Sample records for high concentration photovoltaic

  1. Multijunction Photovoltaic Technologies for High-Performance Concentrators: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multijunction solar cells provide high-performance technology pathways leading to potentially low-cost electricity generated from concentrated sunlight. The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has funded different III-V multijunction solar cell technologies and various solar concentration approaches. Within this group of projects, III-V solar cell efficiencies of 41% are close at hand and will likely be reported in these conference proceedings. Companies with well-developed solar concentrator structures foresee installed system costs of $3/watt--half of today's costs--within the next 2 to 5 years as these high-efficiency photovoltaic technologies are incorporated into their concentrator photovoltaic systems. These technology improvements are timely as new large-scale multi-megawatt markets, appropriate for high performance PV concentrators, open around the world.

  2. Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar is growing rapidly, and the concentrating photovoltaics industry-both high- and low-concentration cell approaches-may be ready to ramp production in 2009.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: concentrating photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentrating photovoltaic Sandia and EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency On March 29, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Partnership,...

  4. Organic photovoltaics and concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mapel, Jonathan King

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of light harvesting and charge generation offers several advantages in the design of organic photovoltaics and organic solar concentrators for the ultimate end goal of achieving a lower cost solar electric ...

  5. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  6. Modelling acceptance of sunlight in high and low photovoltaic concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leutz, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.leutz@leopil.com [Leutz Optics and Illumination UG (haftungsbeschränkt), Marburg (Germany)

    2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple model incorporating linear radiation characteristics, along with the optical trains and geometrical concentration ratios of solar concentrators is presented with performance examples for optical trains of HCPV, LCPV and benchmark flat-plate PV.

  7. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  8. High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrator Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Seth

    2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrators project seeks to provide new photovoltaic cells for Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV) Systems with higher cell efficiency, more favorable temperature coefficients and less sensitivity to changes in spectral distribution. The main objective of this project is to provide high efficiency III-V solar cells that will reduce the overall cost per Watt for power generation using CPV systems.This work is focused both on a potential near term application, namely the use of indium arsenide (InAs) QDs to spectrally "tune" the middle (GaAs) cell of a SOA triple junction device to a more favorable effective bandgap, as well as the long term goal of demonstrating intermediate band solar cell effects. The QDs are confined within a high electric field i-region of a standard GaAs solar cell. The extended absorption spectrum (and thus enhanced short circuit current) of the QD solar cell results from the increase in the sub GaAs bandgap spectral response that is achievable as quantum dot layers are introduced into the i-region. We have grown InAs quantum dots by OMVPE technique and optimized the QD growth conditions. Arrays of up to 40 layers of strain balanced quantum dots have been experimentally demonstrated with good material quality, low residual stain and high PL intensity. Quantum dot enhanced solar cells were grown and tested under simulated one sun AM1.5 conditions. Concentrator solar cells have been grown and fabricated with 5-40 layers of QDs. Testing of these devices show the QD cells have improved efficiency compared to baseline devices without QDs. Device modeling and measurement of thermal properties were performed using Crosslight APSYS. Improvements in a triple junction solar cell with the insertion of QDs into the middle current limiting junction was shown to be as high as 29% under one sun illumination for a 10 layer stack QD enhanced triple junction solar cell. QD devices have strong potential for net gains in efficiency at high concentration.

  9. Efficiency enhancement of luminescent solar concentrations for photovoltaic technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to standardize the performance of photovoltaic devices,Performance of organic luminescent solar concentrator photovoltaic

  10. Low-Cost High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Gordon, R.; Dutra, D.; Kinsey, G.; Geer, S.; Gomez, H.; Cameron, C.

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership (TPP) program, Amonix, Inc. developed a new generation of high-concentration photovoltaic systems using multijunction technology and established the manufacturing capacity needed to supply multi-megawatt power plants buing using the new Amonix 7700-series solar energy systems. For this effort, Amonix Collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete project tasks. Subcontractors included: Evonik/Cyro; Hitek; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Raytech; Spectrolab; UL; University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and TUV Rheinland PTL. The Amonix TPP tasks included: Task 1: Multijunction Cell Optimization for Field Operation, Task 2: Fresnel Lens R&D, Task 3: Cell Package Design & Production, Task 4: Standards Compliance and Reliability Testing, Task 5: Receiver Plate Production, Task 6: MegaModule Performance, Task 7: MegaModule Cost Reduction, Task 8: Factory Setup and MegaModule Production, Task 9: Tracker and Tracking Controller, Task 10: Installation and Balance of System (BOS), Task 11: Field Testing, and Task 12: Solar Advisor Modeling and Market Analysis. Amonix's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain from epitaxial layer design and wafer processing through system design, manufacturing, deployment and O&M. Amonix has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of its 28%+ efficient MegaModule, reduced manufacturing and installation cost through design for manufacturing and assembly, automated manufacturing processes, and reduced O&M costs. Program highlights include: (1) Optimized multijunction cell and cell package design to improve performance by > 10%; (2) Updated lens design provided 7% increased performance and higher concentration; (3) 28.7% DC STC MegaModule efficiency achieved in Phase II exceeded Phase III performance goal; (4) New 16' focal length MegaModule achieved target materials and manufacturing cost reduction; (5) Designed and placed into production 25 MW/yr manufacturing capacity for complete MegaModules, including cell packages, receiver plates, and structures with lenses; (6) Designed and deployed Amonix 7700 series systems rated at 63 kW PTC ac and higher. Based on an LCOE assessment using NREL's Solar Advisor Model, Amonix met DOE's LCOE targets: Amonix 2011 LCOE 12.8 cents/kWh (2010 DOE goal 10-15); 2015 LCOE 6.4 cents/kWh (2015 goal 5-7) Amonix and TPP participants would like to thank the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technology Program for funding received under this program through Agreement No. DE-FC36-07GO17042.

  11. Efficiency enhancement of luminescent solar concentrations for photovoltaic technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and V.U. Ho?mann. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Gen- eration.Concentrations for Photovoltaic Technologies A dissertationThirteenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference- 1978—

  12. Concentrating Solar Power Forum Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation's summaries: a convenient truth, comparison of three concentrator technologies, value of high efficiency, and status of industry.

  13. Low-Cost Installation of Concentrating Photovoltaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .5 megawatt power plant for the Pacific Gas and Electric Company near Tracy, CA ­ the first solar related with system components, and traditional solar designs that limit installation locations. Many offerings. Currently, no solar company provides a complete photovoltaic or concentrating photovoltaic

  14. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Clement J. (New Brunswick, NJ)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  15. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  16. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philipps, S. P.; Bett, A. W.; Horowitz, K.; Kurtz, S.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the current status of the market and technology for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cells and modules. Significant progress in CPV has been achieved, including record efficiencies for modules (36.7%) and cells (46%), as well as growth of large field installations in recent years. CPV technology may also have the potential to be cost-competitive on a levelized cost of energy (LCOE) basis in regions of high direct normal irradiance (DNI). The study includes an overview of all installations larger than 1 MW, information on companies currently active in the CPV field, efficiency data, and estimates of the LCOE in different scenarios.

  17. Photovoltaic concentrator initiative: Concentrator cell development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.H.; Narayanan, S. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (US)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves the development of a large-area, low-cost, high-efficiency concentrator solar cell for use in the Entech 22-sun linear-focus Fresnel lens concentrator system. The buried contact solar cell developed at the University of New South Wales was selected for this project. Both Entech and the University of New South Wales are subcontractors. This annual report presents the program efforts from November 1990 through December 1991, including the design of the cell, development of a baseline cell process, and presentation of the results of preliminary cell processing. Important results include a cell designed for operation in a real concentrator system and substitution of mechanical grooving for the previously utilized laser scribing.

  18. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  19. A solar concentrating photovoltaic / thermal collector J.S. Coventry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A solar concentrating photovoltaic / thermal collector J.S. Coventry Centre for Sustainable Energy.Coventry@anu.edu.au Abstract Australia is a good location for solar concentrator applications. Current activities in Australia OF THE SOLAR RESOURCE IN AUSTRALIA Australia has relatively high solar insolation, as shown in figure 1

  20. High-Efficiency, Self-Concentrating Nanoscale Solar Cell - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search High-Efficiency, Self-Concentrating Nanoscale Solar Cell Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact...

  1. Uniform flux dish concentrators for photovoltaic application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G; Wendelin, T

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have designed a unique and innovative molded dish concentrator capable of producing a uniform flux profile on a flat target plane. Concentration levels of 100--200 suns, which are uniform over an area of several square inches, can be directly achieved for collection apertures of a reasonable size ({approximately}1.5-m diameter). Such performance would be immediately applicable to photovoltaic (PV) use. Economic concerns have shown that the proposed approach would be less expensive thatn Fresnel lens concepts or other dish concentrator designs that require complicated and costly receivers to mix the flux to obtain a uniform distribution. 12 refs.

  2. Manufacturing injection-moleded Fresnel lens parquets for point-focus concentrating photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, E.M.; Masso, J.D. [AOtec, Southbridge, MA (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involved the manufacturing of curved-faceted, injection-molded, four-element Fresnel lens parquets for concentrating photovoltaic arrays. Previous efforts showed that high-efficiency (greater than 82%) Fresnel concentrators could be injection molded. This report encompasses the mold design, molding, and physical testing of a four-lens parquet for a solar photovoltaic concentrator system.

  3. High efficiency photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI); Xu, Xi Xiang (Findlay, OH)

    1999-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An N-I-P type photovoltaic device includes a multi-layered body of N-doped semiconductor material which has an amorphous, N doped layer in contact with the amorphous body of intrinsic semiconductor material, and a microcrystalline, N doped layer overlying the amorphous, N doped material. A tandem device comprising stacked N-I-P cells may further include a second amorphous, N doped layer interposed between the microcrystalline, N doped layer and a microcrystalline P doped layer. Photovoltaic devices thus configured manifest improved performance, particularly when configured as tandem devices.

  4. Alpha Solarco`s Photovoltaic Concentrator Development program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A.; Bailor, B.; Carroll, D. [Alpha Solarco, Inc., Phoenix, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the work done under Sandia`s Photovoltaic Concentrator Development contract, funded jointly by Alpha Solarco and the US Department of Energy. It discusses improvements made to the cell assembly and module design of Alpha Solarco`s point-focus, high-concentration photovoltaic module. The goals of this effort were to increase the module efficiency, reduce the manufacturing cost of the cell assembly, and increase product reliability. Redesign of the secondary optical element achieved a 4 percent increase in efficiency due to better cell fill factors and offtrack performance. New, lower cost materials were identified for the secondary optical element, the optical couple between the secondary optical element and the cell, and the cell assembly electrical insulator. Manufacturing process improvements and test equipment are also discussed.

  5. Design Strategies for Ultra-high Efficiency Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    Design Strategies for Ultra-high Efficiency Photovoltaics Thesis by Emily Cathryn Warmann, who reminds me that this is fun and interesting. iv #12;Abstract While concentrator photovoltaic cells, the over all module efficiency drops to only 34 to 36%. T

  6. Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanker, Daniel

    Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density Keith Mathieson1,4 , James Loudin1 to stimulating electrodes via intraocular cables. We present a photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis, in which pixel, demonstrating the possibility of a fully integrated photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high

  7. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO); Wojtczuk, Steve (Cambridge, MA); Jacobson, Gerard F. (Livermore, CA); Hagans, Karla G. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  8. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymeric encapsulation materials are typically used in concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) modules to protect the cell from the field environment. Because it is physically located adjacent to the cell, the encapsulation is exposed to a high optical flux, often including light in the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) wavelengths. The durability of encapsulants used in CPV modules is critical to the technology, but is presently not well understood. This work seeks to identify the appropriate material types, field-induced failure mechanisms, and factors of influence (if possible) of polymeric encapsulation. These results will ultimately be weighed against those of future qualification and accelerated life test procedures.

  9. Correlations in Characteristic Data of Concentrator Photovoltaics (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweet, C.; Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is motivated by a reported 1-2% infant mortality rate in concentrator photovoltaic cell assemblies. Approximately 650 bare III-V multi-junction PV cells were initially characterized via electroluminescence imaging and both light and dark current-voltage responses were recorded. The cells were then packaged into receivers and their IV response again evaluated both before and after an outdoor high concentration exposure of at least four hours above 750 DNI. Correlations exist between the initial dark IV characteristic and artifacts found in the EL image. Initial results also suggest that artifacts observed in the bare cell may serve as an indicator for early on-sun degradation, though may not be able to predict the infant mortality population.

  10. Design of photovoltaic central power station concentrator array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using tracking concentrators has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes an advanced Martin Marietta two-axis tracking fresnel lens concentrator. The concentrators are arrayed in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic plant output is connected to the existing 115 kV switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  11. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Muller, M.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented at the 7th International Conference on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (CPV-7), 4-6 April 2011, Las Vegas, Nevada. Many concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems use a polymeric encapsulant to couple an optical component and/or coverglass to the cell. In that location, the encapsulation improves the transmission of concentrated optical flux through interfaces(s) while protecting the cell from the environment. The durability of encapsulation materials, however, is not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Therefore, we have initiated a screen test to identify the field-induced failure modes for a variety of popular PV encapsulation materials.

  12. EXPERIMENTS with PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS for high school science students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    EXPERIMENTS with PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS for high school science students By Dick Erickson ­ Pleasant Activity ­ Testing Photovoltaic Cells ..........................5 Expected Observations: ........................................................................................................8 II. LAB ACTIVITY - TESTING PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS ..................................9 BEFORE YOU START

  13. Concentrated Photovoltaic Systems Center for Energy Research at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemmers, Oliver

    in the fabrication of the tracking system. #12;Concentrated Solar Power Center for Energy Research at UNLV solar-electric system increases if the sun is tracked. The Amonix system is an example-of-the-Art Solar Power System Center for Energy Research at UNLV The most common photovoltaic (PV) systems

  14. PERFORMANCE OF A CONCENTRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC/THERMAL SOLAR COLLECTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Sustainable Energy Systems, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200, Australia +612 6125 3976, +612 increased solar energy conversion and potential cost benefits (Fujisawa and Tani, 1997, 2001, Huang et alPERFORMANCE OF A CONCENTRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC/THERMAL SOLAR COLLECTOR Joe S Coventry Centre

  15. Theory for optimal design of waveguiding light concentrators in photovoltaic microcell arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Theory for optimal design of waveguiding light concentrators in photovoltaic microcell arrays of ultrathin flexible solar photovoltaic silicon microcell arrays can be significantly improved using collectors do not result in their indirect gain degradation compared to flat solar concentrators

  16. Photovoltaic concentrator technology development project. Sixth project integration meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thirty-three abstracts and short papers are presented which describe the current status of research, development, and demonstration of concentrator solar cell technology. Solar concentrators discussed include the parabolic trough, linear focus Fresnel lens, point focus Fresnel lens, and the parabolic dish. Solar cells studied include silicon, GaAs, and AlGaAs. Research on multiple junction cells, combined photovoltaic/thermal collectors, back contact solar cells, and beam splitter modules is described. Concentrator solar cell demonstration programs are reported. Contractor status summaries are given for 33 US DOE concentrator solar cell contracts; a description of the project, project status, and key results to date is included. (WHK)

  17. Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1.Space DataEnergyCompressed AirEnergyConcentrator

  18. Second-generation photovoltaic-concentrator-array design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broadbent, S.; Baumann, J.E.; Heller, B.W.; Hughes, D.J.; Marshall, L.S.; Semma, R.P.; Stegeman, R.E.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Martin Marietta Corporation's design of a second generation concentrating photovoltaic module is described. The passively cooled 13-kg module uses 2 columns of 7 point focus Fresnel lenses that are each 20.7 cm by 20.7 cm, and 14 planar junction silicon cells. The geometric concentration is 84X. Martin Marietta fabricated five prototype modules and shipped three to Sandia for testing. The modules' peak efficiency was 14.1% which is the highest to date for a module using silicon cells.

  19. Solder fatigue reduction in point focus photovoltaic concentrator modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hund, T.D.; Burchett, S.N.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solder fatigue tests have been conducted on point focus photovoltaic concentration cell assemblies to identify a baseline fatigue life and to quantify the fatigue life improvements that result using a copper-molybdenum-copper low-expansion insert between the solar cell and copper heat spreader. Solder microstructural changes and fatigue crack growth were identified using cross sections and ultrasonic scans of the fatigue solder joints. The Coffin-Manson and Total Strain fatigue models for low-cycle fatigue were evaluated for use in fatigue life predictions. Since both of these models require strain calculations, two strain calculation methods were compared: hand-calculated shear strain and a finite element method shear strain. At present, the available theoretical models for low-cycle solder fatigue are limited in their ability to predict failure; consequently, extensive thermal cycling is continuing to define the fatigue life for point focus photovoltaic cell assemblies. 9 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Efficiency enhancement of luminescent solar concentrations for photovoltaic technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and V.U. Ho?mann. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Gen- eration.stacked LSC plates for photovoltaics with the green LSC onsolar concentra- tors for photovoltaics. Science, 321(5886):

  1. Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Technology (Revised) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Carloni, J. D.; Pankow, J. W.; Gjersing, E. L.; To, B.; Packard, C. E.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology recently gained interest based on its expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems employ Fresnel lenses composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density on the cell. The optical and mechanical durability of these lenses, however, is not well established relative to the desired surface life of 30 years. Our research aims to quantify the expected lifetime of PMMA in key market locations (FL, AZ, and CO).

  2. III-V High-Efficiency Multijunction Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capabilities fact sheet that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for III-V High-Efficiency Multijunction Photovoltaics at the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  3. Durability of Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.; Gedvilas, L.; To, B.; Kennedy, C.; Kurtz, S.

    2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation reports the findings of NREL's screen test to characterize the durability of poly (methyl methacrylate) lenses used in concentrated photovoltaics.

  4. Development of the SEA Corporation Powergrid{trademark} photovoltaic concentrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaminar, N.; Curchod, D.; Daroczi, S.; Walpert, M.; Sahagian, J.; Pepper, J. [Photovoltaics International, LLC, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the three phase effort to bring the SEA Corporation`s Powergrid{trademark} from the concept stage to pilot production. The three phases of this contract covered component development, prototype module development, and pilot line production. The Powergrid is a photovoltaic concentrator that generates direct current electricity directly from sunlight using a linear Fresnel lens. Analysis has shown that the Powergrid has the potential to be very low cost in volume production. Before the start of the project, only proof of concept demonstrations of the components had been completed. During the project, SEA Corporation developed a low cost extruded Fresnel lens, a low cost receiver assembly using one sun type cells, a low cost plastic module housing, a single axis tracking system and frame structure, and pilot production equipment and techniques. In addition, an 800 kW/yr pilot production rate was demonstrated and two 40 kW systems were manufactured and installed.

  5. Point-focus spectral splitting solar concentrator for multiple cells concentrating photovoltaic system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maragliano, Carlo; Stefancich, Marco

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present and experimentally validate a low-cost design of a spectral splitting concentrator for the efficient conversion of solar energy. The optical device consists of a dispersive prismatic lens made of polycarbonate designed to simultaneously concentrate the solar light and split it into its spectral components. With respect to our previous implementation, this device concentrates the light along two axes and generates a light pattern compatible with the dimensions of a set of concentrating photovoltaic cells while providing a higher concentration ratio. The mathematical framework and the constructive approach used for the design are presented and the device performance is simulated using ray-tracing software. We obtain spectral separation in the visible range within a 3x1 cm2 area and a maximum concentration of 210x for a single wavelength. The device is fabricated by injection molding and its performance is experimentally investigated. We measure an optical transmissivity above 90% in the...

  6. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Muller, M.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems use a polymeric encapsulant to couple and optical component and/or coverglass to the cell. In that location, the encapsulation improves the transmission of concentrated optical flux through interface(s), while protecting the cell from the environment. The durability of encapsulation materials, however, is not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Therefore, we have initiated a screen test to identify the field-induced failure modes for a variety of popular PV encapsulation materials. An existing CPV module (with no PV cells present) was modified to accommodate encapsulation specimens. The module (where nominal concentration of solar flux is 500x for the domed-Fresnel design) has been mounted on a tracker in Golden, CO (elevation 1.79 km). Initial results are reported here for 18 months cumulative exposure, including the hottest and coldest months of the past year. Characteristics observed at intervals during that time include: visual appearance, direct and hemispherical transmittance, and mass. Degradation may be assessed from subsequent analysis (including yellowness index and cut-on frequency) relative to the ambient conditions present during field exposure. The fluorescence signature observed of all the silicone specimens is examined here, including possible factors of causation -- the platinum catalyst used in the addition cured materials as well as the primer used to promote adhesion to the quartz substrate and superstrate.

  7. High-efficiency photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, H.T.; Zehr, S.W.

    1982-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    High efficiency solar converters comprised of a two cell, non-lattice matched, monolithic stacked semiconductor configuration using optimum pairs of cells having bandgaps in the range 1.6 to 1.7 eV and 0.95 to 1.1 eV, and a method of fabrication thereof, are disclosed. The high band gap subcells are fabricated using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to produce the required AlGaAs layers of optimized composition, thickness and doping to produce high performance, heteroface homojunction devices. The low bandgap subcells are similarly fabricated from AlGa(As)Sb compositions by LPE, MBE or MOCVD. These subcells are then coupled to form a monolithic structure by an appropriate bonding technique which also forms the required transparent intercell ohmic contact (IOC) between the two subcells. Improved ohmic contacts to the high bandgap semiconductor structure can be formed by vacuum evaporating to suitable metal or semiconductor materials which react during laser annealing to form a low bandgap semiconductor which provides a low contact resistance structure.

  8. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in each of the volumes. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems More Documents & Publications Building America Whole-House Solutions for...

  9. 1 Copyright 2011 by ASME MATERIAL OPTIMIZATION FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Copyright © 2011 by ASME MATERIAL OPTIMIZATION FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC AND THERMAL CO of almost all renewable energies on earth. There are extensive activities in the area of solar photovoltaic are essential in everyday life applications. We previously reported the energy efficiency of an optimized solar

  10. Optical properties of polymeric materials for concentrator photovoltaic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    photovoltaics (CPV), we are evaluating the optical properties and solar radiation durability of a number sheet (e.g., DuPontTM PV5300) have applications as encapsulants in crystalline silicon (c-Si) and other

  11. Low Concentration Photovoltaic Systems (LCPV), where solar irradiance is concentrated by a factor of 1-10, present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    1 Abstract-- Low Concentration Photovoltaic Systems (LCPV), where solar irradiance is concentrated to multifactor and cyclic environmental stressors including solar irradiance, temperature and humidity which can each cause degradation over time. This issue is compounded in LCPV because concentration of solar

  12. DOE High Performance Concentrator PV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much in demand are next-generation photovoltaic (PV) technologies that can be used economically to make a large-scale impact on world electricity production. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project to substantially increase the viability of PV for cost-competitive applications so that PV can contribute significantly to both our energy supply and environment. To accomplish such results, the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) directs in-house and subcontracted research in high-performance polycrystalline thin-film and multijunction concentrator devices with the goal of enabling progress of high-efficiency technologies toward commercial-prototype products. We will describe the details of the subcontractor and in-house progress in exploring and accelerating pathways of III-V multijunction concentrator solar cells and systems toward their long-term goals. By 2020, we anticipate that this project will have demonstrated 33% system efficiency and a system price of $1.00/Wp for concentrator PV systems using III-V multijunction solar cells with efficiencies over 41%.

  13. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes in organic media for polymer:fullerene photovoltaic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Soon Hyung

    Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes in organic media for polymer:fullerene photovoltaic devices Gwang photovoltaic device are fabricated using homogeneously dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a polymer. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials promise the production

  14. High Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) Masafumi Yamaguchi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canet, Léonie

    . Tokyo (Asahi News Paper, 2011.9.16) #12;Most Japanese people wish to close old nuclear power plants Learned from the Accident of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants 2. Accelerating Plan for Further Deployment of PV Power Generation Systems in Japan 3. Outline of Europe-Japan Collaborative Research

  15. Evaluating Future Standards and Codes with a Focus on High Penetration Photovoltaic (HPPV) System Deployment (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Lynn, K.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Poster displaying solutions for evaluating future standards and codes for high penetration photovoltaic (HPPV) systems.

  16. Transmission System Performance Analysis for High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achilles, S.; Schramm, S.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is an assessment of the potential impact of high levels of penetration of photovoltaic (PV) generation on transmission systems. The effort used stability simulations of a transmission system with different levels of PV generation and load.

  17. Efficiency enhancement of luminescent solar concentrations for photovoltaic technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LSCs in concentration solar radiation without tracking. TheLSCs in concentration solar radiation without tracking. Thesolar concentrators based on lens and mirrors with tracking

  18. Low-Cost Photovoltaics: Luminescent Solar Concentrators And Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leow, Shin Woei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for building integrated photovoltaics,” 2013, vol. 8821, pp.of building integrated photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy, vol. 85,of building-integrated photovoltaics,” Energy, vol. 26, no.

  19. Low-Cost Photovoltaics: Luminescent Solar Concentrators And Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leow, Shin Woei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using front-facing photovoltaic cell luminescent solarwith front-facing photovoltaic cells using weighted Montefor tandem photovoltaic cells,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 516,

  20. Heat Pipe Performance Enhancement with Binary Mixture Fluids that Exhibit Strong Concentration Marangoni Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of concentrator photovoltaic systems using high-efficiencyphotovoltaic module electrical performance: A review of efficiency/efficiency degradation. This is especially true for concentrator photovoltaic (

  1. Low-Cost Photovoltaics: Luminescent Solar Concentrators And Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leow, Shin Woei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Barcelona, Spain,Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Valencia, Spain,

  2. High Penetration, Grid Connected Photovoltaic Technology Codes and Standards: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T. S.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the interim status in identifying and reviewing photovoltaic (PV) codes and standards (C&S) and related electrical activities for grid-connected, high-penetration PV systems with a focus on U.S. electric utility distribution grid interconnection.

  3. High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,8 consisting of an interpenetrating network of electron donor and acceptor materials. This concept has alsoARTICLES High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends GANG LI1 , VISHAL SHROTRIYA1 , JINSONG HUANG1 , YAN YAO1 , TOM MORIARTY2 , KEITH EMERY2

  4. Introduction! Low Cost, High Volume, Scale-up Photovoltaic Manufacturing!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    mechanical strength and! solar cell integrity! q Silicon wafering (diamond wire sawing)! q Silicon waferIntroduction! Low Cost, High Volume, Scale-up Photovoltaic Manufacturing! Prof. Shreyes Melkote volume PV manufacturing, therefore to reduce manufacturing cost and accelerate PV use. ! q Silicon wafer

  5. Photovoltaic conversion in a common solar concentrating and spectrally splitting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yehezkel, N.; Appelbaum, J. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel). Faculty of Engineering; Yogev, A. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Several solar energy conversion processes can be utilized simultaneously using a common solar collector if the solar radiation is appropriately spectrally split. A concentrating and splitting system based on a Cassegrainian design may be used for photovoltaic energy conversion nd simultaneously for an additional energy conversion process such as for laser pumping that requires concentration. The spectral splitting may be achieved by a dichroic mirror for the secondary mirror of the Cassegrain. This approach was realized to study solar cells at different concentration, solar spectrum and temperatures.

  6. High-performance Si microwire photovoltaics Michael D. Kelzenberg,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    High-performance Si microwire photovoltaics Michael D. Kelzenberg,a Daniel B. Turner-Evans,a Morgan for low- cost, thin-film photovoltaics. Here, we demonstrate VLS-grown Si microwires that have suitable electrical properties for high-perfor- mance photovoltaic applications, including long minority

  7. High efficiency photovoltaic power conditioning system Hosam Sharabash, DVMM Krishna, Norbert Frhleke and Joachim Bcker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paderborn, Universität

    High efficiency photovoltaic power conditioning system Hosam Sharabash, DVMM Krishna, Norbert) with high efficiency under wide input voltage range of the photovoltaic array is introduced. In fact, Germany sharabash@lea.upb.de Abstract A new topology for photovoltaic Power Conditioning System (PCS

  8. High Penetration Photovoltaic Case Study Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bank, J.; Mather, B.; Keller, J.; Coddington, M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical concerns with integrating higher penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems include grid stability, voltage regulation, power quality (voltage rise, sags, flicker, and frequency fluctuations), and protection and coordination. The current utility grid was designed to accommodate power flows from the central generation source to the transmission system and eventually to the distribution feeders. At the distribution level, the system was designed to carry power from the substation toward the load. Renewable distributed generation, particularly solar PV, provides power at the distribution level challenging this classical paradigm. As these resources become more commonplace the nature of the distribution network and its operation is changing to handle power flow in both directions. This report is focused on large PV installations in which penetration is significantly greater than 15% of maximum daytime feeder load. These case studies are intended to demonstrate success stories with integration of large PV plants at the distribution level as well as some of the solutions used by the utility to ensure safe, reliable operation of both the PV system and the distribution network.

  9. High-efficiency photovoltaics based on semiconductor nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Paul K.L. [University of California, San Diego; Yu, Edward T. [University of Texas at Austin; Wang, Deli [University of California, San Diego

    2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to exploit a variety of semiconductor nanostructures, specifically semiconductor quantum wells, quantum dots, and nanowires, to achieve high power conversion efficiency in photovoltaic devices. In a thin-film device geometry, the objectives were to design, fabricate, and characterize quantum-well and quantum-dot solar cells in which scattering from metallic and/or dielectric nanostructures was employed to direct incident photons into lateral, optically confined paths within a thin (~1-3um or less) device structure. Fundamental issues concerning nonequilibrium carrier escape from quantum-confined structures, removal of thin-film devices from an epitaxial growth substrate, and coherent light trapping in thin-film photovoltaic devices were investigated. In a nanowire device geometry, the initial objectives were to engineer vertical nanowire arrays to optimize optical confinement within the nanowires, and to extend this approach to core-shell heterostructures to achieve broadspectrum absorption while maintaining high opencircuit voltages. Subsequent work extended this approach to include fabrication of nanowire photovoltaic structures on low-cost substrates.

  10. Recent Progress and Future Potential for Concentrating Photovoltaic Power Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Lewandowski, A.; Hayden, H.

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the potential of utility-scale PV power, and, specifically, the opportunity that may arise for concentrating photovoltaics (CPV). In the 1990s, sales of PV modules were dominated by small-size applications such as PV-powered water pumping, emergency telephones, and calculators. More recently, the dramatic growth in the PV industry has been fueled by rooftop systems, especially in Japan and Germany. Such subsidized, grid-connected PV systems are likely to drive PV markets in coming years. Distributed systems deliver power where it is needed, avoiding transmission losses; and residential and commercial systems can be financed along with the rest of a building. Japan and Germany continue to provide market incentives because of their belief in PV's long-term benefits. As successful and important as the rooftop market is for PV sales today, the PV industry will be able to penetrate a larger fraction of the electricity market if PV systems are also used in larger installations, such as utility-owned systems, PV parks, and customer-owned systems. Because retail electricity costs more than wholesale electricity, it is often assumed that PV will address, with incentives, the retail market long before the wholesale market. Here, we show data suggesting that they can grow together. CPV, which uses low-cost lenses or mirrors to focus sunlight on high-efficiency solar cells, has often been presented as a lower-cost approach to utility-scale PV power. Although CPV typically does not compete in rooftop or other current PV markets, CPV could be a major player in a utility-scale market.

  11. Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Systems Under Natural Sunlight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the electrical performance of photovoltaic concentrator modules and systems under natural sunlight using a normal incidence pyrheliometer. 1.2 The test method is limited to module assemblies and systems where the geometric concentration ratio specified by the manufacturer is greater than 5. 1.3 This test method applies to concentrators that use passive cooling where the cell temperature is related to the air temperature. 1.4 Measurements under a variety of conditions are allowed; results are reported under a select set of concentrator reporting conditions to facilitate comparison of results. 1.5 This test method applies only to concentrator terrestrial modules and systems. 1.6 This test method assumes that the module or system electrical performance characteristics do not change during the period of test. 1.7 The performance rating determined by this test method applies only at the period of the test, and implies no past or future performance level. 1.8...

  12. Non-Equilbrium Chalcogen Concentrations in Silicon: Physical Structure, Electronic Transport, and Photovoltaic Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazur, Eric

    , and Photovoltaic Potential A thesis presented by Mark Thomas Winkler to The Department of Physics in partial, and Photovoltaic Potential Eric Mazur Mark Winkler Abstract This thesis explores the structure and properties presence of an impurity band and its relevance to photovoltaics. The investigations that we report here

  13. Southern California Edison High Penetration Photovoltaic Project - Year 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses research efforts from the first year of a project analyzing the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) resources interconnected onto Southern California Edison's (SCE's) distribution system. SCE will be interconnecting a total of 500 MW of commercial scale PV within their service territory by 2015. This Year 1 report describes the need for investigating high-penetration PV scenarios on the SCE distribution system; discusses the necessary PV system modeling and distribution system simulation advances; describes the available distribution circuit data for the two distribution circuits identified in the study; and discusses the additional inverter functionality that could be implemented in order to specifically mitigate some of the undesirable distribution system impacts caused by high-penetration PV installations.

  14. Periodically multilayered planar optical concentrator for photovoltaic solar cells Manuel E. Solano, Muhammad Faryad, Peter B. Monk, Thomas E. Mallouk, and Akhlesh Lakhtakia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Periodically multilayered planar optical concentrator for photovoltaic solar cells Manuel E. Solano performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic concentrator for photovoltaic solar cells Manuel E. Solano,1 Muhammad Faryad,2 Peter B. Monk,1 Thomas E

  15. Design & Fabrication of a High-Voltage Photovoltaic Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felder, Jennifer; /North Carolina State U. /SLAC

    2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells are alternative energy sources that are important in sustainable power generation. Currently, applications of PV cells are limited by the low output voltage and somewhat low efficiency of such devices. In light of this fact, this project investigates the possibility of fabricating high-voltage PV cells on float-zone silicon wafers having output voltages ranging from 50 V to 2000 V. Three designs with different geometries of diffusion layers were simulated and compared in terms of metal coverage, recombination, built-in potential, and conduction current density. One design was then chosen and optimized to be implemented in the final device design. The results of the simulation serve as a feasibility test for the design concept and provide supportive evidence of the effectiveness of silicon PV cells as high-voltage power supplies.

  16. Chemical beam epitaxy for high efficiency photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bensaoula, A.; Freundlich, A.; Vilela, M. F.; Medelci, N.; Renaud, P.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    InP-based multijunction tandem solar cells show great promise for the conversion efficiency (eta) and high radiation resistance. InP and its related ternary and quanternary compound semiconductors such as InGaAs and InGaAsP offer desirable combinations for energy bandgap values which are very suitable for multijunction tandem solar cell applications. The monolithically integrated InP/In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As tandem solar cells are expected to reach efficiencies above 30 percent. Wanlass, et.al., have reported AMO efficiencies as high as 20.1% for two terminal cells fabricated using atmospheric-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (APMOVPE). The main limitations in their technique are first related to the degradation of the intercell ohmic contact (IOC), in this case the In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As tunnel junction during the growth of the top InP subcell structure, and second to the current matching, often limited by the In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As bottom subcell. Chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) has been shown to allow the growth of high quality materials with reproducible complex compositional and doping profiles. The main advantage of CBE compared to metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), the most popular technique for InP-based photovoltaic device fabrication, is the ability to grow high purity epilayers at much lower temperatures (450 C - 530 C). In a recent report it was shown that cost-wise CBE is a breakthrough technology for photovoltaic (PV) solar energy progress in the energy conversion efficiency of InP-based solar cells fabricated using chemical beam epitaxy. This communication summarizes recent results on PV devices and demonstrates the strength of this new technology.

  17. Characterization of a Test Site for the Measuring of the Focal Point of Reflective Optical Elements for Concentrator Photovoltaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frick, Manuel

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to achieve a large deployment of renewable energies, the electricity production costs have to be as low as possible. Many different technologies have been proposed to achieve the best efficiency to cost ratio. One of those is concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) which takes advantage of the high efficiency of multi-junction cells while limiting the costs by reducing the size of the cell and concentrating the direct irradiance with a cheaper optical element. Next to the widely used Fresnel lenses concave mirrors could be of interest as concentrator optic. As for the whole module those optics have to minimize losses and production costs at once. Measuring scattering and slope errors of the mirrors is of great importance to achieve an optimal design and production process. Therefore an optical test site doing so by observing the 2D irradiance distribution in the focal point has been built at the Fraunhofer ISE. The aim of this thesis is to characterize this test site. Therefore the behavior of the differen...

  18. Material Needs for Thin-Film and Concentrator Photovoltaic Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes the ongoing needs (manufacturability, availability, low cost, performance, and reliability) that drive the development of new photovoltaic materials.

  19. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic/Inorganic Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guvenc, Ali Bilge

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer Photovoltaic Cells - Enhanced Efficiencies Via afor high-efficiency polymer photovoltaic cells usingfactors. The photovoltaic power conversion efficiency (?) [

  20. Utility-Scale Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaic Projects: A Technology and Market Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Lowder, T.; Canavan, B.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last several years, solar energy technologies have been, or are in the process of being, deployed at unprecedented levels. A critical recent development, resulting from the massive scale of projects in progress or recently completed, is having the power sold directly to electric utilities. Such 'utility-scale' systems offer the opportunity to deploy solar technologies far faster than the traditional 'behind-the-meter' projects designed to offset retail load. Moreover, these systems have employed significant economies of scale during construction and operation, attracting financial capital, which in turn can reduce the delivered cost of power. This report is a summary of the current U.S. utility-scale solar state-of-the-market and development pipeline. Utility-scale solar energy systems are generally categorized as one of two basic designs: concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). CSP systems can be further delineated into four commercially available technologies: parabolic trough, central receiver (CR), parabolic dish, and linear Fresnel reflector. CSP systems can also be categorized as hybrid, which combine a solar-based system (generally parabolic trough, CR, or linear Fresnel) and a fossil fuel energy system to produce electric power or steam.

  1. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

  2. Production Cost Modeling for High Levels of Photovoltaics Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Milford, J.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this report is to evaluate the likely avoided generation, fuels, and emissions resulting from photovoltaics (PV) deployment in several U.S. locations and identify new tools, methods, and analysis to improve understanding of PV impacts at the grid level.

  3. High efficiency thin-film multiple-gap photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic device includes at least two solar cells made from Group IV elements or their alloys in the amorphous state mounted on a substrate. The outermost or first cell has a larger bandgap than the second cell. Various techniques are utilized to improve the efficiency of the device.

  4. High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid, Workshop Report, February 24-25, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Outcomes from the EERE Solar Energy Technologies Program workshop on high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems into the distribution grid, Feb. 24-25, 2009, Ontario, Calif.

  5. Review of Consensus Standard Spectra for Flat Plate and Concentrating Photovoltaic Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Consensus standard reference terrestrial solar spectra are used to establish nameplate ratings for photovoltaic device performance at standard reporting conditions. This report describes reference solar spectra developed in the United States and international consensus standards community which are widely accepted as of this writing (June 2011).

  6. Modeling Photovoltaic and Concentrating Solar Power Trough Performance, Cost, and Financing with the Solar Advisor Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christensen, C.; Cameron, C.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive solar technology systems analysis model, the Solar Advisor Model (SAM), has been developed to support the federal R&D community and the solar industry by staff at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratory. This model is able to model the finances, incentives, and performance of flat-plate photovoltaic (PV), concentrating PV, and concentrating solar power (specifically, parabolic troughs). The primary function of the model is to allow users to investigate the impact of variations in performance, cost, and financial parameters to better understand their impact on key figures of merit. Figures of merit related to the cost and performance of these systems include, but aren't limited to, system output, system efficiencies, levelized cost of energy, return on investment, and system capital and O&M costs. There are several models within SAM to model the performance of photovoltaic modules and inverters. This paper presents an overview of each PV and inverter model, introduces a new generic model, and briefly discusses the concentrating solar power (CSP) parabolic trough model. A comparison of results using the different PV and inverter models is also presented.

  7. Nanopillar Photovoltaics: Photon Management and Junction Engineering for Next-Generation Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariani, Giacomo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of interfaces in high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. , MRS24,25 Nonetheless, a high-efficiency photovoltaic device ishigh-efficiency photovoltaics”, 39th IEEE Photovoltaic

  8. Automated micro-tracking planar solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallas, Justin Matthew

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    System from Concentrix Solar," in Concentrator Photovoltaics,CPV systems that use arrays of optics and photovoltaics,system so that arrays of paired concentrators and photovoltaics

  9. Automated micro-tracking planar solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallas, Justin Matthew

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar," in Concentrator Photovoltaics, A.L. Luque, and V.M.in concentrating photovoltaics using laterally movingUsing optics to boost photovoltaics,” Optics and Photonics

  10. Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Gao, Huizhen (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

  11. Airport Solor Photovoltaic Concentrator: Phase III. Project status report No. ASPCP III-11, October 1-December 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the work reported is to operate and evaluate for three years a photovoltaic system installed at an airport. The system consists of an 80-array subsystem with a nominal rating of 225 peak kilowatts dc output at the array field. Installation of a new inverter is reported. A fire was caused by an electrical short to ground inside one of the solar cell modules and began spreading throughout one of the arrays, causing extensive damage. Fuses were installed in series with the blocking diodes to prevent high reverse currents. (LEW)

  12. Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Nanostructured Hybrid Solar Cell Using Highly Oriented TiO2 Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    -called third generation of solar cells including dye-sensitized solar cells, DSCs2,3 and organic phoEnhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Nanostructured Hybrid Solar Cell Using Highly Oriented TiO2 nanotubes can be effectively controlled for the suitable use for a hybrid solar cell by varying the diameter

  13. Structure-Function Relationships in Semiconducting Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavulak, David Fredric Joel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    current organic photovoltaic efficiencies are not highof the high photovoltaic efficiencies, 20-22 high chargeof a photovoltaic device by affecting the efficiency of

  14. Nanocrystal Photovoltaics: The Case of Cu2S-CdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivest, Jessica Louis Baker

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. A. Third generation photovoltaics: Ultra-high conversionmodern photovoltaic age. … in photovoltaics: research andnanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible

  15. 2009 Technical Risk and Uncertainty Analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaics R&D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McVeigh, J.; Lausten, M.; Eugeni, E.; Soni, A.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) conducted a 2009 Technical Risk and Uncertainty Analysis to better assess its cost goals for concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV) systems, and to potentially rebalance its R&D portfolio. This report details the methodology, schedule, and results of this technical risk and uncertainty analysis.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workshops and ... Solar Energy On February 3, 2011, in Solar Programs Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power Sunshine to Petrol Solar Publications Recent Solar...

  17. Analysis of the Benefits of Photovoltaic in High Rise Commercial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvester, K. E.; Haberl, J. S.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    further, recent studies have integrated photovoltaic glazed window systems into the building shell. To understand the relationship between photovoltaic windows, energy use and human satisfaction, this paper presents a study of the effects of photovoltaic...

  18. Analysis of the Benefits of Photovoltaic in High Rise Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvester, K. E.; Haberl, J. S.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    further, recent studies have integrated photovoltaic glazed window systems into the building shell. To understand the relationship between photovoltaic windows, energy use and human satisfaction, this paper presents a study of the effects of photovoltaic...

  19. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.; Lin, Guang H.; Ganguly, Gautam

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a photovoltaic device comprising an intrinsic or i-layer of amorphous silicon and where the photovoltaic device is more efficient at converting light energy to electric energy at high operating temperatures than at low operating temperatures. The photovoltaic devices of this invention are suitable for use in high temperature operating environments.

  20. High-Penetration Photovoltaics Standards and Codes Workshop, Denver, Colorado, May 20, 2010: Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Lynn, K.; Herig, C.; Bower, W.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effectively interconnecting high-level penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems requires careful technical attention to ensuring compatibility with electric power systems. Standards, codes, and implementation have been cited as major impediments to widespread use of PV within electric power systems. On May 20, 2010, in Denver, Colorado, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), held a workshop to examine the key technical issues and barriers associated with high PV penetration levels with an emphasis on codes and standards. This workshop included building upon results of the High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid workshop held in Ontario California on February 24-25, 2009, and upon the stimulating presentations of the diverse stakeholder presentations.

  1. High-efficiency, monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem photovoltaic energy converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem solar photovoltaic converter has at least one, and preferably at least two, subcells grown lattice-matched on a substrate with a bandgap in medium to high energy portions of the solar spectrum and at least one subcell grown lattice-mismatched to the substrate with a bandgap in the low energy portion of the solar spectrum, for example, about 1 eV.

  2. High-efficiency, monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem, photovoltaic energy converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem solar photovoltaic converter has at least one, and preferably at least two, subcells grown lattice-matched on a substrate with a bandgap in medium to high energy portions of the solar spectrum and at least one subcell grown lattice-mismatched to the substrate with a bandgap in the low energy portion of the solar spectrum, for example, about 1 eV.

  3. Planar micro-optic solar concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Jason Harris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    35), "Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications1 GW of concentrator photovoltaics using multijunction solarG. , “Technology Focus: Photovoltaics”, Nature Photonics, 2,

  4. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF DIRECT LIQUID-IMMERSED SOLAR CELL COOLING OF A LINEAR CONCENTRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC RECEIVER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF DIRECT LIQUID-IMMERSED SOLAR CELL COOLING OF A LINEAR CONCENTRATING Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China 2 Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, The Australian National University, ACT, 0200, Australia 3 School of Architecture, Tianjin University, Tianjin

  5. Method and apparatus for uniformly concentrating solar flux for photovoltaic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Carasso, Meir (Lakewood, CO); Wendelin, Timothy J. (Golden, CO); Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dish reflector and method for concentrating moderate solar flux uniformly on a target plane on a solar cell array, the dish having a stepped reflective surface that is characterized by a plurality of ring-like segments arranged about a common axis, and each segment having a concave spherical configuration.

  6. Scattering Properties of nanostructures : applications to photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derkacs, Daniel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Manufacturing high-efficiency low- cost photovoltaic devicesManufacturing high-efficiency low-cost photovoltaic devicesphotovoltaic devices capable of operation at power conversion efficiencies

  7. Developing new high energy gradient concentration cathode material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    new high energy gradient concentration cathode material Developing new high energy gradient concentration cathode material 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  8. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix, Inc. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix, Inc. A series of brief...

  9. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  10. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  11. Evaluation of Lifetime of High Efficiency Organic Photovoltaic Devices: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-379

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, D.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a part of this joint work, Solarmer and NREL will investigate the lifetime and stability of Organic Photovoltaic Devices based on Solarmer high efficiency active layer materials.

  12. Temperature-Dependent Electron Transport in Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padilla, Derek

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to enhanced photovoltaic device efficiency. ACS nano, 2(11):Photovoltaic Devices Introduction Thin-film quantum dot (QD) photovoltaics provide the potential to create high-efficiencyefficiency under such illumina- tion. A non-ideal model of a photovoltaic

  13. High performance organic photovoltaic cells with blade-coated active layers Siew-Lay Lim a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic (PV) cells are pro- mising renewable energy alternatives-weight and versatile products, such as portable battery chargers and window shades in building integrated photovoltaic

  14. Lattice-Mismatched Approaches for High-Performance, III-V Photovoltaic Energy Converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, M. W.; Ahrenkiel, S. P.; Ahrenkiel, R. K.; Albin, D. S.; Carapella, J. J.; Duda, A.; Geisz, J. F.; Kurtz, S.; Moriarty, T.; Wehrer, R. J.; Wernsman, B.

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss lattice-mismatched (LMM) approaches using compositionally step-graded layers and buffer layers that yield III-V photovoltaic devices with performance parameters equaling those of similar lattice-matched (LM) devices. Our progress in developing high-performance, LMM, InP-based GaInAs/InAsP materials and devices for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion is highlighted. A novel, monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem device for solar PV (SPV) conversion involving LMM materials is also presented, along with promising preliminary performance results.

  15. Bandgap Engineering in High-Efficiency Multijunction Concentrator Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, R. R.; Sherif, R. A.; Kinsey, G. S.; Kurtz, S.; Fetzer, C. M.; Edmondson, K. M.; Law, D. C.; Cotal, H. L.; Krut, D. D.; Ermer, J. H.; Karam, N. H.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses semiconductor device research paths under investigation with the aim of reaching the milestone efficiency of 40%. A cost analysis shows that achieving very high cell efficiencies is crucial for the realization of cost-effective photovoltaics, because of the strongly leveraging effect of efficiency on module packaging and balance-of systems costs. Lattice-matched (LM) GaInP/ GaInAs/ Ge 3-junction cells have achieved the highest independently confirmed efficiency at 175 suns, 25?C, of 37.3% under the standard AM1.5D, low-AOD terrestrial spectrum. Lattice-mismatched, or metamorphic (MM), materials offer still higher potential efficiencies, if the crystal quality can be maintained. Theoretical efficiencies well over 50% are possible for a MM GaInP/ 1.17-eV GaInAs/ Ge 3-junction cell limited by radiative recombination at 500 suns. The bandgap - open circuit voltage offset, (Eg/q) - Voc, is used as a valuable theoretical and experimental tool to characterize multijunction cells with subcell bandgaps ranging from 0.7 to 2.1 eV. Experimental results are presented for prototype 6-junction cells employing an active {approx}1.1-eV dilute nitride GaInNAs subcell, with active-area efficiency greater than 23% and over 5.3 V open-circuit voltage under the 1-sun AM0 space spectrum. Such cell designs have theoretical efficiencies under the terrestrial spectrum at 500 suns concentration exceeding 55% efficiency, even for lattice-matched designs.

  16. Ultra-High-Efficiency Multijunction Cell and Receiver Module, Phase 1B: High Performance PV Exploring and Accelerating Ultimate Pathways; Final Subcontract Report, 13 May 2005 - 10 December 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, R. R.

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectrolab's two High Performance Photovoltaics primary objectives: (1) develop ultra-high-efficiency concentrator multijunction cells and (2) develop a robust concentrator cell receiver package.

  17. Importance of the Donor:Fullerene Intermolecular Arrangement for High-Efficiency Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Photovoltaics Kenneth R. Graham,, Clement Cabanetos, Justin P. Jahnke,§ Matthew N. Idso,§ Abdulrahman El Labban *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: The performance of organic photovoltaic (OPV) material systems the performance of OPV material systems. INTRODUCTION Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are a promising PV technology

  18. Lab Breakthrough: Microelectronic Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sandia's glitter-sized photovoltaic cells are highly efficient and cost effective – the perfect combination for a game-changing technology.

  19. Nanocrystal Photovoltaics: The Case of Cu2S-CdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivest, Jessica Louis Baker

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    high conversion efficiency photovoltaics, utilizing self-low-cost and low-efficiency photovoltaics. Third generationgeneration photovoltaics: Ultra-high conversion efficiency

  20. Nanopillar Photovoltaics: Photon Management and Junction Engineering for Next-Generation Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariani, Giacomo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for ultrahigh-efficiency photovoltaics, Nat. Mater. 11, 174-devices towards high-efficiency photovoltaics”, 39th IEEEto ensure high-efficiency nanostructured photovoltaics: each

  1. Nanopillar Photovoltaics: Photon Management and Junction Engineering for Next-Generation Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariani, Giacomo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for ultrahigh-efficiency photovoltaics, Nat. Mater. 11, 174-devices towards high-efficiency photovoltaics”, 39th IEEEfor high efficiency hybrid photovoltaics”, 37th IEEE

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: sustainable photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photovoltaics Solar Energy Research Institute for India and the United States Kick-Off On November 27, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, National Solar Thermal Test...

  3. Sandia Energy - Sandia and EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency Home Renewable Energy Energy Partnership Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaic Research & Capabilities Solar...

  4. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    axis tracking photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solaraxis tracking photovoltaics (PV), 1 concentrating solar

  5. Photovoltaic decision analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Neil L.

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is concerned with the development and implementation of a methodology that analyzes information relating to the choice between flat plate and concentrator technologies for photovoltaic development. A

  6. Planar micro-optic solar concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Jason Harris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    trend towards high-efficiency photovoltaics involves multi-efficiency tables (version 35), "Progress in Photovoltaics:efficiency solar cell modules," Progress in Photovoltaics:

  7. LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS: ENERGY PAYBACK TIMES AND NET ENERGY PRODUCTION VALUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -344-3957, vmf5@columbia.edu 2 Center for Life Cycle Analysis, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA 3 SunLIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS: ENERGY PAYBACK TIMES AND NET ENERGY PRODUCTION VALUE Vasilis Fthenakis1,2 , Rick Betita2 , Mark Shields3 , Rob

  8. Exploring High-Dimensional Data Space: Identifying Optimal Process Conditions in Photovoltaics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suh, C.; Glynn, S.; Scharf, J.; Contreras, M. A.; Noufi, R.; Jones, W. B.; Biagioni, D.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate how advanced exploratory data analysis coupled to data-mining techniques can be used to scrutinize the high-dimensional data space of photovoltaics in the context of thin films of Al-doped ZnO (AZO), which are essential materials as a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer in CuInxGa1-xSe2 (CIGS) solar cells. AZO data space, wherein each sample is synthesized from a different process history and assessed with various characterizations, is transformed, reorganized, and visualized in order to extract optimal process conditions. The data-analysis methods used include parallel coordinates, diffusion maps, and hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithms combined with diffusion map embedding.

  9. Lattice-Mismatched III-V Epilayers for High-Efficiency Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrenkiel, Scott Phillip [South Dakota School of Mines & Technology] [South Dakota School of Mines & Technology

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The project focused on development of new approaches and materials combinations to expand and improve the quality and versatility of lattice-mismatched (LMM) III-V semiconductor epilayers for use in high-efficiency multijunction photovoltaic (PV) devices. To address these goals, new capabilities for materials synthesis and characterization were established at SDSM&T that have applications in modern opto- and nano-electronics, including epitaxial crystal growth and transmission electron microscopy. Advances were made in analyzing and controlling the strain profiles and quality of compositional grades used for these technologies. In particular, quaternary compositional grades were demonstrated, and a quantitative method for characteristic X-ray analysis was developed. The project allowed enhanced collaboration between scientists at NREL and SDSM&T to address closely related research goals, including materials exchange and characterization.

  10. Solar energy and job creation benefits of photovoltaics in times of high unemployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohmeyer, O.H. [Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim (Germany)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar energy is normally discussed under the aspects of its medium to long term contribution to the global energy supply and its present cost. The situation is characterized by the benefits of an abundant renewable energy supply option o the one side and comparatively high internal energy production costs of solar energy on the other. Besides the environmental and health benefits of renewables not taken into account in cost comparisons, solar energy has a significantly higher job creation potential as conventional energy supply options. The paper gives an introduction into the basic methodological aspects of comparing job creation effects of different energy technologies and reports on the latest results of ongoing research on the specific effects of photovoltaics as compared to conventional electricity generation.

  11. IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS 1 Optimal Dispatch of Residential Photovoltaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannakis, Georgios

    IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS 1 Optimal Dispatch of Residential Photovoltaic Inverters Under of existing low- voltage distribution systems with high photovoltaic (PV) gen- eration have focused on the possibility of inverters providing ancillary services such as active power curtailment and reactive power

  12. Calibration and Rating of Photovoltaics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emery, K.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules is critical to determining the cost per watt, and efficiency is useful to assess the relative progress among PV concepts. Procedures for determining the efficiency for PV technologies from 1-sun to low concentration to high concentration are discussed. We also discuss the state of the art in primary and secondary calibration of PV reference cells used by calibration laboratories around the world. Finally, we consider challenges to rating PV technologies and areas for improvement.

  13. Where solar thermal meets photovoltaic for high-efficiency power conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierman, David M. (David Matthew)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To develop disruptive techniques which generate power from the Sun, one must understand the aspects of existing technologies that limit performance. Solar thermal and solar photovoltaic schemes dominate today's solar market ...

  14. Degradation of Photovoltaic Modules Under High Voltage Stress in the Field: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Rummel, S. R.

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The degradation in performance for eight photovoltaic (PV) modules stressed at high voltage (HV) is presented. Four types of modules--tandem-junction and triple-junction amorphous thin-film silicon, plus crystalline and polycrystalline silicon modules--were tested, with a pair of each biased at opposite polarities. They were deployed outdoors between 2001 and 2009 with their respective HV leakage currents through the module encapsulation continuously monitored with a data acquisition system, along with air temperature and relative humidity. For the first 5 years, all modules were biased continuously at fixed 600 VDC, day and night. In the last 2 years, the modules were step-bias stressed cyclically up and down in voltage between 10 and 600 VDC, in steps of tens to hundreds of volts. This allowed characterization of leakage current versus voltage under a large range of temperature and moisture conditions, facilitating determination of leakage paths. An analysis of the degradation is presented, along with integrated leakage charge. In HV operation: the bulk silicon modules degraded either insignificantly or at rates of 0.1%/yr higher than modules not biased at HV; for the thin-film silicon modules, the added loss rates are insignificant for one type, or 0.2%/yr-0.6%/yr larger for the other type.

  15. Distributed control of reactive power flow in a radial distribution circuit with high photovoltaic penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sule, Petr [NEW MEXICO CONSORTIUM

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show how distributed control of reactive power can serve to regulate voltage and minimize resistive losses in a distribution circuit that includes a significant level of photovoltaic (PV) generation. To demonstrate the technique, we consider a radial distribution circuit with a single branch consisting of sequentially-arranged residential-scale loads that consume both real and reactive power. In parallel, some loads also have PV generation capability. We postulate that the inverters associated with each PV system are also capable of limited reactive power generation or consumption, and we seek to find the optimal dispatch of each inverter's reactive power to both maintain the voltage within an acceptable range and minimize the resistive losses over the entire circuit. We assume the complex impedance of the distribution circuit links and the instantaneous load and PV generation at each load are known. We compare the results of the optimal dispatch with a suboptimal local scheme that does not require any communication. On our model distribution circuit, we illustrate the feasibility of high levels of PV penetration and a significant (20% or higher) reduction in losses.

  16. Nanocarbon-Based Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernardi, Marco

    Carbon materials are excellent candidates for photovoltaic solar cells: they are Earth-abundant, possess high optical absorption, and maintain superior thermal and photostability. Here we report on solar cells with active ...

  17. Temperature-Dependent Electron Transport in Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padilla, Derek

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cell efficiency milestones. Quantum dot photovoltaics is inphotovoltaics provide the potential to create high-efficiencycell efficiency milestones. Quantum dot photovoltaics is in

  18. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Report -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration NRELCost of6 July 16, 2006 NREL'sFraunhofer ISE

  19. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy at high concentrations using gold bowtie nanoantennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy at high concentrations using gold bowtie nanoantennas Anika A to extremely low concentrations. Plasmonic gold bowtie nanoantennas enhance a single molecule's fluorescence relative to a large background of unenhanced molecules, and here we show that bowties can extend FCS

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia and EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency On March 29, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable...

  1. Approaches To Integrating A HIgh Penertration Of Solar PV and CPV Onto The Electrical Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Steven Craig

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A CONCENTRATION PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS A.1 AND EFFICIENCYA   Concentration and Efficiency in Solar PhotovoltaicPhotovoltaic Applications  . 121  A.4  Concentrator Cell Efficiency . 

  2. Project Profile: High-Concentration, Low-Cost Parabolic Trough...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Profile: High-Concentration, Low-Cost Parabolic Trough System for Baseload CSP SkyFuel logo SkyFuel, under the Baseload CSP FOA, is developing an advanced, low-cost CSP collector...

  3. Variability of Photovoltaic Power in the State of Gujarat Using High Resolution Solar Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Zhang, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Parsons, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  4. Enhancement of current collection in epitaxial lift-off InAs/GaAs quantum dot thin film solar cell and concentrated photovoltaic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sogabe, Tomah, E-mail: sogabe@mbe.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shoji, Yasushi; Tamayo, Efrain; Okada, Yoshitaka [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8504 (Japan); Mulder, Peter; Schermer, John [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the fabrication of a thin film InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cell (QD cell) by applying epitaxial lift-off (ELO) approach to the GaAs substrate. We confirmed significant current collection enhancement (?0.91?mA/cm{sup 2}) in the ELO-InAs QD cell within the wavelength range of 700?nm–900?nm when compared to the ELO-GaAs control cell. This is almost six times of the sub-GaAs bandgap current collection (?0.16?mA/cm{sup 2}) from the wavelength range of 900?nm and beyond, we also confirmed the ELO induced resonance cavity effect was able to increase the solar cell efficiency by increasing both the short circuit current and open voltage. The electric field intensity of the resonance cavity formed in the ELO film between the Au back reflector and the GaAs front contact layer was analyzed in detail by finite-differential time-domain (FDTD) simulation. We found that the calculated current collection enhancement within the wavelength range of 700?nm–900?nm was strongly influenced by the size and shape of InAs QD. In addition, we performed concentrated light photovoltaic study and analyzed the effect of intermediate states on the open voltage under varied concentrated light intensity for the ELO-InAs QD cell.

  5. Module Handbook Specialisation Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habel, Annegret

    Module Handbook Specialisation Photovoltaics 2nd Semester for the Master Programme REMA/EUREC Course 2008/2009 University of Northumbria Specialisation Provider: Photovoltaics #12;Specialisation Photovoltaics, University of Northumbria Module 1/Photovoltaics: PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL

  6. Design and performance of a low-cost acrylic reflector for a ~7x concentrating photovoltaic module

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    of the prototype. The final design is an asymmetric compound parabolic concentrator mounted to an encapsulated increase in power output over an encapsulated receiver with no reflector. Keywords: compound parabolic push for drastic cost reductions in the deployment of solar electricity production has renewed interest

  7. Predicting the spectral effects of soils on high concentrating photovoltaic systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARD ACCOUNTING SYSTEM SURVEYPrecisionOffice

  8. AlGaAs/GaAs photovoltaic converters for high power narrowband radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khvostikov, Vladimir; Kalyuzhnyy, Nikolay; Mintairov, Sergey; Potapovich, Nataliia; Shvarts, Maxim; Sorokina, Svetlana; Andreev, Viacheslav [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 26 Polytechnicheskaya, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Luque, Antonio [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 26 Polytechnicheskaya, St. Petersburg, 194021, Russia and Instituto de Energia Solar, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    AlGaAs/GaAs-based laser power PV converters intended for operation with high-power (up to 100 W/cm{sup 2}) radiation were fabricated by LPE and MOCVD techniques. Monochromatic (? = 809 nm) conversion efficiency up to 60% was measured at cells with back surface field and low (x = 0.2) Al concentration 'window'. Modules with a voltage of 4 V and the efficiency of 56% were designed and fabricated.

  9. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  10. Photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G. (Cambridge, MA); Kurtz, Sarah (Somerville, MA)

    1984-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  11. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, Bruce (El Paso, TX); Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Jordan, John F. (El Paso, TX)

    1991-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  12. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 20: Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    · 6. Determine battery size for recommended reserve time Photovoltaic System Design Block Diagram Ph1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 20: Photovoltaic Systems Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser into the grid 2 Application Areas 3 Photovoltaic System Basics · Photovoltaic Systems ­ Cell Panel Array

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory (PSEL), Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar...

  14. Concentrating PhotovoltaicsConcentrating Photovoltaics Andrew BlakersAndrew Blakers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Sunlight inSunlight in AustraliaAustralia Supply all of Australia's and the world's electricity #12;Global cell temperaturecell temperature ­­ Water cooling optional, particularly for micro systemsWater cooling Solar hot water Solar heating Solar cooling ­ 70% combined efficiency Complete home energy solution #12

  15. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and modules in the field for 25 years. Under this project, Ferro leveraged world leading analytical capabilities at ORNL to characterize the paste-to-silicon interface microstructure and develop high efficiency next generation contact pastes. Ampulse Corporation is developing a revolutionary crystalline-silicon (c-Si) thin-film solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Utilizing uniquely-textured substrates and buffer materials from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and breakthroughs in Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) techniques in epitaxial silicon developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Ampulse is creating a solar technology that is tunable in silicon thickness, and hence in efficiency and economics, to meet the specific requirements of multiple solar PV applications. This project focused on the development of a high rate deposition process to deposit Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex films as an alternate to hot-wire CVD. Mossey Creek Solar is a start-up company with great expertise in the solar field. The primary interest is to create and preserve jobs in the solar sector by developing high-yield, low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells using MSC-patented and -proprietary technologies. The specific goal of this project was to produce large grain formation in thin, net-shape-thickness mc-Si wafers processed with high-purity silicon powder and ORNL's plasma arc lamp melting without introducing impurities that compromise absorption coefficient and carrier lifetime. As part of this project, ORNL also added specific pieces of equipment to enhance our ability to provide unique insight for the solar industry. These capabilities include a moisture barrier measurement system, a combined physical vapor deposition and sputtering system dedicated to cadmium-containing deposits, adeep level transient spectroscopy system useful for identifying defects, an integrating sphere photoluminescence system, and a high-speed ink jet printing system. These tools were combined with others to study the effect of defects on the performance of crystalline silicon and

  16. Distributed control of reactive power flow in a radial distribution circuit with high photovoltaic penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turitsyn, Konstantin; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show how distributed control of reactive power can serve to regulate voltage and minimize resistive losses in a distribution circuit that includes a significant level of photovoltaic (PV) generation. To demonstrate the technique, we consider a radial distribution circuit with a single branch consisting of sequentially-arranged residential-scale loads that consume both real and reactive power. In parallel, some loads also have PV generation capability. We postulate that the inverters associated with each PV system are also capable of limited reactive power generation or consumption, and we seek to find the optimal dispatch of each inverter's reactive power to both maintain the voltage within an acceptable range and minimize the resistive losses over the entire circuit. We assume the complex impedance of the distribution circuit links and the instantaneous load and PV generation at each load are known. We compare the results of the optimal dispatch with a suboptimal local scheme that does not require any com...

  17. Switching coordination of distributed dc-dc converters for highly efficient photovoltaic power plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agamy, Mohammed; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan Antonio; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A distributed photovoltaic (PV) power plant includes a plurality of distributed dc-dc converters. The dc-dc converters are configured to switch in coordination with one another such that at least one dc-dc converter transfers power to a common dc-bus based upon the total system power available from one or more corresponding strings of PV modules. Due to the coordinated switching of the dc-dc converters, each dc-dc converter transferring power to the common dc-bus continues to operate within its optimal efficiency range as well as to optimize the maximum power point tracking in order to increase the energy yield of the PV power plant.

  18. CdS/PbSe heterojunction for high temperature mid-infrared photovoltaic detector applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Binbin, E-mail: binbinweng@ou.edu, E-mail: shi@ou.edu; Qiu, Jijun; Zhao, Lihua; Chang, Caleb [The School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Shi, Zhisheng, E-mail: binbinweng@ou.edu, E-mail: shi@ou.edu [The School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Nanolight, Inc., Norman, Oklahoma 73069 (United States)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    n-CdS/p-PbSe heterojunction is investigated. A thin CdS film is deposited by chemical bath deposition on top of epitaxial PbSe film by molecular beam epitaxy on Silicon. Current-voltage measurements demonstrate very good junction characteristics with rectifying ratio of ?178 and ideality factor of 1.79 at 300?K. Detectors made with such structure exhibit mid-infrared spectral photoresponse at room temperature. The peak responsivity R{sub ?} and specific detectivity D{sup *} are 0.055?A/W and 5.482?×?10{sup 8}?cm·Hz{sup 1/2}/W at ??=?4.7??m under zero-bias photovoltaic mode. Temperature-dependent photoresponse measurements show abnormal intensity variation below ?200?K. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are also discussed.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrated Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuels Biofuels Publications Biochemical Conversion Program Lignocellulosic Biomass Microalgae Thermochemical Conversion Sign up for our E-Newsletter Required.gif?3.21 Email...

  20. Development of a High Volume Capable Process to Manufacture High Performance Photovoltaic Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-322

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geisz, J. F.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of the work is for RFMD and NREL to cooperate in the development of a commercially viable and high volume capable process to manufacture high performance photovoltaic cells, based on inverted metamorphic (IMM) GaAs technology. The successful execution of the agreement will result in the production of a PV cell using technology that is capable of conversion efficiency at par with the market at the time of release (reference 2009: 37-38%), using RFMD's production facilities. The CRADA work has been divided into three phases: (1) a foundation phase where the teams will demonstrate the manufacturing of a basic PV cell at RFMD's production facilities; (2) a technology demonstration phase where the teams will demonstrate the manufacturing of prototype PV cells using IMM technology at RFMD's production facilities, and; (3) a production readiness phase where the teams will demonstrate the capability to manufacture PV cells using IMM technology with high yields, high reliability, high reproducibility and low cost.

  1. Energizing the Next Generation with Photovoltaics Following the lead of Russian colleagues, photovoltaic (PV)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Energizing the Next Generation with Photovoltaics ABSTRACT Following the lead of Russian colleagues, photovoltaic (PV) lab kits are being built and experiments and curricula are being developed for use of these kits. This Photovoltaic Sci- ence Experiments and Curriculum (PSEC) is being tested in local high

  2. 382 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 3, JULY 2012 Design and Construction of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    382 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 3, JULY 2012 Design and Construction of a 7× Low-Concentration Photovoltaic System Based on Compound Parabolic Concentrators Mark A. Schuetz, Member, IEEE, Kara A. Shell-concentration photovoltaic system based on compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs). The system is approximately a 7

  3. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 15 Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 15 Photovoltaic Devices Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser) · Demonstrated the photovoltaic effect · Best results with UV or blue light 2 g · Electrodes covered with light of photovoltaic effect in an all solid state device · Several decades before the effect could be explained Fritts

  4. Shock initiation studies on high concentration hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, Stephen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stahl, David B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gibson, L. Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bartram, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) has been known to detonate for many years. However, because of its reactivity and the difficulty in handling and confining it, along with the large critical diameter, few studies providing basic information about the initiation and detonation properties have been published. We are conducting a study to understand and quantify the initiation and detonation properties of highly concentrated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} using a gas-driven two-stage gun to produce well defined shock inputs. Multiple magnetic gauges are used to make in-situ measurements of the growth of reaction and subsequent detonation in the liquid. These experiments are designed to be one-dimensional to eliminate any difficulties that might be encountered with large critical diameters. Because of the concern of the reactivity of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with the confining materials, a remote loading system has been developed. The gun is pressurized, then the cell is filled and the experiment shot within less than three minutes. TV cameras are attached to the target so the cell filling can be monitored. Several experiments have been completed on {approx}98 wt % H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O mixtures; initiation has been observed in some experiments that shows homogeneous shock initiation behavior. The initial shock pressurizes and heats the mixture. After an induction time, a thermal explosion type reaction produces an evolving reactive wave that strengthens and eventually overdrives the first wave producing a detonation. From these measurements, we have determined unreacted Hugoniot information, times (distances) to detonation (Pop-plot points) that indicate low sensitivity, and detonation velocities of high concentration H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O solutions that agree with earlier estimates.

  5. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Photovoltaic Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Amorphous Silicon as a Photovoltaic Material 2.1.2ii Photovoltaic Model . . . . . . . . . . .

  6. Non-Fickian ionic diffusion across high-concentration gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, A.E.; Wheatcraft, S.W. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)] [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Glass, R.J. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others] [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-Fickian physico-chemical model for electrolyte transport in high-ionic strength systems is developed and tested with laboratory experiments with copper sulfate as an example electrolyte. The new model is based on irreversible thermodynamics and uses measured mutual diffusion coefficients, varying with concentration. Compared to a traditional Fickian model, the new model predicts less diffusion and asymmetric diffusion profiles. Laboratory experiments show diffusion rates even smaller than those predicted by our non-Fickian model, suggesting that there are additional, unaccounted for processes retarding diffusion. Ionic diffusion rates maybe a limiting factor in transporting salts whose effect on fluid density will in turn significantly affect the flow regime. These findings have important implications for understanding and predicting solute transport in geologic settings where dense, saline solutions occur. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  7. 1990 DOE/SANDIA crystalline photovoltaic technology project review meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruby, D.S. (ed.)

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document serves as the proceedings for the annual project review meeting held by Sandia's Photovoltaic Cell Research Division and Photovoltaic Technology Division. It contains information supplied by each organization making a presentation at the meeting, which was held August 7 through 9, 1990 at the Sheraton Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sessions were held to discuss national photovoltaic programs, one-sun crystalline silicon cell research, concentrator silicon cell research, concentrator 3-5 cell research, and concentrating collector development.

  8. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    designs (relatively) Photovoltaic Solar P a n e l AtmosphereCALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A ThesisABSTRACT OF T H E THESIS Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux by

  9. Design of a photovoltaic central power station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic central power station designs have been developed for both high-efficiency flat-panel arrays and two-axis tracking concentrator arrays. Both designs are based on a site adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The plants are 100 MW each, made of 5 MW subfields. The site specific designs allow detailed cost estimate for site preparation, installation, and engineering. These designs are summarized and cost estimates analyzed. Provided also are recommendations for future work to reduce system cost for each plant design.

  10. Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SunShot Initiative Peer Review Report SunShot Home About Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Systems Integration Soft Costs Technology to Market Success Stories Financial...

  11. Recommendations for Maximizing Battery Life in Photovoltaic Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Testing Results DOE-HDBK-1084-95 SunShot Home About Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Systems Integration Soft Costs Technology to Market Success Stories Financial...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Tool Determines Value of Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems On February 6, 2012, in Energy, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar Consistent...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security National Solar Thermal Test Facility NSTTF Nuclear Energy photovoltaic Photovoltaics PV Renewable Energy solar Solar Energy solar power Solar Research Solid-State...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy, News, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaics, also known as "solar glitter," captured a prestigious R&D 100 Award in this...

  15. Photovoltaic Technology Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices convert sunlight into electrical energy, and PV cells are commonly known as solar cells. Photovoltaics can literally be translated as light-electricity.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photovoltaic Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics (MEPV) On April 14, 2011, in About MEPV Flexible MEPV MEPV Publications MEPV Awards Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories are...

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photovoltaic Sandians Win 'Best Paper' Award at Photovoltaic Conference in Japan On March 4, 2015, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events,...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Tool Determines Value of Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems On February 6, 2012, in Energy, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar Consistent...

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic Sandians Win 'Best Paper' Award at Photovoltaic Conference in Japan On March 4, 2015, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events,...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Tool Determines Value of Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems On February 6, 2012, in Energy, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar Consistent...

  1. Approaches To Integrating A HIgh Penertration Of Solar PV and CPV Onto The Electrical Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Steven Craig

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the absorber or photovoltaic cell. Color behavior, oras ln (A.27) For a photovoltaic cell under concentrated2 day Multijunction photovoltaic cells are used with medium

  2. HYDROGEN CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION IN HIGH-PURITY GERMANIUM CRYSTALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    melting point. By analogy, hydrogen permeation measurementsin silicon suggest that the hydrogen solubility also is notNo. 1, February 1982 HYDROGEN CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION

  3. Iron Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Liping [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lany, Stephan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kykyneshi, Robert [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Jieratum, Vorranutch [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Ravichandran, Ram [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Pelatt, Brian [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Altschul, Emmeline [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Platt, Heather A. S. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Wager, John F. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Keszler, Douglas A. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Zunger, Alex [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated computational and experimental study of FeS? pyrite reveals that phase coexistence is an important factor limiting performance as a thin-film solar absorber. This phase coexistence is suppressed with the ternary materials Fe?SiS? and Fe?GeS?, which also exhibit higher band gaps than FeS?. Thus, the ternaries provide a new entry point for development of thin-film absorbers and high-efficiency photovoltaics.

  4. Final Technical Progress Report: High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program; July 14, 2010 - January 13, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattos, L.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical progress report of the High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program. Alta Devices has successfully completed all milestones and deliverables established as part of the NREL PV incubator program. During the 18 months of this program, Alta has proven all key processes required to commercialize its solar module product. The incubator focus was on back end process steps directed at conversion of Alta's high quality solar film into high efficiency 1-sun PV modules. This report describes all program deliverables and the work behind each accomplishment.

  5. China Solar Photovoltaic Group CNPV aka Dongying Photovoltaic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Solar Photovoltaic Group CNPV aka Dongying Photovoltaic Power Co Ltd or China Solar PV Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Solar Photovoltaic Group (CNPV, aka Dongying...

  6. Photovoltaic cell with thin CS layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jordan, John F. (El Paso, TX); Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX)

    1994-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved photovoltaic panel and method of forming a photovoltaic panel are disclosed for producing a high efficiency CdS/CdTe photovoltaic cell. The photovoltaic panel of the present invention is initially formed with a substantially thick Cds layer, and the effective thickness of the CdS layer is substantially reduced during regrowth to both form larger diameter CdTe crystals and substantially reduce the effective thickness of the C This invention was made with Government support under Subcontract No. ZL-7-06031-3 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  7. MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR HIGH-EFFICIENCY FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and durability testing procedures include tests of individual components, as well as tests conducted on partial, polyester, polyimide, and polycarbonate films. FLEXIBLE SOLAR CELLS Mono-crystalline silicon offers high

  8. Power System Planning: Emerging Practices Suitable for Evaluating the Impact of High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report explores the impact of high-penetration renewable generation on electric power system planning methodologies and outlines how these methodologies are evolving to enable effective integration of variable-output renewable generation sources.

  9. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

  10. Antimony mediated growth of high-density InAs quantum dots for photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tutu, F. K.; Wu, J.; Lam, P.; Tang, M.; Liu, H. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)] [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Miyashita, N.; Okada, Y. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-Ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)] [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-Ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Wilson, J.; Allison, R. [Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Portsdown West, Portsdown Hill Road, Fareham Hants PO17 6AD (United Kingdom)] [Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Portsdown West, Portsdown Hill Road, Fareham Hants PO17 6AD (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We report enhanced solar cell performance using high-density InAs quantum dots. The high-density quantum dot was grown by antimony mediated molecular beam epitaxy. In-plane quantum dot density over 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup ?2} was achieved by applying a few monolayers of antimony on the GaAs surface prior to quantum dot growth. The formation of defective large clusters was reduced by optimization of the growth temperature and InAs coverage. Comparing with a standard quantum dot solar cell without the incorporation of antimony, the high-density quantum dot solar cell demonstrates a distinct improvement in short-circuit current from 7.4 mA/cm{sup 2} to 8.3 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  11. Lab Breakthrough: Microelectronic Photovoltaics | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lab Breakthrough: Microelectronic Photovoltaics Lab Breakthrough: Microelectronic Photovoltaics June 7, 2012 - 9:31am Addthis Sandia developed tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic (PV)...

  12. Screening-engineered Field-effect Photovoltaics and Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications of Carbon-based and Related Nanomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regan, William Raymond

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    low- cost, high-efficiency photovoltaics. However, there areefficiency silicon solar cells by atomic-layer-deposited Al 2 O 3 . Progress in Photovoltaics,

  13. High Performance Photovoltaic Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-05-169

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, M.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL will provide certified measurements of the conversion efficiency at high concentration for several multijunction solar cells that were fabricated by Cyrium Technologies. In an earlier phase of the CRADA, Cyrium provided epitaxially-grown material and NREL processed the samples into devices and measured the performance.

  14. Interfacial Engineering for Highly Efficient-Conjugated Polymer-Based Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alex Jen; David Ginger; Christine Luscombe; Hong Ma

    2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of our proposal is to apply interface engineering approach to improve charge extraction, guide active layer morphology, improve materials compatibility, and ultimately allow the fabrication of high efficiency tandem cells. Specifically, we aim at developing: i. Interfacial engineering using small molecule self-assembled monolayers ii. Nanostructure engineering in OPVs using polymer brushes iii. Development of efficient light harvesting and high mobility materials for OPVs iv. Physical characterization of the nanostructured systems using electrostatic force microscopy, and conducting atomic force microscopy v. All-solution processed organic-based tandem cells using interfacial engineering to optimize the recombination layer currents vi. Theoretical modeling of charge transport in the active semiconducting layer The material development effort is guided by advanced computer modeling and surface/ interface engineering tools to allow us to obtain better understanding of the effect of electrode modifications on OPV performance for the investigation of more elaborate device structures. The materials and devices developed within this program represent a major conceptual advancement using an integrated approach combining rational molecular design, material, interface, process, and device engineering to achieve solar cells with high efficiency, stability, and the potential to be used for large-area roll-to-roll printing. This may create significant impact in lowering manufacturing cost of polymer solar cells for promoting clean renewable energy use and preventing the side effects from using fossil fuels to impact environment.

  15. accumulate high concentrations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high pressure chemical vapor deposition have been studied by high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy HREELS and room temperature infrared reflection measurements. HREEL...

  16. Methods and devices for high-throughput dielectrophoretic concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Cummings, Eric B. (Livermore, CA); Fiechtner, Gregory J. (Germantown, MD); Fintschenko, Yolanda (Livermore, CA); McGraw, Gregory J. (Ann Arbor, MI); Salmi, Allen (Escalon, CA)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein are methods and devices for assaying and concentrating analytes in a fluid sample using dielectrophoresis. As disclosed, the methods and devices utilize substrates having a plurality of pores through which analytes can be selectively prevented from passing, or inhibited, on application of an appropriate electric field waveform. The pores of the substrate produce nonuniform electric field having local extrema located near the pores. These nonuniform fields drive dielectrophoresis, which produces the inhibition. Arrangements of electrodes and porous substrates support continuous, bulk, multi-dimensional, and staged selective concentration.

  17. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

  18. Photovoltaic generator with a spherical imaging lens for use with a paraboloidal solar reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, Roger P

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a generator for photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight into electricity. A generator according to the invention incorporates a plurality of photovoltaic cells and is intended for operation near the focus of a large paraboloidal reflector pointed at the sun. Within the generator, the entering concentrated light is relayed by secondary optics to the cells arranged in a compact, concave array. The light is delivered to the cells at high concentration, consistent with high photovoltaic conversion efficiency and low cell cost per unit power output. Light enters the generator, preferably first through a sealing window, and passes through a field lens, preferably in the form of a full sphere or ball lens centered on the paraboloid focus. This lens forms a concentric, concave and wide-angle image of the primary reflector, where the intensity of the concentrated light is stabilized against changes in the position of concentrated light entering the generator. Receiving the stabilized light are flat photovoltaic cells made in different shapes and sizes and configured in a concave array corresponding to the concave image of a given primary reflector. Photovoltaic cells in a generator are also sized and interconnected so as to provide a single electrical output that remains high and stable, despite aberrations in the light delivered to the generator caused by, for example, mispointing or bending of the primary reflector. In some embodiments, the cells are set back from the image formed by the ball lens, and part of the light is reflected onto each cell small secondary reflectors in the form of mirrors set around its perimeter.

  19. Protein levels for Chios lambs given high concentrate diets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    /kg dry matter) and lucerne hay. Following weaning all lambs were offered the same concentrate mixture ad libitum plus 0.1 kg lucerne hay (182 g CP/kg dry matter) daily. The animals were allocated on the three) and lucerne hay (0.1 kg/head daily) were offered in separate feed containers. The three diets were composed

  20. SHOCK SOLUTIONS FOR HIGH CONCENTRATION PARTICLE-LADEN THIN FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertozzi, Andrea L.

    of particles [32, 4], the settling of heavy par- ticles due to gravity [12], and particle resuspension induced. At low inclination angles and concentrations, particles settle out of the flow leading a model to identify a balance between hindered settling and shear-induced migration as the leading order

  1. Defect Engineering, Cell Processing, and Modeling for High-Performance, Low-Cost Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buonassisi, Tonio

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to close the efficiency gap between industrial multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) and monocrystalline silicon solar cells, while preserving the economic advantage of low-cost, high-volume substrates inherent to mc-Si. Over the course of this project, we made significant progress toward this goal, as evidenced by the evolution in solar-cell efficiencies. While most of the benefits of university projects are diffuse in nature, several unique contributions can be traced to this project, including the development of novel characterization methods, defect-simulation tools, and novel solar-cell processing approaches mitigate the effects of iron impurities ("Impurities to Efficiency" simulator) and dislocations. In collaboration with our industrial partners, this project contributed to the development of cell processing recipes, specialty materials, and equipment that increased cell efficiencies overall (not just multicrystalline silicon). Additionally, several students and postdocs who were either partially or fully engaged in this project (as evidenced by the publication record) are currently in the PV industry, with others to follow.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory (PSEL), Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar...

  3. High-efficiency grid-connected photovoltaic module integrated converter system with high-speed communication interfaces for small-scale distribution power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Woo-Young; Lai, Jih-Sheng (Jason) [Future Energy Electronics Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a high-efficiency grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) module integrated converter (MIC) system with reduced PV current variation. The proposed PV MIC system consists of a high-efficiency step-up DC-DC converter and a single-phase full-bridge DC-AC inverter. An active-clamping flyback converter with a voltage-doubler rectifier is proposed for the step-up DC-DC converter. The proposed step-up DC-DC converter reduces the switching losses by eliminating the reverse-recovery current of the output rectifying diodes. To reduce the PV current variation introduced by the grid-connected inverter, a PV current variation reduction method is also suggested. The suggested PV current variation reduction method reduces the PV current variation without any additional components. Moreover, for centralized power control of distributed PV MIC systems, a PV power control scheme with both a central control level and a local control level is presented. The central PV power control level controls the whole power production by sending out reference power signals to each individual PV MIC system. The proposed step-up DC-DC converter achieves a high-efficiency of 97.5% at 260 W output power to generate the DC-link voltage of 350 V from the PV voltage of 36.1 V. The PV MIC system including the DC-DC converter and the DC-AC inverter achieves a high-efficiency of 95% with the PV current ripple less than 3% variation of the rated PV current. (author)

  4. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Photovoltaic Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .conduction and photovoltaic performance. Experimental dataElectronic and Photovoltaic Performance We also probed oxide

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic Regional Testing Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grid Integration, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Photovoltaic Regional Testing Center (PV RTC), Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation...

  6. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -- formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  7. 25th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 6-10 September 2010, 2DV.1.30 DETERMINATION OF THE BASE DOPANT CONCENTRATION OF LARGE AREA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    probe measurements. For alkaline textured monocrystalline silicon solar cells calculations are carried Cell, Capacitance, Base Dopant Concentration aPresent address: pv-tools GmbH, Hefehof 31, 31785 Hameln

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PV Facilities On November 10, 2010, in Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory Microsystems and Engineering Sciences Applications...

  9. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its photovoltaics subprogram.

  10. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its photovoltaics subprogram.

  11. Electroluminescence in photovoltaic cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petraglia, Antonio; 10.1088/0031-9120/46/5/F01

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we propose two methods to get electroluminescence images from photovoltaic cells in a school or home lab.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grid Integration, Infrastructure Security, Microgrid, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, SMART Grid, Solar Newsletter, Systems Analysis, Systems...

  13. Photovoltaic Technology Incubator Awards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This factsheet gives an overview of the Photovoltaic (PV) Technology Incubator Awards and the Solar America Initiative (SAI).

  14. Reducing PM Concentrations in Simulated High Temperature Gas Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luehrs, Daniel R

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    the reaction temperatures and capture the energy in the biomass. CGT has an approximant 16,300 kJ/kg (7,000 Btu/lb) of energy. The resulting synthetic gas (syngas) can have an energy content as high as 7,450 kJ/m^(3) (200 Btu/dscf) and can be fed directly...

  15. Breakthrough: micro-electronic photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia developed tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic (PV) cells that could revolutionize solar energy collection. The crystalline silicon micro-PV cells will be cheaper and have greater efficiencies than current PV collectors. Micro-PV cells require relatively little material to form well-controlled, highly efficient devices. Cell fabrication uses common microelectric and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques.

  16. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 17 Photovoltaic Modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 17 Photovoltaic Modules Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser to temperature effects and other non ideal conditions · Allows for voltage drops across other PV system components · Requires 15 V to charge a 12 V battery 10 Module Current · Depends primarily on size of solar

  17. 1992 DOE/Sandia crystalline photovoltaic technology project review meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maish, A. [ed.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document serves as the proceedings for the annual project review meeting held by Sandia National Laboratories` Photovoltaic Technology and Photovoltaic Evaluation Departments. It contains information supplied by organizations making presentations at the meeting, which was held July 14--15, 1992 at the Sheraton Old Town Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Overview sessions covered the Department of Energy (DOE) program, including those at Sandia and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and non-DOE programs, including the EPRI concentrator collector program, The Japanese crystalline silicon program, and some concentrating photovoltaic activities in Europe. Additional sessions included papers on Sandia`s Photovoltaic Device Fabrication Laboratory`s collaborative research, cell processing research, the activities of the participants in the Concentrator Initiative Program, and photovoltaic technology evaluation at Sandia and NREL.

  18. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - High-Performance Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency Visit |Infrastructure TheSolar1855Facilities

  19. Bill Shafarman 1 May 15, 2013 Thin Film Photovoltaics Research at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Bill Shafarman 1 May 15, 2013 Thin Film Photovoltaics Research at the Institute of Energy of Photovoltaics 2. IEC: History and Capabilities 3. Current Research at IEC #12;Bill Shafarman 2 May 15, 2013 Concentrators #12;Bill Shafarman 5 May 15, 2013 Thin Film Photovoltaics Potential for low cost PV using " a

  20. Photovoltaic Devices Employing Ternary PbSxSe1-x Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for photovoltaic devices but the reported efficienciesphotovoltaic properties. Lead chalcogenides are the only materials thus far to make high efficiency

  1. Request for Information on Photovoltaic Module Recycling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative requests feedback from industry, academia, research laboratories, government agencies, and other stakeholders on issues related to photovoltaic (PV) module recycling technology. SunShot intends to understand the current state of recycling technology and the areas of research that could lead to impactful recycling technologies to support the developing PV industry. The intent of this request for information is to generate discussion related to planning for the end of life of photovoltaic modules and to create a list of high impact research topics in photovoltaics recycling.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat can also be efficiently and cheaply stored to produce electricity when the sun ... Solar Energy On February 3, 2011, in Solar Programs Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar...

  3. Photovoltaics information user study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  4. High-efficiency, thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells. Annual subcontract report, 20 January 1994--19 January 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compaan, A.D.; Bohn, R.G.; Rajakarunanayake, Y. [Toledo Univ., OH (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work performed to develop and optimize the process of radio frequency (RF) sputtering for the fabrication of thin-film solar cells on glass. The emphasis is on CdTe-related materials including CdTe, CdS, ZnTe, and ternary alloy semiconductors. Pulsed laser physical vapor deposition (LPVD) was used for exploratory work on these materials, especially where alloying or doping are involved, and for the deposition of cadmium chloride layers. For the sputtering work, a two-gun sputtering chamber was implemented, with optical access for monitoring temperature and growth rate. We studied the optical and electrical properties of the plasmas produced by two different kinds of planar magnetron sputter guns with different magnetic field configurations and strengths. Using LPVD, we studied alloy semiconductors such as CdZnTe and heavily doped semiconductors such as ZnTe:Cu for possible incorporation into graded band gap CdTe-based photovoltaic devices.

  5. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, K.A. (ed.)

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaics Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The SERI subcontracted PV research and development represents most of the subcontracted R D that is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program. This report covers fiscal year (FY) 1990: October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. During FY 1990, the SERI PV program started to implement a new DOE subcontract initiative, entitled the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Project.'' Excluding (PVMaT) because it was in a start-up phase, in FY 1990 there were 54 subcontracts with a total annualized funding of approximately $11.9 million. Approximately two-thirds of those subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of over $3.3 million. Cost sharing by industry added another $4.3 million to that $11.9 million of SERI PV subcontracted R D. The six technical sections of this report cover the previously ongoing areas of the subcontracted program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, and the University Participation Program. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs discuss approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1990, and future research directions. Another section introduces the PVMaT project and reports the progress since its inception in FY 1990. Highlights of technology transfer activities are also reported.

  6. High Mercury Concentrations Reflect Trophic Ecology of Three Deep-Water Chondrichthyans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Michael C.

    High Mercury Concentrations Reflect Trophic Ecology of Three Deep-Water Chondrichthyans Michael C concentrations were explored for three deep-water chondrichthyans (Etmopterus princeps, Cen- troscymnus position in the trophic web (as indicated by differences in d15 N). Mercury is a major contaminant

  7. A flow field enabling operating direct methanol fuel cells with highly concentrated methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    A flow field enabling operating direct methanol fuel cells with highly concentrated methanol Q. Xu Available online 8 October 2010 Keywords: Fuel cells Direct methanol fuel cells Concentrated methanol Flow field a b s t r a c t In this work, an anode flow field that allows a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC

  8. A Field Effect Based Hydrogen Sensor for Low and High Concentrations W. Moritz1*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz, Werner

    .g. fire detection) as well as for high concentrations near to the Lower Explosion Level (LEL) of 4 the Lower Explosion Level (LEL) of 4 % hydrogen in air are demonstrated. A method to achieve long lifetime

  9. The 22nd International Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference, November 05-09, 2012, Hangzhou, China Limits for short-pulse laser processing of high efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The 22nd International Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference, November 05-09, 2012 in the range of the ablation threshold of dielectric layers can result in a degradation of the front side efficiencies are considered as very important for reducing the cost of photovoltaic electricity production. [1

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaics PV Plant Performance Technical Briefing Published in PV Power Tech On March 4, 2015, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events,...

  11. Photovoltaics Business Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frantzis, L.; Graham, S.; Katofsky, R.; Sawyer, H.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work to better understand the structure of future photovoltaics business models and the research, development, and demonstration required to support their deployment.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Solar, SunShot The Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Sandia recently received a...

  13. National Laboratory Photovoltaics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE supports photovoltaic (PV) research and development and facilities at its national laboratories to accelerate progress toward achieving the SunShot Initiative's technological and economic...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instruments: Solar Glitter On March 21, 2013, in Capabilities, Energy, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Solar, SunShot Sandia scientists have...

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integration Program addresses technical barriers to large-scale deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation in grid-tied power systems. Sandia's grid integration research...

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resolving a Key to How Stars Transmit Energy Sandians Win 'Best Paper' Award at Photovoltaic Conference in Japan EC Top Publications Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties...

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Solar Technology in the Home On June 12, 2014, in Energy, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar Newsletter, SunShot, Systems Analysis To better...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photovoltaic Past Market Transformation Activities On April 4, 2012, in Current activates have built upon past efforts, most notably the Solar American Cities (now Communities)...

  19. Photovoltaic Resources and Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides a brief overview of photovoltaic (PV) technologies supplemented by specific information to apply PV within the Federal sector.

  20. Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies Print Monday, 06 February 2012 15:48 Organic solar cells based on the polymerfullerene bulk...

  1. Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline and articles therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline. In order to process high quality fibers and other articles possessing good mechanical properties, it is known that solution concentrations of the chosen polymer should be in the range from 15-30% (w/w). Moreover, it is desirable to use the highest molecular weight consistent with the solubility properties of the polymer. However, such solutions are inherently unstable, forming gels before processing can be achieved. The present invention describes the addition gel inhibitors (GIs) to the polymer solution, thereby permitting high concentrations (between 15% and 30% (w/w)) of high molecular weight ((M.sub.w)>120,000, and (M.sub.n)>30,000) emeraldine base (EB) polyaniline to be dissolved. Secondary amines have been used for this purpose in concentrations which are small compared to those which might otherwise be used in a cosolvent role therefor. The resulting solutions are useful for generating excellent fibers, films, coatings and other objects, since the solutions are stable for significant time periods, and the GIs are present in too small concentrations to cause polymer deterioration. It is demonstrated that the GIs found to be useful do not act as cosolvents, and that gelation times of the solutions are directly proportional to the concentration of GI. In particular, there is a preferred concentration of GI, which if exceeded causes structural and electrical conductivity degradation of resulting articles. Heating of the solutions significantly improves solubility.

  2. Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline and articles therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattes, Benjamin R. (Sante Fe, NM); Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline. In order to process high quality fibers and other articles possessing good mechanical properties, it is known that solution concentrations of the chosen polymer should be in the range from 15-30% (w/w). Moreover, it is desirable to use the highest molecular weight consistent with the solubility properties of the polymer. However, such solutions are inherently unstable, forming gels before processing can be achieved. The present invention describes the addition gel inhibitors (GIs) to the polymer solution, thereby permitting high concentrations (>15% (w/w)) of high molecular weight ((M.sub.w)>120,000, and (M.sub.n)>30,000) emeraldine base (EB) polyaniline to be dissolved. Secondary amines have been used for this purpose in concentrations which are small compared to those which might otherwise be used in a cosolvent role therefor. The resulting solutions are useful for generating excellent fibers, films, coatings and other objects, since the solutions are stable for significant time periods, and the GIs are present in too small concentrations to cause polymer deterioration. It is demonstrated that the GIs found to be useful do not act as cosolvents, and that gelation times of the solutions are directly proportional to the concentration of GI. In particular, there is a preferred concentration of GI, which if exceeded causes structural and electrical conductivity degradation of resulting articles. Heating of the solutions significantly improves solubility.

  3. Photovoltaic cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beavis, Leonard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Panitz, Janda K. G. (Edgewood, NM); Sharp, Donald J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic assembly for converting high intensity solar radiation into lectrical energy in which a solar cell is separated from a heat sink by a thin layer of a composite material which has excellent dielectric properties and good thermal conductivity. This composite material is a thin film of porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in which the pores have been substantially filled with an electrophoretically-deposited layer of a styrene-acrylate resin. This composite provides electrical breakdown strengths greater than that of a layer consisting essentially of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and has a higher thermal conductivity than a layer of styrene-acrylate alone.

  4. The Effects of Non-Uniform Electronic Properties on Thin Film Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Gregory Ferguson

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaics     There  are  two  requirements  for  designing  a  high  efficiency  photovoltaics.    These   modeling  efforts  are  important  not  only  for  future  efficiency  photovoltaics,  typically  made  with  CIGS  and  CdTe   absorber  layers,  are  promising  sources  of  renewable  energy  due  to  their  high   efficiencies  (

  5. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    based on solar trough or parabolic dish technology) to PV astechnologies: wind, single-axis tracking photovoltaics (PV), 1 concentrating solarTechnology High Penetration of VG Single-Axis PV CSP w/ 6hr TES Wind Solar

  6. Photovoltaic devices based on high density boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotube/n-Si heterojunctions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saini, Viney; Li, Zhongrui; Bourdo, Shawn; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Trigwell, Steven; Couraud, Arthur; Rioux, Julien; Boyer, Cyril; Nteziyaremye, Valens; Dervishi, Enkeleda; et al

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple and easily processible photovoltaic device has been developed based on borondoped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWNTs) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunctions. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were substitutionally doped with boron atoms by thermal annealing, in the presence of B2O3. The samples used for these studies were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fully functional solar cell devices were fabricated by airbrush deposition that generated uniform B-SWNT films on top of the n-Si substrates. The carbon nanotube films acted as exciton-generation sites, charge collection and transportation, whilemore »the heterojunctions formed between B-SWNTs and n-Si acted as charge dissociation centers. The current-voltage characteristics in the absence of light and under illumination, as well as optical transmittance spectrum are reported here. It should be noted that the device fabrication process can be made amenable to scalability by depositing direct and uniform films using airbrushing, inkjet printing, or spin-coating techniques.« less

  7. Photovoltaic devices based on high density boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotube/n-Si heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saini, Viney [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Li, Zhongrui [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Bourdo, Shawn [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kunets, Vasyl P. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Trigwell, Steven [ASRC Aerospace Corp., Kennedy Space Center, FL (United States); Couraud, Arthur [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Ecole d'Ingenieurs de CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Rioux, Julien [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Boyer, Cyril [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Nteziyaremye, Valens [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Dervishi, Enkeleda [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, Alexandru R. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Salamo, Gregory J. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Viswanathan, Tito [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, Alexandru S. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple and easily processible photovoltaic device has been developed based on borondoped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWNTs) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunctions. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were substitutionally doped with boron atoms by thermal annealing, in the presence of B2O3. The samples used for these studies were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fully functional solar cell devices were fabricated by airbrush deposition that generated uniform B-SWNT films on top of the n-Si substrates. The carbon nanotube films acted as exciton-generation sites, charge collection and transportation, while the heterojunctions formed between B-SWNTs and n-Si acted as charge dissociation centers. The current-voltage characteristics in the absence of light and under illumination, as well as optical transmittance spectrum are reported here. It should be noted that the device fabrication process can be made amenable to scalability by depositing direct and uniform films using airbrushing, inkjet printing, or spin-coating techniques.

  8. High-efficiency thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells. Annual technical report, January 20, 1996--January 19, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compaan, A.D.; Bohn, R.G.; Contreras-Puente, G. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)] [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Toledo photovoltaics group has been instrumental in developing rf sputtering for CDs/CdTe thin-film solar cells. During the third phase of the present contract our work focussed on efforts to determine factors which limit the efficiency in our {open_quotes}all-sputtered{close_quotes} thin-film CdTe solar cells on soda-lime glass. We find that our all-sputtered cells, which are deposited at substantially lower temperature than those by sublimation or vapor deposition, require less aggressive CdCl{sub 2} treatments than do other deposition techniques and this is presumably related to CDs/CdTe interdiffusion. The CDs/CdTe interdiffusion process has been studied by several methods, including photoluminescence and capacitance-voltage measurements. Furthermore, we have deposited special thin bilayer films on quartz and borosilicate glass. Interdiffusion in these thin bilayers have been probed by Rutherford backscattering, with collaborators at Case Western Reserve University, and grazing incidence x-ray scattering (GIXS), with collaborators at the University at Buffalo and Brookhaven National Lab. Also, in order better to understand the properties of the ternary alloy material, we used laser physical vapor deposition to prepare a series of CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} films on borosilicate glass. The composition of the alloy films was determined by wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy at NREL. These films are currently being investigated by us and other groups at NREL and IEC.

  9. Photovoltaic devices based on high density boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotube/n-Si heterojunctions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saini, Viney [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Li, Zhongrui [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Bourdo, Shawn [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kunets, Vasyl P. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Trigwell, Steven [ASRC Aerospace Corp., Kennedy Space Center, FL (United States); Couraud, Arthur [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Ecole d'Ingenieurs de CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Rioux, Julien [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Boyer, Cyril [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Nteziyaremye, Valens [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Dervishi, Enkeleda [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, Alexandru R. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Salamo, Gregory J. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Viswanathan, Tito [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, Alexandru S. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple and easily processible photovoltaic device has been developed based on borondoped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWNTs) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunctions. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were substitutionally doped with boron atoms by thermal annealing, in the presence of B2O3. The samples used for these studies were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fully functional solar cell devices were fabricated by airbrush deposition that generated uniform B-SWNT films on top of the n-Si substrates. The carbon nanotube films acted as exciton-generation sites, charge collection and transportation, while the heterojunctions formed between B-SWNTs and n-Si acted as charge dissociation centers. The current-voltage characteristics in the absence of light and under illumination, as well as optical transmittance spectrum are reported here. It should be noted that the device fabrication process can be made amenable to scalability by depositing direct and uniform films using airbrushing, inkjet printing, or spin-coating techniques.

  10. Ris Energy Report 5 Photovoltaics 6.3.1 Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø Energy Report 5 Photovoltaics 6.3.1 Photovoltaics TOM MARkVART, UNIVERsITy OF s kREbs, RIsø NATIONAL LAbORATORy, DENMARk The market for photovoltaics (PV, or solar cells) has grown. The European Photovoltaic Industry Association esti- mates that the share of thin-film technologies

  11. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  12. Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (air, water, solid) M, Q E PV array Photovoltaic modules Balance of System (BOS) (Inverters & Environmental Engineering Department Columbia University and National Photovoltaic (PV) EHS Research Center Brookhaven National Laboratory www.clca.columbia.edu www.pv.bnl.gov #12;2 The Life Cycle of PVThe Life Cycle

  13. Photovoltaics for residential applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is given about the parts of a residential photovoltaic system and considerations relevant to photovoltaic power use in homes that are also tied to utility lines. In addition, factors are discussed that influence implementation, including legal and environmental factors such as solar access and building codes, insurance, utility buyback, and system longevity. (LEW)

  14. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  15. Optical Refrigeration for Ultra-Efficient Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving the conversion efficiency of solar energy to electricity is most important to mankind. For single-junction photovoltaic solar-cells, the Shockley-Queisser thermodynamic efficiency limit is extensively due to the heat dissipation, inherently accompanying the quantum process of electro-chemical potential generation. Concepts such as solar thermo-photovoltaics and thermo-photonics, have been suggested to harness this wasted heat, yet efficiencies exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit have not been demonstrated due to the challenge of operating at high temperatures. Here, we present a highly efficient converter based on endothermic photoluminescence, which operates at relative low temperatures. The thermally induced blue-shifted photoluminescence of a low-bandgap absorber is coupled to a high-bandgap photovoltaic cell. The high absorber's photo-current and the high cell's voltage results in 69% maximal theoretical conversion efficiencies. We experimentally demonstrate tenfold thermal-enhancement of usef...

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: high-efficiency solar cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cells Sandia and EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency On March 29, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Partnership, Photovoltaic,...

  17. Characterization of 3D Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Characterization of 3D Photovoltaics SEMICONDUCTORS Our goal is to provide industry with test structures and models of next-generation photovoltaics, with an initial focus on cadmium telluride (Cd (nanostructured) photovoltaic devices. Objective Impact and Customers · The U.S. Photovoltaic Industry Roadmap

  18. DISSERTATION DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS Submitted by Russell M Reserved #12;ABSTRACT DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS Thin-film photovoltaics

  19. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Photovoltaics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1Graphene 4 Photovoltaics 4.1 Motivation and Materialby the European Photovoltaics Industry Association for

  20. Metallic nanostructures for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Swee Hoe

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    enhanced performance of photovoltaic and photodetector Proc.and H. Wagner, in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. ,for Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Applications by Swee Hoe

  1. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (CPV) technology has recently entered the market as a utility- scale option for the generation of solar electricity. This report explores the current status of CPV technology...

  2. Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. DepartmentEnergy This partAs theFebruary 24,ofOctober

  3. Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals and graphene quantum dots for photovoltaics Xukai Xinab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals and graphene quantum dots for photovoltaics Jun Wang,a Xukai Xinab advances in the synthesis and utilization of CZTS nanocrystals and colloidal GQDs for photovoltaics emerged to achieve low cost, high perfor- mance photovoltaics, including organic solar cells,2­6 dye

  4. GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    LETTERS GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies and high electron mobilities. Examples range from effi- cient photovoltaic devices1,2 to radio and logic gates on plates of glass, near-infrared imaging devices on wafers of silicon, and photovoltaic

  5. Phenomena that influence high ozone concentrations in the Paso del Norte area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, C.P.; Roberts, P.T.; Main, H.H.; Dye, T.S. [Sonoma Technology, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA (United States); Yarbrough, J. [EPA, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the results of analyses of meteorological and air quality data for the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. The purpose of these data analyses was to develop an understanding of the significant chemical and physical processes which lead to high concentrations of ozone in the Paso del Norte study region which includes El Paso, TX; Sunland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico. This analysis has shown that the high ozone concentrations are a result of slow convective boundary layer growth, reduced convective boundary layer depth, light surface winds, and high morning surface ozone precursor concentrations. Overlying meteorological conditions observed during high ozone episodes include an upstream aloft high pressure system, aloft warming, and weak surface pressure gradients. The analysis has also shown that aloft carryover of ozone and ozone precursors does not significantly contribute to the surface ozone concentration. Furthermore, hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} data, although spatially limited, show that the system is most often NO{sub x} rather than VOC limited.

  6. Preparation of a high concentration of lithium-7 atoms in a magneto-optical trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelener, B. B., E-mail: bobozel@mail.ru; Saakyan, S. A.; Sautenkov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Manykin, E. A. [National Research Nuclear University “Moscow Engineering Physics Institute,” (Russian Federation); Zelener, B. V.; Fortov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is aimed at obtaining high concentration of optically cooled lithium-7 atoms for preparing strongly interacting ultracold plasma and Rydberg matter. A special setup has been constructed, in which two high-power semiconductor lasers are used to cool lithium-7 atoms in a magneto-optical trap. At an optimum detuning of the cooling laser frequency and a magnetic field gradient of 35 G/cm, the concentration of ultracold lithium-7 atoms reaches about 10{sup 11} cm{sup ?3}. Additional independent information about the concentration and number of ultracold lithium-7 atoms on different sublevels of the ground state was obtained by using of an additional probing laser.

  7. Modeling of concentrating solar thermoelectric generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng

    The conversion of solar power into electricity is dominated by non-concentrating photovoltaics and concentrating solar thermal systems. Recently, it has been shown that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) are a viable ...

  8. Simulation and optimization of ultra thin photovoltaics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducts pioneering research and development in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and solar cell research. This dissertation project combines these two areas to create ultra-thin small-form-factor crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. These miniature solar cells create a new class of photovoltaics with potentially novel applications and benefits such as dramatic reductions in cost, weight and material usage. At the beginning of the project, unusually low efficiencies were obtained in the research group. The intention of this research was thus to investigate the main causes of the low efficiencies through simulation, design, fabrication, and characterization. Commercial simulation tools were used to find the main causes of low efficiency. Once the causes were identified, the results were used to create improved designs and build new devices. In the simulations, parameters were varied to see the effect on the performance. The researched parameters were: resistance, wafer lifetime, contact separation, implant characteristics (size, dosage, energy, ratio between the species), contact size, substrate thickness, surface recombination, and light concentration. Out of these parameters, it was revealed that a high quality surface passivation was the most important for obtaining higher performing cells. Therefore, several approaches for enhancing the passivation were tried, characterized, and tested on cells. In addition, a methodology to contact and test the performance of all the cells presented in the dissertation under calibrated light was created. Also, next generation cells that could incorporate all the optimized layers including the passivation was designed, built, and tested. In conclusion, through this investigation, solar cells that incorporate optimized designs and passivation schemes for ultrathin solar cells were created for the first time. Through the application of the methods discussed in this document, the efficiency of the solar cells increased from below 1% to 15% in Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaic (MEPV) devices.

  9. Customer-Economics of Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Impact of High Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings with Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the US are often compensated at the customer's underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. There is growing interest in understanding how potential changes in rates may impact the value of bill savings from PV. This article uses a production cost and capacity expansion model to project California hourly wholesale electricity market prices under a reference scenario and a 33% renewables scenario. Second, based on the wholesale electricity market prices generated by the model, the article develops retail rates (i.e., flat, time-of-use, and real-time pricing) for each future scenario based on standard retail rate design principles. Finally, based on these retail rates, the bill savings from PV are estimated for 226 California residential customers under two types of net metering, for each scenario. The article finds that high renewable penetrations can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, together with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV.

  10. High precision measurements of atmospheric concentrations and plant exchange rates of carbonyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakir, Dan

    High precision measurements of atmospheric concentrations and plant exchange rates of carbonyl K I R * *Environmental Sciences and Energy Research, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot. The results were consistent with those of nononline gas chromatography­mass spectrometry for COS and IR gas

  11. Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 50 Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells C. E The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has become a lead- ing contender to replace the lithium-ion (Li density of liquid methanol (CH3OH) fuel is 4800 Wh l-1 , whereas the theoretical energy density of Li

  12. Analytical Study of High Concentration PCB Paint at the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowry, N.J.

    1998-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides results of an analytical study of high concentration PCB paint in a shutdown nuclear test reactor located at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The study was designed to obtain data relevant for an evaluation of potential hazards associated with the use of and exposure to such paints.

  13. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  14. Development of concentrator solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A limited pilot production run on PESC silicon solar cells for use at high concentrations (200 to 400 suns) is summarized. The front contact design of the cells was modified for operation without prismatic covers. The original objective of the contract was to systematically complete a process consolidation phase, in which all the, process improvements developed during the contract would be combined in a pilot production run. This pilot run was going to provide, a basis for estimating cell costs when produced at high throughput. Because of DOE funding limitations, the Photovoltaic Concentrator Initiative is on hold, and Applied Solar`s contract was operated at a low level of effort for most of 1993. The results obtained from the reduced scope pilot run showed the effects of discontinuous process optimization and characterization. However, the run provided valuable insight into the technical areas that can be optimized to achieve the original goals of the contract.

  15. Approaches To Integrating A HIgh Penertration Of Solar PV and CPV Onto The Electrical Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Steven Craig

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    price that is paid is incomplete illumination. A secondary concentrator may be called for in photovoltaic

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ESTAP Webinar: Briefing on Sandia's Maui Energy Storage Study On March 6, 2013, in EC, Energy, News, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar March 6, 2013 14:00 - 15:00 Eastern The...

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    845-9015 rdrobin@sandia.gov Publications available at: pvsac@sandia.gov Websites Photovoltaics energy.sandia.gov www.eere.energy.gov SunShot Meetings & Workshops On November 9,...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaics PV Publications On April 22, 2011, in Recent Publications, Listed by Date. Click on publication title to view, right click to download. All files are in PDF format...

  19. Photovoltaic Research Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funds photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) at its national laboratory facilities located throughout the country. To encourage further innovation,...

  20. INTEGRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    for Energy and Environmental Policy University of Delaware February 2006 #12;INTEGRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC Delmarva Power Delaware Energy Office University of Delaware Center for Energy and Environmental Policy..................................................................................................... 5 3.3.1 Delaware's Solar Resource

  1. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  2. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  3. Three-dimensional photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Bryan

    The concept of three-dimensional (3D) photovoltaics is explored computationally using a genetic algorithm to optimize the energy production in a day for arbitrarily shaped 3D solar cells confined to a given area footprint ...

  4. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    e l Atmosphere ceiling, back panel roof, exposed roof insideSAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A Thesis submitted i no n Convection Exposed Roof Temperature Seasonal Temperature

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On October 10, 2011, in This Web Demo model is a simplified "player" version of the Photovoltaic Reliability Performance Model (PV-RPM) currently in development at Sandia National...

  6. High concentrations of trace metals in oysters from the Patuxent River, Maryland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedel, G.; Sanders, J.; Abbe, G. [Academy of Natural Sciences, St. Leonard, MD (United States). Benedict Estuarine Research Center

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations from the Patuxent River have been analyzed for trace metals by a number of organizations over at least the past 19 years. During that period, high concentrations of Cu (200--500 {micro}g/g dry weight), Cd (3--7 {micro}g/g) and Ag (2--8 /{micro}g/g) have been found in oysters from the oyster bars furthest up river. In particular, Cd values in oysters from this region have had concentrations approaching or exceeding current FDA warning levels throughout the period. In previous studies it was suggested that a coal-burning power plant located in that region, Chalk Point Steam Electric Station, was responsible for the copper enrichment due to the corrosion of Cu/Ni alloy condenser tubes. However, a monthly survey of trace elements in the nearby oyster populations from 1986 to the present showed only a small decline in copper concentrations after the plant switched from Cu/Ni to Ti alloy condenser tubes in 1987. Other potential sources for trace metals in the region include municipal and industrial discharges, atmospheric deposition, and biocides (anti-fouling paint in particular). The very rapid rise in trace element concentrations in oysters with position up river, and the lack of such a response by another local bivalve, the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), suggests that a physiological effect of low salinity stress on oysters may be in part responsible for the high concentrations of trace metals in oysters in this region.

  7. Photovoltaic systems and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

  8. General Services Administration Photovoltaics Project in Sacramento...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    General Services Administration Photovoltaics Project in Sacramento, California General Services Administration Photovoltaics Project in Sacramento, California Document describes a...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling & Simulation, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory (PSEL), Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar...

  10. RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK PITTING PREDICTIONS: AN INVESTIGATION INTO CRITICAL SOLUTION CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E.

    2012-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests was performed on samples of ASTM A537 carbon steel in support of a probability-based approach to evaluate the effect of chloride and sulfate on corrosion the steel?s susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Testing solutions were chosen to systemically evaluate the influence of the secondary aggressive species, chloride, and sulfate, in the nitrate based, high-level wastes. The results suggest that evaluating the combined effect of all aggressive species, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate, provides a consistent response for determining corrosion susceptibility. The results of this work emphasize the importance for not only nitrate concentration limits, but also chloride and sulfate concentration limits.

  11. Effective lifetimes exceeding 300 ?s in gettered p-type epitaxial kerfless silicon for photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, D. M.

    We evaluate defect concentrations and investigate the lifetime potential of p-type single-crystal kerfless silicon produced via epitaxy for photovoltaics. In gettered material, low interstitial iron concentrations (as low ...

  12. 2014 SunShot Initiative Concentrating Solar Power Subprogram...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Integration Subprogram Overview SunShot Home About Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Systems Integration Soft Costs Technology to Market Success Stories Financial...

  13. World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Plant Opens in California...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Guarantees for BrightSource Energy SunShot Home About Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Systems Integration Soft Costs Technology to Market Success Stories Financial...

  14. The Development of Semiconducting Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency……………………………..4of Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency The efficiency atpower conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices.

  15. Annual Report: Photovoltaic Subcontract Program FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, K. A.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  16. Single-molecule imaging at high fluorophore concentrations by local activation of dye

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Geertsema, Hylkje J. [Zernike Inst. of Advanced Materials, Groningen (The Netherlands); Mangel, Walter F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schulte, Aartje C. [Zernike Inst. of Advanced Materials, Groningen (The Netherlands); Spenkelink, Lisanne M. [Zernike Inst. of Advanced Materials, Groningen (The Netherlands); McGrath, William J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morrone, Seamus R. [John Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Sohn, Jungsan [John Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Robinson, Andrew [Zernike Inst. of Advanced Materials, Groningen (The Netherlands); van Oijen, Antoine M. [Zernike Inst. of Advanced Materials, Groningen (The Netherlands)

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach to observe biomolecular interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Detecting fluorescent signals from individual, labeled proteins above high levels of background fluorescence remains challenging, however. For this reason, the concentrations of labeled proteins in in vitro assays are often kept low compared to their in vivo concentrations. Here, we present a new fluorescence imaging technique by which single fluorescent molecules can be observed in real time at high, physiologically relevant concentrations. The technique requires a protein and its macromolecular substrate to be labeled each with a different fluorophore. Then, making use of short-distance energy-transfer mechanisms, the fluorescence from only those proteins bound to their substrate are selectively activated. This approach is demonstrated by labeling a DNA substrate with an intercalating stain, exciting the stain, and using energy transfer from the stain to activate the fluorescence of only those labeled DNA-binding proteins bound to the DNA. Such an experimental design allowed us to observe the sequence-independent interaction of Cy5-labeled interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with DNA and the sliding via one-dimensional diffusion of Cy5-labeled adenovirus protease (pVIc-AVP) on DNA in the presence of a background of hundreds of nM Cy5 fluorophore.

  17. Thermionic-photovoltaic energy converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chubb, D. L.

    1985-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermionic-photovoltaic energy conversion device comprises a thermionic diode mounted within a hollow tubular photovoltaic converter. The thermionic diode maintains a cesium discharge for producing excited atoms that emit line radiation in the wavelength region of 850 nm to 890 nm. The photovoltaic converter is a silicon or galium arsenide photovoltaic cell having bandgap energies in this same wavelength region for optimum cell efficiency.

  18. Ge doped GaN with controllable high carrier concentration for plasmonic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirste, Ronny; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Sachet, Edward; Bobea, Milena; Bryan, Zachary; Bryan, Isaac; Maria, Jon-Paul; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7919 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7919 (United States); Nenstiel, Christian; Hoffmann, Axel [Institut f?r Festkörperphsyik, TU-Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)] [Institut f?r Festkörperphsyik, TU-Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Controllable Ge doping in GaN is demonstrated for carrier concentrations of up to 2.4?×?10{sup 20} cm{sup ?3}. Low temperature luminescence spectra from the highly doped samples reveal band gap renormalization and band filling (Burstein-Moss shift) in addition to a sharp transition. Infrared ellipsometry spectra demonstrate the existence of electron plasma with an energy around 3500?cm{sup ?1} and a surface plasma with an energy around 2000?cm{sup ?1}. These findings open possibilities for the application of highly doped GaN for plasmonic devices.

  19. IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 1, NO. 1, JULY 2011 49 High Efficiency n-Type Emitter-Wrap-Through

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2 , designated area without busbars) cells a short-circuit current density JSC of 40.4 mA/cm2 the cell effi- ciency to lag behind those expectable from short-circuit current density JSC and open-circuit. High open-circuit voltages of our solar cells are achieved by different passivation layers for base

  20. Photovoltaic olar nergy Development on Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .pvnavigator.com environmentally sensitive desert lands, as is the case for some largescale solar developments impacts of natural lands developed for solar energy at high environmental costs. InnovativePhotovoltaic olar nergy Development on Landfills ENVIRONMENTAL AREA RESEARCH PIER Environmental

  1. Abstract--With the increasing fears of the impacts of the high penetration rates of Photovoltaic (PV) systems, a technical study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    by a transmission line. Despite its small size, this system was specifically designed to mimic very closely but the simulation gets slower as the system size gets lager. Both Simulink SimPowerSystems and PSCAD don't allow by the researchers and the developers in power systems. II. PSCAD MODEL OF GRID TIED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM The PSCAD

  2. Method for implantation of high dopant concentrations in wide band gap materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Usov, Igor (Los Alamos, NM); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method that combines alternate low/medium ion dose implantation with rapid thermal annealing at relatively low temperatures. At least one dopant is implanted in one of a single crystal and an epitaxial film of the wide band gap compound by a plurality of implantation cycles. The number of implantation cycles is sufficient to implant a predetermined concentration of the dopant in one of the single crystal and the epitaxial film. Each of the implantation cycles includes the steps of: implanting a portion of the predetermined concentration of the one dopant in one of the single crystal and the epitaxial film; annealing one of the single crystal and the epitaxial film and implanted portion at a predetermined temperature for a predetermined time to repair damage to one of the single crystal and the epitaxial film caused by implantation and activates the implanted dopant; and cooling the annealed single crystal and implanted portion to a temperature of less than about 100.degree. C. This combination produces high concentrations of dopants, while minimizing the defect concentration.

  3. Dissolution of plutonium oxide in nitric acid at high hydrofluoric acid concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazanjian, A.R.; Stevens, J.R.

    1984-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dissolution of plutonium dioxide in nitirc acid (HNO/sub 3/) at high hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentrations has been investigated. Dissolution rate curves were obtained using 12M HNO/sub 3/ and HF at concentrations varying from 0.05 to 1.0 molar. The dissolution rate increased with HF concentration up to 0.2M and then decreased at higher concentrations. There was very little plutonium dissolved at 0.7 and 1.0M HF because of the formation of insoluble PuF/sub 4/. Various oxidizing agents were added to 12M HNO/sub 3/-1M HF dissolvent to oxidize Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) and prevent the formation of PuF/sub 4/. Ceric (Ce(IV)) and silver (Ag(II)) ions were the most effective in dissolving PuO/sub 2/. Although these two oxidants greatly increased the dissolution rate, the rates were not as rapid as those obtained with 12M HNO/sub 3/-0.2M HF.

  4. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photovoltaics (PV) – which is often used as the benchmark in terms of efficiency,photovoltaics because of the high cost of photovoltaic electricity. • Improved energy efficiencyPhotovoltaics are functional in a much wider range of environments, however the scarcity of required materials, lower efficiencies,

  5. Photovoltaic system controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerken, K.F.; Sullivan, R.A.

    1989-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a photovoltaic system controller for utilization with a photovoltaic power system including at least a photovoltaic array, a system battery adapted to be charged by the array and a load adapted to be powered by the battery. The controller comprising a microprocessor having an erasable programmable memory. The microprocessor having means to receive input data from the array, the battery and the load. The microprocessor having means to evaluate the input data in relation to at least one predetermined setpoint, the microprocessor in response to the evaluation being adapted to disconnect the battery from the array or to disconnect the load from the battery. The setpoint being adapted to be adjusted to a second setpoint by adjustment means, and the erasable programmable memory being adapted to be changed whereby the evaluation performed by the microprocessor is also changed.

  6. Nanowires enabling strained photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greil, J.; Bertagnolli, E.; Lugstein, A., E-mail: alois.lugstein@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Solid State Electronics, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Birner, S. [nextnano GmbH, Südmährenstr. 21, 85586 Poing (Germany)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic nano-devices have largely been relying on charge separation in conventional p-n junctions. Junction formation via doping, however, imposes major challenges in process control. Here, we report on a concept for photovoltaic energy conversion at the nano scale without the need for intentional doping. Our approach relies on charge carrier separation in inhomogeneously strained germanium nanowires (Ge NWs). This concept utilizes the strain-induced gradient in bandgap along tapered NWs. Experimental data confirms the feasibility of strain-induced charge separation in individual vapor-liquid-solid grown Ge NW devices with an internal quantum efficiency of ?5%. The charge separation mechanism, though, is not inherently limited to a distinct material. Our work establishes a class of photovoltaic nano-devices with its opto-electronic properties engineered by size, shape, and applied strain.

  7. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surek, Thomas; Catalano, Anthony

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  8. Power processing and active protection for photovoltaic energy extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Arthur Hsu Chen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar photovoltaic power generation is a promising clean and renewable energy technology that can draw upon the planet's most abundant power source - the sun. However, relatively high levelized cost of energy (LCOE), the ...

  9. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    high cost of power from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels hassolar panels can be more closely synchronized with system demand, but at a costcost of the solar PV installation is equivalent to purchasing each MWh over the life of the panels

  10. A stacked full-bridge microinverter topology for photovoltaic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yogeswaran, Kesavan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous work has been done to develop a microinverter for solar photovoltaic applications consisting of a high-frequency series resonant inverter and transformer section connected to a a cycloconverter that modulates the ...

  11. Sandia Energy - Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol Home Distribution Grid IntegrationOffshoreLive PhotovoltaicPhotovoltaics

  12. Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroupPerfectenergy International LimitedPhoenix BioPhotovoltaicsPhotovoltaics

  13. Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of semiconducting polymers and their use In organic photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borrelli, David Christopher

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have received significant interest for their potential low cost, high mechanical flexibility, and unique functionalities. OPVs employing semiconducting polymers in the photoactive layer have ...

  14. 154 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 4, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014 Scanning Laser-Beam-Induced Current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    154 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 4, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014 Scanning Laser-Beam-Induced Current-efficiency silicon-based photovoltaics. They are notable for their high open-circuit voltage (Voc), which can exceed Exchange, and the Bay Area Photovoltaics Consortium. The work of Z. C. Holman, A. Descoeudres, S. De Wolf

  15. PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS: RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 2004; 12:3338 (DOI: 10.1002/pip.525)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS: RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 2004; 12 INTRODUCTION T he polycrystalline CdTe/CdS thin-film solar cell is one of the most important photovoltaic,2 Recent measure- ments of the photovoltaic performance of CdTe solar cells irradiated with high

  16. Performance of a High-Concentration Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier with 100 nm Amplification Bandwidth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hajireza, P.; Shahabuddin, N. S.; Abbasi-Zargaleh, S.; Emami, S. D.; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Yusoff, Z. [Center for Advanced Devices and Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya (Malaysia)

    2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing demand for higher bandwidth has driven the need for higher Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) channels. One of the requirements to achieve this is a broadband amplifier. This paper reports the performance of a broadband, compact, high-concentration and silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The amplifier optimized to a 2.15 m long erbium-doped fiber with erbium ion concentration of 2000 ppm. The gain spectrum of the amplifier has a measured amplification bandwidth of 100 nm using a 980 nm laser diode with power of 150 mW. This silica-based EDFA shows lower noise figure, higher gain and wider bandwidth in shorter wavelengths compared to Bismuth-based EDFA with higher erbium ion concentration of 3250 ppm at equivalent EDF length. The silica-based EDF shows peak gain at 22 dB and amplification bandwidth between 1520 nm and 1620 nm. The lowest noise figure is 5 dB. The gain is further improved with the implementation of enhanced EDFA configurations.

  17. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glashausser, Charles

    than electricity from coal if cost of carbon capture is factored in Great promise for solving globalPhotovoltaic Energy Conversion Frank Zimmermann #12;Solar Electricity Generation Consumes no fuel No pollution No greenhouse gases No moving parts, little or no maintenance Sunlight is plentiful

  18. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE works with national labs, academia, and industry to support the domestic photovoltaics (PV) industry and research enterprise. SunShot aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  19. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar photovoltaics (PV) domestically. The SunShot Initiative aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  20. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  1. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  2. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Bragagnolo, Julio (Newark, DE)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  3. PHOTOVOLTAICS AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    management of electricity demand. · PV applications are now being integrated directly into building roofs, Valuation of Demand-Side Commercial PV Systems in the United States, we sought to measure the costPHOTOVOLTAICS AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS-- A NATURAL MATCH A study highlighting strategic

  4. A Universal Intrinsic Scale of Hole Concentration for High-Tc Cuprates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Honma; P. H. Hor; H. H. Hsieh; M. Tanimoto

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured thermoelectric power (TEP) as a function of hole concentration per CuO2 layer, Ppl, in Y1-xCaxBa2Cu3O6 (Ppl = x/2) with no oxygen in the Cu-O chain layer. The room-temperature TEP as a function of Ppl, S290(Ppl), of Y1-xCaxBa2Cu3O6 behaves identically to that of La2-zSrzCuO4 (Ppl = z). We argue that S290(Ppl) represents a measure of the intrinsic equilibrium electronic states of doped holes and, therefore, can be used as a common scale for the carrier concentrations of layered cuprates. We shows that the Ppl determined by this new universal scale is consistent with both hole concentration microscopically determined by NQR and the hole concentration macroscopically determined by the Cu valency. We find two characteristic scaling temperatures, TS* and TS2*, in the TEP vs. temperature curves that change systematically with doping. Based on the universal scale, we uncover a universal phase diagram in which almost all the experimentally determined pseudogap temperatures as a function of Ppl fall on two common curves; upper pseudogap temperature defined by the TS* versus Ppl curve and lower pseudogap temperature defined by the TS2* versus Ppl curve. We find that while pseudogaps are intrinsic properties of doped holes of a single CuO2 layer for all high-Tc cuprates, Tc depends on the number of layers, therefore the inter-layer coupling, in each individual system.

  5. Development of a small selenium barrier layer photovoltaic cell 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruett, George Richard

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    +lkt Rfl&t4 ~ + ~ ~ ~ s ~ s ~ o ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ I PO4NNQ QLffOWOO 1ORWQO j1388$44@4El ~ ~ ~ o ~ o ~ RI04INRRRli 7OSIIS QXQ4%~ ~ 8 0 I ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 0 The ~oct af this Qaeestiguticu uus te develop a uotbcd by shish a osaXX selsakuu barbar Xsyer photovoltaic... cell night be undo sith a high degree uf reprccbccibility, This prost uus chosen because u ssoXX ooll could nct bo obtained frsn o~tuX firnoo snd these fiona guard the secrete of tho prcchetkoa of the photovoltaic ceXX very null Photovoltaic oa...

  6. Development of a small selenium barrier layer photovoltaic cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruett, George Richard

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    +lkt Rfl&t4 ~ + ~ ~ ~ s ~ s ~ o ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ I PO4NNQ QLffOWOO 1ORWQO j1388$44@4El ~ ~ ~ o ~ o ~ RI04INRRRli 7OSIIS QXQ4%~ ~ 8 0 I ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 0 The ~oct af this Qaeestiguticu uus te develop a uotbcd by shish a osaXX selsakuu barbar Xsyer photovoltaic... cell night be undo sith a high degree uf reprccbccibility, This prost uus chosen because u ssoXX ooll could nct bo obtained frsn o~tuX firnoo snd these fiona guard the secrete of tho prcchetkoa of the photovoltaic ceXX very null Photovoltaic oa...

  7. An Istrument for Measuring the TRU Concentration in High-Level Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Craig, R. A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Hensley, Walter K.; Holt, Noah O.; Knopf, Michael A.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Mullen, O Dennis; Salaymeh, Saleem R.; Samuel, Todd J.; Smart, John E.; Tinker, Michael R.; Walker, Darrell D.

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An online monitor has been designed, built, and tested, which is capable of measuring the residual transuranic concentrations in processed high-level wastes with a detection limit of 370 Bq/ml (10 nCi/ml) in less than six hours. The monitor measures the neutrons produced by the transuranics, primarily via (?,n) reactions, in the presence of gamma-ray fields up to 1 Sv/h (100 R/h). The optimum design was determined by Monte Carlo modeling and then tempered with practical engineering and cost considerations. Correct operation of the monitor was demonstrated in a hot cell utilizing an actual sample of high-level waste. Results of that demonstration are given, and suggestions for improvements in the next generation system are discussed.

  8. An Instrument for Measuring the TRU Concentration in High-Level Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Craig, R A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Hensley, Walter K.; Holt, Noah OA; Knopf, Michael A.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Mullen, O Dennis; Salaymeh, Saleem R.; Samuel, Todd J.; Smart, John E.; Tinker, Mike R.; Walker, D

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An online monitor has been designed, built, and tested that is capable of measuring the residual transuranic concentrations in processed high-level wastes with a detection limit of 370 Bq/ml (10 nCi/ml) in less than six hours. The monitor measures the ({alpha},n) neutrons in the presence of gamma-ray fields up to 1 Sv/h (100 R/h). The optimum design was determined by Monte Carlo modeling and then tempered with practical engineering and cost considerations. A multiplicity counter is used in data acquisition to reject the large fraction of coincident and highly variable cosmic-ray-engendered background events and results in a S/N ratio {approx}1.

  9. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3 Fig. 1.2. Solar power plant operation [Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications AMaterials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

  10. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3 Fig. 1.2. Solar power plant operation [Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications Afor Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications by Melina

  11. Manufacturing of High-Efficiency Bi-Facial Tandem Concentrator Solar Cells: February 20, 2009--August 20, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojtczuk , S.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spire Semiconductor made concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cells using a new bi-facial growth process and met both main program goals: a) 42.5% efficiency 500X (AM1.5D, 25C, 100mW/cm2); and b) Ready to supply at least 3MW/year of such cells at end of program. We explored a unique simple fabrication process to make a N/P 3-junction InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs tandem cells . First, the InGaAs bottom cell is grown on the back of a GaAs wafer. The wafers are then loaded into a cassette, spin-rinsed to remove particles, dipped in dilute NH4OH and spin-dried. The wafers are then removed from the cassette loaded the reactor for GaAs middle and InGaP top cell growth on the opposite wafer face (bi-facial growth). By making the epitaxial growth process a bit more complex, we are able to avoid more complex processing (such as large area wafer bonding or epitaxial liftoff) used in the inverted metamorphic (IMM) approach to make similar tandem stacks. We believe the yield is improved compared to an IMM process. After bi-facial epigrowth, standard III-V cell steps (back metal, photolithography for front grid, cap etch, AR coat, dice) are used in the remainder of the process.

  12. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8846343 2012 MRS Fall Meeting; Symposium E, Photovoltaic Technologies, Devices and Systems Based on Inorganic Materials, Small

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    a superior potential for the development of high performance photovoltaic (PV) devices with reduced cost Meeting; Symposium E, Photovoltaic Technologies, Devices and Systems Based on Inorganic Materials, Small investigated for use in photovoltaic solar cells for the past years. At present, almost all photovoltaic device

  13. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  14. Photon management in thermal and solar photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Lu

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaics is a technology that directly converts photon energy into electrical energy. Depending on the photon source, photovoltaic systems can be categorized into two groups: solar photovoltaics (PV) and thermophotovoltaics ...

  15. Scattering Properties of nanostructures : applications to photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derkacs, Daniel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arya, D. Carlson, Prog. Photovoltaics 10, p. 69 (2002). K.and J. Bailat, Prog. in Photovoltaics 12 , 113 (2004). M.and A. Mart?´, Progress in Photovoltaics 9, p. 73 (2001). S.

  16. Rethinking the idealized morphology in high-performance organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rethinking the idealized morphology in high-performance organic photovoltaics December 9, 2011 Tweet EmailPrint Traditionally, organic photovoltaic (OPV) active layers are viewed...

  17. Validation of classical density-dependent solute transport theory for stable, high-concentration-gradient brine displacements in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassanizadeh, S. Majid

    -concentration-gradient brine displacements in coarse and medium sands S.J. Watson a,1 , D.A. Barry a,1 , R.J. Schotting b,*, S by a brine solution, under either constant head or constant volume flux conditions. The experimental data, significantly less ex- perimental research has been conducted to investigate high-concentration (e.g., brine

  18. Improved high temperature solar absorbers for use in Concentrating Solar Power central receiver applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Ambrosini, Andrea; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Lambert, Timothy L.; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Bencomo, Marlene

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar absorbers to convert the heat from sunlight to electric power. Increased operating temperatures are necessary to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity by improving efficiencies and reducing thermal energy storage costs. Durable new materials are needed to cope with operating temperatures >600 C. The current coating technology (Pyromark High Temperature paint) has a solar absorptance in excess of 0.95 but a thermal emittance greater than 0.8, which results in large thermal losses at high temperatures. In addition, because solar receivers operate in air, these coatings have long term stability issues that add to the operating costs of CSP facilities. Ideal absorbers must have high solar absorptance (>0.95) and low thermal emittance (<0.05) in the IR region, be stable in air, and be low-cost and readily manufacturable. We propose to utilize solution-based synthesis techniques to prepare intrinsic absorbers for use in central receiver applications.

  19. Method and source for producing a high concentration of positively charged molecular hydrogen or deuterium ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA); Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high concentration of positive molecular ions of hydrogen or deuterium gas is extracted from a positive ion source having a short path length of extracted ions, relative to the mean free path of the gas molecules, to minimize the production of other ion species by collision between the positive ions and gas molecules. The ion source has arrays of permanent magnets to produce a multi-cusp magnetic field in regions remote from the plasma grid and the electron emitters, for largely confining the plasma to the space therebetween. The ion source has a chamber which is short in length, relative to its transverse dimensions, and the electron emitters are at an even shorter distance from the plasma grid, which contains one or more extraction apertures.

  20. Use of Uniformly Distributed Concentrated Sunlight for Highly Accelerated Testing of Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G.; Bingham, C.; King, D.; Lewandowski, A.; Netter, J.; Terwilliger, K.; Adamsons, K.

    2000-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL has developed a new ultraviolet (UV) light concentrator that allows material samples to be subjected to uniform intensity levels of 50-100X solar UV at closely controlled sample exposure temperatures. In collaboration with industry, representative coating systems have been exposed without introducing unrealistic degradation mechanisms. Furthermore, correlations have been derived between these highly accelerated test conditions and results obtained at 1-2 suns. Such information is used to predict the degradation of materials in real-world applications. These predictions are compared with measured in-service performance losses to validate the approach. This allows valuable information to be obtained in greatly reduced timeframes, which can provide tremendous competitive advantage in the commercial marketplace.

  1. Fabrication and Response of High Concentration SIMPLE Superheated Droplet Detectors with Different Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combined measurement of dark matter interactions with different superheated liquids has recently been suggested as a cross-correlation technique in identifying WIMP candidates. We describe the fabrication of high concentration superheated droplet detectors based on the light nuclei liquids C3F8, C4F8, C4F10 and CCl2F2, and investigation of their irradiation response with respect to C2ClF5. The results are discussed in terms of the basic physics of superheated liquid response to particle interactions, as well as the necessary detector qualifications for application in dark matter search investigations. The possibility of heavier nuclei SDDs is explored using the light nuclei results as a basis, with CF3I provided as an example.

  2. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  3. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, Dan Michael (Plano, TX)

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  4. Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Otto VanGeet on using solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to provide electricity for homes.

  5. Monitoring SERC Technologies — Solar Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Market Transformation Center electrical engineer Peter McNutt about Solar Photovoltaics and how to properly monitor its installation.

  6. Solar photovoltaics for development applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepperd, L.W. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)] [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States); Richards, E.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document introduces photovoltaic technology to individuals and groups specializing in development activities. Examples of actual installations illustrate the many services supplied by photovoltaic systems in development applications, including water pumping, lighting, health care, refrigeration, communications, and a variety of productive uses. The various aspects of the technology are explored to help potential users evaluate whether photovoltaics can assist them in achieving their organizational goals. Basic system design, financing techniques, and the importance of infrastructure are included, along with additional sources of information and major US photovoltaic system suppliers.

  7. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    decline in photovoltaic efficiency is less dramatic, butefficiency ? = V OC I ?j SC Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure So- lar Cells For this thesis, I made photovoltaic

  8. Organic Photovoltaics Experiments Showcase 'Superfacility' Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Photovoltaics Experiments Showcase 'Superfacility' Concept Organic Photovoltaics Experiments Showcase 'Superfacility' Concept Collaboration Key to Enabling On-The-Fly HPC...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: microsystems enabled photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    microsystems enabled photovoltaics Sandian Selected for Outstanding Young Engineer Award On June 4, 2014, in Energy, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar The...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic plant reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photovoltaic plant reliability Sandia-Electric Power Research Institute Partnership Publishes Photovoltaic Reliability Report On January 21, 2014, in Energy, Facilities, Grid...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: increased photovoltaic efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    increased photovoltaic efficiency Combining 'Tinkertoy' Materials with Solar Cells for Increased Photovoltaic Efficiency On December 4, 2014, in Energy, Materials Science, News,...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic System Model Calibration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic System Model Calibration Using Monitored System Data Sandians Win 'Best Paper' Award at Photovoltaic Conference in Japan On March 4, 2015, in Computational Modeling &...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy On May 1, 2013, in DETL, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory (PSEL), Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar...

  14. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  15. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L. (ed.)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  16. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  17. Design and implementation of a continuous improvement framework for an organic photovoltaic panels manufacturer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colaci, Gregorio

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MIT MEng Team worked at Konarka Technologies, the world leader organic photovoltaic panels (OPV) manufacturer, on several improvement projects. The concentration was on operations improvement as well as production ...

  18. Method and source for producing a high concentration of positively charged molecular hydrogen or deuterium ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ehlers, K.W.; Leung, K.N.

    1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    One principal object of the present invention is to provide a novel method and apparatus for generating a high concentration of H/sub 2//sup +/ or D/sub 2//sup +/ ions by using a new and improved multicusp ion source. The basic principle in achieving a high percentage of H/sub 2//sup +/ or D/sub 2//sup +/ ions is to extract them from the source as soon as they are produced. Otherwise they will react with background gas molecules to form tri-atomic ions H/sub 3//sup +/ or D/sub 3//sup +/ or be dissociated by electrons. The former reaction H/sub 2//sup +/ + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. H/sub 3//sup +/ + H can have a very short mean free path length lambda. Assuming a background neutral gas density of approximately 3.3 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ and a cross-section sigma of approximately 6 x 10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2/, lambda = (n/sub 0/ sigma)/sup -1/ is estimated to be about 5 cm. Thus the distance traversed by the H/sub 2//sup +/ ion before it arrives at the extractor electrode cannot exceed this value. This in turn sets a limit on the length of the source chamber.

  19. Tandem self-powered photovoltaic-electrochromic window coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, J.N.; Xu, Y.; Benson, D.K.; Branz, H.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Wide-gap, transparent amorphous silicon based photovoltaics can be integrated with electrochromic materials to produce a self-powered ``smart`` window coating. Existing electrochromic window designs external electrical connection, which may be economically unfeasible. This problem is solved by the tandem photovoltaic-electrochromic (PV/EC) device, in which a wide-gap amorphous silicon-based alloy (a-SiC:H) photovoltaic device is deposited together with an electrochromic optical transmittance modulator in a monolithic device on a single substrate. In this paper, the authors discuss their proposed monolithic photovoltaic-electrochromic device. They also present studies of transparent, wide-gap (Tauc gap of 1.8 to 2.2 eV) amorphous silicon-carbon thin films and p-i-n devices designed for use in the photovoltaic-electrochromic device. The photovoltaic cells in the PV-EC can operate at low current (<1 mA/cm{sup 2}) because a total injected charge of only 60 {micro}C/cm{sup 2} will darken the EC layer to a visible transmission of 5%, but they will need a high open-circuit voltage (>1.0 V) and high transparency ({approx}70%). They describe the progress toward these design targets.

  20. Tri-Lateral Noor al Salaam High Concentration Solar Central Receiver Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackmon, James B

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the efforts conducted primarily under the Noor al Salaam (“Light of Peace”) program under DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FC36-02GO12030, together with relevant technical results from a closely related technology development effort, the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Foundation (USISTF) High Concentration Solar Central Receiver program. These efforts involved preliminary design, development, and test of selected prototype power production subsystems and documentation of an initial version of the system definition for a high concentration solar hybrid/gas electrical power plant to be built in Zaafarana, Egypt as a first step in planned commercialization. A major part of the planned work was halted in 2007 with an amendment in October 2007 requiring that we complete the technical effort by December 31, 2007 and provide a final report to DOE within the following 90 days. This document summarizes the work conducted. The USISTF program was a 50/50 cost-shared program supported by the Department of Commerce through the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Commission (USISTC). The USISTC was cooperatively developed by President Clinton and the late Prime Minister Rabin of Israel "to encourage technological collaboration" and "support peace in the Middle East through economic development". The program was conducted as a follow-on effort to Israel's Magnet/CONSOLAR Program, which was an advanced development effort to design, fabricate, and test a solar central receiver and secondary optics for a "beam down" central receiver concept. The status of these hardware development programs is reviewed, since they form the basis for the Noor al Salaam program. Descriptions are provided of the integrated system and the major subsystems, including the heliostat, the high temperature air receiver, the power conversion unit, tower and tower reflector, compound parabolic concentrator, and the master control system. One objective of the USISTF program was to conduct marketing research, identify opportunities for use of this technology, and to the extent possible, secure an agreement leading to a pre-commercialization demonstration or prototype plant. This was accomplished with the agreement to conduct the Noor al Salaam program as a tri-lateral project between Egypt, Israel, and the U.S. The tri-lateral project was led by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH); this included the Egyptian New and Renewable Energy Authority and the Israeli USISTC participants. This project, known was Noor al Salaam, was funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) through the Department of Energy (DOE). The Egyptian activity was under the auspices of the Egyptian Ministry of Energy and Electricity, New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA) as part of Egypt's plans for renewable energy development. The objective of the Noor al Salaam project was to develop the conditions necessary to obtain funding and construct and operate an approximately 10 to 20 Megawatt hybrid solar/natural gas demonstration power plant in Zaafarana, Egypt that could serve both as a test bed for advanced solar technology evaluations, and as a forerunner to commercial plant designs. This plant, termed Noor Al Salaam, or “Light of Peace”, reached the initial phase of system definition before being curtailed, in part by changes in USAID objectives, coupled with various delays that were beyond the scope of the program to resolve. The background of the USISTF technology development and pre-commercialization effort is provided in this report, together with documentation of the technology developments conducted under the Noor al Salaam program. It should be noted that only a relatively small part of the Noor al Salaam funding was expended over the approximately five years for which UAH was prime contractor before the program was ordered closed (Reference 1) so that the remaining funds could be returned to USAID.

  1. U.S. Department of Energy directions in photovoltaic power conditioner development using Smart Power/Power Integrated Circuit technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulawka, A. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Krauthamer, S. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States); Das, R. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States); [California State Univ., Long Beach, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic (PV) power applications are currently concentrated in intermediate or residential size for utility-interactive, or small stand-alone modes of operation. Consequently, the development of low cost, highly efficient and reliable power conditioning subsystems (PCS) in the small to medium power range is critical for the viability of PV systems as an alternative energy source. The paper summarizes US Department of Energy programmatic directions and development efforts in photovoltaic PCS designs. It describes new opportunities arising from increased availability and capabilities of semiconductor switching components such as smart power devices and power integrated circuits (PICs). The paper describes development efforts of manufacturers of these components and evaluates the synergistic impacts that will assist in new PCS development, and will accelerate PV power applications. It is found that the use of these technologies in future PCS designs offers significant promise of improved PCS reliability, cost and performance, thereby making PV ac power more competitive with utility power.

  2. Graphite-based photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max (Madison, WI); Liu, Feng (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

  3. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    materials (PCM) in solar thermal concentrating technologyeffective and efficient solar thermal electricity generatorbeen considered for solar thermal energy storages. These are

  4. INTERNATIONAL STUDIES OF ENHANCED WASTE LOADING AND IMPROVED MELT RATE FOR HIGH ALUMINA CONCENTRATION NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K; David Peeler, D; James Marra, J

    2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study was to determine the impacts of glass compositions with high aluminum concentrations on melter performance, crystallization and chemical durability for Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford waste streams. Glass compositions for Hanford targeted both high aluminum concentrations in waste sludge and a high waste loading in the glass. Compositions for SRS targeted Sludge Batch 5, the next sludge batch to be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which also has a relatively high aluminum concentration. Three frits were selected for combination with the SRS waste to evaluate their impact on melt rate. The glasses were melted in two small-scale test melters at the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute. The results showed varying degrees of spinel formation in each of the glasses. Some improvements in melt rate were made by tailoring the frit composition for the SRS feeds. All of the Hanford and SRS compositions had acceptable chemical durability.

  5. Metallic nanostructures for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Swee Hoe

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photovoltaics deployment, such technologies will reach their fundamental limitation in terms of efficiency,

  6. Photovoltaic subsystem marketing and distribution model: programming manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complete documentation of the marketing and distribution (M and D) computer model is provided. The purpose is to estimate the costs of selling and transporting photovoltaic solar energy products from the manufacturer to the final customer. The model adjusts for the inflation and regional differences in marketing and distribution costs. The model consists of three major components: the marketing submodel, the distribution submodel, and the financial submodel. The computer program is explained including the input requirements, output reports, subprograms and operating environment. The program specifications discuss maintaining the validity of the data and potential improvements. An example for a photovoltaic concentrator collector demonstrates the application of the model.

  7. Photovoltaic-system costing-methodology development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented are the results of a study to expand the use of standardized costing methodologies in the National Photovoltaics Program. The costing standards, which include SAMIS for manufacturing costs and M and D for marketing and distribution costs, have been applied to concentrator collectors and power-conditioning units. The M and D model was also computerized. Finally, a uniform construction cost-accounting structure was developed for use in photovoltaic test and application projects. The appendices contain example cases which demonstrate the use of the models.

  8. Photovoltaic system reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maish, A.B.; Atcitty, C. [Sandia National Labs., NM (United States); Greenberg, D. [Ascension Technology, Inc., Lincoln Center, MA (United States)] [and others

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the reliability of several photovoltaic projects including SMUD`s PV Pioneer project, various projects monitored by Ascension Technology, and the Colorado Parks project. System times-to-failure range from 1 to 16 years, and maintenance costs range from 1 to 16 cents per kilowatt-hour. Factors contributing to the reliability of these systems are discussed, and practices are recommended that can be applied to future projects. This paper also discusses the methodology used to collect and analyze PV system reliability data.

  9. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  10. Photovoltaic Degradation Risk: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to accurately predict power delivery over the course of time is of vital importance to the growth of the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Important cost drivers include the efficiency with which sunlight is converted into power, how this relationship changes over time, and the uncertainty in this prediction. An accurate quantification of power decline over time, also known as degradation rate, is essential to all stakeholders - utility companies, integrators, investors, and researchers alike. In this paper we use a statistical approach based on historical data to quantify degradation rates, discern trends and quantify risks related to measurement uncertainties, number of measurements and methodologies.

  11. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mittan, Margaret Birmingham (Oakland, CA); Miros, Robert H. J. (Fairfax, CA); Brown, Malcolm P. (San Francisco, CA); Stancel, Robert (Loss Altos Hills, CA)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  12. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Malcolm P.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Stancel, Robert

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  13. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Bhushan, Manjul (Wilmington, DE)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  14. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  15. Photovoltaic Product Directory and Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Lee, V.E.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The directory guide explains photovoltaic systems briefly and shows what products are available off-the-shelf. Information is given to assist in designing a photovoltaic system and on financial incentives. Help is given for determining if photovoltaic products can meet a particular buyer's needs, and information is provided on actual photovoltaic user's experiences. Detailed information is appended on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments, sources of additional information on photovoltaics, sources of various photovoltaic products, and a listing of addresses of photovoltaic products suppliers. (LEW)

  16. Learning by doing: The evolution of state support for photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of State Support for Photovoltaics Mark Bolinger and Ryantarget the installation of photovoltaics (PV) in one way orwidespread popularity of photovoltaics (PV), along with its

  17. Optically Functional Nanomaterials: Optothermally Responsive Composites and Carbon Nanotube Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okawa, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Carbon Nanotube Photovoltaics by David Christopher OkawaPart II: Carbon Nanotube Photovoltaics Chapter 6:Carbon Nanotube – Polymer Photovoltaics 6.1 Polymer-Nanotube

  18. The Development of Semiconducting Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F. C. ; Norrman, K. Prog. Photovoltaics 2007, 15, 697–712.Processed Organic Photovoltaics that Generate Chargepolymer-based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have attracted

  19. Temperature-Dependent Electron Transport in Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padilla, Derek

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4.4 Photovoltaics in Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . .milestones. Quantum dot photovoltaics is in the bottom-rightIN QUANTUM DOT PHOTOVOLTAICS A dissertation submitted in

  20. Structure-Function Relationships in Semiconducting Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavulak, David Fredric Joel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Space-chargePolymers for Organic Photovoltaics By David Fredric JoelPolymers for Organic Photovoltaics by David Fredric Joel

  1. Comment on "coherence and uncertainty in nanostructured organic photovoltaics"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukamel, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    provide new probes for photovoltaics. The develop- ment ofin Nanostructured Organic Photovoltaics. J. Phys. Chem. Lettin Nanostructured Organic Photovoltaics” Shaul Mukamel

  2. The Development of Semiconducting Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties of P1-P3, and photovoltaic performance of P1-P3Polymer Optoelectronic Photovoltaic Performance Propertiespolymer and the photovoltaic performance of the OPV devices,

  3. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic/Inorganic Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guvenc, Ali Bilge

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Defect States, and Photovoltaic Performance, Advanced EnergyV curve and Photovoltaic Device Performance Parameters: Thetransport. The BHJ photovoltaic device performance improving

  4. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells”, Center for theconcerns is solar photovoltaic cells (PVs), which captureProduction of Solar Photovoltaic Cells Solar PV cells

  5. Statistical Methods for Enhanced Metrology in Semiconductor/Photovoltaic Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Dekong

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    modeling method for photovoltaic cells. ” in Proc. IEEE 35thlosses in solar photovoltaic cell networks. ” Energy 32:Cell Variability Photovoltaic (PV) cells manufactured with

  6. Structure-Function Relationships in Semiconducting Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavulak, David Fredric Joel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic Cell .the materials, all photovoltaic cells operate on the basicEquation 1.2) For photovoltaic cells of all kinds and from

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic/Inorganic Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guvenc, Ali Bilge

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organizationand their influence on photovoltaic cells, Solar EnergyPhotodiodes, and Photovoltaic Cells, Applied Physics Letters

  8. Charge transport in hybrid nanorod-polymer composite photovoltaic cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huynh, Wendy U.; Dittmer, Janke J.; Teclemariam, Nerayo; Milliron, Delia; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Barnham, Keith W.J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    circuit diagram for a photovoltaic cell under illumination.Polymer Composite Photovoltaic Cells Wendy U. Huynh ‡ ,devices such as photovoltaic cells and light-emitting-

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic/Inorganic Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guvenc, Ali Bilge

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Colloidal-quantum-dot photovoltaics using atomic-ligandGreen, Third generation photovoltaics: solar cells for 202027), Progress in Photovoltaics 14 (1), 45-51 (2006). [44] I.

  10. Tariffs Can Be Structured to Encourage Photovoltaic Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Be Structured to Encourage Photovoltaic Energy Ryan Wiser,of customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though theseEconomics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California,

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic/Inorganic Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guvenc, Ali Bilge

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. W. Yu, Organic photovoltaic devices with a crosslinkablein Nanostructured Photovoltaic Devices, Recent Patents oninterfaces in organic photovoltaic devices, Solar Energy

  12. Effects of solar photovoltaic panels on roof heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez, Anthony; Kleissl, Jan; Luvall, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the energy performance of  photovoltaic roofs, ASHRAE Trans A thermal model for photovoltaic systems, Solar Energy, Effects of Solar Photovoltaic Panels on Roof Heat Transfer 

  13. Financing Non-Residential Photovoltaic Projects: Options and Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coggeshall. 2008. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: DeploymentEconomics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California.Financing Non-Residential Photovoltaic Projects: Options and

  14. Soiling losses for solar photovoltaic systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mejia, Felipe A; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Large Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Californiaof Dust on Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Performance: Researchclimatology in design of photovoltaic systems. In: Markvart

  15. Statistical Methods for Enhanced Metrology in Semiconductor/Photovoltaic Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Dekong

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Simulation of Photovoltaic Arrays. ” IEEE Trans. PowerSolar Cell Variability Photovoltaic (PV) cells manufacturedmodeling method for photovoltaic cells. ” in Proc. IEEE 35th

  16. NREL Center for Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar cells, also called photovoltaics (PV) by solar cell scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are often used to power calculators and watches. The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into electricity. Only sunlight of certain energies will work efficiently to create electricity, and much of it is reflected or absorbed by the material that make up the cell. Because of this, a typical commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15%—about one-sixth of the sunlight striking the cell generates electricity. Low efficiencies mean that larger arrays are needed, and that means higher cost. Improving solar cell efficiencies while holding down the cost per cell is an important goal of the PV industry, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and they have made significant progress. The first solar cells, built in the 1950s, had efficiencies of less than 4%. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_photovoltaics_video_text.html

  17. NREL Center for Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar cells, also called photovoltaics (PV) by solar cell scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are often used to power calculators and watches. The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into electricity. Only sunlight of certain energies will work efficiently to create electricity, and much of it is reflected or absorbed by the material that make up the cell. Because of this, a typical commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15%?about one-sixth of the sunlight striking the cell generates electricity. Low efficiencies mean that larger arrays are needed, and that means higher cost. Improving solar cell efficiencies while holding down the cost per cell is an important goal of the PV industry, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and they have made significant progress. The first solar cells, built in the 1950s, had efficiencies of less than 4%. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_photovoltaics_video_text.html

  18. Research on advanced photovoltaic manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jester, T.; Eberspacher, C. (Siemens Solar Industries, Camarillo, CA (United States))

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report outlines opportunities for significantly advancing the scale and economy of high-volume manufacturing of high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) modules. We propose to pursue a concurrent effort to advance existing crystalline silicon module manufacturing technology and to implement thin film CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) module manufacturing. This combination of commercial-scale manufacturing of high-efficiency crystalline silicon modules and of pilot-scale manufacturing of low-cost thin film CIS technology will support continued, rapid growth of the US PV industry.

  19. Development of a Low Cost Insulated Foil Substrate for Cu(InGaSe)2 Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ERTEN ESER

    2012-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The project validated the use of stainless steel flexible substrate coated with silicone-based resin dielectric, developed by Dow Corning Corporation, for Cu(InGa)Se2 based photovoltaics. The projects driving force was the high performance of Cu(InGa)Se2 based photovoltaics coupled with potential cost reduction that could be achieved with dielectric coated SS web substrate.

  20. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  1. Potential Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Enabling High Renewables Scenarios in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Hand, M.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R.; Brinkman, G.; Drury, E.; Mowers, M.; Turchi, C.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work describes the analysis of concentrating solar power (CSP) in two studies -- The SunShot Vision Study and the Renewable Electricity Futures Study -- and the potential role of CSP in a future energy mix.

  2. Nox control for high nitric oxide concentration flows through combustion-driven reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, James T. (Bethel Park, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Drummond, Charles J. (Churchill, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method for removing nitrogen oxides from concentrated waste gas streams, in which nitrogen oxides are ignited with a carbonaceous material in the presence of substoichiometric quantities of a primary oxidant, such as air. Additionally, reductants may be ignited along with the nitrogen oxides, carbonaceous material and primary oxidant to achieve greater reduction of nitrogen oxides. A scrubber and regeneration system may also be included to generate a concentrated stream of nitrogen oxides from flue gases for reduction using this method.

  3. European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Frankfurt, Germany, 24-28 September 2012, 2AO.2.4 HIGH EFFICIENCY BACK-CONTACT BACK-JUNCTION SILICON SOLAR CELLS WITH CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Frankfurt, Germany, 24-28 September 2012, 2AO.2 cost of energy in photovoltaics can be achieved by increasing the conversion efficiency as well into the surface of a thick silicon wafer. After sintering at 1100 °C in hydrogen atmosphere silicon is grown

  4. The Development of Semiconducting Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photovoltaics (OPVs) has led to a significant increase in their power conversion efficiencies (Photovoltaics…………………………..………1 Motivation and Current Technology………………………………………………………1 Organic Photovoltaic Device Operation and Structure……………………………………2 Characterization of Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency……………………………..

  5. Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity of Photovoltaic Electricity #12;IEA-PVPS-TASK 12 Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME Methodology

  6. OTEC- Residential Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Customers of Oregon Trail Electric Consumers Cooperative (OTEC) who install photovoltaic systems are eligible for a rebate of $500 for the first kilowatt (kW) of installed capacity per year. ...

  7. Reducing recombination in organic photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussman, Jason M. (Jason Michael)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I consider two methods to improve organic photovoltaic efficiency: energy level cascades and promotion of triplet state excitons. The former relies on a thin layer of material placed between the active ...

  8. Salem Electric- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Salem Electric offers a rebate to residential customers who install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Customers have the option of receiving a rebate or a [http://dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive...

  9. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the request of a customer or a potential customer, Colorado electric utilities are required to conduct a cost comparison of a photovoltaic (PV) system to any proposed distribution line extension...

  10. Ameren Missouri- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ameren Missouri offers rebates to its customers for the installation of net metered photovoltaic (PV) systems on their properties. The rebate is set at $2.00 per DC watt with a maximum rebate of ...

  11. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Arizona Corporation Commission requires electric utilities to conduct a cost/benefit analysis to compare the cost of line extension with the cost of installing a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)...

  12. Rooftop Photovoltaics Market Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paidipati, J.; Frantzis, L.; Sawyer, H.; Kurrasch, A.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study was to model the market penetration of rooftop photovoltaics (PV) in the United States under a variety of scenarios, on a state-by-state basis, from 2007 to 2015.

  13. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that can operate with Stirling engines at 42% efficiency andfor high temperature Stirling engines which operates at 42%turbines such as Stirling engines, while high-temperature (>

  14. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miros, Robert H. J. (Fairfax, CA); Mittan, Margaret Birmingham (Oakland, CA); Seery, Martin N. (San Rafael, CA); Holland, Rodney H. (Novato, CA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  15. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  16. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 16: Silicon Solar Cell Fabrication Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    ;3 Screen Printed Solar Cells · Firing the contacts ­ The furnace heats the cell to a high temperature by Efficiency 22 Rear Panel before Lamination 23 Buried Contact Solar Cells · High Efficiency · Laser groved1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 16: Silicon Solar Cell Fabrication Techniques Dr. Todd J. Kaiser

  17. Proceedings of the 37 IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference 2011 (preprint)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    -cells (heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer), offer a promising route toward low-cost, high-efficiency Si photovoltaics. They can be fabricated from Si wafers at low temperature, and the heterojunction allows for a high open circuit voltage (Voc). Such cells are typically fabricated from c-Si wafers, and have a

  18. High ozone concentrations on hot days: The role of electric power demand and NOx1 , Linda Hembeck1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    of tropospheric17 ozone, leading to concerns that global warming may exacerbate smog episodes. This18 widely1 High ozone concentrations on hot days: The role of electric power demand and NOx1 emissions2 3 Park,10 MD 20742, U.S.11 12 Key words: power plant emissions, ozone production efficiency, climate

  19. Detection and monitoring of high stress concentration zones induced by coal mining using numerical and microseismic methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1). In the zone investigated, the seams worked lie in two clusters: lower and upper of soft coal of the site The Irma coal seam is worked using the longwall caving method. The width of the working face2001-55 Detection and monitoring of high stress concentration zones induced by coal mining using

  20. 1 INTRODUCTION Groundwater with a high F concentration is encountered in many places around the world and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 INTRODUCTION Groundwater with a high F concentration is encountered in many places around composition of groundwater under paddy fields in the Maheshwaram watershed and supported by chemical modeling watershed, where groundwater is intensively abstracted for paddy irrigation. A reactive1-D geochemical model

  1. No sub x control for high nitric oxide concentration flows through combustion-driven reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, J.T.; Ekmann, J.M.; Pennline, H.W.; Drummond, C.J.

    1989-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an improved method for removing nitrogen oxides from concentrated waste gas streams, in which nitrogen oxides are ignited with a carbonaceous material in the presence of substoichiometric quantities of a primary oxidant, such as air. Additionally, reductants may be ignited along with the nitrogen oxides, carbonaceous material and primary oxidant to achieve greater reduction of nitrogen oxides. A scrubber and regeneration system may also be included to generate a concentrated stream of nitrogen oxides from flue gases for reduction using this method.

  2. Statistical Methods for Enhanced Metrology in Semiconductor/Photovoltaic Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Dekong

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bowden. (1999). Photovoltaics CDROM: Devices, Systems, andNREL). [1.3] IEA Photovoltaics Power Systems Programme (IEA

  3. Functional requirements for component films in a solar thin-film photovoltaic/thermal panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, David [Power and Energy Research Group, School of Engineering, Northumbria University, Ellison Place, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The functional requirements of the component films of a solar thin-film photovoltaic/thermal panel were considered. Particular emphasis was placed on the new functions, that each layer is required to perform, in addition to their pre-existing functions. The cut-off wavelength of the window layer, required for solar selectivity, can be achieved with charge carrier concentrations typical of photovoltaic devices, and thus does not compromise electrical efficiency. The upper (semiconductor) absorber layer has a sufficiently high thermal conductivity that there is negligible temperature difference across the film, and thus negligible loss in thermal performance. The lower (cermet) absorber layer can be fabricated with a high ceramic content, to maintain high solar selectivity, without significant increase in electrical resistance. A thin layer of molybdenum-based cermet at the top of this layer can provide an Ohmic contact to the upper absorber layer. A layer of aluminium nitride between the metal substrate and the back metal contact can provide electrical isolation to avoid short-circuiting of series-connected cells, while maintaining a thermal path to the metal substrate and heat extraction systems. Potential problems of differential contraction of heated films and substrates were identified, with a recommendation that fabrication processes, which avoid heating, are preferable. (author)

  4. The effects of concentrated ultraviolet light on high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruby, D.S.; Schubert, W.K.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of stability in the performance of solar cells is clearly recognized as fundamental. Some of the highest efficiency silicon solar cells demonstrated to date, such as the Point Contact solar cell and the Passivated Emitter solar cell, rely upon the passivation of cell surfaces in order to minimize recombination, which reduces cell power output. Recently, it has been shown that exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light of wavelengths present in the terrestrial solar spectrum can damage a passivating silicon-oxide interface and increase recombination. In this study, we compared the performance of Point Contact and Passivated Emitter solar cells after exposure to UV light. We also examined the effect of UV exposure on oxide-passivated silicon wafers. We found that current Passivated Emitter designs are stable at both one-sun and under concentrated sunlight. The evolution of Point Contact concentrator cell performance shows a clear trend towards more stable cells. 15 refs., 18 figs.

  5. Solar energy storage through the homogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide : photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathrum, Aaron John

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Powered Hydrogen Generation using Photovoltaic-ElectrolysisPowered Hydrogen Generation Using Photovoltaic?ElectrolysisPowered Hydrogen Production Using Photovoltaic Electrolysis

  6. Spectroscopy of Photovoltaic Materials: Charge-Transfer Complexes and Titanium Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dillon, Robert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean Electricity From Photovoltaics ; Archer, M. D. , Hill,1 1.1 Introduction to Photovoltaics andPhotovoltaics.

  7. Ultra-low resistance ohmic contacts to GaN with high Si doping concentrations grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afroz Faria, Faiza; Guo Jia; Zhao Pei; Li Guowang; Kumar Kandaswamy, Prem; Wistey, Mark; Xing Huili; Jena, Debdeep [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Ti/Al/Ni/Au ohmic contacts were formed on heavily doped n{sup +} metal-polar GaN samples with various Si doping concentrations grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The contact resistivity (R{sub C}) and sheet resistance (R{sub sh}) as a function of corresponding GaN free carrier concentration (n) were measured. Very low R{sub C} values (<0.09 {Omega} mm) were obtained, with a minimum R{sub C} of 0.035 {Omega} mm on a sample with a room temperature carrier concentration of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Based on the systematic study, the role of R{sub C} and R{sub sh} is discussed in the context of regrown n{sup +} GaN ohmic contacts for GaN based high electron mobility transistors.

  8. A study of potential high band-gap photovoltaic materials for a two step photon intermediate technique in fission energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A diamond synthesis chamber and an ion implanter have been constructed. Work has been rapidly progressing and diamond has been synthesized. There are five variables which affect the quality of diamond: (1) mass flow of methane, (2) mass flow of hydrogen, (3) filament temperature, (4) substrate temperature, and (5) substrate material. Enclosed are pictures and data of previous diamond growth experiments. Current work is focused on the conditions which produce the best quality diamond films. In this study, diamond films were deposited using a hot-filament CVD method with boron trioxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and diphosphorus pentoxide (P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) as the doping sources. P{sub 2}O{sub 5} is the only known effective phosphorus source for forming n-type semiconducting material. An RF generator has been made operation for epitaxial growth of AIN by the chemical vapor deposition method. In initial experiments with a graphite substrate, the RF generator heated the material to a temperature of 1100{degrees}C. A reactor which will use the RF generator has been built for AIN synthesis. The device should be assembled and tested by the end of August. A new process for fabricating platinum silicide photovoltaic cells has been developed. A diffused guard ring has been added to minimize leakage current. VUV to near IR capability has been developed for optical characterization. A microwave driven excimer lamp has been built and tested. Our previous work used a microwave source on an electron cyclotron heated ion source.

  9. Photovoltaic cell efficiency at elevated temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Katherine Leung

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to determine what type of photovoltaic solar cell could best be used in a thermoelectric photovoltaic hybrid power generator, we tested the change in efficiency due to higher temperatures of three types of solar ...

  10. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeScioli, Derek

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

  11. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    way to do better. A photovoltaic cell, or solar cell, is aFor this thesis, I made photovoltaic cells using a Schottkyphotovoltaic processes oc- cur in a Schottky barrier solar cell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  12. Plug-and-Play Photovoltaics Funding Opportunity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the Plug-and-Play Photovoltaics program, DOE will advance the development of a commercial plug-and-play photovoltaic (PV) system, an off-the-shelf product that is fully inclusive with...

  13. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  14. Photovoltaic Reliability and Engineering (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Photovoltaic Reliability and Engineering. One-sided sheet that includes Scope, Core Competencies and Capabilities, and Contact/Web information.

  15. Photovoltaic product directory and buyers guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic information on photovoltaic conversion technology is provided for those unfamiliar with the field. Various types of photovoltaic products and systems currently available off-the-shelf are described. These include products without batteries, battery chargers, power packages, home electric systems, and partial systems. Procedures are given for designing a photovoltaic system from scratch. A few custom photovoltaic systems are described, and a list is compiled of photovoltaic firms which can provide custom systems. Guidance is offered for deciding whether or not to use photovoltaic products. A variety of installations are described and their performance is appraised by the owners. Information is given on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments. Sources of additional information on photovoltaics are listed. A matrix is provided indicating the sources of various types of photovoltaic products. The addresses of suppliers are listed. (LEW)

  16. High-Flux Stress Testing of Encapsulants for Medium-Concentration CPV Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Kilkenny, M.; Moricone, T. J.; Zhang, J. Z.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study involved developing methods to expose transparent encapsulant materials to high (40 to 45 UV suns) optical fluxes of UV radiation to enable rapid evaluation of materials.

  17. Photovoltaic-Thermal New Technology Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McNutt, Peter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lisell, Lars [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, Dennis [Group14 Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Heinicke, David [Group14 Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) hybrid solar systems offer increased electricity production by cooling the PV panel, and using the removed thermal energy to heat water - all in the same footprint as a standard PV system. GPG's assessment of the nation's first large-scale PV-T system installed at the Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr. Federal Building in Boston, MA, provided numerous lessons learned in system design, and identified a target market of locations with high utility costs and electric hot water backup.

  18. NO/sub x/ control for high nitric oxide concentration flows through combustion-driven reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, J.T.; Ekmann, J.M.; Pennline, H.W.; Drummond, C.J.

    1988-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The method described herein provides a technique for removing nitrogen oxides from gas streams, discharged from the combustion of carbonaceous materials. Other objectives include: the removal of NO/sub x/ removal in which a reductant gas is used to further lower the concentration of NO/sub x/ in the effluent stream, and to provide a method wherein unconverted NO/sub x/ is removed from the discharge stream by a regenerable scrubber and recycled to the combustion device for conversion into elemental nitrogen and oxygen. 2 figs.

  19. Low band gap polymers Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low band gap polymers for Organic Photovoltaics Eva Bundgaard Ph.D. Dissertation Risø National Bundgaard Title: Low band gap polymers for Organic photovoltaics Department: The polymer department Report the area of organic photovoltaics are focusing on low band gap polymers, a type of polymer which absorbs

  20. Photovoltaics for the Terawatt Christiana Honsberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    1 Photovoltaics for the Terawatt Challenge Christiana Honsberg Department of Electrical Computer;Photovoltaic Milestones · Germany, Spain, Italy have yearly installed PV capacity > yearly increase Workshop 02/28/14 C. Honsberg 5 5 #12;Learning Curves for Photovoltaics UD Energy Institute Solar Workshop

  1. The Solar Photovoltaics Technology Conflict between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutch, John

    A Duel in the Sun The Solar Photovoltaics Technology Conflict between China and the United States A Duel in the Sun The Solar Photovoltaics Technology Conflict between China and the United States1 John domestically, and selling interna- tionally solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity- generating technology. Over

  2. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 01: Intro & Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 01: Intro & Safety Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser@ece.montana.edu Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Montana State University - Bozeman EELE408 Photovoltaics & Ventre: Photovoltaic Systems Engineering , 3E · Resources: ­ Green: Solar Cells: Operating Principles

  3. Rational Design of Zinc Phosphide Heterojunction Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    Rational Design of Zinc Phosphide Heterojunction Photovoltaics Thesis by Jeffrey Paul Bosco would meet me with the same energy and enthusiasm regarding the topic of zinc phosphide photovoltaics to the field of earth-abundant photovoltaics has been indispensable to my work. Greg also made a great mentor

  4. Discovery Park Impact Network for Photovoltaic Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Jeffrey

    Discovery Park Impact Network for Photovoltaic Technology NEED Discovery Park provides for Photovoltaic Technology (NPT). The NPT is designed to be a unique venue for industry-directed, university aims to become an international center of gravity for photovoltaic research that connects islands

  5. International photovoltaic products and manufacturers directory, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepperd, L.W. [ed.] [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)] [ed.; Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This international directory of more than 500 photovoltaic-related manufacturers is intended to guide potential users of photovoltaics to sources for systems and their components. Two indexes help the user to locate firms and materials. A glossary describes equipment and terminology commonly used in the photovoltaic industry.

  6. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 23: Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    Photovoltaic Myth #1 · Solar modules consume more energy for their production than they ever generate. ­ Most industry ­ Future recycling of modules will further reduce environmental impact 15 Photovoltaic Myth #81 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 23: Summary Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser@ece.montana.edu Department

  7. Presented at the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    Presented at the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference Glasgow, May 2000 HIGH RESOLUTION LASER STEPPING MEASUREMENTS ON POLYCRYSTALLINE SOLAR CELLS J. F. Hiltner and J. R. Sites Colorado conveniently and non- destructively by focusing a laser beam on the surface of the solar cell and measuring

  8. Outlier Detection Rules for Fault Detection in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    , MPPT of the PV inverters, high fault impedance, or degradation of solar cells [1]. Without proper fault Abstract-- Solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays are unique power sources that may have uncleared fault current when utilizing conventional overcurrent protection devices. To monitor the PV operation and detect

  9. Copper oxide/N-silicon heterojunction photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic device having characteristics of a high efficiency solar cell comprising a Cu.sub.x O/n-Si heterojunction. The Cu.sub.x O layer is formed by heating a deposited copper layer in an oxygen containing ambient.

  10. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    537°C) steam for the steam turbine to generate electricity.as heat sources for steam turbines. Mainly three approachesto Stirling or Brayton steam turbine, moderate to high heat

  11. 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test FY09 Status: High Concentration Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

    2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test FY09 Status: High Concentration Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization INTERIM LETTER REPORT

  12. Transparent, near-infrared organic photovoltaic solar cells for window and energy-scavenging applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunt, Richard R.

    We fabricate near-infrared absorbing organic photovoltaics that are highly transparent to visible light. By optimizing near-infrared optical-interference, we demonstrate power efficiencies of 1.3±0.1% with simultaneous ...

  13. Aternating current photovoltaic building block

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, Ward Issac; Thomas, Michael G.; Ruby, Douglas S.

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A modular apparatus for and method of alternating current photovoltaic power generation comprising via a photovoltaic module, generating power in the form of direct current; and converting direct current to alternating current and exporting power via one or more power conversion and transfer units attached to the module, each unit comprising a unitary housing extending a length or width of the module, which housing comprises: contact means for receiving direct current from the module; one or more direct current-to-alternating current inverters; an alternating current bus; and contact means for receiving alternating current from the one or more inverters.

  14. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hund, T.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  15. Photovoltaic cell and production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narayanan, Srinivasamohan (Gaithersburg, MD); Kumar, Bikash (Bangalore, IN)

    2008-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient photovoltaic cell, and its process of manufacture, is disclosed wherein the back surface p-n junction is removed from a doped substrate having an oppositely doped emitter layer. A front surface and edges and optionally the back surface periphery are masked and a back surface etch is performed. The mask is not removed and acts as an anti-reflective coating, a passivating agent, or both. The photovoltaic cell retains an untextured back surface whether or not the front is textured and the dopant layer on the back surface is removed to enhance the cell efficiency. Optionally, a back surface field is formed.

  16. Recycling Of Cis Photovoltaic Waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drinkard, Jr., William F. (Charlotte, NC); Long, Mark O. (Charlotte, NC); Goozner; Robert E. (Charlotte, NC)

    1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CIS photovoltaic cells and associated photovoltaic manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with dilute nitric acid, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating glass substrate from the leachate, electrolyzing the leachate to plate a copper and selenium metal mixture onto a first cathode, replacing the cathode with a second cathode, re-electrolyzing the leachate to plate cadmium onto the second cathode, separating the copper from selenium, and evaporating the depleted leachate to yield a zinc and indium containing solid.

  17. Glass for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouquet, F.L.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In photovoltaic systems, the encapsulant material that protects the solar cells should be highly transparent and very durable. Glass satisfies these two criteria and is considered a primary candidate for low-cost, photovoltaic encapsulation systems. In this report, various aspects of glass encapsulation are treated that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The criteria for consideration of the glass encapsulation systems were based on the LSA (Low-cost Solar Array) Project goals for arrays: (a) a low degradation rate, (b) high reliability, (c) an efficiency greater than 10 percent, (d) a total array price less than $500/kW, and (e) a production capacity of 5 x 10/sup 5/ kW/yr. The glass design areas treated herein include the types of glass, sources and costs, physical properties and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings. 78 references.

  18. Rapid screening buffer layers in photovoltaics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    List, III, Frederick Alyious; Tuncer, Enis

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method of testing electrical impedance of a multiplicity of regions of a photovoltaic surface includes providing a multi-tipped impedance sensor with a multiplicity of spaced apart impedance probes separated by an insulating material, wherein each impedance probe includes a first end adapted for contact with a photovoltaic surface and a second end in operable communication with an impedance measuring device. The multi-tipped impedance sensor is used to contact the photovoltaic surface and electrical impedance of the photovoltaic material is measured between individual first ends of the probes to characterize the quality of the photovoltaic surface.

  19. SIMULATION OF ORIENTATION IN INJECTION MOLDING OF A HIGHLY CONCENTRATED, SHORT GLASS FIBER THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wapperom, Peter

    using a time-delayed orientation evolution equation and their material parameters determined from Balance Equations The conservation equations for isothermal flow and highly viscous fluid are described using the method of ellipses. The orientation evolution equations are discretized using discontinuous

  20. GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs Monolithic Tandem Cells for High-Performance Solar Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, M. W.; Ahrenkiel, S. P.; Albin, D. S.; Carapella, J. J.; Duda, A.; Emery, K.; Geisz, J. F.; Jones, K.; Kurtz, S.; Moriarty, T.; Romero, M. J.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new approach for ultra-high-performance tandem solar cells that involves inverted epitaxial growth and ultra-thin device processing. The additional degree of freedom afforded by the inverted design allows the monolithic integration of high-, and medium-bandgap, lattice-matched (LM) subcell materials with lower-bandgap, lattice-mismatched (LMM) materials in a tandem structure through the use of transparent compositionally graded layers. The current work concerns an inverted, series-connected, triple-bandgap, GaInP (LM, 1.87 eV)/GaAs (LM, 1.42 eV)/GaInAs (LMM, {approx}1 eV) device structure grown on a GaAs substrate. Ultra-thin tandem devices are fabricated by mounting the epiwafers to pre-metallized Si wafer handles and selectively removing the parent GaAs substrate. The resulting handle-mounted, ultra-thin tandem cells have a number of important advantages, including improved performance and potential reclamation/reuse of the parent substrate for epitaxial growth. Additionally, realistic performance modeling calculations suggest that terrestrial concentrator efficiencies in the range of 40-45% are possible with this new tandem cell approach. A laboratory-scale (0.24 cm2), prototype GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs tandem cell with a terrestrial concentrator efficiency of 37.9% at a low concentration ratio (10.1 suns) is described, which surpasses the previous world efficiency record of 37.3%.

  1. Phenylnaphthalene as a Heat Transfer Fluid for Concentrating Solar Power: High-Temperature Static Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Jason R [ORNL; Joseph III, Robert Anthony [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) may be an alternative to generating electricity from fossil fuels; however, greater thermodynamic efficiency is needed to improve the economics of CSP operation. One way of achieving improved efficiency is to operate the CSP loop at higher temperatures than the current maximum of about 400 C. ORNL has been investigating a synthetic polyaromatic oil for use in a trough type CSP collector, to temperatures up to 500 C. The oil was chosen because of its thermal stability and calculated low vapor and critical pressures. The oil has been synthesized using a Suzuki coupling mechanism and has been tested in static heating experiments. Analysis has been conducted on the oil after heating and suggests that there may be some isomerization taking place at 450 C, but the fluid appears to remain stable above that temperature. Tests were conducted over one week and further tests are planned to investigate stabilities after heating for months and in flow configurations. Thermochemical data and thermophysical predictions indicate that substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons may be useful for applications that run at higher temperatures than possible with commercial fluids such as Therminol-VP1.

  2. Composition and method for encapsulating photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pern, Fu-Jann (Golden, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition and method for encapsulating a photovoltaic device which minimizes discoloration of the encapsulant. The composition includes an ethylene-vinyl acetate encapsulant, a curing agent, an optional ultraviolet light stabilizer, and/or an optional antioxidant. The curing agent is preferably 1,1-di-(t-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane; the ultraviolet light stabilizer is bis-(N-octyloxy-tetramethyl) piperidinyl sebacate and the antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of tris (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphite, tetrakis methylene (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate) methane, octadecyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate, and 2,2'-ethylidene bis(4,6-di-t-butylphenyl) fluorophosponite. The composition is applied to a solar cell then cured. The cured product contains a minimal concentration of curing-generated chromophores and resists UV-induced degradation.

  3. Engineering the optical properties of luminescent solar concentrators at the molecular scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulder, Carlijn Lucinde

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) concentrate solar radiation onto photovoltaic (PV) cells using an inexpensive collector plate to absorb incoming photons and waveguide fluorescently re-emitted photons to PVs at the ...

  4. Photovoltaics: From the laboratory to the marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T.S.; Surek, T.; Thornton, J.

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaics (PV), the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, is experiencing significant improvements in technology performance and lowered costs. Fostering these improvements, the SERI Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development (PV AR D) Project supports research and provides services to the US PV industry. This paper presents the recent advances and future direction of the PV project. Research areas are Fundamental and Supporting Research, Advanced Thin-Film Materials, High-Efficiency Materials, Module Development, and Systems Development. Materials of interest include amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, crystalline silicon, gallium arsenide and related alloys, transparent conductors, antireflection coatings, substrates, and encapsulants. The PV project inherently provides technology transfer that helps industry shorten the time to bring R D advances to the marketplace. SERI annually performs over 10,000 measurements for the entire PV community, participates in collaborative research, and welcomes visiting scientists. Two specific areas of recently increased national focus are: (1) manufacturing processes for cost-effective PV modules, and (2) systems development for high-value utility applications. The SERI research approach is based on facilitating direct contact between industry, electric utilities, and others interested in PV technology. This approach heavily relies on SERI/industry partnerships. The arrangements vary to address generic and company-specific problems to improve the US industry's competitive position and accelerate greater electric utility deployment of PV systems. 5 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Photovoltaic industry progress through 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of the US photovoltaics (PV) industry over the past decade has been impressive. First designed to provide power for satellites using high-cost production techniques, PV is now the economical choice in many remote terrestrial applications. The remarkable growth of PV in terms of quality of cells and modules, production techniques, and system design, was initiated by a cooperative effort of the US Government and the domestic PV manufacturers. European and Japanese firms entered the PV industry later, but are also growing rapidy. The Europeans continue to supply PV systems for village electrification and water pumping to many Third World countries. The Japanese have been developing the amorphous silicon (A-Si) technology by expanding its use in consumer goods. The world PV industry saw dramatic changes in industry ownership and in the emphasis on developing new and improved technology during 1984. The objective of this report is to present information on the developments of the world PV industry and focuses on developments occurring in 1984. Information is presented on a regional basis (US, Europe, Japan, other) to avoid disclosing company-confidential data. All information was gleaned from several sources, including a review of the technical literature and direct contacts with PV manufacturers. Prior to publishing the regional totals, all numbers were compared with those of other sources. The information contained in this report is prepared for use by the Department of Energy for their use in long-term R and D planning. However, this information should also be of interest by PV manufacturers and to those who may be contemplating entering the PV market. PV shipments for 1984, government supports for PV, and various PV market sectors are discussed.

  6. Sun Valley Photovoltaic Power Project, Phase 1. Final report, June 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, Jr, F R

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An application experiment was devised for fabrication, installation, operation, and evaluation of a concentrating photovoltaic system for direct conversion of sunlight to electricity. If the experiment is performed, the photovoltaic system will be connected to an electric motor load and to an electric utility system. Provisions will be made to allow the motor load to be supplied with power from either the photovoltaic system or the utility system. When the demand of the motor load is low, the photovoltaic system will deliver excess power to the utility system for use elsewhere. Thus, the experimental installation has been designed with sufficient flexibility to enable several modes of operation to be evaluated. This type of application is a typical example of on-site power generation at an individual load center involving two-way energy exchange with the adjacent utility system. Because a growing market for photovoltaic systems in this type of application is expected in the 1980's, the experiment will provide needed information in a timely manner. The experiment was devised jointly by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) and its subcontractor, Spectrolab, Inc. LADWP will furnish a site and operate the equipment after installation. The subcontractor will manufacture and furnish a concentrating photovoltaic array with a power rating of approximately 200 kilowatts at one kilowatt per square meter of insolation. Other required equipment will be purchased to specification from appropriate suppliers. The photovoltaic system represents a state-of-the-art design at the time this report was prepared. However, minor design improvements may be made prior to and during system installation. All phases of fabrication, installation and operation will be documented through formal reports. The results of the experiment will contribute to the goals of the National Photovoltaic Conversion Program.

  7. Production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis. Task 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, D.L.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report presents results of a cooperative effort among the Florida Energy Office, NASA/Kennedy Space Center, the US Department of Energy and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). It reports on a task to evaluate hydrogen production from photovoltaic (PV)-powered electrolysis. The resulting activities covered five years of effort funded at a total of $216,809. The results represent a successful, coordinated effort among two state agencies and two federal agencies. Results are reported on two separate investigations. The first investigation looked at the use of line focus concentrating photovoltaics coupled with single-cell electrolyzers to produce gaseous hydrogen. The concept, and its design, construction and operation, are presented. The objectives of the line focusing PV system are to reduce overall system cost under the assumptions that lenses and mirrors are cheaper to deploy than are PV cells, and that low-voltage, high-current dc electricity can efficiently power a single-cell elctrolyzer to produce hydrogen. The second investigation evaluated a base case cost of PV electrolysis hydrogen production based on present-day PV and electrolyzer costs and efficiencies. A second step analyzed the hydrogen costs based on a best prediction of where PV costs and efficiencies will be in 10 years. These results set the minimum cost standards that other renewable production technologies must meet or better.

  8. Microscale solar cells for high concentration on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Myriam Paire,1,2,3,4,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Microscale solar cells for high concentration on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films Myriam experiments on polycrystalline thin film solar cells. High level regime is reached, thanks to the micrometric grids are used on concentrator solar cells. The grid coverage is a trade-off between the decreased

  9. Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1983-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  10. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Allen M. (Newark, DE); Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE); Masi, James V. (Wilbraham, MA); Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Hall, Robert B. (Newark, DE)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  11. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A. (East Patchogue, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  12. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R&D) activities under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaic (PV) Program from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1993 (fiscal year [FY] 1993). The NREL PV Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 - FY 1995. The FY 1993 budget authority (BA) for carrying out the NREL PV Program was $40.1 million in operating funds and $0.9 million in capital equipment funds. An additional $4.8 million in capital equipment funds were made available for the new Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF) that will house the in-house PV laboratories beginning in FY 1994. Subcontract activities represent a major part of the NREL PV Program, with more than $23.7 million (nearly 59%) of the FY 1993 operating funds going to 70 subcontractors. In FY 1993, DOE assigned certain other PV subcontracting efforts to the DOE Golden Field Office (DOE/GO), and assigned responsibility for their technical support to the NREL PV Program. An example is the PV:BONUS (Building Opportunities in the U.S. for Photovoltaics) Project. These DOE/GO efforts are also reported in this document.

  13. Design of a photovoltaic central power station: flat-plate array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using fixed flat-panel arrays has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes high-efficiency photovoltaic modules using dendritic web cells. The modules are arranged in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic output is connected to the existing 115 kV utility switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  14. Determination of respirable mass concentration using a high volume air sampler and a sedimentation method for fractionation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary study of a new method for determining respirable mass concentration is described. This method uses a high volume air sampler and subsequent fractionation of the collected mass using a particle sedimentation technique. Side-by-side comparisons of this method with cyclones were made in the field and in the laboratory. There was good agreement among the samplers in the laboratory, but poor agreement in the field. The effect of wind on the samplers` capture efficiencies is the primary hypothesized source of error among the field results. The field test took place at the construction site of a hazardous waste landfill located on the Hanford Reservation.

  15. The Effect of Temperature and Composition on Spinel Concentration and Crystal Size in High-Level Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mika, M (.); Patek, M (.); Maixner, J (.); Randakova, S (.); Hrma, Pavel R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Anibal Taboas, Rick Vanbrabant, Gary Benda.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-level radioactive wastes can be safely immobilized in alkali-aluminoborosilicate glass. To reduce the cost of the vitrification process, the waste loading should be maximized. This can be done by optimizing the process using mathematical modeling. The main objective of our work was to determine one of the necessary inputs for the mathematical model, which is the effect of temperature and composition on the concentration of spinel crystals and their size. We prepared six glasses with a different content of Li+, Na+, Mg2+, Ni2+, Cr3+, and SiIV and studied the effect of composition on the temperature dependence of spinel equilibrium concentration in glass by X-ray powder diffraction. The size of crystals was determined using optical microscopy. It was found that the temperature effect on spinel concentration significantly increased as the content of Ni2+ or Mg2+ in glass increased and slightly decreased as the content of Cr3+ increased and Li+ and Na+ content decreased. Both Ni2+ and Cr3+ acted as nucleating agents, producing a huge number of tiny spinel crystals ({approx}2 im). In particular, Ni2+ seems to very significantly facilitate spinel crystallization.

  16. Optical design and efficiency improvement for organic luminescent solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirst, Linda

    and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal solar conversation systems1 . Generally, an organic LSC is a piece of highly solar energy. We designed, fabricated organic LSCs at different sizes and characterized their optical and electrical properties. The output efficiency enhancement methods for LSCs photovoltaics (PVs) are explored

  17. Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa Weirui

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Best research photovoltaic efficiencies (Kazmerski,Best research photovoltaic efficiencies (Kazmerski, 2011).

  18. Understanding Variability and Uncertainty of Photovoltaics for Integration with the Electric Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Uncertainty of Photovoltaics for Integration with themodels and datasets. Photovoltaics fall under the broader

  19. Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa Weirui

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions of pv systems. Progress in Photovoltaics: Researchpv system flatcon. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and

  20. Nanocrystal Photovoltaics: The Case of Cu2S-CdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivest, Jessica Louis Baker

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    systems, sensors, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics andsystem. ) Research on Cu 2 S nanocrystal photovoltaics may

  1. Do Photovoltaic Energy Systems Effect Residential Selling Prices? Results from a California Statewide Investigation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoen, Ben

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEMS AFFECT RESIDENTIAL SELLING PRICES?PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEMS AFFECT RESIDENTIAL SELLING PRICES?

  2. Novel High Efficiency Photovoltaic Devices Based on the III-N Material System: Final Technical Report, 7 December 2005 - 29 August 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hornsberg, C.; Doolittle, W. A.; Ferguson, I.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research shows that InGaN material system can be used to realize high-efficiency solar cells, making contributions to growth, modeling, understanding of loss mechanisms, and process optimization.

  3. Sustainability of Large Deployment of Photovoltaics: Environmental & Grid Integration Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    1 Sustainability of Large Deployment of Photovoltaics: Environmental & Grid Integration Research Sustainability of Large Deployment of Photovoltaics: Environmental & Grid Integration Research www Photovoltaics Environmental Research Center Brookhaven National Laboratory #12;2 Source: PV Market Outlook

  4. Solution-processed photovoltaics with advanced characterization and analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, Hsin-Sheng

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at the 37th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference (D. B. Mitzi, Prog. Photovoltaics 2011, 20, 6. [23] S. Bag,R. Noufi, IEEE J. Photovoltaics 2012, T. Todorov, J. Tang,

  5. Photovoltaic Lifetime & Degradation Science Statistical Pathway Development: Acrylic Degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Photovoltaic Lifetime & Degradation Science Statistical Pathway Development: Acrylic Degradation, USA ABSTRACT In order to optimize and extend the life of photovoltaics (PV) modules, scientific photovoltaics. The statisti- cally significant relationships were investigated using lifetime and degradation

  6. Photovoltaic nanocrystal scintillators hybridized on Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Photovoltaic nanocrystal scintillators hybridized on Si solar cells for enhanced conversion@bilkent.edu.tr Abstract: We propose and demonstrate semiconductor nanocrystal based photovoltaic scintillators integrated on solar cells to enhance photovoltaic device parameters including spectral responsivity, open circuit

  7. Degradation Pathway Models for Photovoltaics Module Lifetime Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Degradation Pathway Models for Photovoltaics Module Lifetime Performance Nicholas R. Wheeler, Laura data from Underwriter Labs, featuring measurements taken on 18 identical photovoltaic (PV) modules in modules and their effects on module performance over lifetime. Index Terms--photovoltaics, statistical

  8. Temperature-Dependent Electron Transport in Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padilla, Derek

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paul Alivisatos. Photovoltaic performance of ultrasmall pbsenot including photovoltaic performance. To understand theperformance through overall structure and QD properties, relatively few studies probe the effects of temperature or capping ligands on the photovoltaic (

  9. Femtosecond laser processing of photovoltaic and transparent materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahn, Sanghoon

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    20%  efficiency.  Progress  in  Photovoltaics.  2004;12:efficiency   tables  (version  39).  Progress  in  Photovoltaics.  efficiency   for   Cu(In,Ga)Se-­?2   thin-­?film   solar   cells   beyond   20%.   Progress   in   Photovoltaics.  

  10. Synthesis and photovoltaic application of coper (I) sulfide nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yue

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    polymer hybrid photovoltaic cells. Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,S-CdS heterojunction photovoltaic cells. J. Appl. Phys. 45,photovoltaic devices, such as dye-sensitized solar cells 1-

  11. Synthesis and photovoltaic application of coper (I) sulfide nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yue

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CdSe quantum dots for photovoltaic devices. Nano Lett. 7,nanocrystal-polymer hybrid photovoltaic cells. Appl. Phys.Gill, W. D. , Bube, R. H. Photovoltaic Properties of Cu 2 S-

  12. Semitransparent Organic Photovoltaic Cells with Laminated Top Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Semitransparent Organic Photovoltaic Cells with Laminated Top Electrode Jung-Yong Lee, Steve T demonstrate semitransparent small molecular weight organic photovoltaic cells using a laminated silver metal cathode due to differences in optical absorption. KEYWORDS Organic photovoltaics, transparent

  13. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  14. Efficiency enhancement of luminescent solar concentrations for photovoltaic technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to increase the power density of solar radiation, the costat a power density of 1000W/m 2 [GKK00]. Solar technologies

  15. Efficiency enhancement of luminescent solar concentrations for photovoltaic technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 4.17: The output short circuit current from a PV cellthe short circuit current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .circuit voltage and short circuit current from the attached

  16. Solar Junction Develops World Record Setting Concentrated Photovoltaic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    equity investments. The Incubator program provides early-stage assistance to help startup companies cross technological barriers to commercialization while encouraging private...

  17. Efficiency enhancement of luminescent solar concentrations for photovoltaic technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    parts of the solar spectrum, the power output of the LSC PVson our lab. The power output of the solar simulator is aboutinput solar radiation, the higher the power output. Solar

  18. Solar Junction Develops World Record Setting Concentrated Photovoltaic

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCO OverviewRepositoryManagement |Solar Energy Development inSolar FlareSolar

  19. Institute of Concentration Photovoltaic Systems ISFOC | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | OpenHunan RunhuaInner Mongolia Fengwei NewInside

  20. PhotovoltaicsPhotovoltaics: the equations for solar: the equations for solar--cell designcell design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    design LECTURE 5 · photovoltaic effect · the equation set · simplifying the equation set · absorption, Germany 90 MW Sarnia, Ontario 5kW Boston Massachusetts http://256.com/solar/ #12;3 The Photovoltaic EffectThe Photovoltaic EffectSec. 7.0 Is the full Device Equation Set needed to design and analyze a cell like this one