ...

Conboy, Thomas M



Development of critical surface diagnostic based on the ion acoustic decay instability in laser produced high density plasma  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a large angle, UV collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic for high density, hot plasma relevant to laser fusion. The CTS measured the basic parameters of the plasma waves (frequency, wave number), or the spectral density function for selected wave vectors of plasma waves, which were excited by the IADI (ion acoustic parametric decay instability). It is a good diagnostic tool for a local electron temperature measurement. The electron temperature was estimated by measuring either ion acoustic wave or electron plasma wave in the laser intensity window of 1high density plasma.

Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Drake, R.P.; Seka, W.; Craxton, R.S.; Estabrook, K.G.



High-density organic light emitting diodes by nanoimprint technology Krutarth Trivedi, Caleb Nelson, Li Tao, Mathew Goeckner, Walter Hua)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-density organic light emitting diodes by nanoimprint technology Krutarth Trivedi, Caleb Nelson sources. Despite the considerable development of inorganic semiconductor based light emitting diodes of miniaturization to nanoscale. Organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology is immune to quantum confinement

Hu, Wenchuang "Walter"


Applications of Robust, Radiation Hard AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices in Space Exploration and High Energy Density Physics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This slide show presents: space exploration applications; high energy density physics applications; UV LED and photodiode radiation hardness; UV LED and photodiode space qualification; UV LED AC charge management; and UV LED satellite payload instruments. A UV LED satellite will be launched 2nd half 2012.

Sun, K.



Analysis and Design of a High Power Density Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Machine Used for Stirling System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

a high power density axial flux permanent magnet linear synchronous machine and the stirling system will be introduced. This machine is a tubular axial flux permanent magnet machine. It comprises two parts: stator and mover. With the 2D finite-element ... Keywords: permanent magnet, stirling engine, linear motor

Ping Zheng; Xuhui Gan; Lin Li



Pyrolysis Pathways of Sulfonated Polyethylene, an Alternative Carbon Fiber Precursor  

SciTech Connect

Sulfonated polyethylene is an emerging precursor for the production of carbon fibers. Pyrolysis of sulfonated polyethylene was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). n-heptane-4-sulfonic acid (H4S) was selected as a model compound for the study of sulfonated polyethylene. Density functional theory and conventional transition state theory were used to determine the rate constants of pyrolysis for H4S from 300-1000 K. Multiple reaction channels from two different mechanisms were explored: 1) internal five-centered elimination (Ei 5) and 2) radical chain reaction. The pyrolysis of H4S was simulated with kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) to obtain TGA plots that compared favorably to experiment. We observed that at tem- peratures < 550 K, the radical mechanism was dominant and yielded the trans-alkene, whereas cis-alkene was formed at higher temperatures from the internal elimination. The maximum rates of % mass loss became independent of initial OH radical concentration at 440-480 K. Experimentally, the maximum % mass loss occurred from 440-460 K (heating rate dependent). Activation energies derived from the kMC-simulated TGAs of H4S (26-29 kcal/mol) agreed with experiment for sulfonated polyethylene ( 31 kcal/mol). The simulations revealed that in this region, decomposition of radical HOSO2 became competitive to H abstraction by HOSO2, making OH the carrying radical for the reaction chain. The maximum rate of % mass loss for internal elimination was observed at temperatures > 600 K. Low-scale carbonization utilizes temperatures < 620 K; thus, internal elimination will not be competitive. Ei5 elimination has been studied for sulfoxides and sulfones, but this represents the first study of internal elimination in sulfonic acids. Nonlinear Arrhenius plots were found for all bimolecular reactions. The most significant nonlinear behavior was observed for reactions where the barrier was small. For reactions with low activation barriers, nonlinearity was traced to conflicting trends between the exponential temperature dependence of the energetic term and the temperature dependence of the vibrational partition function of the transitional modes.

Younker, Jarod M [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Hunt, Marcus A [ORNL; Beste, Ariana [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL




DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work done during the entire project period, between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2003, which includes a six-month no-cost extension. During the project, eight research papers have, either been, published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. In addition, several presentations have been made in technical meetings and workshops. The project also has provided support for four graduate students working towards advanced degrees. The principal technical objective of the project was to analyze the role of electrode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cell performance. Prior theoretical work conducted in our laboratory demonstrated that the particle size of composite electrodes has a profound effect on cell performance; the finer the particle size, the lower the activation polarization, the better the performance. The composite cathodes examined consisted of electronically conducting perovskites such as Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) or Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC), which is also a mixed conductor, as the electrocatalyst, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or rare earth oxide doped CeO{sub 2} as the ionic conductor. The composite anodes examined were mixtures of Ni and YSZ. A procedure was developed for the synthesis of nanosize YSZ by molecular decomposition, in which unwanted species were removed by leaching, leaving behind nanosize YSZ. Anode-supported cells were made using the as-synthesized powders, or using commercially acquired powders. The electrolyte was usually a thin ({approx}10 microns), dense layer of YSZ, supported on a thick ({approx}1 mm), porous Ni + YSZ anode. The cathode was a porous mixture of electrocatalyst and an ionic conductor. Most of the cell testing was done at 800 C with hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities as high as 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} were demonstrated. Polarization behavior of the cells was theoretically analyzed. A limited amount of cell testing was done using liquid hydrocarbon fuels where reforming was achieved internally. Significant polarization losses also occur at the anode, especially at high fuel utilizations. An analysis of polarization losses requires that various contributions are isolated, and their dependence on pertinent parameters is quantitatively described. An investigation of fuel composition on gas transport through porous anodes was investigated and the role of fuel diluents was explored. This work showed that the molecular weight of the diluent has a significant effect on anode concentration polarization. This further showed that the presence of some molecular hydrogen is necessary to minimize polarization losses. Theoretical analysis has shown that the electrode microstructure has a profound effect on cell performance. In a series of experiments, cathode microstructural parameters were varied, without altering other parameters. Cathode microstructural parameters, especially three phase boundary (TPB) length, were estimated using techniques in quantitative stereology. Cell performance was quantitatively correlated with the relevant microstructural parameters, and charge transfer resistivity was explicitly evaluated. This is the first time that a fundamental parameter, which governs the activation polarization, has been quantitatively determined. An important parameter, which governs the cathodic activation polarization, and thus cell performance, is the ionic conductivity of the composite cathode. The traditional composite cathode is a mixture of LSM and YSZ. It is well known that Sr and Mg-doped LaGaO{sub 3} (LSGM), exhibits higher oxygen ion conductivity compared to YSZ. Cells were fabricated with composite cathodes comprising a mixture of LSM and LSGM. Studies demonstrated that LSGM-based composite cathodes exhibit excellent behavior. Studies have shown that Ni + YSZ is an excellent anode. In fact, in most cells, the principal polarization losses, at least at low fuel utilizations, are associated with the cathode. Theoretical analysis conducted in our group has also shown that anode-supported cells exhibi

Professor Anil V. Virkar



Doped LiFePO? cathodes for high power density lithium ion batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Olivine LiFePO4 has received much attention recently as a promising storage compound for cathodes in lithium ion batteries. It has an energy density similar to that of LiCoO 2, the current industry standard for cathode ...

Bloking, Jason T. (Jason Thompson), 1979-



Assembly of High-Areal-Density Deuterium-Tritium Fuel from Indirectly Driven Cryogenic Implosions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The National Ignition Facility has been used to compress deuterium-tritium to an average areal density of ~1.0±0.1??g?cm[superscript -2], which is 67% of the ignition requirement. These conditions were obtained using 192 ...

Casey, Daniel Thomas


Challenges in Developing High Energy Density Li-ion Batteries with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The approaches that have been taken recently include the use of high voltage cathodes coupled with graphite or high capacity Li-alloy anodes. In either ...


High energy density batteries. (Latest citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning high energy density electric batteries. Battery electrolyte materials such as sodium-sulfur, lithium-aluminum, nickel-cadmium, lithium-thionyl, lithium-lead, sodium-sodiumpolysulfide, nickel-iron, nickel-zinc, and alkali-sulfur are examined. Test methods for these high energy batteries are discussed. Molten salt electrochemical studies for high energy cells are included. Military applications are also presented. (Contains a minimum of 63 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available



High Density Hydrogen Storage Systems Demonstration Using NaAIH4  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Density Hydrogen Storage Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH 4 Complex Compound Hydrides D. Mosher, X. Tang, S. Arsenault, B. Laube, M. Cao, R. Brown, S. Saitta, J. Costello United Technologies Research Center East Hartford, Connecticut Report to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Contract Number: DE-FC36-02AL-67610 December 19, 2006 * * Presented to the DOE and the FreedomCAR & Fuel Partnership Hydrogen Storage Tech Team This presentation does not contain proprietary or confidential information 2 Overview Objective: Identify and overcome the critical technical barriers in developing complex hydride based storage systems, especially those which differ from conventional metal hydride systems, to meet DOE system targets. Approach: Design, fabricate and test a sequence of subscale and full scale


Tomographic reconstruction of high energy density plasmas with picosecond temporal resolution  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional reconstruction of the electron density in a plasma can be obtained by passing multiple beams at different field angles simultaneously through a plasma and performing a tomographic reconstruction of the measured field-dependent phase profiles. In this letter, a relatively simple experimental setup is proposed and simulations are carried out to verify the technique. The plasma distribution is modeled as a discreet number of phase screens and a Zernike polynomial representation of the phase screens is used to reconstruct the plasma profile. Using a subpicosecond laser, the complete three-dimensional electron density of the plasma can be obtained with a time resolution limited only by the transit time of the probe through the plasma.

Baker, K L



High density hexagonal boron nitride prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Boron nitride powder with less than or equal to the oxygen content of starting powder (down to 0.5% or less) is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce hexagonal boron nitride with a bulk density greater than 2.0 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a cansister or alternatively plasma sprayed or chemical vapor deposited onto a powder compact. Hot isostatic pressing at 1800{degrees}C and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for four hours produces a bulk density of 2.21 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

Hoenig, C.L.




NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DENSITY CONCRETE WITH CERAMIC AGGREGATE BASED ON DEPLETED URANIUM DENSITY CONCRETE WITH CERAMIC AGGREGATE BASED ON DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE S.G. Ermichev, V.I. Shapovalov, N.V.Sviridov (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Russia) V.K. Orlov, V.M. Sergeev, A. G. Semyenov, A.M. Visik, A.A. Maslov, A. V. Demin, D.D. Petrov, V.V. Noskov, V. I. Sorokin, O. I. Uferov (VNIINM, Moscow, Russia) L. Dole (ORNL, Oak Ridge, USA) Abstract - Russia is researching the production and testing of concretes with ceramic aggregate based on depleted uranium dioxide (UO 2 ). These DU concretes are to be used as structural and radiation-shielded material for casks for A-plant spent nuclear fuel transportation and storage. This paper presents the results of studies aimed at selection of ceramics and concrete composition, justification of their production technology, investigation of mechanical properties, and chemical stability.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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Development of low-cost, compact, reliable, high energy density ceramic nanocomposite capacitors.  

SciTech Connect

The ceramic nanocomposite capacitor goals are: (1) more than double energy density of ceramic capacitors (cutting size and weight by more than half); (2) potential cost reductino (factor of >4) due to decreased sintering temperature (allowing the use of lower cost electrode materials such as 70/30 Ag/Pd); and (3) lower sintering temperature will allow co-firing with other electrical components.

Cooley, Erika J.; Monson, Todd C.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Huber, Dale L.; Fellows, Benjamin D.; Stevens, Tyler E.; Roesler, Alexander William; Chavez, Tom P.; Winter, Michael R.



CO2/oxalate Cathodes as Safe and Efficient Alternatives in High Energy Density Metal-Air Type Rechargeable Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present theoretical analysis on why and how rechargeable metal-air type batteries can be made significantly safer and more practical by utilizing CO2/oxalate conversions instead of O2/peroxide or O2/hydroxide ones, in the positive electrode. Metal-air batteries, such as the Li-air one, may have very large energy densities, comparable to that of gasoline, theoretically allowing for long range all-electric vehicles. There are, however, still significant challenges, especially related to the safety of their underlying chemistries, the robustness of their recharging and the need of supplying high purity O2 from air to the battery. We point out that the CO2/oxalate reversible electrochemical conversion is a viable alternative of the O2-based ones, allowing for similarly high energy density and almost identical voltage, while being much safer through the elimination of aggressive oxidant peroxides and the use of thermally stable, non-oxidative and environmentally benign oxalates instead.

Nemeth, Karoly



Integrating domain knowledge with statistical and data mining methods for high-density genomic SNP disease association analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Genome-wide association studies can help identify multi-gene contributions to disease. As the number of high-density genomic markers tested increases, however, so does the number of loci associated with disease by chance. Performing a brute-force test ... Keywords: Data integration, Data mining, False discovery rate (FDR), Genome-wide association (GWA), Pathway-based disease association, Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)

Valentin Dinu; Hongyu Zhao; Perry L. Miller



Optimization of density functional tight-binding and classical reactive molecular dynamics for high-throughput simulations of carbon materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon materials and nanostructures (fullerenes, nanotubes) are promising building blocks of nanotechnology. Potential applications include optical and electronic devices, sensors, and nano-scale machines. The multiscale character of processes related ... Keywords: ACM proceedings, BLAS, Cray XT5, LAPACK, advanced materials, density-functional tight binding, high-throughput, linear algebra, material science, molecular dynamics, multiscale-modeling, quantum chemistry, scientific libraries, scientific-computing

Jacek Jakowski; Bilel Hadri; Steven J. Stuart; Predrag Krstic; Stephan Irle; Dulma Nugawela; Sophya Garashchuk



Large-Strain Time-Temperature Equivalence and Adiabatic Heating of Polyethylene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Time-temperature equivalence is a well-known phenomenon in time-dependent material response, where rapid events at a moderate temperature are indistinguishable from some occurring at modest rates but elevated temperatures. However, there is as-yet little elucidation of how well this equivalence holds for substantial plastic strains. In this work, we demonstrate time-temperature equivalence over a large range in a previously studied high-density polyethylene formulation (HDPE). At strain-rates exceeding 0.1/s, adiabatic heating confounds the comparison of nominally isothermal material response, apparently violating time-temperature equivalence. Strain-rate jumps can be employed to access the instantaneous true strain rate without heating. Adiabatic heating effects were isolated by comparing a locus of isothermal instantaneous flow stress measurements from strain-rate jumps up to 1/s with the predicted equivalent states at 0.01/s and 0.001/s in compression. Excellent agreement between the isothermal jump condition locus and the quasi-static tests was observed up to 50% strain, yielding one effective isothermal plastic response for each material for a given time-temperature equivalent state. These results imply that time-temperature equivalence can be effectively used to predict the deformation response of polymers during extreme mechanical events (large strain and high strain-rate) from measurements taken at reduced temperatures and nominal strain-rates in the laboratory.

Furmanski, Jevan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cady, Carl M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory



SAND2011-6616A Page 1 Session 2: High Energy Density, Plasmas...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

on Sandia's Z Machine: Obtaining Data with High Precision at HED Conditions Thomas R. Mattsson and Seth Root Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM USA Summary: The Z...


Production of high density fuel through low temperature devolatilization of fossil fuels with hydrogen and iron oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for producing high-energy high-density fuels and valuable co-products from fossil fuel sources which comprises the low temperature devolatilization of a fossil fuel such as coal in a moving fluid-bed reactor at a temperature of about 450-650C in the presence of hydrogen and iron oxides. The method is advantageous in that high quality liquid fuels are obtained in addition to valuable co-products such as elemental iron, elemental sulfur and carbon black, and the process is carried out efficiently with a large number of recyclable steps. In addition, the hydropyrolysis of the present invention can produce a highly reactive low-sulfur char which is convertible into a slurry fuel. 1 fig.

Khan, M.R.



Long-Range Electric Vehicle Batteries: High Energy Density Lithium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: In a battery, metal ions move between the electrodes through the electrolyte in order to store energy. Envia Systems is developing new silicon-based negative electrode materials for Li-Ion batteries. Using this technology, Envia will be able to produce commercial EV batteries that outperform today’s technology by 2-3 times. Many other programs have attempted to make anode materials based on silicon, but have not been able to produce materials that can withstand charge/discharge cycles multiple times. Envia has been able to make this material which can successfully cycle hundreds of times, on a scale that is economically viable. Today, Envia’s batteries exhibit world-record energy densities.





DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple, approximate analysis of the effect of differing cathode and anode areas on the measurement of cell performance on anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, wherein the cathode area is smaller than the anode area, is presented. It is shown that the effect of cathode area on cathode polarization, on electrolyte contribution, and on anode resistance, as normalized on the basis of the cathode area, is negligible. There is a small but measurable effect on anode polarization, which results from concentration polarization. Effectively, it is the result of a greater amount of fuel transported to the anode/electrolyte interface in cases wherein the anode area is larger than the cathode area. Experiments were performed on cells made with differing cathode areas and geometries. Cathodic and anodic overpotentials measured using reference electrodes, and the measured ohmic area specific resistances by current interruption, were in good agreement with expectations based on the analysis presented. At 800 C, the maximum power density measured with a cathode area of {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2} was {approx}1.65 W/cm{sup 2} compared to {approx}1.45 W/cm{sup 2} for cathode area of {approx}2 cm{sup 2}, for anode thickness of {approx}1.3 mm, with hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. At 750 C, the measured maximum power densities were {approx}1.3 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2}, and {approx}1.25 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}2 cm{sup 2}.

Anil V. Virkar



Quaternary 1T-2MTJ Cell Circuit for a High-Density and a High-Throughput Nonvolatile Bit-Serial CAM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A compact quaternary cell circuit using a single MOS transistor and two magnetic tunnel junction devices (1T-2MTJ) is proposed for a high-density nonvolatile bit-serial content-addressable memory (CAM). The use of quaternary CAM-cell structure makes ... Keywords: Low-Power, Compact, Spintronics, Magnetic Tunnel Junction, MTJ, MOS/MTJ-hybrid, Logic-in-Memory, Fine-Grain, Power Gating

Shoun Matsunaga; Takahiro Hanyu



TEM Characterization of U-7Mo/Al-2Si Dispersion Fuel Irradiated to Intermediate and High Fission Densities  

SciTech Connect

This paper will discuss the results of TEM analysis that was performed on two samples taken from the low flux and high flux sides of the fuel plate with U-7Mo fuel particles dispersed in U-2Si matrix. The corresponding local fission density of the fuel particles and the peak fuel plate centerline temperature between the low flux and high flux samples are 3.32 x 10{sup 27} f/m{sup 3} and 90 C, and 6.31 x 10{sup 27} f/m{sup 3} and 120 C, respectively. The results of this work showed the presence of a bubble superlattice within the U-7Mo grains that accommodated fission gases (e.g., Xe). The presence of this structure helps the U-7Mo exhibit a stable swelling behavior during irradiation. The Si-rich interaction layers that develop around the fuel particles at the U-7Mo/matrix interface during fuel plate fabrication and irradiation become amorphous during irradiation. The change in bubble distribution at the high fission density suggests that the bubble superlattice is stable as the U-7Mo matrix remains crystalline. It appears that there is a threshold Si content in the fuel particle above which the U-Mo turns to amorphous under irradiation. The threshold Si content is approximately 8 at.% and 4 at.% for low flux and high flux condition, respectively.

J. Gan; D.D. Keiser, Jr.; B.D. Miller; A.B. Robinson; J-F. Jue; P.G. Medvedev; D.M. Wachs



Three-Dimensional Turbulent Bottom Density Currents from a High-Order Nonhydrostatic Spectral Element Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Overflows are bottom gravity currents that supply dense water masses generated in high-latitude and marginal seas into the general circulation. Oceanic observations have revealed that mixing of overflows with ambient water masses takes place over ...

Tamay M. Özgökmen; Paul F. Fischer; Jinqiao Duan; Traian Iliescu



The National Ignition Facility: The Path to Ignition, High Energy Density Science and Inertial Fusion Energy  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is a Nd:Glass laser facility capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. This world's most energetic laser system is now operational with the goals of achieving thermonuclear burn in the laboratory and exploring the behavior of matter at extreme temperatures and energy densities. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in the interiors of planetary and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, NIF performed the first integrated ignition experiment which demonstrated the successful coordination of the laser, the cryogenic target system, the array of diagnostics and the infrastructure required for ignition. Many more experiments have been completed since. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and the international communities are examining the implication of achieving ignition on NIF for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a 10% electrical-optical efficiency laser, as well as further advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection and tracking, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in 10- to 15-years. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) baseline design and examining various technology choices for LIFE power plant This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF, the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the start of fundamental science experiments and plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to researchers around the world. The paper will conclude with a discussion of LIFE, its development path and potential to enable a carbon-free clean energy future.

Moses, E



Interaction of Polyethylene and Tritium Gas as Monitored by Raman Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation of high-density polyethylene by ~1 atm overpressure of T2 gas at 23+- 2 degrees C has been shown to produce severe damage, about 200 MRad dose, within 6 months. Production rate of H2 gas from irradiation due to polymer incorporation of tritium increased quickly within the first 2 months, after which it slowed considerably. It is proposed that outgassing of H2 acted to inhibit diffusion of solubilized HT or T2 into the bulk, thereby limiting increases in polymer T incorporation and thus damage rate. Damage to the HDPE sample was found to be nonuniform. Laser fluorescence from the sample surface irradiated by the supply of T2 gas was ~10{sup}3-fold greater in the energy deposition layer than the fluroescence from bulk polymer after 2 months. This factor was within an order of magnitude of calculated dosages to surface and bulk. Fluorescence from the bulk, apparently caused by unsaturated polyene groups formed during irradiation, grew in time about proportionally to H2 generation and thus dose. An appreciable concentration of radical or ion-radical polyenes at room temperature could be recombined by bleaching for 15 minutes at ~150 degrees C; these species appeared to reform over night at room temperature.

Gill, J. T.



From Swords to Plowshares: The US/Russian Collaboration in High Energy Density Physics Using Pulsed Power  

SciTech Connect

Since 1992, the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the institutes that designed the first nuclear weapons of the Soviet Union and the US, respectively, have been working together in fundamental research related to pulsed power and high energy density science. This collaboration has enabled scientists formerly engaged in weapons activities to redirect their attention to peaceful pursuits of wide benefit to the technical community. More than thirty joint experiments have been performed at Sarov and Los Alamos in areas as diverse as solid state physics in high magnetic fields, fusion plasma formation, isentropic compression of noble gases, and explosively driven-high current generation technology. Expanding on the introductory comments of the conference plenary presentation, this paper traces the origins of this collaboration and briefly reviews the scientific accomplishments. Detailed reports of the scientific accomplishments can be found in other papers in these proceedings and in other publications.

Younger, S.M.; Fowler, C.M.; Lindemuth, I.; Chernyshev, V.K.; Mokhov, V.N.; Pavlovskii, A.I.



A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

Low cost, high performance redox flow batteries are highly demanded for up to multi-megawatt levels of renewable and grid energy storage. Here, we report a new vanadium redox flow battery with a significant improvement over the current technologies. This new battery utilizes a sulfate-chloride mixed solution, which is capable of dissolving more than 2.5 M vanadium or about a 70% increase in the energy storage capacity over the current vanadium sulfate system. More importantly, the new electrolyte remains stable over a wide temperature range of -5 to 60oC, potentially eliminating the need of active heat management. Its high energy density, broad operational temperature window, and excellent electrochemical performance would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of energy storage, thus accelerating its market penetration.

Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Vijayakumar, M.; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang; Hu, Jian Z.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo



High-energy-density solid and liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report, July 1987-December 1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of new high-energy hydrocarbon fuels for use in air-breathing missiles has been the objective of a number of investigations which have received support during the past decade through programs sponsored by the Air Force Systems Command and/or the Naval Air Systems Command. The key characteristics which must be met by potential cruise missile fuels have been described by Burdette and coworkers. A primary requirement in this regard is that candidate fuels must possess high net volumetric heat of combustion (preferably greater than 160,000 BTU/gallon). In order to meet the primary requirement of high net volumetric heat of combustion, hydrocarbon systems have been sought which maximize the ratio of carbon-atom to hydrogen-atom content have been sought that maximize the ratio n/m.(JES)

Marchand, A.P.



Primary cell of high energy density in which the anode active material is an alkali metal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A primary cell of high specific energy in which the anode active material is an alkali metal and the cathode active material is sulphur oxychloride which simultaneously acts as an electrolyte solvent, said electrolyte further containing a dissolved salt and a co-solvent. The co-solvent is chosen from among phosphoryl chloride and benzoyl chloride; the dissolved salt is lithium tetrachloroaluminate.

Gabano, J.



Fusion Engineering and Design 45 (1999) 145167 Exploring novel high power density concepts for attractive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lower than Li17Pb83, see Fig. 6). Thus, surface wall load could, in principle, be deposited it is deposited at the surface in the case of Li17Pb83 due to its high attenuation coeffi- cient. The incident X-rays in Lithium, Beryllium, Flibe, Lead, and Li17Pb83 vs. photon energy. ularly in the case where the Flibe

Abdou, Mohamed


The use of electrochemical sensors for monitoring urban air quality in low-cost, high-density networks.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electrolyte reservoirs for increased long-term baseline stability, and larger integral batteries allowing operation for in excess of 3 months without intervention. In this case sensors were sealed with rubber O-rings on the bottom of the enclosure behind a... The use of electrochemical sensors for monitoring urban air quality in low-cost, high-density networks. M. I. Mead1*, O.A.M. Popoola1, G. B. Stewart1, P. Landshoff3, M. Calleja2, M. Hayes2, J. J. Baldovi1, T. F. Hodgson1, M. W. McLeod1, J. Dicks4...

Mead, M I; Popoola, O A M; Stewart, G B; Landshoff, P; Calleja, M; Hayes, M; Baldovi, J J; Hodgson, T F; McLeod, M W; Dicks, J; Lewis, A; Cohen, J; Baron, R; Saffell, J R; Jones, R L

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


A digital miniature x-ray tube with a high-density triode carbon nanotube field emitter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have fabricated a digital miniature x-ray tube (6 mm in diameter and 32 mm in length) with a high-density triode carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitter for special x-ray applications. The triode CNT emitter was densely formed within a diameter of below 4 mm with the focusing-functional gate. The brazing process enables us to obtain and maintain a desired vacuum level for the reliable electron emission from the CNT emitters after the vacuum packaging. The miniature x-ray tube exhibited a stable and reliable operation over 250 h in a pulse mode at an anode voltage of above 25 kV.

Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kang, Jun-Tae; Choi, Sungyoul [Nano Electron-source Creative Research Center, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, 218 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [Nano Electron-source Creative Research Center, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, 218 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Woo; Song, Yoon-Ho [Nano Electron-source Creative Research Center, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, 218 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of) [Nano Electron-source Creative Research Center, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, 218 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); School of Advanced Device Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seungjoon [Nano Electron-source Creative Research Center, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, 218 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of) [Nano Electron-source Creative Research Center, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, 218 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Information Display, Sun Moon University, Kalsan-ri, Tangjeong-myoon, Asan-si, Chungnam 336-708 (Korea, Republic of)



Temperature-responsive surface-functionalized polyethylene films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PE-PEG-Pyrene cooligomers were used to functionalize the surface of polyethylene films via an entrapment process. The resultant films yield a temperature responsive surface-solvent interface when immersed in water. The responsiveness of these films was characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene as the fluorophore. Changes in the emission profile of pyrene (11/13) versus temperature displayed an interface micropolarity which was lower at high temperature and higher at low temperature. This suggests a surface-solvent interface in which the PEG oligomers are solvated and extended at low temperatures and collapsed at high temperatures. Repeated heating and cooling cycles (5'C-4 65'C-4 5'C) upon the same sample produced a semi-reversible behavior.

Ponder, Bill C.



Laser-based diagnostics for density, temperature, velocity, and dissociation fraction in high temperature hydrogen flows  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper is essentially a review of the current state of the art in hydrogen atom and hydrogen molecule diagnostics. This paper contains some of our own results and ideas along with results from many other laboratories. This is not intended to be an exhaustive review; instead it summarizes some techniques which we believe are ideally suited as diagnostics for high temperature hydrogen which are of paramount importance for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). 31 refs., 1 fig.

Sappey, A.D.; Funk, D.J.



LDRD ER Final Report: Recreating Planetary Cores in the Laboratory: New Techniques to Extremely High Density States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An accurate equation of state (EOS) for planetary constituents at extreme conditions is the key to any credible model of planets or low mass stars. However, very few materials have their high pressure (>few Mbar) EOS experimentally validated, and even then, only on the principal Hugoniot. For planetary and stellar interiors, compression occurs from gravitational force so that material states follow a line of isotropic compression (ignoring phase separation) to ultra-high densities. An example of the hydrogen phase space composing Jupiter and one particular Brown Dwarf is shown. At extreme densities, material states are predicted to have quite unearthly properties such as high temperature superconductivity and low temperature fusion. High density experiments on Earth are achieved with either static compression techniques (i.e. diamond anvil cells) or dynamic compression techniques using large laser facilities, gas guns, or explosives. The ultimate goal of this multi-directorate and multi-institutional proposal was to develop techniques that will enable us to understand material states that previously only existed at the core of giant planets, stars, or speculative theories. Our effort was a complete success, meeting all of the objectives set out in our proposals. First we focused on developing accurate Hugoniot techniques to be used for constraining the equation of state at high pressure/temperature. We mapped out an accurate water EOS and measured that the ionic->electronic conduction transition occurs at lower pressures than models predict. These data and their impact are fully described in the first enclosed paper ''The Equation of State and Optical Properties of Water Compressed by Strong Shock Waves.'' Currently models used to construct planetary isentropes are constrained by only the planet radius, outer atmospheric spectroscopy, and space probe gravitational moment and magnetic field data. Thus these data, which provide rigid constraints to these models, will have a significant impact on a broad community of planetary and condensed matter scientists, as well as our fundamental understanding of the giant planets. We then developed and tested precompressed and multiple shock techniques on water. Scientists around the world have teamed with us to conduct these complex and seminal high density experiments which allow access to the extreme core states of giant plants. Double shock experiments using a variety of anvils to compress water to densities higher and temperatures lower than accessible by single shock Hugoniot techniques. First a clear determination of the EOS and optical properties of the anvils needed to be measured. These properties for LiF and A1203 are written up in the second attached article, ''Shock-Induced Transformation of Sapphire and Lithium Fluoride into Semiconducting Liquids.'' An example double shock data record for water is shown. This data is being written up for publication.

Collins, G; Celliers, P; Hicks, D; Cauble, R; Bradley, D; MacKinnon, A; Moon, S; Young, D; Chau, R; Eggert, J; Willi, P; Pasley, J; Jeanloz, R; Lee, K; Bennedetti, R; Koenig, M; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Batani, D; Loubeyre, P; Hubbard, W



High-Intensity and High-Density Charge-Exchange Injection Studies into the CERN PS Booster at Intermediate Energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the high brilliance LHC ultimate beam and the high intensity CNGS beam, single batch injections into the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) will be used to increase the overall machine intensity compared with the present double batch injections. Charge-exchange injection into the PS Booster with a new linac at intermediate energies is thus examined. A key parameter to consider is the energy dependence of beam incoherent tune shifts at injection. Increasing the linac energy from the present 50 MeV to 160 MeV should yield a safer tune shift. For each PS Booster ring, a charge-exchange injection scheme is envisaged inside a proper straight section, redesigned with new bends to make a local bump and using the existing fast bump magnets for horizontal phase-space painting. ACCSIM simulations for charge-exchange injection at 160 MeV have been investigated for both LHC and CNGS beams. After optimizing the parameters that are used for the space charge tracking routines, the results of the simulations agree well with ex...

Martini, M



Deposition of ruthenium nanoparticles on carbon aerogels for high energy density supercapacitor electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The preparation and characterization of high surface area ruthenium/carbon aerogel composite electrodes for use in electrochemical capacitors is reported. These new materials have been prepared by the chemical vapor impregnation of ruthenium into carbon aerogels to produce a uniform distribution of adherent {approx}20 {angstrom} nanoparticles on the aerogel surface. The electrochemically oxidized ruthenium particles contribute a pseudocapacitance to the electrode and dramatically improve the energy storage characteristics of the aerogel. These composites have demonstrated specific capacitances in excess of 200 F/g, in comparison to 95 F/g for the untreated aerogel.

Miller, J.M.; Dunn, B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Tran, T.D.; Pekala, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Labs., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.



Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries: Low-Cost Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries with High Energy Density  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BEEST Project: Pellion Technologies is developing rechargeable magnesium batteries that would enable an EV to travel 3 times farther than it could using Li-ion batteries. Prototype magnesium batteries demonstrate excellent electrochemical behavior; delivering thousands of charge cycles with very little fade. Nevertheless, these prototypes have always stored too little energy to be commercially viable. Pellion Technologies is working to overcome this challenge by rapidly screening potential storage materials using proprietary, high-throughput computer models. To date, 12,000 materials have been identified and analyzed. The resulting best materials have been electrochemically tested, yielding several very promising candidates.




Insight into Clustering in Poly(ethylene oxide) Solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Introduction Poly(ethylene oxide) is one of the most ... other systems such as polyelectrolyte solutions, clay dispersions, living ... J. Colloid Interface Sci. ...



High throughput low power decoder architectures for low density parity check codes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A high throughput scalable decoder architecture, a tiling approach to reduce the complexity of the scalable architecture, and two low power decoding schemes have been proposed in this research. The proposed scalable design is generated from a serial architecture by scaling the combinational logic; memory partitioning and constructing a novel H matrix to make parallelization possible. The scalable architecture achieves a high throughput for higher values of the parallelization factor M. The switch logic used to route the bit nodes to the appropriate checks is an important constituent of the scalable architecture and its complexity is high with higher M. The proposed tiling approach is applied to the scalable architecture to simplify the switch logic and reduce gate complexity. The tiling approach generates patterns that are used to construct the H matrix by repeating a fixed number of those generated patterns. The advantages of the proposed approach are two-fold. First, the information stored about the H matrix is reduced by onethird. Second, the switch logic of the scalable architecture is simplified. The H matrix information is also embedded in the switch and no external memory is needed to store the H matrix. Scalable architecture and tiling approach are proposed at the architectural level of the LDPC decoder. We propose two low power decoding schemes that take advantage of the distribution of errors in the received packets. Both schemes use a hard iteration after a fixed number of soft iterations. The dynamic scheme performs X soft iterations, then a parity checker cHT that computes the number of parity checks in error. Based on cHT value, the decoder decides on performing either soft iterations or a hard iteration. The advantage of the hard iteration is so significant that the second low power scheme performs a fixed number of iterations followed by a hard iteration. To compensate the bit error rate performance, the number of soft iterations in this case is higher than that of those performed before cHT in the first scheme.

Selvarathinam, Anand Manivannan



Advanced Flywheel Composite Rotors: Low-Cost, High-Energy Density Flywheel Storage Grid Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: Boeing is developing a new material for use in the rotor of a low-cost, high-energy flywheel storage technology. Flywheels store energy by increasing the speed of an internal rotor —slowing the rotor releases the energy back to the grid when needed. The faster the rotor spins, the more energy it can store. Boeing’s new material could drastically improve the energy stored in the rotor. The team will work to improve the storage capacity of their flywheels and increase the duration over which they store energy. The ultimate goal of this project is to create a flywheel system that can be scaled up for use by electric utility companies and produce power for a full hour at a cost of $100 per kilowatt hour.




Turbo-alternator-compressor design for supercritical high density working fluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Techniques for generating power are provided. Such techniques involve a thermodynamic system including a housing, a turbine positioned in a turbine cavity of the housing, a compressor positioned in a compressor cavity of the housing, and an alternator positioned in a rotor cavity between the turbine and compressor cavities. The compressor has a high-pressure face facing an inlet of the compressor cavity and a low-pressure face on an opposite side thereof. The alternator has a rotor shaft operatively connected to the turbine and compressor, and is supported in the housing by bearings. Ridges extending from the low-pressure face of the compressor may be provided for balancing thrust across the compressor. Seals may be positioned about the alternator for selectively leaking fluid into the rotor cavity to reduce the temperature therein.

Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.



Patterned functional carbon fibers from polyethylene  

SciTech Connect

Patterned, continuous carbon fibers with controlled surface geometry were produced from a novel melt-processible carbon precursor. This portends the use of a unique technique to produce such technologically innovative fibers in large volume for important applications. The novelties of this technique include ease of designing and fabricating fibers with customized surface contour, the ability to manipulate filament diameter from submicron scale to a couple of orders of magnitude larger scale, and the amenable porosity gradient across the carbon wall by diffusion controlled functionalization of precursor. The geometry of fiber cross-section was tailored by using bicomponent melt-spinning with shaped dies and controlling the melt-processing of the precursor polymer. Circular, trilobal, gear-shaped hollow fibers, and solid star-shaped carbon fibers of 0.5 - 20 um diameters, either in self-assembled bundle form, or non-bonded loose filament form, were produced by carbonizing functionalized-polyethylene fibers. Prior to carbonization, melt-spun fibers were converted to a char-forming mass by optimizing the sulfonation on polyethylene macromolecules. The fibers exhibited distinctly ordered carbon morphologies at the outside skin compared to the inner surface or fiber core. Such order in carbon microstructure can be further tuned by altering processing parameters. Partially sulfonated polyethylene-derived hollow carbon fibers exhibit 2-10 fold surface area (50-500 m2/g) compared to the solid fibers (10-25 m2/g) with pore sizes closer to the inside diameter of the filaments larger than the sizes on the outer layer. These specially functionalized carbon fibers hold promise for extraordinary performance improvements when used, for example, as composite reinforcements, catalyst support media, membranes for gas separation, CO2 sorbents, and active electrodes and current collectors for energy storage applications.

Hunt, Marcus A [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Brown, Rebecca H [ORNL; Kumbhar, Amar S [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL



Dependence of critical current density on microstructure and processing of high-{Tc} superconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microstructural origins for reduced weak-link behavior in high-J{sup c} melt-processed YBCO, spray pyrolyzed thick films of Tl-1223, metallic precursor Y-124 polycrystalline powder-in-tube (PIT)wires and PIT Bi-2212/2223 are discussed. Since the materials studied are the highest J{sub c}, polycrystalline, high-T{sub c} superconductors fabricated worldwide, the results provide important guidelines for further improvements in superconducting properties, thereby enabling practical applications of these materials. It is found that strongly linked current flow within domains of melt-processed 123 occurs effectively through a single crystal path. In c-axis oriented, polycrystalline Tl-1223 thick films, local in-plane texture has been found to play a crucial role in the reduced weak-link behavior. Formation of {open_quotes}colonies{close_quotes} of grains with a common c-axis and modest in-plane misorientation was observed. Furthermore, a colony boundary in general has a varying misorientation along the boundary. Large regions comprised primarily of low angle boundaries were observed. Percolative transport through a network of such small angle boundaries appears to provide the non-weak-linked current path. Although powder-in-tube BSCCO 2212 and 2223 also appear to have a {open_quotes}colony{close_quotes} microstructure, there are some important differences. Colonies in BSCCO consist of stacks of grains with similar c-axis orientation in contrast to colonies in Tl-1223 films where few grains are stacked on top of one another. In the case of Y-124 wires, weak macroscopic in-plane texture is found. Additional measurements are underway to determine if a sharper, local in-plane texture also exists. It is found that in three of the four types of superconductors studied, reduced weak-link behavior can be ascribed to some degree of biaxial alignment between grains, either on a {open_quotes}local{close_quotes} or a {open_quotes}global{close_quotes} scale.

Goyal, A.; Specht, E.D.; Wang, Z.L.; Kroeger, D.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sutliff, J.A.; Tkaczyk, J.E.; Deluca, J.A. [General Electric Corporate R& D, Schenectady, NY (United States); Masur, L.; Riley, G.N. Jr. [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)



Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily ``skimmed`` from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

Not Available




DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Microtomography has successfully been used to characterize loss of structural integrity of wood. Tomographic images were generated with the newly developed third generation x-ray computed microtomography (XCMT) instrument at the X27A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The beamline is equipped with high-flux x-ray monochromator based on multilayer optics developed for this application. The sample is mounted on a translation stage with which to center the sample rotation, a rotation stage to perform the rotation during data collection and a motorized goniometer head for small alignment motions. The absorption image is recorded by a single-crystal scintillator, an optical microscope and a cooled CCD array detector. Data reconstruction has provided three-dimensional geometry of the heterogeneous wood matrix in microtomographic images. Wood is a heterogeneous material composed of long lignocellulose vessels. Although wood is a strong natural product, fungi have evolved chemical systems that weaken the strength properties of wood by degrading structural vessels. Tomographic images with a resolution of three microns were obtained nonintrusively to characterize the compromised structural integrity of wood. Computational tools developed by Lindquist et al (1996) applied to characterize the microstructure of the tomographic volumes.




High density flux of Co nanoparticles produced by a simple gas aggregation apparatus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas aggregation is a well known method used to produce clusters of different materials with good size control, reduced dispersion, and precise stoichiometry. The cost of these systems is relatively high and they are generally dedicated apparatuses. Furthermore, the usual sample production speed of these systems is not as fast as physical vapor deposition devices posing a problem when thick samples are needed. In this paper we describe the development of a multipurpose gas aggregation system constructed as an adaptation to a magnetron sputtering system. The cost of this adaptation is negligible and its installation and operation are both remarkably simple. The gas flow for flux in the range of 60-130 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) is able to completely collimate all the sputtered material, producing spherical nanoparticles. Co nanoparticles were produced and characterized using electron microscopy techniques and Rutherford back-scattering analysis. The size of the particles is around 10 nm with around 75 nm/min of deposition rate at the center of a Gaussian profile nanoparticle beam.

Landi, G. T.; Romero, S. A.; Santos, A. D. [Departamento de Fisica dos Materiais e Mecanica, Laboratorio de Materiais Magneticos, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05314-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)




DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nanosize yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was synthesized by a unique approach based on molecular decomposition. In this approach, yttria-doped BaZrO{sub 3} (Y-BaZrO{sub 3}) or yttria-doped Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} (Y-Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) precursors were first synthesized from BaCO{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Y2O{sub 3} or BaCO{sub 3} and commercial YSZ for Y-BaZrO{sub 3}, and from Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and YSZ for Y-Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, by a conventional solid state reaction method. Then, the precursors were boiled to leach away the unwanted species, BaO or Na{sub 2}O, either in a dilute HNO{sub 3} solution in water in the case of Y-BaZrO{sub 3}, or in de-ionized water in the case of Y-Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. During boiling in HNO{sub 3} or water, the insoluble residue of Zr-Y-O composition formed fine, nanosize YSZ particles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and specific surface area measurements on the as-synthesized powders confirmed the formation of nanosize YSZ. A subsequent heating in air led to particle growth. However, for a treatment at a temperature as high as 1000 C, the particle size was well in the nanosize range. XRD showed that the as-synthesized YSZ powders, as well as those heated up to 1000 C, the maximum temperature the powders were heated to after leaching, are of cubic structure.

Prof. Anil V. Virkar



Collective renovation : case study on the public / private relationship in high-density low-rise residential areas of central Tokyo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis starts with the interest in the undefined open spaces of high-density low-rise (HDLR) residential areas in Tokyo. In these spaces, one can witness numerous examples of overlapping public and private uses. For ...

Mizuguchi, Saki



Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.




The National Ignition Facility Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) currently under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a 192-beam, 1.8-megajoule, 500-terawatt, 351-nm laser for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density experimental studies. NIF is being built by the Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) to provide an experimental test bed for the U.S. Stockpile Stewardship Program to ensure the country's nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear testing. The experimental program will encompass a wide range of physical phenomena from fusion energy production to materials science. Of the roughly 700 shots available per year, about 10% will be dedicated to basic science research. Laser hardware is modularized into line replaceable units (LRUs) such as deformable mirrors, amplifiers, and multi-function sensor packages that are operated by a distributed computer control system of nearly 60,000 control points. The supervisory control roo...

Moses, E I


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Analysis of pulsed high-density HBr and Cl{sub 2} plasmas: Impact of the pulsing parameters on the radical densities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamic of charged particles in pulsed plasma is relatively well known since the 1990s. In contrast, works reporting on the impact of the plasma modulation frequency and duty cycle on the radicals' densities are scarce. In this work, we analyze the impact of these modulation parameters on the radicals' composition in Cl{sub 2} and HBr plasmas. The radicals' densities are measured by broad-band UV and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy and modulated-beam mass spectrometry. We show that pulsing the rf power allows controlling the plasma chemistry and gives access to the plasma conditions that cannot be reached in continuous wave plasmas. In particular, we show that above 500 Hz, the pulsing frequency has no influence on the plasma chemistry, whereas in contrast the duty cycle is an excellent knob to control the fragmentation of the parent gas, thus the chemical reactivity of the discharge. At low duty cycle, a reduced gas fragmentation combined with a large ion flux leads to new etching conditions, compared to cw plasmas and the expected consequences on pulsed-etching processes are discussed.

Bodart, P.; Brihoum, M.; Cunge, G.; Joubert, O.; Sadeghi, N. [Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microelectronique, CNRS-LTM, 17 rue des Martyrs, Grenoble 38054 (France)




SciTech Connect

Test results are presented that show that a strong concrete weighing approximately 185 lb/ft/sup 3/ can be made using water, waste lead slag, and Ciment Fondu. Feasibility, materials, mortar tests, concrete tests, and Ciment Fondu concretes are discussed. A 24-in.-thick concrete shield wall would have to be increased in thickness by 5 in. if slag concrete is used in place of barytes or magnetite concrete. On a pound-for-pound basis, the waste lead slag concrete materials were 30% cheaper than barytes and magnetite concrete materials. (M.C.G.)

Northup, T.E.



ANTHEM simulation of the early time magnetic field penetration of the plasma surrounding a high density Z-pinch  

SciTech Connect

The early time penetration of magnetic field into the low density coronal plasma of a Z-pinch fiber is studied with the implicit plasma simulation code ANTHEM. Calculations show the emission of electrons from the cathode, pinching of the electron flow, magnetic insulation of the electrons near the anode, and low density ion blow off. PIC-particle ion calculations show a late time clumping of the ion density not seen with a fluid ion treatment. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Mason, R.J.



The National Ignition Facility: Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) currently under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a 192-beam, 1.8-megajoule, 500-terawatt, 351-nm laser for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density experimental studies. NIF is being built by the Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) to provide an experimental test bed for the U.S. Stockpile Stewardship Program to ensure the country's nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear testing. The experimental program will encompass a wide range of physical phenomena from fusion energy production to materials science. Of the roughly 700 shots available per year, about 10% will be dedicated to basic science research. Laser hardware is modularized into line replaceable units (LRUs) such as deformable mirrors, amplifiers, and multi-function sensor packages that are operated by a distributed computer control system of nearly 60,000 control points. The supervisory control room presents facility-wide status and orchestrates experiments using operating parameters predicted by physics models. A network of several hundred front-end processors (FEPs) implements device control. The object-oriented software system is implemented in the Ada and Java languages and emphasizes CORBA distribution of reusable software objects. NIF is currently scheduled to provide first light in 2004 and will be completed in 2008.

E. I. Moses



High-density PhyloChip profiling of stimulated aquifer microbial communities reveals a complex response to acetate amendment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is increasing interest in harnessing the functional diversity of indigenous microbial communities to transform and remediate a wide range of environmental contaminants. Understanding the response of communities to stimulation, including flanking taxa, presents important opportunities for optimizing remediation approaches. We used high-density PhyloChip microarray analysis to comprehensively determine community membership and abundance patterns amongst a suite of samples from U(VI) bioremediation experiments. Samples were unstimulated or collected during Fe(III) and sulfate reduction from an acetate-augmented aquifer in Rifle, Colorado, and from laboratory experiments using field-collected materials. Results showed the greatest diversity in abundant SRB lineages was present in naturally-reduced sediment. Desulfuromonadales and Desulfobacterales were consistently identified as the dominant Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (IRB and SRB) throughout acetate amendment experiments. Stimulated communities also exhibited a high degree of functional redundancy amongst enriched flanking members. Not surprisingly, competition for both sulfate and iron was evident amongst abundant taxa, but the distribution and abundance of these ancillary SRB (Peptococcaceae, Desulfovibrionales and Syntrophobacterales), and lineages containing IRB (excluding Desulfobacteraceae) was heterogeneous amongst sample types. Interesting, amongst the most abundant taxa, particularly during sulfate reduction, were Epsilonproteobacteria that perform microaerobic or nitrate-dependant sulfur oxidation, and a number of bacteria other than Geobacteraceae that may enzymatically reduce U(VI). Finally, in depth community probing with PhyloChip determined the efficacy of experimental approaches, notably revealing striking similarity amongst stimulated sediment (from drill cores and in-situ columns) and groundwater communities, and demonstrating that sediment-packed in-situ (down-well) columns served as an ideal method for subsurface biostimulation.

Handley, Kim M.; Wrighton, Kelly E.; Piceno, Y. M.; Anderson, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wilkins, Michael J.; N'Guessan, A. L.; Peacock, Aaron; Bargar, John R.; Long, Philip E.; Banfield, Jillian F.



Quantitative discrimination between geological materials with variable density contrast by high resolution X-ray computed tomography: An example using amygdule size-distribution in ancient lava flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bubble-size distribution in 2.7 billion year old lava flows can be used as a proof of concept illustrating a new set of techniques for measuring volumes of geological materials with variable density contrasts using high-resolution X-ray computed ... Keywords: Amygdules, Bootstrap resampling, Bubble-size distribution, Central limit theorem, Dynamic thresholding, X-ray tomography

Sanjoy M. Som, James W. Hagadorn, Weston A. Thelen, Alan R. Gillespie, David C. Catling, Roger Buick



AlGaN UV LED and Photodiodes Radiation Hardness and Space Qualifications and Their Applications in Space Science and High Energy Density Physics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This presentation provides an overview of robust, radiation hard AlGaN optoelectronic devices and their applications in space exploration & high energy density physics. Particularly, deep UV LED and deep UV photodiodes are discussed with regard to their applications, radiation hardness and space qualification. AC charge management of UV LED satellite payload instruments, which were to be launched in late 2012, is covered.

Sun, K. X.



Identification of Catalysts and Materials for a High-Energy Density Biochemical Fuel Cell: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-345  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The proposed research attempted to identify novel biochemical catalysts, catalyst support materials, high-efficiency electron transfer agents between catalyst active sites and electrodes, and solid-phase electrolytes in order to maximize the current density of biochemical fuel cells that utilize various alcohols as substrates.

Ghirardi, M.; Svedruzic, D.



Study of the influence of a strong magnetic field on the composition of nuclear matter at high densities and zero temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Magnetars are neutron stars with a strong surface magnetic field. Observations of soft gamma-ray and anomalous X-ray pulsars pointed out that the surface magnetic field of magnetars is equal or even greater than 10{sup 15} G. In this work we study the influence of a strong magnetic field on the composition of nuclear matter at high densities and zero temperature. We describe the matter through a relativistic mean-field model with eight light baryons (baryon octet), electrons, muons and with magnetic field. As output of the numerical calculations, we obtain the relative population of each species of particles as function of baryon density.

Coelho, Eduardo L.; Chiapparini, Marcelo [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 20559-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bracco, Mirian E. [Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 27537-000, Resende, RJ (Brazil)



Feasibility of High-Density Climate Reconstruction Based on Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Collected Tree-Ring Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study introduces a novel tree-ring dataset, with unparalleled spatial density, for use as a climate proxy. Ancillary Douglas fir and piñon pine tree-ring data collected by the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA ...

R. Justin DeRose; Shih-Yu Wang; John D. Shaw



Morphological, rheological and electrochemical studies of Poly(ethylene  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Morphological, rheological and electrochemical studies of Poly(ethylene Morphological, rheological and electrochemical studies of Poly(ethylene oxide) electrolytes containing fumed silica nanoparticles Title Morphological, rheological and electrochemical studies of Poly(ethylene oxide) electrolytes containing fumed silica nanoparticles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2004 Authors Xie, Jiangbing, Robert G. Duan, Yong Bong Han, and John B. Kerr Journal Solid State Ionics Volume 175 Pagination 755-758 Keywords composite polymer electrolytes, nanoparticles, poly(ethylene oxide), rheology Abstract In this paper, the rheology and crystallization of composite Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) electrolytes were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis, DSC and polarized light microscopy. The effects of fumed silica nanoparticles on the conductivities of the polymer electrolytes at temperatures above and below their melting points were measured and related to their rheology and crystallization behavior, respectively. The electrolyte/electrode interfacial properties and cycling performances of the composite polymer electrolytes in Li/Li cells are also discussed. The measured electrochemical properties were found to depend heavily on the operational environments and sample processing history.


Graphene Reinforced Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

UHMWPE is the clinically used acetabular cup liner material for last few ... Effect of P2O5 on sintering behavior of Na2O-CaO–Al2O3-SiO2 glass ceramic system.


Hybrid Polyethylene Glycol Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Currently, organ transplant procedures are insufficient to address the needs of the number of patients that suffer of organ failure related disease. In the United States alone, only around 19% of the patients are able to get an organ transplant surgery and 25% die while waiting for a suitable donor. Tissue engineering (TE) has emerged as an alternative to organ transplant; thus, the aim of the present study was to validate a poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogel system as a model for material scaffolding in TE applications. This work explores the influence of scaffold material properties on cell behavior. Specifically, scaffold modulus, mesh size, and biochemical stimuli were characterized and their influence on cell response was analyzed at the biochemical, histological and microenvironmental levels. Three different TE targets were evaluated: vocal fold restoration, vascular grafts and osteochondral applications. Vocal fold fibroblast (VFF) phenotype and extracellular matrix (ECM) production were impacted by initial scaffold mesh size and modulus. The results showed increasing levels of SM-?-actin and collagen production with decreasing initial mesh size/increasing initial modulus, which indicated that VFFs were induced to take an undesirable myofibroblast-like phenotype. In addition, it was possible to preserve VFF phenotype in long-term cultured hydrogels containing high molecular weight hyaluronan (HAHMW). On the other hand, regarding vascular graft applications, smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype was enhanced by increasing scaffold mesh size and modulus. Finally, the effect of scaffold inorganic content (siloxane) on rat osteoblasts and mouse mesenchymal stem cells was evaluated. Interestingly, the impact of inorganic content on cell differentiation seemed to be highly dependent on the initial cell state. Specifically, mature osteoblasts underwent transdifferentiation into chondrocyte-like cells with increasing inorganic content. However, Mesenchymal stem cells appeared to be preferentially driven toward osteoblast-like cells with an associated increase in osteocalcin and collagen type I production.

Munoz Pinto, Dany 1981-



SiO2 - polyethylene reflected critical assembly  

SciTech Connect

The Planet universal critical assembly machine was used to perform a series of three critical experiments. This experiment used HEU foils reflected by polyethylene and interleaved with plates of SiO{sub 2} glass and polyethylene. Only the experiment performed using the SiO{sub 2} matrix material is evaluated in this report. The assembly was delayed critical with 33 HEU foils or 17 units (sets of HEU foils). The critical assembly has an intermediate neutron spectrum, with 51.2% of the fissions occurring between 0.625 eV and 100 keV. The calculational results show good agreement with the experimental results.

Brewer, R. W. (Roger W.); Sanchez, R. G. (Rene G.)



Photoelectrochemical investigation of a poly(ethylene oxide) cell  

SciTech Connect

The photoelectrochemical properties of cells based on the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) poly(ethylene oxide)/NaSCN with Na2S/S as a redox species are investigated experimentally. The preparation of the SPE is described in detail. Current/voltage curves or voltage/time are shown for cells using p-InP/SPE/conducting-glass, n-GaAs/SPE/conducting-glass, and p-InP/SPE/n-CdS structures. It is concluded that practical cells based on SPE of this type will require increases in the ionic conductivity of poly(ethylene oxide). 13 references.

Sammells, A.F.; Ang, G.P.



Polyethylene composites containing a phase change material having a C14 straight chain hydrocarbon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyethylene matrix having a straight chain alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein, said polyethylene being crosslinked to such a degree that said polyethylene matrix is form stable and said polyethylene matrix is capable of absorbing at least 10% by weight of said straight chain alkyl hydrocarbon; the composite is useful in forming pellets or sheets having thermal energy storage characteristics.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)



Utilizing upper hybrid resonance for high density plasma production and negative ion generation in a downstream region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Localized wave-induced resonances are created by microwaves launched directly into a multicusp (MC) plasma device in the k Up-Tack B mode, where k is the wave vector and B is the static magnetic field. The resonance zone is identified as upper hybrid resonance (UHR), and lies r = {approx}22 mm away from the MC boundary. Measurement of radial wave electric field intensity confirms the right hand cutoff of the wave (r = 22.5-32.1 mm) located near the UHR zone. A sharp rise in the corresponding electron temperature in the resonance region by {approx}13 eV from its value away from resonance at r = 0, is favorable for the generation of vibrationally excited molecules of hydrogen. A transverse magnetic filter allows cold electrons ({approx}1-2 eV) to pass into the downstream region where they generate negative ions by dissociative attachment. Measurements of electron energy distribution function (EEDF) support the viewpoint. H{sup -} current density of {approx}0.26 mA/cm{sup 2} is obtained at a wave power density of {approx}3 W/cm{sup 2} at 2.0 mTorr pressure, which agrees reasonably well with results obtained from a steady state model using particle balance equations.

Sahu, Debaprasad; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)



Helium under high pressure: A comparative study of all-electron and pseudopotential methods within density functional theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have calculated the ground state electronic structure of He under pressure from 0 to 1500 GPa using both all-electron full-potential and pseudopotential methods based on the density functional theory (DFT). We find that throughout this pressure range, pseudopotentials yield essentially the same energy-volume curve for all of bcc, fcc, and hcp configurations as does the full-potential method, a strong indication that pseudopotential approximation works well for He both as the common element in some giant planets and as detrimental impurities in fusion reactor materials. The hcp lattice is always the most stable structure and bcc the least stable one. Since the energy preference of hcp over fcc and bcc is within 0.01 eV below 100 GPa and about 0.1 eV at 1500 GPa, on the same order of the error bar in local or semi-local density approximations in DFT, phase transitions can only be discussed with more precise description of electron correlation in Quantum Monte Carlo or DFT-based GW methods.

Xiao, W; Geng, W T



Per-plant eco-physiological responses of maize to varied nitrogen availability at low and high plant densities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and low nitrogen availability. Agron. J. 2009; forthcoming.the impacts of nitrogen (N) availability on intra-specificgenotypes to varied N availability at both low and high

Boomsma, Christopher R; Vyn, Tony J



Interaction between a high density-low temperature plasma and a frozen hydrogen pellet in a railgun injector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A model has been developed which describes the ablation process of frozen hydrogen pellets in an electromagnetic railgun. The model incorporates the neutral gas shielding model in which the pellet surface is heated by incident electrons from the plasma arc. The heated surface then ablates, forming a neutral cloud which attenuates the incoming electrons. The energy lost in the cloud by the electrons heats the ablatant material as it flows into the plasma arc. Under steady-state conditions, a scaling law for the ablation rate was derived as a function of plasma-arc temperature and density. In addition, flow conditions and the criteria for the existence of a steady-state solution were formulated and subsequently examined under simplifying assumptions. Comparison with experimentally observed ablation rates shows good qualitative agreement.

Grapperhaus, M.J. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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The tensor part of the Skyrme energy density functional. III. Time-odd terms at high spin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article extends previous studies on the effect of tensor terms in the Skyrme energy density functional by breaking of time-reversal invariance. We have systematically probed the impact of tensor terms on properties of superdeformed rotational bands calculated within the cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach for different parameterizations covering a wide range of values for the isoscalar and isovector tensor coupling constants. We analyze in detail the contribution of the tensor terms to the energies and dynamical moments of inertia and study their impact on quasi-particle spectra. Special attention is devoted to the time-odd tensor terms, the effect of variations of their coupling constants and finite-size instabilities.

V. Hellemans; P. -H. Heenen; M. Bender



Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) by Ralstonia eutropha in high cell density palm oil fermentations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improved production costs will accelerate commercialization of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymer and PHA-based products. Plant oils are considered favorable feedstocks, due to their high carbon content and relatively low ...

Yusof, Zainal Abidin Mohd


Establishment of very uniform gas-flow pattern in the process chamber for microwave-excited high-density plasma by ceramic shower plate  

SciTech Connect

The authors developed a ceramic upper shower plate used in the microwave-excited high-density plasma process equipment incorporating a dual shower-plate structure to establish a very uniform gas-flow pattern in the process chamber. Thousands of very fine gas-injection holes are implemented on this Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} upper shower plate with optimized allocation to establish a uniform gas-flow pattern of plasma-excitation gases and radical-generation gases for generating intended radicals in the plasma-excitation region. The size of these fine holes must be 50 {mu}m or less in diameter and 8 mm or more in length because these holes perform an essential role: They completely avoid the plasma excitation in these fine holes and upper gas-supply regions resulting from the plasma penetration into these regions from excited high-density plasma, even if very high-density plasma greater than 1x10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} is excited just under the ceramic upper shower plate by microwaves supplied from the radial line slot antenna. On the other hand, various process gases, such as material gases for film formations and etching gases, are supplied from the lower shower plate installed in the diffusion plasma region to this very uniform gas-flow pattern region of plasma-excitation gases and radical-generation gases. As a result, the process gases are supplied to the wafer surface in a very effective manner without excess decomposition of those process gas molecules and undesired reaction-product deposition on the inner surface of the process chamber. The process results are improved drastically by introducing the newly developed ceramic upper shower plate. But also, process uniformity on the entire wafer is improved with drastically reducing reaction-product deposition on the inner surface of the process chamber.

Goto, Tetsuya; Inokuchi, Atsutoshi; Ishibashi, Kiyotaka; Yasuda, Seij; Nakanishi, Toshio; Kohno, Masayuki; Okesaku, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masaru; Nozawa, Toshihisa; Hirayama, Masaki; Ohmi, Tadahiro [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Tokyo Electron Ltd., Tokyo 107-6325 (Japan); Tokyo Electron Technology Development Institute, Inc., Hyogo 660-0891 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Tokyo Electron AT Ltd., Hyogo 660-0891 (Japan); Hokuriku Seikei Industrial, Co., Ltd., Ishikawa 923-0157 (Japan); Tokyo Electron Technology Development Institute, Inc., Hyogo 660-0891 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)



Density Coordinate Mixed Layer Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of mixed layer models in so-called density coordinates is discussed. Density coordinates, or isopycnal coordinates as they are sometimes called, are becoming increasingly popular for use in ocean models due to their highly ...

William K. Dewar



High Density n-Si/n-TiO2 Core/Shell Nanowire Arrays with Enhanced Photoactivity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are currently great needs to develop low-cost inorganic materials that can efficiently perform solar water splitting as photoelectrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen has significant potential to provide clean energy. We investigate the Si/TiO2 nanowire heterostructures to determine their potential for the photooxidation of water. We observed that highly dense Si/TiO2 core/shell nanowire arrays enhanced the photocurrent by 2.5 times compared to planar Si/TiO2 structure due to their low reflectance and high surface area. We also showed that n-Si/n-TiO2 nanowire arrays exhibited a larger photocurrent and open circuit voltage than p-Si/n-TiO2 nanowires due to a barrier at the heterojunction.

Hwang, Yun Jeong; Boukai, Akram; Yang, Peidong



Final Technical Report, DOE Grant DE-FG02-98ER54496, Physics of High-Energy-Density X Pinch Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Abstract for the Final Technical Report, DOE Grant DE-FG02-98ER54496 An X-pinch plasma is produced by driving a high current (100-500 kiloamperes) through two or more fine wires that cross and touch at a point, forming an X in the case of two wires. The wires explode because of the high current, and then the resulting plasma is imploded radially inward by the magnetic field from the current. When the imploding material briefly stagnates at very small radius and high density, an intense burst of x-rays is produced and the plasma disassembles as rapidly as it imploded. When this project began, we could confidently state that at its minimum radius, X pinch plasmas made from such materials as titanium and molybdenum might be as hot as 10,000,000 K and had densities almost as high as the solid wire density, but their X-ray pulse durations were below one billionth of a second. We could also say that the X pinch was useful for point-projection imaging of rapidly changing objects, such as exploding wires, with high resolution, indicative of a very small X-ray source spot size. We can now confidently say that X-pinch plasma temperatures at the moment of the X-ray burst are 10-25 million K in titanium, molybdenum and several other wire X-pinches based upon the spectrum of emitted X-rays in the radiation burst. By the same means, as well as from the penetration of X-rays through the dense plasma, we know that ion densities are close to or higher than one-tenth of the density of the original (solid) wire material in molybdenum and a few other X-pinch plasmas. Furthermore, using the diffraction of X-rays radiated by the X-pinch when it reaches minimum radius, we have determined that the x-ray source size is about 1 thousandth of a millimeter for such wire materials as molybdenum and niobium, while it is 2-10 times larger for tungsten, titanium and aluminum wires. Finally, using a very high speed X-ray imaging “streak camera,” we have determined that X pinch X-ray pulses can be as short as 30 trillionths of a second. Additional experiments have demonstrated that a spherical shell of plasma expands away from the cross point region after the x-ray burst. It reaches millimeter scale in a few billionths of a second, leaving a small (less than 0.1 millimeter) gap in the middle that enables energetic electrons to be accelerated to 10 or a few 10’s of kilovolts of energy. In addition to gaining an understanding of the physics of the X pinch plasmas, we have had to develop several new X-ray diagnostic devices in order to obtain and verify the above results. On the non-technical side, 4 students have completed Ph.D.s working under the auspices of this project, including one woman, and another woman has begun her Ph.D. research under this project. In addition, several undergraduate students have worked with us on the X-pinch experiments, including one who is now a graduate student in plasma physics at Princeton University.

David Hammer



Scattering and electron mobility in combination-doped HFET-structures AlGaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs with high electron density  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Molecular-beam epitaxy is used for growing structures differing in doping technique and doping level and having a high two-dimensional-electron concentration n{sub s} in the quantum well. The effect of doping combining uniform and {delta} doping on the electron-transport properties of heterostructures is investigated. A new type of structure with a two-sided silicon {delta} doping of GaAs transition layers located on the quantum-well boundaries is proposed. The largest value of electron mobility {mu}{sub H} = 1520 cm{sup 2}/(V s) is obtained simultaneously with a high electron density n{sub s} = 1.37 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} at 300 K with such a doping. It is associated with decreasing electron scattering by an ionized impurity, which is confirmed by the carried out calculations.

Khabibullin, R. A., E-mail: khabibullin_r@mail.ru; Vasil'evskii, I. S. [MEPHI National Research Nuclear University (Russian Federation); Galiev, G. B.; Klimov, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultrahigh-Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Ponomarev, D. S. [MEPHI National Research Nuclear University (Russian Federation); Lunin, R. A.; Kulbachinskii, V. A. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)



FY96-98 Summary Report Mercury: Next Generation Laser for High Energy Density Physics SI-014  

SciTech Connect

The scope of the Mercury Laser project encompasses the research, development, and engineering required to build a new generation of diode-pumped solid-state lasers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The Mercury Laser will be the first integrated demonstration of laser diodes, crystals, and gas cooling within a scalable laser architecture. This report is intended to summarize the progress accomplished during the first three years of the project. Due to the technological challenges associated with production of 900 nm diode-bars, heatsinks, and high optical-quality Yb:S-FAP crystals, the initial focus of the project was primarily centered on the R&D in these three areas. During the third year of the project, the R&D continued in parallel with the development of computer codes, partial activation of the laser, component testing, and code validation where appropriate.

Bayramian, A.; Beach, R.; Bibeau, C.; Chanteloup, J.-C.; Ebbers, C.; Emanuel, M.; Freitas, B.; Fulkerson, S.; Kanz, K.; Hinz, A.; Marshall, C.; Mills, S.; Nakano, H.; Orth, C.; Rothenberg, J.; Schaffers, K.; Seppala, L.; Skidmore, J.; Smith, L.; Sutton, S.; Telford, S.; Zapata, L.



FY96-98 Summary Report Mercury: Next Generation Laser for High Energy Density Physics SI-014  

SciTech Connect

The scope of the Mercury Laser project encompasses the research, development, and engineering required to build a new generation of diode-pumped solid-state lasers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The Mercury Laser will be the first integrated demonstration of laser diodes, crystals, and gas cooling within a scalable laser architecture. This report is intended to summarize the progress accomplished during the first three years of the project. Due to the technological challenges associated with production of 900 nm diode-bars, heatsinks, and high optical-quality Yb:S-FAP crystals, the initial focus of the project was primarily centered on the R&D in these three areas. During the third year of the project, the R&D continued in parallel with the development of computer codes, partial activation of the laser, component testing, and code validation where appropriate.

Bayramian, A; Beach, R; Bibeau, C; Chanteloup, J; Ebbers, C; Emanuel, M; Freitas, B; Fulkerson, S; Kanz, K; Hinz, A; Marshall, C; Mills, S; Nakano, H; Orth, C; Rothenberg, J; Schaffers, K; Seppala, L; Skidmore, I; Smith, L; Sutton, S; Telford, S; Zapata, L



The evaluation of a coal-derived liquid as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conversion of coal-derived liquids to transportation fuels has been the subject of many studies sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the US Department of Defense. For the most part, these studies evaluated conventional petroleum processes for the production of specification-grade fuels. Recently, however, the interest of these two departments expanded to include the evaluation of alternate fossil fuels as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel. In this study, we evaluated five processes for their ability to produce intermediates from a coal-derived liquid for the production of high-density turbine fuel. These processes include acid-base extraction to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate and the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, solvent dewaxing to reduce the paraffin (alkane) content of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, Attapulgus clay treatment to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate, coking to reduce the distillate range of the vacuum gas oil, and hydrogenation to remove heteroatoms and to saturate aromatic rings in the middle distillate and atmospheric gas oil. The chemical and physical properties that the US Air Force considers critical for the development of high-denisty aviation turbine fuel are specific gravity and net heat of combustion. The target minimum values for these properties are a specific gravity of at least 0.85 and a net heat of combustion of at least 130,000 Btu/gal. In addition, the minimum hydrogen content is 13.0 wt %, the maximum freeze point is {minus}53{degrees}F ({minus}47{degrees}C), the maximum amount of aromatics is about 25 to 30 vol %, and the maximum amount of paraffins is 10 vol %. 13 refs., 20 tabs.

Thomas, K.P.; Hunter, D.E.



On the Accuracy of van der Waals Inclusive Density-Functional Theory Exchange-Correlation Functionals for Ice at Ambient and High Pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density-functional theory (DFT) has been widely used to study water and ice for at least 20 years. However, the reliability of different DFT exchange-correlation (xc) functionals for water remains a matter of considerable debate. This is particularly true in light of the recent development of DFT based methods that account for van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces. Here, we report a detailed study with several xc functionals (semi-local, hybrid, and vdW inclusive approaches) on ice Ih and six proton ordered phases of ice. Consistent with our previous study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 185701 (2011)] which showed that vdW forces become increasingly important at high pressures, we find here that all vdW inclusive methods considered improve the relative energies and transition pressures of the high-pressure ice phases compared to those obtained with semi-local or hybrid xc functionals. However, we also find that significant discrepancies between experiment and the vdW inclusive approaches remain in the cohesive properties of the various phases, causing certain phases to be absent from the phase diagram. Therefore, room for improvement in the description of water at ambient and high pressures remains and we suggest that because of the stern test the high pressure ice phases pose they should be used in future benchmark studies of simulation methods for water.

Biswajit Santra; Ji?í Klimeš; Alexandre Tkatchenko; Dario Alfè; Ben Slater; Angelos Michaelides; Roberto Car; Matthias Scheffler




DOE Patents (OSTI)

ABS>A nuclear fuel consisting essentially of uranium monocarbide and containing 2.2 to 4.6 wt% carbon, 0.1 to 2.3 wt% oxygen, 0.05 to 2.5 wt% nitrogen, and the balance uranium was developed. The maximum oxygen content was less than one-half the carbon content by weight and the carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are present as a single phase substituted solid solution of UC, C, O, and N. A method of preparing the fuel composition is described. (AEC)

Litton, F.B.



Efficient high density train operations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference. During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

Gordon, Susanna P. (Oakland, CA); Evans, John A. (Hayward, CA)



High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

faciliBes 1st users of MECI in FY13 Recognize common interests NNSA/FES Compliment NNSA investments Stability ­ investments in HEDLP: people, departments


On the Accuracy of van der Waals Inclusive Density-Functional Theory Exchange-Correlation Functionals for Ice at Ambient and High Pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density-functional theory (DFT) has been widely used to study water and ice for at least 20 years. However, the reliability of different DFT exchange-correlation (xc) functionals for water remains a matter of considerable debate. This is particularly true in light of the recent development of DFT based methods that account for van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces. Here, we report a detailed study with several xc functionals (semi-local, hybrid, and vdW inclusive approaches) on ice Ih and six proton ordered phases of ice. Consistent with our previous study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 185701 (2011)] which showed that vdW forces become increasingly important at high pressures, we find here that all vdW inclusive methods considered improve the relative energies and transition pressures of the high-pressure ice phases compared to those obtained with semi-local or hybrid xc functionals. However, we also find that significant discrepancies between experiment and the vdW inclusive approaches remain in the cohesive proper...

Santra, Biswajit; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Alfè, Dario; Slater, Ben; Michaelides, Angelos; Car, Roberto; Scheffler, Matthias



Degradation of degradable starch-polyethylene plastics in a compost environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Degradable plastics have differing degradation rates. Three types of degradation of polyethylene in the starch-polyethylene polymers can occur: chemical degradation, photodegradation, and biological degradation. This study examines all three types of degradation in 11 commercially produced degradable starch-polyethylene bags. Different rates for chemical and photo-degradation were found within a 20 day or an 8-week period. Results indicated that both the 70[degree]C oven and HT-HH film treatments were appropriate methods to evaluate oxidative degradation. In a compost environment, oxygen tension on the surface of the film appears to be the rate-limiting component for both chemical and biological degradation. Levels of starch in all bags was similar, so the prooxidant additive was critical in promoting the oxidative degradation of polyethylene. The Fe-Mn additive displayed the best catalytic activity. This study overall confirms degradation of starch-polyethylene plastics in a natural environment. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Johnson, K.E.; Pometto, A.L. III; Nikolov, Z.L. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))



One-Particle Spectral Function and Local Density of States in a Phenomenological Mixed-Phase Model for High-Temperature Superconductors  

SciTech Connect

The dynamical properties of a recently introduced phenomenological model for high-temperature superconductors are investigated. In the clean limit, it was observed that none of the homogeneous or striped states that are induced by the model at low temperatures can reproduce the recent angle-resolved photoemission results for La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} [Yoshida et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 027001 (2003)], which show a signal with two branches in the underdoped regime. On the other hand, upon including quenched disorder in the model and breaking the homogeneous state into 'patches' that are locally either superconducting or antiferromagnetic, the two-branch spectra can be reproduced. In this picture, the nodal regions are caused by d-wave superconducting clusters. Studying the density of states (DOS), a pseudogap is observed, caused by the mixture of the gapped antiferromagnetic state and a d-wave superconductor. The local DOS can be interpreted using a mixed-phase picture, similar to what is observed in tunneling experiments. It is concluded that a simple phenomenological model for cuprates can capture several of the one-particle features observed in the underdoped regime of these materials.

Mayr, Matthias [Max-Planck-Institut fur Feskorperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany; Alvarez, Gonzalo [ORNL; Moreo, Adriana [ORNL; Dagotto, Elbio R [ORNL



Computer-optimized design of polyethylene-moderated {sup 3}He counters for fast neutrons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because polyethylene-moderated {sup 3}He counters are rugged and reliable, they are generally the instruments of choice for field detection of fast neutrons in gamma-ray backgrounds. Their main drawback is the bulky, massive moderator needed to reduce the incident neutron energies to the sensitive range of the {sup 3}He+n capture reaction. This report discusses an optimization approach that provides a detector with uniform angular response and the maximum detection efficiency per unit mass. The key assumption is that each parameter has a geometrical interpretation and its effect on the response can be evaluated independently from that of the others. Specifically, the detection efficiency can be written as a product of separate functions for the moderator mass, gas pressure, tube position, etc., and the uniformity of the angular response is determined by the symmetry of the moderator dimensions. This analytical model was tested by compiling a comprehensive database of detector efficiencies as functions of the different parameters, including one- versus two-tube detectors, moderator masses from 1 to 6 kg, gas pressures from 1 to 20 atm, etc. In general, the model reproduced both the magnitude and angular dependence of the efficiency to within about 10%. To a high degree, the most important parameters are polyethylene mass and the quantity of {sup 3}He gas; because of neutron diffusion out of the moderator, the optimum tube positions are near the center of the detector. The highest value of the efficiency per unit mass occurs near 3 kg, a result that requires the most compact detectors to use more than a single {sup 3}He tube. In this case, the optimum detector has two tubes and a total mass of 3.0 kg. Although they could use 4-atm tubes with 2.54-cm diameters, increasing the gas volume could easily provide a 20% increase in efficiency with no changes in other parameters.

R. C. Byrd



High-energy-density batteries. January 1975-November 1989 (Citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Report for January 1975-November 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning high-energy-density electric batteries. Battery-electrolyte materials such as sodium-sulfur, lithium-aluminum, nickel-cadmium, lithium-thionyl, lithium-lead, sodium-sodiumpolysulfide, nickel-iron, nickel-zinc, and alkali-sulfur are examined. Test methods for these high-energy batteries are discussed. Molten salt electrochemical studies for high-energy cells are included. Military applications are also presented. (Contains 99 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available



Microscopic Description of Entanglements in Polyethylene Networks and Melts: Strong, Weak, Pairwise, and Collective Attributes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of two Polyethylene systems where all entanglements are trapped: a perfect network, and a melt with grafted chain ends. We examine microscopically at what level topological constraints can be considered as a collective entanglement effect, as in tube model theories, or as certain pairwise uncrossability interactions, as in slip-link models. A pairwise parameter, which varies between these limiting cases, shows that, for the systems studied, the character of the entanglement environment is more pairwise than collective. We employ a novel methodology, which analyzes entanglement constraints into a complete set of pairwise interactions, similar to slip links. Entanglement confinement is assembled by a plethora of links, with a spectrum of confinement strengths, from strong to weak. The strength of interactions is quantified through a link `persistence', which is the fraction of time for which the links are active. By weighting links according to their strength, we show that confinement is imposed mainly by the strong ones, and that the weak, trapped, uncrossability interactions cannot contribute to the low frequency modulus of an elastomer, or the plateau modulus of a melt. A self-consistent scheme for mapping topological constraints to specific, strong binary links, according to a given entanglement density, is proposed and validated. Our results demonstrate that slip links can be viewed as the strongest pairwise interactions of a collective entanglement environment. The methodology developed provides a basis for bridging the gap between atomistic simulations and mesoscopic slip link models.

Stefanos D. Anogiannakis; Christos Tzoumanekas; Doros N. Theodorou


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The characterisation of two different degradable polyethylene (PE) sacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The compostability of two different polyethylene (PE) products on the UK market under open-windrow composting conditions is explored within this paper. Chemical analysis of the PE bags has established their constituents in order to examine how the PE bags have an increased degradability depending on additives. Weight loss of the two different PE products within open-windrow composting conditions was recorded in order to establish the percentage weight loss as an indication of the degradability of the two products and their relative suitability for open-windrow composting. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the PE products over the composting duration established the degradation processes for the PE products within the compost. These analyses concluded that one of the PE product mixes was more degradable than the other. However, neither product completed degraded within the timeframe of 12-14 weeks generally accepted for open-windrow composting in the UK.

Davis, G. [Engineering Management Group, University of Bristol (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gudavis@cytanet.com.cy



Direct probing of electronic density distribution of a Rydberg state by high-order harmonic generation in a few-cycle laser pulse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate that the electronic density distribution of a Rydberg state can be probed directly using a broadband harmonic spectrum in a few-cycle laser pulse. Taking advantage of the large orbital radius of a Rydberg state, we show that the Rydberg electron can be accelerated directly toward the core under the influence of a few-cycle laser pulse, leading to recombination and emission of harmonic photons. In this case the initial position of the electron and the harmonic order form a one-to-one correspondence, resulting in a realization of direct probing of the density distribution of the initial Rydberg state.

Zhai Zhen; Fu Panming; Wang Bingbing [Laboratory of Optical Physics, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Chen Jing [Center for Nonlinear Studies, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Yan Zongchao [Department of Physics, University of New Brunswick, P.O. Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5A3 (Canada)



Mesophases in polyethylene, polypropylene, and poly(1-butene)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper contains new views about the amorphous and partially ordered phases of the three polymers listed in the title. The discussion is based on information on structure, thermodynamic stability, and large-amplitude molecular motion. Polyethylene is the basic backbone of all alkene polymers, and the other two are the first members of the vinyl polymers which have stereospecifically placed alkyl side chains. Their multiphase structures consist of metastable crystals, mesophases, and surrounding rigid and mobile amorphous fractions. All these phases have sizes ranging from micrometer dimensions down to nanometers. Besides the phase structures, information about the molecular coupling between the phases must be considered. Depending on temperature, the polymer phases can vary from solid (rigid) to liquid (mobile). New knowledge is also gained by cross-comparison of the title polymers. The experimental information was gained from (a) various forms of slow, fast, and temperature-modulated thermal analysis to identify equilibrium and non-equilibrium states, (b) measurement of structure and morphology at various length scales, and (c) tracing of the large-amplitude molecular motion, the kinetics of order/disorder changes, and the liquid/solid transitions (glass transitions). It is shown that much more needs to be known about the various phases and their coupling to characterize a given polymer and to fine-tune its properties for a given application.

Androsch, Rene J [ORNL; Di Lorenzo, Maria [ORNL; Schick, Christoph [Rostock University, Rostock, Germany; Wunderlich, Bernhard {nmn} [ORNL



Analysis of the causes of the decrease in the electroluminescence efficiency of AlGaInN light-emitting-diode heterostructures at high pumping density  

SciTech Connect

The study is devoted to theoretical explanation of a decrease in the electroluminescence efficiency as the pump current increases, which is characteristic of light-emitting-diode (LED) heterostructures based on AlInGaN. Numerical simulation shows that the increase in the external quantum efficiency at low current densities J {approx} 1 A/cm{sup 2} is caused by the competition between radiative and nonradiative recombination. The decrease in the quantum efficiency at current densities J > 1 A/cm{sup 2} is caused by a decrease in the efficiency of hole injection into the active region. It is shown that the depth of the acceptor energy level in the AlGaN emitter, as well as low electron and hole mobilities in the p-type region, plays an important role in this effect. A modified LED heterostructure is suggested in which the efficiency decrease with the pump current should not occur.

Rozhansky, I. V., E-mail: igor@quantum.ioffe.ru; Zakheim, D. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)



Microscopic evidence for a partially gapped density wave state in {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4} in high magnetic fields.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present NMR measurements on {alpha}-(BEDt-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4}, in which the six inner carbon sites of BEDT-TTF are labeled with the {sup 13}C isotope, at low temperatures and in magnetic fields up to 28.8 T. We find, based on microscopic measurements which probe the center of the primary molecular orbital, that the density wave ground state of this system persists up to fields well above the so-called 'kink field', a hysteretic transition observed in transport near 23 T below 6 K. The main implication of this result is that in the low temperature limit, the ground state of this material is not fully metallic, but still partially gapped, even to 28.8 T. We obtain a BCS-like relationship between the transition temperature and the energy gap, as derived from the spin relaxation measurements using a simple model. Further, the {sup 13}C NMR spectrum is relatively insensitive to crossing the phase boundary, a result that does not support the notion that the ground state is a conventional spin density wave ground state.

Kuhns, P. L.; Brooks, J. S.; Caldwell, T.; Moulton, W. G.; Reyes, A. P.; Biskup, N.; Kini, A. M.; Schlueter, J. A.; Wang, H. H.; Geiser, U.; Williams, J. M.; Florida State Univ.



Scattering Length Density Calculator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... For energy dependent cross sections please go to ... The neutron scattering length density is defined ... To calculate scattering length densities enter a ...


Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements  

SciTech Connect

Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} at 0.1 vol. %.

Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L. [Synchrotron Soleil, l'Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Booth, J. P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)



Matching field effects at tesla-level magnetic fields in critical current density in high-Tc superconductors containing self-assembled columnar defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated the superconductive transport properties of YBa2Cu3O7 films containing self-assembled columnar arrays of second phase SrZrO3 or BaSnO3 precipitates. A matching condition between columnar pinning sites (aligned at or near the c axis) and external magnetic flux, tilted with respect to them, is identified in the critical current JC.H/ data. The results for the material containing SrZrO3-based pins are analyzed within a simple intuitive model. At matching, the critical current is enhanced above the model prediction. In complementary contact-free investigations of BaSnO3-doped material, matching effects are observed over a wide range of temperatures in the field dependence of JC.H/. The deduced matching fields agree reasonably well with the densities of columnar pins directly observed by scanning electron microscopy.

Sinclair, J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Cantoni, Claudia [ORNL; Wee, Sung Hun [ORNL; Varanasi, C. V. [University of Dayton Research Institute; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL



New Electrode Manufacturing Process Equipment: Novel High Energy Density Lithium-Ion Cell Designs via Innovative Manufacturing Process Modules for Cathode and Integrated Separator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BEEST Project: Applied Materials is developing new tools for manufacturing Li-Ion batteries that could dramatically increase their performance. Traditionally, the positive and negative terminals of Li-Ion batteries are mixed with glue-like materials called binders, pressed onto electrodes, and then physically kept apart by winding a polymer mesh material between them called a separator. With the Applied Materials system, many of these manually intensive processes will be replaced by next generation coating technology to apply each component. This process will improve product reliability and performance of the cells at a fraction of the current cost. These novel manufacturing techniques will also increase the energy density of the battery and reduce the size of several of the battery’s components to free up more space within the cell for storage.




Effect of nano-fibers on the stress-strain behavior of semi-crystalline poly(ethylene terephthalate) at different strain rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Uniaxial compression tests were performed on amorphous poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), amorphous poly(ethylene terephthalate)- glycol (PETG), semi-crystalline PET, and semicrystalline PET with various amounts of ...

Cohen, Ellann



High performance Na-doped PbTe-PbS thermoelectric materials: electronic density of states modification and shaped-controlled nanostructures.  

SciTech Connect

Thermoelectric heat-to-power generation is an attractive option for robust and environmentally friendly renewable energy production. Historically, the performance of thermoelectric materials has been limited by low efficiencies, related to the thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT. Nanostructuring thermoelectric materials have shown to enhance ZT primarily via increasing phonon scattering, beneficially reducing lattice thermal conductivity. Conversely, density-of-states (DOS) engineering has also enhanced electronic transport properties. However, successfully joining the two approaches has proved elusive. Herein, we report a thermoelectric materials system whereby we can control both nanostructure formations to effectively reduce thermal conductivity, while concurrently modifying the electronic structure to significantly enhance thermoelectric power factor. We report that the thermoelectric system PbTe-PbS 12% doped with 2% Na produces shape-controlled cubic PbS nanostructures, which help reduce lattice thermal conductivity, while altering the solubility of PbS within the PbTe matrix beneficially modifies the DOS that allow for enhancements in thermoelectric power factor. These concomitant and synergistic effects result in a maximum ZT for 2% Na-doped PbTe-PbS 12% of 1.8 at 800 K.

Girard, S. N.; He, J.; Zhou, X.; Shoemaker, D.; Jaworski, C. M.; Uher, C.; Dravid, V. P.; Heremans, J. P.; Kanatzidis, M. G. (Materials Science Division); (Northwestern Univ.); (Univ. Michigan-Ann Arbor); (Ohio State Univ.)



Demonstration of High Current Density YBCO Coated Conductors on RE2O3-Buffered Ni Substrates with Two New Alternative Architectures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In continuation of our effort to develop single buffer layer architectures for YBCO (YBa2Cu3O7-g) coated tape conductors, we have studied RE2O3 (RE = Y, and rare earths) as candidate materials. Three types of crystal structures including the preferred cubic phase are known for the rare earth oxides. High quality simple cubic RE2O3 buffer layers were grown epitaxiahy on {100} textured Ni substrates using both reactive evaporation and sol-gel processing. Detailed X-ray studies have shown that the Y2O3, Eu2O3, Gd2O3, and Yb2O3 were grown with a single epitaxial orientation. SEM micrographs indicated that both e-beam and sol-gel grown films were dense, continuous and crack free. High Jc YBCO films were grown on RE2O3-buffered Ni substrates with sputtered cap layers. Two new alternative buffer layer architectures were developed. A high Jc of 1.8 MA/cm2 at 77 K and self-field was obtained on YBCO films with a layer sequence of YBCO (pulsed laser deposition)/Yb2O3 (sputtered)/Y2O3 (e-beam)/Ni. Also, a high Jc of over 1 MA/cm2 at 77 K and self-field was obtained on YBCO films with a layer sequence of YBCO (ex-situ BaF2 process)/CeO2 (sputtered)YSZ sputtered)/RE2O3 (sol-gel or e-beam)Ni. The performance of sol-gel grown buffers approached the quality of e-beam grown buffers.

Beach, D.B.; Chirayil, T.G.; Christen, D.K.; Cui, X.; Feenstra, R.; Goyal, A.; Kroeger, D.M.; Lee, D.F.; Martin, P.M.; Mathis, J.E.; Morrell, J.S.; Norton, D.P.; Paranthaman, M.; Specht, E.D.; Verebelyi, D.T.



Stochastic model of lithium ion conduction in poly,,ethylene oxide... L. Gitelman,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as described above. III. THE CONDUCTIVITY The basic electrochemistry of the lithium ion battery in- volves only the transfer of lithium ions between the two insertion electrodes. Typical lithium ion battery consistsStochastic model of lithium ion conduction in poly,,ethylene oxide... L. Gitelman,1 A. Averbuch,2,a

Averbuch, Amir


Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of INEL low-level mixed wastes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed wastes were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The treatability work, which included thermal screening and/or processibility testing, was performed on priority candidate wastes identified by INEL to determine the applicability of polyethylene encapsulation for the solidification and stabilization of these mixed wastes. The candidate wastes selected for this preliminary study were Eutectic Salts, Ion Exchange Resins, Activated Carbons, Freon Contaminated Rags, TAN TURCO Decon 4502, ICPP Sodium Bearing Liquid Waste, and HTRE-3 Acid Spill Clean-up. Thermal screening was conducted for some of these wastes to determine the thermal stability of the wastes under expected pretreatment and processing conditions. Processibility testing to determine whether the wastes were amenable to extrusion processing included monitoring feed consistency, extruder output consistency, waste production homogeneity, and waste form performance. Processing parameters were not optimized within the scope of this study. However, based on the treatability results, polyethylene encapsulation does appear applicable as a primary or secondary treatment for most of these wastes.

Lageraaen, P.R.; Patel, B.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Adams, J.W.



Density-dependent covariant energy density functionals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relativistic nuclear energy density functionals are applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena at and away fromstability line. Isoscalar monopole, isovector dipole and isoscalar quadrupole giant resonances are calculated using fully self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle randomphase approximation, based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubovmodel. The impact of pairing correlations on the fission barriers in heavy and superheavy nuclei is examined. The role of pion in constructing desnity functionals is also investigated.

Lalazissis, G. A. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 (Greece)



High-Density-Infrared Transient Liquid Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Infrared energy is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum between 0.78 mm ..... that may bring to the market new materials that cannot be produced economically ... For more information, contact C.A. Blue, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ...


High Current Density EMEW ® Copper Electrowinning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2003 ... This paper presents results from a two month pilot evaluation of EMEW® technology at CODELCO Radomiro Tomic, in Chile. A prime focus in ...


Super-high density laser fusion CTR  

SciTech Connect

From sixth European conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics; Moscow, USSR (30 Jul 1973). A basic discussion of laser-induced fusion is presented. Implosion development and applications are described. Implosion and thermonuclear physics are discussed in some detail along with laser technology, laser fusion reactors, and fusion energy conversion. (MOW)

Thiessen, A.; Zimmerman, G.; Weaver, T.; Emmett, J.; Nuckolls, J.; Wood, L.



A flexible high-density sensor network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis explores building and deploying a scalable electronic sensate skin that was designed as a dense sensor network. Our skin is built from small (1" x 1") rigid circuit boards attached to their neighbors with ...

Mistree, Behram Farrokh Thomas



Critical masses of highly enriched uranium diluted with matrix material.  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste containing fissile material is frequently encountered in decontamination and decommissioning activities. For the most part, this waste is placed in containers or drums and stored in storage facilities. The amount of fissile material in each drum is generally small because of criticality safety limits that have been calculated with computer transport codes such as MCNP,1 KENO,2 or ONEDANT.3 To the best of our knowledge, no experimental critical mass data are available to verify the accuracy of these calculations or any calculations for systems containing fissile material (U-235, Pu-239, U-233) in contact with matrix material such as Al2O3, CaO, SiO2, Al, MgO, etc. The experiments presented in this paper establish the critical masses of highly enriched uranium foils diluted to various X/235U ratios with polyethylene and SiO2, polyethylene and aluminum, polyethylene and MgO, polyethylene and Gd, polyethylene and Fe, and moderated and reflected with polyethylene. In addition, these critical mass experimental data will be used to validate cross section data.

Sanchez, R. G. (Rene G.); Loaiza, D. J. (David J.); Kimpland, R. H. (Robert H.)


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Perturbations in high-velocity gas flow  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High velocity explosive products or other low-density gases are often used to accelerate metal plates to high velocities. Perturbations in otherwise uniform flow configurations are sometimes sufficient to cause interactions that can rapidly destroy the integrity of the plates. In this study perturbations were introduced in uniform gas flows of detonated HE products and strongly shocked polyethylene, CH{sub 2}. The primary diagnostics were smear-camera records obtained when these gases impinged on layers of plexiglas separated by small argon-filled gaps. These records show shock-arrival times at various levels and thus determine not only the size of the perturbation but also its strength. Perturbations in HE gases running into H{sub 2} and in CH{sub 2} into H{sub 2} have been studied. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations are in excellent agreement with the experiments, and enable one to study details of the flow not possible from experimental results. 1 ref., 5 figs.

Harvey, W.B.; McQueen, R.G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))




Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Summary Our short-term outlook for a wide array of energy prices has been adjusted upward as international and domestic energy supply conditions have tightened. We think that crude oil prices are as likely as not to end the year $2 to $3 per barrel higher than our previous projections. Thus, we think that the probability of West Texas Intermediate costing an average of $30 per barrel or more at midwinter is about 50 percent. On their current track, heating oil prices are likely to be about 30 percent above year-ago levels in the fourth quarter. Prices for Q1 2001 seem more likely now to match or exceed the high level seen in Q1 2000. Tight oil markets this year and an inherent propensity for high gas utilization in incremental power supply have resulted in rising North American natural gas


High-explosive driven crowbar switch  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure relates to a compact explosive driven switch for use as a low resistance, low inductance crowbar switch. A high-explosive charge extrudes a deformable conductive metallic plate through a polyethylene insulating layer to achieve a hard current contact with a supportive annular conductor.

Dike, Robert S. (Los Alamos, NM); Kewish, Jr., Ralph W. (Los Alamos, NM)



Density of Spray-Formed Materials  

SciTech Connect

Spray Forming is an advanced materials processing technology that transforms molten metal into a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a substrate. Depending on the application, the spray-formed material may be used in the as-deposited condition or it may undergo post-deposition processing. Regardless, the density of the as-deposited material is an important issue. Porosity is detrimental because it can significantly reduce strength, toughness, hardness and other properties. While it is not feasible to achieve fully-dense material in the as-deposited state, density greater than 99% of theoretical density is possible if the atomization and impact conditions are optimized. Thermal conditions at the deposit surface and droplet impact angle are key processing parameters that influence the density of the material. This paper examines the factors that contribute to porosity formation during spray forming and illustrates that very high as-deposited density is achieved by optimizing processing parameters.

Kevin M. McHugh; Volker Uhlenwinkel; Nils Ellendr



Density | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Density Density Dataset Summary Description This dataset is part of a larger internal dataset at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that explores various characteristics of large solar electric (both PV and CSP) facilities around the United States. This dataset focuses on the land use characteristics for solar facilities that are either under construction or currently in operation. Source Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States Date Released June 25th, 2013 (5 months ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords acres area average concentrating solar power csp Density electric hectares km2 land land requirements land use land-use mean photovoltaic photovoltaics PV solar statistics Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Master Solar Land Use Spreadsheet (xlsx, 1.5 MiB)


Single-Nucleon Densities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Densities Densities This web page presents single-nucleon densities calculated for a variety of nuclei in the range A=2-10 with some preliminary results for A=11,12. These are from variational Monte Carlo calculations (VMC) using the Argonne v18 two-nucleon and Urbana X three-nucleon potentials (AV18+UX). (Urbana X is intermediate between the Urbana IX and Illinois-7 models; it has the form of UIX supplemented with a two-pion S-wave piece, while the strengths of its terms are taken from the IL7 model. It does NOT have the three-pion-ring term of IL7.) These VMC wave functions are the starting trial functions for a number of recent Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC) calculations: Brida, et al., Phys. Rev. C 84, 024319 (2011); McCutchan, et al., Phys. Rev. C 86, 024315 (2012);



Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Highlights International Oil Markets Prices. We have raised our world oil price projection by about $2 per barrel for this month because of assumed greater compliance by OPEC to targeted cuts, especially for the second quarter of 2000 (Figure 1). The expected decline in world petroleum inventories continues (Figure 2), and, given the generally stiff resolve of OPEC members to maintain production cuts, any sign of a turnaround in stocks may be postponed until later this year than previously assumed (Q3 instead of Q2). Our current estimate for the average import cost this past January is now $25 per barrel, a nearly $15-per-barrel increase from January 1999. Crude oil prices are expected to remain at relatively high levels for the first half of 2000, but


Multiple density layered insulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

Alger, T.W.



Multiple density layered insulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)



Polyethylene-Reflected Arrays of HEU(93.2) Metal Units Separated by Vermiculite  

SciTech Connect

This benchmark details the results of an experiment performed in the early 1970s as part of a series testing critical configurations in three dimensional arrays. For this experiment, cylinders of 93.2% enriched uranium metal were arranged in a 2x2x2 array inside of a polyethylene reflector. Layers of vermiculite of varying heights were surrounding each cylinder to achieve criticality variations. A total of four experimental configurations were tested by D.W. Magnuson, and detailed in his experimental report “Critical Three-Dimensional Arrays of Neutron Interacting Units: Part IV. Arrays of U(93.2) Metal Reflected by Concrete and Arrays Separated by Vermiculite and Reflected by Polyethylene.” The benchmark HEU-MET-FAST054 is closely related; the results of both experiments are discussed in the same report (Ref. 1) Closely related work has been recorded in HEU-MET-FAST-053, which is a benchmark evaluation of a different series of three dimensional array experiments with four different moderator materials. HEU-MET-FAST-023 and HEU-MET-FAST-026 are also related because they utilize the same metal cylinders as these experiments.

Mackenzie Gorham; J. Blair Briggs; John D. Bess; Virginia Dean; Davis Reed



Design of a 50 TW/20 J chirped-Pulse Amplification Laser for High-Energy-Density Plasma Physics Experiments at the Nevada Terawatt Facility of the University of Nevada  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have developed a conceptual design for a 50 TW/20 J short-pulse laser for performing high-energy-density plasma physics experiments at the Nevada Terawatt Facility of the University of Nevada, Reno. The purpose of the laser is to develop proton and x-ray radiography techniques, to use these techniques to study z-pinch plasmas, and to study deposition of intense laser energy into both magnetized and unmagnetized plasmas. Our design uses a commercial diode-pumped Nd:glass oscillator to generate 3-nJ. 200-fs mode-locked pulses at 1059 m. An all-reflective grating stretcher increases pulse duration to 1.1 ns. A two-stage chirped-pulse optical parametric amplifier (OPCPA) using BBO crystals boosts pulse energy to 12 mJ. A chain using mixed silicate-phosphate Nd:glass increases pulse energy to 85 J while narrowing bandwidth to 7.4 nm (FWHM). About 50 J is split off to the laser target chamber to generate plasma while the remaining energy is directed to a roof-mirror pulse compressor, where two 21 cm x 42 cm gold gratings recompress pulses to {approx}350 fs. A 30-cm-focal-length off-axis parabolic reflector (OAP) focuses {approx}20 J onto target, producing an irradiance of 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} in a 10-{micro}m-diameter spot. This paper describes planned plasma experiments, system performance requirements, the laser design, and the target area design.

Erlandson, A C; Astanovitskiy, A; Batie, S; Bauer, B; Bayramian, A; Caird, J A; Cowan, T; Ebbers, C; Fuchs, J; Faretto, H; Glassman, J; Ivanov, V; LeGalloudec, B; LeGalloudec, N; Letzring, S; Payne, S; Stuart, B



Absolute intensity calibration of flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectrometer using radial profiles of visible and extreme ultraviolet bremsstrahlung continuum emitted from high-density plasmas in Large Helical Device  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A precise absolute intensity calibration of a flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in wavelength range of 60-400 A is carried out using a new calibration technique based on radial profile measurement of the bremsstrahlung continuum in Large Helical Device. A peaked vertical profile of the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum has been successfully observed in high-density plasmas (n{sub e}{>=} 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}) with hydrogen ice pellet injection. The absolute calibration can be done by comparing the EUV bremsstrahlung profile with the visible bremsstrahlung profile of which the absolute value has been already calibrated using a standard lamp. The line-integrated profile of measured visible bremsstrahlung continuum is firstly converted into the local emissivity profile by considering a magnetic surface distortion due to the plasma pressure, and the local emissivity profile of EUV bremsstrahlung is secondly calculated by taking into account the electron temperature profile and free-free gaunt factor. The line-integrated profile of the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum is finally calculated from the local emissivity profile in order to compare with measured EUV bremsstrahlung profile. The absolute intensity calibration can be done by comparing measured and calculated EUV bremsstrahlung profiles. The calibration factor is thus obtained as a function of wavelength with excellent accuracy. It is also found in the profile analysis that the grating reflectivity of EUV emissions is constant along the direction perpendicular to the wavelength dispersion. Uncertainties on the calibration factor determined with the present method are discussed including charge-coupled device operation modes.

Dong Chunfeng; Wang Erhui [Department of Fusion Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi [Department of Fusion Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan)



Highly Compressed Ion Beam for High Energy Density Science  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

discuss plans toward a user facility for target experiments.a rep-rated (>10Hz) user facility. [18] R. C. Davidson, et



High Performance Low-density High-Mn Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Advanced Steel Metallurgy: Design, Processing, and Technological ...


Local Atomic Density of Microporous Carbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigated the structure of two disordered carbons: activated carbon fibers (ACF) and ultramicroporous carbon (UMC). These carbons have highly porous structure with large surface areas and consequently low macroscopic density that should enhance adsorption of hydrogen. We used the atomic pair distribution function to probe the local atomic arrangements. The results show that the carbons maintain an in-plane local atomic structure similar to regular graphite, but the stacking of graphitic layers is strongly disordered. Although the local atomic density of these carbons is lower than graphite, it is only {approx}20% lower and is much higher than the macroscopic density due to the porosity of the structure. For this reason, the density of graphene sheets that have optimum separation for hydrogen adsorption is lower than anticipated.

Dmowski, Wojtek; Contescu, Cristian I.; Llobet, Anna; Gallego, Nidia C.; Egami, Takeskhi (Tennessee-K); (ORNL); (LANL)



1D-to-3D transition of photon heat conduction in polyethylene using molecular dynamics simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experiments have demonstrated that the mechanical stretching of bulk polyethylene can increase its thermal conductivity by more than two orders of magnitude, from 0.35 W/mK to over 40W/mK, which is comparable to steel. ...

Henry, Asegun Sekou Famake



Develop safe, low-cost method of manufacturing rechargeable, high conductivity lithium batteries. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The focus of much of this work is the rechargeable lithium battery, because of its high energy density, and the use of solid polymer electrolytes (SPE`s) for ease of fabrication and lightness of weight. The classical solid polymer electrolyte is based on the use of salts such as lithium triflate dissolved in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) or poly(propylene oxide). This specific polymer electrolyte has severe limitations. Poly(ethylene oxide) is a microcrystalline polymer at 25 C, and ion migration occurs only in the 20--30% of the material that is amorphous. Useable conductivities (10{sup {minus}5} S/cm) can be achieved only when the material is heated above 80 C. Two approaches to generate higher electrolyte conductivities at ambient temperatures are being developed. In the first, organic solvents are added to the polymer to plasticize it and dissolve the microcrystallites. This increases the conductivity but raises the possibility of fires if the battery casing ruptures during high charge or discharge conditions or when the device is punctured by impact. The alternative is to design new polymers that are good solid electrolyte media but which are completely amorphous and have low glass transition temperatures. Such a polymer is MEEP (poly[bis(methoxyethoxy)phosphazene]), first synthesized in the author`s laboratories. The main objective was to develop crosslinking methods for MEEP which could be used on a mass production scale to produce thin film rechargeable lithium batteries. A further objective was to assemble working energy storage devices to investigate the feasibility that this system could be developed commercially.

Allcock, H.R.



Plasma Treatment of Polyethylene Powder Particles in Hollow Cathode Glow Discharge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polyethylen (PE) is widely used in the production of foils, insulators, packaging materials, plastic bottles etc. Untreated PE is hydrophobic due to its unpolar surface. Therefore, it is hard to print or glue PE and the surface has to be modified before converting.In the present experiments a hollow cathode glow discharge is used as plasma source which is mounted in a spiral conveyor in order to ensure a combines transport of PE powder particles. With this set-up a homogeneous surface treatment of the powder is possible while passing the glow discharge. The plasma treatment causes a remarkable enhancement of the hydrophilicity of the PE powder which can be verified by contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Wolter, Matthias; Quitzau, Meike; Bornholdt, Sven; Kersten, Holger [IEAP, University Kiel, Kiel (Germany)



Probability density function method for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence and mixing  

SciTech Connect

Probability density function (PDF) methods are extended to variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. We apply the new method to compute the joint PDF of density and velocity in a non-premixed binary mixture of different-density molecularly mixing fluids under gravity. The full time-evolution of the joint PDF is captured in the highly non-equilibrium flow: starting from a quiescent state, transitioning to fully developed turbulence and finally dissipated by molecular diffusion. High-Atwood-number effects (as distinguished from the Boussinesq case) are accounted for: both hydrodynamic turbulence and material mixing are treated at arbitrary density ratios, with the specific volume, mass flux and all their correlations in closed form. An extension of the generalized Langevin model, originally developed for the Lagrangian fluid particle velocity in constant-density shear-driven turbulence, is constructed for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven flows. The persistent small-scale anisotropy, a fundamentally 'non-Kolmogorovian' feature of flows under external acceleration forces, is captured by a tensorial diffusion term based on the external body force. The material mixing model for the fluid density, an active scalar, is developed based on the beta distribution. The beta-PDF is shown to be capable of capturing the mixing asymmetry and that it can accurately represent the density through transition, in fully developed turbulence and in the decay process. The joint model for hydrodynamics and active material mixing yields a time-accurate evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress anisotropy without resorting to gradient diffusion hypotheses, and represents the mixing state by the density PDF itself, eliminating the need for dubious mixing measures. Direct numerical simulations of the homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor instability are used for model validation.

Bakosi, Jozsef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ristorcelli, Raymond J [Los Alamos National Laboratory



Low density microcellular foams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular from which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

LeMay, James D. (Castro Valley, CA)


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Low density microcellular foams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

LeMay, James D. (Castro Valley, CA)



Charge Density Wave Compounds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fisher Research Group Fisher Research Group Layered Chalcogenides 29 February 2008 Controlling the Wave by Brad Plummer, SLAC Communications Stanford University researchers working in part at SSRL have discovered a novel set of properties pertaining to a compound of materials called tritellurides. These compounds, composed of three atoms of tellurium and a single atom of one of the rare earth elements, demonstrate unique electronic properties that can be controlled by altering the temperature of the material. The tritellurides display phenomena known as charge density waves (CDW). In a normal conductive metal, electrons persist in a "sea" wherein they are evenly distributed and equally available, or conductive. A CDW occurs under certain circumstances and causes the electrons to clump together, lowering their availability, and thereby lowering the compound's conductivity. Tellurium, when crystallized into quasi-two-dimensional planes and combined with rare earth elements, produces a material with CDWs that can be manipulated and controlled.



SciTech Connect

In this study, we investigate the correlation between group local number density and total luminosity of groups. In four volume-limited group catalogs, we can conclude that groups with high luminosity exist preferentially in high-density regions, while groups with low luminosity are located preferentially in low-density regions, and that in a volume-limited group sample with absolute magnitude limit M{sub r} = -18, the correlation between group local number density and total luminosity of groups is the weakest. These results basically are consistent with the environmental dependence of galaxy luminosity.

Deng Xinfa [School of Science, Nanchang University, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Yu Guisheng [Department of Natural Science, Nanchang Teachers College, Jiangxi 330103 (China)



Project: Service Life Prediction of Filled Polymers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Aaron Forster has been active in ASME Section XI activities on high-density polyethylene pipe code development in the ASME Boiler and Pressure ...




Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

obtained prior to project implementation .. This system employs high density polyethylene pipe that would be heat fused at the joints to preventminimize leaks. The system uses...


Density rise experiment on PLT  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of the density profile in PLT during intense gas puffing is documented and analyzed. Measurements of the spectrum of low energy edge neutrals and of the change in central neutral density indicate that charge-exchange processes alone cannot account for the central density rise. The transient density profile changes can be reproduced numerically by a diffusivity of approx. 10/sup 4/ cm/sup 2//s, and a spatially averaged inward flow of 10/sup 3/ cm/s. These transport coefficients are 10 ..-->.. 10/sup 2/ times larger than neoclassical. The ion energy confinement is reduced, the small scale density fluctuations are increased, and runaway electrons losses are increased during the density rise.

Strachan, J.D.; Bretz, N.; Mazzucato, E.



Conserving Waterlogged Rope: A Review of Traditional Methods and Experimental Research with Polyethylene Glycol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The excavation of Sieur de la Salle's ship, La Belle, yielded a large amount of waterlogged rope requiring conservation. A history of hemp and rope manufacture is reviewed to assist in the identification of the materials and rope-work recovered from the La Belle, as well as to assist in selecting an appropriate conservation treatment. A summary of several methods used to conserve cordage is presented. Time has shown that not all of these treatment methods have remained viable options, and that continued study and experimentation are needed so that the conservator has the tools to develop an appropriate conservation plan for each artifact. The majority of La Belle's cordage was conserved using the passivation polymers method developed by Dr. C. Wayne Smith and Dr. Donny L. Hamilton, both of Texas A&M University, in conjunction with Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, Michigan. An experiment applying knowledge gleaned from the passivation polymers process to polyethylene glycol (PEG) impregnation was conducted in an attempt to stabilize the PEG within the rope. The results were good; the rope retained some flexibility and appears stable with a slightly darker color than with silicone oil.

McCaskill, Jennifer R.



Measurement of polyethylene pipe parameters during an ocean deployment. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Data were acquired on the behavior of the polyethylene upwelling pipe for the GRI/DOE Marine Biomass Biological Test Farm during several phases of pipe assembly and ocean towing and deployment. The pipe is nominally 28 in O.D., 1400 feet long with wall thicknesses of 0.9 and 1.75 inches. The entire effort was conducted over a period of six weeks and was implemented on a strictly non-interference basis with the main Biomass Program. Three types of data were acquired during shore and ocean based operations conducted in the southern California area during the period from 15 September-27 September 1978. Axial strain data were obtained from two rows of 15 transducers each, separated circumferentially by 90/sup 0/ and distributed along the entire length of the pipe. Photographic data were also acquired from helicopter, boat and shore stationed cameras. The third type of data acquired were lowering line tension measurements made during the second successful deployment operation.

Hoppmann, R. F.; Ritchie, P. L.



Measurement and Analysis of Fission Rates in a Spherical Mockup of Uranium and Polyethylene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of the reaction rate distribution were carried out using two kinds of Plate Micro Fission Chamber(PMFC). The first is a depleted uranium chamber and the second an enriched uranium chamber. The material in the depleted uranium chamber is strictly the same as the material in the uranium assembly. With the equation solution to conduct the isotope contribution correction, the fission rate of 238U and 235U were obtained from the fission rate of depleted uranium and enriched uranium. And then, the fission count of 238U and 235U in an individual uranium shell was obtained. In this work, MCNP5 and continuous energy cross sections ENDF/BV.0 were used for the analysis of fission rate distribution and fission count. The calculated results were compared with the experimental ones. The calculation of fission rate of DU and EU were found to agree with the measured ones within 10% except at the positions in polyethylene region and the two positions near the outer surface. Beacause the fission chamber was not co...

Tong-Hua, Zhu; Xin-Xin, Lu; Rong, Liu; Zi-Jie, Han; Li, Jiang; Mei, Wang



Energy Densities for LLNL EMB  

Summary of Projected Power and Energy Density Parameters for the “New Generation” LLNL Electromechanical Batteries R.F. Post June 24, 2013


Measurement on CO_2 Solution Density by Optical Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The optical technology based on Mach-Zehnder interferometry was successfully applied to a high-pressure liquid CO_2 and water system to measure CO_2 solution density. Experiments were carried out at a pressure range of from 5.0 to 12.5 MPa, temperatures ... Keywords: CO_2 ocean sequestration, CO_2 solution, Mach-Zehnder Interferometry, density

Y. Song; M. Nishio; B. Chen; S. Someya; T. Ohsumi



Density-based logistic regression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces a nonlinear logistic regression model for classification. The main idea is to map the data to a feature space based on kernel density estimation. A discriminative model is then learned to optimize the feature weights as well as ... Keywords: density estimation, logistic regression, medical prediction, nonlinear classification

Wenlin Chen, Yixin Chen, Yi Mao, Baolong Guo



Density Log | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Density Log Density Log Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Density Log Details Activities (6) Areas (6) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Log Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Log Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: provides data on the bulk density of the rock surrounding the well Stratigraphic/Structural: Stratigraphic correlation between well bores. Hydrological: Porosity of the formations loggesd can be calculated for the Density log andprovide an indication potential aquifers. Thermal: Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 0.4040 centUSD 4.0e-4 kUSD 4.0e-7 MUSD 4.0e-10 TUSD / foot Median Estimate (USD): 0.6868 centUSD


Diagnosing Mesoscale Vertical Motion from Horizontal Velocity and Density Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mesoscale vertical velocity is obtained by solving a generalized omega equation (? equation) using density and horizontal velocity data from three consecutive quasi-synoptic high-resolution surveys in the Alboran Sea. The Atlantic Jet (AJ) ...

Enric Pallàs Sanz; Álvaro Viúdez



Density Inhomogeneities and Electron Mobility in Supercritical Xenon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Density Inhomogeneities and Electron Mobility in Supercritical Xenon Density Inhomogeneities and Electron Mobility in Supercritical Xenon Richard A. Holroyd, Kengo Itoh, and Masaru Nishikawa J. Chem. Phys. 118, 706-710 (2003) [Find paper at Scitation] Abstract: The low-field mobility of electrons in supercritical Xe has been measured isothermally as a function of density above the critical temperature (289.7 K). At 293 K the mobility varies from a high of 890 cm2/Vs at 9.2 x 1021 atoms/cm3 to a minimum value of 4.6 cm2/Vs at a density of 3.5 x 1021 atoms/cm3, which is just below the critical density. The density dependence of the mobility is reasonably well predicted by the deformation potential model if the adiabatic compressibility is used to characterize the electron-medium interactions. Approximate agreement indicates that


Density and pair-density scaling for deriving the Euler equation in density-functional and pair-density-functional theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A link between density and pair density functional theories is presented. Density and pair density scaling are used to derive the Euler equation in both theories. Density scaling provides a constructive way of obtaining approximations for the Pauli potential. The Pauli potential (energy) of the density functional theory is expressed as the difference of the scaled and original exchange-correlation potentials (energies).

Nagy, A. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary)



Density effect on relativistic electron beams in a plasma fiber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intense short-petawatt-laser driven relativistic electron beams in a hollow high-Z plasma fiber embedded in low-Z plasmas of different densities are studied. When the plasma is of lower density than the hollow fiber, resistive filamentation of the electron beam is observed. It is found that the electron motion and the magnetic field are highly correlated with tens of terahertz oscillation frequency. Depending on the material property around the hollow fiber and the plasma density, the beam electrons can be focused or defocused as it propagates in the plasma. Relativistic electron transport and target heating are also investigated.

Zhou, C. T.; He, X. T. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wang, X. G. [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wu, S. Z. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Cai, H. B. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, F. [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)



A new electron temperature diagnostic of critical surface based on the ion acoustic decay instability in hot, high density plasma relevant to laser fusion. Semiannual report, April 1--September 29, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors made analysis of the IADI experiments previously made using OMEGA laser system. They obtained two important new results: the first direct observation of the epw excited by the Ion Acoustic Decay Instability, and the first study of the IADI in a plasma that approaches laser-fusion conditions, in the sense of having a density scale length of order 1 mm and an electron temperature, T{sub e}, in excess of 1 keV. Previous observations of the epw`s have been based on the second harmonic emission, from which little can be inferred because the emission is produced by unknown pairs of epw`s, integrated in a complicated way over wavenumber space and real space. In contrast, they have directly observed the epw by using the 90{degree}, collective Thomson scattering (CTS) of a UV laser (at the third harmonic of the pump) from the epw`s. Because the ratio of probe frequency to electron plasma frequency is only about three, the scattering is collective (i.e. k{sub epw}{lambda}{sub De} is small, where k{sub epw} is the epw wave number and {lambda}{sub De} is the Debye length),m even though the scattering angle is large. The electron temperature can then be deduced from the ion sound velocity, obtained from the measurement of the frequency at which growth is maximum at the scattering wavenumber.

Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Drake, R.P.; Seka, W.; Craxton, R.S.; Estabrook, K.G.



Gridded Hourly Precipitation Analysis from High-Density Rain Gauge Network over the Yangtze–Huai Rivers Basin during the 2007 Mei-Yu Season and Comparison with CMORPH  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heavy rainfall hit the Yangtze–Huai Rivers basin (YHRB) of east China several times during the prolonged 2007 mei-yu season, causing the worst flood since 1954. There has been an urgent need for attaining and processing high-quality, kilometer-...

Yali Luo; Weimiao Qian; Renhe Zhang; Da-Lin Zhang



The string of variable density: Further results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze the problem of calculating the solutions and the spectrum of a string with arbitrary density and fixed ends. We build a perturbative scheme which uses a basis of WKB-type functions and obtain explicit expressions for the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the string. Using this approach we show that it is possible to derive the asymptotic (high energy) behavior of the string, obtaining explicit expressions for the first three coefficients (the first two can also be obtained with the WKB method). Finally, using an iterative approach we also obtain analytical expressions for the low energy behavior of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a string with rapidly oscillating density, recovering (in a simpler way) results in the literature. - Highlights: > We devise a perturbative approach to finding the modes of a string with arbitrary density. > We obtain explicitly the first three coefficients of the asymptotic high energy expansion. > We apply our findings to a series of examples, obtaining both analytical and numerical results.

Amore, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.amore@gmail.com


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Low density carbonized composite foams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbonized composite foam having a density less than about 50 mg/cm{sup 3} and individual cell sizes no greater than about 1 {mu}m in diameter is described, and the process of making it. 3 figs.

Kong, Fung-Ming.



Quarkonium at nonzero isospin density  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the energies of quarkonium bound states in the presence of a medium of nonzero isospin density using lattice QCD. The medium, created using a canonical (fixed isospin charge) approach, induces a reduction of ...

Detmold, William


3-D Density Model Of Mt Etna Volcano (Southern Italy) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

3-D Density Model Of Mt Etna Volcano (Southern Italy) 3-D Density Model Of Mt Etna Volcano (Southern Italy) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: 3-D Density Model Of Mt Etna Volcano (Southern Italy) Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: A detailed density model of Mt. Etna and its surrounding areas has been evaluated using a 3-D inversion of the gravimetric data acquired in the 1980's. Several high-density and low-density bodies are found, penetrating from shallow depths as far down as 12 km bsl. A positive correlation (in terms of location, extent, density, and velocity) is established between several anomalies of the density model and features identified in previously published seismic tomographies. A prominent high-density body extending down to 7 km bsl is recognized in the southern


What causes the density effect in young forest plantations?  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In young forest plantations, trees planted at high densities frequently show more rapid height and diameter growth than those plants at lower densities. This positive growth response to density (the ''density effect'') often manifests long before seedlings are tall enough to shade one another, so it is not a simple response to shade. The mechanism(s) which trigger and sustain this growth enhancement are unknown. Our objectives were to document the temporal dynamics of positive growth response to increasing density in Douglas-fir plantations and to test two hypotheses as potential mechanisms for this response. The hypotheses are (1) a canopy boundary layer effect, and (2) alterations in the quality of light reflected from neighboring trees. The ''boundary layer'' hypotheses proposes that changes in atmospheric mixing occur in high-density plantations, promoting increased concentrations of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours, which in turn would enhance carbon assimilation. The ''light quality'' hypothesis proposes that the presence of neighbors alters the ratio of red to far red light in the canopy environment. Plant sensors detect this change in light quality, and growth and development is altered in response. We found that boundary layer conductance was higher, as we predicted, in low-density Douglas-fir stands than in high-density stands five years after planting. The changes in boundary conductance were accompanied by higher CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours. However, we also found that the primary manifestation of the density effect in Douglas-fir occurs two to four years after planting, and we were not able to measure differences in boundary conductance in different densities at that time. Also, we found no difference in carbon isotope composition of wood cellulose formed in high- vs. low-density stands two to three years after planting. We conclude that although stand density may have a significant impact on boundary layer conductance in young stands, it does not account for the ''density effect''. Our tests of the light quality hypothesis were slowed due to poor plantation establishment in the early phase of this study. In a variable density experiment we detected significant changes in R:FR related to density. Also in that study we measured a significant enhancement of tree height at high density. However, after three years of growth, the study trees did not show significant differences in stem diameter related to density. Experimenters at Weyerhaeuser therefore decided not to harvest the trees at the end of the 3rd growth year, as originally planned. In a 1-year study of seedlings planted in raised beds subjected to different light quality treatments using transparent plastic film, we found that tree height but not diameter increased in response to decreased R:FR. At this point, we conclude that R:FR remains a viable hypothesis for the ''density effect'', but evidence is not conclusive. We expect that continued measurements in the variable density test plot at Weyerhaeuser will add more evidence in the future.

Barbara J. Bond; Gary A. Ritchie



Rock Density | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Rock Density Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Rock Density Details Activities (2) Areas (2) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Rock Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Rock Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Density of different lithologic units. Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 10.001,000 centUSD 0.01 kUSD 1.0e-5 MUSD 1.0e-8 TUSD / sample


Integrated data analysis at TJ-II: The density profile  

SciTech Connect

An integrated data analysis system based on Bayesian inference has been developed for the TJ-II stellarator. It reconstructs the electron density profile at a single time point, using data from interferometry, reflectometry, Thomson scattering, and the Helium beam, while providing a detailed error analysis. In this work, we present a novel analysis of the ambiguity inherent in profile reconstruction from reflectometry and show how the integrated data analysis approach elegantly resolves it. Several examples of the application of the technique are provided, in both low-density discharges with and without electrode biasing, and in high-density discharges with an (L-H) confinement transition.

Milligen, B. Ph. van; Estrada, T.; Ascasibar, E.; Tafalla, D.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Fraguas, A. Lopez; Jimenez, J. A.; Garcia-Cortes, I. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Dinklage, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17 491 Greifswald (Germany); Fischer, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)



Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional VaryMatrix.png Collaboration with mathematicians and computational...


Plasma digital density determining device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The density of a decaying plasma in an electrically conducting enclosure is determined by applying an excitation to the cavity formed by the enclosure and counting digitally the number of resonant frequencies traversed by the combination of the cavity and the decaying plasma.

Sprott, Julien C. (Madison, WI); Lovell, Thomas W. (Madison, WI); Holly, Donald J. (Madison, WI)



A monochromatic x-ray imaging system for characterizing low-density foams  

SciTech Connect

In High Energy Density (HED) laser experiments, targets often require small, low-density, foam components. However, their limited size can preclude single component characterization, forcing one to rely solely on less accurate bulk measurements. We have developed a monochromatic imaging a system to characterize both the density and uniformity of single component low-mass foams. This x-ray assembly is capable of determining line-averaged density variations near the 1% level, and provides statistically identical results to those obtained at the Brookhaven's NSLS. This system has the added benefit of providing two-dimensional density data, allowing an assessment of density uniformity.

Lanier, Nicholas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taccetti, Jose M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamilton, Christopher E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory



Definition: Density Log | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Density Log Density Log Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Density Log Density logging is a well logging tool that can provide a continuous record of a formation's bulk density along the length of a borehole. In geology, bulk density is a function of the density of the minerals forming a rock (i.e. matrix) and the fluid enclosed in the pore spaces.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Density logging is a well logging tool that can provide a continuous record of a formation's bulk density along the length of a borehole. In geology, bulk density is a function of the density of the minerals forming a rock and the fluid enclosed in the pore spaces. This is one of three well logging tools that are commonly used to calculate porosity, the other two being sonic logging and neutron porosity logging


Microsoft Word - SRS-WD-2010-001_R0_Final_9-30-10.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HA Hazard Analysis HAW High Activity Waste HDPE High Density Polyethylene HEU Highly Enriched Uranium HM H-Modified hr hour(s) HRR Highly Radioactive Radionuclide HTF H-Tank Farm...


In vitro characterization of pluronic F127 and D-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate mixed micelles as nanocarriers for targeted anticancer-drug delivery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mixed micelles of Pluronic F127 and d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) in different molar ratios (10 : 0, 7 : 3, 5 : 5, and 3 : 7) were prepared to characterize this system as nanocarriers for targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic ...

Adeel Masood Butt, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd Amin, Haliza Katas, Narong Sarisuta, Wasu Witoonsaridsilp, Ruthairat Benjakul



Density estimation for data with rounding errors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rounding of data is common in practice. The problem of estimating the underlying density function based on data with rounding errors is addressed. A parametric maximum likelihood estimator and a nonparametric bootstrap kernel density estimator are proposed. ... Keywords: Bootstrapping, Deconvolution density estimation, Fast Fourier transformation, Kernel density estimation, Measurement error

B. Wang, W. Wertelecki



Probability Densities in Strong Turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

According to modern developments in turbulence theory, the "dissipation" scales (u.v. cut-offs) $\\eta$ form a random field related to velocity increments $\\delta_{\\eta}u$. In this work we, using Mellin's transform combined with the Gaussain large -scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments $P(\\delta_{r}u,r)$ and the PDF of the dissipation scales $Q(\\eta, Re)$, where $Re$ is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF $P_{L}(\\delta_{r}u,r)$ often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for deviation of $P(\\delta_{r}u,r)$ from $P_{L}(\\delta_{r}u,r)$. A framework for evaluation of the PDFs of various turbulence characteristics involving spatial derivatives is developed. The exact relation, free of spurious Logarithms recently discussed in Frisch et al (J. Fluid Mech. {\\bf 542}, 97 (2005)), for the multifractal probability density of velocity increments, not based on the steepest descent evaluation of the integrals is obtained and the calculated function $D(h)$ is close to experimental data. A novel derivation (Polyakov, 2005), of a well-known result of the multi-fractal theory [Frisch, "Turbulence. {\\it Legacy of A.N.Kolmogorov}", Cambridge University Press, 1995)), based on the concepts described in this paper, is also presented.

Victor Yakhot



Quasi-equilibrium electron density along a magnetic field line  

SciTech Connect

A methodology is developed to determine the density of high-energy electrons along a magnetic field line for a low-{beta} plasma. This method avoids the expense and statistical noise of traditional particle tracking techniques commonly used for high-energy electrons in bombardment plasma generators. By preserving the magnetic mirror and assuming a mixing timescale, typically the elastic collision frequency with neutrals, a quasi-equilibrium electron distribution can be calculated. Following the transient decay, the analysis shows that both the normalized density and the reduction fraction due to collision converge to a single quasi-equilibrium solution.

Mao, Hann-Shin; Wirz, Richard [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)



Impact of CIR Storms on Thermosphere Density Variability during the Solar Minimum of 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solar minimum of 2008 was exceptionally quiet, with sunspot numbers at their lowest in 75 years. During this unique solar minimum epoch, however, solar wind high - speed streams emanating from near-equatorial coronal holes occurred frequently and were the primary contributor to the recurrent geomagnetic activity at Earth. These conditions enabled the isolation of forcing by geomagnetic activity on the preconditioned solar minimum state of the upper atmosphere caused by Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs). Thermosphere density observations around 400 km from the CHAMP satellite are used to study the thermosphere density response to solar wind high - speed streams/CIRs. Superposed epoch results show that thermosphere density responds to high - speed streams globally, and the density at 400 km changes by 75% on average. The relative changes of neutral density are comparable at different latitudes, although its variability is largest at high latitudes. In addition, the response of thermosphere density to hi...

Lei, Jiuhou; Wang, Wenbin; McPherron, Robert L



Basic Research Needs for High Energy Density Laboratory Physics  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

On the cover: On the cover: Invisible infrared light from the 200-trillion watt Trident Laser enters from the bottom to interact with a one-micrometer thick foil target in the center of the photo. The laser pulse produces a plasma - an ionized gas - many times hotter than the center of the sun, which lasts for a trillionth of a second. During this time some electrons from the foil are accelerated to virtually the speed of



E-Print Network (OSTI)

system in mind. For a WDM user facility the goal is to havefor any future WDM user facility in the HIFS-VNL. Figure 7.

Bieniosek, F.M.



High Energy Density Coating Processing for Oil and Gas Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Corrosion Protection through Metallic and Non-Metallic Coatings. Presentation ...


Update on US High Density Fuel Fabrication Development  

SciTech Connect

Second generation uranium molybdenum fuel has shown excellent in-reactor irradiation performance. This metallic fuel type is capable of being fabricated at much higher loadings than any presently used research reactor fuel. Due to the broad range of fuel types this alloy system encompasses—fuel powder to monolithic foil and binary fuel systems to multiple element additions—significant amounts of research and development have been conducted on the fabrication of these fuels. This paper presents an update of the US RERTR effort to develop fabrication techniques and the fabrication methods used for the RERTR-9A miniplate test.

C.R. Clark; G.A. Moore; J.F. Jue; B.H. Park; N.P. Hallinan; D.M. Wachs; D.E. Burkes


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Spectral Density of Cloud Liquid Water Content at High Frequencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aircraft measurements of liquid water content (LWC) made at sampling frequencies of 1 and 2 kHz with a particle volume monitor (PVM) probe from horizontal traverses in stratocumulus clouds during the Southern Ocean Cloud Experiment and cumulus ...

H. Gerber; J. B. Jensen; A. B. Davis; A. Marshak; W. J. Wiscombe



RESEARCH PAPER High-current density DC magenetohydrodynamics micropump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are used in fusion reactors, power plants, liquid metal processing, propulsion engines, and many other (1942) as electro- magnetic hydrodynamic wave. The main reasons for the significant interest in MHD

Kassegne, Samuel Kinde


High mammographic density in women of Ashkenazi Jewish descent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Caswell et al. Breast Cancer Research 2013, 15:R40 http://Caswell et al. Breast Cancer Research 2013, 15:R40 http://Caswell et al. Breast Cancer Research 2013, 15:R40 http://



High Energy Density Fusion Claddings for Wear and Corrosion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2010. Symposium, Hardfacing Coatings for Wear and Corrosion Resistance Applications.


"Using Magnetic Fields to Create and Control High Energy Density...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013 Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. All rights reserved. U.S. Department of Energy Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy national...



APPLI ATIONS & INDUSTRIES ENEFITS Pulsed Power Oil Exploration Capacitors Refer to SD # 12119 Thermistors Transducers Military & Defense Automotive


A High Density Polarized Hydrogen Gas Target for Storage Rings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a storage ring to study the target characteristics (nuclear polarization, target thickness, radiation 10 13 ~ H/cm 2 . The target polarization was unaffected by prolonged exposure of the target to beams in the use of polarized gases as internal targets in particle storage rings 1 . The first application


PLZT Nano-Precursors for High Energy Density Applications  

To improve the manufacturing and performance of ceramic materials Sandia National Laboratories has developed a method for synthesizing lanthanum-doped lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) nanoparticle precursors.


Joint Statement on Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mar 27, 2012 We, the leaders of Belgium, France, the United States and the Republic of Korea gathered in Seoul on the occasion of the Second Nuclear Security Summit recognize that...


High-density nanopore array for selective biomolecule transport.  

SciTech Connect

Development of sophisticated tools capable of manipulating molecules at their own length scale enables new methods for chemical synthesis and detection. Although nanoscale devices have been developed to perform individual tasks, little work has been done on developing a truly scalable platform: a system that combines multiple components for sequential processing, as well as simultaneously processing and identifying the millions of potential species that may be present in a biological sample. The development of a scalable micro-nanofluidic device is limited in part by the ability to combine different materials (polymers, metals, semiconductors) onto a single chip, and the challenges with locally controlling the chemical, electrical, and mechanical properties within a micro or nanochannel. We have developed a unique construct known as a molecular gate: a multilayered polymer based device that combines microscale fluid channels with nanofluidic interconnects. Molecular gates have been demonstrated to selectively transport molecules between channels based on size or charge. In order to fully utilize these structures, we need to develop methods to actively control transport and identify species inside a nanopore. While previous work has been limited to creating electrical connections off-channel or metallizing the entire nanopore wall, we now have the ability to create multiple, separate conductive connections at the interior surface of a nanopore. These interior electrodes will be used for direct sensing of biological molecules, probing the electrical potential and charge distribution at the surface, and to actively turn on and off electrically driven transport of molecules through nanopores.

Patel, Kamlesh D.



Innovative High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

module that's able to generate and store electricity on its own? Or an electric vehicle (EV) powered by a technology more durable than the advanced batteries in today's EVs?...


Supercapacitor CCTO for High Energy Density Storage^x  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New materials and novel engineering approaches are needed to overcome the challenges facing the society to minimize its dependence on fossil fuel.


Replacing Critical Rare Earth Materials in High Energy Density ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... magnet motors (IPM) for hybride and electric vehicles and direct drive wind generators. Current motor designs use rare earth permanent magnets which easily ...


Fabrication and Electrical Properties of High Energy Density Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2009. Symposium, Ferroelectrics and Multiferroics. Presentation Title, Nano-Scale PLZT ...



DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for preparing millimeter-size, highdensity thorium oxide particles suitable for fabrication into nuclear reactor feel elements by means of vibratory compaction. A thorium oxide gel containing 3.7 to 7 weight per cent residual volatile nitrate and water is prepared by drying a thorium oxide sol. The gel is then slowly heated to a temperature of about 450DEC, and the resulting gel fragments are calcined. The starting sol is prepared by repeated dispersion of oxalate-source thorium oxide in a nitrate system or by dispersion of steam-denitrated thorium oxide in water. (AEC)

McCorkle, K.H.; Kleinsteuber, A.T.; Schilling, C.E.; Dean, O.C.



High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program | National Nuclear...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure...


High Density Nanocrystalline Rare Earth and Dysprosium-free ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterization of Indonesia Rare Earth Minerals and their Potential Processing Techniques · Characterization of Rare Earth Minerals with Field Emission ...


MEMS Fuel Cells – Low Temp – High Power Density  

The miniature fuel-cell technology uses thin-film fuel ... Reduced life cycle cost in comparison to ... for the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security ...


Activities of the High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3-4, 2008 Livermore, CA on behalf of the HEDLP FESAC subpanel #12;"joint HEDLP program [OFES+NNSA and 28 contributed talks M. Donovan (NNSA) NNSA perspective G. Nardella (OFES) OFES perspective HEDLP #12;IFE HEDLP science: conventional and alternative concepts · Conventional ICF (NNSA funded


ESS 2012 Peer Review - Novel High Energy Density Dielectrics...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Response Time Cost Electrolytic Temperature Energy Response Time Cost Temperature Energy Response Time Cost Polymer Film Ceramic Temp Energy Response Time Cost 10C...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Application of a High-Density Oligonucleotide Microarray ...  

When uranium mining and processing for nuclear weapons ... (Santa Clara, CA), directly onto a 1.28-cm by 1.28-cm glassl; Applied Biosystems, Foster Ci ...


Densities of Ethylbenzene + n-Heptane Mixtures at High ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... IM AbdulagatovC,S Institute for Geothermal Problems of the Dagestan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Makhachkala ...




DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for the preparation of highdensity UO/sub 2/ from UF/sub 6/. In accordance with the invention, UF/sub 6/ is reacted with water and concentrated ammonium hydroxide is added to the resulting aqueous solution of UO/ sub 2/F/sub 2/. The resulting precipitate is calcined to U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ an d the U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is reduced to UO/sub 2/ with a gaseous mixture comprised of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide at a temperature of from 1600 to 1900 deg C.

Googin, J.M.



Phonon Density of States and High Temperature Thermodynamics ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Inelastic neutron scattering spectra were measured from 7 to 750 K on ... of Intrinsic Localized Modes Observed in the Vibrational Spectrum Of NaI ... Reaction Pathways of Methane Decomposition on Cu Surface from Ab Initio ...


High-density thermoelectric power generation and nanoscale thermal metrology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric power generation has been around for over 50 years but has seen very little large scale implementation due to the inherently low efficiencies and powers available from known materials. Recent material advances ...

Mayer, Peter (Peter Matthew), 1978-



Hydrodynamical modeling of targets compression to high densities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by composite schemes on moving grid. Both models also include heat conductivity. The quotidian equation, E is total energy and heat flux W is given by W = - grad T (2) where T is temperature and is heat note that for most presented computations the heat conductivity is negligible. The above system

Limpouch, Jiri


High strength and density tungsten-uranium alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alloys of tungsten and uranium and a method for making the alloys. The amount of tungsten present in the alloys is from about 55 vol % to about 85 vol %. A porous preform is made by sintering consolidated tungsten powder. The preform is impregnated with molten uranium such that (1) uranium fills the pores of the preform to form uranium in a tungsten matrix or (2) uranium dissolves portions of the preform to form a continuous uranium phase containing tungsten particles.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)



Cooling of high-power-density computer components  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report summarizes work carried out during the first two years of a research program sponsored by IBM Corporation. This study has elucidated a number of the heat-transfer characteristics of several fluorochemicals which ...

Bergles A. E.



High force density linear permanent magnet motors : "electromagnetic muscle actuators"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Actuator performance represents a key constraint on the capability of many engineered devices. Performance of these devices is often exceeded by their muscle-powered natural counterparts, inspiring the development of new, ...

Ruddy, Bryan P. (Bryan Paul), 1983-



High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 fuel cells - Demonstrate durability of the kinetic mass activity against DOE- specified voltage cycling tests in fuel cells - Achieve high current density performance in H 2 air...


Pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste comprising polyethyleneterephthalate and polyethylene to sequentially recover  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO)



The use of high glass temperature polymers in the production of transparent, structured surfaces using nanoimprint lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polymers with high glass transition temperatures, fluorinated ethylene propylene copolymer (FEP) and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN), have been used in imprint lithography as a protective support layer and as a secondary mould, to imprint superficial ... Keywords: Embossing, Nanoimprint lithography, Polymer Engineering

Christopher A. Mills; Javier G. Fernandez; Abdelhamid Errachid; Josep Samitier



Viscoelasticity and primitive path analysis of entangled polymer liquids: From f-actin to polyethylene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We combine computer simulations and scaling arguments to develop a unified view of polymer entanglement based on the primitive path analysis (PPA) of the microscopic topological state. Our results agree with experimentally measured plateau moduli for three different polymer classes over a wide rangeof reduced polymer densities: (i) semi-dilute theta solutions of synthetic polymers, (ii) the corresponding dense melts above the glass transition or crystallization temperature, and (iii) solutions of semi-flexible (bio)polymers such as f-actin or suspensions of rodlike viruses. Together these systems cover the entire range from loosely to tightly entangled polymers. In particular, we argue that the primitive path analysis renormalizes a loosely to a tightly entangled system and provide a new explanation of the successful Lin-Noolandi packing conjecture for polymer melts.

Nariya Uchida; Gary S. Grest; Ralf Everaers



Definition: Power density | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

density density Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Power density The rate of energy flow (power) per unit volume, area or mass. Common metrics include: horsepower per cubic inch, watts per square meter and watts per kilogram.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Power density (or volume power density or volume specific power) is the amount of power (time rate of energy transfer) per unit volume. In energy transformers like batteries, fuel cells, motors, etc. but also power supply units or similar, power density refers to a volume. It is then also called volume power density which is expressed as W/m. Volume power density is sometimes an important consideration where space is constrained. In reciprocated internal combustion engines, power density- power per swept



DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reactor is described in which natural-uranium bodies are located in parallel channels which extend through the graphite mass in a regular lattice. The graphite mass has additional channels that are out of the lattice and contain no uranium. These additional channels decrease in number per unit volume of graphite from the center of the reactor to the exterior and have the effect of reducing the density of the graphite more at the center than at the exterior, thereby spreading neutron activity throughout the reactor. (AEC)

Marshall, J. Jr.



Ducted kinetic Alfven waves in plasma with steep density gradients  

SciTech Connect

Given their high plasma density (n {approx} 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}), it is theoretically possible to excite Alfven waves in a conventional, moderate length (L {approx} 2 m) helicon plasma source. However, helicon plasmas are decidedly inhomogeneous, having a steep radial density gradient, and typically have a significant background neutral pressure. The inhomogeneity introduces regions of kinetic and inertial Alfven wave propagation. Ion-neutral and electron-neutral collisions alter the Alfven wave dispersion characteristics. Here, we present the measurements of propagating kinetic Alfven waves in helium helicon plasma. The measured wave dispersion is well fit with a kinetic model that includes the effects of ion-neutral damping and that assumes the high density plasma core defines the radial extent of the wave propagation region. The measured wave amplitude versus plasma radius is consistent with the pile up of wave magnetic energy at the boundary between the kinetic and inertial regime regions.

Houshmandyar, Saeid [Solar Observatory Department, Prairie View A and M University, Prairie View, Texas 77446 (United States); Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Scime, Earl E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)



Effects of select fluids on the friction of metal-on-polyethylene joint replacement surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lubricants are important factors in the tribology of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) surfaces, which are primarily comprised of a polished metallic or ceramic component articulating on an Ultra-High Molecular Weight ...

Chang, Timothy C. (Timothy Chan), 1979-



Density Changes in the Optimized CSSX Solvent System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Density increases in caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) solvent have been observed in separate experimental programs performed by different groups of researchers. Such changes indicate a change in chemical composition. Increased density adversely affects separation of solvent from denser aqueous solutions present in the CSSX process. Identification and control of factors affecting solvent density are essential for design and operation of the centrifugal contactors. The goals of this research were to identify the factors affecting solvent density (composition) and to develop correlations between easily measured solvent properties (density and viscosity) and the chemical composition of the solvent, which will permit real-time determination and adjustment of the solvent composition. In evaporation experiments, virgin solvent was subjected to evaporation under quiescent conditions at 25, 35, and 45 C with continuously flowing dry air passing over the surface of the solvent. Density and viscosity were measured periodically, and chemical analysis was performed on the solvent samples. Chemical interaction tests were completed to determine if any chemical reaction takes place over extended contact time that changes the composition and/or physical properties. Solvent and simulant, solvent and strip solution, and solvent and wash solution were contacted continuously in agitated flasks. They were periodically sampled and the density measured (viscosity was also measured on some samples) and then submitted to the Chemical Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory for analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using the virgin solvent as the baseline. Chemical interaction tests showed that solvent densities and viscosities did not change appreciably during contact with simulant, strip, or wash solution. No effects on density and viscosity and no chemical changes in the solvent were noted within experimental limits. Evaporation test results showed that all solvents were evaporated to densities of greater than 0.90 g/cm{sup 3}. Viscosities increased from 3.5 to >6.5 cP as the densities increased. NMR and HPLC data indicate that diluent loss is the primary reason for density increase and that the ratio of BOBCalixC6 (referred to as calix) to Cs-7SB remained almost constant. Density and viscosity vary linearly with the loss of diluent and the increase in Cs-7SB concentration. Solvent viscosity and density are both sensitive indicators of the loss of diluent, especially when such loss is greater than 10%. However, density is more reliable at low values for diluent loss. The ratio of Cs-7SB to calix appears relatively constant during evaporation to losses of more than 50% of the diluent. A simple density model accurately predicts the composition of the solvent when density is known. Density and viscosity increases can affect the throughput in the centrifugal contactors and, at the extreme, can cause complete loss of flow. The distribution coefficient can also increase, especially in the strip stage, causing the loss of the ability to strip extracted cesium from the solvent. These effects can be addressed by internal changes to the contactor and by adding additional stripping stages in processing. However, these changes are extremely difficult under remote operation and maintenance restrictions.

Lee, D.D.



Competition between superconductivity and spin density wave  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Hubbard model has been investigated widely by many authors, while this work may be new in two aspects. One, we focus on the possible effects of the positions of the gaps associated with the pairing and the spin density wave. Two, we suggest that the models with different parameters are appropriate for different materials (or a material in different doped regions). This will lead to some new insights into the high temperature superconductors. It is shown that the SDW can appear at some temperature region when the on-site Coulomb interaction is larger, while the SC requires a decreased U at a lower temperature. This can qualitatively explain the relationship between superconducting and pseudogap states of Cu-based superconductors in underdoped and optimally doped regions. The superinsulator is also discussed.

Tian De Cao




SciTech Connect

Temporally resolved electron density measurements of solar flare plasmas are presented using data from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The EVE spectral range contains emission lines formed between 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 7} K, including transitions from highly ionized iron ({approx}>10 MK). Using three density-sensitive Fe XXI ratios, peak electron densities of 10{sup 11.2}-10{sup 12.1} cm{sup -3} were found during four X-class flares. While previous measurements of densities at such high temperatures were made at only one point during a flaring event, EVE now allows the temporal evolution of these high-temperature densities to be determined at 10 s cadence. A comparison with GOES data revealed that the peak of the density time profiles for each line ratio correlated well with that of the emission measure time profile for each of the events studied.

Milligan, Ryan O.; Kennedy, Michael B.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Flat Central Density Profile and Constant DM Surface Density in Galaxies from Scalar Field Dark Matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The scalar field dark matter (SFDM) model proposes that galaxies form by condensation of a scalar field (SF) very early in the universe forming Bose-Einstein Condensates (BEC) drops, i.e., in this model haloes of galaxies are gigantic drops of SF. Here big structures form like in the LCDM model, by hierarchy, thus all the predictions of the LCDM model at big scales are reproduced by SFDM. This model predicts that all galaxies must be very similar and exist for bigger redshifts than in the LCDM model. In this work we show that BEC dark matter haloes fit high-resolution rotation curves of a sample of thirteen low surface brightness galaxies. We compare our fits to those obtained using a Navarro-Frenk-White and Pseudo-Isothermal (PI) profiles and found a better agreement with the SFDM and PI profiles. The mean value of the logarithmic inner density slopes is -0.27 +/- 0.18. As a second result we find a natural way to define the core radius with the advantage of being model-independent. Using this new definition in the BEC density profile we find that the recent observation of the constant dark matter central surface density can be reproduced. We conclude that in light of the difficulties that the standard model is currently facing the SFDM model can be a worthy alternative to keep exploring further.

Victor H. Robles; Tonatiuh Matos



Transit, Density, and Residential Satisfaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-Speed Rail," Fourteenth Australasian Transport ResearchRail Transit Stations and Property Values: A Hedonic Price Approach," in Transportation Research

Shaw, John G.



The low-energy nuclear density of states and the saddle point approximation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The nuclear density of states plays an important role in nuclear reactions. At high energies, above a few MeV, the nuclear density of states is well described by a formula that depends on the smooth single particle density of states at the Fermi surface, the nuclear shell correction and the pairing energy. In this paper we present an analysis of the low energy behaviour of the nuclear density of states using the saddle point approximation and extensions to it. Furthermore, we prescribe a simple parabolic form for excitation energy, in the low energy limit, which may facilitate an easy computation of level densities.

Sanjay K. Ghosh; Byron K. Jennings



Pressure induced Superconductivity in the Charge Density Wave Compound Tritelluride  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of high-pressure electrical resistivity measurements on single crystals of TbTe{sub 3} reveal a complex phase diagram involving the interplay of superconducting, antiferromagnetic and charge density wave order. The onset of superconductivity reaches a maximum of almost 4 K (onset) near {approx} 12.4 GPa.

Hamlin, J.J.; Zocco, D.A.; Sayles, T.A.; Maple, M.B.; /UC, Davis; Chu, J.-H.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.



Terrace housing : providing quality in higher-density housing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The higher demand of higher-density housing in Bangkok due to the rapid growth of the economy and the use of high-performance materials and modern construction methods has changed the forms of housing from low-rise buildings ...

Atthakor, Songpol



Risk Bounds for Mixture Density Estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we focus on the problem of estimating a bounded density using a finite combination of densities from a given class. We consider the Maximum Likelihood Procedure (MLE) and the greedy procedure described by ...

Rakhlin, Alexander



Polyethylene passive samplers for measuring hydrophobic organic chemical concentrations in sediment porewaters and their use in predicting bioaccumulation in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) from sites near Boston, MA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to determine the hazards posed by hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in sediment beds, the following areas of research were explored: (1) the use of polyethylene (PE) sheets as passive sampling devices in ...

Fernandez, Loretta A. (Loretta Ana)



Method and apparatus for measuring lung density by Compton backscattering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The density of the lung of a patient suffering from pulmonary edema is monitored by irradiating the lung by a single collimated beam of monochromatic photons and measuring the energies of photons compton back-scattered from the lung by a single high-resolution, high-purity germanium detector. A compact system geometry and a unique data extraction scheme are utilized to minimize systematic errors due to the presence of the chestwall and multiple scattering. 11 figs., 1 tab.

Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.



Line Density Indice as an alternative to MK process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

73 broadband optical spectra of dwarf stars later than F0 have been obtained from the Nearby Stars Project website. The number of absorption lines is computed for each spectrum between 6000 and 6200 Angstrom. A correlation is found between the density of lines K$\\lambda$ and the spectral type. This method is independent of calibration process, does not require high resolution or high signal to noise data and does not make use of a large library of standard spectra.

M. Kuassivi



Bivariate density estimation using BV regularisation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of bivariate density estimation is studied with the aim of finding the density function with the smallest number of local extreme values which is adequate with the given data. Adequacy is defined via Kuiper metrics. The concept of the taut-string ... Keywords: Density estimation, Modality, Regularisation

Andreas Obereder; Otmar Scherzer; Arne Kovac



Direct Measurements of Pore Fluid Density by Vibrating Tube Densimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The densities of pore-confined fluids were measured for the first time by means of a vibrating tube method. Isotherms of total adsorption capacity were measured directly making the method complementary to the conventional gravimetric or volumetric/piezometric adsorption techniques, which yield the excess adsorption (the Gibbsian surface excess). A custom-made high-pressure, high-temperature vibrating tube densimeter (VTD) was used to measure the densities of subcritical and supercritical propane (between 35 C and 97 C) and supercritical carbon dioxide (between 32 C and 50 C) saturating hydrophobic silica aerogel (0.2 g/cm3, 90% porosity) synthesized inside Hastelloy U-tubes. Additionally, excess adsorption isotherms for supercritical CO2 and the same porous solid were measured gravimetrically using a precise magnetically-coupled microbalance. Pore fluid densities and total adsorption isotherms increased monotonically with increasing density of the bulk fluid, in contrast to excess adsorption isotherms, which reached a maximum at a subcritical density of the bulk fluid, and then decreased towards zero or negative values at supercritical densities. Compression of the confined fluid significantly beyond the density of the bulk liquid at the same temperature was observed at subcritical temperatures. The features of the isotherms of confined fluid density are interpreted to elucidate the observed behavior of excess adsorption. The maxima of excess adsorption were found to occur below the critical density of the bulk fluid at the conditions corresponding to the beginning of the plateau of total adsorption, marking the end of the transition of pore fluid to a denser, liquid-like pore phase. The results for propane and carbon dioxide showed similarity in the sense of the principle of corresponding states. No measurable effect of pore confinement on the liquid-vapor critical point was found. Quantitative agreement was obtained between excess adsorption isotherms determined from VTD total adsorption results and those measured gravimetrically at the same temperature, confirming the validity of the vibrating tube measurements. Vibrating tube densimetry was demonstrated as a novel experimental approach capable of providing the average density of pore-confined fluids.

Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw {Mirek} S [ORNL; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL; Wallacher, Dirk [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin



Experimental Verification of Thermo-Mechanical Models for Cross-Linked Polyethylene Cable in Pipes and Ducts: Interim Report on First Cable Test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2002, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) began investigations of the thermo-mechanical (T-M) behavior of transmission-class cable systems with extruded insulation in duct-manhole and pipe systems and began work on a design guide. The project consisted primarily of two efforts: experimental measurement of cable parameters and development of a mathematical simulation of the thermal and mechanical behavior of transmission-class cable with extruded cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) ...



Program on Technology Innovation: Evaluation of Moisture Influence on Cross-Linked Polyethylene/Silica Nanodielectrics for Utility C able Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water (electrochemical) treeing is a major failure mechanism of utility polymeric power cables. Before nanodielectrics can be seriously considered as cable insulation, it is imperative that their performance be examined in an aqueous environment. This report describes the processes of moisture migration in (filled) polymers, documents experimental work in the temporal and spatial migration of water in nanocomposites in comparison with conventional cross-linked polyethylene, and describes water treeing ch...



High modulus carbon fiber/titanium laminates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Titanium has been used to meet ever-stricter standards for high-temperature performance, creep resistance, low weight and high strength. Having low density, a high melting point, and high tensile strength, it seems like ...

Tsang, Lina



Low density microcellular carbon foams and method of preparation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low density, open-celled microcellular carbon foam is disclosed which is prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer or copolymer in a solvent, pouring the solution into a mold, cooling the solution, removing the solvent, and then carbonizing the polymer or copolymer in a high temperature oven to produce the foam. If desired, an additive can be introduced in order to produce a doped carbon foam, and the foams can be made isotropic by selection of a suitable solvent. The low density, microcellular foams produced by this process are particularly useful in the fabrication of inertial confinement fusion targets, but can also be used as catalysts, absorbents, and electrodes.

Arnold, C. Jr.; Aubert, J.H.; Clough, R.L.; Rand, P.B.; Sylwester, A.P.



Low density microcellular carbon foams and method of preparation  

SciTech Connect

A low density, open-celled microcellular carbon foam is disclosed which is prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer or copolymer in a solvent, pouring the solution into a mold, cooling the solution, removing the solvent, and then carbonizing the polymer or copolymer in a high temperature oven to produce the foam. If desired, an additive can be introduced in order to produce a doped carbon foam, and the foams can be made isotropic by selection of a suitable solvent. The low density, microcellular foams produced by this process are particularly useful in the fabrication of inertial confinement fusion targets, but can also be used as catalysts, absorbents, and electrodes.

Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Aubert, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Rand, Peter B. (Albuquerque, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM)



Transport Energy Use and Population Density  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transport Energy Use and Population Density Transport Energy Use and Population Density Speaker(s): Masayoshi Tanishita Date: July 1, 2004 - 10:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Jonathan Sinton After Peter Newman and Jeffrey Kenworthy published "Cities and Automobile Dependence" in 1989, population density was brought to public attention as an important factor to explain transport mobility and energy use. However, several related issues still remain open: Is an increase in population density more effective than rising gas prices in reducing transport energy use? How much does per capita transport energy use change as population density in cities changes? And what kind of factors influence changes in population density? In this presentation, using city-level data in the US, Japan and other countries, the population-density elasticity of


Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Dynamics in Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Based Lithium Polyether-ester-sulfonate Ionomers  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium sulfonate ionomer samples that have low glass transition temperatures. 1H and 7Li spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of the bulk polymer and lithium ions, respectively, were analyzed in samples with a range of ion contents. The temperature dependence of T1 values along with the presence of minima in T1 enabled correlation times and activation energies to be obtained for both the segmental motion of the polymer backbone and the hopping motion of lithium cations. Similar activation energies of both the polymer and lithium ions in the lower ion content samples indicate that the polymer segmental motion and lithium ion hopping motion are correlated even though their respective correlation times differ significantly. A divergent trend is observed for correlation times and activation energies of the highest ion content sample due to the presence of ionic aggregation. Details about the polymer and cation dynamics on the nanosecond timescale are discussed and complement the findings of X-ray scattering and Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering experiments.

Roach, David J.; Dou, Shichen; Colby, Ralph H.; Mueller, Karl T.



Influence of defects and processing parameters on the properties of indium tin oxide films on polyethylene napthalate substrate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polyethylene napthalate (PEN) by rf sputtering using different rf powers (60 and 120 W) and at different substrate temperatures (room temperature and 100 deg. C). Selected PEN substrates were pretreated using an Ar plasma before ITO sputter deposition. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry was used to determine the oxygen content in the films. Hall effect measurements were used to evaluate the electrical properties. In this paper the influence of defect structure, sputtering conditions, and the effect of annealing on the electrical and optical properties of ITO on PEN have been investigated. Electrical properties such as carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity of the ITO films varied with rf power and substrate temperature. The electrical and optical properties of the films changed after annealing in air. This study also describes how the as-deposited amorphous ITO changes from amorphous to crystalline as a result of heat treatment, and investigates the effects of Sn defect clustering on electrical and optical properties of the ITO films.

Han, H.; Zoo, Yeongseok; Bhagat, S. K.; Lewis, J. S.; Alford, T. L. [School of Materials, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-8706 (United States); Center for Materials and Electronic Technologies, RTI International, P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709-2194 (United States); School of Materials and Flexible Display Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-8706 (United States)



Tunable Laser Plasma Accelerator based on Longitudinal Density Tailoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser plasma accelerators have produced high-quality electron beams with GeV energies from cm-scale devices and are being investigated as hyperspectral fs light sources producing THz to {gamma}-ray radiation and as drivers for future high-energy colliders. These applications require a high degree of stability, beam quality and tunability. Here we report on a technique to inject electrons into the accelerating field of a laser-driven plasma wave and coupling of this injector to a lower-density, separately tunable plasma for further acceleration. The technique relies on a single laser pulse powering a plasma structure with a tailored longitudinal density profile, to produce beams that can be tuned in the range of 100-400 MeV with percent-level stability, using laser pulses of less than 40 TW. The resulting device is a simple stand-alone accelerator or the front end for a multistage higher-energy accelerator.

Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shiraishi, Satomi; Sokollik, Thomas; Benedetti, Carlo; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high density polyethylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


On the Density of PBH's in the Galactic Halo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Calculations of the rate of local Primordial Black Hole explosions often assume that the PBH's can be highly concentrated into galaxies, thereby weakening the Page-Hawking limit on the cosmological density of PBH's. But if the PBH's are concentrated by a factor exceeding $c/(H_\\circ R_\\circ) \\approx 4 \\times 10^5$, where $R_\\circ = 8.5$ kpc is the scale of the Milky Way, then the steady emission from the PBH's in the halo will produce an anisotropic high latitude diffuse gamma ray intensity larger than the observed anisotropy. This provides a limit on the rate-density of evaporating PBH's of $\\lesssim 0.4$~pc$^{-3}$yr$^{-1}$ which is more than 6 orders of magnitude lower than recent experimental limits. However, the weak observed anisotropic high latitude diffuse gamma ray intensity is consistent with the idea that the dark matter that closes the Universe is Planck mass remnants of evaporated black holes.

Edward L. Wright



Modelling charge transfer reactions with the frozen density embedding formalism  

SciTech Connect

The frozen density embedding (FDE) subsystem formulation of density-functional theory is a useful tool for studying charge transfer reactions. In this work charge-localized, diabatic states are generated directly with FDE and used to calculate electronic couplings of hole transfer reactions in two {pi}-stacked nucleobase dimers of B-DNA: 5{sup '}-GG-3{sup '} and 5{sup '}-GT-3{sup '}. The calculations rely on two assumptions: the two-state model, and a small differential overlap between donor and acceptor subsystem densities. The resulting electronic couplings agree well with benchmark values for those exchange-correlation functionals that contain a high percentage of exact exchange. Instead, when semilocal GGA functionals are used the electronic couplings are grossly overestimated.

Pavanello, Michele [Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Neugebauer, Johannes [Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 10, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)




Open Energy Info (EERE)

TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF FRACTURE DIRECTIONS AND FRACTURE DENSITIES IN THE TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF FRACTURE DIRECTIONS AND FRACTURE DENSITIES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD FROM ANALYSES OF SHEAR-WAVE SPLITTING Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF FRACTURE DIRECTIONS AND FRACTURE DENSITIES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD FROM ANALYSES OF SHEAR-WAVE SPLITTING Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: This project aims to improve understanding of the subsurface fracture system in the Coso geothermal field, located in the east central California. We applied shear-wave splitting technique on a set of high quality, locally recorded microearthquake (MEQ) data. Four major fracture directions have been identified from the seismograms recorded by the permanent sixteen-station down-hole array: N10- 20W, NS, N20E, and N40-45E,


Relativistic Nuclear Energy Density Functionals: adjusting parameters to binding energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study a particular class of relativistic nuclear energy density functionals in which only nucleon degrees of freedom are explicitly used in the construction of effective interaction terms. Short-distance (high-momentum) correlations, as well as intermediate and long-range dynamics, are encoded in the medium (nucleon density) dependence of the strength functionals of an effective interaction Lagrangian. Guided by the density dependence of microscopic nucleon self-energies in nuclear matter, a phenomenological ansatz for the density-dependent coupling functionals is accurately determined in self-consistent mean-field calculations of binding energies of a large set of axially deformed nuclei. The relationship between the nuclear matter volume, surface and symmetry energies, and the corresponding predictions for nuclear masses is analyzed in detail. The resulting best-fit parametrization of the nuclear energy density functional is further tested in calculations of properties of spherical and deformed medium-heavy and heavy nuclei, including binding energies, charge radii, deformation parameters, neutron skin thickness, and excitation energies of giant multipole resonances.

T. Niksic; D. Vretenar; P. Ring



Role of ponderomotive density modification in IBW loading  

SciTech Connect

We solve numerically a second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation [1] that describes EPW-IBW mode transformation at the lower-hybrid layer, including self-consistent ponderomotive density profile modification, for the electrostatic potential in front of the IBW antenna. The model is solved for the particular case of heating just below the second harmonic of the deuterium cyclotron frequency. Background density and temperature profiles are chosen to be appropriate for the IBW experiments on TFTR. We calculate the complex antenna impedance, assuming vacuum within the antenna box, and a local reflectivity which reveal diminished antenna loading with increasing ponderomotive pressure, compared to the linear prediction. The ponderomotive force steepens the density gradient in the edge plasma, thus enhancing reflection and lowering the loading resistance. The model also describes the direct launch of IBWs in high edge density regimes, lacking a lower-hybrid layer, where the impedance is found to be much smaller than in the low density regime. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Russell, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; DIppolito, D.A. [Lodestar Research Corp., 2400 Central Ave. P-5, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)



The Quantum Energy Density: Improved E  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We establish a physically meaningful representation of a quantum energy density for use in Quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The energy density operator, dened in terms of Hamiltonian components and density operators, returns the correct Hamiltonian when integrated over a volume containing a cluster of particles. This property is demonstrated for a helium-neon \\gas," showing that atomic energies obtained from the energy density correspond to eigenvalues of isolated systems. The formation energies of defects or interfaces are typically calculated as total energy dierences. Using a model of delta-doped silicon (where dopant atoms form a thin plane) we show how interfacial energies can be calculated more eciently with the energy density, since the region of interest is small. We also demonstrate how the energy density correctly transitions to the bulk limit away from the interface where the correct energy is obtainable from a separate total energy calculation.

Krogel, Jaron [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Yu, Min [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Kim, Jeongnim [ORNL; Ceperley, David M. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign



Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

Zénó Farkas



Application of Precession Electron Diffraction in Density ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, GND density calculations obtained using SEM-based EBSD and transmission electron microscope-based PED techniques in ?+? titanium alloys ...



A method of making a mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogel, including the steps of dispersing nanotubes in an ...


Dynamic Evolution for Risk-Neutral Densities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We solved the scaled formulation for problems (7) and (10) and obtained the dynamic evolution for the densities (see Figure 1). For this data set, we.


Some challenges for Nuclear Density Functional Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss some of the challenges that the DFT community faces in its quest for the truly universal energy density functional applicable over the entire nuclear chart.

T. Duguet; K. Bennaceur; T. Lesinski; J. Meyer



Betatron radiation from density tailored plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Betatron radiation from density tailored plasmas K. Tathe resulting betatron radiation spectrum can therefore bepro?le, the betatron radiation emitted by theses electrons

Ta Phuoc, Kim



3-D capacitance density imaging system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved. 7 figs.

Fasching, G.E.



Tractable Analytic Expressions for the Wind Speed Probability Density Functions Using Expansions of Orthogonal Polynomials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of the two-parameter Weibull function as an estimator of the wind speed probability density function (PDF) is known to be problematic when a high accuracy of fit is required, such as in the computation of the wind power density function. ...

Mark L. Morrissey; J. Scott Greene



Power Density Primer: Understanding the Spatial Dimension of the Unfolding Transition to Renewable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-driven process; this will be followed by power densities of three new renewable conversions: a thermal station densities resulting from disparities in coal quality, fuel delivery and power plant operation. The highest capacity of 1 GWe) mine-mouth power plant (supplied by high-capacity conveyors or short-haul trucking

Smil, Vaclav


Density matrix, superconductivity and molecular structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Starting from Yang`s offdiagonal long-range order concept and the macroscopic occupation condition for the second order density matrix as the basis for condensation phenomena the authors develop the notion that the extremal wave function (EWF), which is related to these conditions, leads to superconductivity in monatomic systems. It is proven that the BCS model and the version where it is projected onto a fixed number of particles possesses EWF properties, differs negligibly from the EWF, and conserves offdiagonal long-range order. The condition for the EWF to be energetically favored is the presence of macroscopic degenerate one-electron energy levels in the system, partial occupation of this degenerate region, and also an effective attraction among the electrons. Considerations are advanced indicating that these conditions are satisfied in the high temperature superconducting metal oxide ceramics, due to the presence of macroscopically degenerate diffusion orbitals distributed among the O{sup -} ions in the CuO{sub 2} layers, and with the effective screening of these layers by the metal-like La, Ba, Y, or O layers. 51 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Mestechkin, M.M.; Klimko, G.T.; Vaiman, G.E. [Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR, Donetsk (Russian Federation)



Stationary self-focusing of intense laser beam in cold quantum plasma using ramp density profile  

SciTech Connect

By using a transient density profile, we have demonstrated stationary self-focusing of an electromagnetic Gaussian beam in cold quantum plasma. The paper is devoted to the prospects of using upward increasing ramp density profile of an inhomogeneous nonlinear medium with quantum effects in self-focusing mechanism of high intense laser beam. We have found that the upward ramp density profile in addition to quantum effects causes much higher oscillation and better focusing of laser beam in cold quantum plasma in comparison to that in the classical relativistic case. Our computational results reveal the importance and influence of formation of electron density profiles in enhancing laser self-focusing.

Habibi, M. [Department of Physics, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghamari, F. [Department of Physics, Khorramabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)



The discharge condition to enhance electron density of capacitively coupled plasma with multi-holed electrode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The multi-holed electrode that has been reported to enhance the electron density of the capacitively coupled plasma is now being adopted to speed up the processes. However, the discharge condition when the multi-holed electrode enhances the electron density of the discharge at fixed power is not studied. At low pressure, the multi-holed electrode increased the electron density of the plasma at fixed power. However, the multi-holed electrode is experimentally revealed to lower the electron density at high pressure. In this paper, the different roles of the multi-holed electrode are experimentally studied.

Lee, Hun Su [Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do, 565-902 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun Seong; Chang, Hong Young [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)



Magneto-optical imaging of transport current densities in superconductors  

SciTech Connect

Direct imaging of the paths of transport currents in superconductors creates many new possibilities for exploring the basic features of vortex pinning mechanisms and for improving the performance of superconducting materials. A technique for imaging the path and magnitude of the transport current density flowing in superconductors is described. Results are given for a 37-filament BSCCO 2223 powder-in-tube wire, showing a highly inhomogeneous current path within the filaments.

Crabtree, G.W.; Welp, U.; Gunter, D.O.; Zhong, W.; Balachandran, U. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Haldar, P.; Sokolowski, R.S. [Intermagnetics General Corp., Latham, NY (United States); Vlasko-Vlasov, V.K.; Nikitenko, V.I. [Inst. for Solid State Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)



Energy Density Functional for Nuclei and Neutron Stars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Background: Recent observational data on neutron star masses and radii provide stringent constraints on the equation of state of neutron rich matter [ Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 62 485 (2012)]. Purpose: We aim to develop a nuclear energy density functional that can be simultaneously applied to finite nuclei and neutron stars. Methods: We use the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory (DFT) with Skyrme energy density functionals and covariance analysis to assess correlations between observables for finite nuclei and neutron stars. In a first step two energy functionals a high density energy functional giving reasonable neutron properties, and a low density functional fitted to nuclear properties are matched. In a second step, we optimize a new functional using exactly the same protocol as in earlier studies pertaining to nuclei but now including neutron star data. This allows direct comparisons of performance of the new functional relative to the standard one. Results: The new functional TOV-min yields results for nuclear bulk properties (energy, rms radius, diffraction radius, and surface thickness) that are of the same quality as those obtained with the established Skyrme functionals, including SV-min. When comparing SV-min and TOV-min, isoscalar nuclear matter indicators vary slightly while isovector properties are changed considerably. We discuss neutron skins, dipole polarizability, separation energies of the heaviest elements, and proton and neutron drip lines. We confirm a correlation between the neutron skin of 208Pb and the neutron star radius. Conclusions: We demonstrate that standard energy density functionals optimized to nuclear data do not carry information on the expected maximum neutron star mass, and that predictions can only be made within an extremely broad uncertainty band. For atomic nuclei, the new functional TOV-min performs at least as well as the standard nuclear functionals, but it also reproduces expected neutron star data within assumed error bands. This functional is expected to yield more reliable predictions in the region of very neutron rich heavy nuclei.

Erler, J. [UTK/ORNL/German Cancer Research Center-Heidelberg; Horowitz, C. J. [UTK/ORNL/Indiana University; Nazarewicz, Witold [UTK/ORNL/University of Warsaw; Rafalski, M. [UTK/ORNL; Reinhard, P.-G. [Universitat Erlangen, Germany


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Estimate of dielectric density using spectroscopic ellipsometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The optical dielectric functions for hafnium oxide and hafnium silicate films were extracted from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements and the density then calculated using a previously proposed method. The values obtained were then compared to those ... Keywords: Density, Gadolinium oxide, Hafnium silicate, Medium energy ion scattering, Spectroscopic ellipsometry, X-ray reflectometry

W. Davey; O. Buiu; M. Werner; I. Z. Mitrovic; S. Hall; P. Chalker



Laser light absorption with density profile modifications  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional computer simulations studied plasma heating by electron plasma waves. The results emphasize the importance of nonlinear steepening of the density profile near the critical density. A typical simulation result is presented in order to illustrate these profile modifications. It is shown that large dc magnetic field generation is an inherent property of the absorption of obliquely-incident light. (MOW)

Kruer, W.; Valeo, E.; Estabrook, K.; Langdon, B.; Lasinski, B.



High modulus carbon fiber/titanium laminates.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Titanium has been used to meet ever-stricter standards for high-temperature performance, creep resistance, low weight and high strength. Having low density, a high melting point,… (more)

Tsang, Lina



Initial energy density of p+p collisions at the LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accelerating, exact, explicit and simple solutions of relativistic hydrodynamics allow for a simple description of highly relativistic p+p collisions. These solutions yield a finite rapidity distribution, thus they lead to an advanced estimate of the initial energy density of high energy collisions. We show that such an advanced estimate yields an initial energy density in $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV p+p collisions at LHC aroundor above the critical energy density from lattice QCD, and a corresponding initial temperature above the critical temperature from QCD or the Hagedorn temperature. We also show, that several times the critical energy density may have been reached in high multiplicity events, hinting on a non-hadronic medium created in high multiplicity $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV p+p collisions.

Csanad, Mate



Using Probability Density Functions to Derive Consistent Closure Relationships among Higher-Order Moments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parameterizations of turbulence often predict several lower-order moments and make closure assumptions for higher-order moments. In principle, the low- and high-order moments share the same probability density function (PDF). One closure ...

Vincent E. Larson; Jean-Christophe Golaz



Two-photon joint temporal density measurements via ultrafast single-photon upconversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed the technique of two-photon joint temporal density measurements for temporal state characterization, thus facilitating two-photon generation with high temporal entanglement or nearly factorizable outputs ...

Wong, Franco N. C.


Determining the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy using heavy-ion reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review recent progress in the determination of the subsaturation density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy from heavy-ion collisions as well as the theoretical progress in probing the high density behavior of the symmetry energy in heavy-ion reactions induced by high energy radioactive beams. We further discuss the implications of these results for the nuclear effective interactions and the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei.

Lie-Wen Chen; Che Ming Ko; Bao-An Li; Gao-Chan Yong



Polyethylene under tensile load: strain energy storage and breaking of linear and knotted alkanes probed by first-principles molecular dynamics calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mechanical resistance of a polyethylene strand subject to tension and the way its properties are affected by the presence of a knot is studied using first-principles molecular dynamics calculations. The distribution of strain energy for the knotted chains has a well-defined shape that is very different from the one found in the linear case. The presence of a knot significantly weakens the chain in which it is tied. Chain rupture invariably occurs just outside the entrance to the knot, as is the case for a macroscopic rope.

A. Marco Saitta; Michael L. Klein



Wave localization and density bunching in pair ion plasmas  

SciTech Connect

By investigating the nonlinear propagation of high intensity electromagnetic (EM) waves in a pair ion plasma, whose symmetry is broken via contamination by a small fraction of high mass immobile ions, it is shown that this new and interesting state of (laboratory created) matter is capable of supporting structures that strongly localize and bunch the EM radiation with density excess in the region of localization. Testing of this prediction in controlled laboratory experiments can lend credence, inter alia, to conjectures on structure formation (via the same mechanism) in the MEV era of the early universe.

Mahajan, Swadesh M. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Shatashvili, Nana L. [Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi 0128 (Georgia) and Andronikashvili Institute of Physics, Tbilisi 0177, Georgia (United States)



The influence of annual species composition and density on perennial seedling density in four plant communities in the Northern Mojave Desert  

SciTech Connect

According to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987), the US Department of Energy (DOE) must study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for long-term underground storage of high-level nuclear waste. Part of the overall site characterization program is to monitor potential impacts on the biological resources at Yucca Mountain. A part of the biological monitoring program, assessed vegetation parameters included density of annual and perennial seedlings. This data was used to evaluate: (1) seed germination and seed survival; and (2) if annual plant species density and cover influence perennial seedling survival. Twelve permanent 200 {times} 200-m ,study plots were established in each of four vegetation associations present in the Yucca Mountain Project area. During the spring of 1992, 20 to 60, 1-m{sup 2} randomly-located quadrats per study plot were measured for perennial seedl