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1

LOW-COST, HIGH-PERFORMANCE MATERIALS USING ILLINOIS COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be manufactured having cement replacement with Illinois coal ashes and their blends in the range of 0 to 60LOW-COST, HIGH-PERFORMANCE MATERIALS USING ILLINOIS COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS Investigators technology for high-volume applications of Illinois coal combustion by-products generated by using both

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

2

A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES  

SciTech Connect

Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was found that the ground pellets could be used as an effective NOx control agent for pulverized-coal-fired systems. NOx emissions reductions up to 63% were recorded, when using AFP as a NOx control agent. In addition to performance benefits, economic analyses showed the good economic benefits of AFP fuel. Using equipment manufacturer inputs, and reasonable values for biomass, biosolids and coal fines costs, it was determined that an AFP plant would have good profitability. For cases where biosolids contents were in the range of 50%, the after tax Internal Rates of Return were in the range of 40% to 50%. These are very attractive returns. Besides the baseline analysis for the various AFP formulations tested at pilot scale, sensitivity analysis showed the impact of important parameters on return. From results, it was clear that returns are excellent for a range of parameters that could be expected in practice. Importantly, these good returns are achieved even without incentives related to the emissions control benefits of biomass.

John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

A Low Cost and High Efficient Facility for Removal of $\\SO_{2}$ and $\\NO_{x}$ in the Flue Gas from Coal Fire Power Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Low Cost and High Efficient Facility for Removal of $\\SO_{2}$ and $\\NO_{x}$ in the Flue Gas from Coal Fire Power Plant

Pei, Y J; Dong, X; Feng, G Y; Fu, S; Gao, H; Hong, Y; Li, G; Li, Y X; Shang, L; Sheng, L S; Tian, Y C; Wang, X Q; Wang, Y; Wei, W; Zhang, Y W; Zhou, H J

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Analysis of the market and product costs for coal-derived high Btu gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DOE analyzed the market potential and economics of coal-derived high-Btu gas using supply and demand projections that reflect the effects of natural gas deregulation, recent large oil-price rises, and new or pending legislation designed to reduce oil imports. The results indicate that an increasingly large market for supplemental gas should open up by 1990 and that SNG from advanced technology will probably be as cheap as gas imports over a wide range of assumptions. Although several studies suggest that a considerable market for intermediate-Btu gas will also exist, the potential supplemental gas demand is large enough to support both intermediate - and high-Btu gas from coal. Advanced SNG-production technology will be particularly important for processing the US's abundant, moderately to highly caking Eastern coals, which current technology cannot handle economically.

Not Available

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the costs have on the price of coal delivered by railroadsindicate that the price of coal delivered by railroads ismake up the delivered price of coal that electric plants are

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Steam Coal Import Costs - EIA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 46.96 39.34 39.76 66.29 70.83 70.95 82.81 150.58 NA Denmark 40.78 31.65 50.27 56.29 61.84 59.15 75.20 113.34 NA Finland 40.83 37.08 39.99 58.45 62.80 67.65 72.64 134.21 NA France 45.36 42.59 42.63 64.08 75.23 72.92 84.49 135.53 NA Germany 41.46 36.80 39.00 61.22 72.48 70.12 81.49 138.84 NA Ireland3 45.25 47.88 50.08 80.90 74.91 101.78 125.15 143.08 NA Italy 44.83 41.25 42.45 63.54 73.20 69.16 86.00 143.68 NA Japan 37.95 36.95 34.93 51.48 62.73 63.33 70.92 125.42 NA Netherlands 40.09 35.81 37.27 55.09 68.86 68.57 79.12 133.50 NA

7

Robust Low-Cost Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Purity Hydrogen Production form Coal-Derived Syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report details work performed in an effort to develop a low-cost, robust water gas shift membrane reactor to convert coal-derived syngas into high purity hydrogen. A sulfur- and halide-tolerant water gas shift catalyst and a sulfur-tolerant dense metallic hydrogen-permeable membrane were developed. The materials were integrated into a water gas shift membrane reactor in order to demonstrate the production of >99.97% pure hydrogen from a simulated coal-derived syngas stream containing 2000 ppm hydrogen sulfide. The objectives of the program were to (1) develop a contaminant-tolerant water gas shift catalyst that is able to achieve equilibrium carbon monoxide conversion at high space velocity and low steam to carbon monoxide ratio, (2) develop a contaminant-tolerant hydrogen-permeable membrane with a higher permeability than palladium, (3) demonstrate 1 L/h purified hydrogen production from coal-derived syngas in an integrated catalytic membrane reactor, and (4) conduct a cost analysis of the developed technology.

James Torkelson; Neng Ye; Zhijiang Li; Decio Coutinho; Mark Fokema

2008-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

8

Coking Coal Import Costs - EIA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Import Costs for Selected Countries Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 48.67 46.59 49.25 78.98 108.68 126.85 120.51 163.26 NA France 52.47 60.26 62.05 75.46 109.69 133.48 124.63 212.51 NA Germany 51.30 59.53 64.00 74.74 113.48 135.72 133.45 182.72 NA Italy 55.48 57.67 60.39 77.24 103.02 112.05 118.05 118.97 NA Japan 41.13 42.14 41.73 61.40 88.80 93.10 88.43 184.13 NA Netherlands 55.37 55.55 63.00 78.99 104.06 125.70 125.84 187.06 NA Spain 52.32 57.10 60.44 79.30 116.50 134.81 124.87 211.23 NA United Kingdom 53.14 56.81 57.34 77.73 116.05 128.51 120.24 187.79 NA 1To convert U.S. dollars per metric ton to U.S. dollars per short ton

9

Highwall miners extract coal cost effectively  

SciTech Connect

Contour Mining Corp's Powellton site in West Virginia has produced over 60,000 tons of coal per month using the Terex Highwall Mining System (HWM). The HWM can use a lower or high-seam cutter module. MTS Systems' Sensors Division provides mobile hydraulic magnetostrictive sensors for the HWM system, to increase the accuracy and reliability of linear positioning. 1 photo.

NONE

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Highly Insulating Windows - Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Cost The following is an estimate of the cost effective incremental cost of highly-insulating windows (U-factor=0.20 Btu/hr-ft2-F) compared to regular ENERGY STAR windows (U-factor 0.35 Btu/hr-ft2-F). Energy savings from lower U-factors were simulated with RESFEN over an assumed useful window life of 25 years. To determine the maximum incremental cost at which highly-insulating windows would still be cost-effective, we used a formula used by many utility companies to calculate the cost of saved energy from energy efficiency programs, based on the programs' cost and savings. We turned this formula around so that the cost of saved energy equals the present energy prices in the studied locations, whereas the program cost (the incremental cost of the windows) is the dependent variable. By entering 5%

11

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle ( IGCC)coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)will be integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (Same

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Coal supply and cost under technological and environmental uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal supply and cost under technological and environmental uncertainty Submitted in partial, and Rod Lawrence at Foundation Coal. I received a lot of feedback and input on this report, and would like chapters. My conversations with Kurt Walzer at Clean Air Task Force and Rory McIlmoil at Coal Valley Wind

14

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

million tons of coal in 2030, up from about 1,150 million2030 .Figure 42: Projected annual tonnage flows in 2030, Scenario

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Coal Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Study Guide - High School Coal Study Guide - High School Coal Study Guide - High School More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide - Middle School Coal Study Guide for...

16

Cost and carbon emissions of coal and combined cycle power plants...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost and carbon emissions of coal and combined cycle power plants in India: international implications Title Cost and carbon emissions of coal and combined cycle power plants in...

17

Effects of Coal Quality on Power Plant Performance and Costs, Volume 4: Review of Coal Science Fundamentals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The costs of generating electricity in a coal-fired power plant depend not only on the delivered cost of coal but on how coal quality affects plant performance. Utilities need to account for both these factors to decide which coals provide the most power at the lowest cost.

1986-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

18

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gill, Ross (retired rail research engineer), 2006, privateGill, Ross (retired rail research engineer), 2007, privateResearch Institute (EPRI), 1976, “Coal Transportation Capability of the Existing Rail and

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Controlling Energy Costs with Coal Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Even with a decade of substantial energy reduction in America's manufacturing plants and a temporary 'oil glut', energy often represents the largest plant expense, higher than labor or raw materials. Energy is not only a major plant expense; it is usually regarded as the most controllable. Fluidized bed combustion technology allows industrial steam users to use low-grade coals that are outside of mainstream coal markets, are abundant, and are very inexpensive, being one-quarter to one-third the price of oil or gas. This paper discusses the economics of low-grade coal, what is fluidized bed technology and its comparison to conventional coal and gas/oil fired systems, and one coal-fired FBC installation in Texas.

Sadowski, R. S.; von Hippel, C. S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. A successful conclusion of the program will enable further component development work and full-scale system demonstrations of this potentially important technology. This paper covers the work on fuel processor rig testing completed in FY92.

Greenhalgh, M.L.; Wen, C.S.; Smith, L.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high coal cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. A successful conclusion of the program will enable further component development work and full-scale system demonstrations of this potentially important technology. This paper covers the work on fuel processor rig testing completed in FY92.

Greenhalgh, M.L.; Wen, C.S.; Smith, L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

High Hydrogen, Low Methane Syngas from Low-Rank Coals for Coal-to-Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Hydrogen, Low Methane Syngas from Low-Rank Coals for Coal-to-Liquids Production High Hydrogen, Low Methane Syngas from Low-Rank Coals for Coal-to-Liquids Production Southern Research Institute (SRI) Project Number: FE0012054 Project Description The focus of the project will be to develop, test, and optimize steam-reforming catalysts for converting tars, C2+ hydrocarbons, NH3, and CH4 in high-temperature and sulfur environments, increasing the ratio of hydrogen in syngas, as part of a modified, advanced gasification platform for the conversion of low-rank coals to syngas for coal-to-liquid and integrated gasification combined cycle applications. Project Details Program Background and Project Benefits Project Scope and Technology Readiness Level Accomplishments Contacts, Duration, and Cost Project Images Abstract Performer website: Southern Research Institute

23

CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL GASIFICATI...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 Coal Using Preliminary Assumptions 2-15 2.5.1 Approach to Cost Estimating 2-16 2.5.2 Production Costs (Operation and Maintenance) 2-16 2.5.3 Consumables 2-17 2.5.4 Byproduct...

24

Assessing initial-cost growth and subsequent long-term cost improvement in coal-to-SNG processes. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of the study was the development of guidance that would enable gas-industry R and D managers to make more-reliable assessments of the potential for both initial-cost growth and subsequent long-run cost improvement in alternative coal-gasification technologies. The first phase of the research assessed the reasonableness of the GRI contingency methodology by comparing the results obtained from applying the GRI method and the RAND Pioneer Plant Study (PPS) method to an identical set of eight coal-to-SNG processes. The second phase of the research, which addressed the issue of cost improvement, found that between process introduction and process maturity, overall cost reductions of between 30% (for moderately innovative technologies) and 60% (for highly innovative technologies) are possible. However, these results were highly dependent on a number of key assumptions including: similarity of site characteristics for successive plants; access to prior plant's experience base; and appropriate management attitudes.

Hess, R.W.; Myers, C.W.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Reclaiming lost capability in power plant coal conversions: an innovative, low-cost approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some of the capability lost during coal conversion can be recovered for midrange/peaking power generation through low cost, turbine cycle and economizer modifications. The additional output can be realized by shutting off adjacent high pressure feedwater heaters (as specified by turbogenerator manufacturers) and simultaneously increasing heat input to the economizer. The supplemental economizer heat input makes up for heat lost to the feedwater when extraction steam is shut off. Several options for applying this novel approach to capability recovery are described. The reclaimed capability is realized at somewhat lower efficiency but at low cost, compared to the overall cost of a coal conversion. Rather than return converted units to up to 100% oil or gas firing during periods of high system demand, the proposed method allows the continued comsumption of coal for the base-load portion of the plant's output. The development of the low NO/sub x/ Slagging Combustor will allow even the added economizer heat input to be supplied by relatively low cost coal. Following a brief review of factors affecting boiler capability in coal conversions and current approaches to coal conversion in this country and overseas, the results of a preliminary study that apply the proposed novel concept to a West Coast power plant are described.

Miliaras, E.S.; Kelleher, P.J.; Fujimura, K.S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

High pressure rotary piston coal feeder for coal gasification applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The subject development is directed to an apparatus for feeding pulverized coal into a coal gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. This apparatus is a rotary piston feeder which comprises a circular casing having a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable discoid rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocateable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam arrangement whereby the pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder cavity and then discharged therefrom into the high-pressure gasifier without the loss of high pressure gases from within the latter.

Gencsoy, Hasan T. (Morgantown, WV)

1977-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

27

High-sulfur coals in the eastern Kentucky coal field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Eastern Kentucky coal field is notable for relatively low-sulfur, [open quotes]compliance[close quotes] coals. Virtually all of the major coals in this area do have regions in which higher sulfur lithotypes are common, if not dominant, within the lithologic profile. Three Middle Pennsylvanian coals, each representing a major resource, exemplify this. The Clintwood coal bed is the stratigraphically lowest coal bed mined throughout the coal field. In Whitley County, the sulfur content increase from 0.6% at the base to nearly 12% in the top lithotype. Pyrite in the high-sulfur lithotype is a complex mixture of sub- to few-micron syngenetic forms and massive epigenetic growths. The stratigraphically higher Pond Creek coal bed is extensively mined in portions of the coal field. Although generally low in sulfur, in northern Pike and southern Martin counties the top one-third can have up to 6% sulfur. Uniformly low-sulfur profiles can occur within a few hundred meters of high-sulfur coal. Pyrite occurs as 10-50 [mu]m euhedra and coarser massive forms. In this case, sulfur distribution may have been controlled by sandstone channels in the overlying sediments. High-sulfur zones in the lower bench of the Fire Clay coal bed, the stratigraphically highest coal bed considered here, are more problematical. The lower bench, which is of highly variable thickness and quality, generally is overlain by a kaolinitic flint clay, the consequence of a volcanic ash fall into the peat swamp. In southern Perry and Letcher counties, a black, illite-chlorite clay directly overlies the lower bench. General lack of lateral continuity of lithotypes in the lower bench suggests that the precursor swamp consisted of discontinuous peat-forming environments that were spatially variable and regularly inundated by sediments. Some of the peat-forming areas may have been marshlike in character.

Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M. (Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal March 11, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - An innovative coal-drying technology that will extract more energy from high moisture coal at less cost and simultaneously reduce potentially harmful emissions is ready for commercial use after successful testing at a Minnesota electric utility. The DryFining(TM) technology was developed with funding from the first round of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Great River Energy of Maple Grove, Minn., has selected the WorleyParsons Group to exclusively distribute licenses for the technology, which essentially uses waste heat from a power plant to reduce moisture content

30

CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL GASIFICATION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST OF HYDROGEN CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL GASIFICATION Final Report April 2003 Prepared for: The United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under: Contract No. DE-AM26-99FT40465 between the NETL and Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) Subcontract No. 990700362 between CTC and Parsons Infrastructure & Technology Group Inc. Task 50611 DOE Task Managers: James R. Longanbach Gary J. Stiegel Parsons Project Manager: Michael D. Rutkowski Principal Investigators: Thomas L. Buchanan Michael G. Klett Ronald L. Schoff PARSONS Capital and Operating Cost of Hydrogen Production from Coal Gasification Page i April 2003 TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Title Page List of Tables iii List of Figures iii

31

Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Southern Research Institute Project Number: FE0010231 Project Description Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, called syngas, into liquid hydrocarbons. It is a leading technology for converting syngas derived from gasification of coal and coal-biomass mixtures to hydrocarbons in coal to liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes. However, conventional FTS catalysts produce undesirable waxes (C21+) that need to be upgraded to liquids (C5-C20) by hydrotreating. This adds significantly to the cost of FTS. The objectives of this project are (i) to demonstrate potential for CBTL cost reduction by maximizing the production of C5-C20 hydrocarbon liquids using a selective FTS catalyst and (ii) to evaluate the impacts of the addition of biomass to coal on product characteristics, carbon foot print, and economics.

32

A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The lower cost and higher catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char reactivities.

Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Coal-fired power-plant-capital-cost estimates. Final report. [Mid-1978 price level; 13 different sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conceptual designs and order-of-magnitude capital cost estimates have been prepared for typical 1000-MW coal-fired power plants. These subcritical plants will provide high efficiency in base load operation without excessive efficiency loss in cycling operation. In addition, an alternative supercritical design and a cost estimate were developed for each of the plants for maximum efficiency at 80 to 100% of design capacity. The power plants will be located in 13 representative regions of the United States and will be fueled by coal typically available in each region. In two locations, alternate coals are available and plants have been designed and estimated for both coals resulting in a total of 15 power plants. The capital cost estimates are at mid-1978 price level with no escalation and are based on the contractor's current construction projects. Conservative estimating parameters have been used to ensure their suitability as planning tools for utility companies. A flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has been included for each plant to reflect the requirements of the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions. The estimated costs of the FGD facilities range from 74 to 169 $/kW depending on the coal characteristics and the location of the plant. The estimated total capital requirements for twin 500-MW units vary from 8088 $/kW for a southeastern plant burning bituminous Kentucky coal to 990 $/kW for a remote western plant burning subbituminous Wyoming coal.

Holstein, R.A.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Dark spreads measure returns over fuel costs of coal-fired ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The dark spread is a common metric used to estimate returns over fuel costs of coal-fired electric generators. A dark spread is the difference between ...

35

Cost of transporting coal to power plants rose almost 50% in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The average cost of shipping coal by railroad to power plants increased almost 50% in the United States from 2001 to 2010.

36

Cost of transporting coal to power plants rose almost 50% in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Nuclear & Uranium. Uranium fuel, ... The average cost of shipping coal by railroad to power plants increased almost 50% in the United ... National numbers can be ...

37

Cost Analysis of Proposed National Regulation of Coal Combustion Residuals from the Electric Generating Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This analysis quantifies the potential cost to the coal-fired electric generation industry from EPA's proposed rule on the disposal of coal combustion residuals. It includes an assessment of the incremental compliance costs of the Subtitle C proposed regulatory option. Costs for this analysis were developed at the individual generating unit and plant level and aggregated to develop a national industry cost estimate. The analytical model used to estimate the costs utilizes a Monte Carlo framework to accou...

2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

38

Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this program are to study combustion feasibility by running Series 149 engine tests at high speeds with a fuel injection and combustion system designed for coal-water-slurry (CWS). The following criteria will be used to judge feasibility: (1) engine operation for sustained periods over the load range at speeds from 600 to 1900 rpm. The 149 engine for mine-haul trucks has a rated speed of 1900 rpm; (2) reasonable fuel economy and coal burnout rate; (3) reasonable cost of the engine design concept and CWS fuel compared to future oil prices.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Historical Costs of Coal-Fired Electricity and Implications for the Future James McNerney,a,b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

density, thermal efficiency, plant construction cost, interest rate, and capacity factor. The dominant of the price of coal, coal transportation cost, coal energy density, thermal effi- ciency, plant construction in the United States, going back to the earliest coal-fired power plant in 1882 through 2006, rather than cross

40

Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. [High temperature soaking coal in coal liquids prior to liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

Soaking coal in coal liquids at 300-400[degrees]C (high-tenperature soaking) has been studied for coal dissolution prior to liquefaction in the previous task. Two high-volatile bituminous coals, Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh No. 8, were examined in three different coal liquids. The high-temperature soaking was effective to solubilize more than 70 wt% cf these coals. The mechanism of disintegration of coal by the high-temperature soaking was investigated under various soaking conditions. The products was also analyzed with solvent swelling. These results were rationalized that coal is solubilized primarily by physical disintegration. The derived mechanism was consistent with the new concept of coal structure: A significant portion of coal is physically associated, not three-dimensionally cross-linked. Radically-induced scission reactions were proposed to prorate breakage of coal moleculs by the combination of the high-temperature soaking before liquefaction. In this term, the effect of radical initiators were investigated under the conditions of the high-temperature soaking and liquefaction. Illinois No. 6 coal and a coal liquid derived from the same coal were used. The first section reports the effect of radical initiators on coal disintegration, and the second section reports the effect of a radical initiator on coal liquefaction. Radical initiators had a positive effect on disintegration. However, the effect was highly temperature-dependent and had a negative effect on liquefaction at high tenperatures.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high coal cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

Stefano Orsino

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

42

Historical Costs of Coal-Fired Electricity and Implications for the Future  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the costs of coal-fired electricity in the United States between 1882 and 2006 by decomposing it in terms of the price of coal, transportation costs, energy density, thermal efficiency, plant construction cost, interest rate, and capacity factor. The dominant determinants of costs at present are the price of coal and plant construction cost. The price of coal appears to fluctuate more or less randomly while the construction cost follows long-term trends, decreasing from 1902 - 1970, increasing from 1970 - 1990, and leveling off or decreasing a little since then. This leads us to forecast that even without carbon capture and storage, and even under an optimistic scenario in which construction costs resume their previously decreasing trending behavior, the cost of coal-based electricity will drop for a while but eventually be determined by the price of coal, which varies stochastically but shows no long term decreasing trends. Our analysis emphasizes the importance of using long time series and compari...

McNerney, James; Farmer, J Doyne

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Fossil Energy RD&D: Reducing the Cost of CCUS for Coal Power...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil Energy RD&D: Reducing the Cost of CCUS for Coal Power Plants Revision 1, January 31, 2012 DOENETL-20121550 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work...

45

Marginal cost of electricity 1980-1995: an approximation based on the cost of new coal and nuclear generating plants  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of the costs of new coal and nuclear base-load generating capacity which is either currently under construction or planned by utilities to meet their load-growth expectations during the period from 1980 to 1995. These capacity cost estimates are used in conjunction with announced plant capacities and commercial-operation dates to develop state-level estimates of busbar costs of electricity. From these projected busbar costs, aggregated estimates of electricity costs at the retail level are developed for DOE Regions. The introductory chapter explains the rationale for using the cost of electricity from base-load plants to approximate the marginal cost of electricity. The next major section of the report outlines the methodology and major assumptions used. This is followed by a detailed description of the empirical analysis, including the equations used for each of the cost components. The fourth section presents the resultant marginal cost estimates.

Nieves, L.A.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Emery, J.C.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

Greenhalgh, M.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Transportation costs for new fuel forms produced from low rank US coals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transportation costs are examined for four types of new fuel forms (solid, syncrude, methanol, and slurry) produced from low rank coals found in the lower 48 states of the USA. Nine low rank coal deposits are considered as possible feedstocks for mine mouth processing plants. Transportation modes analyzed include ship/barge, pipelines, rail, and truck. The largest potential market for the new fuel forms is coal-fired utility boilers without emission controls. Lowest cost routes from each of the nine source regions to supply this market are determined. 12 figs.

Newcombe, R.J.; McKelvey, D.G. (TMS, Inc., Germantown, MD (USA)); Ruether, J.A. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Should we transport coal, gas, or electricity: cost, efficiency, and environmental implications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors examine the life cycle costs, environmental discharges, and deaths of moving coal via rail, coal to synthetic natural gas via pipeline, and electricity via wire from the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming to Texas. Which method has least social cost depends on how much additional investment in rail line, transmission, or pipeline infrastructure is required, as well as how much and how far energy is transported. If the existing rail lines have unused capacity, coal by rail is the cheapest method (up to 200 miles of additional track could be added). If no infrastructure exists, greater distances and larger amounts of energy favor coal by rail and gasified coal by pipeline over electricity transmission. For 1,000 miles and 9 gigawatts of power, a gas pipeline is cheapest, has less environmental discharges, uses less land, and is least obtrusive. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Joule A. Bergerson; Lester B. Lave [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (US)

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The lower cost and high catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char reactivities. The work is focused on the elucidation of coal-catalyst precursor interactions in solution and the variables which control the adsorption and dispersion of coal gasification metal catalysts. In order to optimize coal-metal ion interactions and hence maximize catalyst activity, the study examines the surface electrochemistry of a lignite, a subbituminous, and a bituminous coals and their demineralized and oxidized derivatives prior to loading with the catalytic materials. The surface electrical properties of the coals are investigated with the aid of electrophoresis, while the effects of the surface charge on the adsorption of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} are studied by agitating the coals with aqueous solutions of potassium and calcium. A zeta meter, a tube furnace, and other equipment required for the investigation have been acquired and installed. Preliminary work shows that the lignite (Psoc 1482) is negatively charged between pH 1.8 and pH 11.0 and has an isoelectric point of pH 1.8.

Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Report on Geothermal Power Plant Cost and Comparative Cost of Geothermal and Coal Fired Steam Power Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is to be used by Utah Power and Light Company (UP and L) in making studies of geothermal power plants. The dollars per kilowatt comparison between a geothermal plant and a UP and L coal-fired plant is to be developed. Geothermal gathering system costs and return to owner are to be developed for information.

None

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Vibratory high pressure coal feeder having a helical ramp  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus and method for feeding powdered coal from a helical ramp into a high pressure, heated, reactor tube containing hydrogen for hydrogenating the coal and/or for producing useful products from coal. To this end, the helical ramp is vibrated to feed the coal cleanly at an accurately controlled rate in a simple reliable and trouble-free manner that eliminates complicated and expensive screw feeders, and/or complicated and expensive seals, bearings and fully rotating parts.

Farber, Gerald (Elmont, NY)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Coal-fired high performance power generating system  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Opening New Avenues for High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Coal Gasification |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Opening New Avenues for High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Coal Opening New Avenues for High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Coal Gasification Opening New Avenues for High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Coal Gasification April 10, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis A rendering of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne high pressure, dry-solids feed pump. A rendering of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne high pressure, dry-solids feed pump. Washington, DC - Gasification. It's a versatile technology that uses coal to produce power, chemicals, and fuels. Inherently low in air emissions, solid byproducts, and wastewater, commercial gasification plants have proven capable of exceeding the most stringent regulations for air- and solids-emissions. However, capital and operational costs have prohibited the widespread adoption of gasification, especially for power

55

Spray-dryer scrubbers for high-sulfur coal combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spray-dryer scrubbers for sulfur-dioxide removal from flue gases have been a developing technology for several years. Because spray-dryer scrubbers offer several potential advantages over wet scrubbing, they are attractive to the utility industry. Some of these advantages are: 1) a simpler waste-disposal problem, 2) higher energy efficiency, 3) lower water comsumption, 4) lower capital cost, 5) lower operating costs, 6) less exotic materials of construction, 7) simpler operation, and 8) ability to consume some plant waste water in the spray dryer. The paper provides a broad survey of the state of the art as it might be useful to electric utilitites using high-sulfur coal.

Henry, J.M.; Robards, R.F.; Wells, W.L.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Development of Cost Effective Oxy-Combustion Technology for Retrofitting Coal-Fired Boilers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost effeCtive Cost effeCtive oxy-Combustion teChnology for retrofitting Coal-fireD boilers Background Electric power generation from fossil fuels represents one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, not just in the United States, but throughout the world. Various technologies and concepts are being investigated as means to mitigate carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. The concept of pulverized coal (PC) oxy-combustion is one potential economical solution, whereby coal is combusted in an enriched oxygen environment using pure oxygen diluted with recycled flue gas. In this manner, the flue gas is composed primarily of CO 2 and H 2 O, so that a concentrated stream of CO 2 is produced by simply condensing the water in the exhaust stream. An advantage of

57

Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily ``skimmed`` from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Superheater Corrosion in Plants Burning High-Chlorine Coals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corrosion caused by molten alkali sulfates can cause premature failure in superheaters and reheaters of coal-fired boilers. Coals with a high chlorine content are more likely to cause molten sulfate corrosion than those with a low chlorine content. Tests in a boiler burning coal with 0.37% chlorine and 1.3% sulfur show that stainless steels with at least 35% chromium are very corrosion resistant, while steels containing less than 20% chromium have high corrosion rates.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Final Report Environmental Footprints and Costs of Coal-Based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Currently, over 50 percent of electricity in the U.S. is generated from coal. Given that coal reserves in the U.S. are estimated to meet our energy needs over the next 250 years, coal is expected to continue to play a major role in the generation of electricity in this country. With dwindling supplies and high prices of natural gas and oil, a large proportion of the new power generation facilities built in the U.S. can be expected to use coal as the main fuel. The environmental impact of these facilities can only be minimized by innovations in technology that allow for efficient burning of coal, along with an increased capture of the air pollutants that are an inherent part of coal combustion. EPA considers integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) as one of the most promising technologies in reducing environmental consequences of generating electricity from coal. EPA has undertaken several initiatives to facilitate and incentivize development and deployment of this technology. This report is the result of one of these initiatives and it represents the combined efforts of a joint EPA/DOE team formed to advance the IGCC technology. The various offices within DOE that participated in the development/review of this report were the Office of Fossil Energy, including the Clean Coal Office and the National Energy Technology Laboratory.

Pulverized Coal; Technologies Foreword

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The broad objective of this project is to obtain improved, quantitative understanding of the transient plasticity of bituminous coals under high heating rates and other reaction and pretreatment conditions of scientific and practical interest. To these ends the research plan is to measure the softening and resolidification behavior of two US bituminous coals with a rapid-heating, fast response, high-temperature coal plastometer, previously developed in this laboratory. Specific measurements planned for the project include determinations of apparent viscosity, softening temperature, plastic period, and resolidificationtime for molten coal: (1) as a function of independent variations in coal type, heating rate, final temperature, gaseous atmosphere (inert, 0{sub 2} or H{sub 2}), and shear rate; and (2) in exploratory runs where coal is pretreated (preoxidation, pyridine extraction, metaplast cracking agents), before heating. The intra-coal inventory and molecular weight distribution of pyridine extractables will also be measured using a rapid quenching, electrical screen heater coal pyrolysis reactor. The yield of extractables is representative of the intra-coal inventory of plasticing agent (metaplast) remaining after quenching. Coal plasticity kinetics will then be mathematically modeled from metaplast generation and depletion rates, via a correlation between the viscosity of a suspension and the concentration of deformable medium (here metaplast) in that suspension. Work during this reporting period has been concerned with re-commissioning the rapid heating rate plastometer apparatus.

Darivakis, G.S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high coal cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalyst for coal gasification. The lower cost and high catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char activities. The effects of potassium impregnation conditions (pH and coal surface charge) on the reactivities, in carbon dioxide, of chars derived from demineralized lignite, subbituminous and bituminous coals have been determined. Impregnation of the acid-leached coal with potassium from strongly acidic solutions resulted in initial slow char reactivity which progressively increased with reaction time. Higher reactivities were obtained for catalyst (potassium) loaded at pH 6 or 10. The dependence of char gasification rates on catalyst addition pH increased in the order: pH 6 {approximately} pH 10 {much gt} pH 1.

Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Cost of New Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Coal Electricity Generation...................... 17  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Future demand for electricity can be met with a range of technologies, with fuels including coal, nuclear, natural gas, biomass and other renewables, as well as with energy efficiency and demand management approaches. Choices among options will depend on factors including capital cost, fuel cost, market and regulatory uncertainty, greenhouse gas emissions, and other environmental impacts. This paper estimates the costs of new electricity generation. The approach taken here is to provide a transparent and verifiable analysis based mainly on recent data provided

Seth Borin; Todd Levin; Valerie M. Thomas; Seth Borin; Todd Levin; Valerie M. Thomas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Updated Cost and Performance Estimates for Clean Coal Technologies Including CO2 Capture - 2005  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There was very little increase in the estimated capital cost of new coal fired plants over the 2000- 2003 period. However there were also very few orders for new coal plants in that period when Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Plants were mostly the chosen selection. Since 2003 the value of the US dollar has been reduced versus other currencies. The greatly increased price of crude oil and natural gas since 2003 has also led to an increase in the price of basic commodities such as steel and cement. The ...

2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

64

A low cost high flux solar simulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A low cost, high flux, large area solar simulator has been designed, built and characterized for the purpose of studying optical melting and light absorption behavior of molten salts. Seven 1500 W metal halide outdoor ...

Codd, Daniel S.

65

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE EIA WEEKLY COAL ... Coal Prices and Earnings (updated April 28, 2004) Spot coal prices in the East rose steadily since Labor Day 2003, with rapid escalations ...

66

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE EIA WEEKLY COAL ... Coal Prices and Earnings (updated September 26) The average spot prices for reported coal purchases rose once again ...

67

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Prices and Earnings (updated August 12) According to Platts Coal Outlook’s Weekly Price Survey (August 11), the ...

68

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Prices and Earnings (updated September 2) The average spot prices for coal traded last week were relatively ...

69

High Conversion of Coal to Transportation Fuels for the Future With Low HC Gas Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An announced objective of the Department of Energy in funding this work, and other current research in coal liquefaction, is to produce a synthetic crude from coal at a cost lower than $30.00 per barrel (Task A). A second objective, reflecting a recent change in direction in the synthetic fuels effort of DOE, is to produce a fuel which is low in aromatics, yet of sufficiently high octane number for use in the gasoline- burning transportation vehicles of today. To meet this second objective, research was proposed, and funding awarded, for conversion of the highly-aromatic liquid product from coal conversion to a product high in isoparaffins, which compounds in the gasoline range exhibit a high octane number (Task B).

Alex G. Oblad; Wendell H. Wiser

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for Asia. [Including external environmental costs  

SciTech Connect

The United States is well positioned to play an expanding role in meeting the energy technology demands of the Asian Pacific Basin, including Indonesia, Thailand, and the Republic of China (ROC-Taiwan). The US Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program provides a proving ground for innovative coal-related technologies that can be applied domestically and abroad. These innovative US CCTs are expected to satisfy increasingly stringent environmental requirements while substantially improving power generation efficiencies. They should also provide distinct advantages over conventional pulverized coal-fired combustors. Finally, they are expected to be competitive with other energy options currently being considered in the region. This paper presents potential technology scenarios for Indonesia, Thailand, and the ROC-Taiwan and considers an environmental cost-benefit approach employing a newly developed method of applying environmental externalities. Results suggest that the economic benefits from increased emission control can indeed be quantified and used in cost-benefit comparisons, and that US CCTs can be very cost effective in reducing emissions.

Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Updated Cost and Performance Estimates for Clean Coal Technologies Including CO2 Capture - 2006  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Construction and commodity costs were relatively stable for the period 2000-2003. However there were also very few orders for new coal plants in that period when Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Plants were mostly the chosen technology selection. Since 2003 the value of the US dollar has been reduced versus other currencies. The rapid increases in crude oil and natural gas prices since early 2004 have also produced marked increases in several commodities and thereby the cost of construction of power pla...

2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

72

Levelized Costs for Nuclear, Gas and Coal for Electricity, under the Mexican Scenario  

SciTech Connect

In the case of new nuclear power stations, it is necessary to pay special attention to the financial strategy that will be applied, time of construction, investment cost, and the discount and return rate. The levelized cost quantifies the unitary cost of the electricity (the kWh) generated during the lifetime of the nuclear power plant; and allows the immediate comparison with the cost of other alternative technologies. The present paper shows levelized cost for different nuclear technologies and it provides comparison among them as well as with gas and coal electricity plants. For the calculations we applied our own methodology to evaluate the levelized cost considering investment, fuel and operation and maintenance costs, making assumptions for the Mexican market, and taking into account the gas prices projections. The study also shows comparisons using different discount rates (5% and 10%), and some comparisons between our results and an OECD 1998 study. The results are i n good agreement and shows that nuclear option is cost competitive in Mexico on the basis of levelized costs.

Palacios, J.C.; Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R.; Gomez, A.; Ortiz, J.; Longoria, L.C.

2004-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

73

Low Cost, High Performance, 50-year Electrode  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

this ARPA-E project, Primus Power will develop an this ARPA-E project, Primus Power will develop an extremely durable, highly active, conductive, and inexpensive electrode for flow batteries. Flow batteries offer one of the most exciting opportunities for affordable grid storage, however electrodes are costly and are the single largest cost component in a well integrated design. Grid storage can yield numerous benefits in utility and customer- owned applications:  renewable firming  peak load reduction  load shifting  capital deferral  frequency regulation By incorporating volume production practices from the chlorine, filter media, and electroplating industries, Primus Power will effectively reduce electrode costs to exceed GRIDS cost targets while providing the durability essential for widespread grid-scale adoption.

74

A novel concept for high conversion of coal to liquids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this work is to demonstrate conversion of coal to produce at least 70% by weight of the coal as liquids, with ratios of liquids to gases in excess of 10/1, resulting in low hydrogen consumption and a significant reduction in the cost of producing hydrocarbon liquid fuels from coal. Utilizing a small continuous-flow reactor designed and constructed for this research, the maximum possible ratio of liquids to gases will be defined, operating at short residence times of a few seconds, at the same time converting more than 70% of the carbon in the coal to liquids. The practical ability to attain coal particle center-line temperatures of 500 {degree}C in one second or less, using hot hydrogen gas in turbulent flow, will also be demonstrated. Particle heat-up rates for a few selected system pressures and particle sizes will be determined. Catalysts will be screened and selected for sufficient activity and selectivity. Particle heat-up rates for small coal particles slurried in a super-critical hydrocarbon-type fluid will be examined, using hot hydrogen gas in turbulent flow as the heat transfer medium.

Wiser, W.H.; Shabtai, J.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Today in Energy - High airline jet fuel costs prompt cost ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration ... and idling time. ... Delta stated that it anticipates cost savings of $300 million per year as a result of this ...

76

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE EIA WEEKLY COAL ... Coal Prices and Earnings (updated July 7, 2004) In the trading week ended July 2, the average spot coal prices tracked by EIA were mixed.

77

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. During this reporting period, several sorbent samples have been tested by URS in their laboratory fixed-bed system. The sorbents were evaluated under conditions simulating flue gas from power plants burning Powder River Basin (PRB) and low sulfur eastern bituminous coals. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of the sorbents for both elemental and oxidized mercury are presented. A team meeting discussing the overall program and meetings with Midwest Generation and Wisconsin Electric Power Company (WEPCO) concerning field testing occurred during this reporting period.

Sharon Sjostrom

2002-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

78

USDA - High Energy Cost Grant Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High Energy Cost Grant Program USDA - High Energy Cost Grant Program Eligibility Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Municipal Utility Nonprofit Residential...

79

Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Other Agencies You are here Home Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation An...

80

Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Other Agencies You are here Home Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix, Inc. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high coal cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Application of discrete element method to the analysis of free-flow outlet of coal from high coals at underground coal mining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mathematical model is developed on the basis of the Discrete Elements Method for investigation of processes of gravitational flow of the granular materials. The problem about free-flow outlet of coal from high coals in sublevel caving systems is ... Keywords: discrete element modeling, granular medium, numerical simulation, powered support, rock massif, underground coal mining

Vladimir I. Klishin; Sergey V. Klishin

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Rough cost estimates of solar thermal/coal or biomass-derived fuels. [Hybrid approach: solar thermal plus either coal or biomass  

SciTech Connect

The production of a synthetic fuel from a solar thermal resource could provide a means of replacing critical liquid and gaseous fossil fuels. The solar thermal resource is large and economics favors a southwestern site. A synthetic fuel would provide a desirable product and a means of transporting solar thermal energy to large load centers outside the southwest. This paper presents cost data for one method of producing synthetic methane. A hybrid approach was chosen, a combination of solar thermal and either coal or biomass. The magnitude of the solar thermal resource is estimated as well as projected cost. Cost projections for coal and biomass are accumulated. The cost of synthetic gas from a hybrid and a conventional fuel source are compared.

Copeland, R. J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Engineering and Cost Assessment of Listed Special Waste Designation of Coal Combustion Residuals Under Subtitle C of the Resource Co nservation and Recovery Act  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) undertook this project to identify engineering cost estimates for the changes at power plants needed to comply with the Subtitle C option in proposed federal rules regarding the management of coal combustion residuals. The analysis represents a high level evaluation of various plant operations before such federal rules are finalized. It relies on best engineering judgment interpretations of applying the proposed regulations on current practices for generating...

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

84

Properties of low cost, high volume glasses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The properties of new and weathered samples of low cost, high volume glasses have been studied to determine their usefulness for solar energy applications. Glasses of varying compositions produced by float, drawn, rolled fusion, and twin ground techniques were examined. Spectral transmittance and reflectance were measured and solar weighted values calculated. Laser raytrace techniques were used to evaluate surface parallelism and bulk homogeneity. Compositional changes were examined with scanning electron microscopy, x-ray fluorescence, and Auger electron spectroscopy. These techniques were used in conjunction with ellipsometry to study the surface effects associated with weathering.

Lind, M. A.; Hartman, J. S.; Buckwalter, C. Q.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Development of a coal reserve GIS model and estimation of the recoverability and extraction costs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The United States has the world largest coal resource and coal will serve as the major and dependable energy source in the coming 200 years… (more)

Apala, Chandrakanth, Reddy.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

per kWh produced than baseload coal, nuclear or combined-even. The model includes a baseload technology with high ?annual production cost are: Baseload (coal) Cost = $208247/M

Borenstein, Severin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Nuclear economics 2000: Deterministic and probabilistic projections of nuclear and coal electric power generation costs for the year 2000  

SciTech Connect

The total busbar electric generating costs were estimated for locations in ten regions of the United States for base-load nuclear and coal-fired power plants with a startup date of January 2000. For the Midwest region a complete data set that specifies each parameter used to obtain the comparative results is supplied. When based on the reference set of input variables, the comparison of power generation costs is found to favor nuclear in most regions of the country. Nuclear power is most favored in the northeast and western regions where coal must be transported over long distances; however, coal-fired generation is most competitive in the north central region where large reserves of cheaply mineable coal exist. In several regions small changes in the reference variables could cause either option to be preferred. The reference data set reflects the better of recent electric utility construction cost experience (BE) for nuclear plants. This study assumes as its reference case a stable regulatory environment and improved planning and construction practices, resulting in nuclear plants typically built at the present BE costs. Today's BE nuclear-plant capital investment cost model is then being used as a surrogate for projected costs for the next generation of light-water reactor plants. An alternative analysis based on today's median experience (ME) nuclear-plant construction cost experience is also included. In this case, coal is favored in all ten regions, implying that typical nuclear capital investment costs must improve for nuclear to be competitive.

Williams, K.A.; Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Bowers, H.I.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

NETL: A Low-Cost, High-Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for CO2 Capture From  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for CO2 Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for CO2 Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Project No.: DE-FE0007580 TDA Research, Inc is developing a low cost, high capacity CO2 adsorbent and demonstrating its technical and economic viability for post-combustion CO2 capture for existing pulverized coal-fired power plants. TDA is using an advanced physical adsorbent to selectively remove CO2 from flue gas. The sorbent exhibits a much higher affinity to adsorb CO2 than N2, H2O or O2, enabling effective CO2 separation from the flue gas. The sorbent binds CO2 more strongly than common adsorbents, providing the chemical potential needed to remove the CO2, however, because CO2 does not form a true covalent bond with the surface sites, regeneration can be carried out with only a small energy input. The heat input to regenerate the sorbent is only 4.9 kcal per mol of CO2, which is much lower than that for chemical absorbents or amine based solvents.

89

Study of structural change in Wyodak coal in high-pressure CO2 by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

scattering intensities on the exposure of the coal to high- pressure CO2 showed ... ture of coal caused by high-pressure CO2 also confirms that. CO2 at elevated ...

90

NUCLEAR-CONVENTIONAL POWER PLANT COST STUDY CONVENTIONAL COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS, 25,000 KW TO 325,000 KW, FOR ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY, LEMONT, ILLINOIS  

SciTech Connect

In order to establish a basis for comparing the estimated cost of nuclear power plant designs, a set of general and detailed design considerations for conventional coal-fired power plants was established. Five preliminary designs of conventional coal-fired power plants ranging in size from 25to 325 mw were selected, and cost estimates were prepared. ( A.C.)

Chittenden, W.A.

1959-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

1995-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

92

Commissioning: A Highly Cost-Effective Building Energy Management Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Commissioning: A Highly Cost-Effective Building Energypractice of building commissioning is a particularly potentefficiency. Although commissioning has earned increased

Mills, Evan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification. First quarterly report, October 1, 1989--December 31, 1989  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The lower cost and high catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char reactivities. The work is focused on the elucidation of coal-catalyst precursor interactions in solution and the variables which control the adsorption and dispersion of coal gasification metal catalysts. In order to optimize coal-metal ion interactions and hence maximize catalyst activity, the study examines the surface electrochemistry of a lignite, a subbituminous, and a bituminous coals and their demineralized and oxidized derivatives prior to loading with the catalytic materials. The surface electrical properties of the coals are investigated with the aid of electrophoresis, while the effects of the surface charge on the adsorption of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} are studied by agitating the coals with aqueous solutions of potassium and calcium. A zeta meter, a tube furnace, and other equipment required for the investigation have been acquired and installed. Preliminary work shows that the lignite (Psoc 1482) is negatively charged between pH 1.8 and pH 11.0 and has an isoelectric point of pH 1.8.

Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

94

Demonstration of Pulse-Jet Fabric Filters for Utility High-Sulfur Coal Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pulse-jet fabric filters (PJFF) may be an effective, low-cost alternative to particulate control as they are typically 50% smaller than conventional utility baghouses filtering the same volume of flue gas. EPRI has initiated a program to demonstrate PJFF technology for domestic use. This report describes one of several research efforts to define the operating parameters of PJFFs with high-sulfur coal at EPRI's High-Sulfur Fabric Filter Pilot Plant at Gulf Power Company's Plant Scholz near Tallahassee, Fl...

1994-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

95

Coal markets squeeze producers  

SciTech Connect

Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

Ryan, M.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

PENETRATION OF COAL SLAGS INTO HIGH-CHROMIA REFRACTORIES  

SciTech Connect

Slagging coal gasifiers are used for the production of electricity and synthetic gases, as well as chemicals. High temperatures in the reaction chamber, typically between 1250ºC and 1600ºC, high pressure, generally greater than 400 psi, and corrosive slag place severe demands on the refractory materials. Slag produced during the combustion of coal flows over the refractory surface and penetrates the porous material. Slag penetration is typically followed by spalling of a brick that significantly decreases the service life of gasifier refractories. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the penetration depth of slags into high-chromia refractories as a function of time and temperature for various refractory-slag combinations.

Longanbach, Sara C.; Matyas, Josef; Sundaram, S. K.

2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

97

GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process Step Description Associated task 1 Define estimate's purpose Determine estimate's purpose, required level of detail, and overall scope; Determine who will receive the estimate 2 Develop estimating plan Determine the cost estimating team and develop its master schedule; Determine who will do the independent cost estimate; Outline the cost estimating approach; Develop the estimate timeline 3 Define program characteristics In a technical baseline description document, identify the program's

98

PROGRAM OPPORTUNITY NOTICE Solicitation to Address High Purchase Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PROGRAM OPPORTUNITY NOTICE Solicitation to Address High Purchase Costs and Disposal Impacts of PEV Battery Packs PON-12-501 http://www.energy.ca.gov/contracts/index.html State of California California.......................................................................................... 19 COST OF DEVELOPING APPLICATION

99

A HIGH PERFORMANCE/LOW COST ACCELERATOR CONTROL SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LOW COST ACCELERATOR CONTROL SYSTEM S. Hagyary, J. Glat£» H.LOW COST ACCELERATOR CONTROL SYSTEM S. Magyary, J. Glatz, H.a high performance computer control system tailored to the

Magyary, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Effects of coal type on coal plasticity are investigated. Seven coals, from the Argonne premium sample bank ranging from lignite to low volatile bituminous, are studied. Different indices and structural data of a coal are shown to affect its plastic behavior. A coal-specific parameter incorporating the effects of labile bridges, oxygen, and hydrogen on plasticity has been used to successfully correlate measured values of maximum plasticity (i.e. minimum apparent viscosity) at elevated temperature with coal type.

Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high coal cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Integrated High Temperature Coal-to-Hydrogen System with CO2 Separation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A significant barrier to the commercialization of coal-to-hydrogen technologies is high capital cost. The purity requirements for H{sub 2} fuels are generally met by using a series of unit clean-up operations for residual CO removal, sulfur removal, CO{sub 2} removal and final gas polishing to achieve pure H{sub 2}. A substantial reduction in cost can be attained by reducing the number of process operations for H{sub 2} cleanup, and process efficiency can be increased by conducting syngas cleanup at higher temperatures. The objective of this program was to develop the scientific basis for a single high-temperature syngas-cleanup module to produce a pure stream of H{sub 2} from a coal-based system. The approach was to evaluate the feasibility of a 'one box' process that combines a shift reactor with a high-temperature CO{sub 2}-selective membrane to convert CO to CO{sub 2}, remove sulfur compounds, and remove CO{sub 2} in a simple, compact, fully integrated system. A system-level design was produced for a shift reactor that incorporates a high-temperature membrane. The membrane performance targets were determined. System level benefits were evaluated for a coal-to-hydrogen system that would incorporate membranes with properties that would meet the performance targets. The scientific basis for high temperature CO{sub 2}-selective membranes was evaluated by developing and validating a model for high temperature surface flow membranes. Synthesis approaches were pursued for producing membranes that integrated control of pore size with materials adsorption properties. Room temperature reverse-selectivity for CO{sub 2} was observed and performance at higher temperatures was evaluated. Implications for future membrane development are discussed.

James A. Ruud; Anthony Ku; Vidya Ramaswamy; Wei Wei; Patrick Willson

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

102

Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Summary report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

Mark Leavitt

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development. Annual technical progress report, October 1990--September 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this program are to study combustion feasibility by running Series 149 engine tests at high speeds with a fuel injection and combustion system designed for coal-water-slurry (CWS). The following criteria will be used to judge feasibility: (1) engine operation for sustained periods over the load range at speeds from 600 to 1900 rpm. The 149 engine for mine-haul trucks has a rated speed of 1900 rpm; (2) reasonable fuel economy and coal burnout rate; (3) reasonable cost of the engine design concept and CWS fuel compared to future oil prices.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Losses and Costs Associated with Coal vs. Natural Gas Firing at Hanes Dye and Finishing.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Due to decreasing production and rising coal prices, the engineering and management staff at Hanes Dye and Finishing in Winston Salem, NC have been investigating… (more)

Gibides, Justin Tyler

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Low Cost and Highly Selective Composite...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low Cost and Highly Selective Composite Membrane for Redox Flow Batteries Fei Wang, Dharmasena Peramunage, James M. Sylvia, and Monsy M. Jocob EIC Laboratories, Inc. 111 Downey...

108

High Volume Method of Making Low Cost, Lightweight Solar Materials  

ORNL 2010-G00644/jcn UT-B ID 201002380 High Volume Method of Making Low Cost, Lightweight Solar Materials Technology Summary A critical challenge for ...

109

Lower power prices and high repair costs drive nuclear retirements ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

However, concerns over the length of the review process and the high costs associated with steam generator repairs led SCE to retire both reactors.

110

High Temperature Stainless Steel Alloy with Low Cost Manganese  

High Temperature Stainless Steel Alloy with Low Cost Manganese ... ••Power industry components such as boiler tubing and piping, pressure vessels, chemical

111

High Volume Method of Making Low Cost, Lightweight Solar Materials ...  

A critical challenge for solar energy is the high cost (>$1/W) of quality solar materials. Researchers at ORNL have invented an approach for producing large volumes ...

112

Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x} SO {sub x} and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R&D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO{sub x} production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

Not Available

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development. Final report, September 28, 1990--November 30, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this program was to study the feasibility of operating a Detroit Diesel Series 149 engine at high speeds using a Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) fuel. The CWS-fueled 149 engine is proposed for the mine-haul off-highway truck and work boat marine markets. Economic analysis studies indicate that, for these markets, the use of CWS fuel could have sufficient operating cost savings, depending upon the future diesel fuel price, emission control system capital and operating costs, and maintenance and overhaul costs. A major portion of the maintenance costs is expected to be due to lower life and higher cost of the CWS injectors. Injection and combustion systems were specially designed for CWS, and were installed in one cylinder of a Detroit Diesel 8V-149TI engine for testing. The objective was to achieve engine operation for sustained periods at speeds up to 1,900 rpm with reasonable fuel economy and coal burnout rate. A computer simulation predicted autoignition of coal fuel at 1,900 rpm would require an average droplet size of 18 microns and 19:1 compression ratio, so the injection system, and pistons were designed accordingly. The injection system was capable of supplying the required volume of CWS/injection with a duration of approximately 25 crank angle degrees and peak pressures on the order of 100 mpa. In addition to the high compression ratio, the combustion system also utilized hot residual gases in the cylinder, warm inlet air admission and ceramic insulated engine components to enhance combustion. Autoignition of CWS fuel was achieved at 1900 rpm, at loads ranging from 20--80 percent of the rated load of diesel-fuel powered cylinders. Limited emissions data indicates coal burnout rates in excess of 99 percent. NO{sub x} levels were significantly lower, while unburned hydrocarbon levels were higher for the CWS fueled cylinder than for corresponding diesel-fuel powered cylinders.

Kakwani, R.M.; Winsor, R.E.; Ryan, T.W. III; Schwalb, J.A.; Wahiduzzaman, S.; Wilson, R.P. Jr.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

US Department of Energy`s high-temperature and high-pressure particulate cleanup for advanced coal-based power systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The availability of reliable, low-cost electricity is a cornerstone for the United States` ability to compete in the world market. The Department of Energy (DOE) projects the total consumption of electricity in the US to rise from 2.7 trillion kilowatt-hours in 1990 to 3.5 trillion in 2010. Although energy sources are diversifying, fossil fuel still produces 90 percent of the nation`s energy. Coal is our most abundant fossil fuel resource and the source of 56 percent of our electricity. It has been the fuel of choice because of its availability and low cost. A new generation of high-efficiency power systems has made it possible to continue the use of coal while still protecting the environment. Such power systems greatly reduce the pollutants associated with cola-fired plants built before the 1970s. To realize this high efficiency and superior environmental performance, advanced coal-based power systems will require gas stream cleanup under high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP) process conditions. Presented in this paper are the HTHP particulate capture requirements for the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) power systems, the HTHP particulate cleanup systems being implemented in the PFBC and IGCC Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Projects, and the currently available particulate capture performance results.

Dennis, R.A.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Gasifier feed - Tailor-made from Illinois coals  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is higher not only because of the higher Btu value of the coal but also because Illinois coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for Illinois coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals.

Ehrlinger, H.P. III (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)); Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States) DESTEC Energy (United States) Williams Technology, (United States) Illinois Coal Association (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

The competition between coal and natural gas : the importance of sunk costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper explores the seeming paradox between the predominant choice of natural gas for capacity additions to generate electricity in the United States and the continuing large share of coal in meeting incremental ...

Ellerman, A. Denny

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3, industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report number 12, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to retrofit the previously developed High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. During this reporting period, data reduction/evaluation and interpretation from the long term four hundred hours Proof-of-Concept System Test under Task 3 were completed. Cumulatively, a total of approximately 563 hours of coal testing was performed with 160 hrs on 100% coal and over 400 hours with co-firing coal and gas. The primary objectives of this testing were to: (1) obtain steady state operation consistently on 100% coal; (2) increase carbon conversion efficiency from 95% to the project goal of 98%; and (3) maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lbs/MBtu. The following specific conclusions are based on results of coal-fired testing at Penn State and the initial economic evaluation of the HEACC system: a coal handling/preparation system can be designed to meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal combustion to a gas/oil-designed boiler; the boiler thermal performance requirements were met; the NOx emission target of was met; combustion efficiencies of 95% could be met on a daily average basis, somewhat below the target of 98%; the economic playback is very sensitive to fuel differential cost, unit size, and annual operating hours; continuous long term demonstration is needed to quantify ash effects and how to best handle ashes. The following modifications are recommended prior to the 1,000 hour demonstration phase testing: (1) coal feeding improvements--improved raw coal/storage and transport, installation of gravimetric feeder, and redesign/installation of surge bin bottom; (2) burner modification--minor modification to the tip of the existing HEACC burner to prevent change of flame shapes for no apparent reason.

Patel, R.L.; Borio, R. [ABB/Combustion Engineering, Windsor, CT (United States). Power Plant Labs.; Scaroni, A.W.; Miller, B.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); McGowan, J.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

1994-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

118

Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Draft quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report covers work carried out under Task 3, Preliminary R and D, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal-Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of >47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulates {le} 25% NSPS; cost {ge}65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign. A crucial aspect of the authors design is the integration of the gas turbine requirements with the HITAF output and steam cycle requirements. In order to take full advantage of modern highly efficient aeroderivative gas turbines they have carried out a large number of cycle calculations to optimize their commercial plant designs for both greenfield and repowering applications.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report covers work carried out under Task 3, Preliminary Research and Development, and Task 4, Commercial Generating Plant Design, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, {open_quotes}Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System{close_quotes} between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of >47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates {le} 25% NSPS; cost {ge} 65% of heat input; and all solid wastes benign. The report discusses progress in cycle analysis, chemical reactor modeling, ash deposition rate calculations for HITAF (high temperature advanced furnace) convective air heater, air heater materials, and deposit initiation and growth on ceramic substrates.

Not Available

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

120

A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

Alptekin, Gokhan

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high coal cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Efficiency and Environmental Impacts of Electricity Restructuring on Coal-fired Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and states in the Northeast was high electricity prices, reflecting high historical average costs from efficiency, cost of coal purchases, and utilization among coal-fired power plants using a panel data set from recent years allows us to examine longer term impacts of restructuring; (2) the focus on coal-fired power

122

Battery-level material cost model facilitates high-power li-ion battery cost reductions.  

SciTech Connect

Under the FreedomCAR Partnership, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is working to identify and develop advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte components that can significantly reduce the cost of the cell chemistry, while simultaneously enhancing the calendar life and inherent safety of high-power Li-Ion batteries. Material cost savings are quantified and tracked via the use of a cell and battery design model that establishes the quantity of each material needed in batteries designed to meet the requirements of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In order to quantify the material costs, relative to the FreedomCAR battery cost goals, ANL uses (1) laboratory cell performance data, (2) its battery design model and (3) battery manufacturing process yields to create battery-level material cost models. Using these models and industry-supplied material cost information, ANL assigns battery-level material costs for different cell chemistries. These costs can then be compared to the battery cost goals to determine the probability of meeting the goals with these cell chemistries. The most recent freedomCAR cost goals for 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries are $500 and $800, respectively, which is $20/kW in both cases. In 2001, ANL developed a high-power cell chemistry that was incorporated into high-power 18650 cells for use in extensive accelerated aging and thermal abuse characterization studies. This cell chemistry serves as a baseline for this material cost study. It incorporates a LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode, a synthetic graphite anode, and a LiPF6 in EC:EMC electrolyte. Based on volume production cost estimates for these materials-as well as those for binders/solvents, cathode conductive additives, separator, and current collectors--the total cell winding material cost for a 25-kW power-assist HEV battery is estimated to be $399 (based on a 48- cell battery design, each cell having a capacity of 15.4 Ah). This corresponds to {approx}$16/kW. Our goal is to reduce the cell winding material cost to <$10/kW, in order to allow >$10/kW for the cell and battery manufacturing costs, as well as profit for the industrial manufacturer. The material cost information is obtained directly from the industrial material suppliers, based on supplying the material quantities necessary to support an introductory market of 100,000 HEV batteries/year. Using its battery design model, ANL provides the material suppliers with estimates of the material quantities needed to meet this market, for both 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries. Also, ANL has funded a few volume-production material cost analyses, with industrial material suppliers, to obtain needed cost information. In a related project, ANL evaluates and develops low-cost advanced materials for use in high-power Li-Ion HEV batteries. [This work is the subject of one or more separate papers at this conference.] Cell chemistries are developed from the most promising low-cost materials. The performance characteristics of test cells that employ these cell chemistries are used as input to the cost model. Batteries, employing these cell chemistries, are designed to meet the FreedomCAR power, energy, weight, and volume requirements. The cost model then provides a battery-level material cost and material cost breakdown for each battery design. Two of these advanced cell chemistries show promise for significantly reducing the battery-level material costs (see Table 1), as well as enhancing calendar life and inherent safety. It is projected that these two advanced cell chemistries (A and B) could reduce the battery-level material costs by an estimated 24% and 43%, respectively. An additional cost advantage is realized with advanced chemistry B, due to the high rate capability of the 3-dimensional LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel cathode. This means that a greater percentage of the total Ah capacity of the cell is usable and cells with reduced Ah capacity can be used. This allows for a reduction in the quantity of the anode, electrolyte, separator, and current collector materials needed f

Henriksen, G.; Chemical Engineering

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development: Task 2, Market assessment and economic analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Based on the preliminary coal engine design developed, this task was conducted to identify the best opportunity(s) to enter the market with the future coal-fueled, high-speed diesel engine. The results of this market and economic feasibility assessment will be used to determine what specific heavy duty engine application(s) are most attractive for coal fuel, and also define basic economic targets for the engine to be competitive.

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Liu, Yin-An (Opelika, AL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost and Performance Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia July 5, 2011 DOE/NETL- 2010/1402 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or

126

Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO{sub 2} Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

TDA Research, Inc. has developed a novel sorbent based post-combustion CO{sub 2} removal technology. This low cost sorbent can be regenerated with low-pressure (ca. 1 atm) superheated steam without temperature swing or pressure-swing. The isothermal and isobaric operation is a unique and advantageous feature of this process. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic merit of this sorbent based CO{sub 2} capture approach. Through laboratory, bench-scale and field testing we demonstrated that this technology can effectively and efficiently capture CO{sub 2} produced at an existing pulverized coal power plants. TDA Research, Inc is developing both the solid sorbent and the process designed around that material. This project addresses the DOE Program Goal to develop a capture technology that can be added to an existing or new coal fired power plant, and can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced with the lowest possible increase in the cost of energy. .

Elliott, Jeannine

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

127

Property:EstimatedCostHighUSD | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EstimatedCostHighUSD EstimatedCostHighUSD Jump to: navigation, search Property Name EstimatedCostHighUSD Property Type Quantity Description the high estimate of cost in USD Use this type to express a monetary value in US Dollars. The default unit is one US Dollar. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 100 cent USD,cents USD,Cent USD,Cents USD .001 k USD,thousand USD,Thousand USD .000001 M USD,million USD,Million USD .000000001 T USD,trillion USD,Trillion USD Pages using the property "EstimatedCostHighUSD" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 2 2-M Probe Survey + 50050,000 centUSD 0.5 kUSD 5.0e-4 MUSD 5.0e-7 TUSD + A Acoustic Logs + 161,600 centUSD 0.016 kUSD 1.6e-5 MUSD 1.6e-8 TUSD + Aerial Photography + 2,360236,000 centUSD

128

Long-Term Leaching Tests With High Ash Fusion Maryland Coal Slag  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extraction-procedure toxicity tests showed that the solid residue materials resulting from the Texaco coal gasification process using fluxed high ash fusion Maryland coal were nonhazardous. Contaminant concentration in the leachate was below or only slightly above the primary maximum contaminant limits (PMCL) established for public drinking water supplies.

1991-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

129

In situ formation of coal gasification catalysts from low cost alkali metal salts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbonaceous material, such as crushed coal, is admixed or impregnated with an inexpensive alkali metal compound, such as sodium chloride, and then pretreated with a stream containing steam at a temperature of 350.degree. to 650.degree. C. to enhance the catalytic activity of the mixture in a subsequent gasification of the mixture. The treatment may result in the transformation of the alkali metal compound into another, more catalytically active, form.

Wood, Bernard J. (Santa Clara, CA); Brittain, Robert D. (Cupertino, CA); Sancier, Kenneth M. (Menlo Park, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH-PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. In order to prepare the CETF for the HIPPS char combustion test program, the following three subsystems were designed during this quarter: (1) Flue Gas Recycle System; (2) Pulverized Coal Feed System; and (3) Limestone Feed System The flue gas recycle system is added to simulate the performance of a commercial char burner fired with gas turbine exhaust. Since synthetically made char will be used for the tests at the CETF, the limestone injection system was added to produce a char more representative of that from an actual pyrolyzer. The pulverized coal system is included to provide a supplemental support fuel if a stable flame can not be maintained with char firing only.

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Low-Cost High-Pressure Hydrogen Generator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrolysis of water, particularly in conjunction with renewable energy sources, is potentially a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of producing hydrogen at dispersed forecourt sites, such as automotive fueling stations. The primary feedstock for an electrolyzer is electricity, which could be produced by renewable sources such as wind or solar that do not produce carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions. However, state-of-the-art electrolyzer systems are not economically competitive for forecourt hydrogen production due to their high capital and operating costs, particularly the cost of the electricity used by the electrolyzer stack. In this project, Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES) developed a low cost, high efficiency proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis system for hydrogen production at moderate pressure (300 to 400 psig). The electrolyzer stack operates at differential pressure, with hydrogen produced at moderate pressure while oxygen is evolved at near-atmospheric pressure, reducing the cost of the water feed and oxygen handling subsystems. The project included basic research on catalysts and membranes to improve the efficiency of the electrolysis reaction as well as development of advanced materials and component fabrication methods to reduce the capital cost of the electrolyzer stack and system. The project culminated in delivery of a prototype electrolyzer module to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for testing at the National Wind Technology Center. Electrolysis cell efficiency of 72% (based on the lower heating value of hydrogen) was demonstrated using an advanced high-strength membrane developed in this project. This membrane would enable the electrolyzer system to exceed the DOE 2012 efficiency target of 69%. GES significantly reduced the capital cost of a PEM electrolyzer stack through development of low cost components and fabrication methods, including a 60% reduction in stack parts count. Economic analysis indicates that hydrogen could be produced for $3.79 per gge at an electricity cost of $0.05/kWh by the lower-cost PEM electrolyzer developed in this project, assuming high-volume production of large-scale electrolyzer systems.

Cropley, Cecelia C.; Norman, Timothy J.

2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

132

Pyrolysis behavior of coal and petroleum coke at high temperature and high pressure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??While pyrolysis of coal is a well-studied thermal process, little is known about pressurized pyrolysis of coal and petroleum coke. This study aims to interpret… (more)

Wagner, David Ray

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Updated Cost and Performance Estimates for Clean Coal Technologies Including CO2 Capture - 2004  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Writing a report on the economics of new coal-fired plants is a particularly difficult assignment in the first quarter of 2005. The U.S. dollar has been sinking versus other currencies. The price of basic commodities such as steel and cement have almost doubled over the past year (steel peaked at 780$/ton in November 2004), driven particularly by a huge demand for the rapidly expanding China market (probably soon to be exacerbated by accelerated demand in India and other Asian countries). Since much of t...

2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

134

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Coal Distribution Constraints  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Distribution Constraints Project Summary Full Title: Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost Project ID: 199 Principal Investigator: David McCollum...

135

paper “CO2 Regulations and Electricity Prices: Cost Estimates for Coal-Fired Power Plants. ” We thank  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For fossil fuel power plants to be built in the future, carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies offer the potential for significant reductions in CO2 emissions. We examine the break-even value for CCS adoptions, that is, the critical value in the charge for CO2 emissions that would justify investment in CCS capabilities. Our analysis takes explicitly into account that the supply of electricity at the wholesale level (generation) is organized competitively in some U.S. jurisdictions, while in others a regulated utility provides integrated generation and distribution services. For either market structure, we find that emissions charges in the range of $25-$30 per tonne of CO2 would be the break-even value for adopting CCS capabilities at new coal-fired power plants. The corresponding break-even values for natural gas plants are substantially higher, near $60 per tonne. Our break-even estimates serve as a basis for projecting the change in electricity prices once carbon emissions become costly. CCS capabilities effectively put an upper bound on the rise in electricity prices. We estimate this bound to be near 30 % at the retail level for both coal and natural gas plants. In contrast to the competitive power supply scenario, however, these price increases materialize only gradually for a regulated utility. The delay in price adjustments reflects that for regulated

Stefan Reichelstein; Erica Plambeck

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

137

Large Field Erected and Packaged High Temperature Water (HTW) Generators for Coal Firing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of the paper is to disseminate information on the energy savings possible with High Temperature Water (HTW) for heating and industrial process application and to provide information on coal fired HTW generator design and availability.

Boushell, C. C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Underground coal gasification field experiment in the high-dipping coal seams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article the experimental conditions and process of the underground gasification in the Woniushan Mine, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province are introduced, and the experimental results are analyzed. By adopting the new method of long-channel, big-section, and two-stage underground coal gasification, the daily gas production reaches about 36,000 m{sup 3}, with the maximum output of 103,700 m{sup 3}. The daily average heating value of air gas is 5.04 MJ/m{sup 3}, with 13.57 MJ/m{sup 3} for water gas. In combustible compositions of water gas, H{sub 2} contents stand at over 50%, with both CO and CH{sub 4} contents over 6%. Experimental results show that the counter gasification can form new temperature conditions and increase the gasification efficiency of coal seams.

Yang, L.H.; Liu, S.Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, W. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources & Geoscience

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Development of Disposable Sorbents for Chloride Removal from High-Temperature Coal-Derived Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The integrated coal-gasification combined-cycle approach is an efficient process for producing electric power from coal by gasification, followed by high-temperature removal of gaseous impurities, then electricity generation by gas turbines. Alternatively, molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) may be used instead of gas turbine generators. The coal gas must be treated to remove impurities such as hydrogen chloride (HCl), a reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas, which is produced during gasification from chloride species in the coal. HCl vapor must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipments such as fuel cells or gas turbines, and to minimize deterioration of hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents. The objectives of this study are to: (1) investigate methods to fabricate reactive sorbent pellets or granules that are capable of reducing HCl vapor in high-temperature coal gas streams to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range 400{degrees}C to 650{degrees}C and the pressure range 1 to 20 atm; (2) testing their suitability in bench-scale fixed- or fluidized-bed reactors; (3) testing a superior sorbent in a circulating fluidized- bed reactor using a gas stream from an operating coal gasifier; and (4) updating the economics of high temperature HCl removal.

Krishnan, G.N.; Canizales, A. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gupta, R. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ayala, R. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States). Corporate Research and Development Center

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. The detail of syngas cooler design is given in this report. The final construction work of the CFB pyrolyzer pilot plant has started during this quarter. No experimental testing was performed during this quarter. The proposed test matrix for the future CFB pyrolyzer tests is given in this report. Besides testing various fuels, bed temperature will be the primary test parameter.

York Tsuo

2000-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high coal cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Coal gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A standard series of two staged gas generators (GG) has been developed in the United States for producing gas with a combustion heat from 4,700 to 7,600 kilojoules per cubic meter from coal (U). The diameter of the gas generators is from 1.4 to 3.65 meters and the thermal capacity based on purified cold gas is from 12.5 to 89 million kilojoules per hour. Certain standard sized gas generators have undergone experimental industrial tests which showed that it is most expedient to feed the coal into the gas generators pneumatically. This reduces the dimensions of the charging device, makes it possible to use more common grades of structural steels and reduces the cost of the gas. A double valve reliably prevents ejections of the gasification product and promotes the best distribution of the coal in the gas generator. The gas generators may successfully operate on high moisture (up to 36 percent) brown coal. Blasting with oxygen enriched to 38 percent made it possible to produce a gas with a combustion heat of 9,350 kilojoules per cubic meter. This supports a combustion temperature of 1,700C.

Rainey, D.L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain  

SciTech Connect

Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of energy by 10.2%. This design was achieved by: (1) performing an extensive optimization study that deter-mined the preliminary cost for all practical chain drive topologies to ensure the most competitive configuration; (2) conducting detailed analysis of chain dynamics, contact stresses, and wear and efficiency characteristics over the chain�������¢����������������s life to ensure accurate physics-based predictions of chain performance; and (3) developing a final product design, including reliability analysis, chain replacement procedures, and bearing and sprocket analysis. Definition of this final product configuration was used to develop refined cost of energy estimates. Finally, key system risks for the chain drive were defined and a comprehensive risk reduction plan was created for execution in Phase 2.

Anthony Chobot; Debarshi Das; Tyler Mayer; Zach Markey; Tim Martinson; Hayden Reeve; Paul Attridge; Tahany El-Wardany

2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

143

High-yield hydrogen production by catalytic gasification of coal or biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gasification of coal or wood, catalyzed by soluble metallic cations to maximize reaction rates and hydrogen yields, offers a potential for large-scale, economical hydrogen production with near-commercial technology. With optimum reaction conditions and catalysts, product gas rich in both hydrogen and methane can be used in fuel cells to produce electricity at efficiencies nearly double those of conventional power plant. If plantation silvaculture techniques can produce wood at a raw energy cost competitive with coal, further enhancement of product gas yields may be possible, with zero net contribution of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere.

Hauserman, W.B.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coal- electric power plant Coal blending Nitrogen controlblending chemical methods resource requirements cost STEAM-ELECTRIC COAL- FIRED POWER PLANT

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

High Performance Metallic Materials for Cost Sensitive Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cost Effective Synthesis, Processing and Applications of Light-Weight. Metallic Materials . ... Prospects for Cost Reduction of Titanium Via Electrolysis .

146

Low cost high performance generator technology program. Addendum report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of a system weight, efficiency, and size analysis which was performed on the 500 W(e) low cost high performance generator (LCHPG) are presented. The analysis was performed in an attempt to improve system efficiency and specific power over those presented in June 1975, System Design Study Report TES-SNSO-3-25. Heat source volume, configuration, and safety as related to the 500 W(e) LCHPG are also discussed. (RCK)

Not Available

1975-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

NETL: News Release - Florida Demo Tames High Sulfur Coal: Delivers Power at  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

March 11, 2005 March 11, 2005 Florida Demo Tames High Sulfur Coal: Delivers Power at Very Low Emissions Shows that New Technology Cuts Pollutants to Fractions of Federal Clean Air Limits JACKSONVILLE, FL - Recent tests with one of the nation's mid- to high-sulfur coals have further verified that a new electric generation technology in its first large-scale utility demonstration here is one of the world's cleanest coal-based power plants. This city's municipal utility JEA logged the achievement at its Northside Generating Station using Illinois No. 6 coal in a 300 megawatt demonstration of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, which is the largest application yet of the new form in the United States. It almost triples the size of a previous demonstration and scales up the technology to the sizes preferred for adding new plants and replacing old ones, also called repowering.

148

The high moisture western coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility. Topical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The original eastern coal processing system at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, was modified to pulverize and dry Montana Rosebud, a western coal. Significant modifications to the CFFF coal processing system were required and the equipment selection criteria are reviewed. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

Sanders, M.E.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Mechanistic study of chlorine removal from coal by high-temperature leaching  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research were to: (1) continue the experimental investigation of removal of chlorine from coal using high-temperature leaching techniques, (2) understand the mechanisms involved in the leaching of chlorine from coal, and (3) develop a mathematical model which can be used to correlate the data and to describe the performance of the process. Efforts involved developing procedures for estimation of effective pore volumes of coal samples and measurement of surface areas of coal samples by use of carbon dioxide rather than nitrogen. Different mesh sizes of Illinois No. 6 seam and Illinois No. 5 seam coals were evaluated. Based on the pore volume and CO{sub 2} surface areas obtained, average pore diameters were calculated for the samples examined. This information was compared to the chlorine removal of the coal samples that occurred during hot water leaching. A second aspect of this research involved study of chloride evolution rates from coal and model chlorine compounds heated in a tube furnace under continuous nitrogen flow. Kinetic parameters were determined. 3 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Chen, Han Lin (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Technology); Muchmore, C.B. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes)

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Credit Extra Fuel Oil Coal to gasifier Na cost· Na processoiL Replace res. with coal as gasifier feed. 543 ton/day @$

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Cost forecasts: Euyropean International High-Energy Physics facilities - Million Swiss Francs at 1966 prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost forecasts: Euyropean International High-Energy Physics facilities - Million Swiss Francs at 1966 prices

ECFA meeting

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Accelerating the deployment of cleaner coal plants  

SciTech Connect

The dearth of commercial operating experience for advanced coal-fired facilities is forcing their early adopters and builders to use long development cycles and pay high costs for unique engineering design studies. A broad-based industry collaborative effort fostered by EPRI to address this issue (CoalFleet for Tomorrow) is beginning to show results. 3 figs.

Parkes, J.; Holt, N.; Phillips, J.

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: A Technology of Low Coal Rate and High Productivity of RHF Ironmaking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An economical and environment-friendly ironmaking process based on heating the chemiexecy self-sufficient green balls of iron ore and coal in a hearth furnace is being developed with financial support from AISI members and DOE. DRI, which is hot (1400 C), dense (3.2 g/cm) and of high degree of metallization (95%), has been produced in laboratory and in a pilot plant in Genoa, Italy. Products of such quality have been made from American and Brazilian ores, BOF sludge, EAF dust/BOF sludge mixtures and millscale. The removal of zinc and lead from green balls by this process is essentially complete. In comparison with typical blast furnace operation, the new technology with a melter would have a lower total coal rate by 200kg.THM. The elimination of cokemaking and high temperature agglomeration steps, and a simpler gas handling system would lead to lower capital and operating costs. In comparison with commercial RHF practice it is different in atmosphere (fully oxidized at 1600 to 1650 C), in bed height (120 mm instead of 20-25 mm) and in pellet composition (much less coal but of higher VM). The combined effect leads to three times higher furnace productivity, lower coal consumption and superior DRI quality. The risk of re-oxidation (slag formation) and dusty operation are practiexecy eliminated. The process is stable, tolerant and independent of the size, shape and movement of the hearth. However, materials handling (e.g., discharge of hot DRI) and the exact energy savings have to be established in a larger furnace, straight or rotary, and in a continuous mode of operation.

Wei-Kao Lu

2002-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Techno-Economic Feasibility of Highly Efficient Cost-Effective Thermoelectric-SOFC Hybrid Power Generation Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems have the potential to generate exhaust gas streams of high temperature, ranging from 400 to 800 C. These high temperature gas streams can be used for additional power generation with bottoming cycle technologies to achieve higher system power efficiency. One of the potential candidate bottoming cycles is power generation by means of thermoelectric (TE) devices, which have the inherent advantages of low noise, low maintenance and long life. This study was to analyze the feasibility of combining coal gas based SOFC and TE through system performance and cost techno-economic modeling in the context of multi-MW power plants, with 200 kW SOFC-TE module as building blocks. System and component concepts were generated for combining SOFC and TE covering electro-thermo-chemical system integration, power conditioning system (PCS) and component designs. SOFC cost and performance models previously developed at United Technologies Research Center were modified and used in overall system analysis. The TE model was validated and provided by BSST. The optimum system in terms of energy conversion efficiency was found to be a pressurized SOFC-TE, with system efficiency of 65.3% and cost of $390/kW of manufacturing cost. The pressurization ratio was approximately 4 and the assumed ZT of the TE was 2.5. System and component specifications were generated based on the modeling study. The major technology and cost barriers for maturing the system include pressurized SOFC stack using coal gas, the high temperature recycle blowers, and system control design. Finally, a 4-step development roadmap is proposed for future technology development, the first step being a 1 kW proof-of-concept demonstration unit.

Jifeng Zhang; Jean Yamanis

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

155

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Alternate Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal and CoalBiomass to Liquids Alternate Hydrogen Production In the Alternate Production technology pathway, clean syngas from coal is converted to high-hydrogen-content liquid...

156

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Upgraded Coal Interest Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

Evan Hughes

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

158

COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Petroleum Refinery Catalytic Reforming -- Cutting High Energy Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon reforming involves a variety of chemical reactions at high temperatures and pressures in the presence of suitable catalysts. The conversion of naptha to high octane aromatics requires high energy to initiate and sustain the reaction at temperatures of 850-950oF. Hydrogen - rich off - gases are fired in combinations of process furnaces. Heat is transferred to hydrocarbon fluids by radiation, principally. Feed or return stream temperatures determine the need for convection sections. It is essential that the operation and maintenance of these furnaces be optimized to minimize production costs. This paper describes the performance testing and evaluation of a set of ten refinery furnaces used to thermally drive several reforming reactors and to regenerate catalysts. Firing rates provide an input of 216.2 x 106 Btu/hr. to the furnaces, at $1.90 per 106 Btu. The units are fitted with multiple natural draft burners. There is insufficient turbulence and swirl in the burners. Operators manually set up the burners with excessive airflows for normal, full-load firing. These furnaces represent production limits. Products of combustion exhaust at high thermal levels - the range is from 985-1700oF. The mixed gases flow through a "waste heat" boiler, or they bypass the boiler and enter a single stack. Steam generation at 150 psig averages 38,200 lb/hr. Heat is wasted via the bypass at a rate of 41.1x106 Btu /hr. at 1240oF. When airflows are reduced (to 15% excess air) the loss will be 18.7x106 Btu/hr. at 1180oF. Installation of a second, parallel waste heat boiler will result in a saving of l3.4x106 Btu/hr. Energy savings at this furnace complex will be equivalent to $628,700 per year. Investment costs were estimated to be less than $250,000 for the proposed heat trap addition.

Viar, W. L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. Detailed design of the components to be used to for the circulating bed gasification tests is underway. The circulating fluidized bed will allow for easy scale-up to larger size plants. The existing pyrolyzer will be outfitted with a cyclone and a j-valve to capture and reinject char into the lower combustion zone. Additional development work has been performed to evaluate advanced cycles utilizing the HIPPS system concept.

York Tsuo

1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

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161

Novel Low-Cost Process for the Gasification of Biomass and Low-Rank Coals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Farm Energy envisaged a phased demonstration program, in which a pilot-scale straw gasifier will be installed on a farm. The synthesis gas product will be used to initially (i) generate electricity in a 300 kW diesel generator, and subsequently (ii) used as a feedstock to produce ethanol or mixed alcohols. They were seeking straw gasification and alcohol synthesis technologies that may be implemented on farm-scale. The consortium, along with the USDA ARS station in Corvallis, OR, expressed interest in the dual-bed gasification concept promoted by WRI and Taylor Energy, LLC. This process operated at atmospheric pressure and employed a solids-circulation type oxidation/reduction cycle significantly different from traditional fluidized-bed or up-draft type gasification reactors. The objectives of this project were to perform bench-scale testing to determine technical feasibility of gasifier concept, to characterize the syngas product, and to determine the optimal operating conditions and configuration. We used the bench-scale test data to complete a preliminary design and cost estimate for a 1-2 ton per hour pilot-scale unit that is also appropriate for on-farm scale applications. The gasifier configuration with the 0.375-inch stainless steel balls recirculating media worked consistently and for periods up to six hours of grass feed. The other principle systems like the boiler, the air pump, and feeder device also worked consistently during all feeding operations. Minor hiccups during operation tended to come from secondary systems like the flare or flammable material buildup in the exit piping. Although we did not complete the extended hour tests to 24 or 48 hours due to time and budget constraints, we developed the confidence that the gasifier in its current configuration could handle those tests. At the modest temperatures we operated the gasifier, slagging was not a problem. The solid wastes were dry and low density. The majority of the fixed carbon from the grass ended up in the solid waste collected in the external cyclone. The volatiles were almost all removed in the gasifier. While the average gas heating value of the collected gas products was 50 BTUs/scf or less, addition a of the second gas exit for combustion gases would increase that value by a factor of two or three. Other changes to the current design such as shortening the gasifier body and draft tube would lead to lower air use and shorter heating times. There was no evidence of steam reforming at the current operating temperature. Likewise there was no indication of significant tar production. Reconfiguration of the gasifier at the on farm site may yet yield more significant results that would better qualify this gasifier for small scale biomass operations.

Thomas Barton

2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

162

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. First technical progress report for the fourth quarter 1989  

SciTech Connect

The broad objective of this project is to obtain improved, quantitative understanding of the transient plasticity of bituminous coals under high heating rates and other reaction and pretreatment conditions of scientific and practical interest. To these ends the research plan is to measure the softening and resolidification behavior of two US bituminous coals with a rapid-heating, fast response, high-temperature coal plastometer, previously developed in this laboratory. Specific measurements planned for the project include determinations of apparent viscosity, softening temperature, plastic period, and resolidificationtime for molten coal: (1) as a function of independent variations in coal type, heating rate, final temperature, gaseous atmosphere (inert, 0{sub 2} or H{sub 2}), and shear rate; and (2) in exploratory runs where coal is pretreated (preoxidation, pyridine extraction, metaplast cracking agents), before heating. The intra-coal inventory and molecular weight distribution of pyridine extractables will also be measured using a rapid quenching, electrical screen heater coal pyrolysis reactor. The yield of extractables is representative of the intra-coal inventory of plasticing agent (metaplast) remaining after quenching. Coal plasticity kinetics will then be mathematically modeled from metaplast generation and depletion rates, via a correlation between the viscosity of a suspension and the concentration of deformable medium (here metaplast) in that suspension. Work during this reporting period has been concerned with re-commissioning the rapid heating rate plastometer apparatus.

Darivakis, G.S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

With the nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous systems of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of projected DOE/EPA early cost estimates. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that was tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology injects a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. PG&E National Energy Group provided two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company provided a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company hosted a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter. During the fifteenth reporting quarter, progress was made on the project in the following areas: (1) Test Sites--Final Reports for the two remaining plants are being written (Salem Harbor and Brayton Point). (2) Technology Transfer--Technical information about the project was presented to a number of organizations during the quarter including members of congress, coal companies, architect/engineering firms, National Mining Association, the North Carolina Department of Air Quality, the National Coal Council and EPA.

Jean Bustard; Richard Schlager

2004-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

164

SunShot Initiative: High-Concentration, Low-Cost Parabolic Trough...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Concentration, Low-Cost Parabolic Trough System for Baseload CSP to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: High-Concentration, Low-Cost Parabolic Trough System for...

165

The Development of low cost LiFePO4-based high power lithium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of low cost LiFePO4-based high power lithium-ion batteries Title The Development of low cost LiFePO4-based high power lithium-ion batteries Publication Type Journal...

166

Stability of the bituminous coal microstructure upon exposure to high pressures of helium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) measurements of the structure of two Australian bituminous coals (particle size of 1-0.5 mm) before, during, and after exposure to 155 bar of helium were made to identify any effects of pressure alone on the pore size distribution of coal and any irreversible effects upon exposure to high pressures of helium in the pore size range from 3 nm to 10 {mu}m. No irreversible effects upon exposure were identified for any pore size. No effects of pressure on pore size distribution were observed, except for a small effect at a pore size of about 2 {mu}m for one coal. This study provides a convenient baseline for SANS and USANS investigations on sorption of gases at elevated pressures on coals, by distinguishing between the effect of pressure alone on coal pore size distribution and against the effect of the gas to be investigated. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Richard Sakurovs; Andrzej P. Radliski; Yuri B. Melnichenko; Tomas Blach; Gang Cheng; Hartmut Lemmel; Helmut Rauch [CSIRO Energy Technology, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

Low temperature steam-coal gasification catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Shrinking domestic supplies and larger dependence on foreign sources have made an assortment of fossil fuels attractive as possible energy sources. The high sulfur and mineral coals of Illinois would be an ideal candidate as possible gasification feedstock. Large reserves of coal as fossil fuel source and a projected shortage of natural gas (methane) in the US, have made development of technology for commercial production of high Btu pipeline gases from coal of interest. Several coal gasification processes exist, but incentives remain for the development of processes that would significantly increase efficiency and lower cost. A major problem in coal/char gasification is the heat required which make the process energy intensive. Hence, there is a need for an efficient and thermally neutral gasification process. Results are described for the gasification of an Illinois No. 6 coal with transition metal catalysts and added potassium hydroxide.

Hippo, E.J.; Tandon, D. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

168

The Settlement on Coal Pillar Width of District Sublevel in High Gas Mine of Tongchuan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract: Based on the actual geology situation of district in Tongchuan some mine, the influence on the stability of surrounding rock of roadway?the stress distribution rule on coal pillar and the distribution rule of plastic area was studied ... Keywords: High gas, district, district sublevel, plastic area

Xiao-Xiang Chen; Pan-Feng Gou; Si-Jiang Wei

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Task 1, Proof of principle testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

Greenhalgh, M.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Novel High Capacity Oligomers for Low Cost CO2 Capture  

SciTech Connect

The novel concept of using a molecule possessing both physi-sorbing and chemi-sorbing properties for post-combustion CO2 capture was explored and mixtures of aminosilicones and hydroxyterminated polyethers had the best performance characteristics of materials examined. The optimal solvent composition was a 60/40 blend of GAP-1/TEG and a continuous bench-top absorption/desorption unit was constructed and operated. Plant and process models were developed for this new system based on an existing coal-fired power plant and data from the laboratory experiments were used to calculate an overall COE for a coal-fired power plant fitted with this capture technology. A reduction in energy penalty, from 30% to 18%, versus an optimized 30% MEA capture system was calculated with a concomitant COE decrease from 73% to 41% for the new aminosilicone solvent system.

Robert Perry; Teresa Grocela-Rocha; Michael O'Brien; Sarah Genovese; Benjamin Wood; Larry Lewis; Hubert Lam; Malgorzata Rubinsztajn; Grigorii Soleveichik; Sergei Kniajanski

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

171

Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase 2 and 3. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: >47% thermal efficiency (HHV); NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulates {ge} 10% NSPS; coal {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; and cost of electricity 90% of present plant. The HIPPS generating plant integrates a combustion gas turbine/HRSG combined cycle arrangement with an advanced coal-fired boiler. The unique feature of the HIPPS plant is the partial heating of gas turbine (GT) compressor outlet air using energy released by firing coal in the high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The compressed air is additionally heated prior to entering the GT expander section by burning natural gas. Energy available, in the gas turbine exhaust and in the HITAF flue gas are used in a steam cycle to maximize energy production. The HIPPS plant arrangement is thus a combination of existing technologies (gas turbine, heat recovery boilers, conventional steam cycle) and new technologies (the HITAF design especially the heater located in the radiant section). Work reported herein is from Task 1.3, HIPPS Commercial Design and Task 2.2, HITAF Air Heaters.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

172

High performance materials in coal conversion utilization. Technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This is the first quarterly report for this three year grant on {open_quotes}High Performance Materials in Coal Conversion Utilization.{close_quotes} The grant is a joint university/industry effort under the Department of Energy (DOE) University Coal Research program. The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) is the prime contractor and The University of Pennsylvania and Lanxide Corporation are subcontractors. It was initially planned to field test ceramic composite tubes furnished by Lanxide Corporation in conjunction with an on-going DOE magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) test series at UTSI. The MHD test program was curtailed due to funding limitations near the beginning of the grant so that the field test portion is now greatly reduced. Bench scale testing will replace most of the field testing. This development should have minimal effect on this research since there is now little interest in the affects of the potassium seeded MHD coal ash on heat exchanger surfaces. The objective is to test and analyze the heat and corrosion resistance of a SiC(p)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic composite tubular material. The material will be evaluated for its ability to withstand the pressures, temperatures and corrosion attack which will be encountered within a coal-fired high-temperature, high-pressure air heater. The evaluation will include strength testing at elevated temperatures.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

The Future Costs Less - High Temperature Materials from an ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

production of cheaper alloys with performance parity. Such cost reductions are important in a situation where raw materials account for approximately 30% of the  ...

174

Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

Improved coal liquefaction was reinvestigated for the current two-stage process on the basis of the associated molecular nature of coal. Since a significant portion of coal molecules are physically associated as pointed in our recent paper, physical dissolution should be considered. The step-wise, high-temperature soaking is a simple and effective method for coal dissolution. Larger dissolution makes liquefaction severity lower. Broad molecular mass distribution in the associated coal was another important factor. The selective reaction of fractions with high molecular weight isolated after the high-temperature soaking makes gas yield lower. Tests using an autoclave by the concept shown in Figure 5 enabled to more oil and 15-20% less gas yields. It is expected that the procedure will result in great cost reduction in coal liquefaction.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Reducing the moisture content of clean coals  

SciTech Connect

Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

Kehoe, D. (CQ, Inc., Homer City, PA (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Advanced design nuclear power plants: Competitive, economical electricity. An analysis of the cost of electricity from coal, gas and nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an updated analysis of the projected cost of electricity from new baseload power plants beginning operation around the year 2000. Included in the study are: (1) advanced-design, standardized nuclear power plants; (2) low emissions coal-fired power plants; (3) gasified coal-fired power plants; and (4) natural gas-fired power plants. This analysis shows that electricity from advanced-design, standardized nuclear power plants will be economically competitive with all other baseload electric generating system alternatives. This does not mean that any one source of electric power is always preferable to another. Rather, what this analysis indicates is that, as utilities and others begin planning for future baseload power plants, advanced-design nuclear plants should be considered an economically viable option to be included in their detailed studies of alternatives. Even with aggressive and successful conservation, efficiency and demand-side management programs, some new baseload electric supply will be needed during the 1990s and into the future. The baseload generating plants required in the 1990s are currently being designed and constructed. For those required shortly after 2000, the planning and alternatives assessment process must start now. It takes up to ten years to plan, design, license and construct a new coal-fired or nuclear fueled baseload electric generating plant and about six years for a natural gas-fired plant. This study indicates that for 600-megawatt blocks of capacity, advanced-design nuclear plants could supply electricity at an average of 4.5 cents per kilowatt-hour versus 4.8 cents per kilowatt-hour for an advanced pulverized-coal plant, 5.0 cents per kilowatt-hour for a gasified-coal combined cycle plant, and 4.3 cents per kilowatt-hour for a gas-fired combined cycle combustion turbine plant.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Comparison of high-speed rail and maglev system costs  

SciTech Connect

This paper compares the two modes of transportation, and notes important similarities and differences in the technologies and in how they can be implemented to their best advantage. Problems with making fair comparisons of the costs and benefits are discussed and cost breakdowns based on data reported in the literature are presented and discussed in detail. Cost data from proposed and actual construction projects around the world are summarized and discussed. Results from the National Maglev Initiative and the recently-published Commercial Feasibility Study are included in the discussion. Finally, estimates will be given of the expected cost differences between HSR and maglev systems implemented under simple and complex terrain conditions. The extent to which the added benefits of maglev technology offset the added costs is examined.

Rote, D.M.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

DEVELOPMENT OF DISPOSABLE SORBENTS FOR CHLORIDE REMOVAL FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE COAL-DERIVED GASES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems require the development of high temperature sorbents for the removal of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor to less than 1 parts-per-million (ppm) levels. HCl is a highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas which must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment, and to minimize deterioration of hot gas desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this program was to develop disposable, alkali-based sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range from 400 to 750 C and pressures in the range from 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program were to investigate different methods of sorbent fabrication, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining reaction kinetics data, and conducting a preliminary economic feasibility assessment. This program was a joint effort between SRI International (SRI), Research Triangle Institute (RTI), and General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). SRI, the prime contractor and RTI, a major subcontractor, performed most of the work in this program. Thermochemical calculations indicated that sodium-based sorbents were capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm at temperatures up to 650 C, but the regeneration of spent sorbents would require complex process steps. Nahcolite (NaHCO{sub 3}), a naturally-occurring mineral, could be used as an inexpensive sorbent to remove HCl vapor in hot coal gas streams. In the current program, nahcolite powder was used to fabricate pellets suitable for fixed-bed reactors and granules suitable for fluidized-bed reactors. Pilot-scale equipment were used to prepare sorbents in large batches: pellets by disk pelletization and extrusion techniques, and granules by granulation and spray-drying techniques. Bench-scale fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors were assembled at SRI and RTI to conduct tests at high-temperature, high-pressure conditions (HTHP). The HTHP tests confirmed the ability of nahcolite pellets and granules to reduce the HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm levels with a very high sorbent utilization for chloride capture. The effect of several operating variables such as temperature, pressure, presence of hydrogen sulfide, and sorbent preparation methods was studied on the efficacy of HCl removal by the sorbent. Pilot-scale tests were performed in the fluidized-bed mode at the gasifier facility at the GE-CRD. Sorbent exposure tests were also conducted using a hot coal gas stream from the DOE/FETC's fluidized-bed gasifier at Morgantown, WV. These tests confirmed the results obtained at SRI and RTI. A preliminary economic assessment showed that the cost of HCl removal in a commercial IGCC system will be about $0.001/kWh (1 mills/kWh).

Gopala Krishnan; Raghubir Gupta

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Proceedings, World Of Coal Ash, April 11-15, 2005, Lexington, KY, USA Pultrusion of Fabric Reinforced High Flyash  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings, World Of Coal Ash, April 11-15, 2005, Lexington, KY, USA Pultrusion of Fabric Reinforced High Flyash Blended Cement Composites Barzin Mobasher(1) , Alva Peled (2) , and Jitendra of elasticity. #12;Proceedings, World Of Coal Ash, April 11-15, 2005, Lexington, KY, USA In addition to ease

Mobasher, Barzin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high coal cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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181

Field Evaluation of the Comanagement of Utility Low-Volume Wastes With High-Volume Coal Combustion By-Products: LS Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electric power industry has historically comanaged low-volume wastes with high-volume by-products as a cost-effective means of disposal. This report documents an investigation into the effects of comanagement of low-volume wastes with high-volume coal combustion by-products at the LS site. This is one of 14 sites investigated by EPRI to provide background information to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the 2000 Regulatory Determination on comanagement under the Resource Conservation and ...

2007-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

182

Coal keeps the home fires burning, at a price  

SciTech Connect

The wild ride of 2007 thermal and coking coal and freight prices does not show any signs of abating as 2008 nears, leaving consumers coping with historic high costs, except in the US. 3 figs.

O'Connell, J.

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with China's economy in its current mode of growth. Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on its current growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Broadening awareness of the environmental costs of coal mining, transport, and combustion is raising the pressure on Chinese policy makers to find alternative energy sources. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China is short of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport. Transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transport oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 mt by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets. The looming coal gap threatens to derail China's growth path, possibly undermining political, economic, and social stability. High coal prices and domestic shortages will have regional and global effects. Regarding China's role as a global manufacturing center, a domestic coal gap will increase prices and constrain growth. Within the Asia-Pacific region, China's coal gap is likely to bring about increased competition with other coal-importing countries including Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India. As with petroleum, China may respond with a government-supported 'going-out' strategy of resource acquisition and vertical integration. Given its population and growing resource constraints, China may favor energy security, competitiveness, and local environmental protection over global climate change mitigation. The possibility of a large coal gap suggests that Chinese and international policy makers should maximize institutional and financial support

Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

184

Coal Study Guide - Middle School | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- Middle School Coal Study Guide - Middle School Coal Study Guide - Middle School More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide for Elementary School Coal Study Guide - High...

185

Evaluation of 450-MWe BGL GCC Power Plants Fueled With Pittsburgh No. 8 Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed design and cost estimates have been developed for conventionally and highly integrated 450-MWe, British Gas/Lurgi (BGL) gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) power plants employing two General Electric (GE) MS-7001F gas turbines and fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. The plants have attractive heat rates and capital costs that are competitive with conventional coal-based power technology.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Entrained-flow dry-bottom gasification of high-ash coals in coal-water slurries  

SciTech Connect

It was shown that the effective use of dry ash removal during entrained-flow gasification of coal-water slurries consists in simplification of the ash storage system and utilization of coal ash, a decrease in the coal demand, a reduction in the atmospheric emissions of noxious substances and particulate matter, and abandonment of the discharge of water used for ash slurry. According to the results of gasification of coal-water slurries (5-10 {mu}m) in a pilot oxygen-blow unit at a carbon conversion of >91%, synthesis gas containing 28.5% CO, 32.5% H{sub 2}, 8.2% CO{sub 2}, 1.5% CH{sub 4}, the rest being nitrogen, was obtained. The fly ash in its chemical composition, particle size, and density meets the requirements of the European standard EN 450 as a cement additive for concrete manufacture.

E.G. Gorlov; V.G. Andrienko; K.B. Nefedov; S.V. Lutsenko; B.K. Nefedov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Chemical and physical aspects of refining coal liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing costs and declining reserves of petroleum are forcing oil importing countries to develop alternate energy sources. The direct liquefaction of coal is currently being investigated as a viable means of producing substitute liquid fuels. The coal liquids derived from such processes are typically high in nitrogen

Y. T. Shah; G. J. Stiegel; S. Krishnamurthy

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Utilization of high sulfur coal in carbon fiber production. Final report, April 1993--August 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PYROGRAF-III{trademark} is a highly graphitic vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) produced by the chemical vapor deposition of carbon on metallic catalysts in the temperature range of 1000{degrees}C. This is entirely different from commercial carbon fiber, which is made by first forming a filament and then graphitizing it in a high temperature oven. For PYROGRAF-III{trademark} small amounts of sulfur in the form of hydrogen sulfide are added to the process to enhance the yield. This method of supplying the necessary sulfur is both expensive and hazardous since hydrogen sulfide is flammable, toxic, and corrosive. To supply the sulfur more economically and safely, high sulfur coal was proposed as a replacement for the hydrogen sulfide gas. Applied Sciences, Inc. is the sole producer of this material in pound quantities. The primary objective of research grant OCDO-922-8 was to demonstrate that Ohio`s high sulfur coal can replace the expensive, toxic hydrogen sulfide in the production of vapor grown carbon fiber as well as become a partial or complete source of carbon. The secondary objective was to analyze the exhaust for the release of harmful sulfur compounds and to project the economic potential of the use of coal.

Burton, D.J.; Guth, J.R.

1994-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

189

High-Fidelity Multi-Phase Radiation Module for Modern Coal Combustion Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Task Task Description Sample calculations LBL-PMC Future Work High-Fidelity Multi-Phase Radiation Module for Modern Coal Combustion Systems Jian Cai 1 Ricardo Marquez 1 Michael F. Modest 2 1 Postdoctoral Research Associate 2 Shaffer and George Professor of Engineering University of California Merced Merced, CA 95343, USA DE-FG26-10FE0003801 May 2012 - Pittsburgh 2/17 Introduction Task Description Sample calculations LBL-PMC Future Work Radiation Challenges in Multi-Phase Reacting Flows Radiative heat transfer in high temperature combustion systems Thermal radiation becomes very important at elevated temperatures Coal and hydrocarbon fuels C n H m → H 2 O, CO 2 , CO, NO x , soot, char, ash CO 2 , H 2 O, soot, char and ash strongly emit and absorb radiative energy (lower temperature levels) Radiative effects are conveniently ignored or treated with very crude models Neglecting

190

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter.

C. Jean Bustard

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Low-Volume Wastes With High-Volume Coal Combustion By-Products: P4 Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historically, utilities have comanaged some or all of their low-volume wastes with their high-volume by-products in disposal facilities. This report presents the results of a field study of comanagement of coal combustion by-products at a utility-owned dry landfill in the midwestern United States. The findings from this research provide technical information for use in an ongoing study of comanagement by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

1998-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

192

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

12 2.6. International coal prices and18 International coal prices and trade In parallel with thesocial stability. High coal prices and domestic shortages

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Regional comparison of nuclear and fossil electric power generation costs  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear's main disadvantages are its high capital investment cost and uncertainty in schedule compared with alternatives. Nuclear plant costs continue to rise whereas coal plant investment costs are staying relative steady. Based on average experience, nuclear capital investment costs are nearly double those of coal-fired generation plants. The capital investment cost disadvantage of nuclear is balanced by its fuel cost advantages. New base load nuclear power plants were projected to be competitive with coal-fired plants in most regions of the country. Nuclear power costs wre projected to be significantly less (10% or more) than coal-fired power costs in the South Atlantic region. Coal-fired plants were projected to have a significant economic advantage over nuclear plants in the Central and North Central regions. In the remaining seven regions, the levelized cost of power from either option was projected to be within 10%. Uncertainties in future costs of materials, services, and financing affect the relative economics of the nuclear and coal options significantly. 10 figures.

Bowers, H.I.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was designed to evaluate the combustion performance of and emissions from a fluidized bed combustor during the combustion of mixtures of high sulfur and/or high chlorine coals and municipal solid waste (MSW). The project included four major tasks, which were as follows: (1) Selection, acquisition, and characterization of raw materials for fuels and the determination of combustion profiles of combination fuels using thermal analytical techniques; (2) Studies of the mechanisms for the formation of chlorinated organics during the combustion of MSW using a tube furnace; (3) Investigation of the effect of sulfur species on the formation of chlorinated organics; and (4) Examination of the combustion performance of combination fuels in a laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor. Several kinds of coals and the major combustible components of the MSW, including PVC, newspaper, and cellulose were tested in this project. Coals with a wide range of sulfur and chlorine contents were used. TGA/MS/FTIR analyses were performed on the raw materials and their blends. The possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organics during combustion was investigated by conducting a series of experiments in a tube furnace. The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation of molecular chlorine during combustion processes was examined in this study.

Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

1997-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

195

Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Quarterly report, October - December 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the effect of S0{sub 2} on the formation of chlorine during combustion processes was examined. To simulate the conditions used in the AFBC system, experiments were conducted in a quartz tube in an electrically heated furnace. The principle analytical technique used for identification of the products from this study was GC/MS. The evolved gas was trapped by an absorbent and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The preliminary results indicate an inhibiting effect of S0{sub 2} on the Deacon Reaction. Secondly, information on the evolution of chlorine, sulfur and organic compounds from coals 95031 and 95011 were studied with the AFBC system. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Pan, W.-P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Low-Cost, High-Power Laser for Analytical and Other ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Low-Cost, High-Power Laser for Analytical and Other Applications. ...

197

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Low-Cost, High-Performance Hybrid Membranes...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DESIGN 2008 www.PosterPresentations.com Low-Cost, High-Performance Hybrid Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries Hongxing Hu, Amsen Technologies LLC DOE SBIR Project, Program...

198

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Low Cost, High-Energy Density Flywheel...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Boeing Management Company. Copyright 2011 Boeing. All rights reserved. | 1 Low-Cost, High-Energy Density Flywheel Storage Grid Demonstration" Mike Strasik Program...

199

A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO 2 Capture Background An important component of the Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Program is...

200

Controlling Capital Costs in High Performance Office Buildings: A Review of Best Practices for Overcoming Cost Barriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Controlling Capital Costs in Controlling Capital Costs in High Performance Office Buildings: A Review of Best Practices for Overcoming Cost Barriers Preprint Shanti Pless and Paul Torcellini To be presented at the ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings Pacific Grove, California August 12-17, 2012 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5500-55264 May 2012 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308. Accordingly, the US Government and Alliance retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for US Government purposes. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high coal cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Fact book: synthetic pipeline gas from coal. 1982 update  

SciTech Connect

This book illustrates the major advantages of synthetic pipeline gas from coal. Progress on many of the coal gasification projects envisioned over the past decade has been thwarted by regulatory, permitting, and financing delays. The rationale for developing a synthetic pipeline gas industry remains as strong as ever from the nation's viewpoint, and the pioneer US commercial scale high-Btu coal gasification plant is now under construction-the Great Plains coal gasification plant in North Dakota. Also, the US Synthetic Fuels Corporation is now operational and can move forward to provide the guarantees which are necessary to overcome the financial barriers to a commercial synfuels capability in the United States. Compared to other principal means of utilizing America's vast coal reserves, coal gasification uses coal and land more efficiently, uses less water, emits less air pollutants, requires less capital and results in a lower cost of energy to consumers. (DP)

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Preliminary estimates of cost savings for defense high level waste vitrification options  

SciTech Connect

The potential for realizing cost savings in the disposal of defense high-level waste through process and design modificatins has been considered. Proposed modifications range from simple changes in the canister design to development of an advanced melter capable of processing glass with a higher waste loading. Preliminary calculations estimate the total disposal cost (not including capital or operating costs) for defense high-level waste to be about $7.9 billion dollars for the reference conditions described in this paper, while projected savings resulting from the proposed process and design changes could reduce the disposal cost of defense high-level waste by up to $5.2 billion.

Merrill, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coal production capacities and coal prices. Coal Productionalso be affected by higher coal prices. II "Current Factors$/year Change in Clean Coal Price, $/ton (FOB Plant) Cost of

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Minimization of investment costs and the effect on economy and availability of coal-fired power plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low manufacturing costs and short construction periods are two factors with a major influence on the economy of power plants. This paper identifies, on the basis of a power plant design concept actually developed, potential plant cost savings at the concept design and component design levels and the sometimes contradictory implications to be considered and attempts to assess the impact of these savings on plant economy and availability. By comparison with a conventionally constructed plant, the cost savings that can be achieved over the entire plant, including erection costs, total just on 15 percent. The construction period can be reduced by about 20%. The simplifications implemented in this design concept with a view to minimizing plant costs are expected to entail only a negligible reduction in plant availability, so that this type of power plant retains its overall economic lead.

Hebel, G.; Hauenschild, R. (ABB Kraftwerke AG, Mannheim (DE))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Controlling Capital Costs in High Performance Office Buildings: A Review of Best Practices for Overcoming Cost Barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a set of 15 best practices for owners, designers, and construction teams of office buildings to reach high performance goals for energy efficiency, while maintaining a competitive budget. They are based on the recent experiences of the owner and design/build team for the Research Support Facility (RSF) on National Renewable Energy Facility's campus in Golden, CO, which show that achieving this outcome requires each key integrated team member to understand their opportunities to control capital costs.

Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

High performance materials in coal conversion utilization. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the research conducted at the University of Tennessee Space Institute on high performance materials for use in corrosive environments. The work was supported by a US Department of Energy University Coal Research grant. Particular attention was given to the silicon carbide particulate reinforced alumina matrix ceramic composite manufactured by Lanxide Corporation as a potential tubular component in a coal-fired recuperative high-temperature air heater. Extensive testing was performed to determine the high temperature corrosion effects on the strength of the material. A computer modeling of the corrosion process was attempted but the problem proved to be too complex and was not successful. To simplify the situation, a computer model was successfully produced showing the corrosion thermodynamics involved on a monolithic ceramic under the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) conditions (see Appendix A). To seal the material surface and thus protect the silicon carbide particulate from corrosive attack, a dense non porous alumina coating was applied to the material surface. The coating was induced by a defocused carbon dioxide laser beam. High temperature corrosion and strength tests proved the effectiveness of the coating. The carbon dioxide laser was also used to successfully join two pieces of the Lanxide material, however, resources did not allow for the testing of the resulting joint.

McCay, T.D.; Boss, W.H. [ed.; Dahotre, N. [and others

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Low Cost, High Performance and Long Life...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

* High-efficiency * Uniformity EnergyPod Low Cost, High Performance and Long Life Flow Battery Electrodes TM A Breakthrough In Distributed, Grid Scale Energy Storage ARPA-E has...

208

NETL: News Release - Combustion Optimization Systems - Cleaner Coal Burning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Combustion Optimization System" - Cleaner Coal Burning at Lower Costs "Combustion Optimization System" - Cleaner Coal Burning at Lower Costs DOE Joins with Sunflower Electric to Outfit Kansas Coal Plant with Lower Cost System to Cut Air Emissions FINNEY COUNTY, KS - A unique combination of high-tech combustion modifications and sophisticated control systems will be tested on a Kansas coal-fired power plant as part of the federal government's efforts to show how new technology can reduce air emissions and save costs for ratepayers. - Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station - Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station will be outfitted with a combination of innovative hardware and software to further reduce air emissions. - The U.S. Department of Energy and Sunflower Electric Power Corporation have signed an agreement to use the utility's Holcomb Station power plant in

209

High-Efficiency Photovoltaics at Thin Film Costs  

Time (Years) 0-+ 5. 10. 15. 20. 25. Opportunity. Technology. ... • 15 years renewable energy business development ... High-Efficiency Photovoltaics at ...

210

Low Cost, High Efficiency Tandem Silicon Solar Cells and LEDs  

Wladek Walukiewicz, Joel Ager, and Kin Man Yu of Berkeley Lab have developed high-efficiency solar cells that leverage the well-established design and ...

211

Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x} SO {sub x} and Particulates 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R&D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO{sub x} production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

Not Available

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Production of Hydrogen from Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production of Hydrogen from Coal Production of Hydrogen from Coal Project Summary Full Title: Production of High Purity Hydrogen from Domestic Coal: Assessing the Techno-Economic Impact of Emerging Technologies Project ID: 265 Principal Investigator: Kristin Gerdes Brief Description: This report assesses the improvements in cost and performance of hydrogen production from domestic coal when employing emerging technologies funded by DOE. Keywords: Hydrogen production; Coal Purpose This analysis specifically evaluates replacing conventional acid gas removal (AGR) and hydrogen purification with warm gas cleanup (WGCU) and a high-temperature hydrogen membrane (HTHM) that meets DOE's 2010 and 2015 performance and cost research and development (R&D) targets. Performer Principal Investigator: Kristin Gerdes

213

Effects of high pressure-dependent leakoff and high process-zone stress in coal-stimulation treatments  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing in coals has been studied extensively over the last two decades; however, there are factors that were often ignored or incorrectly diagnosed, resulting in screenouts. Assuming that a majority of the perforations are open and there are no problems with the stimulation fluids, screenouts during coal hydraulic-fracture treatments can be attributed to either high pressure-dependent leakoff (PDL), high process-zone stress (PZS) or in some cases both. The objective of this work is to discuss, help identify, and present solutions to address these reservoir-related issues such that screenouts can be avoided in optimized refracture treatments and new well stimulations. The tools for identifying these reservoir-related parameters include a diagnostic fracture-injection test (DFIT) and a grid-oriented fully functional 3D fracture simulator with shear decoupling. An example for each respective case is presented in this paper. In the first example, in which high PZS was considered to be the dominant reason for screenout or pressure out, the well was restimulated successfully by implementing the solutions presented in this paper. In the second example, in which high PDL was considered to be the main reason for screenout, there were several wells in the same project area that exhibited the same behavior resulting in screenouts. After implementing the solutions presented in this paper to address high PDL, all new wells were stimulated successfully without any issues.

Ramurthy, M.; Lyons, B.; Hendrickson, R.B.; Barree, R.D.; Magill, D.R. [Halliburton, Denver, CO (United States)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Coal in transition 1980--2000 demand considerations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The usefulness of the Brookhaven model, TESOM, lies in its exploration of the demand side of the energy system. Sectors where coal may be substituted for other energy forms are identified, and attractive technologies are highlighted. The results of the runs accord well with intuitive expectations. The increasing prices of oil and natural gas usually imply that (a) coal synthetics become increasingly attractive technologies, except in the High Demand and CRUNCH Cases (b) nuclear and hydro-electric generation are preferred technologies, (c) coal steam electric, even with expensive scrubbers, becomes more attractive than oil or gas steam electric by year 1990, (d) fluidized bed combustion for electricity generation is cost effective (with relatively small environmental impacts) when compared to oil, gas and coal steam electric. FBC process steam exhibits similar behavior. In the High Demand and CRUNCH scenarios, technologies such as solar electric, which are usually not chosen on the basis of cost, enter the solution because meeting demands has become extremely difficult. As the allowed coal expansion rate becomes a limiting factor, coal synthetics manufacturing becomes an unattractive alternative. This is due both to the need for coal electric generation to meet high electricity demand levels, and to the inefficiencies in the manufacturing process. Due to preferred allocation of coal to electricity generation or synthetics, direct coal use is reduced, although this is normally a preferred option.

Kydes, A S; Cherniavsky, E A

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Low cost high power GaSB photovoltaic cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High power density and high capacity factor are important attributes of a thermophotovoltaics (TPV) system and GaSb cells are enabling for TPV systems. A TPV cogeneration unit at an off grid site will compliment solar arrays producing heat and electricity on cloudy days with the solar arrays generating electricity on sunny days. Herein

Lewis M. Fraas; Han X. Huang; Shi-Zhong Ye; She Hui; James Avery; Russell Ballantyne

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Low cost high power GaSb thermophotovoltaic cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High power density and high capacity factor are important attributes of a TPV system and GaSb cells are enabling for TPV systems. A TPV cogeneration unit at an off grid site will compliment solar arrays producing heat and electricity on cloudy days with the solar arrays generating electricity on sunny days. Herein

Lewis M. Fraas; Han X. Huang; Shi-Zhong Ye; James Avery; Russell Ballantyne

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Infrastructure Costs Associated with Central Hydrogen Production from Biomass and Coal - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Darlene Steward (Primary Contact), Billy Roberts, Karen Webster National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, CO 80401-3305 Phone: (303) 275-3837 Email: Darlene.Steward@nrel.gov DOE Manager HQ: Fred Joseck Phone: (202) 586-7932 Email: Fred.Joseck@hq.doe.gov Project Start Date: Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 Project End Date: Project continuation and direction determined annually by DOE FY 2012 Objectives Elucidate the location-dependent variability of * infrastructure costs for biomass- and coal-based central hydrogen production and delivery and the tradeoffs inherent in plant-location choices Provide modeling output and correlations for use in other * integrated analyses and tools

218

High precision trace element and organic constituent analysis of oil shale and solvent-refined coal materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of a number of sensitive and precise methods for the determination of trace elements, heavy element species and organic compounds in materials from an oil shale research retort process and from a solvent-refined coal pilot plant operation are discussed. The methods were chosen both for their sensitivity, and also for their relative freedom from interference effects. Coal liquids contain much higher concentrations of aromatic compounds, including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA's). A larger relative fraction of the pna's in shale oil are alkyl substituted. Coal liquids are also considerably higher in phenols (28 percent) than is shale oil (2 percent). N-heterocyclics are present in higher concentration (greater than 8 percent) in shale oil due to the high nitrogen content of the raw shale. Hydroaromatics are common in coal liquids but negligible in shale oil. Inorganic elements and speciation measurements indicate significant amounts of the toxic heavy elements Hg, As, Zn, and Se in effluent oil water and gas streams. In addition, the process water contains significant Co, Br, Sb, and U. Raw oil shale is highly enriched in Se, As and Sb and somewhat enriched in U, Pb, Cs, Hg and Zn. Solvent-refined coal liquids were found to be relatively low in most trace elements. The majority of trace elements are concentrated by the process into the mineral residue. Only Br and Hg are not depleted in solvent-refined coal. Other trace elements still remaining in significant amounts are U, Ta, Cr, and Zn.

Fruchter, J.S.; Petersen, M.R.; Laul, J.C.; Ryan, P.W.

1976-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Cost-effectiveness of freeway median high occupancy vehicle (HOV) facility conversion to rail guideway transit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many freeways in the United States contain median high occupancy vehicle (HOV) facilities. These facilities have been envisioned by some as reserved space for future rail guideway transit. This thesis examines the cost-effectiveness of converting a freeway median HOV lane into a guideway transit line. A full-cost model was developed to determine the cost effectiveness of converting an HOV lane into a rail transit line. The measure of cost-effectiveness used was the benefit-to-cost ratio. The full-cost model contained two cost categories (capital and operating costs) and two benefit categories (travel time and externality benefits). This fullcost model was adopted to conditions on the Katy Freeway in Houston Texas which served as a case study for this thesis. It was found that 29 percent of the person-miles of travel on the Katy Freeway under given conditions must utilize guideway transit for conversion to be cost-effective. It was also found that the model is sensitive to assumptions of the value of time, project soft costs (administrative, planning, and design costs) and the operating cost of the rail transit system. The model is also sensitive to assumptions regarding latent demand. It was concluded that conversion to rail guideway transit in the case study example is not cost-effective. It was reconunended that further investigation be taken into full-cost model components to allow more certain estimates of cost components. Also recommended was further consideration of the effects of latent demand on HOV to rail guideway transit conversions.

Best, Matthew Evans

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Pilot-Scale Demonstration of a Novel, Low-Cost Oxygen Supply Process and its Integration with Oxy-Fuel Coal-Fired Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to achieve DOE targets for carbon dioxide capture, it is crucial not only to develop process options that will generate and provide oxygen to the power cycle in a cost-effective manner compared to the conventional oxygen supply methods based on cryogenic air separation technology, but also to identify effective integration options for these new technologies into the power cycle with carbon dioxide capture. The Linde/BOC developed Ceramic Autothermal Recovery (CAR) process remains an interesting candidate to address both of these issues by the transfer of oxygen from the air to a recycled CO{sub 2} rich flue-gas stream in a cyclic process utilizing the high temperature sorption properties of perovskites. Good progress was made on this technology in this project, but significant challenges remain to be addressed before CAR oxygen production technology is ready for commercial exploitation. Phase 1 of the project was completed by the end of September 2008. The two-bed 0.7 tons/day O2 CAR process development unit (PDU) was installed adjacent to WRI's pilot scale coal combustion test facility (CTF). Start-up and operating sequences for the PDU were developed and cyclic operation of the CAR process demonstrated. Controlled low concentration methane addition allowed the beds to be heated up to operational temperature (800-900 C) and then held there during cyclic operation of the 2-bed CAR process, in this way overcoming unavoidable heat losses from the beds during steady state operation. The performance of the PDU was optimized as much as possible, but equipment limitations prevented the system from fully achieving its target performance. Design of the flue gas recirculation system to integrate CAR PDU with the CTF and the system was completed and integrated tests successfully performed at the end of the period. A detailed techno-economic analysis was made of the CAR process for supplying the oxygen in oxy-fuel combustion retrofit option using AEP's 450 MW Conesville, Ohio plant and contrasted with the cryogenic air separation option (ASU). Design of a large scale CAR unit was completed to support this techno-economic assessment. Based on the finding that the overall cost potential of the CAR technology compared to cryogenic ASU is nominal at current performance levels and that the risks related to both material and process scale up are still significant, the team recommended not to proceed to Phase 2. CAR process economics continue to look attractive if the original and still 'realistic' target oxygen capacities could be realized in practice. In order to achieve this end, a new fundamental materials development program would be needed. With the effective oxygen capacities of the current CAR materials there is, however, insufficient economic incentive to use this commercially unproven technology in oxy-fuel power plant applications in place of conventional ASUs. In addition, it is now clear that before a larger scale pilot demonstration of the CAR technology is made, a better understanding of the impact of flue-gas impurities on the CAR materials and of thermal transients in the beds is required.

Krish Krishnamurthy; Divy Acharya; Frank Fitch

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

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221

Illinois coal/RDF coprocessing to produce high quality solids and liquids. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is the aim of this study to provide information pertinent to the development of a coal/RDF pyrolysis process capable of economically creating valuable products from high sulfur Illinois coal. This project will be carried out in a systematic manner. First, samples will be properly selected prepared, preserved and characterized. Then coals, various plastics, cellulose, and a high quality RDF will be pyrolyzed, steam pyrolyzed, hydro-pyrolyzed, and liquefied at various conditions. Next, blends of coal with various RDF components will be reacted under the same conditions. From this work, synergistic effects will be identified and process parametric studies will be conducted on the appropriate mixtures and single components. Product quality and mass balances will be obtained on systems showing promise. Preliminary pyrolysis work will be conducted on a TGA. The majority of reactions will be conducted in microautoclaves. If this research is successful, a new market for high sulfur, high mineral Illinois coal would emerge. Samples needed for this project have been obtained and sample preparation have been completed. A Perkin Elmer TGA-7 was employed to study pyrolysis. significant interactions have been observed. About 200 microreactor experiments have been performed and the acquisition of products for analysis has been achieved. Interactions occur between 400-450{degrees}C. Synergism occurs at short reaction time. High temperature and long reaction times result in higher residue yields and a loss of synergisms. Reactive species may be required to stabilize intermediate products.

Hippo, E.J.; Palmer, S.R.; Blankenship, M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Low cost routes to high purity silicon and derivatives thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method for providing an agricultural waste product having amorphous silica, carbon, and impurities; extracting from the agricultural waste product an amount of the impurities; changing the ratio of carbon to silica; and reducing the silica to a high purity silicon (e.g., to photovoltaic silicon).

Laine, Richard M; Krug, David James; Marchal, Julien Claudius; Mccolm, Andrew Stewart

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

223

The interplay between risk attitudes and low probability, high cost outcomes in climate policy analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Assessing the value of climate change mitigation requires an analysis framework that can account for society's attitude toward the risk of uncertain outcomes, especially those with low probability and high cost. For largely historical and computational ... Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis, DICE, Decision theory, Dismal theorem, Economic disaster, Integrated assessment model (IAM)

Michael D. Gerst; Richard B. Howarth; Mark E. Borsuk

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally-acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national perspective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan

2002-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

2003-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

226

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

2002-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

227

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

High precision trace element and organic constituent analysis of oil shale and solvent-refined coal materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Broad spectrum inorganic and organic analytical techniques provide the best approach for the initial characterization of the complex samples encountered in working with new energy technologies such as oil shale retorting and solvent refining of coal. In complex samples, analyses are facilitated by techniques, such as neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence, that are relatively insensitive to matrix effects. A comparative organic constituent analysis of the crude shale oil and coal liquid samples analyzed in this study showed that the coal liquids contained higher concentrations of aromatic compounds including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The coal liquids were considerably richer in phenols than was the shale oil. N-heterocyclics were present in higher concentration in shale oil due to the high nitrogen content of the raw shale. Hydroaromatics were found to be common in coal liquids but negligible in this shale oil. Measurable amounts of the heavy elements Hg, As, Zn, and Se were found in effluent streams from oil shale retorting. The process water also contained significant Co, Br, Sb, and U. The raw oil shale was enriched in Se, As and Sb and somewhat enriched in U, Pb, Cs, Hg, and Zn. Solvent-refined coal liquids were found to be relatively low in most trace elements. Most were concentrated in the mineral residue. Only Br was not depleted in solvent-refined coal. Other trace elements remaining in significant amounts were U, Ta, Cr and Zn. We have not yet measured the trace elements and gaseous and particulate samples from the solvent-refined coal plant. 10 tables.

Fruchter, J.S.; Laul, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Ryan, P.W.

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Formulation, Pretreatment, and Densification Options to Improve Biomass Specifications for Co-Firing High Percentages with Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a growing interest internationally to use more biomass for power generation, given the potential for significant environmental benefits and long-term fuel sustainability. However, the use of biomass alone for power generation is subject to serious challenges, such as feedstock supply reliability, quality, and stability, as well as comparative cost, except in situations in which biomass is locally sourced. In most countries, only a limited biomass supply infrastructure exists. Alternatively, co-firing biomass alongwith coal offers several advantages; these include reducing challenges related to biomass quality, buffering the system against insufficient feedstock quantity, and mitigating the costs of adapting existing coal power plants to feed biomass exclusively. There are some technical constraints, such as low heating values, low bulk density, and grindability or size-reduction challenges, as well as higher moisture, volatiles, and ash content, which limit the co-firing ratios in direct and indirect co-firing. To achieve successful co-firing of biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications must be established to direct pretreatment options in order to modify biomass materials into a format that is more compatible with coal co-firing. The impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation, and boiler-tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications, which may include developing new feedstock composition by formulation or blending. Some of the issues, like feeding, co-milling, and fouling, can be overcome by pretreatment methods including washing/leaching, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and torrefaction, and densification methods such as pelletizing and briquetting. Integrating formulation, pretreatment, and densification will help to overcome issues related to physical and chemical composition, storage, and logistics to successfully co-fire higher percentages of biomass ( > 40%) with coal.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Tyler L. Westover

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Cost-Effective Method for Producing Self Supported Palladium Alloy Membranes for Use in Efficient Production of Coal Derived Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the past quarter, no technical work has been completed and a ''no cost'' time extension was requested and granted to allow IdaTech time to complete task 5 relating to the testing of prototype membrane modules. The scheduled completion date is now October 31, 2007.

K. Coulter

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

231

Cost-Effective Method for Producing Self Supported Palladium Alloy Membranes for Use in Efficient Production of Coal Derived Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the past quarter, no technical work has been completed and two ''no cost'' time extensions have been requested and granted to allow Idatech time to complete Task 5 relating to the testing of prototype membrane modules. The scheduled completion date of April 7, 2007 has been confirmed by Idatech.

K. Coulter

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

Coal Study Guide for Elementary School | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Study Guide: Coal (for Elementary School) More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide - Middle School Coal Study Guide - High School Fossil Fuels Study Guide - High School...

233

Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

Zhou, P.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

Zhou, P.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

The cost of agriculturally based greenhouse gas offsets in the Texas High Plains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The broad objective of this thesis involves investigation of the role agriculture might play in a society wide greenhouse gas emissions reduction effort. Specifically, the breakeven price for carbon emission offsets is calculated for agriculturally based emission reducing practices. The practices investigated in the Texas High Plains involve reduced tillage use, reduced fallow use, reduced crop fertilization, cropland conversion to grassland, feedlot enteric fermentation management and digester based dairy manure handling. Costs of emission reductions were calculated at the producer level. The calculated offset prices are classified into four cost categories. They are: negative cost, low cost (less than $20 per ton of carbon saved), moderate cost ($20 through $100 per ton of carbon saved), and high cost (over $100 for tons of carbon saved). Negative cost implies that farmers could make money and reduce emissions by moving to alternative practices even without any carbon payments. Alternatives in the positive cost categories need compensation to induce farmers to switch to practices that sequester more carbon. All fallow dryland crop practices, dryland and irrigated cotton zero tillage, dryland and irrigated wheat zero tillage, irrigated corn zero tillage, cotton irrigated nitrogen use reduction under minimum tillage and dryland pasture for all systems, and anaerobic lagoon complete mix and plug flow systems fall in the negative cost category. Dryland and irrigated wheat under minimum tillage are found to be in the low cost category. Cotton dryland under minimum tillage and cotton irrigated with nitrogen use reduction under zero tillage fell into the moderate cost class. Both corn and cotton irrigated minimum tillage are found to be in the high cost category. This study only considers the producer foregone net income less fixed costs as the only cost incurred in switching to an alternative sequestering practice. More costs such as learning and risk should probably be included. This limitation along with other constraints such as use of short run budget data, lack of availability and reliability of local budgets, overlooking any market effects, and lack of treatment of costs incurred in selling carbon offsets to buyers are limitations and portend future work.

Chandrasena, Rajapakshage Inoka Ilmi

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Development of High Efficacy, Low Cost Phosphorescent Oled Lightning Luminaire  

SciTech Connect

In this two year program, UDC together with Armstrong World Industries, Professor Stephen Forrest (University of Michigan) and Professor Mark Thompson (University of Southern California) planned to develop and deliver high efficiency OLED lighting luminaires as part of an integrated ceiling illumination system that exceed the Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 performance projections. Specifically the UDC team in 2010 delivered two prototype OLED ceiling illumination systems, each consisting of four individual OLED lighting panels on glass integrated into Armstrong's novel TechZone open architecture ceiling systems, at an overall system efficacy of 51 lm/W, a CRI = 85 and a projected lifetime to 70% of initial luminance to exceed 10,000 hours. This accomplishment represents a 50% increase in luminaire efficacy and a factor of two in lifetime over that outlined in the solicitation. In addition, the team has also delivered one 15cm x 15cm lighting panel fabricated on a flexible metal foil substrate, demonstrating the possibility using OLEDs in a range of form factors. During this program, our Team has pursued the commercialization of these OLED based ceiling luminaires, with a goal to launch commercial products within the next three years. We have proven that our team is ideally suited to develop these highly novel and efficient solid state lighting luminaires, having both the technical experience and commercial strategy to leverage work performed under this contract. Our calculations show that the success of our program could lead to energy savings of more than 0.5 quads or 8 MMTC (million metric tons of carbon) per year by 2016.

Michael Hack

2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

237

Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect

A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Coal feed lock  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

Pinkel, I. Irving (Fairview Park, OH)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

High conversion of coal to transportation fuels for the future with low HC gas production. Progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experimental coal liquefaction studies conducted in a batch microreactor in our laboratory have demonstrated potential for high conversions of coal to liquids with low yields of hydrocarbon (HC) gases, hence a small consumption of hydrogen in the primary liquefaction step. Ratios of liquids/HC gases as high as 30/1, at liquid yields as high as 82% of the coal by weight, have been achieved. The principal objective of this work is to examine how nearly we may approach these results in a continuous-flow system, at a size sufficient to evaluate the process concept for production of transportation fuels from coal.

Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Low Cost High Performance Generator Technology Program. Volume 5. Heat Pipe Topical  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research progress towards the development of a heat pipe for use in the Low Cost High Performance Thermoelectric Generator Program is reported for the period May 15, 1975 through June 1975. (TFD)

Not Available

1975-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

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241

NETL: A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0000469 TDA Research (TDA) is testing and validating the technical and economic...

242

Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels Gas Technology Institute (GTI) Project Number: FE0011958 Project Description Proof-of-concept of a metal-polymeric...

243

Synthetic liquid fuels development: assessment of critical factors. Volume III. Coal resource depletion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While US coal resources are known to be vast, their rate of depletion in a future based predominantly on coal has not been examined analytically heretofore. The Coal Depletion Model inventories the coal resource on a regional basis and calculates the cost of coal extraction by three technologies - strip and underground mining and in-situ combustion. A plausible coal demand scenario extending from 1975 to the year 2050 is used as a basis in applying the model. In the year 2050, plants in operation include 285 syncrude plants, each producing 100,000 B/D; 312 SNG plants, each producing 250 million SCF/D and 722 coal-fired electric power plants, each of 1000 MW capacity. In addition, there is 890 million tons per year of industrial coal consumption. Such a high level of coal use would deplete US coal resources much more rapidly than most people appreciate. Of course, the actual amount of US coal is unknown, and if the coal in the hypothetical reliability category is included, depletion is delayed. Coal in this category, however, has not been mapped; it is only presumed to exist on the basis of geological theory. The coal resource depletion model shows that unilateral imposition of a severance tax by a state tends to shift production to other coal producing regions. Boom and bust cycles are both delayed and reduced in their magnitude. When several states simultaneously impose severance taxes, the effect of each is weakened.Key policy issues that emerge from this analysis concern the need to reduce the uncertainty of the magnitude and geographic distribution of the US coal resource and the need to stimulate interaction among the parties at interest to work out equitable and acceptable coal conversion plant location strategies capable of coping with the challenges of a high-coal future.

Dickson, E.M.; Yabroff, I.W.; Kroll, C.A.; White, R.K.; Walton, B.L.; Ivory, M.E.; Fullen, R.E.; Weisbecker, L.W.; Hays, R.L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 16.9% have been achieved. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x.

Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA); Doshi, Parag (Atlanta, GA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure.

Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Doshi, Parag (Altanta, GA); Tate, John Keith (Lawrenceville, GA); Mejia, Jose (Atlanta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA)

1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

246

Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO{sub x}. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure. 28 figs.

Rohatgi, A.; Doshi, P.; Tate, J.K.; Mejia, J.; Chen, Z.

1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

247

Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical report {number_sign}4  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to study combustion performance under conditions similar to that in the AFBC system, the authors conducted a series of experiments at a heating rate of 100 C/min using the TGA/FTIR/MS system. Results indicate that more hydrocarbons are evolved at the faster heating rate, owing to incomplete combustion of the fuel. Chlorinated organic compounds can be formed at high heating rates. Certain oxidation products such as organic acids and alcohols are obtained at the slow heating rate. To simulate the conditions used in the atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) at Western Kentucky University, studies were also conducted using a quartz tube in a tube furnace. The temperature conditions were kept identical to those of the combustor. The products evolved from the combustion of coal, PVC, and mixtures of the two were trapped in suitable solvents at different temperatures, and analyzed using the Shimadzu GC/MS system. The detection limits and the GC/MS analytical parameters were also established. The experiments were conducted keeping in mind the broader perspective; that of studying conditions conducive to the formation of chlorinated organic compounds from the combustion of coal/MSW blends. 32 figs., 16 tabs.

Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

1995-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

248

Coke Gasification - A Solution to Excess Coke Capacity and High Energy Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

United States crude slate is becoming heavier and generally higher in sulfur. At the same time demand of distillate products is increasing. Refiners are reworking their plans to include resid conversion via coking and approximately 230,000 BPD of new coking capacity is either under construction or announced. Even if 50 percent of the coke produced is exported, there will be an excess capacity of coke selling at less than $30/ton depending upon the sulfur content. This coke can be gasified effectively to produce medium-Btu (300 Btu/scf) gas which, in turn, can fuel the refinery furnaces to replace natural gas. Coke gasification should prove economical with natural gas price decontrol and the average price projected to rise to over $14.0 per million Btu in 1990. The paper will discuss three gasifiers - Gesellschaft fur Kohle-Technologie Gmbh (GKT), Texaco and Westinghouse which may be used for the production of medium-Btu gas from coke. The design parameters, which for coke gasification may be different from coal gasification because of the difference in physical and chemical characteristics of coke and coal, will be evaluated. Conceptual design will be performed based upon normal fuel requirements of about 20 billion Btu per day for a typical 50,000 BPD refinery. Adaptability of coke derived gas to refinery fuel systems will be discussed in terms of flame temperatures, flue gas volumes, derating and required furnace modifications. Estimates of capital and operating costs will be obtained to calculate the gas cost using the new tax laws. Finally, the GKT gasifier will be compared to the developing Texaco and Westinghouse gasifiers to assess the effect of second generation gasifiers on the economics of coke gasification.

Patel, S. S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Low-Cost Superconducting Wire for Wind Generators: High Performance, Low Cost Superconducting Wires and Coils for High Power Wind Generators  

SciTech Connect

REACT Project: The University of Houston will develop a low-cost, high-current superconducting wire that could be used in high-power wind generators. Superconducting wire currently transports 600 times more electric current than a similarly sized copper wire, but is significantly more expensive. The University of Houston’s innovation is based on engineering nanoscale defects in the superconducting film. This could quadruple the current relative to today’s superconducting wires, supporting the same amount of current using 25% of the material. This would make wind generators lighter, more powerful and more efficient. The design could result in a several-fold reduction in wire costs and enable their commercial viability of high-power wind generators for use in offshore applications.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

A centurial history of technological change and learning curves or pulverized coal-fired utility boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the total O&M cost and the coal price remained relativelyand Japan, where higher coal prices justi?ed the higher cost

Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

An efficient process for recovery of fine coal from tailings of coal washing plants  

SciTech Connect

Gravity concentration of hard lignites using conventional jigs and heavy media separation equipment is prone to produce coal-rich fine tailings. This study aims to establish a fine coal recovery process of very high efficiency at reasonable capital investment and operational costs. The technical feasibility to upgrade the properties of the predeslimed fine refuse of a lignite washing plant with 35.9% ash content was investigated by employing gravity separation methods. The laboratory tests carried out with the combination of shaking table and Mozley multi-gravity separator (MGS) revealed that the clean coal with 18% ash content on dry basis could be obtained with 58.9% clean coal recovery by the shaking table stage and 4.1% clean coal recovery by MGS stage, totaling to the sum of 63.0% clean coal recovery from a predeslimed feed. The combustible recovery and the organic efficiency of the shaking table + MGS combination were 79.5% and 95.5%, respectively. Based on the results of the study, a flow sheet of a high-efficiency fine coal recovery process was proposed, which is also applicable to the coal refuse pond slurry of a lignite washing plant.

Cicek, T.; Cocen, I.; Engin, V.T.; Cengizler, H. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. for Mining Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Gasification of Lignite Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report on the gasification of lignite coal is presented in two parts. The first includes research into technology options for preparing low-rank fuels for gasification, gasifiers for converting the coal into synthesis gas, and technologies that may be used to convert synthesis gas into valuable chemical products. The second part focuses on performance and cost screening analyses for either Greenfield or retrofit gasification options fueled by low-rank lignite coal. The work was funded through Tailor...

2009-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

254

Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 3 of 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

Stephen Bergin

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

255

Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 2 of 3  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

Stephen Bergin

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

256

Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 1 of 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

Stephen Bergin

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

257

COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the past quarter, we have conducted additional characterization and permeation tests on different Pd alloy membranes including PdCuTa ternary alloy materials. We attempted to address some discrepancies between SwRI{reg_sign} and CSM relating to PdCu stoichiometry by preparing a range of PdCu membranes with compositions from {approx}58-65 at% Pd (bal. Cu). While some difficulties in cutting and sealing these thin membranes at CSM continue, some progress has been made in identifying improved membrane support materials. We have also completed an initial cost analysis for large-scale vacuum deposition and fabrication of thin Pd ally membranes and project that the process can meet DOE cost targets. Minimal progress was made in the past quarter relating to the testing of prototype membrane modules at Idatech. In the past quarter Idatech was acquired by a UK investment firm, which we believe may have impacted the ability of key technical personnel to devote sufficient time to support this effort. We are hopeful their work can be completed by the end of the calendar year.

J. Arps; K. Coulter

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

258

Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gokhan O. Alptekin, PhD Robert Copeland, PhD Gokhan O. Alptekin, PhD Robert Copeland, PhD (Primary Contact) TDA Research, Inc TDA Research, Inc 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Email: copeland@tda.com Email: galptekin@tda.com Tel: (303) 940-2323 Tel: (303) 940-2349 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Margarita Dubovik Yevgenia Gershanovich TDA Research, Inc TDA Research, Inc 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Email: dubovik@tda.com Email: ygershan@tda.com Tel: (303) 940-2316 Tel: (303) 940-2346 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

259

Hydrogen production by high-temperature steam gasification of biomass and coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-temperature steam gasification of paper, yellow pine woodchips, and Pittsburgh bituminous coal was investigated in a batch-type flow reactor at temperatures in the range of 700 to 1,200{sup o}C at two different ratios of steam to feedstock molar ratios. Hydrogen yield of 54.7% for paper, 60.2% for woodchips, and 57.8% for coal was achieved on a dry basis, with a steam flow rate of 6.3 g/min at steam temperature of 1,200{sup o}C. Yield of both the hydrogen and carbon monoxide increased while carbon dioxide and methane decreased with the increase in gasification temperature. A 10-fold reduction in tar residue was obtained at high-temperature steam gasification, compared to low temperatures. Steam and gasification temperature affects the composition of the syngas produced. Higher steam-to-feedstock molar ratio had negligible effect on the amount of hydrogen produced in the syngas in the fixed-batch type of reactor. Gasification temperature can be used to control the amounts of hydrogen or methane produced from the gasification process. This also provides mean to control the ratio of hydrogen to CO in the syngas, which can then be processed to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel since the liquid fuel production requires an optimum ratio between hydrogen and CO. The syngas produced can be further processed to produce pure hydrogen. Biomass fuels are good source of renewable fuels to produce hydrogen or liquid fuels using controlled steam gasification.

Kriengsak, S.N.; Buczynski, R.; Gmurczyk, J.; Gupta, A.K. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Development of High-Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pressure Dry Feed Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems Background Even though coal-based power generation via Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is more efficient, cleaner, and uses less water than conventional pulverized coal burning systems, widespread IGCC deployment has not occurred because of its relatively high cost. The Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) high-pressure dry feed pump addresses IGCC cost disparity by enabling lower cost and more reliable coal feed

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high coal cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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261

The coal char-CO2 reaction at high temperature and pressure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Integrated gasification combined cycle is an advanced electricity generation technology, based on coal gasification. Wider deployment requires further research into the components of the process,… (more)

Hodge, Elizabeth Marjorie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

A High Temperature Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operating on Phosphine Contaminated Coal Syngas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solid oxide fuel cells that operate on phosphine contaminated coal syngas are subject to performance degradation due to alterations of the anode microstructure. Theoretical investigations… (more)

De Silva, Kandaudage Channa R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECTS OF TRACE COAL SYN GAS SPECIES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ANODES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coal is the United States’ most widely used fossil fuel for the production of electric power. Coal’s availability and cost dictates that it will be… (more)

Trembly, Jason P.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Investigations into coal coprocessing and coal liquefaction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conversion of coal to liquid suitable as feedstock to a petroleum refinery is dependent upon several process variables. These variables include temperature, pressure, coal rank, catalyst type, nature of the feed to the reactor, type of process, etc. Western Research Institute (WRI) has initiated a research program in the area of coal liquefaction to address the impact of some of these variables upon the yield and quality of the coal-derived liquid. The principal goal of this research is to improve the efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. Two different approaches are currently being investigated. These include the coprocessing of a heavy liquid, such as crude oil, and coal using a dispersed catalyst and the direct liquefaction of coal using a supported catalyst. Another important consideration in coal liquefaction is the utilization of hydrogen, including both externally- and internally-supplied hydrogen. Because the incorporation of externally-supplied hydrogen during conversion of this very aromatic fossil fuel to, for example, transportation fuels is very expensive, improved utilization of internally-supplied hydrogen can lead to reducing processing costs. The objectives of this investigation, which is Task 3.3.4, Coal Coprocessing, of the 1991--1992 Annual Research Plan, are: (1) to evaluate coal/oil pretreatment conditions that are expected to improve the liquid yield through more efficient dispersion of an oil-soluble, iron-based catalyst, (2) to characterize the coke deposits on novel, supported catalysts after coal liquefaction experiments and to correlate the carbon skeletal structure parameters of the coke deposit with catalyst performance as measured by coal liquefaction product yield, and (3) to determine the modes of hydrogen utilization during coal liquefaction and coprocessing. Experimental results are discussed in this report.

Guffey, F.D.; Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Thomas, K.P. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Zhang, Tiejun; Haynes, H.W. Jr. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Novel High-capacity Oligomers for Low-cost CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to...

266

Use of high-temperature, high-torque rheometry to study the viscoelastic properties of coal during carbonization  

SciTech Connect

When coal is heated in the absence of oxygen it softens at approximately 400 degrees C, becomes viscoelastic, and volatiles are driven off. With further heating, the viscous mass reaches a minimum viscosity in the range of 10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} Pa s and then begins to resolidify. A high-torque, high-temperature, controlled-strain rheometer with parallel plates has been used to study the theology during this process. Under shear, the viscosity of the softening mass decreases with increasing shear rate. During resolidification, the viscosity increases as C-C bond formation and physical interactions gives rise to an aromatic network, but, under shear, the network breaks apart and flows. This is viewed as a yielding of the structure. The higher the shear rate, the earlier the yielding occurs, such that if the shear rate is low enough, the structure is able to build. Also, further into resolidification lower shear rates are able to break the structure. It is proposed that resolidification occurs through the formation of aromatic clusters that grow and become crosslinked by non-covalent interactions. As the clusters grow, the amount of liquid surrounding them decreases and it is thought that the non-covalent interactions between clusters and liquid could decrease and the ability of growing clusters to move past each other increases, which would explain the weakening of the structure under shear. This work is part of a program of work aimed at attaining a greater understanding of microstructural changes taking place during carbonization for different coals, in order to understand the mechanisms that give rise to good quality cokes and coke oven problems such as excessive wall pressure.

Diaz, M.C.; Duffy, J.J.; Snape, C.E.; Steel, K.M. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

HPS replacement project drives garage costs down. [High-pressure sodium luminaires  

SciTech Connect

The high cost of energy had forced a four-story New York airport parking garage to turn off almost half its low bay lights, leaving it gloomy and vandal-prone. By replacing the original lamps with high-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires, the garage brightened its image with 2400 fewer fixtures and netted an annual energy savings of $60,000.

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

High Cost/High Risk Components to Chalcogenide Molded Lens Model: Molding Preforms and Mold Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This brief report contains a critique of two key components of FiveFocal's cost model for glass compression molding of chalcogenide lenses for infrared applications. Molding preforms and mold technology have the greatest influence on the ultimate cost of the product and help determine the volumes needed to select glass molding over conventional single-point diamond turning or grinding and polishing. This brief report highlights key areas of both technologies with recommendations for further study.

Bernacki, Bruce E.

2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

269

Potential of the heat pipe in coal gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

The declining production of natural gas in the United States has provided great impetus to the development of economcal methods of producing methane from coal. Coal gasification systems share in common a need for highly efficient heat transfer and energy recovery methods in order to maximize the coal-methane conversion efficiency. Characteristics of heat pipe heat transfer units that offer potential for increasing conversion efficiency and/or reducing production costs include: (1) complete physical separation of process streams, (2) capability of handling more than two process streams in a single unit, (3) heat removal at near-constant temperature, (4) high heat recovery efficiency, (5) low operating cost-with no requirement for auxiliary power, and (6) relative ease of cleaning. Design concepts incorporating heat pipes into indirect coal gasification units, methanators, and energy recovery units are presented and technological impediments that must be surmounted in the successful development of these units are discussed.

Ranken, W.A.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Infrastructure Costs Associated...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infrastructure Costs Associated with Central Hydrogen Production from Biomass and Coal Project Summary Full Title: Infrastructure Costs Associated with Central Hydrogen Production...

271

Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Amonix, Inc. Amonix, Inc. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix, Inc. A series of brief fact sheet on various topics including:Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation,High Efficiency Concentrating Photovoltaic Power System,Reaching Grid Parity Using BP Solar Crystalline Silicon Technology, Fully Integrated Building Science Solutions for Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Energy Generation,A Value Chain Partnership to Accelerate U.S. Photovoltaic Industry Growth,AC Module PV System,Flexible Organic Polymer-Based PV For Building Integrated Commercial Applications,Flexable Integrated PV System,Delivering Grid-Parity Solar Electricity On Flat Commercial Rooftops,Fully Automated Systems Technology, Concentrating Solar Panels: Bringing the Highest Power and Lowest Cost to

272

Assessing Risk in Costing High-energy Accelerators: from Existing Projects to the Future Linear Collider  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-energy accelerators are large projects funded by public money, developed over the years and constructed via major industrial contracts both in advanced technology and in more conventional domains such as civil engineering and infrastructure, for which they often constitute one-of markets. Assessing their cost, as well as the risk and uncertainty associated with this assessment is therefore an essential part of project preparation and a justified requirement by the funding agencies. Stemming from the experience with large circular colliders at CERN, LEP and LHC, as well as with the Main Injector, the Tevatron Collider Experiments and Accelerator Upgrades, and the NOvA Experiment at Fermilab, we discuss sources of cost variance and derive cost risk assessment methods applicable to the future linear collider, through its two technical approaches for ILC and CLIC. We also address disparities in cost risk assessment imposed by regional differences in regulations, procedures and practices.

Lebrun, Philippe

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Apparatus and method for feeding coal into a coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is directed to a system for feeding coal into a gasifier operating at high pressures. A coal-water slurry is pumped to the desired pressure and then the coal is "dried" prior to feeding the coal into the gasifier by contacting the slurry with superheated steam in an entrained bed dryer for vaporizing the water in the slurry.

Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV); Friggens, Gary R. (Morgantown, WV); McGee, James P. (Morgantown, WV)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems. Progress report, April 1--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a coal-fired, high-performance power system (HIPPS) was developed, and small-scale R and D was done in critical areas of the design. The current phase of the project includes development through the pilot plant stage and design of a prototype plant that would be built in Phase 3. The power-generating system being developed in this project will be an improvement over current coal-fired systems. It is a combined-cycle plant. This arrangement is referred to as the All Coal HIPPS because it does not require any other fuels for normal operation. A fluidized bed, air-blown pyrolyzer converts coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a high-temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which heats both air for a gas turbine and steam for a steam turbine. The fuel gas from the pyrolyzer goes to a topping combustor where it is used to raise the air entering the gas turbine to 1288 C. In addition to the HITAF, steam duty is achieved with a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) in the gas turbine exhaust stream and economizers in the HITAF flue gas exhaust stream. Progress during the quarter is described.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

275

Illinois coal/RDF coprocessing to produce high quality solids and liquids; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is the aim of this study to provide information pertinent to the development of a coal/RDF pyrolysis process capable of economically creating valuable products from high sulfur Illinois coal. This project will be carried out in a systematic manner. First, samples will be properly selected prepared, preserved and characterized. Then coals, various plastics, cellulose, and a high quality RDF will be pyrolyzed, steam pyrolyzed, hydro-pyrolyzed, and liquefied at various conditions. Next, blends of coal with various RDF components will be reacted under the same conditions. From this work synergistic effects will be identified and process parametric studies will be conducted on the appropriate mixtures and single components. Product quality and mass balances will be obtained on systems showing promise. Preliminary pyrolysis work will be conducted on a TGA. A Perkin Elmer TGA-7 Thermogravimetric Analyzer was employed to study pyrolysis. Significant interactions have been observed. Very preliminary microreactor experiments have been performed and the acquisition of some products for analysis has been achieved. Although, these results are preliminary they are also very encouraging.

Hippo, E.J.; Palmer, S.R.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Overview of coal conversion  

SciTech Connect

The structure of coal and the processes of coal gasification and coal liquefaction are reviewed. While coal conversion technology is not likely to provide a significant amount of synthetic fuel within the next several years, there is a clear interest both in government and private sectors in the development of this technology to hedge against ever-diminishing petroleum supplies, especially from foreign sources. It is evident from this rather cursory survey that there is some old technology that is highly reliable; new technology is being developed but is not ready for commercialization at the present state of development. The area of coal conversion is ripe for exploration both on the applied and basic research levels. A great deal more must be understood about the reactions of coal, the reactions of coal products, and the physics and chemistry involved in the various stages of coal conversion processes in order to make this technology economically viable.

Clark, B.R.

1981-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

277

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells and modeling the impact of system parameters on levelized cost of electricity .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this thesis is to develop low-cost high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells which are at the right intersection of cost and performance to… (more)

Kang, Moon Hee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kick-off Meeting, Kick-off Meeting, Wash. D.C - 10/01/2009 Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers Prime Contractor: W. L. Gore & Associates Elkton, MD Principal Investigator: William B. Johnson Sub-Contractor: dPoint Technologies Vancouver, BC W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. DOE Kick-off Meeting, Wash. D.C - 10/01/2009 Ahluwalia, et. al, ibid. Mirza, Z. DOE Hydrogen Program Review, June 9-13, 2008; Washington, DC Background W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. DOE Kick-off Meeting, Wash. D.C - 10/01/2009 Objective and Technical Barriers Addressed More efficient, low-cost humidifiers can increase fuel cell inlet humidity: Reduce system cost and size of balance of plant; Improve fuel cell performance; Improve fuel cell durability. OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate a durable, high performance water

280

Advanced Insulation for High Performance Cost-effective Wall, Roof, and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Advanced Insulation for High Performance Advanced Insulation for High Performance Cost-effective Wall, Roof, and Foundation Systems Research Project Advanced Insulation for High Performance Cost-effective Wall, Roof, and Foundation Systems Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into advanced insulation for high performance wall, roof, and foundation systems. Heat flows from hotter to colder spaces, and insulation is designed to resist this flow by keeping hot air out in the summer and in during the winter. Project Description This project seeks to develop high performing, durable, hydrofluorocarbon and hydrochlorofluorocarbons -free insulation with an R-value greater than 7.5-per-inch and a Class A fire performance. Project Partners Research is being undertaken between DOE and Dow Chemical.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high coal cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Materials cost evaluation report for high-power Li-ion batteries.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead federal agency in the partnership between the U.S. automobile industry and the federal government to develop fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) as part of the FreedomCAR Partnership. DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Office sponsors the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program--involving 5 of its national laboratories--to assist the industrial developers of high-power lithium-ion batteries to overcome the barriers of cost, calendar life, and abuse tolerance so that this technology can be rendered practical for use in HEV and FCEV applications under the FreedomCAR Partnership. In the area of cost reduction, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is working to identify and develop advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte components that can significantly reduce the cost of the cell chemistry, while simultaneously extending the calendar life and enhancing the inherent safety of this electrochemical system. The material cost savings are quantified and tracked via the use of a cell and battery design model that establishes the quantity of each material needed in the production of batteries that are designed to meet the requirements of a minimum-power-assist HEV battery or a maximum-power-assist HEV battery for the FreedomCAR Partnership. Similar models will be developed for FEV batteries when the requirements for those batteries are finalized. In order to quantify the material costs relative to the FreedomCAR battery cost goals, ANL uses (1) laboratory cell performance data, (2) its battery design model and (3) battery manufacturing process yields to create battery-level material cost models. Using these models and industry-supplied material cost information, ANL assigns battery-level material costs for different cell chemistries. These costs can then be compared with the battery cost goals to determine the probability of meeting the goals with these cell chemistries. As can be seen from the results of this materials cost study, a cell chemistry based on the use of a LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode material is lowest-cost and meets our battery-level material cost goal of <$250 for a 25-kW minimum-power-assist HEV battery. A major contributing factor is the high-rate capability of this material, which allows one to design a lower-capacity cell to meet the battery-level power and energy requirements. This reduces the quantities of the other materials needed to produce a 25-kW minimum-power-assist HEV battery. The same is true for the 40-kW maximum-power-assist HEV battery. Additionally, the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode is much more thermally and chemically stable than the LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} type cathode, which should enhance inherent safety and extend calendar life (if the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode can be stabilized against dissolution via HF attack). Therefore, we recommend that the FreedomCAR Partnership focus its research and development efforts on developing this type of low-cost high-power lithium-ion cell chemistry. Details supporting this recommendation are provided in the body of this report.

Henriksen, G. L.; Amine, K.; Liu, J.

2003-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

282

Materials cost evaluation report for high-power Li-ion batteries.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead federal agency in the partnership between the U.S. automobile industry and the federal government to develop fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) as part of the FreedomCAR Partnership. DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Office sponsors the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program--involving 5 of its national laboratories--to assist the industrial developers of high-power lithium-ion batteries to overcome the barriers of cost, calendar life, and abuse tolerance so that this technology can be rendered practical for use in HEV and FCEV applications under the FreedomCAR Partnership. In the area of cost reduction, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is working to identify and develop advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte components that can significantly reduce the cost of the cell chemistry, while simultaneously extending the calendar life and enhancing the inherent safety of this electrochemical system. The material cost savings are quantified and tracked via the use of a cell and battery design model that establishes the quantity of each material needed in the production of batteries that are designed to meet the requirements of a minimum-power-assist HEV battery or a maximum-power-assist HEV battery for the FreedomCAR Partnership. Similar models will be developed for FEV batteries when the requirements for those batteries are finalized. In order to quantify the material costs relative to the FreedomCAR battery cost goals, ANL uses (1) laboratory cell performance data, (2) its battery design model and (3) battery manufacturing process yields to create battery-level material cost models. Using these models and industry-supplied material cost information, ANL assigns battery-level material costs for different cell chemistries. These costs can then be compared with the battery cost goals to determine the probability of meeting the goals with these cell chemistries. As can be seen from the results of this materials cost study, a cell chemistry based on the use of a LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode material is lowest-cost and meets our battery-level material cost goal of battery. A major contributing factor is the high-rate capability of this material, which allows one to design a lower-capacity cell to meet the battery-level power and energy requirements. This reduces the quantities of the other materials needed to produce a 25-kW minimum-power-assist HEV battery. The same is true for the 40-kW maximum-power-assist HEV battery. Additionally, the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode is much more thermally and chemically stable than the LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} type cathode, which should enhance inherent safety and extend calendar life (if the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode can be stabilized against dissolution via HF attack). Therefore, we recommend that the FreedomCAR Partnership focus its research and development efforts on developing this type of low-cost high-power lithium-ion cell chemistry. Details supporting this recommendation are provided in the body of this report.

Henriksen, G. L.; Amine, K.; Liu, J.

2003-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

283

STEO November 2012 - coal supplies  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach record high in 2012. While U.S. coal production is down 7 percent this year due in part to utilities switching to low-priced natural gas to generate electricity, American coal is still finding plenty of buyers in overseas markets. U.S. coal exports are expected to hit a record 125 million tons in 2012, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says in its new monthly short-term energy outlook. Coal exports are expected to decline in 2013, primarily because of continuing economic weakness in Europe, lower international coal prices, and higher coal production in Asia. However, U.S. coal exports next year are still expected to top 100 million tons for the third year in a row

284

Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators. 4 figs.

Kuo, L.J.H.; Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Vasilow, T.R.; Bratton, R.J.

1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

285

Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators.

Kuo, Lewis J. H. (Monroeville, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Vasilow, Theodore R. (Penn Township, PA); Bratton, Raymond J. (Delmont, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Coal News and Markets - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal News and Markets Coal News and Markets Release Date: December 16, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 24, 2013 "Coal News and Markets Report" summarizes spot coal prices by coal commodity regions (i.e., Central Appalachia (CAPP), Northern Appalachia (NAPP), Illinois Basin (ILB), Powder River Basin (PRB), and Uinta Basin (UIB)) in the United States. The report includes data on average weekly coal commodity spot prices, total monthly coal production, eastern monthly coal production, electric power sector coal stocks, and average cost of metallurgical coal at coke plants and export docks. The historical data for coal commodity spot market prices are proprietary and not available for public release. Average weekly coal commodity spot prices (dollars per short ton)

287

Questions & Answers Solicitation to Address High Purchase Costs and Disposal Impacts of PEV Battery Packs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Questions & Answers Solicitation to Address High Purchase Costs and Disposal Impacts of PEV Battery Packs PON12501 1. Relating to both Research Topic Areas, at what stage of the research does the Energ Commission envision a battery manufacturer needing to be involved? y The Energy

288

The Effect of High Vanadium Content in Coal-Petcoke Mixtures on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of this, phase equilibria in synthetic slags (Al2O3-CaO-FeO-SiO2-V2O3) corresponding to industrial coal-petcoke feedstock blends under simulated ...

289

COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the last quarter, new procedures were developed and implemented to improve reliability and repeatability of release characteristics from the temporary substrate (i.e., silicon wafer) and to minimize through-thickness defects in a 6-inch diameter film, 3 microns in thickness. With the new procedures, we have been able to consistently produce essentially stress free films, with zero or minimal defects (less than 5) across a 6-inch diameter area. (It is important to note that for those films containing pinholes, a procedure has been developed to repair the pinholes to form a gas tight seal). The films are all within the identified tolerance range for composition (i.e., 60 {+-} 0.2 % Pd). A number of these films have subsequently been shipped to IdaTech for evaluation and integration into their test module. Colorado School of Mines continued their high temperature evaluation of 6 micron thick, sputtered Pd-Cu films. Pure hydrogen permeability increased up to 400 C while the membrane was in the {beta}-phase and dropped once the temperature increased to over 450 C. Above this temperature, as confirmed by the binary phase diagram, the film transforms into either a mixed {alpha}/{beta} or pure {alpha} phase. The same trend was observed for a baseline 25 micron-thick foil (from Wilkinson) where the pure hydrogen permeability increased with temperature while the membrane was in the {beta}-phase and then decreased upon transformation to the {alpha} phase.

B. Lanning; J. Arps

2005-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

290

Cost-Effective Method for Producing Self Supported Palladium Alloy Membranes for Use in Efficient Production of Coal Derived Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}) has utilized its expertise in large-area vacuum deposition methods to conduct research into the fabrication of dense, freestanding Pd-alloy membranes that are 3-5 microns thick and over 100 in{sup 2} in area. The membranes were deposited onto flexible and rigid supports that were subsequently removed and separated using novel techniques developed over the course of the project. Using these methods, the production of novel alloy compositions centered around the Pd-Cu system were developed with the objective of producing a thermally stable, nano-crystalline grain structure with the highest flux recorded as 242 SCFH/ft{sup 2} for a 2 {micro}m thick Pd{sub 53}Cu{sub 47} at 400 C and 20 psig feed pressure which when extrapolated is over twice the 2010 Department of Energy pure H{sub 2} flux target. Several membranes were made with the same permeability, but with different thicknesses and these membranes were highly selective. Researchers at the Colorado School of Mines supported the effort with extensive testing of experimental membranes as well as design and modeling of novel alloy composite structures. IdaTech provided commercial bench testing and analysis of SwRI-manufactured membranes. The completed deliverables for the project include test data on the performance of experimental membranes fabricated by vacuum deposition and several Pd-alloy membranes that were supplied to IdaTech for testing.

K. Coulter

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

291

Improved coal mining economics using near-face deshaling  

SciTech Connect

Coal extraction typically results in the recovery of pure rock that ranges from small to very large quantities, depending on seam thickness, existence of above-seam draw rock or in-seam partings and other characteristics. The removal of pure rock may allow for the recovery of three times the amount in middling coal particles, which has significant economic benefits. In an industrial example, a 150% increase in revenue was realized from deshaling a low-ash, run-of-mine coal and then blending it with a processed clean coal product. Deshaling is the process of removing relatively pure rock from coal, which normally involves a high-density separation in a gravity-based process. The removal of the relatively pure rock near the point of extraction has the potential to further enhance the economics of an operation due to reduced-materials handling and refuse storage costs.

Honaker, R.Q.; Luttrell, G.H.; Lineberry, G.T. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: high-temperature, high-pressure gas purification  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure optimum operating efficiencies for combined-cycle electric generating systems, it is necessary to provide gas treatment equipment capable of operating at high temperatures (>1000/sup 0/F) and high pressure (>10 atmospheres absolute). This equipment, when assembled in a process train, will be required to condition the inlet stream to a gas turbine to suitable levels of gas purity (removal of particulate matter, sulfur, nitrogen, and alkali metal compounds) so that it will be compatible with both environmental and machine constraints. In this work, a survey of the available and developmental equipment for the removal of particulate matter and sulfur compounds has been conducted. In addition, an analysis has been performed to evaluate the performance of a number of alternative process configurations in light of overall system needs. Results from this study indicate that commercially available, reliable, and economically competitive hot-gas cleanup equipment capable of conditioning raw product gas to the levels required for high-temperatue turbine operation will not be available for some time.

Meyer, J. P.; Edwards, M. S.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

EIA - Future role of the United States in world coal trade  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Future role of the United States in world coal trade Future role of the United States in world coal trade International Energy Outlook 2010 Future role of the United States in world coal trade U.S. coal exports increased each year from 2002 to 2008 at an average annual rate of 12.8 percent, to 82 million tons in 2008. Some analysts have viewed the sharp increase in U.S. exports as an indication of the growing importance of the United States as a world coal supplier. There has also been speculation that China's growing demand for coal will support this trend in the future. However, U.S. coal is a relatively high-cost supply source when shipped to Asian markets, and in the long term U.S. coal will be competing in the Chinese market with lower cost suppliers, notably Australia and Indonesia among others. U.S. exports compete most strongly in European markets and then only when less expensive options are unavailable. In IEO2010, the United States remains a marginal coal supplier over the long term, responding to short-term disruptions or spikes in demand rather than significantly expanding its market share of world coal trade.

294

Mortality in Appalachian coal mining regions: the value of statistical life lost  

SciTech Connect

We examined elevated mortality rates in Appalachian coal mining areas for 1979-2005, and estimated the corresponding value of statistical life (VSL) lost relative to the economic benefits of the coal mining industry. We compared age-adjusted mortality rates and socioeconomic conditions across four county groups: Appalachia with high levels of coal mining, Appalachia with lower mining levels, Appalachia without coal mining, and other counties in the nation. We converted mortality estimates to VSL estimates and compared the results with the economic contribution of coal mining. We also conducted a discount analysis to estimate current benefits relative to future mortality costs. The heaviest coal mining areas of Appalachia had the poorest socioeconomic conditions. Before adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual age-adjusted deaths in coal mining areas ranged from 3,975 to 10,923, depending on years studied and comparison group. Corresponding VSL estimates ranged from $18.563 billion to $84.544 billion, with a point estimate of $50.010 billion, greater than the $8.088 billion economic contribution of coal mining. After adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual deaths in mining areas ranged from 1,736 to 2,889, and VSL costs continued to exceed the benefits of mining. Discounting VSL costs into the future resulted in excess costs relative to benefits in seven of eight conditions, with a point estimate of $41.846 billion.

Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

Low rank fuels such as subbituminous coals and lignites contain significant amounts of moisture compared to higher rank coals. Typically, the moisture content of subbituminous coals ranges from 15 to 30 percent, while that for lignites is between 25 and 40 percent, where both are expressed on a wet coal basis. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit. High fuel moisture results in fuel handling problems, and it affects heat rate, mass rate (tonnage) of emissions, and the consumption of water needed for evaporative cooling. This project deals with lignite and subbituminous coal-fired pulverized coal power plants, which are cooled by evaporative cooling towers. In particular, the project involves use of power plant waste heat to partially dry the coal before it is fed to the pulverizers. Done in a proper way, coal drying will reduce cooling tower makeup water requirements and also provide heat rate and emissions benefits. The technology addressed in this project makes use of the hot circulating cooling water leaving the condenser to heat the air used for drying the coal (Figure 1). The temperature of the circulating water leaving the condenser is usually about 49 C (120 F), and this can be used to produce an air stream at approximately 43 C (110 F). Figure 2 shows a variation of this approach, in which coal drying would be accomplished by both warm air, passing through the dryer, and a flow of hot circulating cooling water, passing through a heat exchanger located in the dryer. Higher temperature drying can be accomplished if hot flue gas from the boiler or extracted steam from the turbine cycle is used to supplement the thermal energy obtained from the circulating cooling water. Various options such as these are being examined in this investigation. This is the eleventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, the development of analyses to determine the costs and financial benefits of coal drying was continued. The details of the model and key assumptions being used in the economic evaluation are described in this report.

Edward Levy

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Production of low-sulfur binder pitch from high-sulfur Illinois coals. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to produce electrode binder pitch with sulfur content below 0.6 wt% from high-sulfur Illinois coal mild gasification liquids. In this project, two approaches to sulfur reduction are being explored in conjunction with thermocracking: (1) the use of conventionally cleaned coal with low ({approximately}1%) sulfur as a mild gasification feedstock, and (2) direct biodesulfurization of the liquids prior to thermocracking. In Case 1, the crude pitch is being produced by mild gasification of IBC-109 coal in an existing IGT bench-scale reactor, followed by distillation of the scrubbing solvent and light-to-middle oils to isolate the crude pitch. In Case 2, the crude pitch for biodesulfurization is the same material previously studied, which was obtained from Illinois No. 6 coal tests conducted in the IGT mild gasification PRU in 1990. Biodesulfurization is to be performed by contacting the pitch with Rhodococcus Rhodochrous either as live cultures or in the form of concentrated biocatalyst. Following preparation of the crude pitches, pitch upgrading experiments are to be conducted in a continuous flash thermocracker (FTC) constructed in previous ICCI-sponsored studies. The finished pitch is then characterized for physical and chemical properties (density, softening point, QI, TI, coking value, and elemental composition), and compared to typical specifications for binder pitches. This quarter, 45 kg of IBC-109 coal was obtained and sized to 40 x 80 mesh for mild gasification. Laboratory experiments were conducted to identify means of dispersing or emulsifying pitch in water to render is accessible to biocatalysts, and exploratory desulfurization tests on one-gram pitch samples were begun.

Knight, R.A. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coals with refuse derived fuels were two-fold. First, the effects of different experimental parameters such as temperature, flow rates and reaction times on the formation of chlorinated organic compounds were studied using the tubular furnace as a reactor followed by GC/MS analysis. Secondly, the effect of fuel/air ratio on the flue gas composition and combustion efficiency were studied with the AFBC system.

Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

1996-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

298

FMAC: Coal-Handling Maintenance Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Coal Handling System Maintenance Guide provides fossil plant maintenance personnel with current maintenance information on this system. This report will assist plant maintenance personnel in improving the reliability of and reducing the maintenance costs for the coal handling system.

2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

299

Clean Coal Incentive Tax Credit (Kentucky)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Clean Coal Incentive Tax Credit provides for a property tax credit for new clean coal facilities constructed at a cost exceeding $150 million and used for the purposes of generating electricity....

300

Coal sector profile  

SciTech Connect

Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

1990-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

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301

Flat-plate solar collectors utilizing polymeric film for high performance and very low cost  

SciTech Connect

Polymeric films are used in the construction of the absorber and window portions of a flat plate solar collector. The absorber heat exchanger consists of a channeled liquid envelope constructed using a polymeric film and metal foil laminate. In addition, the composite films and light frame monocoque construction contribute to very light weight and low cost. The use of high-performance polymers permits low-loss designs with high thermal performance. The construction concepts are consistent with high speed mass production and installation with manufacturing cost projections of $15/m/sup 2/. Tests performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and elsewhere indicate performance potential consistent with applications incorporating solar absorption air conditioning.

Wilhelm, W.G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hybrid incremental cost estimates were developed based onsizing . Final incremental cost estimates ranged from $1,786Energy Savings Estimates and Cost Benefit Calculations for

Rainer, Leo I.; Hoeschele, Marc A.; Apte, Michael G.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, William J.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

THE COST OF MAINTENANCE TRANSFER UNDER LOAD TAP OF THE TRANSFORMERS POWER OF EXTRA HIGH VOLTAGE THE ELETRONORTE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this work a methodology for reduction of maintenance cost in the on-load tap changers (OLTC) of extra high voltage is proposed. The methodology is… (more)

RAIMUNDO NONATO ROSA FILHO

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

NETL: Major Demonstrations Clean Coal Related Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shelf Clean Coal Related Information Advanced Power Systems General Low-Emission Boiler System High-Performance Coal-Fired Power Systems Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from...

305

Establishing a Cost Basis for Converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor from High Enriched to Low Enriched Uranium Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the auspices of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program, the National Nuclear Security Administration /Department of Energy (NNSA/DOE) has, as a goal, to convert research reactors worldwide from weapons grade to non-weapons grade uranium. The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) is one of the candidates for conversion of fuel from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). A well documented business model, including tasks, costs, and schedules was developed to plan the conversion of HFIR. Using Microsoft Project, a detailed outline of the conversion program was established and consists of LEU fuel design activities, a fresh fuel shipping cask, improvements to the HFIR reactor building, and spent fuel operations. Current-value costs total $76 million dollars, include over 100 subtasks, and will take over 10 years to complete. The model and schedule follows the path of the fuel from receipt from fuel fabricator to delivery to spent fuel storage and illustrates the duration, start, and completion dates of each subtask to be completed. Assumptions that form the basis of the cost estimate have significant impact on cost and schedule.

Primm, Trent [ORNL; Guida, Tracey [University of Pittsburgh

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Alternative and innovative transport modes for moving US steam-coal exports to the Asian Pacific Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United States is well positioned to play an expanding role in meeting the energy demands of the Asian Pacific Basin (APB). US coal reserves, among the world's largest, contain vast amounts of surface-mineable coal in the West in addition to significant volumes in the Midwest and East. However, high inland-transportation costs and the relatively low calorific value of some Western coals have recently resulted in delivered prices exceeding those of the world market -- maintaining the United States as a marginal supplier in a market that now receives one-third of worldwide steam-coal exports. This study describes alternatives that might reduce these delivered costs, emphasizing transport modes for four regions and mentioning blending for a fifth: (1) subbituminous coals of the Powder River Basin (Wyoming and Montana), (2) bituminous coals of central Utah and Colorado, (3) bituminous and subbituminous coals of the Four Corners Region (where Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona meet), (4) bituminous and subbituminous coals of Alaska, and (5) bituminous coals of the Illinois Basin (Illinois, Indiana, and western Kentucky). It investigates innovative rail and ocean transport modes, coal-slurry pipelines, coal blends, and unconventional transport modes like overland conveyors and intermodal containers. It compares delivered prices under various scenarios, combining different transportation alternatives. 142 refs., 28 figs., 38 tabs.

Szpunar, C.B.; Kenkeremath, L.D.; Traczyk, P.A.; Brolick, H.J.; Heller, J.N.; Uttmark, G.F.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Coal: the new black  

SciTech Connect

Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Correlation of stability/rheology relationship with coal properties and chemical additives  

SciTech Connect

Coal-water slurry (CWS) is being considered as a near term replacement for oil in both industrial and utility applications. Selecting an economical, yet technically compatible feedstock for producing highly loaded CWS is important to the commercialization of CWS technology (1) Previous work has shown that the dispersing additives can represent a significant portion of CWS preparation cost (2). In an effort to establish a criteria for designing and preparing CWS for utilization, the relationships between coal properties and slurry quality must be determined. These relationships will enable the prediction of potential CWS quality for the particular coal candidate from some characteristic(s) of the coal. The coal content at a given viscosity varies for different coal(3). Thus, to develop a viable coal selection strategy using chemical surfactants as additives, the adsorption of these surfactants by the coal particle surface must be established. This work therefore, intends to screen a number of chemical surfactants and dispersants which can be used in the preparation of coal water slurry. The information derived from this screening together with the coal properties will be used to help develop a prescription to predict the stability of coal slurries.

Ohene, F.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

High Temperature Line Focus Central Receiver System cost and performance objectives  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DOE is currently funding a study to determine if recent advances in line focus technology provide this solar concept with an economic potential comparable to the first generation Point Focus central receiver system for generation of electricity. This report was prepared in support of this effort and has the following specific objectives: (1) Determine the High Temperature Line Focus System (HTLFS) performance and cost goals required for the system to be economically competitive with first generation PFS; (2) Identify HTLFS plant physical and operational characteristics; and (3) Determine HTLFS sensitivities to capital equipment cost and subsystem efficiencies. A simplified analytical model was developed to determine the annual electrical energy generating capabilities and the plant capacity factor while accounting for both the daily and annual variation in solar position. The PFS performance data were based on recent DOE studies, while the HTLFS performance was obtained from sources at the Jet Propulsion Laboratories and at the Stanford Research Institute. The performance models were combined with the standard DOE economic model to generate the annual cost of electricity in terms of mills/kWh. Both the PFS and HTLFS were analyzed with this model using identical performance, operational and economic ground rules. The performance and cost characteristics of both systems were determined and judgements are made on their comparative merits.

Coggi, J. V.

1978-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

310

Management of high sulfur coal combustion residues, issues and practices: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Papers presented at the following sessions are included in this proceedings: (1) overview topic; (2) characterization of coal combustion residues; (3) environmental impacts of residues management; (4) materials handling and utilization, Part I; and (5) materials handling and utilization, Part II. Selected paper have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Chugh, Y.P.; Beasley, G.A. [eds.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Process for producing a clean hydrocarbon fuel from high calcium coal  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for substantially reducing the amount of at least one insoluble fluoride-forming species selected from the group consisting of Group IA species and Group IIA species. The species is present in a coal feed material comprising: forming a slurry of a coal feed; a fluoride acid in an amount to produce a first molar concentration of free-fluoride-ions; at least one fluoride-complexing species, the total of all fluoride-complexing species in the slurry being present in an amount to produce a second molar concentration, the second molar concentration being at least equal to that amount such that the ratio of the first molar concentration to the second molar concentration is substantially equal to the stoichiometric ratio of fluoride in at least one tightly-bound complexion so as to from tightly-bound complexions with substantially all free-fluoride ions in the slurry to produce a leached coal product and a spent leach liquor; and separating the leached coal product from the spent leach liquor.

Kindig, J.K.

1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

312

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Co-PIs: Jia Wang, Miomir Vukmirovic, Kotaro Sasaki, Brookhaven National Laboratory Yang Shao-Horn Massachusetts Institute of Technology Rachel O'Malley, David Thompsett, Sarah Ball, Graham Hard Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells Radoslav Adzic Brookhaven National Laboratory DOE Projects Kickoff Meeting September 30 , 2009 2 Project Overview Project Overview 1. Objectives: Objectives: Developing high performance fuel cell electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) comprising contiguous Pt monolayer Pt monolayer on stable, inexpensive metal or alloy nanorods, nanowires, nanobars and

313

NETL: Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids - Solicitations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by Gasification. Small-Scale Coal-biomass to Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis; FE0010231 Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal...

314

Testing of FMI's Coal Upgrading Process  

SciTech Connect

WRI and FMI have collaborated to develop and test a novel coal upgrading technology. Proprietary coal upgrading technology is a fluidized bed-based continuous process which allows high through-puts, reducing the coal processing costs. Processing is carried out under controlled oxidizing conditions at mild enough conditions that compared to other coal upgrading technologies; the produced water is not as difficult to treat. All the energy required for coal drying and upgrading is derived from the coal itself. Under the auspices of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program, Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-98FT40323, a nominal 400 lbs/hour PDU was constructed and operated. Over the course of this project, several low-rank coals were successfully tested in the PDU. In all cases, a higher Btu, low moisture content, stable product was produced and subsequently analyzed. Stack emissions were monitored and produced water samples were analyzed. Product stability was established by performing moisture readsorption testing. Product pyrophobicity was demonstrated by instrumenting a coal pile.

Vijay Sethi

2009-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

315

High temperature millimeter wave radiometric and interferometric measurements of slag-refractory interaction for application to coal gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Millimeter wave (MMW) radiometry can be used for simultaneous measurement of emissivity and temperature of materials under extreme environments (high temperature, pressure, and corrosive environments) such as in slagging coal gasifiers, where sensors have been identified as a key enabling technology need for process optimization. We present a state-of-the-art dual-channel MMW heterodyne radiometer with active interferometric capability that allows simultaneous radiometric measurements of sample temperature, emissivity, and flow dynamics to over 1873 K. Interferometric capability is supplied via a probe signal originating from the 137 GHz radiometer local oscillator (LO). The interferometric 'video' channels allow measurement of additional parameters simultaneously, such as volume expansion, thickness change, and slag viscosity along with temperature or emissivity. This capability has been used to demonstrate measurement of temperature and simulated coal slag infiltration into a chromia refractory brick sample as well as slag flow down a vertically placed refractory brick. Observed phenomena include slag melting and slumping, slag reboil and foam with oxygen evolution, and eventual failure of the alumina crucible through corrosion by the molten slag. These results show the promise of the MMW system for extracting quantitative and qualitative process parameters from operating slagging coal gasifiers, providing valuable information for process efficiency, control, and increased productivity.

McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Woskov, Paul P.

2011-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

316

Capital and operating cost estimates. Volume I. Preliminary design and assessment of a 12,500 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant. [Grace C-M-G Plant, Henderson County, Kentucky  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Deliverable No. 18b - Capital and Operating Cost Estimates includes a detailed presentation of the 12,500 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant from the standpoint of capital, preoperations, start-up and operations cost estimation. The base capital cost estimate in June 1982 dollars was prepared by the Ralph M. Parsons Company under the direction of Grace. The escalated capital cost estimate as well as separate estimates for preoperations, startup and operations activities were developed by Grace. The deliverable consists of four volumes. Volume I contains details of methodology used in developing the capital cost estimate, summary information on a base June 1982 capital cost, details of the escalated capital cost estimate and separate sections devoted to preoperations, start-up, and operations cost. The base estimate is supported by detailed information in Volumes II, III and IV. The degree of detail for some units was constrained due to proprietary data. Attempts have been made to exhibit the estimating methodology by including data on individual equipment pricing. Proprietary details are available for inspection upon execution of nondisclosure and/or secrecy agreements with the licensors to whom the data is proprietary. Details of factoring certain pieces of equipment and/or entire modules or units from the 50,000 BPD capital estimate are also included. In the case of the escalated capital estimate, Grace has chosen to include a sensitivity analysis which allows for ready assessment of impacts of escalation rates (inflation), contingency allowances and the construction interest financing rates on the escalated capital cost. Each of the estimates associated with bringing the plant to commercial production rates has as a basis the schedule and engineering documentation found in Deliverable No. 14b - Process Engineering and Mechanical Design Report, No. 28b - Staffing Plans, No. 31b - Construction Plan, and No. 33b - Startup and Operation Plan.

Not Available

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the results of detailed monitoring completed under Program Element 6 of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's High Performance Commercial Building Systems (HPCBS) PIER program. The purpose of the Energy Simulations and Projected State-Wide Energy Savings project is to develop reasonable energy performance and cost models for high performance relocatable classrooms (RCs) across California climates. A key objective of the energy monitoring was to validate DOE2 simulations for comparison to initial DOE2 performance projections. The validated DOE2 model was then used to develop statewide savings projections by modeling base case and high performance RC operation in the 16 California climate zones. The primary objective of this phase of work was to utilize detailed field monitoring data to modify DOE2 inputs and generate performance projections based on a validated simulation model. Additional objectives include the following: (1) Obtain comparative performance data on base case and high performance HVAC systems to determine how they are operated, how they perform, and how the occupants respond to the advanced systems. This was accomplished by installing both HVAC systems side-by-side (i.e., one per module of a standard two module, 24 ft by 40 ft RC) on the study RCs and switching HVAC operating modes on a weekly basis. (2) Develop projected statewide energy and demand impacts based on the validated DOE2 model. (3) Develop cost effectiveness projections for the high performance HVAC system in the 16 California climate zones.

Rainer, Leo I.; Hoeschele, Marc A.; Apte, Michael G.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, Wlliam J.

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

EIA - Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2009 - Coal Market...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

of mining equipment, the cost of factor inputs (labor and fuel), and other mine supply costs. The key assumptions underlying the coal production modeling are: As capacity...

319

Aqueous coal slurry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A principal object of the invention is the provision of an aqueous coal slurry containing a dispersant, which is of low-cost and which contains very low or no levels of sodium, potassium, sulfur and other contaminants. In connection with the foregoing object, it is an object of the invention to provide an aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant and to provide a method of preparing an aqueous coal slurry which includes the step of adding an effective amount of dextrin as a dispersant. The invention consists of certain novel features and a combination of parts hereinafter fully described, and particularly pointed out in the appended claims. 6 tabs.

Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Swanson, W.W.

1989-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

320

Exploring Cost-Effective, High Performance Residential Retrofits for Affordable Housing in the Hot Humid Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2009, a Department of Energy Building America team led by the Florida Solar Energy Center began working with partners to find cost-effective paths for improving the energy performance of existing homes in the hot humid climate. A test-in energy audit and energy use modeling of the partner’s proposed renovation package was performed for 41 affordable and middle income foreclosed homes in Florida and Alabama. HERS1 Indices ranged from 92 to 184 with modeled energy savings ranging from 3% to 50% (average of 26%). Analyses and recommendations were discussed with partners to encourage more efficient retrofits, highlight health and safety issues, and gather feedback on incremental cost of high performance measures. Ten completed renovations have modeled energy savings ranging from 9% to 48% (average 31%.) This paper presents the project’s process including our findings thus far and highlights of the first home to meet the target HERS Index of 70.

McIlvaine, J.; Sutherland, K.; Chandra, S.; Schleith, K.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high coal cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Advanced Flywheel Composite Rotors: Low-Cost, High-Energy Density Flywheel Storage Grid Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: Boeing is developing a new material for use in the rotor of a low-cost, high-energy flywheel storage technology. Flywheels store energy by increasing the speed of an internal rotor —slowing the rotor releases the energy back to the grid when needed. The faster the rotor spins, the more energy it can store. Boeing’s new material could drastically improve the energy stored in the rotor. The team will work to improve the storage capacity of their flywheels and increase the duration over which they store energy. The ultimate goal of this project is to create a flywheel system that can be scaled up for use by electric utility companies and produce power for a full hour at a cost of $100 per kilowatt hour.

None

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Exploring Cost-Effective, High Performance Residential Retrofits for Affordable Housing in the Hot Humid Climate  

SciTech Connect

In 2009, a Department of Energy Building America team led by the Florida Solar Energy Center began working with partners to find cost-effective paths for improving the energy performance of existing homes in the hot humid climate. A test-in energy audit and energy use modeling of the partner's proposed renovation package was performed for 41 affordable and middle income foreclosed homes in Florida and Alabama. HERS1 Indices ranged from 92 to 184 with modeled energy savings ranging from 3% to 50% (average of 26%). Analyses and recommendations were discussed with partners to encourage more efficient retrofits, highlight health and safety issues, and gather feedback on incremental cost of high performance measures. Ten completed renovations have modeled energy savings ranging from 9% to 48% (average 31%.) This paper presents the project's process including our findings thus far and highlights of the first home to meet the target HERS Index of 70.

McIlvaine, Janet; Sutherland, Karen; Schleith, Kevin; Chandra, Subrato

2010-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

323

Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels  

SciTech Connect

This report provides background information about (1) the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of high-voltage transmission lines at typical voltages and line configurations and (2) typical transmission line costs to assist on alternatives in environmental documents. EMF strengths at 0 {+-} 200 ft from centerline were calculated for ac overhead lines, and for 345 and 230-kV ac underground line and for a {+-}450-kV dc overhead line. Compacting and height sensitivity factors were computed for the variation in EMFs when line conductors are moved closer or raised. Estimated costs for the lines are presented and discussed so that the impact of using alternative strategies for reducing EMF strengths and the implications of implementing the strategies can be better appreciated.

Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 1999 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

coal.gif (4423 bytes) coal.gif (4423 bytes) The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Model Documentation: Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System, DOE/EIA-MO60. Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Separate supply curves are developed for each of 11 supply regions, and 12 coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade, sulfur content, and mine type). The modeling approach used to construct regional coal supply curves addresses the relationship between the minemouth price of coal and corresponding levels of coal production, labor productivity, and the cost of factor inputs (mining equipment, mine labor, and fuel requirements).

325

Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation for Coal Gasifiers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation for Coal Gasifiers Description Accurate temperature measurement inside a coal gasifier is essential for safe, efficient, and cost-effective operation. However, current sensors are prone to inaccurate readings and premature failure due to harsh operating conditions like high temperature (1,200-1,600 °C), high pressure (up to 500 pounds per square inch gauge [psig]),

326

NETL: Coal and Power Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Systems Systems Technologies Coal and Power Systems Advancing our Nation's Portfolio of Coal RD&D Technologies - Rotating Images Advancing our Nation's Portfolio of Coal RD&D Technologies - Read More! Focus of NETL RD&D RD&D efforts in coal and power systems fall into three categories: Technologies that enable existing coal power plants to cost-effectively meet environmental requirements. NETL and its research partners are developing environmental control technologies for retrofitting existing power plants, with application to new plants as well. Key areas of research include cost-effective control of mercury, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and fine particulate emissions; beneficial uses for coal utilization byproducts; and innovations to minimize the impact of

327

Recovery Act: Low-Cost, Highly Lambertian Reflector Composite For Improved LED Fixture Efficiency and Lifetime  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the program was to demonstrate a 98% or greater reflective, highly diffuse, low-cost composite material that significantly improves luminaire efficiency, is able to withstand 50,000 hours or greater luminaire operation under expected LED system thermal and environmental operating extremes and meets the cost targets required to be an effective commercial solution for the Solid State Lighting industry. This project met most of the goals defined and contributed to the understanding of high reflectance, white coatings. Research under this program increased the understanding of coatings development using particle size reduction techniques and preparation of coating solutions with a broad range of particle types. The research explored scale-up of coating systems and generated understanding of processing required for high volume manufacturing applications. The work demonstrated how coating formulation and application technique can translate to material durability and LED system lifetime. The research also demonstrated improvements in lighting efficiency to be gained using high reflectance white coatings.

Teather, Eric

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

High Speed Trains for California (Volume II: Detailed Segment Descriptions, Cost Estimates, and Travel Time Calculations)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

~ o~ CalSpeed:Capital Cost Estimates OAKLAND-RICHMOND (SP r/minutes). CalSpeed:Capital Cost Estimates HERCULES-FAIRFIELDCalSpeed:Capital Cost Estimates GRAPEVINE:5.0% ALTERNATIVE

Hall, Peter; Leavitt, Dan; Vaca, Erin

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Production of low sulfur binder pitich from high-sulfur Illinois coals. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to produce electrode binder pitch with sulfur content below 0.6 wt% from high-sulfur Illinois coal mild gasification liquids. Previously, flash thermocracking (FTC) was used to successfully upgrade the properties of mild gasification pitch, yielding a suitable blending stock for use as a binder in the production of carbon electrodes for the aluminum industry. However, in pitches from high-sulfur (4%) Illinois coal, the pitch sulfur content (2%) was still higher than preferred. In this project two approaches to sulfur reduction are being explored in conjunction with FTC: (1) the use of a moderate-sulfur (1.2%) Illinois coal as mild gasification feedstock, and (2) direct biodesulfurization of the liquids from high-sulfur coal prior to FTC. In Case 1, the liquids are being produced by mild gasification of IBC-109 coal in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor, followed by distillation to isolate the crude pitch. In Case 2, biodesulfurization with Rhodococcus Rhodochrous IGTS8 biocatalyst is being performed on crude pitch obtained from Illinois No. 6 coal tests conducted in the IGT MILDGAS PRU in 1990. Following preparation of the crude pitches, pitch upgrading experiments are being conducted in a continuous FTC reactor constructed in previous ICCI-sponsored studies. This quarter, mild gasification of IBC-109 coal was completed, producing 450 g of coal liquids, which were then distilled to recover 329 g of Case 1 crude pitch. Next month, the pitch will be subjected to FTC treatment and evaluated. Biodesulfurization experiments were performed on Case 2 pitch dispersed in l-undecanol, resulting in sulfur reductions of 15.1 to 21.4%. This was marginally lower than the 24.8% desulfurization obtained in l-dodecanol, but separation of pitch from the dispersant was facilitated by the greater volatility of l-undecanol.

Knight, R.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

330

Production of High Quality Dust Control Foam to Minimize Moisture Addition to Coal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Foam is displacing wet suppression as the method of choice for controlling fugitive emissions from coal. Coal treated by wet suppression consumes through moisture addition, a heat energy equivalent of 1 ton out of every 500 tons fired. The application of foam requires less than 10% of the moisture usually required for wet suppression. In addition, foam is a much more effective dust suppressant, especially on respirable dust (particle with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns). To achieve maximum benefit from foam dust control, efficient on-site production of dry, stable foam is required. This paper discusses the basics of foam production and the many variables affecting foam expansion ratios. Successful applications of foam are also described.

Termine, F.; Jordan, S. T.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

High Temperature Electrochemical Polishing of H(2)S from Coal Gasification Process Streams.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide from coal gasification streams through an electrochemical membrane is being perfected. H{sub 2}S is removed from a synthetic gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the exiting syngas, and sulfur, which is condensed downstream from an inert sweep gas stream. The process allows for continuous removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream while allowing negligible pressure loss through the separator. Moreover, the process is economically attractive due to the elimination of the need for a Claus process for sulfur recovery. To this extent the project presents a novel concept for improving utilization of coal for more efficient power generation.

Winnick, J.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

332

System Evaluations and Life-Cycle Cost Analyses for High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Facilities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results of system evaluations and lifecycle cost analyses performed for several different commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) hydrogen production concepts. The concepts presented in this report rely on grid electricity and non-nuclear high-temperature process heat sources for the required energy inputs. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate both central plant designs for large-scale hydrogen production (50,000 kg/day or larger) and forecourt plant designs for distributed production and delivery at about 1,500 kg/day. The HYSYS software inherently ensures mass and energy balances across all components and it includes thermodynamic data for all chemical species. The optimized designs described in this report are based on analyses of process flow diagrams that included realistic representations of fluid conditions and component efficiencies and operating parameters for each of the HTE hydrogen production configurations analyzed. As with previous HTE system analyses performed at the INL, a custom electrolyzer model was incorporated into the overall process flow sheet. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the average Nernst potential, cell operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet steam, hydrogen, and sweep-gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The lifecycle cost analyses were performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. There are standard default sets of assumptions that the methodology uses to ensure consistency when comparing the cost of different production or plant design options. However, these assumptions may also be varied within the spreadsheets when better information is available or to allow the performance of sensitivity studies. The selected reference plant design for this study was a 1500 kg/day forecourt hydrogen production plant operating in the thermal-neutral mode. The plant utilized industrial natural gas-fired heaters to provide process heat, and grid electricity to supply power to the electrolyzer modules and system components. Modifications to the reference design included replacing the gas-fired heaters with electric resistance heaters, changing the operating mode of the electrolyzer (to operate below the thermal-neutral voltage), and considering a larger 50,000 kg/day central hydrogen production plant design. Total H2A-calculated hydrogen production costs for the reference 1,500 kg/day forecourt hydrogen production plant were $3.42/kg. The all-electric plant design using electric resistance heaters for process heat, and the reference design operating below the thermal-neutral voltage had calculated lifecycle hydrogen productions costs of $3.55/kg and $5.29/kg, respectively. Because of its larger size and associated economies of scale, the 50,000 kg/day central hydrogen production plant was able to produce hydrogen at a cost of only $2.89/kg.

Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

A COMPARISON OF THE NUCLEAR DEFENSE CAPABILITIES ON NUCLEAR AND COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS. FUEL COST STUDY VARIOUS REACTORS AT 100 AND 300 Mwe  

SciTech Connect

Appendices C and D may further be identified as SL1925 and CF-61-12- 20(Rev.), respectively. A comparative report is presented in which the economics and feasibility of plant protection from nuclear attack by plant hardening, remote siting, and utilization of optional fueling concepts for the coal-fired plant are evaluated. (J.R.D.)

Gift, E.H.

1962-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

334

Market Effects of Environmental Regulation: Coal, Railroads and the 1990 Clean Air Act  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a lower heat content, coal blending typically also reducess . The cost of blending low-sulfur coals is re?ected in the

Busse, Meghan R.; Keohane, Nathaniel O.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

A centurial history of technological change and learning curves or pulverized coal-fired utility boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Japan, where higher coal prices justi?ed the higher costof the total O&M cost and the coal price remained relatively

Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

High Energy Density Utracapacitors: Low-Cost, High Energy and Power Density, Nanotube-Enhanced Ultracapacitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: FastCAP is improving the performance of an ultracapacitor—a battery-like electronic device that can complement, and possibly even replace, an HEV or EV battery pack. Ultracapacitors have many advantages over conventional batteries, including long lifespans (over 1 million cycles, as compared to 10,000 for conventional batteries) and better durability. Ultracapacitors also charge more quickly than conventional batteries, and they release energy more quickly. However, ultracapacitors have fallen short of batteries in one key metric: energy density—high energy density means more energy storage. FastCAP is redesigning the ultracapacitor’s internal structure to increase its energy density. Ultracapacitors traditionally use electrodes made of irregularly shaped, porous carbon. FastCAP’s ultracapacitors are made of tiny, aligned carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide a regular path for ions moving in and out of the ultracapacitor’s electrode, increasing the overall efficiency and energy density of the device.

None

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Determination of the effects caused by different polymers on coal fluidity during carbonization using high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry  

SciTech Connect

The effects of blending polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET), a flexible polyurethane (FPU), and a car shredded fluff waste (CSF) on fluidity development of a bituminous coal during carbonization have been studied by means of high-torque, small-amplitude controlled-strain rheometry and in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The most detrimental effects were caused by PET and PS, which completely destroyed the fluidity of the coal. The CSF had a deleterious effect on coal fluidity similar to that of PET, although the deleterious effect on the viscoelastic properties of the coal were less pronounced than those of PET and PS. On the contrary, the addition of 10 wt % PE caused a slight reduction in the concentration of fluid hydrogen and an increase in the minimum complex viscosity, and the addition of 10 wt % FPU reduced the concentration of fluid hydrogen without changing the viscoelastic properties of the coal. Although these results suggest that these two plastics could potentially be used as additives in coking blends without compromising coke porosity, it was found that the semicoke strengths were reduced by adding 2 wt % FPU and 5 wt % PE. Therefore, it is unlikely that more than 2 wt % of a plastic waste could be added to a coal blend without deterioration in coke quality. 35 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Miguel Castro Diaz; Lucky Edecki; Karen M. Steel; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape [Nottingham University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Katzer #12;CHARGE TO THE ALTF PANEL · Evaluate technologies for converting biomass and coal to liquid for liquid fuels produced from coal or biomass. · Evaluate environmental, economic, policy, and social

339

HybridStore: A Cost-Efficient, High-Performance Storage System Combining SSDs and HDDs  

SciTech Connect

Unlike the use of DRAM for caching or buffering, certain idiosyncrasies of NAND Flash-based solid-state drives (SSDs) make their integration into existing systems non-trivial. Flash memory suffers from limits on its reliability, is an order of magnitude more expensive than the magnetic hard disk drives (HDDs), and can sometimes be as slow as the HDD (due to excessive garbage collection (GC) induced by high intensity of random writes). Given these trade-offs between HDDs and SSDs in terms of cost, performance, and lifetime, the current consensus among several storage experts is to view SSDs not as a replacement for HDD but rather as a complementary device within the high-performance storage hierarchy. We design and evaluate such a hybrid system called HybridStore to provide: (a) HybridPlan: improved capacity planning technique to administrators with the overall goal of operating within cost-budgets and (b) HybridDyn: improved performance/lifetime guarantees during episodes of deviations from expected workloads through two novel mechanisms: write-regulation and fragmentation busting. As an illustrative example of HybridStore s ef cacy, HybridPlan is able to nd the most cost-effective storage con guration for a large scale workload of Microsoft Research and suggest one MLC SSD with ten 7.2K RPM HDDs instead of fourteen 7.2K RPM HDDs only. HybridDyn is able to reduce the average response time for an enterprise scale random-write dominant workload by about 71% as compared to a HDD-based system.

Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Gupta, Aayush [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Urgaonkar, Bhuvan [Pennsylvania State University; Piotr, Berman [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Sivasubramaniam, Anand [Pennsylvania State University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Project Cost Management in the Israeli High-Tech Industry: State of the Practice and Perceived Needs*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost management is a topic of main interest in the area of project management. This paper reports on an exploratory study designed to ascertain the current state of the practice in the area of project cost management among Israeli high technology firms. Three main issues were examined: (1) the extent by which project managers implement various cost management tools and techniques; (2) project managers ’ perceptions of the contribution of various cost management tools to improvement of the organization's cost management system; (3) project managers ' perception of the usefulness of the organization's cost management tools and cost management system in promoting its needs. Data was collected with a structured questionnaire administered to a sample of 31 high-tech companies or divisions of large companies in Israel. The respondents were high-level senior project managers or managers of departments or units whose main activity is project management. Following the statistical analysis of the data we point out several directions for further development. Project Cost Management in the Israeli High-Tech Industry: 1.

Joseph Aharony; Dan Elnathan; Tzvi Raz; Joseph Aharony; Dan Elnathan; Tzvi Raz

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high coal cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production from Coal Derived Syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goals of Office of Clean Coal are: (1) Improved energy security; (2) Reduced green house gas emissions; (3) High tech job creation; and (4) Reduced energy costs. The goals of the Hydrogen from Coal Program are: (1) Prove the feasibility of a 40% efficient, near zero emissions IGCC plant that uses membrane separation technology and other advanced technologies to reduce the cost of electricity by at least 35%; and (2) Develop H{sub 2} production and processing technologies that will contribute {approx}3% in improved efficiency and 12% reduction in cost of electricity.

O.N. Dogan; B.H. Howard; D.E. Alman

2012-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

342

Low-Cost High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership (TPP) program, Amonix, Inc. developed a new generation of high-concentration photovoltaic systems using multijunction technology and established the manufacturing capacity needed to supply multi-megawatt power plants buing using the new Amonix 7700-series solar energy systems. For this effort, Amonix Collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete project tasks. Subcontractors included: Evonik/Cyro; Hitek; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Raytech; Spectrolab; UL; University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and TUV Rheinland PTL. The Amonix TPP tasks included: Task 1: Multijunction Cell Optimization for Field Operation, Task 2: Fresnel Lens R&D, Task 3: Cell Package Design & Production, Task 4: Standards Compliance and Reliability Testing, Task 5: Receiver Plate Production, Task 6: MegaModule Performance, Task 7: MegaModule Cost Reduction, Task 8: Factory Setup and MegaModule Production, Task 9: Tracker and Tracking Controller, Task 10: Installation and Balance of System (BOS), Task 11: Field Testing, and Task 12: Solar Advisor Modeling and Market Analysis. Amonix's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain from epitaxial layer design and wafer processing through system design, manufacturing, deployment and O&M. Amonix has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of its 28%+ efficient MegaModule, reduced manufacturing and installation cost through design for manufacturing and assembly, automated manufacturing processes, and reduced O&M costs. Program highlights include: (1) Optimized multijunction cell and cell package design to improve performance by > 10%; (2) Updated lens design provided 7% increased performance and higher concentration; (3) 28.7% DC STC MegaModule efficiency achieved in Phase II exceeded Phase III performance goal; (4) New 16' focal length MegaModule achieved target materials and manufacturing cost reduction; (5) Designed and placed into production 25 MW/yr manufacturing capacity for complete MegaModules, including cell packages, receiver plates, and structures with lenses; (6) Designed and deployed Amonix 7700 series systems rated at 63 kW PTC ac and higher. Based on an LCOE assessment using NREL's Solar Advisor Model, Amonix met DOE's LCOE targets: Amonix 2011 LCOE 12.8 cents/kWh (2010 DOE goal 10-15); 2015 LCOE 6.4 cents/kWh (2015 goal 5-7) Amonix and TPP participants would like to thank the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technology Program for funding received under this program through Agreement No. DE-FC36-07GO17042.

McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Gordon, R.; Dutra, D.; Kinsey, G.; Geer, S.; Gomez, H.; Cameron, C.

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

343

Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the projects funded did not meet their original goals, the overall objectives of the CPCPC were completed as many new applications for coal-derived feedstocks have been researched. Future research in many of these areas is necessary before implementation into industry.

Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … High-Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-Offs Production Builders  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

projects with production builders have demonstrated projects with production builders have demonstrated that high-performance homes experience significant cost trade-offs that offset other cost increases. This proved transformational, gaining builder traction with related market-based programs like ENERGY STAR for Homes and DOE Challenge Home. "Break points" or cost trade-offs that are identified during the engineering analysis of the residential construction process can yield two types of business savings: 1) reductions in costs of warranty and call-back service; and 2) offsets or "credits" attributed to reductions in other construction costs. The tables below show examples of cost and savings trade-offs experienced by Building America projects in hot-dry and cold climates. Energy-Efficiency

345

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. During the first phase of this project a number of the objectives were realized, specifically: (1) a blast furnace sampling system was developed and used successfully to collect samples inside an active furnace; (2) two sets of blast furnace samples were collected and petrographic analysis showed that char derived from injected coal is entering the reduction zone of the furnace; (3) a coal/char sampling probe was designed and fabricated; (4) the completion of a program of reactivity experiments on the injected coal char, blast furnace coke and Herrin No. 6 char. The results of the reactivity experiments indicate that Herrin No. 6 coal is similar or even superior to coals now being used in blast furnace injection and that additional testing is warranted.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

346

Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Byproducts can make coal plants green  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Co-locating ethanol plants at coal-burning sites, along with the use of biomass gasification to boost coal-fired plant output, can have positive economic and environmental benefits. Adding a biomass gasifier to an older coal-fired plant would inject gas with up to 10% of the fuel value in the coal and increase steam generation by the same amount. Sawdust can be injected as a reburn fuel without the need for gasification. A pre-scrubber would be added before the existing SO{sub 2} scrubber and waste heat from the boiler in the form of low-pressure steam would be sent to a co-located ethanol plant. This would lead to a decrease in emissions of NOx, mercury and SO{sub 2}, less mercury in the gypsum, a large greenhouse gas reduction, reduced net fuel cost, and revenue from hydrochloric acid by- product and from selling low-pressure steam to the ethanol plant. The Blue Flint Ethanol facility uses waste heat from Grand River Energy's 1,100 MW Coal Creek Station in South Jordan, Utah. The new generation of US ethanol plants is likely to use switchgrass and other cellulosic materials as feedstock. Straw and other forms of biomass have high chlorine content. PVC waste can be added to optimise the chlorine content of the scrubber. A chlorine pre-scrubber before the SO{sub 2} scrubber would capture HCl. 1 fig., 1 photo.

McIlvaine, B. [McIlvaine Co. (United States)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H2 separation from other light gases (CO2, CH4, CO). However, current zeolite membranes have either too big zeolite pores or a large number of defects and have not been successful for H2 separation from light gases. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H2 separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO2 and CH4 adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H2 selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO2, CH4, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 were permeated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one B-ZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO2 separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H2/CH4 separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated BZSM-5 membrane was activated with activation energy of {approx}10 kJ/mol, but the CO2 and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H2 permeance and H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 separation selectivities increased with temperature. At 673 K, the H2 permeance was 1.0x10-7 mol{center_dot}m-2{center_dot}s-1{center_dot}Pa-1, and the H2/CO2 separation selectivity was 47. Above 673 K, the silylated membrane catalyzed reverse water gas shift reaction and still separated H2 with high selectivity; and it was thermally stable. However, silylation decreased H2 permeance more than one order of magnitude. Increasing the membrane feed pressure increased the H2 flux and the H2 mole fraction in the permeate stream for both H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 mixtures. The H2 separation performance of the silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes depended on the initial membrane quality and acidity, as well as the silane precursors. Another approach used in this study is optimizing the synthesis of small-pore SAPO-34 (CHA) membranes and/or modifying SAPO-34 membranes by silylation or ion exchange. For SAPO-34 membranes, strong CO2 adsorption inhibited H2 adsorption and decreased H2 permeances, especially at low temperatures. At 253 K, CO2/H2 separation selectivities of a SAPO-34 membrane were greater than 100 with CO2 permeances of about 3 x 10-8 mol{center_dot}m-2{center_dot}s-1{center_dot}Pa-1. The high reverse-selectivity of the SAPO-34 membranes can minimize H2 recompression because H2 remained in the retentate stream at a higher pressure. The CO2/H2 separation selectivity exhibited a maximum with CO2 feed concentration possibly caused by a maximum in the CO2/H2 sorption selectivity with increased CO2 partial pressure. The SAPO-34 membrane separated H2 from CH4 because CH4 is close to the SAPO-34 pore size so its diffusivity (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

Mei Hong; Richard Noble; John Falconer

2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

349

PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION FROM COAL-DERIVED GAS STREAMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For hydrogen from coal gasification to be used economically, processing approaches that produce a high purity gas must be developed. Palladium and its alloys, nickel, platinum and the metals in Groups 3 to 5 of the Periodic Table are all permeable to hydrogen. Hydrogen permeable metal membranes made of palladium and its alloys are the most widely studied due to their high hydrogen permeability, chemical compatibility with many hydrocarbon containing gas streams, and infinite hydrogen selectivity. Our Pd composite membranes have demonstrated stable operation at 450 C for over 70 days. Coal derived synthesis gas will contain up to 15000 ppm H{sub 2}S as well as CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and other gases. Highly selectivity membranes are necessary to reduce the H{sub 2}S concentration to acceptable levels for solid oxide and other fuel cell systems. Pure Pd-membranes are poisoned by sulfur, and suffer from mechanical problems caused by thermal cycling and hydrogen embrittlement. Recent advances have shown that Pd-Cu composite membranes are not susceptible to the mechanical, embrittlement, and poisoning problems that have prevented widespread industrial use of Pd for high temperature H{sub 2} separation. These membranes consist of a thin ({le} 5 {micro}m) film of metal deposited on the inner surface of a porous metal or ceramic tube. With support from this DOE Grant, we have fabricated thin, high flux Pd-Cu alloy composite membranes using a sequential electroless plating approach. Thin, Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} films exhibit a hydrogen flux more than ten times larger than commercial polymer membranes for H{sub 2} separation, resist poisoning by H{sub 2}S and other sulfur compounds typical of coal gas, and exceed the DOE Fossil Energy target hydrogen flux of 80 ml/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min = 0.6 mol/m{sup 2} {center_dot} s for a feed pressure of 40 psig. Similar Pd-membranes have been operated at temperatures as high as 750 C. We have developed practical electroless plating procedures for fabrication of thin Pd-Cu composite membranes at any scale.

J. Douglas Way

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Coal Utilization Science Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Utilization SCienCe Program Coal Utilization SCienCe Program Description The Coal Utilization Science (CUS) Program sponsors research and development (R&D) in fundamental science and technology areas that have the potential to result in major improvements in the efficiency, reliability, and environmental performance of advanced power generation systems using coal, the Nation's most abundant fossil fuel resource. The challenge for these systems is to produce power in an efficient and environmentally benign manner while remaining cost effective for power providers as well as consumers. The CUS Program is carried out by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program supports DOE's Strategic Plan to:

351

Oil and Gas Lease Equipment and Operating Costs 1986 Through 2001  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Water handling costs are a major factor in coal bed methane operating costs and partially account for the difference in operating costs. Items tracked

352

Status of METC investigations of coal gas desulfurization at high temperature. [Zinc ferrite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the continuing effort at the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process for coal-derived gas, primarily for application to molten carbonate fuel cells. Metal oxide sorbents were tested on lab-scale test equipment, and it was determined that scale-up of the process was warranted. A larger, skid-mounted test unit was therefore designed, constructed, and installed on a sidestream of the DOE/METC fixed-bed gasifier. A first series of tests was conducted during Gasifier Run 101. These tests served to shake down the test unit, and provide data on the performance of the test unit operating on coal-derived gas. Overall, the process operated well on fixed-bed, air-blown gasifier gas. Sulfur levels in exit dry gas were reduced to less than 10 ppM. Regeneration appears to restore the sulfur-removing capacity of the sorbent. Sorbent integrity was maintained during the test period, which incorporated three sulfidations. It is recommended that treatment of the regeneration offgas be investigated, and that testing and development of a system to reduce the sulfur in this gas to elemental sulfur be initiated. In addition, it is suggested that a multiple reactor system be planned for continuous operation, to allow for long-term tests of downstream users of desulfurized gas. 7 references, 18 figures, 9 tables.

Steinfeld, G.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GenSim)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GenSim) is a user-friendly, high-level dynamic simulation model that calculates electricity production costs for variety of electricity generation technologies, including: pulverized coal, gas combustion turbine, gas combined cycle, nuclear, solar (PV and thermal), and wind. The model allows the user to quickly conduct sensitivity analysis on key variables, including: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; and capacity factors. The model also includes consideration of a wide range of externality costs and pollution control options for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercury. Two different data sets are included in the model; one from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) and the other from Platt's Research Group. Likely users of this model include executives and staff in the Congress, the Administration and private industry (power plant builders, industrial electricity users and electric utilities). The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability of various generating technologies and their emissions trade-offs. The base case results, using the DOE data, indicate that in the absence of externality costs, or renewable tax credits, pulverized coal and gas combined cycle plants are the least cost alternatives at 3.7 and 3.5 cents/kwhr, respectively. A complete sensitivity analysis on fuel, capital, and construction time shows that these results coal and gas are much more sensitive to assumption about fuel prices than they are to capital costs or construction times. The results also show that making nuclear competitive with coal or gas requires significant reductions in capital costs, to the $1000/kW level, if no other changes are made. For renewables, the results indicate that wind is now competitive with the nuclear option and is only competitive with coal and gas for grid connected applications if one includes the federal production tax credit of 1.8cents/kwhr.

DRENNEN, THOMAS E.; KAMERY, WILLIAM

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GenSim).  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GenSim) is a user-friendly, high-level dynamic simulation model that calculates electricity production costs for variety of electricity generation technologies, including: pulverized coal, gas combustion turbine, gas combined cycle, nuclear, solar (PV and thermal), and wind. The model allows the user to quickly conduct sensitivity analysis on key variables, including: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; and capacity factors. The model also includes consideration of a wide range of externality costs and pollution control options for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercuty. Two different data sets are included in the model; one from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) and the other from Platt's Research Group. Likely users of this model include executives and staff in the Congress, the Administration and private industry (power plant builders, industrial electricity users and electric utilities). The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability of various generating technologies and their emissions trade-offs. The base case results, using the DOE data, indicate that in the absence of externality costs, or renewable tax credits, pulverized coal and gas combined cycle plants are the least cost alternatives at 3.7 and 3.5 cents/kwhr, respectively. A complete sensitivity analysis on fuel, capital, and construction time shows that these results coal and gas are much more sensitive to assumption about fuel prices than they are to capital costs or construction times. The results also show that making nuclear competitive with coal or gas requires significant reductions in capital costs, to the $1000/kW level, if no other changes are made. For renewables, the results indicate that wind is now competitive with the nuclear option and is only competitive with coal and gas for grid connected applications if one includes the federal production tax credit of 1.8cents/kwhr.

Kamery, William (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Clean coal technologies in Asia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Asia`s growing need for cleaner coal technology will likely translate into increased opportunities for independent developers and equipment suppliers. Coal is projected to play a central role in meeting Asia`s rapidly growing electric power demand. In order to minimize the negative effects of coal comsumption, the application of clean coal technologies (CCTs) will be increasingly important for the viability of coal-fired plants developed by independent power producers. The environmental impact of coal consumption has created a growing market for clean coal technologies in Asia. A study commissioned by the US DOE estimates the market for new and retrofit installation of coal facilities in Asia to be between $410 billion and $560 billion between 1993 and 2010. Actual expenditures for CCTs during the same period are likely to be much less, but still significant. Cost continues to be a factor limiting the more wide spread application of these technologies. In most cases, the application of CCTs leads to a 15 percent to 20 percent increase in capital costs and 10 to 20 percent in operating costs.

Evans, P.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Production of High Purity Hydrogen from Domestic Coal: Assessing the Techno-Economic Impact of Emerging Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production of High Purity Production of High Purity Hydrogen from Domestic Coal: Assessing the Techno-Economic Impact of Emerging Technologies August 30, 2010 DOE/NETL-2010/1432 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States (U.S.) government. Neither the U.S., nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily

358

An SAIC Report Prepared for The Indiana Center for Coal Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An SAIC Report Prepared for The Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research Indiana and Coal: Keeping Indiana Energy Cost Competitive June 2010 Submitted to: Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research Submitted by: Science Applications International Corporation

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

359

Reducing Electricity Cost Through Virtual Machine Placement in High Performance Computing Clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the data centers' energy consumptions, energy prices, and peak power prices, it becomes clear that we can two components: (1) the cost of energy consumed (energy price: $ per KWh), and (2) the cost. Unfortunately, these works did not consider energy prices, peak power costs, or any cooling issues

Bianchini, Ricardo

360

Low-Cost Substrates for High-Performance Nanorod Array LEDs  

SciTech Connect

The completed project, entitled â??Low-Cost Substrates for High-Performance Nanorod LEDs,â? targeted the goal of a phosphor-free nanorod-based white LED with IQE > 50% across the spectrum from 450 nm to 600 nm on metallized silicon substrates. The principal achievements of this project included: â?¢ Demonstration of (In,Ga)N nanopyramid heterostructures by a conventional OMVPE process. â?¢ Verification of complete filtering of threading dislocations to yield dislocation-free pyramidal heterostructures. â?¢ Demonstration of electroluminescence with a peak wavelength of ~600 nm from an (In,Ga)N nanopyramid array LED. â?¢ Development of a reflective ZrN/AlN buffer layer for epitaxial growth of GaN films and GaN nanopyramid arrays on (111)Si.

Sands, Timothy; Stach, Eric; Garcia, Edwin

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high coal cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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361

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Low Cost, Manufacturable High Voltage Power Module for ESS - Brandon Passmore, APEI  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

W. Research Center Blvd. * Fayetteville, AR 72701 * (479) 443-5759 W. Research Center Blvd. * Fayetteville, AR 72701 * (479) 443-5759 Design and Development of a Low Cost, Manufacturable High Voltage Power Module for Energy Storage Systems Phase I SBIR September 27, 2012 Brandon Passmore, PhD Sr. Electronics Packaging Research Engineer Email: bpassmo@apei.net Acknowledgements * I would like to thank Dr. Imre Gyuk of the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program and Dr. Stan Atcitty for technical support * I would also like to thank 2 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

362

Low cost alternative of high speed visible light camera for tokamak experiments  

SciTech Connect

We present design, analysis, and performance evaluation of a new, low cost and high speed visible-light camera diagnostic system for tokamak experiments. The system is based on the camera Casio EX-F1, with the overall price of approximately a thousand USD. The achieved temporal resolution is up to 40 kHz. This new diagnostic was successfully implemented and tested at the university tokamak GOLEM (R = 0.4 m, a = 0.085 m, B{sub T} < 0.5 T, I{sub p} < 4 kA). One possible application of this new diagnostic at GOLEM is discussed in detail. This application is tomographic reconstruction for estimation of plasma position and emissivity.

Odstrcil, T.; Grover, O.; Svoboda, V. [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Brehova 7, CZ-115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); Odstrcil, M.; Duran, I.; Mlynar, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Brehova 7, CZ-115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association Euratom-IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, CZ-182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Low-Cost, High-Performance Hybrid Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries - Hongxing Hu, Amsen Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DESIGN © 2008 DESIGN © 2008 www.PosterPresentations.com Low-Cost, High-Performance Hybrid Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries Hongxing Hu, Amsen Technologies LLC DOE SBIR Project, Program Manager at DOE: Dr. Imre Gyuk Objectives and Technical Approach Objectives: This SBIR project aims to develop low-cost, high performance hybrid polymeric PEMs for redox flow batteries (RFBs). Such membranes shall have high chemical stability in RFB electrolytes, high proton conductivity, low permeability of vanadium ions, along with high dimensional stability, high mechanical strength and durability, and lower cost than Nafion membranes. Approach: * Hybrid membranes of sulfonated polymers * Balance between different types of polymers for proton conductivity and chemical stability

364

U.S. coal outlook in Asia  

SciTech Connect

Coal exports from the US to Asia are declining over time as a result of (1) increased competition from coal suppliers within the Asia-Pacific region, (2) changing steel making technologies, (3) decreased emphasis on security of coal supplies, and (4) deregulation of the energy industry--particularly electric utilities. There are no major changes on the horizon that are likely to alter the role of the US as a modest coal supplier to the Asia-Pacific region. The downward trend in US coal exports to Asia is expected to continue over the 1997--2010 period. But economic and policy changes underway in Asia are likely to result in periodic coal shortages, lasting a few months to a year, and short term increased export opportunities for US coal. US coal exports to Asia are projected to fluctuate within the following ranges over the 2000--2010 period: 10--17 million tons in total exports, 6--12 million tons in thermal coal exports, and 4--9 million tons in coking coal exports. The most important role for US coal, from the perspective of Asian coal importing countries, is to ensure a major alternative source of coal supplies that can be turned to in the event of unforeseen disruptions in coal supplies from the Asia-Pacific region or South Africa. However, the willingness of consumers to pay a premium to ensure US export capacity is declining, with increased emphasis on obtaining the lowest cost coal supplies.

Johnson, C.J.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Science and Technology Gaps in Underground Coal Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an appropriate technology to economically access the energy resources in deep and/or unmineable coal seams and potentially to extract these reserves through production of synthetic gas (syngas) for power generation, production of synthetic liquid fuels, natural gas, or chemicals. India is a potentially good area for underground coal gasification. India has an estimated amount of about 467 billion British tons (bt) of possible reserves, nearly 66% of which is potential candidate for UCG, located at deep to intermediate depths and are low grade. Furthermore, the coal available in India is of poor quality, with very high ash content and low calorific value. Use of coal gasification has the potential to eliminate the environmental hazards associated with ash, with open pit mining and with greenhouse gas emissions if UCG is combined with re-injection of the CO{sub 2} fraction of the produced gas. With respect to carbon emissions, India's dependence on coal and its projected rapid rise in electricity demand will make it one of the world's largest CO{sub 2} producers in the near future. Underground coal gasification, with separation and reinjection of the CO{sub 2} produced by the process, is one strategy that can decouple rising electricity demand from rising greenhouse gas contributions. UCG is well suited to India's current and emerging energy demands. The syngas produced by UCG can be used to generate electricity through combined cycle. It can also be shifted chemically to produce synthetic natural gas (e.g., Great Plains Gasification Plant in North Dakota). It may also serve as a feedstock for methanol, gasoline, or diesel fuel production and even as a hydrogen supply. Currently, this technology could be deployed in both eastern and western India in highly populated areas, thus reducing overall energy demand. Most importantly, the reduced capital costs and need for better surface facilities provide a platform for rapid acceleration of coal-gas-fired electric power and other high value products. In summary, UCG has several important economic and environmental benefits relevant to India's energy goals: (1) It requires no purchase of surface gasifiers, reducing capital expense substantially. (2) It requires no ash management, since ash remains in the subsurface. (3) It reduces the cost of pollution management and emits few black-carbon particulates. (4) It greatly reduces the cost of CO2 separation for greenhouse gas management, creating the potential for carbon crediting through the Kyoto Clean Development Mechanism. (5) It greatly reduces the need to mine and transport coal, since coal is used in-situ.

Upadhye, R; Burton, E; Friedmann, J

2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

366

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Low Cost, High Performance and Long Life Flow Battery Electrodes - Tom Stepien, Primus Power  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

With ARPA-E we optimized With ARPA-E we optimized * Adhesion * Current density * Duration * Catalytic coatings * Voltaic performance Goals * Cost-effectiveness * High-efficiency * Uniformity EnergyPod Low Cost, High Performance and Long Life Flow Battery Electrodes TM A Breakthrough In Distributed, Grid Scale Energy Storage ARPA-E has enabled Primus Power to create an innovative and technically advanced electrode Electrode Zinc Plating This, combined with our other advances has enabled us to create a unique flow battery system with ...  Low cost electrodes  Long life  High efficiency  Flexibility For...  Ubiquitous  Dispatchable  Cost effective ... grid-scale electrical energy storage to: * Accelerate renewable

367

COAL TRANSPORTATION - Volume 2: EASTERN RAIL/RIVER NETWORK  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quality and cost of coal transportation services are an important part of utility coal switching costs under acid rain legislation. This report addresses the capabilities of the major eastern rail carriers to handle increasing volumes of Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Low cost, single crystal-like substrates for practical, high efficiency solar cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well established that high efficiency (20%) solar cells can be routinely fabricated using single crystal photovoltaic (PV) materials with low defect densities. Polycrystalline materials with small grain sizes and no crystallographic texture typically result in reduced efficiences. This has been ascribed primarily to the presence of grain boundaries and their effect on recombination processes. Furthermore, lack of crystallographic texture can result in a large variation in dopant concentrations which critically control the electronic properties of the material. Hence in order to reproducibly fabricate high efficiency solar cells a method which results in near single crystal material is desirable. Bulk single crystal growth of PV materials is cumbersome, expensive and difficult to scale up. We present here a possible route to achieve this if epitaxial growth of photovoltaic materials on rolling-assisted-biaxially textured-substrates (RABiTS) can be achieved. The RABiTS process uses well-established, industrially scaleable, thermomechanical processing to produce a biaxially textured or single-crystal-like metal substrate with large grains (50-100 {mu}m). This is followed by epitaxial growth of suitable buffer layers to yield chemically and structurally compatible surfaces for epitaxial growth of device materials. Using the RABiTS process it should be possible to economically fabricate single-crystal-like substrates of desired sizes. Epitaxial growth of photovoltaic devices on such substrates presents a possible route to obtaining low-cost, high performance solar cells.

Goyal, A.; Specht, E.D.; List, F.A. [and others

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Cost Effective, High Efficiency Integrated Systems Approach to Auxilliary Electric Motors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The CARAT program, carried out by Kinetic Art & Technology Corporation (KAT), has been one of the most commercially successful KAT R&D programs to date. Based on previous development of its technology, KAT designed, constructed and tested a highly efficient motor and controller system under this CARAT program with supplemental commercial funding. Throughout this CARAT effort, the technical objectives have been refined and refocused. Some objectives have been greatly expanded, while others have been minimized. The determining factor in all decisions to refocus the objectives was the commercial need, primarily the needs of KAT manufacturing partners. Several companies are employing the resulting CARAT motor and controller designs in prototypes for commercial products. Two of these companies have committed to providing cost share in order to facilitate the development. One of these companies is a major manufacturing company developing a revolutionary new family of products requiring the ultra-high system efficiency achievable by the KAT motor and controller technologies (known as Segmented ElectroMagnetic Array, or SEMA technology). Another company requires the high efficiency, quiet operation, and control characteristics afforded by the same basic motor and controller for an advanced air filtration product. The combined annual production requirement projected by these two companies exceeds one million units by 2005.

Roy Kessinger Jr.; Keith Seymour; Kanchan Angal; Jason Wolf; Steve Brewer; Leonard Schrank

2003-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

370

High-pressure solvent extraction of methane from geopressured brines: technical evaluation and cost analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solvent extraction is proposed as a means of recovering dissolved methane from geopressured-geothermal brines at high pressures. The assessment shows that additional investment in a high pressure solvent extraction plant preceding direct injection disposal of brines into isolated aquifers can be profitable. The technical and economic issues are discussed, and compared with other injection methods such as complete depressurization for methane recovery followed by conventional mechanical pumping. The contributions of hydraulic (pressure) energy recovery and geothermal power production are also assessed. For deep injection into the producing formation, it is concluded that methane extraction processes are not applicable, insofar as maintenance of high surface pressures provides no clear-cut energy benefits. As a first step in the evaluation of solvent extraction, the solubility of a promising solvent candidate, n-hexadecane, was measured in 15 wt % NaCl solutions at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C. The solubility of a potential low cost solvent, No. 2 Diesel fuel, was also measured.

Quong, R.; Otsuki, H.H.; Locke, F.E.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal 101 Lesson 1: Cleaning Up Coal Clean Coal COAL is our most abundant fossil fuel. The United States has more coal than the rest of the world has oil. There is still...

372

A high-performance drive for the rotary coal breaker application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper considers recent advances made within the field of electric drives and how this new technology might be best applied within the mining industry. A case study is presented showing simulated results of the performance of the electric drives in a coal preparation plant. The various starting methodologies (resistance starting, fluid coupling, V/f = const, and vector control) are compared within this application. The merits of each method are then discussed with regard to the specific application and other more generic applications within the mining industry. Application of a rotor flux orientation control drive is substantiated, and its superior performance under start and stall conditions to that of the currently implemented system is confirmed by theoretical analysis and simulations. Experimental results for a scale model of the candidate system are presented, which agree with the main conclusions of this paper.

Mirzaeva, G.; Coates, C. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

Candidate alloys for cost-effective, high-efficiency, high-temperature compact/foil heat-exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) systems operate at high temperatures (up to 1000 C and 650 C, respectively), which makes them especially attractive sources for combined heat and power (CHP) cogeneration. However, improvements in the efficiency of heat exchange in these fuel cells require both development and careful processing of advanced cost-effective alloys for use in such high-temperature service conditions. The high-temperature properties of both sheet and foil forms of several alloys being considered for use in compact heat-exchangers (recuperators) have been characterized. Mechanical and creep-rupture testing, oxidation studies, and microstructural studies have been performed on commercially available sheet and foil forms of alloy 347, alloys 625, HR230, HR120, and the new AL20-25+Nb. These studies have led to a mechanistic understanding of the responses of these alloys to anticipated service conditions, and suggest that these alloys developed for gas- and micro-turbine recuperator applications are also suitable for use in fuel cell heat-exchangers. Additional work is still required to achieve foil forms with creep life comparable to thicker-section wrought product forms of the same alloys.

Evans, Neal D [ORNL; Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL; Shingledecker, John P [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Novel Steel/Concrete Composite Vessel for Stationary Storage of High-Pressure Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

A novel, low-cost, high-pressure, steel/concrete composite vessel (SCCV) technology for stationary storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored by DOE s Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program. The SCCV technology uses commodity materials including structural steels and concretes for achieving cost, durability and safety requirements. In particular, the hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength low-alloy steels, a major safety and durability issue for current industry-standard pressure vessel technology, is mitigated through the use of a unique layered steel shell structure. This report presents the cost analysis results of the novel SCCV technology. A high-fidelity cost analysis tool is developed, based on a detailed, bottom-up approach which takes into account the material and labor costs involved in each of the vessel manufacturing steps. A thorough cost study is performed to understand the SCCV cost as a function of the key vessel design parameters, including hydrogen pressure, vessel dimensions, and load-carrying ratio. The major conclusions include: The SCCV technology can meet the technical/cost targets set forth by DOE s FCT Program for FY2015 and FY2020 for all three pressure levels (i.e., 160, 430 and 860 bar) relevant to the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. Further vessel cost reduction can benefit from the development of advanced vessel fabrication technologies such as the highly automated friction stir welding (FSW). The ORNL-patented multi-layer, multi-pass FSW can not only reduce the amount of labor needed for assembling and welding the layered steel vessel, but also make it possible to use even higher strength steels for further cost reductions and improvement of vessel structural integrity. It is noted the cost analysis results demonstrate the significant cost advantage attainable by the SCCV technology for different pressure levels when compared to the industry-standard pressure vessel technology. The real-world performance data of SCCV under actual operating conditions is imperative for this new technology to be adopted by the hydrogen industry for stationary storage of CGH2. Therefore, the key technology development effort in FY13 and subsequent years will be focused on the fabrication and testing of SCCV mock-ups. The static loading and fatigue data will be generated in rigorous testing of these mock-ups. Successful tests are crucial to enabling the near-term impact of the developed storage technology on the CGH2 storage market, a critical component of the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. In particular, the SCCV has high potential for widespread deployment in hydrogen fueling stations.

Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Ren, Fei [ORNL

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 1998 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

COAL MARKET MODULE COAL MARKET MODULE blueball.gif (205 bytes) Coal Production Submodule blueball.gif (205 bytes) Coal Distribution Submodule blueball.gif (205 bytes) Coal Export Component The coal market module (CMM) represents the mining, transportation, and pricing of coal, subject to end-use demand. Coal supplies are differentiated by heat and sulfur content. The CMM also determines the minimum cost pattern of coal supply to meet exogenously defined U.S. coal export demands as a part of the world coal market. Coal supply is projected on a cost-minimizing basis, constrained by existing contracts. Twelve different coal types are differentiated with respect to thermal grade, sulfur content, and underground or surface mining. The domestic production and distribution of coal is forecast for 13 demand regions and 11 supply

376

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

Crelling, J.C.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

377

Coal pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

High Speed, Low Cost Fabrication of Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Membrane Electrode Assemblies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) depends on creating inks or pastes of catalyst and binder, and applying this suspension to either the membrane (catalyst coated membrane) or gas diffusion media (gas diffusion electrode) and respectively laminating either gas diffusion media or gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) to the membrane. One barrier to cost effective fabrication for either of these approaches is the development of stable and consistent suspensions. This program investigated the fundamental forces that destabilize the suspensions and developed innovative approaches to create new, highly stable formulations. These more concentrated formulations needed fewer application passes, could be coated over longer and wider substrates, and resulted in significantly lower coating defects. In March of 2012 BASF Fuel Cell released a new high temperature product based on these advances, whereby our customers received higher performing, more uniform MEAs resulting in higher stack build yields. Furthermore, these new materials resulted in an “instant” increase in capacity due to higher product yields and material throughput. Although not part of the original scope of this program, these new formulations have also led us to materials that demonstrate equivalent performance with 30% less precious metal in the anode. This program has achieved two key milestones in DOE’s Manufacturing R&D program: demonstration of processes for direct coating of electrodes and continuous in-line measurement for component fabrication.

DeCastro, Emory S.; Tsou, Yu-Min; Liu, Zhenyu

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

380

A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Periodic Flow Gas Turbine for Distributed Energy Generation  

SciTech Connect

The proposed effort served as a feasibility study for an innovative, low-cost periodic flow gas turbine capable of realizing efficiencies in the 39-48% range.

Dr. Adam London

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high coal cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2000 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

coal market module (CMM) represents the mining, transportation, and pricing of coal, subject to end-use demand. Coal supplies are differentiated by heat and sulfur content. CMM also determines the minimum cost pattern of coal supply to meet exogenously defined U.S. coal export demands as a part of the world coal market. Coal supply is projected on a cost-minimizing basis, constrained by existing contracts. Twelve different coal types are differentiated with respect to thermal grade, sulfur content, and underground or surface mining. The domestic production and distribution of coal is forecast for 13 demand regions and 11 supply regions (Figures 19 and 20). coal market module (CMM) represents the mining, transportation, and pricing of coal, subject to end-use demand. Coal supplies are differentiated by heat and sulfur content. CMM also determines the minimum cost pattern of coal supply to meet exogenously defined U.S. coal export demands as a part of the world coal market. Coal supply is projected on a cost-minimizing basis, constrained by existing contracts. Twelve different coal types are differentiated with respect to thermal grade, sulfur content, and underground or surface mining. The domestic production and distribution of coal is forecast for 13 demand regions and 11 supply regions (Figures 19 and 20). Figure 19. Coal Market Module Demand Regions Figure 20. Coal Market Module Supply Regions

382

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Coal - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal-fired plants projected to continue as the largest source of U.S. electricity generation ... and average cost of metallurgical coal at coke plants and export docks.

384

EIA - Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal...

385

The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts in the oxidant on gasifier and downstream production units also favor the use of oxygen in place of air. Factors that must be considered in selecting the optimum oxygen purity include: end use of the gasifier products, oxygen delivery pressure and the cost of capital and energy. This paper examines the major factors in oxygen purity selection for typical coal gasifiers. Examples demonstrating the effect of oxygen purity on several processes are presented: production of synthetic natural gas (SNG), integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation and methanol synthesis. The potential impact of a non-cryogenic air separation process currently under development is examined based on integration with a high temperature processes.

Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Cost and Performance Comparison Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 3 Executive Summary: Low Rank Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Baseline Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 3 Executive Summary: Low Rank Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity September 2011 DOE/NETL-2010/1399 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring

387

National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

Robert Finkelman

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

388

Carbonate fuel cell monolith design for high power density and low cost  

SciTech Connect

Objective is higher power density operation and cost reduction. This is accomplished by the design of a bipolar plate where the separate corrugated current collectors are eliminated; cost reduction was also derived through higher power density and reduced material usage. The higher volumetric power density operation was achieved through lower cell resistance, increased active component surface area, and reduced cell height.

Allen, J.; Doyon, J.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

American coal imports 2015  

SciTech Connect

As 2007 ends, the US coal industry passes two major milestones - the ending of the Synfuel tax break, affecting over 100M st annually, and the imposition of tighter and much more expensive safety measures, particularly in deep mines. Both of these issues, arriving at a time of wretched steam coal price levels, promise to result in a major shake up in the Central Appalachian mining sector. The report utilizes a microeconomic regional approach to determine whether either of these two schools of thought have any validity. Transport, infrastructure, competing fuels and regional issues are examined in detail and this forecasts estimates coal demand and imports on a region by region basis for the years 2010 and 2015. Some of the major highlights of the forecast are: Import growth will be driven by steam coal demand in the eastern and southern US; Transport will continue to be the key driver - we believe that inland rail rates will deter imports from being railed far inland and that the great majority of imports will be delivered directly by vessel, barge or truck to end users; Colombian coal will be the overwhelmingly dominant supply source and possesses a costs structure to enable it to compete with US-produced coal in any market conditions; Most of the growth will come from existing power plants - increasing capacity utilization at existing import facilities and other plants making investments to add imports to the supply portfolio - the growth is not dependent upon a lot of new coal fired capacity being built. Contents of the report are: Key US market dynamics; International supply dynamics; Structure of the US coal import market; and Geographic analysis.

Frank Kolojeski [TransGlobal Ventures Corp. (United States)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

390

Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF)  

SciTech Connect

A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluate the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and prepare an R D plan to develop the concept further. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is leading a team ofcompanies involved in this effort. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800[degrees]F in furnaces fired with cool-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor up to about 2400[degrees]F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuelgas is a relatively clean fuel, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need tobe a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only. A simplified process flow diagram is shown.

Not Available

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

System Evaluation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of a Commercial-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant  

SciTech Connect

Results of a system evaluation and lifecycle cost analysis are presented for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) central hydrogen production plant. The plant design relies on grid electricity to power the electrolysis process and system components, and industrial natural gas to provide process heat. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate the reference central plant design capable of producing 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen. The HYSYS software performs mass and energy balances across all components to allow optimization of the design using a detailed process flow sheet and realistic operating conditions specified by the analyst. The lifecycle cost analysis was performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes Microsoft Excel spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. The results of the lifecycle analyses indicate that for a 10% internal rate of return, a large central commercial-scale hydrogen production plant can produce 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen at an average cost of $2.68/kg. When the cost of carbon sequestration is taken into account, the average cost of hydrogen production increases by $0.40/kg to $3.08/kg.

Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O' Brien; Michael G. McKellar

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING  

SciTech Connect

This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR), which combines conventional reburning and Advanced Reburning (AR) technologies with an innovative method of delivering coal as the reburning fuel. The overall objective of this project is to develop engineering and scientific information and know-how needed to improve the cost of reburning via increased efficiency and minimized carbon in ash and move the FFR technology to the demonstration and commercialization stage. Specifically, the project entails: (1) optimizing FFR with injection of gasified and partially gasified fuels with respect to NO{sub x} and carbon in ash reduction; (2) characterizing flue gas emissions; (3) developing a process model to predict FFR performance; (4) completing an engineering and economic analysis of FFR as compared to conventional reburning and other commercial NO{sub x} control technologies, and (5) developing a full-scale FFR design methodology. The project started in August 2000 and will be conducted over a two-year period. The work includes a combination of analytical and experimental studies to identify optimum process configurations and develop a design methodology for full-scale applications. The first year of the program included pilot-scale tests to evaluate performances of two bituminous coals in basic reburning and modeling studies designed to identify parameters that affect the FFR performance and to evaluate efficiency of coal pyrolysis products as a reburning fuel. Tests were performed in a 300 kW Boiler Simulator Facility to characterize bituminous coals as reburning fuels. Tests showed that NO{sub x} reduction in basic coal reburning depends on process conditions, initial NO{sub x} and coal type. Up to 60% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved at optimized conditions. Modeling activities during first year concentrated on the development of coal reburning model and on the prediction of NO{sub x} reduction in reburning by coal gasification products. Modeling predicted that composition of coal gasification products depends on gasification temperature. At lower temperature yield of hydrocarbons is high which results in higher efficiency of NO{sub x} control. As temperature decreases, yield of hydrocarbons increases and CO and H{sub 2} yields decrease.

Vladimir M. Zamansky; Vitali V. Lissianski

2001-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

393

Optical fiber evanescent wave adsorption sensors for high-temperature gas sensing in advanced coal-fired power plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern advanced energy systems such as coal-fired power plants, gasifiers, or similar infrastructure present some of the most challenging harsh environments for sensors. The power industry would benefit from new, ultra-high temperature devices capable of surviving in hot and corrosive environments for embedded sensing at the highest value locations. For these applications, we are currently exploring optical fiber evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy (EWAS) based sensors consisting of high temperature core materials integrated with novel high temperature gas sensitive cladding materials. Mathematical simulations can be used to assist in sensor development efforts, and we describe a simulation code that assumes a single thick cladding layer with gas sensitive optical constants. Recent work has demonstrated that Au nanoparticle-incorporated metal oxides show a potentially useful response for high temperature optical gas sensing applications through the sensitivity of the localized surface plasmon resonance absorption peak to ambient atmospheric conditions. Hence, the simulation code has been applied to understand how such a response can be exploited in an optical fiber based EWAS sensor configuration. We demonstrate that interrogation can be used to optimize the sensing response in such materials.

Buric, M.; Ohodnicky, P.; Duy, J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Decommissioning Handbook for Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This handbook lays out the steps necessary to fully decommission a coal-fired power plant. The handbook includes ways to handle permitting, environmental cleanup, site dismantlement, and site remediation, and discusses overall decommissioning costs. It is based on three actual case studies of coal plants recently decommissioned: the Arkwright coal-fired plant of Georgia Power, the Watts Bar coal-fired plant of TVA, and the Port Washington coal-fired plant of Wisconsin Electric Power.

2004-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

395

Method for producing low-cost, high volume hydrogen from hydrocarbon sources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for the conversion of naturally-occurring or biomass-derived lower to higher hydrocarbon (C{sub x}H{sub y},where x may vary from 1--3 and y may vary from 4--8) to low-cost, high-volume hydrogen. In one embodiment, methane, the major component of natural gas, is reacted in a single reaction zone of a mixed-conducting ceramic membrane reactor to form hydrogen via simultaneous partial oxidation and water gas shift reactions at temperatures required for thermal excitations of the mixed-conducting membranes. The hydrogen is produced by catalytically reacting the hydrocarbon with oxygen to form synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen), followed by a water gas shift (WGS) reaction with steam, wherein both reactions occur in a single reaction zone having a multi-functional catalyst or a combination of catalysts. The hydrogen is separated from other reaction products by membrane-assisted transport or by pressure-swing adsorption technique. Membrane-assisted transport may occur via proton transfer or molecular sieving mechanisms.

Bose, Arun C.; Balachandran, Uthamalinga; Kleerfisch, Mark S.; Udovich, Carl A.; Stiegel, Gary J.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

INTERACTION OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS WITH A SUBBITUMINOUS COAL BELOW PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and P. Fugassi, Phenanthrene Extraction of Bituminous Coal,Coal Science, Advances in Chemistry Series No. 55, 448 C.Mechanism of High Volatile Coal, Coal Science, Advances in

Dorighi, G.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Study on Drying Characteristics of Australian Brown Coal Using ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Victorian brown coal in Australia has over 60wt% moisture content and, when dried, it becomes highly reactive. Due to the difficulty in transporting it, brown coal

398

The Full Cost Of Intercity Transportation - A Comparison Of High Speed Rail, Air And Highway Transportation In California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cost of transportation today, including the social costs ofIntercity Transportation Page 2-17 Social Costs - additionalsurrounding social costs and transportation, in particular

Levinson, David; Gillen, David; Kanafani, Adib; Mathieu, Jean-michel

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 1, Technical report. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium for Coal Water Mixture Technology and the U.S. Department of Energy. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. Phase I is nearly completed. During this reporting period, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, engineering designs and economics for retrofitting the Crane, Indiana boiler to fire coal-based fuels, and a 1,000-hour demonstration of dry, micronized coal were completed. In addition, a demonstration-scale micronized-coal water mixture (MCWM) preparation circuit was constructed and a 1,000-hour demonstration firing MCWM began. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations involved literature surveys of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, trace metals, volatile organic compounds, and fine particulate matter capture. In addition, vendors and engineering firms were contacted to identify the appropriate emissions technologies for the installation of commercial NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} removal systems on the demonstration boiler. Information from the literature surveys and engineering firms will be used to identify, design, and install a control system(s). Work continued on the refinement and optimization of coal grinding and MCWM preparation procedures, and on the development of advanced processes for beneficiating high ash, high sulfur coals. Work also continued on determining the basic cost estimation of boiler retrofits, and evaluating environmental, regulatory, and regional economic impacts. In addition, the feasibility of technology adoption, and the public`s perception of the benefits and costs of coal usage was studied. A coal market analysis was completed. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, emissions reductions and economic analyses of coal use.

Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Hatcher, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

1996-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

Final Technical Report - Recovery Act: Organic Coatings as Encapsulants for Low Cost, High Performance PV Modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing PPG's commercial organic coatings systems as efficient, modernized encapsulants for low cost, high performance, thin film photovoltaic modules. Our hypothesis was that the combination of an anticorrosive coating with a more traditional barrier topcoat would mitigate many electrochemical processes that are now responsible for the significant portion of photovoltaic (PV) failures, thereby nullifying the extremely high moisture barrier requirements of currently used encapsulation technology. Nine commercially available metal primer coatings and six commercially available top coatings were selected for screening. Twenty-one different primer/top coat combinations were evaluated. The primer coatings were shown to be the major contributor to corrosion inhibition, adhesion, and barrier properties. Two primer coatings and one top coating were downselected for testing on specially-fabricated test modules. The coated test modules passed initial current leakage and insulation testing. Damp Heat testing of control modules showed visible corrosion to the bus bar metal, whereas the coated modules showed none. One of the primer/top coat combinations retained solar power performance after Damp Heat testing despite showing some delamination at the EVA/solar cell interface. Thermal Cycling and Humidity Freeze testing resulted in only one test module retaining its power performance. Failure modes depended on the particular primer/top coating combination used. Overall, this study demonstrated that a relatively thin primer/top coating has the potential to replace the potting film and backsheet in crystalline silicon-based photovoltaic modules. Positive signals were received from commercially available coatings developed for applications having performance requirements different from those required for photovoltaic modules. It is likely that future work to redesign and customize these coatings would result in a coating system meeting the requirements for photovoltaic module encapsulation.

Stuart Hellring; Jiping Shao; James Poole

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Underground gasification of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

Pasini, III, Joseph (Morgantown, WV); Overbey, Jr., William K. (Morgantown, WV); Komar, Charles A. (Uniontown, PA)

1976-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

402

Correlation of stability/rheology relationship with coal properties and chemical additives. Quarterly progress report, March 15, 1989--June 15, 1989  

SciTech Connect

Coal-water slurry (CWS) is being considered as a near term replacement for oil in both industrial and utility applications. Selecting an economical, yet technically compatible feedstock for producing highly loaded CWS is important to the commercialization of CWS technology (1) Previous work has shown that the dispersing additives can represent a significant portion of CWS preparation cost (2). In an effort to establish a criteria for designing and preparing CWS for utilization, the relationships between coal properties and slurry quality must be determined. These relationships will enable the prediction of potential CWS quality for the particular coal candidate from some characteristic(s) of the coal. The coal content at a given viscosity varies for different coal(3). Thus, to develop a viable coal selection strategy using chemical surfactants as additives, the adsorption of these surfactants by the coal particle surface must be established. This work therefore, intends to screen a number of chemical surfactants and dispersants which can be used in the preparation of coal water slurry. The information derived from this screening together with the coal properties will be used to help develop a prescription to predict the stability of coal slurries.

Ohene, F.

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

403

Illinois coal/RDF coprocessing to produce high quality solids and liquids. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is the aim of this study to provide information pertinent to the development of a coal/RDF pyrolysis process capable of economically creating valuable products from high sulfur Illinois coal. This project will be carried out in a systematic manner. First, samples will be properly selected prepared, preserved and characterized. Then coals, various plastics, cellulose, and a high quality RDF will be pyrolyzed, steam pyrolyzed, hydro-pyrolyzed, and liquefied at various conditions. Next, blends of coal with various RDF components will be reacted under the same conditions. From this work synergistic effects will be identified and process parametric studies will be conducted on the appropriate mixtures and single components. Product quality and mass balances will be obtained on systems showing promise. Preliminary pyrolysis work will be conducted on a TGA. Over 100 microreactor experiments have been performed and the acquisition of products for analysis has been achieved. Interactions occur between 400--450{degrees}C. The use of higher temperatures should be avoided if liquids are the.desired product. Although, these results are preliminary they are also very encouraging.

Hippo, E.J.; Palmer, S.R.; Blankenship, M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Development of low-cost, compact, reliable, high energy density ceramic nanocomposite capacitors.  

SciTech Connect

The ceramic nanocomposite capacitor goals are: (1) more than double energy density of ceramic capacitors (cutting size and weight by more than half); (2) potential cost reductino (factor of >4) due to decreased sintering temperature (allowing the use of lower cost electrode materials such as 70/30 Ag/Pd); and (3) lower sintering temperature will allow co-firing with other electrical components.

Cooley, Erika J.; Monson, Todd C.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Huber, Dale L.; Fellows, Benjamin D.; Stevens, Tyler E.; Roesler, Alexander William; Chavez, Tom P.; Winter, Michael R.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2000, DOE/EIA-M060(2000) January 2000. The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2000, DOE/EIA-M060(2000) January 2000. Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Separate supply curves are developed for each of 11 supply regions, and 12 coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade, sulfur content, and mine type). The modeling approach used to construct regional coal supply curves addresses the relationship between the minemouth price of coal and corresponding levels of coal production, labor productivity, and the cost of factor inputs (mining equipment, mine labor, and fuel requirements).

406

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. The primary activity this period was preparation and presentation of the findings on this project at the Twenty-Third annual Pittsburgh Coal Conference. Dr. Malhotra attended this conference and presented a paper. A copy of his presentation constitutes this quarterly report.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

407

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … High Performance Without Increased Cost: Urbane Homes, Louiseville KY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Urbane's first Urbane's first home, built for $36 per ft 2 in 2008, incorporated both energy efficiency and strategies to reduce building costs. The home won two EnergyValue Housing Awards, and homebuyers began seeking out the builder for energy-efficient, high-quality homes. Building America field projects that demonstrated minimal or cost-neutral impacts for high-performance homes have significantly influenced the housing industry to apply advanced technologies and best practices. In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program set a goal of proving that cost-neutral energy savings of 40% over code were possible at a production scale for new home builders in every U.S. climate zone. Between 2005 and 2010, Building America research partners worked with 34 builders to

408

Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

International Coal Market Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As this report is being finalized in November 2007, international steam coal freight-on-board (FOB) prices are at levels not seen since 1980-1982, shipping rates are at unprecedented high levels, and currency fluctuations are altering the degree to which major individual countries are impacted. This report systematically examines the history of the international coal trade, the major exporting and importing countries, and the drivers behind how trade functions. In addition, the report examines in depth t...

2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

410

Engineering and Economic Evaluation of 1300F Series Ultra-Supercritical Pulverized Coal Power Plants: Phase 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The strategy for lowering the cost of CO2 capture from coal-based power plants includes raising generating efficiency. For pulverized coal (PC) plants this means progressing to ultra-supercritical (USC) steam conditions, arbitrarily defined as having temperatures above 593C (1100F). Currently, USC steam temperatures are limited to approximately 627C (1160F) by the use of ferritic steels, the most advanced commercially available steels. To go to higher temperatures, high-nickel alloys must be used, and th...

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

411

Economics of gas from coal  

SciTech Connect

This study deals with three questions: What does gas from coal cost and what affects this cost; How do different approaches and processes compare; and How near to competitive cost-levels is present-day technology. Discussion covers production of both substitute natural gas (SNG) and medium calorific gas (MCG: 10-16 MJ/Nm3 or 250-400 Btu/SCF). Conclusions are that SNG from low-cost U.S. coal and West German brown coal are, on the basis of mature technology and Government rates-of-return, roughly competitive with gas imports into the U.S. and Europe respectively. Similarly MCG from second-generation gasifiers is competitive with gas-oil or No. 2 heating oil in Europe, North America and Japan. However, capital costs form about half total gas costs at 10 percent rate-of-return, so that the competitiveness of gas from coal is sensitive to capital costs: this is the area of greatest uncertainty.

Teper, M.; Hemming, D.F.; Ulrich, W.C.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Physico-chemical fracturing and cleaning of coal. [Treatment with CO/sub 2/ in water at high pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a method of producing a crushable coal and reducing the metallic values in coal represented by Si, Al, Ca, Na, K, and Mg, which comprises contacting a coal/water mix in a weight ratio of from about 4:1 to 1:6 in the presence of CO/sub 2/ at pressures of about 100 to 1400 psi and a minimum temperature of about 15/sup 0/C for a period of about one or more hours to produce a treated coal/water mix. In the process the treated coal/water mix has reduced values for Ca and Mg of up to 78% over the starting mix and the advantageous CO/sub 2/ concentration is in the range of about 3 to 30 g/L. Below 5 g/L CO/sub 2/ only small effects are observed and above 30 g/L no further special advantages are achieved. The coal/water ratios in the range 1:2 to 2:1 are particularly desirable and such ratios are compatible with coal water slurry applications.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

1983-09-30T23:59:59.000Z