Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETRY MEASUREMENT AND HIGHLY PLASTIC CLAYS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETRY MEASUREMENT AND HIGHLY PLASTIC CLAYS By: J. A. Kuhn1 and J. G. Zornberg for use in highly plastic clay. The clay used for experimentation was taken locally from the Eagle Ford Ford Clay is determined. INTRODUCTION The progression of wetting and drying fronts in highly plastic

Zornberg, Jorge G.

2

High gradient magnetic separation of iron oxide minerals from soil clays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIGH GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION OF IRON OXIDE MINERALS FROM SOIL CLAYS A Thesis by DARRELL GENE SCHULZE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1977 Major Subject: Soil Science HIGH GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION OF IRON OXIDE MINERALS FROM SOIL CLAYS A Thesis DARRELL GENE SCHULZE Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of C ittee) epartm t) j (Member) (Membe December 1977...

Schulze, Darrell Gene

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Multiscale modeling of clay-water systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The engineering properties of soils are highly affected by clay content and clay-water interactions. However, existing macro-scale continuum models have no length scale to describe the evolution of the clay microstructure ...

Ebrahimi, Davoud

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

The need to design and construct roadways on highly plastic clays is common in central and eastern Texas, where expansive clays are prevalent. Roadways constructed on highly plastic clay subgrades may be damaged  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The need to design and construct roadways on highly plastic clays is common in central and eastern Texas, where expansive clays are prevalent. Roadways constructed on highly plastic clay subgrades may the infiltration of water into highly plastic clays under an increased gravity field in a centrifuge. Project

Zornberg, Jorge G.

5

Permeability of illite-bearing shale: 1. Anisotropy and effects of clay content and loading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Permeability of illite-bearing shale: 1. Anisotropy and effects of clay content and loading-rich shale recovered from the Wilcox formation and saturated with 1 M NaCl solution varies from 3 Ã? 10Ã?22 transport; KEYWORDS: permeability, shale, connected pore space Citation: Kwon, O., A. K. Kronenberg, A. F

Herbert, Bruce

6

Identification of Pore Structure and Clay Content from Seismic Data within an Argillaceous Sandstone Reservoir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IDENTIFICATION OF PORE STRUCTURE AND CLAY CONTENT FROM SEISMIC DATA WITHIN AN ARGILLACEOUS SANDSTONE RESERVOIR A Thesis by ROBERT LELAND SCHELSTRATE Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University... Ds Compressibility of the rock matrix Dd Compressibility of the dry rock frame Df Compressibility of the pore-filling fluid F, FK Frame flexibility factors kd Bulk modulus of dry rock Ks Bulk modulus of the rock...

Schelstrate, Robert

2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

7

Epoxy Nanocomposites with Highly Exfoliated Clay: Mechanical Properties and Fracture Mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Epoxy Nanocomposites with Highly Exfoliated Clay: Mechanical Properties and Fracture Mechanisms Ke; Revised Manuscript Received November 9, 2004 ABSTRACT: Epoxy/clay nanocomposites with a better exfoliated and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that clay was highly exfoliated and uniformly dispersed

George, Steven C.

8

Shrinkage of microaggregates in Brazilian Latosols during drying: significance of the clay content, mineralogy and hydric stress history  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

content, mineralogy and hydric stress history A. REATTOa,b , A. BRUANDb , E. M. SILVAa , R. GUÉGANb , I in their particle size distribution and mineralogical composition according to insu-00414419,version1-9Sep2009 to the clay content. Consequently, the mineralogy of the

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

9

Hydroconversion reactions catalyzed by highly stable pillared clays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Al-pillared clays (Al-PILC) and Al-X-PILC (X = Ga, Ni), structurally stable at high temperature - in the case of Ga above 800{degrees}C-have been synthesized by controlling intercalation steps and stabilization procedures. New bidimensional materials with an interlaminar distance about 10-12{angstrom} and with different chemical reactivities in the pillars have thus been produced. The analytical techniques employed to characterize the materials and the processes involved during stabilization include N{sub 2} adsorption, AA, XRD, NH{sub 3}-TPD, TGA-DTA, HR- and MAS-NMR (Al, Si, and Ga) and in-situ IR and DRIFTS. Chemical characterization using high pressure reactions with probe molecules such as diphenylmethane and tert-butylbenzene shows selectivity patterns than can be clearly associated with the microstructure of the PILC used, as well as an effect due to the composition of the pillars. Similar studies with zeolites give patterns that differ from those of PILC, probably because of the change in dimensionality of the internal structure. Poisoning studies with metal porphyrins prove that PLIC have improved resistance compared to standard catalysts. Hydrotreatment of Maya crude results a significant reduction in total sulfur under conditions suitable for commercial operation.

Gomez, S.A.; Mosqueira, L.; Espinosa, J.; Fuentes, G.A. [Universidad A. Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (Mexico)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

10

Jamaican red clay tobacco pipes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JAMAICAN RED CLAY TOBACCO PIPES A Thesis by KENAN PAUL HEIDTKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS December 1992 Major Subject...: Anthropology JAMAICAN RED CLAY TOBACCO PIPES A Thesis by KENAN PAUL HEIDTKE Approved as to style and content by: Dorm L. Hamilton (Chair of Committee) Frederick H. van Doorninck, J (Member) enry C. Schmidt (Member) Vaughn M. Bryant (Head...

Heidtke, Kenan Paul

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Early containment of high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream in clay-bearing blended cement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Portland cement blended with fly ash and attapulgite clay was mixed with high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream at a one-to-one weight ratio. Mixtures were adiabatically and isothermally cured at various temperatures and analyzed for phase composition, total alkalinity, pore solution chemistry, and transport properties as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Total alkalinity is characterized by two main drops. The early one corresponds to a rapid removal of phosphorous, aluminum, sodium, and to a lesser extent potassium solution. The second drop from about 10 h to 3 days is mainly associated with the removal of aluminum, silicon, and sodium. Thereafter, the total alkalinity continues descending, but at a lower rate. All pastes display a rapid flow loss that is attributed to an early precipitation of hydrated products. Hemicarbonate appears as early as one hour after mixing and is probably followed by apatite precipitation. However, the former is unstable and decomposes at a rate that is inversely related to the curing temperature. At high temperatures, zeolite appears at about 10 h after mixing. At 30 days, the stabilized crystalline composition Includes zeolite, apatite and other minor amounts of CaCO{sub 3}, quartz, and monosulfate Impedance spectra conform with the chemical and mineralogical data. The normalized conductivity of the pastes shows an early drop, which is followed by a main decrease from about 12 h to three days. At three days, the permeability of the cement-based waste as calculated by Katz-Thompson equation is over three orders of magnitude lower than that of ordinary portland cement paste. However, a further decrease in the calculated permeability is questionable. Chemical stabilization is favorable through incorporation of waste species into apatite and zeolite.

Kruger, A.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Olson, R.A.; Tennis, P.D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Center for Advanced Cement-Based Materials] [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Methods and technologies for high-throughput and high-content small animal screening  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-throughput and high-content screening (HTS and HCS) of whole animals requires their immobilization for high-resolution imaging and manipulation. Here we present methods to enable HTS and HCS of the nematode Caenorhabditis ...

Rohde, Christopher, 1979-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

CLAY AND SHALE--2002 18.1 CLAY AND SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CLAY AND SHALE--2002 18.1 CLAY AND SHALE By Robert L. Virta Domestic survey data and tables were clay, bentonite, common clay and shale, fire clay, fuller's earth, and kaolin. Ball clays consist of feldspars, biotite, and quartz. Common clay and shale contain illite and chlorite as major components. Fire

14

Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

15

A New Environmentally Friendly AL/ZR-Based Clay Stabilizer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Clay stabilizers are means to prevent fines migration and clay swelling, which are caused by the contact of formation with low salinity or high pH brines at high temperature. Previous clay stabilizers including: Al and Zr compounds and cationic...

El-Monier, Ilham Abdallah

2013-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

16

Clay and SHale--2004 18.1 Clay and Shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Clay and SHale--2004 18.1 Clay and Shale By Robert l. Virta Domestic survey data and tables were). Common Clay and Shale.--In 2004, 162 companies produced common clay and shale from approximately 459 pits in 41 States and Puerto Rico. In States not reporting production, common clay and shale probably

17

Modified clay sorbents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

Fogler, H. Scott (Ann Arbor, MI); Srinivasan, Keeran R. (Livonia, MI)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

The washability of lignites for clay removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the washability research of the Seyitomer Lignites (Kutahya-Turkey), with lower calorific value (1,863 kcal/kg) and high ash content (51.91%), by heavy medium separation, it was found out that middling clay in the coal had an effect to change the medium density. To prevent this problem, a trommel sieve with 18 and 5 mm aperture diameter was designed, and the clay in the coal was tried to be removed using it before the coal was released to heavy medium. Following that, the obtained coal in -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm fractions was subjected to sink and float test having 1.4 gcm{sup -3} and 1.7 gcm{sup -3} medium densities (-5 mm fraction will be evaluated in a separate work). Depending on the raw coal, with the floating of -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm size fraction in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} medium density, clean coal with 60.10% combustible matter recovery, 19.12% ash, and 3,150 kcal/kg was obtained. Also floating of the samples sinking in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} in the medium density (1.7 gcm{sup -3}), middling with 18.70% combustible matter recovery, 41.93% ash, 2,150 kcal/kg, and tailing having 78.31% ash were obtained.

Oteyaka, B.; Yamik, A.; Ucar, A.; Sahbaz, O.; Demir, U. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Detailed mineralogical characterization of the Bullfrog and Tram members USW-G1, with emphasis on clay mineralogy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The detailed mineralogy of the Bullfrog and Tram Members of the Crater Flat Tuff from drill hole USW-G1 has been examined, primarily to characterize fully the amounts and types of clay minerals in the tuffs and the possible effects clay minerals have on rock properties. Results of bulk sample x-ray diffraction analyses agree closely with previous determinations, although slightly higher clay mineral contents were found in this study. X-ray diffraction analysis of fine fractions revealed that the clay minerals in the tuffs are sodium-saturated montmorillonite-beidellites with typical layer charges and no high-charge layers. These smectites are found in virtually all samples of the Bullfrog and Tram, and there is no correlation between the amounts of smectites and the amounts of zeolite, quartz, and feldspar. Smectites are present in both welded and nonwelded horizons and are scarce in some zones with slight-to-absent welding.

Bish, D.L.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

REMOTE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-TRITIUM-CONTENT WATER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Systems to safely analyze for tritium in moisture collected from glovebox atmospheres are being developed for use at Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities. Analysis results will guide whether the material contains sufficient tritium for economical recovery, or whether it should be stabilized for disposal as waste. In order to minimize potential radiation exposures that could occur in handling and diluting high-tritium-content water, SRS sought alternatives to the process laboratory's routine analysis by liquid-scintillation counting. The newer systems determine tritium concentrations by measuring bremsstrahlung radiation induced by low-energy beta interactions. One of the systems determines tritium activity in liquid streams, the other determines tritium activity in water vapor. Topics discussed include counting results obtained by modeling and laboratory testing and corrections that are made for low-energy photon attenuation.

Diprete, D; Raymond Sigg, R; Leah Arrigo, L; Donald Pak, D

2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

CLAY AND SHALE--2001 18.1 CLAY AND SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

operated approximately 633 clay and shale pits or quarries. The largest 20 companies, many with multiple

22

Geosynthetic clay liner applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) are becoming a popular alternative to compacted clay barrier layers at sanitary landfills. They possess many of the same qualities of compacted clay barrier layers while occupying only a small fraction of the airspace. This is a very attractive feature to waste disposal facility owners and operators. Designing for, and constructing with, a GCL can be a challenging task--stability issues must be evaluated, selecting the appropriate product should be considered, comprehensive specifications are needed to ensure proper product selection and installation, and steps must be taken during installation to prevent damage to the GCL. Perhaps most importantly, state regulatory agencies must be convinced that GCLs will provide long-term protection that is equivalent to a clay barrier layer.

McGrath, L.T.; Creamer, P.D. [RMT, Inc., Madison, WI (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON CONTENT FLY ASH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON CONTENT FLY ASH the stabilization of petroleum- contaminated soils (PCSs) using another recycled material, high carbon content fly; however, the level of petroleum contamination has a significant effect on the leaching properties

Aydilek, Ahmet

24

Wellbore instability mechanisms in clays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation investigates the stability of wellbores drilled in Ko-consolidated clays using non-linear finite element method (FEM) and effective stress soil models to characterize the behavior of clay and unconsolidated ...

Akl, Sherif Adel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Preparation and Properties of Recycled HDPE/Clay Hybrids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on recycled high density poly- ethylene (RHDPE) and organic clay were made by melt com- pounding; recycling INTRODUCTION Plastics account for an increasing fraction of municipal solid waste around the worldPreparation and Properties of Recycled HDPE/Clay Hybrids Yong Lei,1 Qinglin Wu,1 Craig M. Clemons2

26

Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Wittmer, Dale E. (Carbondale, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

Tiegs, T.N.; Wittmer, D.E.

1995-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

28

Sub-population analysis based on temporal features of high content images  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Background: High content screening techniques are increasingly used to understand the regulation and progression of cell motility. The demand of new platforms, coupled with availability of terabytes of data has challenged ...

Rajapakse, Jagath

29

The occurrence of clays and their bearing on evaporite mineralogy in the Salado Formation, Delaware Basin, New Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, potassium, and magnesium K-alpha linescans from sample in SEM photograph (thin 'line). The dark area corresponding to the high silicon area is clay. The mineral to the left of the clay is langbefnite, and to the right of the clay is halite. . . . Thin.... Thin sections were made from samples in intervals include potash minerals in clay-rich areas, potash minerals in clay-free areas, clay occurrences in halite/poIyhalite areas, and clay-free occurrences of halite and polyhalite. These thin sections...

Harville, Donald Gene

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Evaluation of Used Fuel Disposition in Clay-Bearing Rock  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive waste disposal in shale/argillite rock formations has been widely considered given its desirable isolation properties (low permeability), geochemically reduced conditions, anomalous groundwater pressures, and widespread geologic occurrence. Clay/shale rock formations are characterized by their high content of clay minerals such as smectites and illites where diffusive transport and chemisorption phenomena predominate. These, in addition to low permeability, are key attributes of shale to impede radionuclide mobility. Shale host-media has been comprehensively studied in international nuclear waste repository programs as part of underground research laboratories (URLs) programs in Switzerland, France, Belgium, and Japan. These investigations, in some cases a decade or more long, have produced a large but fundamental body of information spanning from site characterization data (geological, hydrogeological, geochemical, geomechanical) to controlled experiments on the engineered barrier system (EBS) (barrier clay and seals materials). Evaluation of nuclear waste disposal in shale formations in the USA was conducted in the late 70’s and mid 80’s. Most of these studies evaluated the potential for shale to host a nuclear waste repository but not at the programmatic level of URLs in international repository programs. This report covers various R&D work and capabilities relevant to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in shale/argillite media. Integration and cross-fertilization of these capabilities will be utilized in the development and implementation of the shale/argillite reference case planned for FY15. Disposal R&D activities under the UFDC in the past few years have produced state-of-the-art modeling capabilities for coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC), used fuel degradation (source term), and thermodynamic modeling and database development to evaluate generic disposal concepts. The THMC models have been developed for shale repository leveraging in large part on the information garnered in URLs and laboratory data to test and demonstrate model prediction capability and to accurately represent behavior of the EBS and the natural (barrier) system (NS). In addition, experimental work to improve our understanding of clay barrier interactions and TM couplings at high temperatures are key to evaluate thermal effects as a result of relatively high heat loads from waste and the extent of sacrificial zones in the EBS. To assess the latter, experiments and modeling approaches have provided important information on the stability and fate of barrier materials under high heat loads. This information is central to the assessment of thermal limits and the implementation of the reference case when constraining EBS properties and the repository layout (e.g., waste package and drift spacing). This report is comprised of various parts, each one describing various R&D activities applicable to shale/argillite media. For example, progress made on modeling and experimental approaches to analyze physical and chemical interactions affecting clay in the EBS, NS, and used nuclear fuel (source term) in support of R&D objectives. It also describes the development of a reference case for shale/argillite media. The accomplishments of these activities are summarized as follows: ? Development of a reference case for shale/argillite; ? Investigation of Reactive Transport and Coupled THM Processes in EBS: FY14; ? Update on Experimental Activities on Buffer/Backfill Interactions at elevated Pressure and Temperature; ? Thermodynamic Database Development: Evaluation Strategy, Modeling Tools, First-Principles Modeling of Clay, and Sorption Database Assessment; ? ANL Mixed Potential Model For Used Fuel Degradation: Application to Argillite and Crystalline Rock Environments.

Carlos F. Jové Colón; Philippe F. Weck; David H. Sassani; Liange Zheng; Jonny Rutqvist; Carl I. Steefel; Kunhwi Kim; Seiji Nakagawa; James Houseworth; Jens Birkholzer; Florie A. Caporuscio; Michael Cheshire; Michael S. Rearick; Mary K. McCarney; Mavrik Zavarin; Ana Benedicto; Annie B. Kersting; Mark Sutton; James Jerden; Kurt E. Frey; Jacqueline M. Copple; William Ebert

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

31

Iodide Sorption to Clays and the Relationship to Surface Charge and Clay Texture - 12356  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iodine is assumed to behave conservatively in clay barriers around nuclear waste repositories and in natural sediments. Batch experiments tend to show little to no sorption, while in column experiments iodine is often retarded relative to tritiated water. Current surface complexation theory cannot account for negatively charged ion sorption to a negatively charged clay particle. Surface protonation and iodide sorption to clay minerals were examined using surface titrations and batch sorption experiments with a suite of clay minerals. Surface titrations were completed spanning a range of both pH values and ionic strengths. For reference, similar titrations were performed on pure forms of an Al-O powder. The titration curves were deconvoluted to attain the pKa distribution for each material at each ionic strength. The pKa distribution for the Al-O shows two distinct peaks at 4.8 and 7.5, which are invariant with ionic strength. The pKa distribution of clays was highly variable between the different minerals and as a function of ionic strength. Iodide sorption experiments were completed at high solid:solution ratios to exacerbate sorption properties. Palygorskite and kaolinite had the highest amount of iodide sorption and montmorillonite had the least. (authors)

Miller, Andrew; Kruichiak, Jessica; Tellez, Hernesto; Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

High-Throughput Contention-Free Concurrent Interleaver Architecture for Multi-Standard Turbo Decoder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-Throughput Contention-Free Concurrent Interleaver Architecture for Multi-Standard Turbo paral- lel turbo decoder architectures have been developed. However, the interleaver has become a major that can efficiently solve the memory conflict problem for parallel turbo decoders with very high

Mellor-Crummey, John

33

CLAY AND SHALE--2003 18.1 CLAY AND SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%), drilling mud (22%), and iron ore pelletizing (15%); for common clay and shale, brick (55%), cement (19 Protection Agency (EPA) finalized its maximum achievable control technology (MACT) regulation/Mg of uncalcined clay or a reduction of 30% in emissions. For new batch kilns, hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen

34

CLAY AND SHALE--1998 R1 CLAY AND SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continued its work on the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT for Hazardous Air Pollutants Program, which was established by the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. Clay are mainly underclays associated with coal. Domestic production data for clays were developed by the U

35

Analysis of consolidation around driven piles in overconsolidated clay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The principal objective of this thesis is to assess the capabilities of an already established analytical framework for understanding and predicting the behavior of piles driven in highly overconsolidated clays (OCR24). ...

Niarchos, Dimitrios G

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Derivation, Parameterization and Validation of a Sandy-Clay Material Model for Use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for sand-based soils with different saturation levels and clay and gravel contents was recently proposed and validated in our study, and the same has been extended in this study to include clay-based soils with landmine detonation and interaction between detonation products, mine fragments, and soil ejecta

Grujicic, Mica

37

Information content of slug tests for estimating hydraulic properties in realistic, high-conductivity aquifer scenarios  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Information content of slug tests for estimating hydraulic properties in realistic, high for partially-penetrating slug tests in unconfined aquifers (Malama et al., in press) provides a semi the ultimate goal of determining aquifer properties such as hydraulic conductivity K and specific storage Ss

Barrash, Warren

38

Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Groundwater Using High Carbon Content Fly Ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Groundwater Using High Carbon Content Fly Ash M. Melih for retardation of petroleum contaminants in barrier applications. Sorbed amounts measured in batch scale tests on remediation efficiency. INTRODUCTION Remediation of groundwater contaminated with petroleum-based products has

Aydilek, Ahmet

39

Bioreduction of Fe-bearing clay minerals and their reactivity toward pertechnetate (Tc-99)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

99Technetium (99Tc) is a fission product of uranium-235 and plutonium-239 and poses a high environmental hazard due to its long half-life (t1/2 = 2.13 x 105 y), abundance in nuclear wastes, and environmental mobility under oxidizing conditions [i.e., Tc(VII)]. Under reducing conditions, Tc(VII) can be reduced to insoluble Tc(IV). Ferrous iron [Fe(II)], either in aqueous form or in mineral form, has been used to reduce Tc(VII) to Tc(IV). However, the reactivity of Fe(II) from clay minerals, other than nontronite, toward immobilization of Tc(VII) and its role in retention of reduced Tc(IV) have not been investigated. In this study the reactivity of a suite of clay minerals toward Tc(VII) reduction and immobilization was evaluated. The clay minerals chosen for this study included five members in the smectite-illite (S-I) series, (montmorillonite, nontronite, rectorite, mixed layered I-S, and illite), chlorite, and palygorskite. Fe-oxides were removed from these minerals with a modified dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) procedure. The total Fe content of these clay minerals, after Fe-oxide removal, ranged from 0.7 to 30.4% by weight, and the Fe(III)/Fe(total) ratio ranged from 44.9 to 98.5%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy results showed that after Fe oxide removal the clay minerals were free of Fe-oxides. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that little dissolution occurred during the DCB treatment. Bioreduction experiments were performed in bicarbonate buffer (pH-7) with Fe(III) in the clay minerals as the sole electron acceptor, lactate as the sole electron donor, and Shewanella Putrifaciens CN32 cells as mediators. In select tubes, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfate (AQDS) was added as electron shuttle to facilitate electron transfer. The extent of Fe(III) bioreduction was the highest for chlorite (~43 wt%) and the lowest for palygorskite (~4.17 wt%). In the S-I series, NAu-2 was the most reducible (~31 %) and illite the least (~0.4 %). The extent and initial rate of bioreduction were positively correlated with the percent smectite in the S-I series (i.e., layer expandability). Fe(II) in the bioreduced clay minerals subsequently was used to reduce Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) in PIPES buffer. Similar to the trend of bioreduction, in the S-I series, reduced smectite showed the highest reactivity toward Tc(VII), and reduced illite exhibited the least. The initial rate of Tc(VII) reduction, after normalization to clay and Fe(II) concentrations, was positively correlated with the percent smectite in the S-I series. Fe(II) in chlorite and palygorskite was also reactive toward Tc(VII) reduction. These data demonstrate that crystal chemical parameters (layer expandability, Fe and Fe(II) contents, and surface area etc.) play important roles in controlling the extent and rate of bioreduction and the reactivity toward Tc(VII) reduction. Reduced Tc(IV) resides within clay mineral matrix, and this association could minimize any potential of reoxidation over long term.

Bishop, Michael E.; Dong, Hailiang; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Liu, Chongxuan; Edelmann, Richard E.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Reduction of FeO contents in sinter under high bed operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-bed operation (bed height more than 700 mm) is currently being carried out at the Kure No. 1 sintering plant. Before initiating this high-bed operation, the authors conducted sinter pot tests at various bed heights to investigate the effect of bed height on sintering. The following results were obtained from these pot tests: Heightening of the sinter bed increased yield at the upper layer, but at the lower layer, the yield reached a maximum value at a certain bed height. From observation of the sinter cakes, the reduction in yield is attributed to uneven burn caused by surplus heat at the lower layers. Therefore, when high-bed operation is carried out, reduction of the burning energy (reduction of the FeO content in the sinter) is required. This high-bed operation with lower FeO content has enabled the company to reduce fuel consumption and SiO{sub 2} content, while maintaining high yield and high sinter quality.

Fujii, K.; Hazama, K.; Hoshikuma, Y.; Tarumoto, S.; Nunomura, S.; Hirota, N.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Investigation of the suitability of a geosynthetic clay liner system for the El Paso Solar Pond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The El Paso Solar Pond Project experienced a complete failure of its XR-5 8130 (SP) membrane liner. This paper will summarize the XR-5 8130 (SP) liner failure analysis, and provide design and installation procedures of its replacement: a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL). This application represents the first use of a GCL in a solar pond. Geosynthetic clay liners offer major advantages over membrane liners. Unlike membrane liners, clay liners are puncture-proof, have predictable permeability, and are self-healing. Furthermore, the cost of clay liners is less than that of membrane liners. However, disagreement exists as to the efficacy of clay liners in solar ponds. The high temperatures and salinity of the pond are factors which cause the most concern. Most information available for clay liners is in conjunction with municipal waste disposal facilities, although compacted clay liners have been used in Israel and Mexico for solar ponds.

Robbins, M.C.; Lu, H.; Swift, A.H.P. Jr. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Lateral load test of a drilled shaft in clay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LATERAL LOAD TEST OF A DRILLED SHAFT IN CLAY A Thesis by VERNON RAY KASCH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering LATERAL LOAD TEST OF A DRILLED SHAFT IN CLAY A Thesis by VERNON RAY KASCH Approved as to style and content by: Harry M. Coyle - Ch irman of Committee Charles H. Samson, Jr. Head of Department Wayne . Dunlap - Ne er Christop er C...

Kasch, Vernon R

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

2005 Minerals Yearbook CLAY AND SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2005 Minerals Yearbook CLAY AND SHALE U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey February 2007 #12;CLAY AND SHALE--2005 18.1 CLAY AND SHALE By Robert L. Virta Domestic survey data at $1.68 billion in 2004 (table 1). Common clay and shale accounted for 59% of the tonnage, and kaolin

44

CLAY AND SHALE--1999 18.1 CLAY AND SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is required under the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Program, which was established of hazardous air pollutants. The agency further concluded that there were approximately 20 major sources on the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) for the clay-products-manufacturing industries. The MACT

45

Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

A rational minor actinide (MA) recycling concept based on innovative oxide fuel with high AM content  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A rational MA recycle concept based on high Am content fuel has been proposed. A design study of an Am- MOX fabrication plant, which is a key facility for the MA recycle concept, has been done and the facility concept was clarified from the viewpoint of basic process viability. Preliminary cost estimation suggested that the total construction cost of the MA recycle facilities including Am-MOX, Np-MOX and MA recovery could be comparable with that of the large scale LWR-MOX fabrication plant required for plutonium in LWR fuel cycle. (authors)

Tanaka, Kenya; Sato, Isamu; Ishii, Tetsuya; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Asaga, Takeo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, O-arai-machi, Higasiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 311-1393 (Japan); Kurosaki, Ken [Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Deep ocean clay crusts: behaviour and biological origin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Deep ocean clay crusts: behaviour and biological origin Matthew Yih-Han Kuo King’s College University of Cambridge A dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy February 2011 To Kirsty, Mum, Dad and Ivana “. . . observe the small... , the deep Pacific and the Peru Margin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.1 Water content and liquid limit measurements taken from box and STACOR core samples confirming measurements by Fugro (also shown). . . . . . . . . . . 23 3...

Kuo, Matthew Yih-Han

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Field tests and new design procedure for laterally loaded drilled shafts in clay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FIELD TESTS AND NEW DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR LATERALLY LOADED DRILLED SHAFTS IN CLAY A Thesis by l1ARK WILLIAM BIERSCHWALE Submitted to ihe Graduate College Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Civil Engineering FIELD TESTS AND NEW DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR LATERALLY LOADED DRILLED SHAFTS IN CLAY A Thesis by NARK WILLIAM BIERSCHWALE Approved as to style and content by: Harry M. Coyle - Chairman...

Bierschwale, Mark W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Constitutive relationships for elastic deformation of clay rock: Data Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geological repositories have been considered a feasible option worldwide for storing high-level nuclear waste. Clay rock is one of the rock types under consideration for such purposes, because of its favorable features to prevent radionuclide transport from the repository. Coupled hydromechanical processes have an important impact on the performance of a clay repository, and establishing constitutive relationships for modeling such processes are essential. In this study, we propose several constitutive relationships for elastic deformation in indurated clay rocks based on three recently developed concepts. First, when applying Hooke's law in clay rocks, true strain (rock volume change divided by the current rock volume), rather than engineering strain (rock volume change divided by unstressed rock volume), should be used, except when the degree of deformation is very small. In the latter case, the two strains will be practically identical. Second, because of its inherent heterogeneity, clay rock can be divided into two parts, a hard part and a soft part, with the hard part subject to a relatively small degree of deformation compared with the soft part. Third, for swelling rock like clay, effective stress needs to be generalized to include an additional term resulting from the swelling process. To evaluate our theoretical development, we analyze uniaxial test data for core samples of Opalinus clay and laboratory measurements of single fractures within macro-cracked Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples subject to both confinement and water reduced swelling. The results from this evaluation indicate that our constitutive relationships can adequately represent the data and explain the related observations.

Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

50

Original article Mechanical behaviour of silty clay loam/peat mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Mechanical behaviour of silty clay loam/peat mixtures: cyclic compression or amended with 20 or 40 % by volume of spagh- num peat, were studied at different values of water contentPa is increased to about 55 and 115 % for 20 and 40 % peat contents, respectively. A comparison of the cyclic test

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

51

Study on the hydraulic conductivity of Boom clay1 Yong-Feng Deng1, 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Transportation College,5 Nanjing, China6 2 Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, Navier/CERMES, Marne-la-Vallée, France7 3 Introduction1 Boom clay is a thick deposit of over-consolidated marine clay, of Oligocene age. It can be2 found for its performance assessment for the deep geological disposal of4 high-level radioactive waste. Recently

Boyer, Edmond

52

HIGH PERFORMANCE BLENDS AND COMPOSITES: PART (I) CLAY AEROGEL/POLYMER COMPOSITES PART (II) MECHANISTIC INVESTIGATION OF COLOR GENERATION IN PET/MXD6 BARRIER BLENDS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??High performance in polymer blends and composites can be achieved through the addition of a strong filler component into a polymer matrix. The overall physical… (more)

Bandi, Suneel A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Occurrence and alteration of clay minerals in the Caribbean Sea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in these sedi- ments. The high angle x-ray diffraction peaks used for the deter- minations (Velde and Hower, 1963; Velde, 1965; Maxwell and Hower, 1967) have little or no intensity in complex clay mixtures. Halloysite 0 Broadening on the low angle side...

Johnson, Charles Michael

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Energy Conservation Loans  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC), a Touchstone Energy Cooperative, covers 14 North Florida counties, including Gainesville, Keystone Heights, Lake City, Orange Park, Palatka, and Salt Springs. It...

55

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Solar Thermal Loans  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC), a Touchstone Energy Cooperative, covers 14 counties in northern Florida, including Gainesville, Keystone Heights, Lake City, Orange Park, Palatka, and Salt Springs....

56

Action plan for responses to abnormal conditions in Hanford Site radioactive waste tanks with high organic content. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This action plan describes the criteria and the organizational responsibilities required for ensuring that waste storage tanks with high organic contents are maintained in a safe condition at the Hanford Site. In addition, response actions are outlined for (1) prevention or mitigation of excessive temperatures; or (2) a material release from any waste tank with high organic content. Other response actions may be defined by Westinghouse Hanford Company Systems Engineering if a waste tank parameter goes out of specification. Trend analysis indicates the waste tank parameters have seasonal variations, but are otherwise stable.

Fowler, K.D.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Identification and confirmation of molecular markers and orange flesh color associated with major QTL for high beta-carotene content in muskmelon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-carotene content, flesh color, and flesh color intensity. Bulk segregent analysis was used with RAPD markers to identify molecular markers associated with high beta-carotene content. Flesh color and flesh color intensity both had significant relationships with beta...

Napier, Alexandra Bamberger

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

A comparison of the behavior of intact and Resedimented Boston Blue Clay (BBC)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Resedimented Boston Blue Clay (RBBC) has been used as an analog test material for research at MIT for decades, due to local variability and the high cost of sampling. However, a comprehensive study of the differences in ...

House, Robert Donald

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Clay Sell Sworn in as Deputy Secretary of Energy | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Clay Sell Sworn in as Deputy Secretary of Energy Clay Sell Sworn in as Deputy Secretary of Energy March 21, 2005 - 10:53am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Jeffrey Clay Sell was sworn in...

60

f your soil has a high salinity content, the plants growing there will not be as vigorous as they would  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I f your soil has a high salinity content, the plants growing there will not be as vigorous as they would be in normal soils. Seeds will germinate poorly, if at all, and the plants will grow slowly much you water them. Routine soil testing can identify your soil's salinity levels and suggest measures

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Electrodeposition of high Mo content Ni-Mo alloys under forced convection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bright, compact, adherent, metallic Ni-Mo alloys, containing over 48 wt % Mo have been electrodeposited from an aqueous solution. The Mo content, which is the highest achieved so far in induced codeposition of Ni-Mo, was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The absence of oxygen was verified by Auger electron spectroscopy. Electrodeposition experiments were performed on rotating cylinder electrodes and demonstrate that the Mo content of the alloy is strongly influenced by convective transport.

Podlaha, E.J.; Matlosz, M.; Landolt, D. (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanee (Switzerland). Dept. des materiaux)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Model of crack propagation in a clay soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of independent variables for maximum R to determine A for crack de th, 2 Number of variables in model (p) R Variables in model 0. 703913 0. 916176 0. 988151 0. 997207 0. 999328 H*CLrH*M~CL H, H*M, H~M*CL H, CL, H*M, H*M*CL H, CL, H"M, H*CL, H...: Agricultural Engineering MODEL OF CRACK PROPAGATION IN A CLAY SOIL A Thesis by PATRICK EDWIDGE CARRIERE Approved as to style and content by: John L. Nieber (Chairman of Committee) Donald L. Reddell (Member) Kirk W, Brown (Member ) Wilbert H...

Carriere, Patrick Edwidge

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

63

Clay-Oil Droplet Suspensions in Electric Field.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Silicone oil droplets containing synthetic smectite clay submerged in another immiscible organic oil have been studied by observing clay particle movement, oil circulation and… (more)

Kjerstad, Knut Brøndbo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Intercalation of Trichloroethene by Sediment-Associated Clay...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Intercalation of Trichloroethene by Sediment-Associated Clay Minerals. Intercalation of Trichloroethene by Sediment-Associated Clay Minerals. Abstract: The objective of this...

65

Preliminary inventory of pre-Cenozoic clay shales and argillites of the conterminous United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cretaceous shales of the Western Interior of the United States occur in vast quantities and in thickness greater than 150 m (500 ft). Some older Mesozoic, Paleozoic, and Precambrian shale and argillites also appear to approach these thicknesses in deposits of considerable lateral extent. These older rocks commonly have a lower proportion of expandable clays and lower water contents.

Connolly, J.R.; Woodward, L.A.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

The Dependence of the Proton-Triton Nuclear Reaction Rate on the Temperature and Energy Content of the High-Energy Proton Distribution Function  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Dependence of the Proton-Triton Nuclear Reaction Rate on the Temperature and Energy Content of the High-Energy Proton Distribution Function

67

CLAYS--2000 19.1 By Robert L. Virta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Administration (FDA) clarified its guidance document for dioxins in anticaking agents, including clay, used

68

2006 Minerals Yearbook ClaY and Shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2006 Minerals Yearbook ClaY and Shale U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey January 2008 #12;Clay and Shale--2006 18.1 The amount of clay sold or used by domestic producers in 2006 in 2005 (table 1). Common clay and shale accounted for 59% of the tonnage, and kaolin accounted for 55

69

Natural Radioactivity of Boron Added Clay Samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clay, consisting fine-grained minerals, is an interesting materials and can be used in a variety of different fields especially in dermatology application. Using clay such a field it is important to measure its natural radioactivity. Thus the purpose of this study is to measure {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K concentration in clay samples enriched with boron. Three different types of clay samples were prepared where boron is used in different rate. The measurements have been determined using a gamma-ray spectrometry consists of a 3''x3'' NaI(Tl) detector. From the measured activity the radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}), external hazard index (H{sub ex}), absorbed dose rate in air (D) and annual effective dose (AED) have also been obtained.

Akkurt, I.; Guenoglu, K. [Sueleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Dept. of Physics, Isparta (Turkey); Canakcii, H. [Gaziantep University, Engineering Faculty, Civil Engineering Dept., Gaziantep (Turkey); Mavi, B. [Amasya University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Dept. of Physics, Amasya (Turkey)

2011-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

70

Completion strategy includes clay and precipitate control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes the conditions which are necessary for a successful oil well completion in the Mississippi and Cherokee zones of South Central Kansas. Topics considered include paraffin precipitation, clay swelling and migration, and iron precipitation. Clays in these zones are sensitive to water-base treating fluids and tend to swell and migrate to the well bore, thereby causing permeability damage. The presence of iron in the Mississippi and Cherokee formations has been indicated by cuttings, core samples, and connate water samples.

Sandy, T.; Gardner, G.R.

1985-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

71

On The Thermal Consolidation Of Boom Clay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When a mass of saturated clay is heated, as in the case of host soils surrounding nuclear waste disposals at great depth, the thermal expansion of the constituents generates excess pore pressures. The mass of clay is submitted to gradients of pore pressure and temperature, to hydraulic and thermal flows, and to changes in its mechanical properties. In this work, some of these aspects were experimentally studied in the case of Boom clay, so as to help predicting the response of the soil, in relation with investigations made in the Belgian underground laboratory at Mol. Results of slow heating tests with careful volume change measurements showed that a reasonable prediction of the thermal expansion of the clay-water system was obtained by using the thermal properties of free water. In spite of the density of Boom clay, no significant effect of water adsorption was observed. The thermal consolidation of Boom clay was studied through fast heating tests. A simple analysis shows that the hydraulic and thermal trans...

Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Photocatalytic properties of titania pillared clays by different drying methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Photocatalysts based on titania pillared clays (TiO{sub 2} PILCs) have been prepared through a sol-gel method. Different drying methods, air drying (AD), air drying after ethanol extraction (EAD), and supercritical drying (SCD) have been employed and found to have significant effects on the photocatalytic efficiency of the resultant catalysts for the oxidation of phenol in water. Titania pillared clay (TiO{sub 2} PILC) obtained by SCD has the highest external and micropore surface area, largest amount and smallest crystallite size of anatase, and exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, silica titania pillared clay (SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} PILC) after SCD, titania coated TiO{sub 2} PILC (SCD) and SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} PILC (SCD) were synthesized to study the key factors controlling the photocatalytic activity. It is concluded that the dispersion of nanometer-sized anatase on the surface of the PILC particles and the suspensibility of the particles are the most important factors for high photocatalytic efficiency.

Ding, Z.; Zhu, H.Y.; Lu, G.Q.; Greenfield, P.F. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Clay and non-clay minerals in the pharmaceutical industry Part I. Excipients and medical applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Clay and non-clay minerals in the pharmaceutical industry Part I. Excipients and medical in the pharmaceutical industry as lubricants, desiccants, disintegrants, diluents, binders, pigments and opaci ers form 17 July 2009 Accepted 22 July 2009 Available online 29 July 2009 Keywords: Minerals Pharmaceutical

Ahmad, Sajjad

74

Review Article Clay and non-clay minerals in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review Article Clay and non-clay minerals in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries Part II Pharmaceutical industry Cosmetic industry Active ingredients Physical and physico-chemical properties A wide range and variety of minerals are used in the pharmaceutical industry as active ingredients

Ahmad, Sajjad

75

High Content Image Analysis Identifies Novel Regulators of Synaptogenesis in a High-Throughput RNAi Screen of Primary Neurons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The formation of synapses, the specialized points of chemical communication between neurons, is a highly regulated developmental process fundamental to establishing normal brain circuitry. Perturbations of synapse formation ...

Nieland, Thomas J.

76

Enchanted Clays: 44th Annual Meeting of the Clay Minerals Society (June 2007)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

“Enchanted Clays: 44th Annual Meeting of the Clay Minerals Society” was held in early June 2007 in beautiful and historic Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe provided an idyllic location in the southwestern United States for the attendees to enjoy technical and social sessions while soaking up the diverse culture and wonderful climate of New Mexico—The Land of Enchantment. The meeting included a large and varied group of scientists, sharing knowledge and ideas, benefitting from technical interactions, and enjoying the wonderful historic and enchanted environs of Santa Fe. Including significant number of international scientists, the meeting was attended by approximately two hundred participants. The meeting included three days of technical sessions (oral and poster presentations), three days of field trips to clay and geological sites of northern New Mexico, and a full day workshop on the stabilization of carbon by clays. Details can be found at the meeting web site: www.sandia.gov/clay.

Randall T. Cygan

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Organic or organometallic template mediated clay synthesis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for incorporating diverse varieties of intercalates or templates directly during hydrothermal synthesis of clays such as hectorite or montmorillonite-type layer-silicate clays. For a hectorite layer-silicate clay, refluxing a gel of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol and lithium fluoride for two days in the presence of an organic or organometallic intercalate or template results in crystalline products containing either (a) organic dye molecules such as ethyl violet and methyl green, (b) dye molecules such as alcian blue that are based on a Cu(II)-phthalocyannine complex, or (c) transition metal complexes such as Ru(II)phenanthroline and Co(III)sepulchrate or (d) water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Montmorillonite-type clays are made by the method taught by U.S. Pat. No. 3,887,454 issued to Hickson, Jun. 13, 1975; however, a variety of intercalates or templates may be introduced. The intercalates or templates should have (i) water-solubility, (ii) positive charge, and (iii) thermal stability under moderately basic (pH 9-10) aqueous reflux conditions or hydrothermal pressurized conditions for the montmorillonite-type clays. 22 figures.

Gregar, K.C.; Winans, R.E.; Botto, R.E.

1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

78

Organic or organometallic template mediated clay synthesis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for incorporating diverse Varieties of intercalants or templates directly during hydrothermal synthesis of clays such as hectorite or montmorillonite-type layer-silicate clays. For a hectorite layer-silicate clay, refluxing a gel of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol and lithium fluoride for two days in the presence of an organic or organometallic intercalant or template results in crystalline products containing either (a) organic dye molecules such as ethyl violet and methyl green, (b) dye molecules such as alcian blue that are based on a Cu(II)-phthalocyannine complex, or (c) transition metal complexes such as Ru(II)phenanthroline and Co(III)sepulchrate or (d) water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Montmorillonite-type clays are made by the method taught by U.S. Pat. No. 3,887,454 issued to Hickson, Jun. 13, 1975; however, a variety of intercalants or templates may be introduced. The intercalants or templates should have (i) water-solubility, (ii) positive charge, and (iii) thermal stability under moderately basic (pH 9-10) aqueous reflux conditions or hydrothermal pressurized conditions for the montmorillonite-type clays.

Gregar, Kathleen C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Winans, Randall E. (Downers Grove, IL); Botto, Robert E. (Downers Grove, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Damage to HDPE geomembrane from interface shear over gravelly compacted clay liner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

strength of three geosynthetic clay liners,” Journal ofperformance of geosynthetic clay liners under gravel coverShear Machine for Geosynthetic Clay Liners,” Geotechnical

Thielmann, Stuart

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Field Performance of Three Compacted Clay Landfill Covers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was conducted at sites in subtropical Georgia, seasonal and humid Iowa, and arid southeastern California to evaluate the field hydrology of compacted clay covers for final closure of landfills.Water balance of the covers was monitored with large (10 by 20 m), instrumented drainage lysimeters for 2 to 4 yr. Initial drainage at the Iowa and California sites was ,32 mm yr21 (i.e., unit gradient flow for a hydraulic conductivity of 1027 cm s21, the regulatory standard for the clay barriers in this study); initial drainage rate at the Georgia site was about 80 mm yr21. The drainage rate at all sites increased by factors ranging from 100 to 750 during the monitoring periods and in each case the drainage rate exceeded 32 mm yr21 by the end of the monitoring period. The drainage rates developed a rapid response to precipitation events, suggesting that increases in drainage rate were the result of preferential flow. Although no direct observations of preferential flow paths were made, field measurements of water content and temperature at all three sites suggested that desiccation or freeze–thaw cycling probably resulted in formation of preferential flow paths through the barrier layers. Data from all three sites showed the effectiveness of all three covers as hydraulic barriers diminished during the 2 to 4 yr monitoring period, which was short compared with the required design life (often 30 yr) of most waste containment facilities.

Albright, William H.; Benson, Craig H.; Gee, Glendon W.; Abichou, Tarek; Tyler, Scott W.; Rock, Steven

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Plasticity of the Dakota Clays of Kansas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of plasticity from the physico-chemical direction were made by more recent investigators, for example, Ashley, in this cotmnfcry, has experimented with clays in order to e:q}lain th9 cause of plasticity by measuring the colloids of the clay. He was then able... of the present day conception of the colloidal state of' matter, Thomas Graham (9) an English physicist, working on his classical experiments 1860 - 64, on diffusion or dtlysis was led to divide substances into two groups, according *as the rate of diffusion...

Belchic, George

1915-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Hollow clay tile wall program summary report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many of the Y-12 Plant buildings, constructed during the 1940s and 1950s, consist of steel ed concrete framing infilled with hollow clay tile (HCT). The infill was intended to provide for building enclosure and was not designed to have vertical or lateral load-carrying capacity. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, seismic and wind evaluations were performed on many of these buildings in conjunction with the preparation of a site-wide safety analysis report. This analytical work, based on the best available methodology, considered lateral load-carrying capacity of the HCT infill on the basis of building code allowable shear values. In parallel with the analysis effort, DOE initiated a program to develop natural phenomena capacity and performance criteria for existing buildings, but these criteria did not specify guidelines for determining the lateral force capacity of frames infilled with HCT. The evaluation of infills was, therefore, based on the provisions for the design of unreinforced masonry as outlined in standard masonry codes. When the results of the seismic and wind evaluations were compared with the new criteria, the projected building capacities fell short of the requirements. Apparently, if the buildings were to meet the new criteria, many millions of dollars would be required for building upgrades. Because the upgrade costs were significant, the assumptions and approaches used in the analyses were reevaluated. Four issues were identified: (1) Once the infilled walls cracked, what capacity (nonlinear response), if any, would the walls have to resist earthquake or wind loads applied in the plane of the infill (in-plane)? (2) Would the infilled walls remain within the steel or reinforced concrete framing when subjected to earthquake or high wind loads applied perpendicular to the infill (out-of-plane)? (3) What was the actual shear capacity of the HCT infill? (4) Was modeling the HCT infill as a shear wall the best approach?

Henderson, R.C.; Jones, W.D. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Beavers, J.E. [MS Technology, Inc. (United States)

1995-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

83

References on Ball Clay U.S. Geological Survey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: The American Ceramic Society Bulletin, v. 75, no. 6, June, p. 74-76. ------, 1992, Ball and plastic clay, Metallurgy, and Explorations, Inc., Littleton, P. 255-277. Stentiford, M.J., 1996, Ball clay-demand strong

84

Arrested state of clay-water suspensions: gel or glass?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The aging of a charged colloidal system has been studied by Small Angle X-rays Scattering, in the exchanged momentum range Q=0.03 - 5 nm-1, and by Dynamic Light Scattering, at different clay concentrations (Cw =0.6 % - 2.8 %). The static structure factor, S(Q), has been determined as a function of both aging time and concentration. This is the first direct experimental evidence of the existence and evolution with aging time of two different arrested states in a single system simply obtained only by changing its volume fraction: an inhomogeneous state is reached at low concentrations, while a homogenous one is found at high concentrations.

B. Ruzicka; L. Zulian; R. Angelini; M. Sztucki; A. Moussaid; G. Ruocco

2008-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

85

Compositional characteristics of the Fire Clay coal bed in a portion of eastern Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fire Clay (Hazard No. 4) coal bed (Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation) is one of the most extensively mined coal in eastern Kentucky. The coal is used for metallurgical and steam end uses and, with its low sulfur content, should continue to be a prime steam coal. This study focuses on the petrology, mineralogy, ash geochemistry, and palynology of the coal in an eight 7.5-min quadrangle area of Leslie, Perry, Knott, and Letcher counties.

Hower, J.C.; Andrews, W.M. Jr.; Rimmer, S.M. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

87

Vortex combustor for low NOx emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

Steele, Robert C. (Woodinville, WA); Edmonds, Ryan G. (Renton, WA); Williams, Joseph T. (Kirkland, WA); Baldwin, Stephen P. (Winchester, MA)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

88

1 INTRODUCTION Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLs) are sealing ele-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 INTRODUCTION Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLs) are sealing ele- ments which contain bentonite: A significant number of studies have been published on the field performance of Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLs encapsulated between geotextile components. They have been mostly em- ployed to replace clay liners in landfill

Boyer, Edmond

89

Deposition of device quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon at high deposition rates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of fabricating device quality, thin-film a-Si:H for use as semiconductor material in photovoltaic and other devices, comprising in any order; positioning a substrate in a vacuum chamber adjacent a plurality of heatable filaments with a spacing distance L between the substrate and the filaments; heating the filaments to a temperature that is high enough to obtain complete decomposition of silicohydride molecules that impinge said filaments into Si and H atomic species; providing a flow of silicohydride gas, or a mixture of silicohydride gas containing Si and H, in said vacuum chamber while maintaining a pressure P of said gas in said chamber, which, in combination with said spacing distance L, provides a P.times.L product in a range of 10-300 mT-cm to ensure that most of the Si atomic species react with silicohydride molecules in the gas before reaching the substrate, to thereby grow a a-Si:H film at a rate of at least 50 .ANG./sec.; and maintaining the substrate at a temperature that balances out-diffusion of H from the growing a-Si:H film with time needed for radical species containing Si and H to migrate to preferred bonding sites.

Mahan, Archie Harvin (Golden, CO); Molenbroek, Edith C. (Rotterdam, NL); Gallagher, Alan C. (Louisville, CO); Nelson, Brent P. (Golden, CO); Iwaniczko, Eugene (Lafayette, CO); Xu, Yueqin (Golden, CO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

Liu, H.H.; Li, L.; Zheng, L.; Houseworth, J.E.; Rutqvist, J.

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

91

Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 1 of 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

Stephen Bergin

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

92

Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 2 of 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

Stephen Bergin

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

93

Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 3 of 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

Stephen Bergin

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

94

Influence of formation clays on the flow of aqueous fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most sandstone formations contain clays that can have a significant effect on the flow of aqueous fluids. The clays most frequently detected are smectite, mixed layer, illite, kaolinite, and chlorite. All of these clays are capable of migrating and causing permeability damage when they are contacted by waters foreign to the formation. Normally, these waters alter ionic environments around the clays, which causes the clays to be dislodged from their original positions. Thus, any time clay is present in the rock, it can be assumed that permeability damage can occur. The degree of damage depends upon the concentration and types of clays present, their relative position in the rock, the severity of the ionic environmental change; and fluid velocity. Permeability damage has been minimized in oil and gas wells through the use of potassium and ammonium ions. 15 references.

Hower, W.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Structural, textural and catalytic properties of Al-, Ti-pillared clays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Al-, Ti- and Zr-pillared clays were characterized and NiMo/Pilc`s were tested in HDS reactions. The combination of activity measurements with Moessbauer Spectroscopy and x-ray microanalysis at microscopical scale give insight in the metal phases migration during pillaring, reaction and regeneration steps. {Alpha}-Fe phase in free Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} islands predominate together with structural Fe{sup 3+} phase, but during the catalytic reaction Fe{sup 2+} forms. Delamination of the Ti- and Zr-Clay supports, together with high Lewis acidity might enhance their catalytic properties.

Ramos-Galvan, C.E.; Dominguez, J.M.; Sandoval-Robles, G.; Castillo-Mares, A.; Nava E, N.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

96

Reactor Physics Studies of Reduced-Tantaulum-Content Control and Safety Elements for the High Flux Isotope Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some of the unirradiated High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) control elements discharged during the late 1990s were observed to have cladding damage--local swelling or blistering. The cladding damage was limited to the tantalum/europium interface of the element and is thought to result from interaction of hydrogen and europium to form a compound of lower density than europium oxide, thus leading to a ''blistering'' of the control plate cladding. Reducing the tantalum loading in the control plates should help preclude this phenomena. The impact of the change to the control plates on the operation of the reactor was assessed. Regarding nominal, steady-state reactor operation, the impact of the change in the power distribution in the core due to reduced tantalum content was calculated and found to be insignificant. The magnitude and impact of the change in differential control element worth was calculated, and the differential worths of reduced tantalum elements vs the current elements from equivalent-burnup critical configurations were determined to be unchanged within the accuracy of the computational method and relevant experimental measurements. The location of the critical control elements symmetric positions for reduced tantalum elements was found to be 1/3 in. less withdrawn relative to existing control elements regardless of the value of fuel cycle burnup (time in the fuel cycle). The magnitude and impact of the change in the shutdown margin (integral rod worth) was assessed and found to be unchanged. Differential safety element worth values for the reduced-tantalum-content elements were calculated for postulated accident conditions and were found to be greater than values currently assumed in HFIR safety analyses.

Primm, R.T., III

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Geosynthetic clay liners in alkaline environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) as secondary barrier layers in environmental applications such as landfills and other impoundment facilities is becoming increasingly more popular among the engineering community, particularly at project sites where earthen materials suitable for barrier layers may not be locally available. Design engineers for these environmental applications are becoming well versed at performing equivalency calculations comparing the performance of geosynthetic materials to their earthen counterparts. For barrier layers, these equivalency calculations would normally compare the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the GCL to a compacted clay liner. Of these properties, the ability of the hydraulic properties to withstand degradation due to permeation of contained leachates is of prominent concern. Such is the case in alkaline environments. The leachate may adversely affect the GCL by minimizing swelling, decreasing adsorption capacity and increasing the permeability of the material. If the effect on the material is significant, the usefulness of this product is diminished, possibly voiding any equivalency comparison to compacted clay liner performance. The design engineer must fully understand what effect, if any, specific leachates will have on the GCL being considered. Accordingly, appropriate performance testing with the leachate in question must be performed during the design phase and confirmed during construction through quality assurance testing. This paper will present the design considerations, required laboratory testing and conformance tests for a recent project that contained an alkaline leachate. Through appropriate testing, a contaminant resistant GCL was shown to possess desired hydraulic properties in the presence of the alkaline leachate.

McKelvey, J.A. III [Roy F. Weston, Inc., West Chester, PA (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Clay mineral reactions in clastic diagenesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of clastic sediments have documented the formation and transformation of clay mineral assemblages during burial diagensis. The transformation of smectite to illite in shale by its reaction with the decomposition products of detrital K-feldspar and mica results in the production of new pore water at depth. The overall reaction mobilizes all the major chemical components in the shale, most of which are consumed in the formation of the diagenetic assemblage illite/smectite + chlorite + quartz. However, part of all the components is undoubtedly transported from the shale to sandstone units and is involved in cementation, replacement, and diagenetic clay mineral formation in these reservoir rocks. In contrast to burial diagenetic reactions in shale, where the sequence is monotonic and reasonably predictable, diagenetic reactions in sandstone are frequently variable. This variability is probably attributable to the fact that sandstones are open systems in which the reactions that proceed are controlled in part by the influx of new pore water, the chemistry of which is determined by an outside source. The useful understanding role of clay minerals in hydrocarbon exploration will follow from a determination of the system shale/sandstone/organic material. We need to tie in the nature and timing of shale mineral reactions and their control on the fluid and mass transfer from shale to sandstone.

Hower, J.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation of Protective Oxides and Thermal Barrier Coatings in High Hydrogen Content (HHC) - Fueled Turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overarching goal of this research program has been to evaluate the potential impacts of coal-derived syngas and high-hydrogen content fuels on the degradation of turbine hot-section components through attack of protective oxides and thermal barrier coatings. The primary focus of this research program has been to explore mechanisms underpinning the observed degradation processes, and connections to the combustion environments and characteristic non-combustible constituents. Based on the mechanistic understanding of how these emerging fuel streams affect materials degradation, the ultimate goal of the program is to advance the goals of the Advanced Turbine Program by developing materials design protocols leading to turbine hot-section components with improved resistance to service lifetime degradation under advanced fuels exposures. This research program has been focused on studying how: (1) differing combustion environments – relative to traditional natural gas fired systems – affect both the growth rate of thermally grown oxide (TGO) layers and the stability of these oxides and of protective thermal barrier coatings (TBCs); and (2) how low levels of fuel impurities and characteristic non-combustibles interact with surface oxides, for instance through the development of molten deposits that lead to hot corrosion of protective TBC coatings. The overall program has been comprised of six inter-related themes, each comprising a research thrust over the program period, including: (i) evaluating the role of syngas and high hydrogen content (HHC) combustion environments in modifying component surface temperatures, heat transfer to the TBC coatings, and thermal gradients within these coatings; (ii) understanding the instability of TBC coatings in the syngas and high hydrogen environment with regards to decomposition, phase changes and sintering; (iii) characterizing ash deposition, molten phase development and infiltration, and associated corrosive/thermo-chemical attack mechanisms; (iv) developing a mechanics-based analysis of the driving forces for crack growth and delamination, based on molten phase infiltration, misfit upon cooling, and loss of compliance; (v) understanding changes in TGO growth mechanisms associated with these emerging combustion product streams; and (vi) identifying degradation resistant alternative materials (including new compositions or bi-layer concepts) for use in mitigating the observed degradation modes. To address the materials stability concerns, this program integrated research thrusts aimed at: (1) Conducting tests in simulated syngas and HHC environments to evaluate materials evolution and degradation mechanisms; assessing thermally grown oxide development unique to HHC environmental exposures; carrying out high-resolution imaging and microanalysis to elucidate the evolution of surface deposits (molten phase formation and infiltration); exploring thermo-chemical instabilities; assessing thermo-mechanical drivers and thermal gradient effects on degradation; and quantitatively measuring stress evolution due to enhanced sintering and thermo-chemical instabilities induced in the coating. (2) Executing experiments to study the melting and infiltration of simulated ash deposits, and identifying reaction products and evolving phases associated with molten phase corrosion mechanisms; utilizing thermal spray techniques to fabricate test coupons with controlled microstructures to study mechanisms of instability and degradation; facilitating thermal gradient testing; and developing new materials systems for laboratory testing; (3) Correlating information on the resulting combustion environments to properly assess materials exposure conditions and guide the development of lab-scale simulations of material exposures; specification of representative syngas and high-hydrogen fuels with realistic levels of impurities and contaminants, to explore differences in heat transfer, surface degradation, and deposit formation; and facilitating combustion rig testing of materials test coupons.

Mumm, Daniel

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

100

Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, November 9, 1991--February 8, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The investigation of methods for the production and testing of iron-pillared clay catalysts was continued in this quarter. The surface area of the mixed alumina/iron pillared clay catalyst decreased to 51 m{sup 2}/g on sulfidation. Thus the stability of the alumina pillars during the sulfidation and thermal treatments prevented the total collapse that occurred in the case of the iron-pillared clays. Previously the mixed alumina/iron pillared clays were tested for hydrocracking activities with bibenzyl. This testing was extended to a determination of activity with a second model compound substrate (pyrene), representative of the polynuclear aromatic systems present in coal. Testing of the mixed alumina/iron-pillared catalysts with 1-methylnaphthalene gave interesting results that demonstrate shape selectivity. The clay-supported iron hydroxyoxide catalysts prepared by impregnation of iron species on acidic clays were further investigated. Sulfidation of these catalysts using the carbon disulfide in situ method gave hydrocracking activities with bibenzyl that were somewhat less than those obtained by presulfidation with H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S mixtures. Liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal was very successful with the iron impregnated clay catalyst, giving a highly soluble product. High conversions were also obtained with the mixed alumina/iron-pillared clay catalyst, but the yield of oil-solubles was considerably lower. Several new catalysts were synthesized with the idea of decreasing the pillar density and thereby increasing the micropore volume. These catalysts were prepared by first pillaring with an organic ammonium pillaring agent, then introducing a lower number of silica or alumina pillars. Finally the iron component was added either before or after thermal removal of organic pillars.

Olson, E.S.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Status of LANL investigations of temperature constraints on clay in repository environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign is presently evaluating various generic options for disposal of used fuel. The focus of this experimental work is to characterize and bound Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) conditions in high heat load repositories. The UFD now has the ability to evaluate multiple EBS materials, waste containers, and rock types at higher heat loads and pressures (including deep boreholes). The geologic conditions now available to the U.S.A. and the international community for repositories include saturated and reduced water conditions, along with higher pressure and temperature (P, T) regimes. Chemical and structural changes to the clays, in either backfill/buffer or clay-rich host rock, may have significant effects on repository evolution. Reduction of smectite expansion capacity and rehydration potential due to heating could affect the isolation provided by EBS. Processes such as cementation by silica precipitation and authigenic illite could change the hydraulic and mechanical properties of clay-rich materials. Experimental studies of these repository conditions at high P,T have not been performed in the U.S. for decades and little has been done by the international community at high P,T. The experiments to be performed by LANL will focus on the importance of repository chemical and mineralogical conditions at elevated P,T conditions. This will provide input to the assessment of scientific basis for elevating the temperature limits in clay barriers.

Caporuscio, Florie A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cheshire, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Newell, Dennis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCarney, Mary Kate [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

102

High Variability of the Metal Content of Tree Growth Rings as Measured by Synchrotron Micro X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synchrotron radiation analysis was used to investigate the metal content of tree rings collected from paper birch, Betula papyrifera Marsh, on transects downwind from two metal smelters (nickel and copper). Individual trees reflected changes in ring metal content with time, which may be presumed to represent changes in local metal bioavailability. However, between-tree variations were large and no statistically significant differences in metal content as a function of time were found within or between sites. Although concentrations of both total and exchangeable copper and nickel in the soil increased with proximity to the respective smelter, this pattern was reflected only in the nickel content of rings near the nickel smelter; copper content did not vary with distance from either smelter. The sites did differ with respect to lead, manganese and zinc content of the rings, which may be related to pH. In conclusion, the variability between trees at each site suggests that dendroanalysis is a poor method for evaluating metal exposure at a large (site) scale. Tree ring metal content may be used to evaluate the metal uptake by individual trees but metal mobility in the stem makes it difficult to establish a reliable chronology.

Martin,R.; Naftel, S.; Macfie, S.; Jones, K.; Feng, H.; Trembley, C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Energy Smart Energy Efficiency Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Rebates are available only to Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) residential members who are making efficiency upgrades to primary residence served by CEC. Rebates are available for residential...

104

assess clay mineralogy: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Restoration Websites Summary: liner interfaces, such as at the Kettleman Hills landfill (Byrne et al. 1992; Gilbert et al. 1998143 1 INTRODUCTION Geosynthetic clay...

105

applied clay mineralogy: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Restoration Websites Summary: liner interfaces, such as at the Kettleman Hills landfill (Byrne et al. 1992; Gilbert et al. 1998143 1 INTRODUCTION Geosynthetic clay...

106

Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a jurassic opalinum shale, switzerland. Clays and Clay96   1 INTRODUCTION Clay/shale has been considered asand Rupture of Heterogeneous Shale Samples by Using a Non-

Liu, H.H.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

CLAY MINERALS OF THE FRONT RANGE: A FIELD GUIDE TO THE GEOLOGY, HISTORY, AND CLAY MINERALOGY OF THE CHIEFTAIN MINE,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.................................................... 71 Appendix I: Clay Minerals Society field trip mileage log ............... 76 #12;FIGURES 1. Line ......................................... 21 7. Robinson Brick Company history ................................... 22 8. Diffractogram showing

108

Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers Jing Zhang, Hongping Zhao, and Nelson Tansu Citation: Appl of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content Al characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum wells QWs are analyzed for deep UV lasers. The effect of crystal

Gilchrist, James F.

109

Multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive transport model of the ventilation experiment in Opalinus clay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the construction and operational phases of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository constructed in a clay formation, ventilation of underground drifts will cause desaturation and oxidation of the rock. The Ventilation Experiment (VE) was performed in a 1.3 m diameter unlined horizontal microtunnel on Opalinus clay at Mont Terri underground research laboratory in Switzerland to evaluate the impact of desaturation on rock properties. A multiphase flow and reactive transport model of VE is presented here. The model accounts for liquid, vapor and air flow, evaporation/condensation and multicomponent reactive solute transport with kinetic dissolution of pyrite and siderite and local-equilibrium dissolution/precipitation of calcite, ferrihydrite, dolomite, gypsum and quartz. Model results reproduce measured vapor flow, liquid pressure and hydrochemical data and capture the trends of measured relative humidities, although such data are slightly overestimated near the rock interface due to uncertainties in the turbulence factor. Rock desaturation allows oxygen to diffuse into the rock and triggers pyrite oxidation, dissolution of calcite and siderite, precipitation of ferrihydrite, dolomite and gypsum and cation exchange. pH in the unsaturated rock varies from 7.8 to 8 and is buffered by calcite. Computed changes in the porosity and the permeability of Opalinus clay in the unsaturated zone caused by oxidation and mineral dissolution/precipitation are smaller than 5%. Therefore, rock properties are not expected to be affected significantly by ventilation of underground drifts during construction and operational phases of a HLW repository in clay.

Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Major, J.C.

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

Hygrothermal performance of an engineered clay barrier during sustained heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bentonitic clay buffers, with a potential for swelling, form an integral part of the natural (geological formation)/engineered multi-barrier concepts being proposed for the disposal of heat-generating radioactive nuclear fuel wastes. The integrity of such barriers during thermal loadings is of primary interest to the assessment of their reliability. This paper discusses the results of a series of experiments performed to assess the performance of buffer material under sustained heating. These experiments were conducted in a large-scale granite block facility. The laboratory modeling approximately simulates the local environment that can be encountered in a disposal vault in a granitic rock mass. Experiments in which the power supply to an embedded heater was held constant are described. The temperature distributions within the buffer and the granite block together with the residual moisture content distributions are documented. Also discussed is the application of a computational model of coupled heat and moisture flows. Moisture and heat transfer in the buffer under coupled gradients is described by the Philip-de Vries-type model in which the hygrothermal parameters are determined separately.

Selvadurai, A.P.S. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Onofrei, C. [AECL Research, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

111

Clay mineralogy and its effect on physical properties in the Gulf of Mexico northwestern continental slope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The clay mineral composition of sediments deposited in the last six oxygen isotope stages in the Gulf of Mexico continental slope was characterized. Smectite and illite were found to be the two major clay minerals of the clay fraction while...

Berti, Debora

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

112

... FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK ON ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF CLAYS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

... FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK ON ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF CLAYS ALONG THE UPPER TEXAS COAST NI Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas &II LPI #12;FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK ON ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT.....................................................................................................................................vi Introduction: Environmental Impact of Clays Along the Upper Texas Coast

Rathbun, Julie A.

113

Water in clay-water systems (1) Philip F. LOW  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water in clay-water systems (1) Philip F. LOW Department of Agronomy, Purdue University. Agric. Exp. Stn., West Lafayette, IN 47907, U.S.A. SUMMARY The swelling of clay-water systems and the thermodynamic, hydrodynamic and spectroscopic properties of water in these systems are discussed. The swelling

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

Characterization of Gulf of Mexico Clay Using Automated Triaxial Testing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of offshore structures. Thus there is a need to study and understand properties of offshore marine clays on slopes. This study was undertaken in order to understand better the characteristics of a sub-marine clay deposit taken from the Gulf of Mexico...

Murali, Madhuri

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

115

A new class of non-zeolitic sorbents for air separations: Lithium ion exchanged pillared clays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zeolites are the only known sorbents that adsorb N{sub 2} selectively over O{sub 2}, and are used for industrial air separation. Pillared clays (PILCs) have a high Broensted acidity (k.e., high proton density). It is found in this study that when the protons are exchanged by alkali metal ions, in particular Li{sup +}, the ion exchanged pillared clays can exhibit a high N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} adsorption selectivity that rivals that of the zeolites. The first result shows a pure-component adsorption ratio of N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} = 3.2 (at 25 C and 1 atm) for Li{sup +}-exchanged PILC. The N{sub 2} capacity, however, is only 20% that of the zeolite, and remains to be improved. A systematic investigation is conducted on the effects of three factors on the N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivity: (1) starting clays (tetrahedral vs octahedral isomorphous substitution and clays with different charge densities), (2) different metal oxides as pillars, and (3) different ion exchange alkali metal cations (Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, and Cs{sup +}). The highest N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivities are achieved by using clays with the highest charge densities, metal oxides forming pillars with the narrowest gallery spaces, and ion exchange cations with the smallest ionic radii. Effects by all three factors are qualitatively understood. The high N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivity on the Li{sup +} exchanged PILC is the result of the small ionic radius (and hence high polarizing power) of Li{sup +} and the strong quadrupole moment of the N{sub 2} molecule. Moreover, a technique is developed with which the amount of the exchanged cations can exceed that allowed by the original cation exchange capacity of the clay by using a high pH value in the ion exchange solution.

Cheng, L.S.; Yang, R.T. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Soil damping constants related to common soil properties in sands and clays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the Granular Materials Tested 83 V ITA 88 Vii LIST OP TABLES Table. Results of Tests on Ottawa Sand Page 22 Result. s of Tests on Arkansas Sand 23 Results of Tests on Victoria Sand 24 VI VII Error Resulting from Approximations Study of Void Ratio... Sand Nohr's Circle Diagram for Victoria Sand 65 82 N0TATION The following symbols are used in this study: CE 35 EA 62 EA 60 EA 55 EA 50 fps a viscous damping constant, Eall pit sandy clay at an approximate moisture content of 35 percent...

Gibson, Gary Clive

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

The sensitivity of rock mechanical properties to the method by which the clay volume is determined  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

were studied. At At ~ Rv s o form with Rv by the Voigt average technique'' form n Rv ( V xRv xW form i 1 i i i ~ . (7) or with Rv by the Reuse average technique'' form n 1/Rvf $ V xWi Rvi form . . (8) Shear Wave Travel Time Model Determination...'or the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE AUGUST 1986 Major Subject: petroleum Engineering THE SENSITIVITY OF ROCK MECHANICAL PROPERTIES TO THE METHOD BY WHICH THE CLAY VOLUME IS DETERMINED A Thesis by HENRY ALEXANDER IVEY Approved as to style and content by...

Ivey, Henry Alexander

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Fire Clay coal and sandstone washouts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fire Clay coal bed has been studied in a portion of southeastern Kentucky. This seam is easily recognizable by a distinctive flint clay parting. Mine maps, field descriptions, and laboratory investigations were used to investigate this coal bed. Several elongate sandstone bodies cut the seam in the study area. These sandstone bodies are subparallel roughly east-west, and are typically 10[sup 1] to 10[sup 2] m wide, and 10[sup 2] m to tens of kilometers long. These sandstone washouts occur in areas overlain by a larger channel sandstone, which usually is found associated with the thickest areas of the coal seam. In south-central Perry County, a cross section of one washout area was well exposed. North of the washout, a 4 to 7 cm thick cannel coal was present at the base of the sequence. The coal on the north side of the cutout gradually thins from 2 m to 1.5 m away from the washout. On the south side of the washout, the coal thins abruptly from over 1.5 m to 1.25 m within 30 m of the channel. An island of slumped and slickensided coal is present within the washout region. Postdepositional differential compaction of the peat is inferred to be the control on placement of the channel system. The areas of thickest peat compacted the most, creating topographic lows through which the stream moved. The regions of thick coal were probably the result of several controlling factors. Predepositional differential compaction and erosion may have produced relief which influenced peat development. Lithologic and geochemical continuity across the channel is good, supporting postdepositional emplacement of the sandstone bodies.

Andrews, W.M. Jr.; Hower, J.C. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Geology and kinematics of a clay-rich landslide with an undulatory slip surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in thickness from 1 to 3 meters, and exhibits an i. rregular channel geometry, largely controlled by bedrock inhomogeneity in a structurally complex Franciscan terrain (highly deformed clay- shale). In map view, the landslide has an "hourglass" configuration... internal deformation. Maximum slide mass thicken- ing of 30-40y is associated with the basal step. Lithologic variations within the slide mass (i. e. erratic distribution of a sandy gravel unit) do not affect the steady-state profile, which is largely...

Lantz, James Robert

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

On grouting using a suspension of ultrafine clay on artificially cracked rock samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently there has been increasing social interest in the effective disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. The use of underground rock caverns is considered as a possible repository space. This paper presents a new grouting method which uses a suspension of liquefied ultrafine clay in fractured rock masses. In order to demonstrate the effect to block open cracks, two experiments were carried out on large-sized granite samples with open cracks. The experiments proved the method to be highly effective.

Ito, Y.; Sakaguchi, T.; Nishiyama, K. [Kumagai Gumi Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Nuclear and Energy Dept.; Fujiwara, A. [Radioactive Waste Management Center, Tokyo (Japan). Second Research Div.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Intercalation of Trichloroethene by Sediment-Associated Clay Minerals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to examine the potential for intercalation of trichloroethene (TCE) by clay minerals associated with aquifer sediments. Sediment samples were collected from a field site inTucson, AZ. Two widely used Montmorillonite specimen clays were employed as controls. X-ray diffraction, conducted with a controlled-environment chamber, was used to characterize smectite interlayer dspacing for three treatments (bulk air-dry sample, sample mixed with synthetic groundwater, sample mixed with TCE-saturated synthetic groundwater). The results show that the d-spacing measured for the samples treated with TCE-saturated synthetic groundwater are larger (*26%) than those of the untreated samples for all field samples as well as the specimen clays. These results indicate that TCE was intercalated by the clay minerals, which may have contributed to the extensive elution tailing observed in prior miscible-displacement experiments conducted with this sediment.

Matthieu, Donald E.; Brusseau, Mark; Johnson, G. R.; Artiola, J. L.; Bowden, Mark E.; Curry, J. E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

The mechanical behavior of heavily overconsolidated resedimented Boston Blue Clay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geotechnical engineers encounter some of the most challenging problems in heavily overconsolidated soils. Clays under this condition originated in nature or man-made construction. This thesis investigates the mechanical ...

Vargas Bustamante, Albalyra Geraldine

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Limits of isotropic plastic deformation of Bangkok clay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model assuming incremental plastic isotropic response has been recently proposed to model the deformation of isotropic packing of grains, in the small-strain range. It is used here on over-consolidated remould clay, to interpret the small-strain range behaviour obtained in [1,2] on Bangkok clay. The data published in [1,2] at constant volume are also used here to measure the size of the domain of validity in the (q/(M'p), p/po) plane, where po is the over-consolidation isotropic pressure, p is the mean stress and q the deviatoric stress, q . So, it is shown that the model works also for clay. This enlarges the application domain of model [3,4] to soft clay with OCR larger than 1.2 to 1.5. Pacs # : 45.70.-n ; 62.20.Fe ; 83.80.Fg, 83.80.Hj

P. Evesque

2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

124

Platte-Clay Electric Cooperative- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Platte-Clay Electric Cooperative offers a variety of rebates to residential and commercial customers who wish to upgrade to energy efficient equipment. Newly installed ground source heat pumps are...

125

Quantum Chemistry of CO2 Interaction with Swelling Clays | netl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantum Chemistry of CO2 Interaction with Swelling Clays Sep 2014 Aug 2014 Jul 2014 June 2014 May 2014 Apr 2014 Mar 2014 Feb 2014 Jan 2014 Dec 2013 Nov 2013 Oct 2013 Sep 2013 Aug...

126

Shear strength of reinforced geosynthetic clay liner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct shear tests are conducted to evaluate the internal strength of a reinforced geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) at normal stresses between 3.45 and 69.0 kPa. The polypropylene reinforcement increases the peak internal strength compared to that reported in the literature for unreinforced GCLs; however, the reinforced GCL exhibits a postpeak reduction in strength with displacement due to failure of the reinforcement. Direct shear tests are also conducted to evaluate the interface strength between the reinforced GCL and other geosynthetic materials. Extrusion of bentonite from the GCL into the interfaces is noticed and may reduce the interface strengths. Peak interface strengths between the GCL and a smooth geomembrane or a drainage geocomposite are less than the internal strength at all normal stresses tested. However, the peak interface strength between the GCL and a textured geomembrane is limited by the peak internal strength for normal stresses exceeding 13.8 kPa. Postpeak reductions in strength with displacement occur for this interface at these higher normal stresses due to reinforcement failure.

Gilbert, R.B. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Fernandez, F. [Golder Associates, Inc., Naperville, IL (United States)] [Golder Associates, Inc., Naperville, IL (United States); Horsfield, D.W. [Golder Associates, Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)] [Golder Associates, Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Relationship between the physical and mineralogical properties of two clays and their bloating characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Water Absorbtion of Clay at 22aC and 100 Percent Relative Humidity 3. Chemical Analysis Using Emission Spectrograph 4. Magnetic Properties of Clays and Aggregates 5. Carbon Analysis 6. Compositions of the Mixed Red Clay Samples 11 13 23 28... capacity of some clays. Successful attempts have 3 been made with lignin sulfite liquor and diesel fuel. ((hen the clay structure is destroyed, 11 large amounts of (OH) are released to react with the exchange ions in the clay. Therefore, the clay...

Abbott, Ute Agnes

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide clay with high...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This capacitance is almost twice that of our previous report 8 , and our synthetic method also offers a much faster route to film production as well as the avoid- ance of...

129

Conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide clay with high...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

MAX phases, which comprise a .70-member family of layered, hexagonal early-transition-metal carbides and nitrides 13 . To date, all MXenes have been produced by etching MAX...

130

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to China (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NCHDMCF"...

131

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"Back to Contents","Data 1: Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to China (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0EVESAK-NCHDMCF"...

132

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2:47:13 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to China (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0EVESAK-NCHMMCF" "Date","Liquefied U.S....

133

Table of Contents Page 2National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and Its Forecasted Impact on the Florida Economy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impact on the Florida Economy History and Evaluation of the Economic Impact of the Magnet Lab Forecasted Impact on the Florida Economy The National Science Foundation (NSF) awarded the National High generated by Magnet Lab activities across the broader statewide economy. Since 1990, the Magnet Lab has

Weston, Ken

134

High Mg-content wurtzite MgZnO alloys and their application in deep-ultraviolet light-emitters pumped by accelerated electrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High Mg-content single-phase wurtzite MgZnO alloys with a bandgap of 4.35?eV have been obtained on sapphire substrate by introducing a composition-gradient Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O buffer layer. By employing the accelerated electrons obtained in a solid-state structure as an excitation source, an emission at around 285?nm, which is originated from the near-band-edge emission of the Mg{sub 0.51}Zn{sub 0.49}O active layer, has been observed. The results reported in this paper may provide a promising route to high performance deep-ultraviolet light-emitting devices by bypassing the challenging doping issues of wide bandgap semiconductors.

Ni, Pei-Nan [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shan, Chong-Xin, E-mail: shancx@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: shendz@ciomp.ac.cn; Li, Bing-Hui; Shen, De-Zhen, E-mail: shancx@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: shendz@ciomp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

135

Geosynthetic Clay Liner applications in waste disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLs) are becoming a popular alternative to compacted clay barrier layers, and represent the state of the art in waste disposal facility design. They possess many of the same qualities of compacted clay barrier layers while occupying only a small fraction of the airspace. This is a very attractive feature to waste disposal facility owners and operators. There are many manufacturers of GCLs in the marketplace, providing numerous products that can be used in a wide variety of applications. Designing for the constructing with a GCL an be a challenging task; stability issues must be evaluated, selecting the appropriate product should be considered, comprehensive specifications are needed to ensure proper product selection and installation, and steps must be taken during installation to prevent damage to the GCL. Perhaps most importantly, state regulatory agencies must be convinced that GCLs will provide long-term protection equivalent to a clay barrier layer. This paper will discuss design considerations, specification guidelines, installation criteria, construction quality assurance guidelines and regulatory issues pertaining to GCL. The paper will also present three brief case histories of relevant GCL applications in waste disposal facility design and construction. The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate that GCLs are a viable alternative to compacted clay barrier layers and to provide useful information in designing, specifying and installing them in waste disposal facilities.

McGrath, L.T.; Creamer, P.D. [RMT, Inc., Madison, WI (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

136

Trade-off between morphology, extended defects, and compositional fluctuation induced carrier localization in high In-content InGaN films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We elucidate the role of growth parameters (III/N flux ratio, temperature T{sub G}) on the morphological and structural properties, as well as compositional homogeneity and carrier localization effects of high In-content (x(In)?>?0.75) In–polar InGaN films grown by plasma–assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). Variations in III/N flux ratio evidence that higher excess of In yields higher threading dislocation densities as well as larger compositional inhomogeneity as measured by x-ray diffraction. Most interestingly, by variation of growth temperature T{sub G} we find a significant trade-off between improved morphological quality and compositional homogeneity at low–T{sub G} (?450–550?°C) versus improved threading dislocation densities at high–T{sub G} (?600–630?°C), as exemplified for InGaN films with x(In)?=?0.9. The enhanced compositional homogeneity mediated by low–T{sub G} growth is confirmed by systematic temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy data, such as lower PL peakwidths, >5× higher PL efficiency (less temperature-induced quenching) and a distinctly different temperature-dependent S-shape behavior of the PL peak energy. From these, we find that the carrier localization energy is as low as ?20?meV for low–T{sub G} grown films (T{sub G}?=?550?°C), while it rises to ?70?meV for high–T{sub G} grown films (T{sub G}?=?630?°C) right below the onset of In–N dissociation. These findings point out that for the kinetically limited metal-rich PAMBE growth of high In-content InGaN a III/N flux ratio of ?1 and low-to-intermediate T{sub G} are required to realize optically more efficient materials.

Ju, James; Loitsch, Bernhard; Stettner, Thomas; Schuster, Fabian; Stutzmann, Martin; Koblmüller, Gregor, E-mail: Gregor.Koblmueller@wsi.tum.de [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik Department, Technische Universität München, Garching 85748 (Germany)

2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

137

Laboratory simulation of geosynthetic clay liner application in contaminated liquids evacuation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To prevent a contamination of soil and underground water by leaking mineral oil, recovery basins are designed and constructed in Quebec, Canada. The functions of such basins are to collect and to evacuate oil to a drainage and then to a recycled and treatment station. The material presently used for such an application is a concrete. However, due to difficult access to some of the transformers, and to the difficult low temperature conditions, engineers are looking for a new, alternate design idea. In order to evaluate the geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) hydraulic behavior in such applications, a laboratory demonstration test has been conducted. A full-scale model was designed and constructed for the purpose of measuring the rate of water flow through different layers of the proposed system. Mineral oil leaks as well as precipitation were simulated during the research program. The testing consisted of the measurements of mineral oil and water (precipitation) volumes at four levels of the demonstration model, during a period of two months. The results showed that only one percent of precipitated water and leaked mineral oil was collected underneath the geosynthetic clay liner. Further research is recommended on: techniques of seaming of GCLs joints and connections; the minimum acceptance rate of hydration of GCLs for different liquids; an influence of water content of soils on GCLs hydration; and a long term hydraulic compatibility of GCLs with different liquids and leachates.

Mlynarek, J.; Vermeersch, O.G. [Geosynthetics Analysis Service, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec (Canada); Lemelin, D. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeat ContentHeat Content

139

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat Content ofHeat Content

140

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat ContentHeat Content of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat ContentHeat Content

142

Potassium Fixation and Supply by Soils with Mixed Clay Minerals.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

B-1090 December 1969 1 potassium Fixation and Supply By Soils With Misd Clay Minerals I KUS A&M UNIVERSITY Tcrv Agricultural Experiment Station r i 0. Kunkel, Acting Director, College Station, Texas Summary to the plants while Cameron clay... supplied onl!. Studies were made on three agriculturally important me/me of exchangeable K. The capacity of all a soils of South Texas and Northern Mexico to determine soils to fix K increased with increasing remo\\dl i their potassium (K)-supplying power...

Hipp, Billy W.

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Hydraulic Interaction between Geosynthetic Drainage Layers and Unsaturated Low Plasticity Clay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Hydraulic Interaction between Geosynthetic Drainage Layers and Unsaturated Low Plasticity Clay of soil density on the hydraulic interaction between unsaturated, low plasticity clay and geosynthetic drainage layers. The hydraulic interaction was evaluated using the system hydraulic conductivity, moisture

Zornberg, Jorge G.

144

Multiscale micromechanical modeling of the thermal/mechanical properties of polymer/clay nanocomposites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polymer/clay nanocomposites have been observed to exhibit enhanced thermal/mechanical properties at low weight fractions (We) of clay. Continuum-based composite modeling reveals that the enhanced properties are strongly ...

Sheng, Nuo, 1977-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

RIETVELD REFINEMENT OF REAL STRUCTURE PARAMETERS OF DISORDERED CLAY MINERALS IN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-conventional hydrocarbons in Germany) Germany's potential for shale oil and shale gas NIKO seal gas-rich shale shale: sedimentary rock which contains quartz, carbonates and clay minerals #12;clay minerals in shales quartz

Magee, Joseph W.

146

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090 4,367,318

147

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090

148

Kinetics of Swelling in Clay-Bearing Stones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

neutrality #12;Invasion of Water Water invades between the sheets The water molecules surround the ions (like salt dissolving) Thus the sheets are pushed apart by the water #12;Brownstone Larger Quartz Grains Clay-wc #12;Reasons... The stone has a lack of homogeneity Each sample varies based upon what part

Petta, Jason

149

Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains appendices 3 through 6 for the Clay Cap Test Section Construction Report for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure at the Savannah River Plant. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, lab. permeability, in-situ permeability, and compaction characteristics, representative of kaolin clays from the Aiken, South Carolina vicinity. (KJD)

Not Available

1988-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

150

EFFECT OF BENTONITE MIGRATION IN GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS ON CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 EFFECT OF BENTONITE MIGRATION IN GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS ON CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT T. D. Stark1.ca.gov ABSTRACT: Since the introduction of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) to waste containment facilities, one contaminant transport through a GCL. 1 INTRODUCTION In recent years, geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs

151

Andrew Cotton-Clay Massachusetts Institute of Technology E-mail: acotton@math.berkeley.edu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Andrew Cotton-Clay Massachusetts Institute of Technology E-mail: acotton: Gromov's Nonsqueezing Theorem · Advisor: Peter Kronheimer Publications · A. Cotton-Clay. A sharp bound on fixed points of area-preserving surface diffeo- morphisms. In preparation. · A. Cotton-Clay. Symplectic

Cotton-Clay, Andrew

152

Suction effects in deep Boom clay block samples Pierre DELAGE 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

located at Mol (Belgium) called Boom clay, in the context of research into deep nuclear waste disposal, a stiff clay from Belgium, in the context of research into deep nuclear waste disposal (SAFIR 2, 2001 of the block sample used. Keywords: Clays, Laboratory tests, Radioactive waste disposal, Sampling, Suction. hal

Boyer, Edmond

153

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries to ConsumersHeat Content

154

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeat Content of Natural

155

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeat Content of

156

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeat Content ofHeat

157

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeat Content ofHeatHeat

158

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeat Content

159

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeat ContentHeat

160

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeat ContentHeatHeat

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeat ContentHeatHeatHeat

162

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeatHeat Content of

163

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeatHeat Content ofHeat

164

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeatHeat Content

165

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeatHeat ContentHeat

166

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeatHeat ContentHeatHeat

167

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeatHeatHeat Content of

168

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeatHeatHeat Content

169

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeatHeatHeat ContentHeat

170

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeatHeatHeatHeat Content

171

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat Content of Natural Gas

172

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat Content of Natural

173

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat Content of NaturalHeat

174

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat Content of

175

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat Content ofHeat

176

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat Content ofHeatHeat

177

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat Content ofHeatHeatHeat

178

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat Content

179

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat ContentHeat

180

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat ContentHeatHeat

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat ContentHeatHeatHeat

182

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeatHeat Content of Natural

183

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeatHeat Content of

184

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeatHeat Content ofChina

185

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeatHeat Content

186

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeatHeat ContentIndia

187

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeatHeat ContentIndiaJapan

188

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090 4,367,318 4,367,470September 25,Wellhead PriceCubicNetYear3622

189

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090 4,367,318 4,367,470September 25,Wellhead

190

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090 4,367,318 4,367,470September

191

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090 4,367,318 4,367,470SeptemberMonthly","2/2015"

192

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090 4,367,318Monthly","2/2015" ,"Release

193

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090 4,367,318Monthly","2/2015"

194

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090Monthly","2/2015" ,"Release

195

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090Monthly","2/2015" ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014

196

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090Monthly","2/2015"

197

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090Monthly","2/2015"Monthly","2/2015"

198

Remediation of a fractured clay soil contaminated with gasoline containing MTBE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline and other light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) released into fractured clay soils initially move by advection of the LNAPL through the fractures. Once advective movement of the LNAPL ceases, dissolution of the gasoline components into the pore water and diffusion into the intact blocks of clay becomes an important transport process. The aqueous-phase flux of each compound in the mixture depends in large part upon its aqueous solubility. For example, a low-solubility compound like isooctane remains primarily in the fracture in the LNAPL. A high-solubility compound, like methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), dissolves readily and may move almost entirely into the clay matrix. The distribution of compounds between the matrix and the fractures will have an important impact on the rate at which the gasoline contaminated soil can be remediated. In this context, the presence of soluble additives like MTBE can significantly impact the risk and remediation time for the, soil. Beginning in 1993 a field study to examine the applicability of air flushing for remediation of low-permeability soils was sponsored by API. The study focused on a variety of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and in situ air sparging (IAS) approaches for mass removal and risk reduction. The source of gasoline contamination in this study was a release of 50 liters of a mixture containing 14 gasoline hydrocarbons ranging from pentane to naphthalene, and including MTBE. The mixture was released into the shallow subsurface and allowed to redistribute for 10 months prior to air flushing startup. Numerical modeling indicated that essentially all of the MTBE should have dissolved into the matrix. In contrast, essentially all of the isooctane should have remained in the LNAPL in the fractures.

Johnson, R.L.; Grady, D.E. [Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR (United States); Walden, T. [BP Oil Europe, Brussels (Belgium)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

199

Evaluation of plasma melter technology for verification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes: Demonstration test No. 4 preliminary test report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a preliminary report of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. Phase I test conduct included 26 hours (24 hours steady state) of melting of simulated high-sodium low-level radioactive liquid waste. Average processing rate was 4.9 kg/min (peak rate 6.2 kg/min), producing 7330 kg glass product. Free-flowing glass pour point was 1250 C, and power input averaged 1530 kW(e), for a total energy consumption of 19,800 kJ/kg glass. Restart capability was demonstrated following a 40-min outage involving the scrubber liquor heat exchanger, and glass production was continued for another 2 hours. Some volatility losses were apparent, probably in the form of sodium borates. Roughly 275 samples were collected and forwarded for analysis. Sufficient process data were collected for heat/material balances. Recommendations for future work include lower boron contents and improved tuyere design/operation.

McLaughlin, D.F.; Gass, W.R.; Dighe, S.V.; D`Amico, N.; Swensrud, R.L.; Darr, M.F.

1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

200

Diagenesis of clay minerals from early Eocene shales of Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

de Segonzac, 1979; Foscolos and Kodama, 1. 974; Hower et. al. , 1976; Perry and Hower, 1970; Weaver and Beck, 1971) noted an increase in illite layers with a concommitant decrease in smectite layers and randomness of interstratification in mixed... is reached. This phase seems to be thermo- dynamically stable to temperatures of at least 163'C (Foscolos and Kodama, 1974; Perry and Hower, 1970). Mixed-layer clays may also be converted to chlorite with increas- ing depth of burial (Dunoyer de Segonzac...

Whynot, John David

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Clay Central Everly School Dist Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarreisVolcanic NationalElectric)Clarion-Goldfield SchoolClay

202

Clay-Union Electric Coop | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarreisVolcanic NationalElectric)Clarion-GoldfieldClay-Union

203

The Don-Kay-Clay Cash Foundation The Don-Kay-Clay Cash Foundation was established in 1997 to provide general and operating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Don-Kay-Clay Cash Foundation The Don-Kay-Clay Cash Foundation was established in 1997. He is currently a cattle rancher and President of the family foundation. In the past, he held other, and the Texas Tech University Foundation. Kay received her degree in Education from Texas Tech in 1967

Rock, Chris

204

Iron oxide and chromia supported on titania-pillared clay for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

TiO{sub 2}-pillard clay (PILC) with high surface area, large pore volume, and large interlayer spacing was used as the support for mixed Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH{sub 3}. The Fe/Cr ratio was varied at a fixed total amount of oxide dopant of 10% (wt). The Fe-Cr/TiO{sub 2}-PILC with Fe/Cr=3 showed the highest activity. Compared with commercial V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} catalysts, the activity (on a per gram basis) of the doped pillared clay was approximately twice as high under H{sub 2}O- and SO{sub 2}-free conditions and was approximately 40% higher under conditions with H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. In addition, its activity for SO{sub 2} oxidation was only 20%-25% of that of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based catalysts. TPD of NH{sub 3} on the Fe-Cr/TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalyst showed that both M=O and M-OH (M=Fe or Cr) were necessary for the SCR reaction. In situ IR spectra of NH{sub 3} showed that there was a higher Bronsted acidity than the Lewis acidity on the surface under reaction conditions and that there existed a direct correlation between the SCR activity and the Bronsted acidity among pillared clays with different Fe/Cr ratios. These results, along with the transient response to O{sub 2}, indicated that a similar mechanism to that on the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst was operative. The TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay used as the support also contributed to the high activity of the Fe-Cr catalyst. The TiO{sub 2} pillars combined with the tetrahedral SiO{sub 2} surfaces of the clay apparently gave rise to a high dispersion of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. 52 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Cheng, L.S.; Yang, R.T. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)] [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Ning Chen [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Magnetic properties and homogeneous distribution of Gd{sup 3+} ions in gadolinium molybdenum borate glass with high Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} content  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? The magnetic susceptibility of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–MoO{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass was examined in T = 1.8–300 K. ? The effective magnetic moment was ?{sub eff} = 7.87 ?{sub B}. ? The Weiss constant was ? = ?0.7 K. ? Gd{sup 3+} ions are distributed homogeneously as paramagnetic ions down to T = 1.8 K. -- Abstract: The magnetic susceptibility and specific heat of 21.25Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–63.75MoO{sub 3}–15B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (mol%) glass showing the crystallization of ferroelastic ??-Gd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystals are examined in the temperature range of T = 1.8–300 K to clarify magnetic and distribution states of Gd{sup 3+} ions. The magnetic susceptibility obeys the Curie–Weiss law, giving the effective magnetic moment of ?{sub eff} = 7.87 ?{sub B} and the Weiss constant of ? = ?0.7 K. Any peak such as ?-type anomaly is not observed in the temperature dependence of specific heat in T = 1.8–5 K. It is suggested that Gd{sup 3+} ions in the glass with a high Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} content of 21.25 mol% are distributed homogeneously and randomly as paramagnetic ions down to T = 1.8 K without inducing any strong magnetic interaction. The present study suggests that glasses based on the MoO{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system are good hosts for the homogeneous solubility of a large amount of rare-earth oxides.

Suzuki, F.; Honma, T. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)] [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Doi, Y.; Hinatsu, Y. [Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)] [Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Komatsu, T., E-mail: komatsu@mst.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

High-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting of metabolites from cecum and distal colon contents of rats fed resistant starch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Time-of-flight mass spectrometry along with statistical analysis was utilized to study metabolic profiles among rats fed resistant starch (RS) diets. Fischer 344 rats were fed four starch diets consisting of 55 % (w/w, dbs) starch. A control starch diet consisting of corn starch was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. A subgroup received antibiotic treatment to determine if perturbations in the gut microbiome were long lasting. A second subgroup was treated with azoxymethane (AOM), a carcinogen. At the end of the 8-week study, cecal and distal colon content samples were collected from the sacrificed rats. Metabolites were extracted from cecal and distal colon samples into acetonitrile. The extracts were then analyzed on an accurate-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their metabolic profile. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA analysis utilized a training set and verification set to classify samples within diet and treatment groups. PLS-DA could reliably differentiate the diet treatments for both cecal and distal colon samples. The PLS-DA analyses of the antibiotic and no antibiotic-treated subgroups were well classified for cecal samples and modestly separated for distal colon samples. PLS-DA analysis had limited success separating distal colon samples for rats given AOM from those not treated; the cecal samples from AOM had very poor classification. Mass spectrometry profiling coupled with PLS-DA can readily classify metabolite differences among rats given RS diets.

Anderson, Timothy J. [Ames Laboratory; Jones, Roger W. [Ames Laboratory; Ai, Yongfeng [Iowa State University; Houk, Robert S. [Ames Laboratory; Jane, Jay-lin [Iowa State University; Zhao, Yinsheng [Iowa State University; Birt, Diane F. [Iowa State University; McClelland, John F. [Ames Laboratory

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

207

and-1b drillcore clay: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Restoration Websites Summary: liner interfaces, such as at the Kettleman Hills landfill (Byrne et al. 1992; Gilbert et al. 1998143 1 INTRODUCTION Geosynthetic clay...

208

Low Density Materials through Freeze-Drying:Clay Aerogels and Beyond….  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Clay aerogels and other ice templated materials belong to a family of materials with properties similar to those of conventionally foamed polymers including low density,… (more)

Gawryla, Matthew Daniel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Coupled hydro-mechanical processes in crytalline rock and in induratedand plastic clays: A comparative discussion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Term HM Measurements around HADES URF, Proceedings of EUROCKThe extension of the HADES Underground Research facility atin a plastic clay formation: The HADES underground research

Tsang, Chin-Fu; Blumling, Peter; Bernier, Frederic

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Influence of loading rate on axially loaded piles in clay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Coyle (Member) ave u ofs (Member) . Hsrsc (Head of Department) May 1984 ABSTRACT Influence of Loading Rate on Axially Loaded Piles in Clay. (May 1984) Enrique Eduardo Garland Ponce, B. S. , Texas A8M University Chairman of Committee: Dr. Jean... and support during all phases of this study. The author also wishes to acknowledge Drs. Harry M. Coyle and David Dubofski who served as members of the advisory committee. Special notes of gratitude to Dr . Wayne A. Dunlap for his aid in the design...

Garland Ponce, Enrique Eduardo

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of the San Saba Clay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? San Saba an4 Victoria Clay s 1 ST SOS UCT I OS Ssseawh 4oslgsed to stagy ihe basks pwperikes of ihe sells of ihe Oread Prakrle ef oeniral Tense ls generally Laehkng Consegaontly, there ls lktile soil data aeaklablo fer reselvkng ~ageaesi as4 fer..., Slash are deeply appreelaisd, Maap ihashs also are das io Xa ~ Earrep Qehos~ Senior Corrolaior~ Sell Cessor@a ilos Serrfoo~ sho located ihe ssapllsS elise asd also edNed iho profile de earl pilose. TABLE (~ QOSTXSTS ISTBDDUGTIES Li TXS4TUDZ BKV IX...

Nelson, Larry Alan

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Clay County, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin:EnergyWisconsin: Energy Resources Jump to:Clawson, Michigan: Energy27.Clay

213

Table of Contents Chapter and Content Pages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Page 2 Table of Contents Chapter and Content Pages 1. Field Trip Itinerary ................................................................................. 7 4. Geologic Framework of the Netherlands Antilles 5. Coral Reefs of the Netherlands Antilles

Fouke, Bruce W.

214

Integrity and access control in untrusted content distribution networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A content distribution network (CDN) makes a publisher's content highly available to readers through replication on remote computers. Content stored on untrusted servers is susceptible to attack, but a reader should have ...

Fu, Kevin E. (Kevin Edward), 1976-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

High-sulfur coals in the eastern Kentucky coal field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Eastern Kentucky coal field is notable for relatively low-sulfur, [open quotes]compliance[close quotes] coals. Virtually all of the major coals in this area do have regions in which higher sulfur lithotypes are common, if not dominant, within the lithologic profile. Three Middle Pennsylvanian coals, each representing a major resource, exemplify this. The Clintwood coal bed is the stratigraphically lowest coal bed mined throughout the coal field. In Whitley County, the sulfur content increase from 0.6% at the base to nearly 12% in the top lithotype. Pyrite in the high-sulfur lithotype is a complex mixture of sub- to few-micron syngenetic forms and massive epigenetic growths. The stratigraphically higher Pond Creek coal bed is extensively mined in portions of the coal field. Although generally low in sulfur, in northern Pike and southern Martin counties the top one-third can have up to 6% sulfur. Uniformly low-sulfur profiles can occur within a few hundred meters of high-sulfur coal. Pyrite occurs as 10-50 [mu]m euhedra and coarser massive forms. In this case, sulfur distribution may have been controlled by sandstone channels in the overlying sediments. High-sulfur zones in the lower bench of the Fire Clay coal bed, the stratigraphically highest coal bed considered here, are more problematical. The lower bench, which is of highly variable thickness and quality, generally is overlain by a kaolinitic flint clay, the consequence of a volcanic ash fall into the peat swamp. In southern Perry and Letcher counties, a black, illite-chlorite clay directly overlies the lower bench. General lack of lateral continuity of lithotypes in the lower bench suggests that the precursor swamp consisted of discontinuous peat-forming environments that were spatially variable and regularly inundated by sediments. Some of the peat-forming areas may have been marshlike in character.

Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M. (Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Visual Analysis of Weblog Content  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.

2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

217

Dechlorination of Pentachlorophenol by ammonium amended clays: development of field applicable techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P, CqP, CtP. 14 CB JECTIVE The objective of this research was to develop a field pracfical method to use ammoniated clays for dechlorination of PCP. To do this, techniques need to be developed to process the anunonium-treated clay into water stable...

Lu, Junying

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Change in the hydraulic properties of a Brazilian clay Ferralsol on clearing for pasture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Change in the hydraulic properties of a Brazilian clay Ferralsol on clearing for pasture L. C 80 to 300 m in size. The aim of this study was to analyze how the hydraulic properties of a clay retention properties were determined by using pressure cell equipment. We determined the saturated hydraulic

Boyer, Edmond

219

Fibrous-clay mineral formation and soil evolution in Aridisols of northeastern Patagonia, Argentina  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fibrous-clay mineral formation and soil evolution in Aridisols of northeastern Patagonia, Argentina Patagónico, CONICET, Avd. Brown s/n, 9120, Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina b Departamento de Edafología, EPS horizons; Chubut province of Argentina 1. Introduction Palygorskite and sepiolite are clay minerals

Ahmad, Sajjad

220

Evacuated Panels Utilizing Clay-Polymer Aerogel Composites for Improved Housing Insulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evacuated Panels Utilizing Clay-Polymer Aerogel Composites for Improved Housing Insulation March 17 encompasses a newly developed clay-polymer aerogel composite material (developed and patented by Dr. David Aerogel ~22 > 2,500 Silica Aerogel Blanket 10 1,800 (Aspen Aerogel) Silica Aerogel / PP Evacuated Panel 50

Rollins, Andrew M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Probing the Interface of Microscopic Clay Particles in Aqueous Solution by Second Harmonic Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of catechol (OHC6H4- OH), adsorbed onto the surface of titanium dioxide micropar- ticles in aqueous solution adsorption and the electrostatic properties of clay particles. 1. Introduction The abundance in nature and the unique adsorptive and catalytic properties of clay particles make them a subject of fundamental

Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

222

1 INTRODUCTION Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) with geomembranes (GMs) placed on slopes as part of composite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

143 1 INTRODUCTION Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) with geomembranes (GMs) placed on slopes as part and interface shear strength of geosynthetic clay liners J.G. ZORNBERG The University of Texas at Austin, Austin of composite liner systems may be subject to a complex, time-dependent state of stresses. Stability is a major

Zornberg, Jorge G.

223

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial fly ash-clay Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fly ash-clay Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale Summary: studied. Context SiO2 CaO Al2O3 OPC BFS Class C fly ash Clays Metakaolin...

224

applied clay science: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Procedure Contents Introduction i Preface 1 Haller, Gary L. 11 Master of Science Applied Physics Engineering Websites Summary: Master of Science Applied Physics Programme Guide...

225

Lanthanides-clay nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization and optical properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Complexes of Europium(III) and Terbium(III) with 2,2-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline were inserted into Na-bentonite by ion exchange reactions at room temperature. The products display interlaminar distances and stoichiometries in agreement with the ion exchange capacity and the interlayer space available in the clay. The optical properties of the intercalates, being qualitatively similar to those of the free complexes, are additionally improved with respect to exchange processes with the medium, especially in a moist environment. The protection again hydrolysis, together with the intensity of the optical transition {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 5}F{sub 2} observed in the nanocomposite, makes these products promising for the development of novel optical materials.

Celedon, Salvador; Quiroz, Carolina [Universidad Tecnologica Metropolitana, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 9845, Santiago (Chile); Gonzalez, Guillermo [Universidad de Chile, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 653, Santiago (Chile); Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M. [University College Cork, Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology, Campus de Bellaterra, Edifici CM3, ES 08193, Institute of Research and Advanced Studies ICREA, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Benavente, Eglantina [Universidad Tecnologica Metropolitana, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 9845, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: ebenaven@utem.cl

2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

226

Slope stability of geosynthetic clay liner test plots  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fourteen full-scale field test plots containing five types of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) were constructed on 2H:1V and 3H:1V slopes for the purpose of assessing slope stability. The test plots were designed to simulate typical final cover systems for landfills. Slides occurred in two of the 2H:1V test plots along interfaces between textured geomembranes and the woven geotextile components of internally reinforced GCLs. One additional slide occurred within the unreinforced GCL component of a 2H:1V test plot, when the GCL unexpectedly became hydrated. All 3H:1V slopes have remained stable. Results of laboratory direct shear tests compared favorably with field observations, providing support for the current design procedures that engineers are using for assessing the stability of slopes containing GCLs.

Daniel, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Koerner, R.M. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Geosynthetic Research Inst.; Bonaparte, R. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States); Landreth, R.E. [Landreth, (Robert E.), West Chester, OH (United States); Carson, D.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Scranton, H.B. [Haley and Aldrich, Boston, MA (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Installation of geosynthetic clay liners at California MSW landfills  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California regulations for liner systems at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills require that alternatives to the prescriptive federal Subtitle D liner system have a containment capability greater than that of the prescriptive system. Regulators may also require a demonstration that use of the prescriptive system is burdensome prior to approval of an alternative liner design. This paper presents seven case histories of the design and installation of geosynthetic clay liners (GCL) as an alternative to the low-permeability soil component of the prescriptive Subtitle D composite liner system at MSW landfills in California. These case histories cover GCLs from different manufacturers and landfill sites with a wide range of conditions including canyon landfills with slopes as steep as 1H:1V.

Snow, M.; Jesionek, K.S.; Dunn, R.J.; Kavazanjian, E. Jr.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Effect of Specimen Conditioning on Geosynthetic Clay Liner Shear J.S. McCartney & J.G. Zornberg  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

635 Effect of Specimen Conditioning on Geosynthetic Clay Liner Shear Strength J.S. McCartney & J of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) must replicate field conditions while still accounting for time and cost to conditioning. 1 INTRODUCTION Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) are prefabricated geocomposite materials used

Zornberg, Jorge G.

229

Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by ammonia over Fe{sup 3+}-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fe-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay (PILC) catalysts were prepared and used for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by ammonia. They were also characterized for surface area, pore size distribution, and by XRD, H{sub 2}-TPR, and FT-IR methods. The Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts showed high activities in the reduction of NO{sub x} by NH{sub 3} in the presence of excess oxygen. SO{sub 2} further increased the catalytic activities at above 350 C, whereas H{sub 2}O decreased the activity slightly. The catalysts were about twice as active as commercial-type V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. Moreover, compared to the commercial catalyst, the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts had higher N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O product selectivities (e.g., 0--1% vs 9% N{sub 2}O at 400 C) and substantially lower activities (by 74--88%) for SO{sub 2} oxidation to SO{sub 3} under the same reaction conditions. The activity was further increased to over three times that of the vanadia-based catalyst when Ce was added. The high activity and low N{sub 2}O selectivity for the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts were attributed to their low activity in the oxidation of ammonia, as compared with vanadia catalysts. XRD patterns of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC were similar to those of TiO{sub 2}-PILC, showing no peaks due to iron oxide, even when the iron content reached 20.1%. The TPR results indicated that iron in the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts with lower iron contents existed in the form of isolated Fe{sup 3+} ions. The activities of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts were consistent with their surface acidities, which were identified by FT-IR of the NH{sub 3}-adsorbed samples. The enhancement of activities by H{sub 2}O + SO{sub 2} was attributed to the increase of surface acidity resulting from the formation of surface sulfate species of iron.

Long, R.Q.; Yang, R.T. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

230

Effect of aging of the pillaring reagent on the microstructure and cracking activity of pillared clay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pillared interlayer clay (PILC) is formed by exchanging large hydroxyaluminum polycations into the interlayer of a smectite clay such as montmorillonite, which is made up of sheet-like silica/alumina layers. Calcination of the exchanged clay gives a well dispersed array of metal oxide clumps (i.e., pillars) bonded top and bottom to the silica/alumina layers of the clay. The permanent separation of the clay layers gives an 8 to 10-fold increase in surface area, from 30 to 250-300 m{sup 2}/g, and a microporous structure similar to but less constrained than that of zeolites. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the use of these clays as cracking catalysts. For example, pillared clays have been shown to be an active cracking catalyst for both single component and gas oil feeds. PILC's also lead to both higher light cycle oil (LCO) and coke yields than conventional cracking catalysts. Commercially available, metal-hydrolyzed hydroxyaluminum solutions containing chlorhydrol, A1{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}C1.2H{sub 2}O, have been used as one source of the polycation solution. The approach of these hydrolyzed polycation solutions to equilibrium is known as aging. During the aging process certain polycationic species disappear from the solution and new species are formed. For this reason, the aging process can have a significant influence on the properties of the pillared clays. The objective of this work was to determine how the physical and catalytic properties of the pillared clay depend on the aging of dilute cholorhydrol solutions.

Harris, J.R. (Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, OK (USA))

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Ion-exchanged pillared clays: A new class of catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrocarbons and by ammonia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH{sub 3} is presently performed with vanadia-based catalysts for flue gas applications. Hydrocarbons would be the preferred reducing agents over NH{sub 3} because of the practical problems associated with the use of NH{sub 3} (i.e., handling and slippage through the reactor). SCR of NO by hydrocarbons can also find important applications for lean-burn (i.e., O{sub 2}-rich) gasoline and diesel engines where the noble-metal three-way catalysts are not effective in the presence of excess oxygen. Pillared interlayered clays (PILCs) have been studied extensively for a number of catalyzed reactions. We have found high activities of PILCs for SCR of NO by NH{sub 3} (26.28). Pillared clays have considerable Bronsted acidity (27, 28), and the protons can be exchanged with metal cations. The Bronsted acidity of TiO{sub 2}-PILC, in particular, remains high after heat treatment at temperatures as high as 400{degrees}C (27-29). In this note, we report first results on the activities of cation-exchanged pillared clays for SCR of NO by both hydrocarbon and NH{sub 3}. 37 refs., 3 figs.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

The effects of sample disturbance on preconsolidation pressure for normally consolidated and overconsolidated clays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sample disturbance has always been a particularly challenging topic in Geotechnical Engineering exercise. The effect and importance of disturbance on stress-strain history and undrained shear strength of soft clays are ...

Kontopoulos, Nikolaos S. (Nikolaos Stefanos)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

K-Ar Dates Of Hydrothermal Clays From Core Hole Vc-2B, Valles...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

zone. Six illitic clays within Quaternary caldera-fill debris flow, tuffaceous sediment, and ash-flow tuff (48 to 587 m depth) yield ages from 0.35 to 1.09 Ma. Illite from...

234

Behavior of 10 full-scale ground anchors installed in stiff clay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Results from load tests conducted on ten, full-scale instrumented ground anchors installed in stiff clay, illustrated that anchor performance is load-history dependent. Anchors having shorter bonded lengths performed significantly better than...

Powers, William Francis

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Investigating the Use of Chelating Agents for Clay Dissolution and Sandstone Acidizing Purposes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mud acid, a mixture of HCl and HF, has been frequently used for stimulating sandstone reservoirs. However, using HCl in such environments can be problematic, especially at higher temperatures. Some of the most common problems are the following: clay...

Andotra, Gautam

2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

236

Effects of tunneling on groundwater flow and swelling of clay-sulfate rocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

[1] Swelling of clay-sulfate rocks is a major threat in tunneling. It is triggered by the transformation of the sulfate mineral anhydrite into gypsum as a result of water inflow in anhydrite-containing layers after tunnel ...

Butscher, Christoph

237

Detection and Quantification of Expansive Clay Minerals in Geologically-Diverse Texas Aggregate Fines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and asphalt concretes. The Texas Department of Transportation (TXDOT) and Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI) evaluated the methylene blue adsorption test for its potential to identify and estimate quantities of expansive clays in aggregate stockpiles...

Russell, George 1983-

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

238

Engineering properties of Resedimented Ugnu Clay from the Alaskan North Slope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This research determined the engineering properties of laboratory Resedimented Ugnu Clay (RUC) specimens created using recovered material from 3800 ft below the surface of the Alaskan Northern Slope to aid with future ...

Jones, Cullen A. (Cullen Albert)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) provides a rebate of $0.01 per BTU output to its residential members when they purchase qualified solar water heaters. This rebate is capped at 60,000 BTUs per...

240

Clay minerals of recent marine sediments to the west of the Mississippi Delta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CLAY MINERALS OF RECENT MARINE SEDIMENTS 10 THE WEST OP THE MISSISSIPPI DKLTA A Dissertation By RAYMOND ERANCIS McALLI9TER> Jr. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN OCEANOGRAPHY May* 1958 Major Subject: Geological Oceanography CLAY MINERALS OF RECENT MARINE SEDIMENTS TO THE WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA A Dissertation RAYMOND FRANCIS McALLISTER, Jr. Approved...

McAllister, Raymond Francis

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Morphological, mineralogical and physicochemical characteristics of some dark clay soils of Puerto Rico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. '. beany of tho soil propox ties, such as plasticity, stickiness, s~elling and shrinking upon wottixxg and dryinp ~ and exchange capacity, are dependent upon the clay mineral fraction of' the soil. It is expected that thc observed rolationships... l. X-ray d5. ffraction pa'tterns for the clay minerals kaolinite~ illite and montmorlllonite . . . , . . . . . . . . , , ~, . Hap of Puerto 8ioo showing several annual rainfall belts and the approximate locations fox thc profiles studied. ~ o...

Acevedo, Gilberto

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Application of the Modified Methylene Blue Test to Detect Clay Minerals in Coarse Aggregate Fines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPLICATION OF THE MODIFIED METHYLENE BLUE TEST TO DETECT CLAY MINERALS IN COARSE AGGREGATE FINES A Thesis by BRANDON THOMAS PITRE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...: Civil Engineering Copyright 2012 Brandon Thomas Pitre ii ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to implement a new, rapid field method to effectively and accurately detect harmful clay minerals in aggregate fines by using the modified...

Pitre, Brandon

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

243

Enthalpy of adsorption and isotherms for adsorption of naphthenic acid onto clays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The enthalpies of adsorption and the isotherms for adsorption of naphthenic acid onto Na-montmorillonite, Na-kaolinite, and Na-illite were studied by means of calorimetry and the static method at 298.15 K. The results show that the enthalpies of adsorption and saturated adsorption amounts of naphthenic acid on different clays change in the order Na-montmorillonite > Na-illite > Na-kaolinite. The interaction between naphthenic acid and clays is discussed.

Zou, L.; Han, B.; Yan, H. [Academia Sinica, Beijing (China). Inst. of Chemistry] [Academia Sinica, Beijing (China). Inst. of Chemistry; Kasperski, K.L.; Xu, Y. [CANMET, Devon, Alberta (Canada). Energy Mines and Resources] [CANMET, Devon, Alberta (Canada). Energy Mines and Resources; Hepler, L.G. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

New oxyfluoride glass with high fluorine content and laser patterning of nonlinear optical BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2} single crystal line  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new oxyfluoride glass of 50BaF{sub 2}-25Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-25B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (mol. %) with a large fraction of fluorine, i.e., F/(F + O) = 0.4, was prepared using a conventional melt-quenching method in order to synthesize new glass-ceramics containing nonlinear optical oxyfluoride crystals. The refractive index at 632.8 nm and ultra-violet cutoff wavelength of the glass were 1.564 and {approx}200 nm, respectively. Eu{sup 3+} ions in the glass showed a high quantum yield of 88% in the photoluminescence spectrum in the visible region. BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2} crystals (size: 50-100 nm) showing second harmonic generations were formed through the crystallization of the glass. Lines consisting of BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2} crystals were patterned successfully on the glass surface by laser irradiations (Yb:YVO{sub 4} laser with a wavelength of 1080 nm, laser power of 1.1 W, scanning speed of 8 {mu}m/s). High resolution transmission electron microscope observations combined with a focused ion beam technique indicate that BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2} crystals are highly oriented just like a single crystal. The present study proposes that the new oxyfluoride glass and glass-ceramics prepared have a high potential for optical device applications.

Shionozaki, K.; Honma, T.; Komatsu, T. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Final Report - Effects of High Spinel and Chromium Oxide Crystal Contents on Simulated HLW Vitrification in DM100 Melter Tests, VSL-09R1520-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/22/09  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of spinel and chromium oxide particles on WTP HLW melter operations and potential impacts on melter life. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, settling and rheological tests, and tests on the DM100 melter system. Crucible testing was designed to develop and identify HLW glass compositions with high waste loadings that exhibit formation of crystalline spinel and/or chromium oxide phases up to relatively high crystal contents (i.e., > 1 vol%). Characterization of crystal settling and the effects on melt rheology was performed on the HLW glass formulations. Appropriate candidate HLW glass formulations were selected, based on characterization results, to support subsequent melter tests. In the present work, crucible melts were formulated that exhibit up to about 4.4 vol% crystallization.

Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. S.; Kot, W.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Lutze, W.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

246

Deep levels in a-plane, high Mg-content Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O epitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deep level defects in n-type unintentionally doped a-plane Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O, grown by molecular beam epitaxy on r-plane sapphire were fully characterized using deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) and related methods. Four compositions of Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O were examined with x = 0.31, 0.44, 0.52, and 0.56 together with a control ZnO sample. DLOS measurements revealed the presence of five deep levels in each Mg-containing sample, having energy levels of E{sub c} - 1.4 eV, 2.1 eV, 2.6 V, and E{sub v} + 0.3 eV and 0.6 eV. For all Mg compositions, the activation energies of the first three states were constant with respect to the conduction band edge, whereas the latter two revealed constant activation energies with respect to the valence band edge. In contrast to the ternary materials, only three levels, at E{sub c} - 2.1 eV, E{sub v} + 0.3 eV, and 0.6 eV, were observed for the ZnO control sample in this systematically grown series of samples. Substantially higher concentrations of the deep levels at E{sub v} + 0.3 eV and E{sub c} - 2.1 eV were observed in ZnO compared to the Mg alloyed samples. Moreover, there is a general invariance of trap concentration of the E{sub v} + 0.3 eV and 0.6 eV levels on Mg content, while at least and order of magnitude dependency of the E{sub c} - 1.4 eV and E{sub c} - 2.6 eV levels in Mg alloyed samples.

Guer, Emre [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Atatuerk University, Erzurum 25240 (Turkey); 205 Dreese Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2015 Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1272 (United States); Tabares, G.; Hierro, A. [Dpto. Ingenieria Electronica and ISOM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arehart, A.; Ringel, S. A. [205 Dreese Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, 2015 Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1272 (United States); Chauveau, J. M. [CRHEA-CNRS, 06560 Valbonne (France); University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, ParcValrose, 06102 Nice Cedex 2 (France)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Capillary suction-time tests on selected clays and shales. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Shale stability has been an ongoing problem in the drilling of oil wells. The Capillary Suction Time test is simple and easy to use, allowing operators to conduct the test at the rigsite. However because of difficulty in reproducing results, the test should be used only qualitatively. The CST, along with the Methylene Blue, Specific Surface Area and Ensilin tests, accurately predicts shale swelling and dispersion. The tests have the added advantage of being able to be conducted relatively quickly. These tests could be carried out at the rigsite while the drilling is taking place. The experiments conducted also demonstrated the usefulness of KCL as an inhibitor of shale swelling and dispersion. From the CST data, it can be seen that KCL concentrations as low as 0.5% are effective in controlling the swelling of Phillips Ekofisk, Phillips Andrews County, Texaco Mississippi Canyon and Pierre Texaco. However a greater concentration of KCL is required to inhibit the swelling of Gold Seal Bentonite, Standard Arizona, Standard Wyoming and Standard Texas. It is recommended that more concentrations of KCL be tested of the high swelling clays to determine the minimum concentration required to inhibit swelling and dispersion.

Hart, K.M.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Recycling non-hazardous industrial wastes and petroleum contaminated soils into structural clay ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cherokee Environmental Group (CEG)--a subsidiary of the Cherokee Sanford Group, Inc. (CSG)--has developed a system to beneficially reuse non-hazardous industrial wastes and petroleum contaminated soils into the recycling process of CSG`s structural clay ceramics manufacturing operation. The wastes and soils are processed, screened, and blended with brickmaking raw materials. The resulting material is formed and fired in such a way that the bricks still exceed American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) quality standards. Prior to usage, recycled materials are rigorously tested for ceramic compatibility and environmental compliance. Ceramic testing includes strength, shrinkage, and aesthetics. Environmental compliance is insured by testing for both organic and inorganic constituents. This recycling process has been fully permitted by all required state regulatory agencies in North Carolina, Maryland, and South Carolina where facilities are located. This inter-industrial synergy has eliminated landfill reliance and liability for many companies and property owners. The recycling volume of wastes and soils is high because CSG is one of the largest brick manufacturers in the nation. Together, CEG and CSG have eliminated more than 1 billion pounds of material from landfills by beneficially reusing the non-hazardous wastes.

MacRunnels, Z.D.; Miller, H.B. Jr. [Cherokee Environmental Group, Sanford, NC (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

249

The effect of cropping systems on the organic matter content and on certain physical properties of Miller clay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kk'~r 'Uxkk&x six * i? ? pc. o- ~ ~ p 0 ft ~ ~ ~ 1? kAlrsge yercentsge oi' sir sysce yorositf ia 3;h inch sag $A inch fieig co~ nader sin Ciffereat egstens of croyyingp ~ ~ i 4 ~ ~ i ~ i ~ 0 ~ 4 ~ 4 ~ 4 ~ , 14 2. keersgs yercoXstion rate of 1& inch cores...U. stribution of roots. The nse of chewy-rooted' ylents or snbsoili~~ or both cc~ helys to icapmve the yorositf of this oonys~~ leper. Sccbsoilin"- is in nost esses s, ~~ yrsotioe to eDow yossible 4eeyer root yenetrstion by gxssses snn jbis svUtg v ss Qesi:coed...

Mills, Jim Frank

1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Formation of hydrocarbons from acid-Clay suspensions by gamma irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption of certain organic compounds by clays gives rise to the transformation of the adsorbate through the action of the clays. This phenomenon can be enhanced using ionizing radiation. In this context, these kinds of reactions play an important role in many natural and industrial processes. For example, in oil and gas exploration, the source and trap of petroleum hydrocarbons is frequently clay-rich rocks. Clay-water-based muds are also seen as environmentally friendly alternatives to toxic oil-based fluids. The principal processes that occur in sediments are usually held to be of bacterial action and thermal transformation, which may include thermally induced catalytic alteration of the organic debris. On the other hand, radioactive materials are widely distributed throughout Earth. They were more abundant in the past, but are present in petroleum reservoirs. Their presence induced radioactive bombardment, which may have altered these sediments. This important subject has not been extensively studied. The aim of this work is to study the behavior of fatty acids-like behenic acid-and dicarboxylic acids-like fumaric acid-as model compounds, which are adsorbed in a clay mineral (Na-montmorillonite) and exposed to gamma radiation. The results show that the radiation-induced decomposition of the clay-acid system goes along a definitive path (oxidation), rather than following several modes of simultaneous decomposition, as happens in radiolysis without clay or by heating the system. The main radiolytic products for fatty acids are their corresponding hydrocarbons, with one C-atom less than the original acid.

Cruz-Castaneda, J.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, A. P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico (Mexico)

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

251

Evaluation of past and future alterations in tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, based on the clay mineralogy of drill cores USW G-1, G-2, and G-3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The tuffs at Yucca Mountain in south-central Nevada are being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to determine their suitability for a high-level radioactive waste repository. For predictive purposes, it is important to understand the alteration history of Yucca Mountain and to know how the minerals in Yucca Mountain tuffs respond to changing conditions such as elevated temperatures. The clay mineralogy of these tuffs has been examined using x-ray powder diffraction, and approximation temperatures of alteration have been determined using available clay mineral data and fluid inclusion analyses. Also, several illites from drill holes USW G-1 and G-2 have been dated using K/Ar techniques, yielding ages of about 11 Myr. The clay mineral in Yucca Mountain tuffs are predominantly interstratified illite/smectites, with minor amounts of chloride, kaolinite, and interstratified chlorite/smectite at depth in USW G-1 and G-2. The reactions observed for these illite/smectites are similar to those observed in pelitic rocks. With depths, the illite/smectites transform from random interstratifications (R = 0) through ordered intermediates (R = 1) to illite in USW G-2 and to Kalkberg (R {ge} 3) interstratifications in USW G-1. The illite/smectites in USW G-3 have not significantly transformed. It appears that the illites in deeper rock results from hydrothermal and diagenetic reactions of earlier-formed smectites. These data demonstrate that the rocks at depth in the northern end of Yucca Mountain were significantly altered about 11 Myr ago. Both clay mineralogy and fluid inclusions suggest that the rocks at depth in USW G-2 have been subjected to postdepositional temperatures of at least 275{degree}C, those in USW G-1 have reached 200{degree}C, and USW G-3 rocks probably have not exceeded 100{degree}C. 64 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Bish, D.L.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Neutron activation analysis of the 30Si content of highly enriched 28Si: proof of concept and estimation of the achievable uncertainty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigated the use of neutron activation to estimate the 30Si mole fraction of the ultra-pure silicon material highly enriched in 28Si for the measurement of the Avogadro constant. Specifically, we developed a relative method based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and using a natural-Si sample as a standard. To evaluate the achievable uncertainty, we irradiated a 6 g sample of a natural-Si material and modeled experimentally the signal that would be produced by a sample of the 28Si-enriched material of similar mass and subjected to the same measurement conditions. The extrapolation of the expected uncertainty from the experimental data indicates that a measurement of the 30Si mole fraction of the 28Si-enriched material might reach a 4% relative combined standard uncertainty.

D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Oddone, Massimo; Prata, Michele; Bergamaschi, Luigi; Giordani, Laura

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Reduction And Immobilization Of Hexavalent Chromium By Microbially Reduced Fe-bearing Clay Minerals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) is a major contaminant in the environment. As a redox-sensitive element, the fate and toxicity of chromium is controlled by reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. Previous research has shown the ability of structural Fe(II) in naturally present and chemically reduced clay minerals to reduce Cr6+ to Cr(III) as a way of immobilization and detoxification. However, it is still poorly known whether or not structural Fe(II) in biologically reduced clay minerals exhibits a similar reactivity and if so, what the kinetics and mechanisms of Cr6+ reduction are. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics and possible mechanisms of Cr6+ reduction by structural Fe(II) in microbially reduced clay minerals and the nature of reduced Cr(III). Structural Fe(III) in nontronite (NAu-2), montmorillonite (SWy-2), chlorite (CCa-2), and clay-rich sediments from the Ringold Formation of the Hanford site of Washington State, USA was first bioreduced to Fe(II) by an iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens with acetate as the sole electron donor and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfate (AQDS) as electron shuttle in synthetic groundwater (pH 7). Biogenic Fe(II) was then used to reduce aqueous Cr6+ at three different temperatures, 10°, 20°, and 30°C, in order to determine the temperature dependence of the redox reaction between Cr6+ and clay-Fe(II). The results showed that nontronite and montmorillonite were most effective in reducing aqueous Cr6+ at all three temperatures. In contrast, most Fe(II) in chlorite was not reactive towards Cr6+ reduction at 10°C, though at 30°C there was some reduction. For all the clay minerals, the ratio of total Fe(II) oxidized to Cr6+ reduced was close to the expected stoichiometric value of 3. Characterization of the Cr-clay reaction product with scanning electron microscopy with focused ion beam and transmission electron microscopy with electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed that reduced chromium was possibly in the form of sub-nanometer Cr2O3 in association with residual clay minerals as micro-aggregates. This textural association was expected to minimize the chance of Cr(III) reoxidation upon exposure to oxidants. These results are important for our understanding of how various clay minerals may be used to reductively immobilize the heavy metal contaminant Cr in the environment.

Bishop, Michael E.; Glasser, Paul; Dong, Hailiang; Arey, Bruce W.; Kovarik, Libor

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

An engineering geology analysis of home foundations on expansive clays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature associated with the wetting of dry kaolinite 113 Thermal and isothermal di f f us ivity values versus soil water content in accord with the theory of Philip and de Vries 113 APPENDIX C C-1 Probable general form of the rela- tionship between... limited treatment from three disciplines. The soils engineer has developed a broad understanding of expansive soils based on practical experience, but has only recently becun to apply classical soil mechanics theory to this area. Within the tield...

Castleberry, Joe Patterson

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

255

CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE APPLICATIONS AND VALIDITY OF BODE'S LAW CAN WE EXPLAIN BODE'S LAW USING GRAVITY? 8 Law of Gravitation 8 Centre#12;#12;CONTENTS CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION WHO, HOW AND WHEN IS THE BODE'S LAW DISCOVERED? 1 THE BODE'S LAW HOW THE BODE'S LAW SATISFIED URANUS 3 HOW THE BODE'S LAW LED TO THE DISCOVERY OF CERES

Aslaksen, Helmer

256

Solvent and water/surfactant process for removal of bitumen from tar sands contaminated with clay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for removing bitumen from a tar sand contaminated with clay. It comprises: obtaining a tar sand consisting of bitumen and clay mixed with sand; introducing the tar sand into a stripper vessel; dissolving the bitumen with a solvent, the solvent also removing the clay from the sand into a liquid medium formed with the solvent and bitumen; removing the liquid medium from the sand; and washing the sand with water to which a nonionic surface active agent has been added to remove residual bitumen from the sand, the surfactive agent comprising a linear alcohol having carbon atoms within the range on the order of about eight to fifteen carbon atoms and ethoxylate units on the carbon atoms within the range on the order of about two to eight ethoxylate units, the surfactant being present in the water in an effective amount less than about 0.5 percent by volume.

Guymon, E.P.

1990-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

257

Field Performance of A Compacted Clay Landfill Final cover At A Humid Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was conducted in southern Georgia, USA to evaluate how the hydraulic properties of the compacted clay barrier layer in a landfill final cover changed over a 4-yr service life. The cover was part of a test section constructed in a large drainage lysimeter that allowed CE Database subject headings: landfill, hydrogeology, compacted soils, lysimeters, desiccation continuous monitoring of the water balance. Patterns in the drainage (i.e., flow from the bottom of the cover) record suggest that preferential flow paths developed in the clay barrier soon after construction, apparently in response to desiccation cracking. After four years, the clay barrier was excavated and examined for changes in soil structure and hydraulic conductivity. Tests were conducted in situ with a sealed double-ring infiltrometer and two-stage borehole permeameters and in the laboratory on hand-carved blocks taken during construction and after four years of service. The in situ and laboratory tests indicated that the hydraulic conductivity increased approximately three orders of magnitude (from ? 10-7 to ? 10-4 cm s-1) during the service life. A dye tracer test and soil structure analysis showed that extensive cracking and root development occurred throughout the entire depth of the barrier layer. Laboratory tests on undisturbed specimens of the clay barrier indicated that the hydraulic conductivity of damaged clay barriers can be under-estimated significantly if small specimens (e.g., tube samples) are used for hydraulic conductivity assessment. The findings also indicate that clay barriers must be protected from desiccation and root intrusion if they are expected to function as intended, even at sites in warm, humid locations.

Albright, William H.; Benson, Craig H.; Gee, Glendon W.; Abichou, Tarek; Mcdonald, Eric V.; Tyler, Scott W.; Rock, Steven

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Dynamics of confined reactive water in Smectic clay-zeolite composites.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dynamics of water confined to mesoporous regions in minerals such as swelling clays and zeolites is fundamental to a wide range of resource management issues impacting many processes on a global scale, including radioactive waste containment, desalination, and enhanced oil recovery. Large-scale atomic models of freely diffusing multilayer smectite particles at low hydration confined in a silicalite cage are used to investigate water dynamics in the composite environment with the ReaxFF reactive force field over a temperature range of 300 647 K. The reactive capability of the force field enabled a range of relevant surface chemistry to emerge, including acid/base equilibria in the interlayer calcium hydrates and silanol formation on the edges of the clay and inner surface of the zeolite housing. After annealing, the resulting clay models exhibit both mono- and bilayer hydration structures. Clay surface hydration redistributed markedly and yielded to silicalite water loading. We find that the absolute rates and temperature dependence of water dynamics compare well to neutron scattering data and pulse field gradient measures from relevant samples of Ca-montmorillonite and silicalite, respectively. Within an atomistic, reactive context, our results distinguish water dynamics in the interlayer Ca(OH)2 nH2O environment from water flowing over the clay surface, and from water diffusing within silicalite. We find that the diffusion of water when complexed to Ca hydrates is considerably slower than freely diffusing water over the clay surface, and the reduced mobility is well described by a difference in the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor rather than a change in activation energy.

Pitman, Michael C. [IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY; Van Duin, Adri C. T. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Dynamics of confined reactive water in smectite clay-zeolite composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dynamics of water confined to mesoporous regions in minerals such as swelling clays and zeolites is fundamental to a wide range of resource management issues impacting many processes on a global scale, including radioactive waste containment, desalination, and enhanced oil recovery. Large-scale atomic models of freely diffusing multilayer smectite particles at low hydration confined in a silicalite cage are used to investigate water dynamics in the composite environment with the ReaxFF reactive force field over a temperature range of 300 647 K. The reactive capability of the force field enabled a range of relevant surface chemistry to emerge, including acid/base equilibria in the interlayer calcium hydrates and silanol formation on the edges of the clay and inner surface of the zeolite housing. After annealing, the resulting clay models exhibit both mono- and bilayer hydration structures. Clay surface hydration redistributed markedly and yielded to silicalite water loading. We find that the absolute rates and temperature dependence of water dynamics compare well to neutron scattering data and pulse field gradient measures from relevant samples of Ca-montmorillonite and silicalite, respectively. Within an atomistic, reactive context, our results distinguish water dynamics in the interlayer Ca(OH)2 nH2O environment from water flowing over the clay surface, and from water diffusing within silicalite. We find that the diffusion of water when complexed to Ca hydrates is considerably slower than freely diffusing water over the clay surface, and the reduced mobility is well described by a difference in the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor rather than a change in activation energy.

Pitman, Michael C. [IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY; Van Duin, Adri C. T. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Biomass/energy crops grown on phosphatic clay in central Florida  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In January 1992 plots of 0.081 ha (0.2 A) were planted on phosphatic clay soil. Cultivars included: US78-1009, and CP72-1210 sugarcane; US56-9, L79-1002, and US72-1153 energycane; 1K-7647 Erianthus; plus N-51 Elephantgrass. Enough planting material of US67-2022 sugarcane was available to plant only 10 m (33 ft.) of row. Planting of US67-2022 was increased each of the next 2 years. Three-year average dry yield of sugarcane was 32.3 Mg ha{sup -1} (14.4 ton A{sup -1}) for US78-1009, 29.6 Mg ha{sup -1} (1 3.2 ton A{sup -1}) for CP72-1210, and 49.1 Mg ha{sup -1} (21.9 ton A{sup -1}) for US67-2022. Two-year average yield for energycane was observed to be 36.5 Mg ha{sup -1} (16.3 ton A{sup -1}) for US56-9, 34.9 Mg ha{sup -1} (15.6 ton A{sup -1}) for L79-1002, and 37.2 Mg ha{sup -1} (16.6 ton A{sup -1}) for US72-1153. The observed Erianthus yield was 17.9 Mg ha{sup -1} (8.0 ton A{sup -1}) for 1K-7647 and for N-51 Elephantgrass was 19.0 Mg ha{sup -1} (8.5 ton A{sup -1}). Yield of both Erianthus and elephantgrass were severely hampered by a poor stand. Other cultivars were also affected but to a lesser degree. Sugar content was highest in the three sugarcane cultivars averaging 13.1 degrees brix. Energycane cultivars had an average of 8.6 degrees brix; elephantgrass and Erianthus were lowest with 5.5 and 5.6{degrees} brix, respectively. Sugar yield was highest in US67-2022 at 12.3 Mg ha{sup -1} (5.5 ton A{sup -1}) and more than 2.5 times higher than the next highest cultivar. Chemical composition of the various cultivars in terms of NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro digestible dry matter are also reported.

Stricker, J.A.; Prine, G.M. [UF Agronomy Dept., Gainesville, FL (United States); Anderson, D.L. [UF Everglades REC, Belle Glade, FL (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Content Protection for Optical Media Content Protection for Optical Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Content Protection for Optical Media Content Protection for Optical Media A Comparison of Self-Protecting Digital Content and AACS Independent Security Evaluators www.securityevaluators.com May 3, 2005 Copyright for Optical Media 2 #12;Content Protection for Optical Media Content Protection for Optical Media 3 Executive

Amir, Yair

262

PII S0016-7037(98)00136-7 The kinetics of mixed Ni-Al hydroxide formation on clay and aluminum oxide minerals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PII S0016-7037(98)00136-7 The kinetics of mixed Ni-Al hydroxide formation on clay and aluminum. This finding indicates that the dissolution of clay and aluminum oxide minerals can be promoted by metal ions

Sparks, Donald L.

263

Differences in potassium forms between cutans and adjacent soil matrix in a Grey Clay Soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Differences in potassium forms between cutans and adjacent soil matrix in a Grey Clay Soil Fan Liu1 , R. J. Gilkes, R. D. Hart, and A. Bruand2 Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty are common fabric features in soil and represent foci of chemical and biological reactions. The influence

Boyer, Edmond

264

Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Clay-filled Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A variety of functional thin films can be produced using the layer-by-layer assembly technique. In this work, assemblies of anionic clay and cationic polymer were studied with regard to film growth and gas barrier properties. A simple, yet flexible...

Jang, Woo-Sik

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

265

Validation of Coupled Simulation of Excavations in Saturated Clay: Camboinhas Case History  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Validation of Coupled Simulation of Excavations in Saturated Clay: Camboinhas Case History)GM .1943-5622.0000077. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers. CE Database subject headings: Excavation history. Introduction Excavations in soft soils are becoming more common to construct underground

Zornberg, Jorge G.

266

Smectite clay adsorbents of aflatoxin B1 to amend animal feed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Smectite clay has been shown in studies over the past 20 years to sorb aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) in animal feed and thereby reduce its toxic influence on animals. In this study, 20 smectite samples were selected from industrial products or reference...

Kannewischer, Ines

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Engineering Geology 54 (1999) 159165 Mechanical interaction between swelling compacted clay and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a a EnvirosQuantiSci Ltd., 45 Station Road, Henley-On-Thames RG9 1AT, UK b University of Bath, Bath, UK. We show that such mass loss is limited as a mechanism for leaching away the emplaced barrier, yet may Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Clay barrier; Colloids; Fractured rock; Leaching

Peletier, Mark

268

Evaluating the Effects of Environmentally Acceptable Clay Stabilizer on Bandera Sandstone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

it possible for large areas of the formation to be effectively treated. 3.2.1.1 BENTONITE Bentonite is impure clay consisting mainly of montmorillonite. It is an absorbent aluminum phyllosilicate (Casás, L. M., M. Pozo, et al. 2013). Bentonite...

Emecheta, Akunna C

2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

269

Evalutaion of Multi-Stage Sandstone Acidizing Uging an Organic Mud Acid and a Clay Stabalizer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and clay particles. The purpose of this study is to present and evaluate multi-stage acid injection into the Bandera sandstone cores to remove formation damage. In this study, coreflood experiments were conducted on Bandera sandstone cores (1.5 in. x 6 in...

Sakipour, Armin

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

270

(Data in thousand metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2009, clay and shale production was reported in 41 States. About 190 companies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

44 CLAYS (Data in thousand metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2009, clay and shale production was reported in 41 States. About 190 companies operated approximately 830% drilling mud, 17% foundry sand bond, 14% iron ore pelletizing, and 20% other uses; common clay--57% brick

271

(Data in thousand metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2008, clay and shale production was reported in 41 States. About 190 companies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

46 CLAYS (Data in thousand metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2008, clay and shale production was reported in 41 States. About 190 companies operated approximately 830% drilling mud, 17% foundry sand bond, 14% iron ore pelletizing, and 20% other uses; common clay--57% brick

272

By HENRY CLAY WEBSTER Posted: December 6, 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be quite high. Education and preparation: To enter the field, candidates can obtain a master's degree who is too extroverted might not be good at that." Suggested job searches: Counselor jobs | Clinical reserved. Use of this Web site constitutes acceptance of our Terms and Conditions of Use and Privacy Policy

Rhode Island, University of

273

The effect of clay catalyst on the chemical composition of bio-oil obtained by co-pyrolysis of cellulose and polyethylene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • Non-catalytic and catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose/polyethylene blend was carried out in a laboratory scale reactor. • Optimization of process temperature was done. • Optimization of clay catalyst type and amount for co-pyrolysis of cellulose and polyethylene was done. • The product yields and the chemical composition of bio-oil was investigated. - Abstract: Cellulose/polyethylene (CPE) mixture 3:1, w/w with and without three clay catalysts (K10 – montmorillonite K10, KSF – montmorillonite KSF, B – Bentonite) addition were subjected to pyrolysis at temperatures 400, 450 and 500 °C with heating rate of 100 °C/s to produce bio-oil with high yield. The pyrolytic oil yield was in the range of 41.3–79.5 wt% depending on the temperature, the type and the amount of catalyst. The non-catalytic fast pyrolysis at 500 °C gives the highest yield of bio-oil (79.5 wt%). The higher temperature of catalytic pyrolysis of cellulose/polyethylene mixture the higher yield of bio-oil is. Contrarily, increasing amount of montmorillonite results in significant, almost linear decrease in bio-oil yield followed by a significant increase of gas yield. The addition of clay catalysts to CPE mixture has a various influence on the distribution of bio-oil components. The addition of montmorillonite K10 to cellulose/polyethylene mixture promotes the deepest conversion of polyethylene and cellulose. Additionally, more saturated than unsaturated hydrocarbons are present in resultant bio-oils. The proportion of liquid hydrocarbons is the highest when a montmorillonite K10 is acting as a catalyst.

Solak, Agnieszka; Rutkowski, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.rutkowski@pwr.wroc.pl

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Tensile strengths of problem shales and clays. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The greatest single expense faced by oil companies involved in the exploration for crude oil is that of drilling wells. The most abundant rock drilled is shale. Some of these shales cause wellbore stability problems during the drilling process. These can range from slow rate of penetration and high torque up to stuck pipe and hole abandonment. The mechanical integrity of the shale must be known when the shalers are subjected to drilling fluids to develop an effective drilling plan.

Rechner, F.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

A study of the content and phytotoxicity of arsenic in two Texas soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

groups than vermiculites or montmorillonites, which results in a greater affinity for arsenates. Recently Johnson and Hiltbold (25) obtained values wnich represent the clays influence on the adsorption of arsenic by the soil They reported that 85...A STUDY OF TEA CONTENT AiND PHYTOTOXICITY OF ARSENIC IN TWO TEXAS SOILS A Thesis LLOYD ELvuER DEUEL JR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&X University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

Deuel, Lloyd Elmer

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Electronic polarizability and crystallization of K{sub 2}O-TiO{sub 2}-GeO{sub 2} glasses with high TiO{sub 2} contents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some K{sub 2}O-TiO{sub 2}-GeO{sub 2} glasses with a large amount of TiO{sub 2} contents (15-25mol%) such as 25K{sub 2}O-25TiO{sub 2}-50GeO{sub 2} have been prepared, and their electronic polarizability, Raman scattering spectra, and crystallization behavior are examined to clarify thermal properties and structure of the glasses and to develop new nonlinear optical crystallized glasses. It is proposed that the glasses consist of the network of TiO{sub 6} and GeO{sub 4} polyhedra. The glasses show large optical basicities of {lambda}=0.88-0.92, indicating the high polarizabity of TiO{sub n} (n=4-6) polyhedra in the glasses. K{sub 2}TiGe{sub 3}O{sub 9} crystals are formed through crystallization in all glasses prepared in the present study. In particular, 20K{sub 2}O-20TiO{sub 2}-60GeO{sub 2} glass shows bulk crystallization and 18K{sub 2}O-18TiO{sub 2}-64GeO{sub 2} glass exhibits surface crystallization giving the c-axis orientation. The crystallized glasses show second harmonic generations (SHGs), and it is suggested that the distortion of TiO{sub 6} octahedra in K{sub 2}TiGe{sub 3}O{sub 9} crystals induces SHGs.

Fukushima, T. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Benino, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Fujiwara, T. [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Dimitrov, V. [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl, Ohridki Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Komatsu, T. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)]. E-mail: komatsu@chem.nagaokaut.ac.jp

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

Long-term modeling of glass waste in portland cement- and clay-based matrices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A set of ``templates`` was developed for modeling waste glass interactions with cement-based and clay-based matrices. The templates consist of a modified thermodynamic database, and input files for the EQ3/6 reaction path code, containing embedded rate models and compositions for waste glass, cement, and several pozzolanic materials. Significant modifications were made in the thermodynamic data for Th, Pb, Ra, Ba, cement phases, and aqueous silica species. It was found that the cement-containing matrices could increase glass corrosion rates by several orders of magnitude (over matrixless or clay matrix systems), but they also offered the lowest overall solubility for Pb, Ra, Th and U. Addition of pozzolans to cement decreased calculated glass corrosion rates by up to a factor of 30. It is shown that with current modeling capabilities, the ``affinity effect`` cannot be trusted to passivate glass if nuclei are available for precipitation of secondary phases that reduce silica activity.

Stockman, H.W.; Nagy, K.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morris, C.E. [Wollongong Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Mining Engineering

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Micromorphology and Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Historical Pedogenic Siderite Formed in PAH-Contaminated Alluvial Clay Soils, Tennessee, USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alluvial clay soil samples from six boreholes advanced to depths of 400–450 cm (top of limestone bedrock) from the Chattanooga Coke Plant (CCP) site were examined micromorphologically and geochemically in order to determine if pedogenic siderite (Fe...

Driese, S.G.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Roberts, Jennifer A.; Fowle, David A.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Smith, Jon Jay; Vulava, V.M.; McKay, L.D.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Molecular dynamics simulation of complex molecules at interfaces: dendritic surfactants in clay and amyloid peptides near lipid bilayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We apply a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique to complex molecules at interfaces. Partitioning of dendritic surfactants into clay gallery and Ab protein behavior near hydrated lipids are chosen for the purpose. Using a full atomistic model...

Han, Kunwoo

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

280

Kinetics of Mixed Ni-Al Precipitate Formation on a Soil Clay Fraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics of Mixed Ni-Al Precipitate Formation on a Soil Clay Fraction D A R R Y L R . R O B E R Management Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland The kinetics of mixed Ni-Al Ni- Al LDH formation. The initial Ni concentration was 3 mM with a solid/solution ratio of 10 g L-1

Sparks, Donald L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Preliminary design of drilled shafts in clay for supporting precast panel retaining walls  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leon Holloway, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Harry M. Coyle The behavior of a laterally loaded drilled shaft in clay has been investigated by conducting a second lateral load test on an instrumented shaft. For each... increment of the applied lateral load, the shaft: rota- tion, the soil resistance, and the lateral deflection were measured. The soil resistance along the shaft was measured using a series of pneumatic pressure cells. The lateral deflection was measured...

Holloway, George Leon

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Authigenic clay minerals in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group: Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, Waha Field, West Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AUTHIGENIC CLAY MINERALS IN SANDSTONES OF THE DELAWARE MOUNTAIN GROUP: BELL CANYON AND CHERRY CANYON FORMATIONS, WAHA FIELD, WEST TEXAS A Thesis by SUZETTE DENISE WALLING Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Geology AUTHIGENIC CLAY MINERALS IN SANDSTONES OF THE DELAWARE MOUNTAIN GROUP: BELL CANYON AND CHERRY CANYON FORMATIONS, WAHA FIELD, WEST TEXAS...

Walling, Suzette Denise

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Preparation of anionic clay-birnessite manganese oxide composites by interlayer oxidation of oxalate ions by permanganate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxalate intercalated anionic clay-like nickel zinc hydroxysalt was obtained starting from nickel zinc hydroxyacetate, Ni{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}(OH){sub 8}(OAc){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O, by anion exchange. The intercalated oxalate species was reacted with potassium permanganate in such a way that the layered manganese oxide formed was within the interlayer region of the anionic clay resulting in a layered composite in which the negative charges on the birnessite type manganese oxide layers compensate the positive charges on the anionic clay layers. Birnessite to anionic clay ratio could be varied by varying the reaction time or the amount of potassium permanganate used. - Graphical abstract: Nickel zinc hydroxyoxalate was reacted with potassium permanganate to get nickel zinc hydroxide birnessite composites in which the positive charges on the hydroxide layers are neutralized by the negative charges on birnessite layers. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anionic and cationic layered solid composites prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Zn hydroxyoxalate reacted with KMnO{sub 4} to deposit MnO{sub 2} in the interlayer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birnessite layers coexist with anionic clay layers in the composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birnessite/anionic clay ratio controlled by amount of KMnO{sub 4} used and reaction time.

Arulraj, James [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph's College, 36 Langford Road, Bangalore 560 027 (India)] [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph's College, 36 Langford Road, Bangalore 560 027 (India); Rajamathi, Michael, E-mail: mikerajamathi@rediffmail.com [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph's College, 36 Langford Road, Bangalore 560 027 (India)] [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph's College, 36 Langford Road, Bangalore 560 027 (India)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Web Content Filtering 1 User Guidelines Web content filter guidelines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Web Content Filtering 1 User Guidelines Web content filter guidelines Introduction The basic criterion for blocking a Web page Categories of material which will be blocked Requesting the unblocking of Aberdeen applies a Web Content Filtering service to all web pages accessed from the undergraduate network

285

Philosophy 57 Greensheet (Syllabus) Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Philosophy 57 Greensheet (Syllabus) Table of Contents: Instructor Information Course Home Page Greensheet Page Page 1 of 3http://philosophy.wisc.edu/fitelson/57/syllabus.htm #12;I highly recommend using/syllabus.htm #12;Your 2 lowest quiz grades will be dropped ( , your 5 best quiz scores will be averaged). i

Fitelson, Branden

286

Content Filtered By | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User GroupInformationE-Gov Contacts for E-GovContacts NewsContent

287

In-situ studies on the performance of landfill caps (compacted soil liners, geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, capillary barriers)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 1986 different types of landfill covers have been studied in-situ on the Georgswerder landfill in Hamburg, Germany. Water balance data are available for eight years. The performance of different carriers has been measured by collecting the leakage on areas ranging from 100 m{sup 2} to 500 m{sup 2}. Composite liners with geomembranes performed best, showing no leakage. An extended capillary barrier also performed well. The performance of compacted soil liners, however, decreased severely within five years due to desiccation, shrinkage and plant root penetration (liner leakage now ranging from 150 mm/a to 200 mm/a). About 50 % of the water that reaches the surface of the liner is leaking through it. The maximum leakage rates have increased from 2 x 10{sup -10} m{sup 3} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} to 4 x 10{sup -8} m{sup 3} m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Two types of geosynthetic clay liners (GCL) have been tested for two years now with disappointing results. The GCL desiccated during the first dry summer of the study. High percolation rates through the GCL were measured during the following winter (45 mm resp. 63 mm in four months). Wetting of the GCL did not significantly reduce the percolation rates.

Melchior, S. [IGB - Ingenieurbuero fuer Grundbau, Hamburg (Germany)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

Pillared clays as superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Second semiannual report, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the first six months of the program, the work has progressed as planned. We have constructed a reactor system and assembled all laboratory essentials for conducting the three-year project. First, the catalytic activities of the Cu(2+) ion exchanged alumina-pillared clay for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by ethylene were measured. The temperature range was 250-500{degrees}C. The activities of this catalyst were substantially higher than the catalyst that has been extensively studied in the literature, Cu-ZSM-5. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to study the acidity of the catalyst. The second part of the work was an in-depth FTIR study of the NO decomposition mechanism on the catalyst. This was planned as the first and the key step to obtain an understanding of the reaction mechanism. Key surface intermediates were identified from the FTIR spectra, and a redox type Eley-Rideal mechanism was proposed for the NO decomposition on this catalyst. This report will be divided into two parts. In Part One, we report results on the catalytic activities of the Cu-alumina-pillared clay and a direct comparison with other known catalysts. In Part two, we focus on the FTIR study and from the results, we propose a NO decomposition mechanism on this new catalyst. Plans for the next six months include tests of different pillared clays as well as the catalytic mechanism. The micro reactor will continue to be the key equipment for measuring the catalytic activities. FTIR will continue to be the major technique for identifying surface species and hence understanding the reaction mechanism.

Yang, R.T.; Li, W.B.; Sirilumpen, M.; Tharapiwattananon, N.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Evaluation of X-ray Diffraction of Bit Cuttings as a Proxy for Core Data in Determining Bulk Mineralogy and Clay Species, Bakken Formation, Williston Basin.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The principal question addressed in this study concerns the applicability of x-ray diffractometry to determine bulk rock mineralogy and clay species in the absence of… (more)

Barnes, Stuart Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Hydrothermal formation of Clay-Carbonate alteration assemblages in the Nili Fossae region of Mars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) has returned observations of the Nili Fossae region indicating the presence of Mg- carbonate in small (carbonate-bearing units. We applied absorption band mapping techniques to investigate a range of possible phyllosilicate and carbonate minerals that could be present in the Nili Fossae region. We also describe a clay-carbonate hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblage in the Archean Warrawoona Group of Western Australia that is a potential Earth analog to the Nili Fossae carbonate-bearing rock units. We discuss the geological and biological implications for hydrothermal processes on Noachian Mars.

Brown, Adrian J; Baldridge, Alice M; Crowley, James K; Bridges, Nathan T; Thomson, Bradley J; Marion, Giles M; Filho, Carlos R de Souza; Bishop, Janice L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Characterization of Geosynthetic Clay Liner Bentonite using Micro-analytical Methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In barrier design, familiarity of the structure and composition of the soil material at the micron scale is necessary for delineating the retention mechanisms of introduced metals, such as the formation of new mineral phases. In this study, the mineralogical and chemical makeup of the bentonite from a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was extensively characterized using a combination of conventional benchtop X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro X-ray diffraction ({mu}XRD) with synchrotron-generated micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) elemental mapping and {mu}XRD (S-{mu}XRD). These methods allow for the non-destructive, in situ investigation of a sample, with {micro}m spatial resolution. Synchrotron-based hard X-ray microprobes are specifically advantageous to the study of trace metals due to higher spatial resolution (<10 {micro}m) and higher analytical sensitivity (femtogram detection) than is possible using normal laboratory-based instruments. Minerals comprising less than 5% of the total bentonite sample such as gypsum, goethite and pyrite were identified that were not accessible by other conventional methods for the same GCL bentonite. Two dimensional General Area Diffraction Detector System (GADDS) images proved to be particularly advantageous in differentiating between the microcrystalline clay, which appeared as homogeneous Debye rings, and the 'spotty' or 'grainy' appearance of primary, more-coarsely-crystalline, accessory minerals. For S-{mu}XRD, the tunability of the synchrotron X-rays allowed for efficient distinction of both clay minerals at low scattering angles and in identifying varying Fe oxide minerals at higher angles. GCL samples permeated with metal-bearing mining solutions were also examined in order to consider how mechanisms of metal attenuation may be identified using the same techniques. In addition to the cation exchange capacity from the montmorillonite clay, tests showed how minerals comprising only 1-2% of the bentonite such as goethite could potentially play a significant role in sequestering a range of metals, specifically Ni, Zn and Cu.

Lange, K.; Rowe, R; Jamieson, H; Flemming, R; Lanzirotti, A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Significance of the microstructure of Pacific red clays to nuclear waste disposal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Tieh (member) Richard H. Bennett (member) Rober t O. Reid (Head oi' Department) Richard Rezak (member) August 1987 ABSTRACT The Significance of' the Micr ostr uctur e of Pacif'ic Red Clays to Nuclear Waste Disposal. (August 1987) Patti Jo..., 1966) B and C:"Stepped (FF) face-to -face" (Smalley and Cabrera, 1969). V' Chain of stepped face-to- face and (EE) edge-to-edge particles (O' Brien, 1971). "Turbostratic" structure (Aylmore and Quirked 1960). /7 Figure 2, Particle r le ar...

Burkett, Patti Jo

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Clay Sell Sworn in as Deputy Secretary of Energy | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energyon ArmedWaste andAccessCO2 Injection Begins8:Energy Chu Issues CallBulletinClay

294

Deputy Secretary of Energy Clay Sell to Depart | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: TopEnergy DOEDealingVehicle Battery Plant | DepartmentPreparedNuclearClay Sell

295

Reconstruction and operation of the El Paso Solar Pond with a geosynthetic clay liner system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After the original XR-5 membrane liner failed in 1992, the El Paso Solar Pond was reconstructed and operated with a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) system. The solar pond is approximately 3,000 m{sup 2} in surface area, and 3.2 meters deep with a 15{degree} side-wall slope. A new heat extraction system includes 15-cm (6-inch) rubber hoses and two redesigned polypropylene diffusers. A new automated instrumentation system was developed for monitoring pond status. It uses a newly developed scanner combined with a computer for both position control and data logging. The salinity gradient was established using a new scanning method, as opposed to the previously used fixed point method. Fresh water was injected into brine through a newly designed PVC bar shaped diffuser, which scans automatically within preset regions. After two months, the pond bottom reached 80 C and heat extraction began. The performance of the GCL system, characterized by its hydraulic conductivity, has been monitored, and generates the first full scale, elevated temperature data for a GCL system. Preliminary hydraulic conductivity data indicate values comparable with other clay liner systems.

Lu, H.; Swift, A.H.P. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

296

Clay mineralogy and depositional history of the Frio Formation in two geopressured wells, Brazoria County, Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Twenty-three shale samples ranging in depth from 5194 ft to 13,246 ft from Gulf Oil Corporation No. 2 Texas State Lease 53034 well and 33 shale samples ranging in depth from 2185 ft to 15,592 ft from General Crude Oil Company/Department of Energy No. 1 Pleasant Bayou well were examined by x-ray techniques to determine the mineralogy of the geopressured zone in the Brazoria Fairway. Both wells have similar weight-percent trends with depth for a portion of the mineralogy. Calcite decreases, and plagioclase, quartz and total clay increase slightly. Within the clays, illite in mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S) increases and smectite in mixed-layer I/S decreases. Four minerals have distinctly different trends with depth for each well. In the No. 2 Texas State Lease 53034 well, potassium feldspar and mixed-layer I/S decrease, kaolinite increases, and discrete illite is constant. In the No. 1 Pleasant Bayou well, potassium feldspar and kaolinite are constant, mixed-layer I/S increases, and discrete illite decreases.

Freed, R.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

ContentsContents4466Reliability and quality control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ContentsContents4466Reliability and quality control 1. Reliability 2. Quality Control Learning outcomes You will first learn about the importance of the concept of reliability applied to systems previous experience with certain mathematical topics this time may vary considerably. 1 #12;Reliability

Vickers, James

298

The MS-Q Force Field for Clay Minerals: Application to Oil Production Sungu Hwang, Mario Blanco, Ersan Demiralp, Tahir Cagin, and William A. Goddard, III*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in studying oil production chemicals, including corrosion inhibitors,11 scale inhibitors,12 and dissolvers.13 and corrosion inhibition). Among the minerals present in the walls of oil reservoirs, clay minerals are believedThe MS-Q Force Field for Clay Minerals: Application to Oil Production Sungu Hwang, Mario Blanco

Ã?agin, Tahir

299

TABLE OF CONTENTS  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of Energy StrainClient update resolve008 High Temperature

300

Long-term leaching of trace elements in a heavily sludge-amended silty clay loam soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysis by ICP-MS of shallow groundwater collected at a field site in New York that had been heavily loaded with sewage sludge more than 15 years earlier revealed elevated concentrations of Cu, Zn, Sr, Rb, Mo, Cd, As, Cr, Ni, Sb, W, Ag, Hg, and Sn compared with a nearby control site. Enhanced leaching of some elements from this near-neutral, fine-textured (silty clay loam) soil could be explained by exchange of soil-bound elements by components of the added sludge. For most of the heavy metals, however, increased leaching was a response to the high metal loadings in the soil, probably facilitated by higher dissolved organic matter in the leachate. Laboratory-determined distribution coefficients, K{sub D}, for the metals in newly prepared sludge/soil mixtures were lower than K{sub D} values of the field-aged sludge-treated soil, suggesting that metal mobility may have been substantially higher shortly after sludge application than many years later. Cumulative losses of certain trace elements from the topsoil have been estimated relative to Cr, a comparatively immobile element. These suggest that relative long-term losses range from 20 to 80%, with the order being: Sr, Mo, Sb {gt} Ni, Cd, Cu {gt} Zn, Ag. Generally, those elements with the smallest K{sub D} values (most soluble) measured recently in the soil had the largest loss estimates. However, present leaching loss rates are too slow to explain the estimated relative losses of several of these elements from the topsoil over the 15 or more years since sludge application.

McBride, M.B.; Richards, B.K.; Steenhuis, T.; Spiers, G.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A single hardening elasto-plastic model for Kaolin clay with loading-history-dependent plastic potential function  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A single hardening elasto-plastic model for Kaolin clay with loading-history- dependent plastic and failure criteria are found to be strongly dependent on the principal stress rotation angle () and plastic work. A unique plastic potential function determined solely by the current stress state

Prashant, Amit

302

Electrical Properties of SandClay Mixtures Containing Trichloroethylene and Ethanol Jeffery J. Roberts and Dorthe Wildenschild*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrical Properties of Sand­Clay Mixtures Containing Trichloroethylene and Ethanol Jeffery J, and as an ethanol­water mixture (80:20) was flowed through the sample. Resistivity increased by about a factor of 4 as the ethanol mixture replaced the water solution. Nondestructive x-ray imaging of the sample at various stages

Wildenschild, Dorthe

303

Running heading: Bulk density of a clayey subsoil Increase in the bulk density of a Grey Clay subsoil by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Running heading: Bulk density of a clayey subsoil Increase in the bulk density of a Grey Clay of the prisms were coated by material similar in composition to the topsoil and separated from as the profile dries over summer leading to widening of cracks between prismatic peds, (2) infilling of cracks

Boyer, Edmond

304

WRIGHT, MELANIE CLAY. The Effects of Automation on Team Performance and Team Coordination. (Under the direction of David B. Kaber).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT WRIGHT, MELANIE CLAY. The Effects of Automation on Team Performance and Team Coordination of automation in a number of work domains, including team environments. However, assessment of the effects of automation on teamwork has been primarily limited to the aviation domain (comparing early conventional

Kaber, David B.

305

Reflectance of dispersed vitrinite in shales hosting PbZnCu ore deposits in western Cuba: comparison with clay crystallinity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: comparison with clay crystallinity J. Barry Maynard a,*, Erika R. Elswick b , James C. Hower c a Department: maynarjb@uc.edu (J.B. Maynard), eelswick@indiana.edu (E.R. Elswick), hower@caer.uky.edu (J.C. Hower). www

Maynard, J. Barry

306

Stable isotope geochemistry of sulfur bearing minerals and clay mineralogy of some soils and sediments in Loot Desert, central Iran  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and sediments in Loot Desert, central Iran M.H. Farpoor a, , H.R. Krouse b a Soil Sci. Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar Univ. of Kerman, Kerman, Iran b Department of Physics and Astronomy, the Univ technique and clay mineralogy were studied in different landforms in Loot Desert, central Iran. Four

Ahmad, Sajjad

307

99 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Geology Today,Vol. 24, No. 3, MayJune 2008 Clay as sealing material in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

99© Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Geology Today,Vol. 24, No. 3, May­June 2008 FEATURE Feature Clay of the initial uranium or plutonium fuel and the products of their decay. The radioactivity of this mixture for at least a hundred thousand years, when its radioactivity will reach that of natural uranium. The most

Kammer, Thomas

308

Field performance of a geosynthetic clay liner landfill capping system under simulated waste subsidence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A flexible landfill capping system consisting of a 3-D-geocore composite for gas vent, a Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL) for sealing and a 3-D-geocore composite for drainage of the vegetation soil was built on a test field at Michelshoehe landfill near Weimar, Germany. At four locations airbags were installed underneath the thin capping system to simulate subsidences. On top of three of these airbags overlaps of the GCL were positioned, for comparison there was no overlap at the fourth location. After hydratation of the GCL the airbags were de-aerated and subsidences occurred with app. 5 % tensile strain in the GCL. For three weeks the test field was intensively sprinkled in intervals. Then horizontal and vertical deformations were measured, but not displacements were registered in the overlaps. The evaluation of the GCL`s permeability showed no significant difference between the locations with and without overlaps.

Weiss, W. [Hochschule fur Architektur und Bauwesen (Germany); Siegmund, M. [Materialforschungs - und, Prufanstalt (Germany); Alexiew, D.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Effects of cyclic loading on internal shear strength of unreinforced geosynthetic clay liner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stress-controlled static and cyclic shear tests were performed by using a direct simple shear device on samples of a geomembrane-supported geosynthetic clay liner (GCL). The dry material showed no degradation in shear strength during cyclic loading as long as the peak shear stress was less than the static shear strength of the GCL with no cyclic loading. Furthermore, cyclic loading slightly densified the dry bentonite and thus increased its shear resistance under subsequent static loading. On the other hand, the shear strength of the hydrated GCL was found to be reduced by cyclic loading. The number of cycles to cause failure decreased with increasing cyclic stress ratio (cyclic shear stress divided by undrained static shear strength); at a cyclic stress ratio of 0.67, failure occurred at 32 cycles of loading, but at a cyclic stress ratio of 0.53, failure did not occur until up to 200 cycles of loading.

Lai, J. [Ghaoyang Univ. of Technology, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Daniel, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Wright, S.G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Hydraulic conductivity testing of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) using the constant volume method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted using open and constant-volume permeation systems on specimens from a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL). Two constant volume (CV) systems were employed: the falling-head constant-volume (FHCV) system and the constant-head constant-volume (CHCV) system. A conventional burette system using pressurized air was employed for the open system (OS) tests. The test results show that hydraulic conductivity tests can be conducted 30 or more times faster with the FHCV and CHCV systems than with an open system. Typically the permeation portion of the FHCV and CHCV tests can be conducted in one-half day. Slightly lower hydraulic conductivities are measured with the CV systems due to the slightly higher effective stress applied during testing with these systems. The CHCV system has several advantages over the FHCV system, including minimizing initial transient behavior, constant applied effective stress during testing, and simpler calculations.

Wang, X.; Benson, C.H.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

PILLARED CLAYS AS SUPERIOR CATALYSTS FOR SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of NO{sub x} (NO + NO{sub 2}) from exhaust gases is a challenging subject. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based catalysts are commercial catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH{sub 3} for stationary sources. However, for diesel and lean-burn gasoline engines in vehicles, hydrocarbons would be the preferred reducing agents over NH{sub 3} because of the practical problems associated with the use of NH{sub 3} (i.e., handling and slippage through the reactor). The noble-metal three-way catalysts are not effective under these conditions. The first catalyst found to be active for selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrocarbons in the presence of excess oxygen was copper exchanged ZSM-5 and other zeolites, reported in 1990 by Iwamoto in Japan and Held et al. in Germany. Although Cu-ZSM-5 is very active and the most intensively studied catalyst, it suffers from severe deactivation in engine tests, mainly due to H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. In this project, we found that ion-exchanged pillared clays and MCM-41 catalysts showed superior SCR activities of NO with hydrocarbon. All Cu{sup 2+}-exchanged pillared clays showed higher SCR activities than Cu-ZSM-5 reported in the literature. In particular, H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} only slightly deactivated the SCR activity of Cu-TiO{sub 2}-PILC, whereas severe deactivation was observed for Cu-ZSM-5. Moreover, Pt/MCM-41 provided the highest specific NO reduction rates as compared with other Pt doped catalysts, i.e., Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/ZSM-5. The Pt/MCM-41 catalyst also showed a good stability in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}.

R.Q. Long; N. Tharappiwattananon; W.B. Li; R.T. Yang

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

The electrorheology of suspensions consisting of Na-Fluorohectorite synthetic clay particles in silicon oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Under application of an electric field greater than a triggering electric field $E_c \\sim 0.4$ kV/mm, suspensions obtained by dispersing particles of the synthetic clay fluoro-hectorite in a silicon oil, aggregate into chain- and/or column-like structures parallel to the applied electric field. This micro-structuring results in a transition in the suspensions' rheological behavior, from a Newtonian-like behavior to a shear-thinning rheology with a significant yield stress. This behavior is studied as a function of particle volume fraction and strength of the applied electric field, $E$. The steady shear flow curves are observed to scale onto a master curve with respect to $E$, in a manner similar to what was recently found for suspensions of laponite clay [42]. In the case of Na-fluorohectorite, the corresponding dynamic yield stress is demonstrated to scale with respect to $E$ as a power law with an exponent $\\alpha \\sim 1.93$, while the static yield stress inferred from constant shear stress tests exhibits a similar behavior with $\\alpha \\sim 1.58$. The suspensions are also studied in the framework of thixotropic fluids: the bifurcation in the rheology behavior when letting the system flow and evolve under a constant applied shear stress is characterized, and a bifurcation yield stress, estimated as the applied shear stress at which viscosity bifurcation occurs, is measured to scale as $E^\\alpha$ with $\\alpha \\sim 0.5$ to 0.6. All measured yield stresses increase with the particle fraction $\\Phi$ of the suspension. For the static yield stress, a scaling law $\\Phi^\\beta$, with $\\beta = 0.54$, is found. The results are found to be reasonably consistent with each other. Their similarities with-, and discrepancies to- results obtained on laponite-oil suspensions are discussed.

Y. Méheust; K. P. S. Parmar; B. Schjelderupsen; J. O. Fossum

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................... 12 Water-Source Heat Pump Performance ............................ 18 Air-Source Heat Pump QUARTZ CONTENT OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK LAYERS ........ 17 TABLE 10. PROPERTIES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK LAYERS OF PERFORMANCE OF WATER-SOURCE HEAT PUMP .............................. ................. 23 FIGURE 2. NODAL

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

314

Mental content, holism and communication   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this project, I defend a holistic, internalist conceptual-role theory of mental content (‘Holism’, for short). The account of communicative success which must be adopted by the Holist is generally thought to be ...

Pollock, Joanna Katharine Mary

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

JOBAID-LAUNCHING ONLINE CONTENT  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In this jobaid you will learn how to launch Online Content "Items" or Courses. In the LMS you can launch most anything as an "item": documents, courses, webpages and track users that have completed...

316

Magnesium content of calcite in carapaces of benthic armine Ostracoda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

difference in magnesium content among superfamily groups is not known but may be due to the fact that the cytheraceans are more highly evolved than the other groups studied. Variation of water temperature was judged to be a significant source of variation... control of the magnesium content of calcite. He believed that phyla considered more advanced might be better able to discriminate against magnesium during precipitation of calcite. Blatt, Middleton, and Murray (1972) suggested that magnesium causes a...

Cadot, H. M.; Kaesler, R. L.

1977-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

317

Plants with modified lignin content and methods for production thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides methods for decreasing lignin content and for increasing the level of fermentable carbohydrates in plants by down-regulation of the NST transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of NST are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise reduced lignin content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops. Methods for processing plant tissue and for producing ethanol by utilizing such plants are also provided.

Zhao, Qiao; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

318

The Effect of Physico-Chemical Factors on the Stability and Transport of Clay Particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.................................................................... 22 10 Change in free enrgy (?G?ex) with ra for the Ca-Na reaction indicated for several interlayer water contents ................................................................... 24 11 Rate of reaction of Na with standing tine...

Musharova, Darya

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

319

The evaluation of a coal-derived liquid as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion of coal-derived liquids to transportation fuels has been the subject of many studies sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the US Department of Defense. For the most part, these studies evaluated conventional petroleum processes for the production of specification-grade fuels. Recently, however, the interest of these two departments expanded to include the evaluation of alternate fossil fuels as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel. In this study, we evaluated five processes for their ability to produce intermediates from a coal-derived liquid for the production of high-density turbine fuel. These processes include acid-base extraction to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate and the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, solvent dewaxing to reduce the paraffin (alkane) content of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, Attapulgus clay treatment to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate, coking to reduce the distillate range of the vacuum gas oil, and hydrogenation to remove heteroatoms and to saturate aromatic rings in the middle distillate and atmospheric gas oil. The chemical and physical properties that the US Air Force considers critical for the development of high-denisty aviation turbine fuel are specific gravity and net heat of combustion. The target minimum values for these properties are a specific gravity of at least 0.85 and a net heat of combustion of at least 130,000 Btu/gal. In addition, the minimum hydrogen content is 13.0 wt %, the maximum freeze point is {minus}53{degrees}F ({minus}47{degrees}C), the maximum amount of aromatics is about 25 to 30 vol %, and the maximum amount of paraffins is 10 vol %. 13 refs., 20 tabs.

Thomas, K.P.; Hunter, D.E.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Ordering and oxygen content effects in YBa sub 2 (Cu sub 1 minus x Fe sub x ) sub 3 O sub 7 samples observed by high-temperature Moessbauer spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report here {ital in} {ital situ} high-temperature {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer measurements on YBa{sub 2}(Cu{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Fe{sub {ital x}}){sub 3}O{sub 7} samples in controlled oxygen atmosphere, in air, or in vacuum. In these conditions, fundamental information can be obtained related to the thermal stability of the different Fe species, as well as the mechanism of oxygen loss.

Saitovitch, E.B.; Scorzelli, R.B.; Azevedo, I.S.; dos Santos, C.A. (Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas F isicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, 22290, Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brasil (BR))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Estimating water content in an active landfill with the aid of GPR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • Limited information in the literature on the use of GPR to measure in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method allows measurement of in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method is appealing to waste management professionals operating landfills. - Abstract: Landfill gas (LFG) receives a great deal of attention due to both negative and positive environmental impacts, global warming and a green energy source, respectively. However, predicting the quantity of LFG generated at a given landfill, whether active or closed is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in waste, and the lack of accurate in situ waste parameters like water content. Accordingly, ground penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated as a tool for estimating in situ water content. Due to the large degree of subsurface heterogeneity and the electrically conductive clay cap covering landfills, both of which affect the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses, there is much scepticism concerning the use of GPR to quantify in situ water content within a municipal landfill. Two landfills were studied. The first landfill was used to develop the measurement protocols, while the second landfill provided a means of confirming these protocols. GPR measurements were initially completed using the surface GPR approach, but the lack of success led to the use of borehole (BH) GPR. Both zero offset profiling (ZOP) and multiple offset gathers (MOG) modes were tried, with the results indicating that BH GPR using the ZOP mode is the most simple and efficient method to measure in situ water content. The best results were obtained at a separation distance of 2 m, where higher the water content, smaller the effective separation distance. However, an increase in water content did appear to increase the accuracy of the GPR measurements. For the effective separation distance of 2 m at both landfills, the difference between GPR and lab measured water contents were reasonable at 33.9% for the drier landfill and 18.1% for the wetter landfill. Infiltration experiments also showed the potential to measure small increases in water content.

Yochim, April, E-mail: ayochim@regionofwaterloo.ca [Region of Waterloo Waste Management Division, 925 Erb Street West, Waterloo, ON N2J 3Z4 (Canada); Zytner, Richard G., E-mail: rzytner@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); McBean, Edward A., E-mail: emcbean@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Endres, Anthony L., E-mail: alendres@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

CONTENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or any third party’s use or the results of such use of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof or its contractors or subcontractors. The views and opinions of authors

unknown authors

323

contents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The accepted standards are anticipated to take the form of a Common Criteria Protection Profile. This report provides the status of work completed and discusses several...

324

Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Visit the Thomson Scientific web site at scientific.thomson.com First edition published December 1994 Second edition published August 1996 Third edition published October 2000 Fourth edition published February 2004 ISBN: 0 901157 29 5 (Third edition) ISBN: 1 903836 62 9 (Fourth edition)

unknown authors

325

Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISBN: 0 901157 23 6 (Edition 4 revised) All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means – electronic, mechanical,

Thomson All Rights Reserved

326

Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Visit the Thomson Scientific web site at scientific.thomson.com First edition published December 1994 Second edition published January 1996 Revised second edition published October 2000 ISBN: 0 901157 34 1 (Revised Second Edition) ISBN: 1 903836 58 6 (Third Edition) All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means – electronic, mechanical, recording, photocopying or otherwise – without express

unknown authors

327

Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling the invasion and spread of contagious diseases in heterogeneous populations; Wayne M. Getz, James O. Lloyd-Smith, Paul C. Cross, Shirli Bar-

328

CONTENTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

developed to reduce the weight of cars and trucks, innovative approaches for protecting fish as they navigate power- producing dams, and a discovery that makes it possible to turn...

329

Contents  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the Review of theOFFICEACME | NationalTbilisi08 to17 2.7 i® ALOHA

330

CONTENTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N Goods PO 1 of 81, 4/9/13)RELEASE:

331

CONTENTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N Goods PO 1 of 81, 4/9/13)RELEASE:

332

CONTENTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N Goods PO 1 of 81, 4/9/13)RELEASE:3.0

333

CONTENTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N Goods PO 1 of 81,

334

Contents  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLEReport 2009 DepartmentPower

335

Contents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationCleanCommunity2Workshops 2008O"Program and Book of Abstracts

336

Values of Mineral Modulus of Clay Manika Prasad, Ronny Hofmann, Mike Batzle, Colorado School of Mines; M. Kopycinska-Mller, U. Rabe, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the atomic force microscope (AFM) technique and its principles are described in details elsewhere (Rabe et associated with elastic properties measurements of clay minerals with standard pulse transmission techniques

337

An investigation of the effects of projectile length and nose shape on projectile penetration into a low compressibility Kaolin Clay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1970 Major Subjert Civil Engineering A? INVESTIGATION OF TEE EFFECTS OP PROJECTILE LEECTH AED EOSE SHAPE OW PROJECTXLE PEBETEATXOE INTO A LOW COMPRESSIEILITY KAOLIE CLAY' A Thesis... committee. A special token of appreciation is due Dr. C. H. Samson, Head of the Department of Civil Engineering, who made it possible for the author to attend Texas ASM University. Mr. Ronald Boggess rendered invaluable assistance in the development...

Murff, James Donald

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Geohydromechanical Processes in the Excavation Damaged Zone in Crystalline Rock, Rock Salt, and Indurated and Plastic Clays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The creation of an excavation disturbed zone or excavation damaged zone is expected around all man-made openings in geologic formations. Macro- and micro-fracturing, and in general a redistribution of in situ stresses and rearrangement of rock structures, will occur in this zone, resulting in drastic changes of permeability to flow, mainly through the fractures and cracks induced by excavation. Such an EDZ may have significant implications for the operation and long-term performance of an underground nuclear waste repository. Various issues of concern need to be evaluated, such as processes creating fractures in the excavation damaged zone, the degree of permeability increase, and the potential for sealing or healing (with permeability reduction) in the zone. In recent years, efforts along these lines have been made for a potential repository in four rock types-crystalline rock, salt, indurated clay, and plastic clay-and these efforts have involved field, laboratory, and theoretical studies. The present work involves a synthesis of the ideas and issues that emerged from presentations and discussions on EDZ in these four rock types at a CLUSTER Conference and Workshop held in Luxembourg in November, 2003. First, definitions of excavation disturbed and excavation damaged zones are proposed. Then, an approach is suggested for the synthesis and intercomparison of geohydromechanical processes in the EDZ for the four rock types (crystalline rock, salt, indurated clay, and plastic clay). Comparison tables of relevant processes, associated factors, and modeling and testing techniques are developed. A discussion of the general state-of-the-art and outstanding issues are also presented. A substantial bibliography of relevant papers on the subject is supplied at the end of the paper.

Tsang, Chin-Fu; Bernier, Frederic; Davies, Christophe

2004-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

339

POLYPHENYLENESULFIED/MONTOMORILLONITE CLAY NANOCOMPOSITE COATINGS: THEIR EFFICACY IN PROTECTING STEEL AGAINST CORROSION.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanoscale montomorillonite (MMT) clay fillers became dispersed in a polyphenylenesulfied (PPS) matrix through the processes of octadecylamine (ODA) intercalation {yields} molten PPS co-intercalation {yields} exfoliation. Cooling this molten exfoliated material led to the formation of a PPS/MMT nanocomposite. The MMT nanofiller conferred three advanced properties on the semi-crystalline PPS: First, it raised its melting point by nearly 40 C to 290 C; second, it increased its crystallization energy, implying that an excellent adherence of the nanofillers surfaces to PPS in terms of a good interfacial bond; and, third, it abated the degree of its hydrothermal oxidation due to sulfide {yields} sulfite linkage transformations. When this advanced PPS nanocomposite was used as a corrosion-preventing coating for carbon steel in a simulated geothermal environment at 300 C, a coating of {approx}150 {micro}m thickness adequately protected the steel against hot brine-caused corrosion. In contrast, an MMT-free PPS coating of similar thickness was not nearly as effective in mitigating corrosion as was the nanocompsite; in fact, the uptake of corrosive ionic electrolyte by the unmodified coating increased with an extending exposure time.

SUGAMA, T.; GAWLIK, K.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Case studies of the potential effects of carbon taxation on the stone, clay, and glass industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This case study focuses on the potential for a carbon tax ($25 and $100 per metric ton of carbon) to reduce energy use and associated carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) emissions in three subsectors of the stone, clay, and glass industry: hydraulic cement, glass and glass products, and other products. A conservation supply curve analysis found that (1) opportunities for reducing fossil fuel use in the subsectors are limited (15% reduction under $100 tax) and (2) the relationship between the tax and reduced CO[sub 2] emissions is nonlinear and diminishing. Because cement manufacturing produces a significant amount of CO[sub 2], this subsector was analyzed. A plant-level analysis found more opportunities to mitigate CO[sub 2] emissions; under a $100 tax, fossil fuel use would decrease 52%. (A conservative estimate lies between 15% and 52%). It also confirmed the nonlinear relationship, suggesting significant benefits could result from small taxes (32% reduction under $25 tax). A fuel share analysis found the cement industry could reduce carbon loading 11% under a $100 tax if gas were substituted for coal. Under a $100 tax, cement demand would decrease 17% and its price would increase 32%, a substantial increase for a material commodity. Overall, CO[sub 2] emissions from cement manufacturing would decrease 24--33% under a $100 tax and 10--18% under a $25 tax. Much of the decrease would result from the reduced demand for cement.

Bock, M.J.; Boyd, G.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.); Rosenbaum, D.I. (Nebraska Univ., Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Economics); Ross, M.H. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Case studies of the potential effects of carbon taxation on the stone, clay, and glass industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This case study focuses on the potential for a carbon tax ($25 and $100 per metric ton of carbon) to reduce energy use and associated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in three subsectors of the stone, clay, and glass industry: hydraulic cement, glass and glass products, and other products. A conservation supply curve analysis found that (1) opportunities for reducing fossil fuel use in the subsectors are limited (15% reduction under $100 tax) and (2) the relationship between the tax and reduced CO{sub 2} emissions is nonlinear and diminishing. Because cement manufacturing produces a significant amount of CO{sub 2}, this subsector was analyzed. A plant-level analysis found more opportunities to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions; under a $100 tax, fossil fuel use would decrease 52%. (A conservative estimate lies between 15% and 52%). It also confirmed the nonlinear relationship, suggesting significant benefits could result from small taxes (32% reduction under $25 tax). A fuel share analysis found the cement industry could reduce carbon loading 11% under a $100 tax if gas were substituted for coal. Under a $100 tax, cement demand would decrease 17% and its price would increase 32%, a substantial increase for a material commodity. Overall, CO{sub 2} emissions from cement manufacturing would decrease 24--33% under a $100 tax and 10--18% under a $25 tax. Much of the decrease would result from the reduced demand for cement.

Bock, M.J.; Boyd, G.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Rosenbaum, D.I. [Nebraska Univ., Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Economics; Ross, M.H. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Short-term and creep shear characteristics of a needlepunched thermally locked geosynthetic clay liner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of constant-rate direct shear tests were conducted on a needlepunched thermally locked geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) in accordance with ASTM Test Method for Determining the Coefficient of Soil and Geosynthetic or Geosynthetic and Geosynthetic Friction by the Direct Shear Method (D 5321). The test results demonstrate that the needlepunched thermally locked reinforcing fibers provide substantial short-term shear strength to a GCL. However, there is a growing concern that the long-term shear strength to a GCL. However, there is a growing concern that the long-term shear strength of this type of GCL can be affected due to the potential of creep within the reinforcing fibers under sustained constant loads which occur in the field. An attempt was made to address this concern through an incrementally-loaded creep shear test conducted in a newly developed constant-load (creep) shear testing device. The results of the creep shear test to date show that the GCL has undergone relatively small shear displacements with incremental shear rates decreasing with time within each loading phase.

Siebken, J.R. [National Seal Co., Galesburg, IL (United States). Technical Services; Swan, R.H. Jr.; Yuan, Z. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States). Soil-Geosynthetic Interaction Testing Lab.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

A comparison of sample preparation methodology in the evaluation of geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) hydraulic conductivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The method of preparing a single needle-punched GCL product for evaluation of hydraulic conductivity in a flexible wall permeameter was examined. The test protocol utilized for this evaluation was GRI Test Method GCL-2 Permeability of GCLs. The GCL product consisted of bentonite clay material supported by a woven and a non-woven geotextile on either side. The method preparation focused on the procedure for separating the test specimen from the larger sample and whether these methods produced difficulty in generating reliable test data. The methods examined included cutting with a razor knife, scissors, and a circular die with the perimeter of the test area under wet and dry conditions. In order to generate as much data as possible, tests were kept brief. Flow was monitored only long enough to determine whether or not preferential flow paths appeared to be present. The results appear to indicate that any of the methods involved will work. Difficulties arose not from the development of preferential flow paths around the edges of the specimens, but from the loss of bentonite from the edges during handling.

Siebken, J.R. [National Seal Co., Galesburg, IL (United States); Lucas, S. [Albarrie Naue Ltd., Barrie, Ontario (Canada)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Long-term shear strength behavior of a needlepunched geosynthetic clay liner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes two large-scale constant-load (creep) shear testing devices that were developed to evaluate the long-term shearing behavior of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) and interfaces between GCLs and other geosynthetics or soils. One device was designed to simulate loading conditions that typically occur on a GCL deployed in a landfill cover system. The other device was designed to simulate loading conditions that typically occur on a GCL deployed in a landfill lining system. A needlepunched GCL was selected for evaluation of its long-term shearing behavior under these two types of loading conditions and the test results are presented in terms of time-displacement curves and shear rate-displacement curves. The results to date show that the GCL has undergone relatively small shear displacements and that the shear displacement rates within the GCL and/or at the test interface have been continuously decreasing with time. For the conditions used in this testing program, it is believed that the GCL`s behavior can be considered stable. Further testing is planned to more accurately define the time-dependent internal and interface shear behavior of the GCL.

Trauger, R.J. [Colloid Environmental Technologies Co., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Swan, R.H. Jr.; Yuan, Z. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States). Soil-Geosynthetic Interaction Testing Lab.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Fate of corrosion products released from stainless steel in marine sediments and seawater. Part 1. Northeast Pacific pelagic red clay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To provide information useful for determining the biogeochemical cycling of corrosion products in the benthic boundary layer of the deep ocean, neutron-activated stainless steel was exposed to seawater and to Northeast Pacific red clay under aerobic and non-oxygenated conditions. This report describes the trace metal geochemistry of the sediment and the chemical speciation of the corrosion products. The sediments generally consisted of reddish-brown clay at the surface grading to a dark-brown transition zone below which mottled olive-gray clay prevailed. Neutron-irradiated 347 stainless steel specimens were exposed to seawater and sediment slurry under aerobic and non-oxygenated conditions for 108 days. The presence of aerated sediment more than doubled the amount of corrosion products released compared to aerated seawater and non-oxygenated sediment treatments. The distribution of /sup 60/Co released from the stainless steel exposed to aerated seawater show that almost 70% of /sup 60/Co activity became associated with suspended particulate matter. No detectable /sup 60/Co activity was present in the soluble, readily dissolved, or inorganic or weakly complexed fractions of aerated sediment which had been used to treat neutron-activated stainless steel. Almost 50% of the /sup 60/Co activity was extracted in the combined soluble, easily dissolved, adsorbed, and organically complexed fractions from the non-oxygenated sediment treatment indicating that this much of the corrosion products may be initially released in ionic form.

Schmidt, R.L.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

(Data in thousand metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2002, clay and shale production was reported in all States except Alaska,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to be as follows: ball clay--35% floor and wall tile, 22% sanitaryware, and 43% other uses; bentonite--28% pet for consumption: Artificially activated clay and earth 19 17 18 21 20 Kaolin 53 57 63 114 155 Other 14 16 16 13 49, not elsewhere classified 432 329 357 344 464 Total3 5,230 4,800 5,260 4,970 4,990 Consumption, apparent 36

347

(Data in thousand metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2003, clay and shale production was reported in all States except Alaska,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; bentonite-- 25% pet waste absorbent, 21% drilling mud, 21% foundry sand bond, 15% iron ore pelletizing,300 Imports for consumption: Artificially activated clay and earth 17 18 21 27 20 Kaolin 57 63 114 158 275,980 Consumption, apparent 37,500 35,600 34,800 34,600 34,600 Price, average, dollars per ton: Ball clay 40 42 42

348

Response of rice to ammonium and nitrate nitrogen applied at various stages of plant growth on limed and unlimed Beaumont and Lake Charles clays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESPONSE OF RICE TO AMMONIUM AND NITRATE NITROGEN APPLIED AT VARIOUS STAGES OF PLANT GROWTH ON LIMED AND UNLINED BEAUNONT AND LAKE CHARLES CLAYS A Thesis By William B. Gay, III Submitted to the Graduate Sohool of the Agricultural... BEAUMONT AND LAKE CHARLES CLAYS A Thesis By Nilliam B. Gay, III Chairman of Committee Head of the Department of Soil Sc Crop Sciences ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my appreciation to Dr. A. G. Caldwell for his 1nterest and guidance...

Gay, William Blalock, III

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

FIRE SAFETY PROGRAM TABLE OF CONTENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FIRE SAFETY PROGRAM TABLE OF CONTENTS Overview................................................................................................. 5 Health and Life Safety Fund........................................................................................................... 5 Hot work

Lin, Zhiqun

350

Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to.

Park, Byoung Yoon (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Holland, John F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Light weight concrete: 226 K contents and dose  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gamma spectrometry. All the radionuclide contents except those for the PFA autoclave aerated concrete been determined using high- resolution gamma spectrometry. The results have been compared with thoseÀ1 for construction materials for dwellings. The gamma-dose rate for an indoor environment

Yu, K.N.

352

Selecting Quality Twitter Content for Events Hila Becker  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

health care reform bill passage). As another chal- lenge, relevant, high-quality content might not be useful (e.g., "I can't stop thinking about the health care reform bill passage") as it does not provide might not be truly relevant to the event (e.g., "Bill cares about his health" for the United States

Yang, Junfeng

353

CONTENTS OF A VISIT REQUEST  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N Goods PO 1 of 81,ConcentratedCONTENTS

354

content | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop,SaveWhiskey Flats GeothermalElectric Coop Home7 August,content Home

355

A review of "Bernini: Sculpting in Clay" by C.D. Dickerson III, Anthony Sigel, and Ian Wardropper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

engrossing and useful in further research. C. D. Dickerson III, Anthony Sigel, and Ian Wardropper, Bernini: Sculpting in Clay. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012, 416pp. + 437 color, 35 b/w ills. $65.00. Review by #30;#28;#25;#25;#26; #21... the objects of scienti#15;c techni- cal examination by the third collaborator, Anthony Sigel, published in the Harvard University Art Museum Bulletin (1999). European lend- ers then o#12;ered generous examples?not only from major museums across Italy...

Silver, Larry

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Proportions of coarse and fine clay across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in Milam, Falls, and Travis Counties, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and are of little value. It is concluded that the method proposed in this thesis is capable of detecting small differences between clay sampi es at a = ingle locai ity, but prob. bly cannot be used to correlate samples f'rom one locality to another. i&1tlloagh... making dispersion and I'rac- tionation difficult. The efficiency of the X-ray diffraction t, echniques is also improved when these constituents are removed. As a simplified means of comp:rison, the various procedures performed on each sample...

Smith, John Charles

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Availability of soil organic phosphorus and fertilizer phosphorus applied to coastal bermudagrass (cynodon dactylon l.) on Houston black clay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) for different tillage-P treatments during 1976. Mean available P (using 1. 4N NH40Ac extract solution) for different tillage-P treatments during 1976. 46 52 54 61 64 69 70 INTRODUCTION A gradual decline in the annual forage production of recently... con- stitutes the. greatest proportion of the total P in many soils. Supak (1969) found that 46/ of the total P in the check p'lot in a Houston Black clay was organic P. Organic Phosphorus Organic P generally constitutes about 25-75K of the total...

Krautmann, Jolly Yang

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

SOFA 2 Documentation Table of contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOFA 2 Documentation Table of contents 1 Overview...................................................................................................................... 2 2 Documentation............................................................................................................. 2 3 Other documentation and howtos

359

Investigating the pore-water chemistry effects on the volume change behaviour of Boom clay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as that for the site water: 5.037 g/L for core Ess83 and 5.578 g/L for core Ess96. Mechanical loading was then carried not induce significant volume change. For Ess83, hydro-mechanical behaviour was found to be slightly-mechanical behaviour of Ess96. This can be attributed to the higher smectite content in Ess83 than in Ess96. Keywords

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

360

The effectiveness of a foliar spray of kaolinite clay in reducing transpiration of cotton plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

not have been conducted. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. INTRODUCTION II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE III. MATERIALS AND METHODS Preparation of the Soil Mixture and Plartting Procedures Experimental Design and Explanation of Treatments Measureme...~g Analysis oi' total number of blooms put on for each treatment Analysis of total number of boils set for each treatment Analysis of total yield of seed cotton for each treatment Analysis of total yield of lint i' or each tres. t- Analysis of total...

McMichael, Bobbie Lee

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Your High Content Screening Resource Ultra Highspeed Confocal Microscope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in light. 73 Less invasive, less phototoxicity. Minimal photobleaching. Perfect for live cells laser sources (405, 488, 561, 640 nm) + UV/Vis (350 - 410 nm, non- confocal) 3 Peltier-cooled and 1 non or weeks to days. 2. Improve Data Quality Make cell analysis quantitative, rule-based and objective

Wikswo, John

362

The Effect of Aluminum Content on the Corrosion Behavior of Fe-Al Alloys in Reducing Environments at 700 C  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Effect of Aluminum Content on the Corrosion Behavior of Fe-Al Alloys in Reducing Environments with the observance and/or duration of each stage directly related to the aluminum content of the alloy. The first by relatively high corrosion rates. Further decreasing the aluminum content to 5 wt pct and below lead

DuPont, John N.

363

Content in physical education 1 The Contribution of Two Research Programs on Teaching Content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: "Pedagogical Content Knowledge" and "Didactics of Physical Education" Chantal Amade-Escot, Toulouse University with pedagogical content knowledge; the other, in France, studying the didactics of physical education (didactics communities. Key-words Content in Physical Education, Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Didactics of Physical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

364

Deposition of device quality low H content, amorphous silicon films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH{sub 4}) over a high temperature, 2,000 C, tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400 C, substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20--30 times before being deposited on the hot substrate. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films thus produced have only about one atomic percent hydrogen, yet have device quality electrical, chemical, and structural properties, despite this lowered hydrogen content. 7 figs.

Mahan, A.H.; Carapella, J.C.; Gallagher, A.C.

1995-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

365

Areal distribution of clay minerals and their relationship to physical properties, Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the first major works examining physical properties of Gulf of Mexico sediments was by Fisk and McCle lland (1959). They dis- cussed the influence of the geology of the Louisiana continental shelf on offshore foundation design, They showed that foundation... of the variation in shear strength can be attributed to either depth in core or to a change in water content. Bouma et a!. (1972) showed the importance of geo- technical investigation through their comparison of geological and engineering parameters of marine...

Hottman, William Edward

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

arrestin content studied: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Two Research Programs on Teaching Content: "Pedagogical Content Knowledge" and "Didactics of Physical Education" Chantal Amade-Escot, Toulouse University Abstract Content in...

367

Standard Format and Content for Emergency Plans  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This volume addresses recommended emergency plan format and content for Operational Emergency Base Programs and Operational Emergency Hazardous Material Programs. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-3.

1997-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

368

Training Program Content, 4/10/95  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The objective of this surveillance is to evaluate the effectiveness of the contractor's program for establishing the content of training programs.  The process to be evaluated includes (1)...

369

TABLE OF CONTENTS NIST Map ...................................................................................................................................................3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TABLE OF CONTENTS NIST Map the Power Grid PML TIME SPEAKER UNIVERSITY TITLE LAB 3:00P Brian Weinstein American University Temperature

370

,"Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed",1,"Monthly","112014","1152013" ,"Release...

371

Minimizing the sulphur content in Kraft lignin.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The aim of this project is to investigate the possibilities of minimizing the sulphur content in Kraft lignin. Kraft lignin contains about 1.5 to… (more)

Svensson, Sara

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Can Next-Generation Reactors Power a Safe Nuclear Futur By Clay Dillow Posted 03.17.2011 at 12:18 pm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Can Next-Generation Reactors Power a Safe Nuclear Futur By Clay Dillow Posted 03.17.2011 at 12 of nuclear reactors are designed to prevent exactly what we old Fukushima Daiichi plant. Which is good the world rush to reconsider their nuclear plans, nuclear experts look toward a future of smaller, safer

Danon, Yaron

373

Houlsby, G. T., Kelly, R. B., Huxtable, J. & Byrne, B. W. (2005). Geotechnique 55, No. 4, 287296 Field trials of suction caissons in clay for offshore wind turbine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Houlsby, G. T., Kelly, R. B., Huxtable, J. & Byrne, B. W. (2005). Ge´otechnique 55, No. 4, 287. B. KELLY*, J. HUXTABLE and B. W. BYRNE* A programme of testing of caisson foundations in clay-scale model testing (Byrne & Houlsby, 2002, 2004; Byrne et al., 2003; Kelly et al., 2003, 2004

Byrne, Byron

374

Chapter 9. Utilizing mineralogical and chemical information in PTFs (A. Bruand) Soil structure is known to reflect mineralogical composition of clay fraction and soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 9. Utilizing mineralogical and chemical information in PTFs (A. Bruand) Soil structure is known to reflect mineralogical composition of clay fraction and soil chemical composition. Because soil hydraulic properties are likely to depend on soil structure, chemical and mineralogical composition have

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

375

Materials Science and Engineering A 497 (2008) 212215 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

properties such as high-specific modulus, good high-cycle fatigue resistance, and improved thermal stability-scale grain size, the nano-crystalline metallic materials typically possess high-yield strengths, as predictedMaterials Science and Engineering A 497 (2008) 212­215 Contents lists available at Science

Rollins, Andrew M.

376

HIGH-VOLTAGE SPINEL AND POLYANION CATHODES  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ordering, segregation of cations to the surface, Mn 3+ content, morphology, and synthesisprocessing methodsconditions), and use the understanding to develop high-performance,...

377

Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of BaTi(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Ba{sub 3}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 6}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} crystals in glasses with high TiO{sub 2} contents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ternary BaO-TiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses containing a large amount of TiO{sub 2} (20-40mol%) are prepared, and their optical basicities ({lambda}), the formation, structural features and second-order optical nonlinearities of BaTi(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Ba{sub 3}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 6}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} crystals are examined to develop new nonlinear optical materials. It is found that the glasses with high TiO{sub 2} contents of 30-40mol% show large optical basicities of {lambda}=0.81-0.87, suggesting the high polarizabity of TiO{sub n} polyhedra (n=4-6) in the glasses. BaTi(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Ba{sub 3}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 6}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} crystals are found to be formed as main crystalline phases in the glasses. It is found that BaTi(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} crystals tend to orient at the surface of crystallized glasses. The new XRD pattern for the Ba{sub 3}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 6}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} phase is proposed through Rietvelt analysis. The second harmonic intensities of crystallized glasses were found to be 0.8 times as large as {alpha}-quartz powders, i.e., I{sup 2{omega}}(sample)/I{sup 2{omega}}({alpha}-quartz)=0.8, for the sample with BaTi(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} crystals and to be I{sup 2{omega}}(sample)/I{sup 2{omega}}({alpha}-quartz)=68 for the sample with Ba{sub 3}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 6}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} crystals. The Raman scattering spectra for these two crystalline phases are measured for the first time and their structural features are discussed.

Kosaka, Shinji [Department of Chemistry, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Benino, Yasuhiko [Department of Chemistry, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Fujiwara, Takumi [Department of Chemistry, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Dimitrov, Vesselin [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl, Ohridki Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Komatsu, Takayuki [Department of Chemistry, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)]. E-mail: komatsu@chem.nagaokaut.ac.jp

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Investigating the time-dependent behaviour of Boom clay under thermo-mechanical loading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium. The underground research facility HADES has been constructed as a host formation. Among the various laboratory studies performed on samples extracted from the HADES (HLLW). An underground facility called HADES (High-Activity Disposal Experimental Site) excavated at 223

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

379

Table of Contents Producing Hydrogen................1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. It can store the energy from diverse domestic resources (including clean coal, nuclear renewable resources, nuclear energy, and coal with carbon capture and storage. 1 #12;Potential for clean1 #12;Table of Contents Producing Hydrogen................1 Hydrogen Production Technologies

380

Table of Contents Division Organization 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE) 12 Smart Grid Cyber Security 13 Supply Chain Risk Content Automation Protocol Validation Program 39 Technical Security Metrics 40 Vulnerability research, develop ment and outreach necessary to provide standards and guidelines, tools, metrics

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Milk dispenser for variable fat content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis describes the development of a new milk dispenser product that is designed to dispense milk with varying levels of milk fat content. The product contains two tanks of milk, one containing skim and one containing ...

Henion, Julie E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Table of Contents Resilient Sustainable Communities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

..................................... 5 Onondaga County: Sustainable Development Plan....................... 9 Comparison of the Hazard Mitigation Plan and Onondaga County Sustainable Development Plan DraftTable of Contents Resilient Sustainable Communities: Integrating Hazard Mitigation & Sustainability

383

ii Colorado Climate Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;ii Colorado Climate Table of Contents Web: http://climate.atmos.colostate.edu Colorado Climate Spring 2002 Vol. 3, No. 2 Lightning in Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Colorado Climate in Review

384

Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document representsthe development of a uniform content code system for RH-TRU waste to be transported in the 72-Bcask. It will be used to convert existing waste form numbers, content codes, and site-specificidentification codes into a system that is uniform across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites.The existing waste codes at the sites can be grouped under uniform content codes without any lossof waste characterization information. The RH-TRUCON document provides an all-encompassing|description for each content code and compiles this information for all DOE sites. Compliance withwaste generation, processing, and certification procedures at the sites (outlined in this document foreach content code) ensures that prohibited waste forms are not present in the waste. The contentcode gives an overall description of the RH-TRU waste material in terms of processes and|packaging, as well as the generation location. This helps to provide cradle-to-grave traceability ofthe waste material so that the various actions required to assess its qualification as payload for the72-B cask can be performed. The content codes also impose restrictions and requirements on themanner in which a payload can be assembled.The RH-TRU Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC), Appendix 1.3.7of the 72-B Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR), describes the current governing procedures|applicable for the qualification of waste as payload for the 72-B cask. The logic for this|classification is presented in the 72-B Cask SAR. Together, these documents (RH-TRUCON,|RH-TRAMPAC, and relevant sections of the 72-B Cask SAR) present the foundation and|justification for classifying RH-TRU waste into content codes. Only content codes described in thisdocument can be considered for transport in the 72-B cask. Revisions to this document will be madeas additional waste qualifies for transport. |Each content code uniquely identifies the generated waste and provides a system for tracking theprocess and packaging history. Each content code begins with a two-letter site abbreviation thatindicates the shipper of the RH-TRU waste. The site-specific letter designations for each of the|DOE sites are provided in Table 1. Not all of the sites listed in Table 1 have generated/stored RH-|TRU waste.

Washington TRU Solutions

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Black Bear Prep plant replaces high-frequency screens with fine wire sieves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the Black Bear prep plant (near Wharncliffe, WV, USA) the clean coal from the spirals traditionally reported to high-frequency screens, which removed high-ash clay fines. Screens have inherent inefficiencies that allow clean coal to report to the screen underflow. The goal of this project was to capture the maximum amount of spiral clean coal while still removing the high-ash clay material found in the spiral product. The reduction of the circulating load and plant downtime for unscheduled maintenance were projected as additional benefits. After the plant upgrade, the maintenance related to the high frequency screens was eliminated and an additional 2.27 tons per hour (tph) of fine coal was recovered, which resulted in a payback period of less than one year. The article was adapted from a paper presented at Coal Prep 2007 in April 2007, Lexington, KY, USA. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Barbee, C.J.; Nottingham, J.

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

386

Clay Cane is a New York City-based, award-winning writer and media consultant. His work covers various topics such as pop culture, sexuality, race, religion, social net-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

covers various topics such as pop culture, sexuality, race, religion, social net- working and personal social commen- tary website, www.ClayCane. net, a 2007 and 2008 Black Weblog Awards nominee. The College

Miami, University of

387

(Data in thousand metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1998, clays were produced in most States except Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% foundry sand bond, 23% drilling mud, 17% pet waste absorbent, 15% iron ore pelletizing, and 9% other uses,100 43,100 42,000 43,0003 Imports for consumption 36 35 45 64 75 Exports 4,620 4,680 4,830 5,080 5,100 Consumption, apparent 37,600 38,500 38,300 37,000 38,000 Price, average, dollars per ton: Ball clay 43 46 44

388

(Data in thousand metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1997, clays were produced in most States except Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Rhode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% pet waste absorbent, and 17% drilling mud; common clay--50% brick, 27% cement, and 15% lightweight,100 43,9003 Imports for consumption 39 36 35 45 53 Exports 4,150 4,620 4,680 4,830 4,970 Consumption,900 4,900e Mill 9,000 9,000 9,000 9,000 9,000 Net import reliance as a percent of5 apparent consumption

389

Analysis of infiltration through a clay radon barrier at an UMTRA disposal cell. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An infiltration study was initiated in January 1988 to assess the percent saturation in, and infiltration through, clay radon barriers of typical Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cells. Predicting infiltration through the radon barrier is necessary to evaluate whether the disposal cell will comply with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards (40 CFR 192). The groundwater standards require demonstrating that tailings seepage will not cause background concentrations or maximum concentration limits (MCLs) to be exceeded at the downgradient edge of the disposal facility (the point of compliance, or POC). This demonstration generally consists of incorporating the predicted seepage flux and the concentration of the specific hazardous constituents into a contaminant transport model, and predicting the resultant concentrations at the POC. The infiltration study consisted of a field investigation to evaluate moisture conditions in the radon barrier of the completed Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project disposal cell and previously completed UMTRA Project disposal cells at Clive, Utah, and Burrell, Pennsylvania. Coring was conducted to measure percent saturation profiles in the radon barriers at these disposal cells. In addition, a detailed investigation of the Shiprock radon barrier was conducted to establish the effects of meteorological stresses on moisture conditions in the filter layer and radon barrier. The Shiprock infiltration study was also intended to characterize hydraulic gradients and operational unsaturated hydraulic conductivities in the radon barrier.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

{sup 31}P NMR study of the complexation of TBP with lanthanides and actinides in solution and in a clay matrix  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Goal was to use NMR to study TBP/lanthanide complexes in the interlayer or on edge sites of clays. Work in this laboratory yielded details of the complexation of Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Pr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} with TBP in hexane solution; this information is crucial to interpretation of results of NMR studies of the complexes exchanged into clays. The solution {sup 31}P-chemical shift values were improved by repeating the studies on the lanthanide salts dissolved directly into neat TBP. NMR studies of these neat solutions of the Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{lg_bullet}3TBP-complex and the Pr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{lg_bullet}3TBP-complex show that the {sup 31}P chemical shift remains relatively constant for TBP: lanthanide ratios below 3: 1. At higher ratios, the chemical shift approaches that of free TBP, indicating rapid exchange of TBP between the free and complexed state. Exchange of these complexes into the clay hectorite yielded discrete {sup 31}P-NMR signals for the Eu{lg_bullet}TBP complex at -190 ppm and free TBP at -6 ppm. Adsorption of the Pr{lg_bullet}TBP complex yielded broad signals at 76 ppm for the complex and -6 ppm for free TBP. There was no evidence of exchange between the incorporated complex and the free TBP.

Hartzell, C.J. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

1994-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

391

RH-TRU Waste Content Codes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR limits based on a 10-day shipping period (rather than the standard 60-day shipping period) may be used as specified in an approved content code. Requests for new or revised content codes may be submitted to the WIPP RH-TRU Payload Engineer for review and approval, provided all RH-TRAMPAC requirements are met.

Washington TRU Solutions

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Method of determining a content of a nuclear waste container  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are provided for identifying contents of a nuclear waste container. The method includes the steps of forming an image of the contents of the container using digital radiography, visually comparing contents of the image with expected contents of the container and performing computer tomography on the container when the visual inspection reveals an inconsistency between the contents of the image and the expected contents of the container.

Bernardi, Richard T. (Prospect Heights, IL); Entwistle, David (Buffalo Grove, IL)

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

393

Dynamic Adaptation of Joint Transmission Power and Contention Window in VANET  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of transmission power is crucial. We propose to decrease the transmission power for high vehicle density or high penetration ratio and increase the transmission power for lower vehicle density or penetration ratioDynamic Adaptation of Joint Transmission Power and Contention Window in VANET 1 Danda B. Rawat, 2

Weigle, Michele

394

Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regulation and Arbitrage in Wholesale Gasoline Markets,Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices JenniferCONTENT REGULATION AND WHOLESALE GASOLINE PRICES by Jennifer

Brown, Jennifer; Hastings, Justine; Mansur, Erin T.; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Educating Consumers: New Content on Diesel Vehicles, Diesel Exhaust...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Educating Consumers: New Content on Diesel Vehicles, Diesel Exhaust Fluid, and Selective Catalytic Reduction Technologies on the AFDC Educating Consumers: New Content on Diesel...

396

U-094: EMC Documentum Content Server Lets Local Administrative...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

4: EMC Documentum Content Server Lets Local Administrative Users Gain Elevated Privileges U-094: EMC Documentum Content Server Lets Local Administrative Users Gain Elevated...

397

CH-TRU Waste Content Codes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments" (10-day shipping period).

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2008-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

398

Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR limits based on a 10-day shipping period (rather than the standard 60-day shipping period) may be used as specified in an approved content code.

Washington TRU Solutions

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Course contentCourse content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- firedPulverised coal- fired power plantpower plant #12;HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Pulverised coal combustion and gas clean-upPulverised coal combustion and gas clean-up #12;HELSINKIHELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 ·· Course contentCourse content ·· Flue gases and fuel

Zevenhoven, Ron

400

On the Global Content PMI: Improved Copy-Protected Internet Content Distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the Global Content PMI: Improved Copy-Protected Internet Content Distribution Tadayoshi Kohno distribution, copy-protection, PMI, risk manage- ment. 1 Introduction The Internet is changing the way Conference, 2001. #12;2 Tadayoshi Kohno and Mark McGovern the Privilege Management Infrastructure (PMI

Matsuoka, Yoky

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Development of K-Basin High-Strength Homogeneous Sludge Simulants and Correlations Between Unconfined Compressive Strength and Shear Strength  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

K-Basin sludge will be stored in the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) at an interim storage location on Central Plateau before being treated and packaged for disposal. During the storage period, sludge in the STSCs may consolidate/agglomerate, potentially resulting in high-shear-strength material. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) plans to use water jets to retrieve K-Basin sludge after the interim storage. STP has identified shear strength to be a key parameter that should be bounded to verify the operability and performance of sludge retrieval systems. Determining the range of sludge shear strength is important to gain high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from the STSCs. The shear strength measurements will provide a basis for bounding sludge properties for mobilization and erosion. Thus, it is also important to develop potential simulants to investigate these phenomena. Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) show that high-uranium-content K-Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has 'paste' and 'chunks' with shear strengths of approximately 3-5 kPa and 380-770 kPa, respectively. High-uranium-content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185 C, 10 hours) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. These high values were estimated by measured unconfined compressive strength (UCS) obtained with a pocket penetrometer. Due to its ease of use, it is anticipated that a pocket penetrometer will be used to acquire additional shear strength data from archived K-Basin sludge samples stored at the PNNL Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) hot cells. It is uncertain whether the pocket penetrometer provides accurate shear strength measurements of the material. To assess the bounding material strength and potential for erosion, it is important to compare the measured shear strength to penetrometer measurements and to develop a correlation (or correlations) between UCS measured by a pocket penetrometer and direct shear strength measurements for various homogeneous and heterogeneous simulants. This study developed 11 homogeneous simulants, whose shear strengths vary from 4 to 170 kPa. With these simulants, we developed correlations between UCS measured by a Geotest E-280 pocket penetrometer and shear strength values measured by a Geonor H-60 hand-held vane tester and a more sophisticated bench-top unit, the Haake M5 rheometer. This was achieved with side-by-side measurements of the shear strength and UCS of the homogeneous simulants. The homogeneous simulants developed under this study consist of kaolin clay, plaster of Paris, and amorphous alumina CP-5 with water. The simulants also include modeling clay. The shear strength of most of these simulants is sensitive to various factors, including the simulant size, the intensity of mixing, and the curing time, even with given concentrations of simulant components. Table S.1 summarizes these 11 simulants and their shear strengths.

Onishi, Yasuo; Baer, Ellen BK; Chun, Jaehun; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sande, Susan; Buchmiller, William C.

2011-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

402

Novel Anionic Clay Adsorbents for Boiler-Blow-Down Waters Reclaim and Reuse  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Arsenic (As) and Selenium (Se) are found in water in the form of oxyanions. Relatively high concentrations of As and Se have been reported both in power plant discharges, as well as, in fresh water supplies. The International Agency for Research on Cancer currently classifies As as a group 1 chemical, that is considered to be carcinogenic to humans. In Phase I of this project we studied the adsorption of As and Se by uncalcined and calcined layered double hydroxide (LDH). The focus of the present work is a systematic study of the adsorption of As and Se by conditioned LDH adsorbents. Conditioning the adsorbent significantly reduced the Mg and Al dissolution observed with uncalcined and calcined LDH. The adsorption rates and isotherms have been investigated in batch experiments using particles of four different particle size ranges. As(V) adsorption is shown to follow a Sips-type adsorption isotherm. The As(V) adsorption rate on conditioned LDH increases with decreasing adsorbent particle size; the adsorption capacity, on the other hand, is independent of the particle size. A homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM) and a bi-disperse pore model (BPM) - the latter viewing the LDH particles as assemblages of microparticles and taking into account bulk diffusion in the intraparticle pore space, and surface diffusion within the microparticles themselves - were used to fit the experimental kinetic data. The HSDM estimated diffusivity values dependent on the particle size, whereas the BPM predicted an intracrystalline diffusivity, which is fairly invariant with particle size. The removal of As(V) on conditioned LDH adsorbents was also investigated in flow columns, where the impact of important solution and operational parameters such as influent As concentration, pH, sorbent particle size and flow rate were studied. An early breakthrough and saturation was observed at higher flow rates and at higher influent concentrations, whereas a decrease in the sorbent particle size and a decrease in influent pH resulted in an increase in the bed volumes treated at breakthrough. Both the HSDM and BPM were shown capable of predicting the column behavior.

Muhammad Sahimi; Theodore Tsotsis

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

403

Content Management in Mobile Wireless Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.1.1 Defining the Delivery-Rate Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3.1.2 Estimating the Delivery-Rate Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.2 Content Optimal hal-00742734,version1-17Oct2012 #12;hal-00742734,version1-17Oct2012 #12;Acronyms List of abbreviations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

404

Heat Content Changes in the Pacific Ocean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat Content Changes in the Pacific Ocean The Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Cli- mate (ATOC assimilating ocean observations and changes expected from surface heat fluxes as measured by the daily National are a result of advection of heat by ocean currents. We calculate that the most likely cause of the discrepancy

Frandsen, Jannette B.

405

STUDENT HANDBOOK Table of Contents Page Number  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STUDENT HANDBOOK Campus #12;Table of Contents Page Number Welcome 1 The School 1 Mission Statement Student Resources 8 Financial Aid and Funding Sources Writing Supports 9 Special Needs Computers Libraries RefWorks 10 Student Services 11 Administrative Information 14 Student ID, and Email Accounts U of R

Saskatchewan, University of

406

Student Mobile Device Survey Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CiCS. Student Mobile Device Survey 2011 Table of Contents Section Number Subject Page 1 With little information and supporting evidence on student ownership and usage of mobile devices at the University of Sheffield, making decisions on our services and support for mobile devices has been based

Martin, Stephen John

407

Atlas Finding Aid Contents/Index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atlas Finding Aid Contents/Index A (1) City & State Atlas A (2) Astronomy Atlas A (3) U.S. Atlas A (4) Water Atlas A (5) South America & Central America A (6) Africa, Asia, &, Antarctica A (7) Mexico A (8) Geologic Atlases A (9) Environment / Forest & Desert A (10) Historic Atlases A (11) World Atlases

Ward, Karen

408

CONTENTDM ADVANCED SEARCH TUTORIAL Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 CONTENTDM ADVANCED SEARCH TUTORIAL Table of Contents 1. Accessing the Advanced Search Page 1 2. Navigating the Advanced Search Page 3 3. Selecting your collection to search Advanced Search from the right navigation menu. 2 This will take you into the CONTENTdm database

O'Laughlin, Jay

409

Digital Watermark Detection in Visual Multimedia Content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Digital Watermark Detection in Visual Multimedia Content Peter Meerwald Cumulative thesis (online or video. Watermark detection is an integral component of a watermarking system. This cumulative thesis. The computational effort for blind, spread-spectrum watermark detection is analyzed in- cluding the determination

Uhl, Andreas

410

Chemistry Department Assessment Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0 Chemistry Department Assessment May, 2006 Table of Contents Page Executive Summary 1 Prelude 1 Mission Statement and Learning Goals 1 Facilities 2 Staffing 3 Students: Chemistry Majors and Student Taking Service Courses Table: 1997-2005 graduates profile Table: GRE Score for Chemistry Majors, 1993

Bogaerts, Steven

411

VEHICLE SERVICES POLICY Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VEHICLE SERVICES POLICY Table of Contents 1. Policy 2. Procedures a. Vehicle Services Oversight b. Vehicle Maintenance and Inspection c. Authorized Drivers d. Responsibilities Back to Top (To download requirements for AUB's vehicles, the University has adopted a policy of centralizing these activities under one

Shihadeh, Alan

412

Section 4. Inventory Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Section 4. Inventory Table of Contents 4.1 Existing Legal Protections........................................................................................................... 14 #12;Draft Umatilla/Willow Subbasin Plan May 28, 2004 4. Inventory of Existing Activities The following section contains information derived from an inventory questionnaire that was sent

413

ii Colorado Climate Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;ii Colorado Climate Table of Contents Web: http://climate.atmos.colostate.edu Colorado Climate Winter 2001-2002 Vol. 3, No. 1 Why Is the Park Range Colorado's Snowfall Capital? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 The Cold-Land Processes Field Experiment: North-Central Colorado

414

ii Colorado Climate Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;ii Colorado Climate Table of Contents An Unusually Heavy Snowfall in North Central Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 A Brief History of Colorado's Most Notable Snowstorms" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Colorado Climate Water Year 2003 Vol. 4, No. 1-4 If you have a photo or slide that your would like

415

VEHICLES, MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT Table Of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a license/permit for each piece of equipment, an Operator Equipment Qualification Record (DA Form 348EM 385-1-1 XX Sep 13 i Section 18 VEHICLES, MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT Table Of Contents Section: Page...................................................................18-16 18.G Machinery And Mechanized Equipment.........................18-16 18.H Drilling Equipment

US Army Corps of Engineers

416

Contents course 424304 / 2011 1 Exergy analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy 2c.6 Tidal energy, Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), osmotic power 3. ThermodynamicsContents course 424304 / 2011 1 Exergy analysis 1.1 Exergy vs. energy 1.2 Reversible work radiation 2a.8 Environmental radiation 2b Solar energy (thermal, PV, TIR) 2b.1 Solar radiation 2b.2 Photo

Zevenhoven, Ron

417

WWW-2005 Tutorial Web Content Mining  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of surface Web and deep Web. Surface Web: pages that can be browsed using a browser. Deep Web: databasesWWW-2005 Tutorial Web Content Mining Bing Liu Department of Computer Science University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) liub@cs.uic.edu http://www.cs.uic.edu/~liub The 14th International World Wide Web Conference

Hu, Wen-Chen

418

CONTENTS IN BRIEF PART I VISUALIZATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density Estimation xxvi I.4 Plan of the Book xxvii I.5 Web Page and the Code xxvii I.6 Bibliographic Notes 67 2.2.1 Density Type Visualizations 68 #12;CONTENTS ix 2.2.2 Distribution Function Type.6.1 Morse Theory 118 4.6.2 Reeb Graphs 122 Exercises 123 5 Shape Trees 127 5.1 Functions and Sets 128 5

Klemelä, Jussi

419

BACHELOR THESIS The High Representative  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BACHELOR THESIS The High Representative and the Libya Crisis An Assessment Dominique Prescher 8 and the Libya Crisis 2 Table of Content 1. Summary 4 2. Introduction 4 3. Theoretical Framework 8 3.1 Neo 34 9. Bibliography 36 #12;Bachelor Thesis The High Representative and the Libya Crisis 3 List

Vellekoop, Michel

420

Bi-content Gadolinia as Burnable Absorber in PWR to Improve the Reactor Core Behaviour  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gadolinia product is one of the standard burnable absorbers used in the PWR long and low leakage fuel cycle in order to control the radial power distribution and to hold down the initial core reactivity. This product presents a large number of advantages such as the high efficiency with only a small number of gadolinia-bearing rods, the easy adjustment between the number and the content of the gadolinia-bearing rods according to the cycle length need and the initial reactivity hold-down, no increasing of boron concentration versus cycle depletion, no additional increasing of internal pressure in poisoned rods, very low additional manufacture cost. On the other hand, some unfavourable phenomena are also observed during the utilization of the gadolinia: amplification of the asymmetrical power distribution and more negative axial offset. Based on the correlation between the gadolinia burnout and its content, the use of gadolinia bi-content will improve the parameters indicated here above. The gadolinia bi-content have been used in BWR for more than 20 years. In this paper, the comparison of the main reactor core physical parameters in PWR, calculated with the AREVA NP standard neutronic code package SCIENCE, is made by using the mono- and bi-content of the gadolinia products in the same fuel assembly. The results show that the asymmetrical axial and azimuthal power distribution can be improved in the case of the bi-content gadolinia product. (authors)

Zheng, S. [AREVA, AREVA NP Fuel Sector, 10, Rue Juliette Recamier 69456 Lyon cedex (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Geologic controls on sulfur content of the Blue Gem coal seam, southeastern Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed petrographic and lithologic data on the Blue Gem coal seam for a local area in Knox County, Kentucky, suggest that a relationship may exist between overlying roof lithology, petrographic composition of the coal, and sulfur content. In the western part of the area, where thick (20-40 feet) shale sequences overlie the coal, sulfur contents are low (less than 1%). In isolated areas where discontinuous sandstones occur within 6 feet of the coal, sulfur contents range from 1% to over 3%. In the east, a sandstone body usually overlies and frequently scours out the coal, yet sulfur content varies independently of roof lithology. Towards the east, there is an increase in abundance, thickness and variability of fusain bands within the coal and an increase in pyrite and siderite either as cell fillings in fusinite or as masses within vitrinite; early emplacement of these minerals is indicated by compaction features. Data suggest the importance of depositional environment of the peat and overlying sediments as a control on sulfur occurrence. High sulfur contents in the west are related to sandstone bodies which may have allowed sulfate-bearing waters to permeate into the peat. In the east, where increases in pyrite, siderite and fusain content of the coal and coarsening of the overlying sediments suggest a change in environment, the presence or absence of pyrite-containing fusain bands may account for sulfur variability. Siderite occurrence may reflect local fluctuations in sulfate supply to the peat swamp.

Rimmer, S.M.; Moore, T.A.; Esterle, J.S.; Hower, J.C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Butane segregated by fluorides, olefins content at Texas terminals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Texas Eastern Products Pipeline Co., Houston (Teppco), this month has begun segregating butane streams at the company's Mont Belvieu and Baytown, Texas terminals according to fluoride and olefin contents. Streams containing fluoride or an olefin content greater than 1 ppm (or both) currently flow into Teppco's south Mont Belvieu terminal. Those fluoride-free streams with less than 1 ppm of olefins flow to its north Mont Belvieu terminal. Butane processed through an isomerization unit yields isobutane, a key component in MTBE. But high-fluoride butane from crude-oil refineries using hydrofluoric (HF) acid alkylation units cannot be used to produce MTBE because fluoride will damage isomerization units' process catalysts. Olefins also affect the efficiency of isomerization units, but less critically than fluorides. Their presence is higher in refinery product than in fractionated NGL. To extend the life of their process catalysts and to maximize yields, producers (including MTBE and isomerization unit operators) are specifying low-fluoride butanes developed from natural-gas fractionators or from refineries that do not use an HF process.

Not Available

1993-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

423

Iron and zinc response and nutrient uptake of sorghums grown on two calcareous soils from the High Plains of Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Portales soils. Sorghums grown on the Drake sandy loam soil are more chlorotic than those grown on the Portales loam soil. The Drake soil has more CaCO and. "availaole" P but 3 less total Fe and EDTA extractable Fe than the Portales soil, The Drake... soil has a lower DTPA extractable Mn than the Portales soil, Less than l ppm was extracted from the Drake soil. The clay mineralogy of she Drake soil 1s about 60$ sepiolite which is one of the factors contributing to the lower total Fe content...

Pennington, Hurm Dale

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 287 (2009) 105113 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to deposit more internal energy into these clusters, providing access to alternative, high energyInternational Journal of Mass Spectrometry 287 (2009) 105­113 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect International Journal of Mass Spectrometry journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijms Influence of cluster

Wysocki, Vicki H.

425

Resources, Conservation and Recycling 54 (2010) 878892 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Resources, Conservation and Recycling 54 (2010) 878­892 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Resources, Conservation and Recycling journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/resconrec Stabilization of recycled base materials with high carbon fly ash Bora Cetina , Ahmet H. Aydilekb, , Yucel Guneyc a Deptment

Aydilek, Ahmet

426

Comparing and Contrasting Micro-payment Models for Content Sharing in P2P Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparing and Contrasting Micro-payment Models for Content Sharing in P2P Networks Xiaoling Dai1-to-peer network service charging. P2P micro-payment systems must provide a secure, highly efficient, flexible, in order to assist in the design of an efficient micro-payment model suitable for P2P networks, we compare

Grundy, John

427

Original article Biomass, litterfall and nutrient content in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Biomass, litterfall and nutrient content in Castanea sativa coppice stands November 1995) Summary - Aboveground biomass and nutrient content, litterfall and nutrient return) and Catania (Italy). Best regression equations for the aboveground biomass were obtained by applying the allo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

428

Branch content of metallocene polyethylene Ramnath Ramachandran, Gregory Beaucage*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Branch content of metallocene polyethylene Ramnath Ramachandran, Gregory Beaucage* and Amit catalyzed polyethylene (PE). A novel scaling approach is applied to determine the mole fraction branch solutions of metallocene polyethylene samples, to quantify the LCB content in polymers previously studied

Beaucage, Gregory

429

BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2008 - all rights reserved 1 (tm) BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring August 6th, 2008 Copyright SP3H 2007 -- all rights reserved 2 Biofuel...

430

Advertiser retains sole responsibility for content ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advertiser retains sole responsibility for content ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE T okyo University to combat global food shortages, monitoring air pollution in East Asia and safeguarding the world's energy abilitiesinyoungresearchers." #12;Advertiser retains sole responsibility for content ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE and then use

Cai, Long

431

1981). Their basic solution is to find a suitable backfilling material to minimize the contact resistance and to maintain high ground thermal conductivity around the cable even under very  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resistance and to maintain high ground thermal conductivity around the cable even under very dry ground#12;1981). Their basic solution is to find a suitable backfilling material to minimize the contact thermal conductivity for clay backfilling, measured 1/2 inch and 6 inches (1.3 and 15 cm) away from

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

432

Original article Belowground biomass and nutrient content in a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Belowground biomass and nutrient content in a 47-year-old Douglas-fir plantation, France (Received 17 July 2000; accepted 6 October 2000) Abstract ­ Biomass and nutrient content and root biomass or nutrient content were observed. The root biomass was 58 t of dry matter, which was 18

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

433

Fast Browsing of Archived Web Contents Sangchul Song  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and deep contents, web contents involve a wide variety of objects such as html pages, documents, multimediaFast Browsing of Archived Web Contents Sangchul Song Department of Electrical and Computer The web is becoming the preferred medium for communicating and storing information pertaining to almost

JaJa, Joseph F.

434

The Riboflavin Content of Some Animal Feeds and Some Human Foods.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) these amounts may be too high and furth~r evldence is needed before any definite level can be established. Rumiriants have heen fcund not to require riboflavin in the5 di~t~. At- - cording t3 a number of workers (26) riboflavin is synthesized ill amy'~ XI... ........................................... Egg white. dried ..................................... IBOFLAVIN CONTENT OF SOME ANIMAL FEEDS AND HUMAN FOODS 9 . Riboflavin content in foods-as found in the literature . 1940 to 1944 . inclusive -Continued Kind of food or feed Riboflavin parts...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Kemmerer, A. R. (Arthur Russell)

1945-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Content of Submission The content of the RAE08 submission was comprised of the following nine datasets,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

datasets, known as forms. Form Content of data set RA0 Overall staff summary to include: - The FTE number

436

FTIR and kinetic studies of the mechanism of Fe{sup 3+}-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NO with ammonia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of FTIR spectroscopic and kinetic studies of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide by ammonia were conducted on Fe{sup 3+}-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay (Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC) catalyst. It was found that No molecules were absorbed on the fresh Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalyst and then oxidized by O{sub 2} to adsorbed NO{sub 2} and nitrate species. These NO{sub x} adspecies could be reduced by NH{sub 3} at high temperatures. NH{sub 3} molecules could also be adsorbed on the Broensted acid and Lewis acid sites on the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalyst to generate, respectively, NH{sup +}{sub 4} ions and coordinated NH{sub 3} species. These NH{sub 3} adspecies were active in reacting with NO, NO + O{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, but the reaction rates of NH{sub 3} + NO + O{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} + NO{sub 2} were much higher than that of NNO + NH{sub 3}. However, under reaction conditions, the surface of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC was mainly covered by NH{sup +}{sub 4} ions and coordinated NH{sub 3}, and no NO{sub x} adspecies were detected. This is in agreement with the zero-order for the SCR reaction with respect to NH{sub 3}. A possible reaction scheme for the SCR reaction on Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC was proposed. NO reduction initially involved the reaction between NO{sub 2} and pairs of NH{sub 3} adspecies to form an active intermediate, which finally reacted with gaseous or weakly adsorbed NO to produce N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O.

Long, R.Q.; Yang, R.T.

2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Investigating the Link Between Radiologists Gaze, Diagnostic Decision, and Image Content  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objective: To investigate machine learning for linking image content, human perception, cognition, and error in the diagnostic interpretation of mammograms. Methods: Gaze data and diagnostic decisions were collected from six radiologists who reviewed 20 screening mammograms while wearing a head-mounted eye-tracker. Texture analysis was performed in mammographic regions that attracted radiologists attention and in all abnormal regions. Machine learning algorithms were investigated to develop predictive models that link: (i) image content with gaze, (ii) image content and gaze with cognition, and (iii) image content, gaze, and cognition with diagnostic error. Both group-based and individualized models were explored. Results: By pooling the data from all radiologists machine learning produced highly accurate predictive models linking image content, gaze, cognition, and error. Merging radiologists gaze metrics and cognitive opinions with computer-extracted image features identified 59% of the radiologists diagnostic errors while confirming 96.2% of their correct diagnoses. The radiologists individual errors could be adequately predicted by modeling the behavior of their peers. However, personalized tuning appears to be beneficial in many cases to capture more accurately individual behavior. Conclusions: Machine learning algorithms combining image features with radiologists gaze data and diagnostic decisions can be effectively developed to recognize cognitive and perceptual errors associated with the diagnostic interpretation of mammograms.

Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Paquit, Vincent C [ORNL; Krupinski, Elizabeth [University of Arizona

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Whether the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations can develop a finite time singularity from smooth initial data with finite energy is one of the Seven Millennium Problems posted by the Clay Mathematical Institute. We review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

smooth initial data with finite energy is one of the Seven Millennium Problems posted by the Clay.m., Lees-Kubota Lecture Hall California Institute of Technology For information please Contact: Cheryl phenomena, fish swimming and bird flight, microorganism locomotion, geo- and bio-dynamics, mathematics

Low, Steven H.

439

"Beyond HTML: Developing and re-imagining library web guides in a content management system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with a content management system. ” Texas Library Journal,Web content management systems: evolution, lifecycle andIN A CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Doug Goans (dgoans@gsu.edu)

Goans, Doug; Leach, Guy; Vogel, Teri M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Expanded Content Envelope For The Model 9977 Packaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An Addendum was written to the Model 9977 Safety Analysis Report for Packaging adding a new content consisting of DOE-STD-3013 stabilized plutonium dioxide materials to the authorized Model 9977 contents. The new Plutonium Oxide Content (PuO{sub 2}) Envelope will support the Department of Energy shipment of materials between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Savannah River Site facilities. The new content extended the current content envelope boundaries for radioactive material mass and for decay heat load and required a revision to the 9977 Certificate of Compliance prior to shipment. The Addendum documented how the new contents/configurations do not compromise the safety basis presented in the 9977 SARP Revision 2. The changes from the certified package baseline and the changes to the package required to safely transport this material is discussed.

Abramczyk, G. A.; Loftin, B. M.; Nathan, S. J.; Bellamy, J. S.

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Normalized mechanical properties of resedimented Gulf of Mexico clay from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition Leg 308  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition Leg 308, many Whole Core Samples were recovered from the Ursa Basin in the Gulf of Mexico. Post-cruise geotechnical testing found these samples to be highly disturbed ...

Mazzei, David P. C. (David Peter Clark)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Laboratory Hydro-mechanical Characterisation of Boom Clay at Essen and Mol Y. F. Deng1, 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of 220 - 260 m and from HADES that is the underground rock laboratory at Mol in Belgium, at 223-m depth facility called HADES (High-Activity Disposal Experimental Site) excavated at 223-m depth close to the city

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

443

,"New Mexico Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed",1,"Monthly","12015","1152013"...

444

Local Content Requirements in British Columbia's Wind Power Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Local Content Requirements in British Columbia's Wind Power Industry May Hao, Matt Mackenzie, Alex..................................................................................8 4.1 Current Wind Power Projects

Pedersen, Tom

445

,"New York Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed",1,"Monthly","102014","1152013" ,"Release...

446

Determination of Protein Content in Biomass: Laboratory Analytical...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Protein Content in Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: 05232008 B. Hames, C. Scarlata, and A. Sluiter Technical Report NRELTP-510-42625 Revised May 2008...

447

Loyola / Aspira Summer Science Camp Proposal (NSF) PROPOSAL CONTENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Loyola / Aspira Summer Science Camp Proposal (NSF) PROPOSAL CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................................................1 This Project will replicate a DOE Pre-Freshman Enrichment Project ...........................................................................................................1 Six Project Objectives

Reed, Dale F.

448

Table of Contents About the Weizmann Institute of Science.........................................................................................................1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Table of Contents About the Weizmann Institute of Science..........................................................................................................9 Department of Plant Sciences...........................................................................................................40 Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences

Maoz, Shahar

449

About the Weizmann Institute of Science Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

About the Weizmann Institute of Science #12;Table of Contents About the Weizmann Institute of Science.........................................................................................................7 Department of Plant Sciences

Maoz, Shahar

450

About the Weizmann Institute of Science Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

About the Weizmann Institute of Science #12;Table of Contents About the Weizmann Institute of Science..........................................................................................................8 Department of Plant Sciences

Maoz, Shahar

451

Table of Contents Alumni Staff and Council Directories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Table of Contents Alumni Staff and Council Directories Alumni Relations Staff Directory....................................................................................................................................3 Alumni Council Directory and Staff Directory ................................................................................53 Your

von der Heydt, Rüdiger

452

This content has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

note that terms and conditions apply. Interfaces of dicationic ionic liquids and graphene: a molecular dynamics simulation study View the table of contents for this issue, or...

453

Table of contents 1 What is software architecture? ......................................................................... 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Table of contents 1 What is software architecture? ......................................................................... 1 1.1 Software architecture as abstraction ............................................................ 2 1.2 Software architecture as blueprint

Dustdar, Schahram

454

20132014 Career Guide Table of ConTenTs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . 7 Senior Year ­ Getting Ready for the Next Step . . . . . . . . 7 Resumes and letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Resume Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Resume Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

455

Table of Contents Central Colorado's Severe Downslope Windstorms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Table of Contents Central Colorado's Severe Downslope Windstorms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Colorado Climate in Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 National Weather Service Length of Service Awards for Western Colorado

456

The use of a permanent magnet for water content measurements of wood chips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diagram of a Wood Chip Moisture Content Measurement DeviceMeasurement of Moisture Content in Wood Chips Using NMR andWood chip water-content tests were done over a broad range of moisture contents

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

December 2009 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development PSNH Public Service of New Hampshire-Electric Utility PPA of Greenhouse gas) NPV New Present Value ST Solar Thermal Energy NYMEX New York Mercantile Exchange OECD with electric cillers, implementing a steam trap maintenance program, building all new projects with High

458

Table of Contents .............................................................Design principles 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The installation of landscapes with high maintenance needs and inappropriate plant selection have contributed, UC Davis examined successful landscape design and maintenance practices at UC Los Angeles, UC San afford to maintain. Landscape designs, with some limited exceptions, shall have maintenance requirements

California at Davis, University of

459

The fierce urgency of now: a proactive, pervasive content awareness tool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information awareness is distinct from explicit infonnation seeking, such as searching. We describe an information awareness tool that supports text composition by providing awareness of relevant content and references proactively and non-intrusively. As a user composes text, the tool automatically searches mUltiple sources, retrieves results, and displays links to the results. The tool has been implemented using Web 2.0 and Digital Library 2.0 technologies, and is flexible and highly configurable.

Powell, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Collins, Linn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Mark L B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Thermo-Hydrological-Mechanical Analysis of a Clay Barrier for Radioactive Waste Isolation: Probabilistic Calibration and Advanced Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sanchez Co-Chairs of Committee, Zenon Medina-Cetina Committee Member, Frederick Chester Head of Department, John Niedzwecki May 2012 Major Subject: Civil Engineering iii ABSTRACT Thermo... Committee, Dr. Marcelo Sanchez Dr. Zenon Medina-Cetina The engineered barrier system is a basic element in the design of repository to isolate high level radioactive waste (HLW...

Dontha, Lakshman

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Facilitating Document Annotation using Content and Querying Value  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

content management software (e.g., Microsoft SharePoint), allow users to share documents and annotate1 Facilitating Document Annotation using Content and Querying Value Eduardo J. Ruiz #1 , Vagelis the generation of the structured metadata by identifying documents that are likely to contain informa- tion

Hristidis, Vagelis

462

Content-Based Document Image Retrieval in Complex Document Collections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Content-Based Document Image Retrieval in Complex Document Collections G. Agama, S. Argamona, O address the problem of content-based image retrieval in the context of complex document images. Complex document are documents that typically start out on paper and are then electronically scanned. These docu

463

Dynamic File Bundling for Large-scale Content Distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enable the formation of self-sustaining torrents, where the entire content of the file is available among enable the formation of self-sustaining torrents, where the entire content of the file is available among in the long tail, for which the request rates are not sufficient for the corresponding torrents to be self-sustaining

Saskatchewan, University of

464

Structured Video: A Data Type with ContentBased Access  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structured Video: A Data Type with Content­Based Access Andrzej Duda y Ron Weiss September 1993 MIT: video indexing and searching, video databases, content­ based retrieval, video algebra #12; Abstract We describe structured video, a general video data model allowing free form annotation, composition

Gifford, David K.

465

Structured Video: A Data Type with Content-Based Access  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structured Video: A Data Type with Content-Based Access Andrzej Duday Ron Weiss September 1993 MIT or implied, of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency or the U.S. Government. #12;Keywords: video indexing and searching, video databases, content- based retrieval, video algebra #12;Abstract We describe

Gifford, David K.

466

For Peter Szolovits slide #1 Secure content distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For Peter Szolovits slide #1 Secure content distribution using untrusted servers Kevin Fu MIT Labs), Ron Rivest (MIT), Ram Swaminathan (HP Labs) January-April 2005 #12;For Peter Szolovits slide #2 How do we distribute content? January-April 2005 #12;For Peter Szolovits slide #3 We pay services

Fu, Kevin

467

Observing ocean heat content using satellite gravity and altimetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: ocean heat content, altimetry, satellite gravity, steric height, remote sensing Citation: Jayne, S. RObserving ocean heat content using satellite gravity and altimetry Steven R. Jayne1,2 and John M with satellite measurements of the Earth's time-varying gravity to give improved estimates of the ocean's heat

Jayne, Steven

468

The Web Changes Everything: Understanding the Dynamics of Web Content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Web Changes Everything: Understanding the Dynamics of Web Content Eytan Adar University, USA jelsas@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT The Web is a dynamic, ever changing collection of information. This paper explores changes in Web content by analyzing a crawl of 55,000 Web pages, selected to represent

Bergstrom, Carl T.

469

An Open-Source Learning Content Management and Assessment System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LON-CAPA An Open-Source Learning Content Management and Assessment System Gerd Kortemeyer-CAPA is free open-source a learning content management system an assessment system around since 1992 #12 Cross-Institutional Resource Library (Base de Dados Compartilhada entre Instituições) Resource Assembly

470

Landscape Automata for Search Based Procedural Content Generation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Landscape Automata for Search Based Procedural Content Generation. Daniel Ashlock and Cameron Mc be used for terrain generation or other procedural content generation. Landscape automata are evolvable state-conditioned quadtrees with embedded decay parameters. Landscape automata are used to both match

Ashlock, Dan

471

Water content and morphology of sodium chloride aerosol particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to explain the H2O content. The model in which the NaCl particles contain pockets of aqueous NaCl solution was found to be most consistent with the spectroscopic observations. The relevance of salt particle morphology and water content to atmospheric aerosol...

Weis, David D.; Ewing, George E.

1999-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

472

Method for increasing boron10 contents of neutron absorbing articles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for increasing the boron10 content of a neutron absorbing article, such as one in flat, flexible sheet shape, includes coating a surface of such article with a solidifiable liquid synthetic organic polymeric material, such as a phenol formaldehyde type resin, applying boron carbide particles to the polymeric material and solidifying the polymer, such as by curing to cross-linked permanently set form, so as to hold the neutron absorbing boron carbide particles in place thereon. In highly preferred embodiments of the invention the boron carbide particles applied will extend beyond the surface of the external material and will serve as anchoring means for applications of subsequent coatings and the plurality of coatings, usually after initial partial curing to solidify them and make them formretaining, will be permanently cross-linked simultaneously. In another aspect of the invention the plurality of flat neutron absorbing articles may be joined together by contacting surfaces thereof with such a coating material, preferably containing boron carbide particles, and curing it.

Hortman, M.T.; Naum, R.G.

1981-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

473

Automated High-Pressure Titration System with In Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fully automated titration system with infrared detection was developed for investigating interfacial chemistry at high pressures. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure fluid generation and delivery system coupled to a high-pressure cell with infrared optics. A manifold of electronically actuated valves is used to direct pressurized fluids into the cell. Precise reagent additions to the pressurized cell are made with calibrated tubing loops that are filled with reagent and placed in-line with the cell and a syringe pump. The cell’s infrared optics facilitate both transmission and attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurements to monitor bulk-fluid composition and solid-surface phenomena such as adsorption, desorption, complexation, dissolution, and precipitation. Switching between the two measurement modes is accomplished with moveable mirrors that direct radiation from a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer into the cell along transmission or ATR light paths. The versatility of the high-pressure IR titration system is demonstrated with three case studies. First, we titrated water into supercritical CO2 (scCO2) to generate an infrared calibration curve and determine the solubility of water in CO2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Next, we characterized the partitioning of water between a montmorillonite clay and scCO2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Transmission-mode spectra were used to quantify changes in the clay’s sorbed water concentration as a function of scCO2 hydration, and ATR measurements provided insights into competitive residency of water and CO2 on the clay surface and in the interlayer. Finally, we demonstrated how time-dependent studies can be conducted with the system by monitoring the carbonation reaction of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) in water-bearing scCO2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Immediately after water dissolved in the scCO2, a thin film of adsorbed water formed on the mineral surface, and the film thickness increased with time as the forsterite began to dissolve. However, after approximately 2.5 hours, the trend reversed, and a carbonate precipitate began to form on the forsterite surface, exposing dramatic chemical changes in the thin-water film. Collectively, these applications illustrate how the high-pressure IR titration system can provide molecular-level information about the interactions between variably wet scCO2 and minerals relevant to underground storage of CO2 (geologic carbon sequestration). The apparatus could also be utilized to study high-pressure interfacial chemistry in other areas such as catalysis, polymerization, food processing, and oil and gas recovery.

Thompson, Christopher J.; Martin, Paul F.; Chen, Jeffrey; Benezeth, Pascale; Schaef, Herbert T.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Loring, John S.

2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

474

The stratigraphy and environment of deposition of productive Wilcox clays in west central Freestone and southeast Limestone Counties, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lies between the Brazos River system to the west and the T ri n1ty River system to the east, and is 1 ncluded within the l i o r Freestone County u ~ xiogo Cs 0 QF ~ lrfi ~ Id ~ m ~ boro ~ oso ~ Limestone Count STUDY AREA Figure 2. Out1ine rf.... The dominance of these minerals indicates a highly active weathering environment in which only stable minerals could survive complete transport. The abundance of kaolinite also indicates that the area was well drained. Fisher (1961) reports that the Simsboro...

Shelvey, Stephanie Anne

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

The Use of Radar Methods to Determine Moisture Content in the Vadose Zone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water content is a critical parameter affecting both liquid-phase and vapor-phase contaminant transport in the vadose zone. This means that accurate estimates of in situ water content must be obtained in order to design for the appropriate handling or remediation of a contaminated region of the vadose zone. Traditional methods of sampling the subsurface by drilling and/or direct sampling are very time consuming, limited in terms of spatial coverage, and have the associated risk of contacting and increasing the size of the contaminated area. One solution is to use geophysical methods which can provide a high-resolution, non-invasive means of sampling or imaging the subsurface. The overall objective of our research, defined at the start of this project, was to advance the usefulness of radar methods (ground-based and borehole) as a means of characterizing water content in the vadose zone. We have met this objective by providing research results that can be used to (1) improve the accuracy of water content estimates from radar measurements; (2) provide estimates of the potential error in water content estimates from radar measurements; (3) improve the clarity of radar images; (4) develop large-scale models of the subsurface ''architecture'' using radar images; (5) develop ways of quantifying the spatial heterogeneity of the subsurface through analysis of radar images. We have also been able to identify the critical areas where more research is needed in order to be able to use radar methods most effectively as an accurate means of subsurface characterization.

Rosemary Knight

2003-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

476

Quantitative metallographic method for determining delta ferrite content in austenitic stainless steels. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Delta ferrite is a magnetic form of iron and has a body centered cubic crystal structure. It is often present as a nonequilibrium phase in austenitic stainless steel welds, castings, and wrought materials. The ferrite content of austenitic stainless steel can directly affect its properties, especially weldability and formability. Therefore, it is highly desirable to be able to predict and/or measure the ferrite content accurately. Current magnetic ferrite measuring methods are not applicable when test materials are geometrically small (less than 2.54 mm thick and 6.35 mm wide). Therefore, a standard metallographic test method STM 00107-A was established to determine delta ferrite content in small weldments and base metals of austenitic stainless steel. This standard test method (STM 00107-A) was then performed on several exemplary metallographic specimens to illustrate its capabilities and applications. The results from the exemplary tests were compared and contrasted to metallographic manual point count measurements, Ferritescope measurements, and predicted values calculated from chemical analyses. By utilizing the manual metallographic point count data, an accuracy of +-16% and a precision of +-0.77% were determined for the standard test method. The comparison of Ferritescope data to standard test method revealed that the results obtained by the two methods are close at low (0 to 3%) ferrite contents and Ferritscope results are substantially greater at higher (6 to 10%) ferrite contents. The standard test method data compiled from the exemplary weld specimens was noted to be very similar to the predicted values calculated from chemical analyses. It was also shown that because the standard test method utilizes optics the morphology of the delta ferrite particles can be determined. This type of determination is possible only with metallographic methods.

Pressly, G.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

This content has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text. Download details  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on 17/10/2013 at 13:29 Please note that terms and conditions apply. Influence of a Carrington-like event-9326/8/4/045010) Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience #12;IOP PUBLISHING ENVIRONMENTAL be accelerated to high energies of up to a few Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative

Usoskin, Ilya G.

478

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 42484254 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technologies or systems is the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The relatively high LCOE of photovoltaics (PV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4248 2. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE): a measure to characterize PV systemsRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 4248­4254 Contents lists available at Sci

Delaware, University of

479

Effects of FIS Overexpression on Cell Growth, rRNA Synthesis, and Ribosome Content in Escherichia coli  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of FIS Overexpression on Cell Growth, rRNA Synthesis, and Ribosome Content in Escherichia of California, Riverside, California 92521 The Escherichia coli DNA binding protein FIS is a transcriptional. High-level overproduction of FIS in early, mid, or late log cultures resulted in growth- phase

Chen, Wilfred

480

A Dyslexic Perspective on e-Content Accessibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an insight into the issues of web accessibility for users with Dyslexia (and/or other specific learning and accessibility issues of electronic educational content. Keywords: dyslexia, SLD, web accessibility, usability...................................................................................................2 2. Explaining Dyslexia

Brajnik, Giorgio

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high clay content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Interferometric tomography of fuel cells for monitoring membrane water content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have developed a system that uses two 1D interferometric phase projections for reconstruction of 2D water content changes over time in situ in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. By modifying the filtered ...

Waller, Laura

482

aerosol content monitoring: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rings, Jrg 2008-01-01 6 The impact of aerosols on simulated ocean temperature and heat content in the 20th century Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: The...

483

A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals In The Mantles Of Earth, Mars And The Moon Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

484

Blackboard Quick Start Guides Presenting Content to Students  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the course to find content and how they will utilize materials and tools. There are many ways to present a document listing a set of rules for using the Discussion Board before a link to the Discussion Board

485

Framework for policy aware reuse of content on the WWW  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis focuses on methods for detecting and preventing license violations, in a step towards policy aware content reuse on the Web. This framework builds upon the Creative Commons (CC) Rights Expression Language, which ...

Seneviratne, Oshani Wasana

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Toward petabyte digital content transfer and preservation over optical networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A unique feature of digital media content is its mobility.life cycle of a movie, digital media will need to be movedand physical preservation of digital media assets no longer

Liu, Shaofeng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Web spam Identification Through Content and Hyperlinks Jacob Abernethy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Web spam Identification Through Content and Hyperlinks Jacob Abernethy Dept. of Computer Science or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation

Abernethy, Jake

488

Agricultural Engineering and Socio-Economics Division Field Contents Member  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, modeling of hydrological and substance cycle and its application to water resources management. TANAKAMARUAgricultural Engineering and Socio-Economics Division Field Contents Member Environmental, H. Professor TADA,A.Associate Professor Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering for Agricultural

Banbara, Mutsunori

489

Effect of FeO-content and potentials for quality improvements of iron ore pellets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The FeO-content strongly influences the physical and metallurgical properties of iron ore pellets. A wide range of FeO-contents within the pellet deliveries to the Germany market is evaluated. Investigations include the effect of pellet size. The paper concludes potentials for quality improvement of iron ore pellets. Most of the German blast furnaces are operated with high injection rates either of oil or of coal resulting in a decrease of coke consumption down to a level of about 300 kg/t hot metal. As the retention time of the burden increases, blast furnace operators demand higher quality burden material, basically with respect to strength before and during reduction.

Kortmann, H.A.; Mertins, E.; Ritz, V.J. [Studiengesellschaft fuer Eisenerzaufbereitung, Liebenburg-Othfresen (Germany)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Uncertainty Quantification for Nuclear Density Functional Theory and Information Content of New Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Statistical tools of uncertainty quantification can be used to assess the information content of measured observables with respect to present-day theoretical models; to estimate model errors and thereby improve predictive capability; to extrapolate beyond the regions reached by experiment; and to provide meaningful input to applications and planned measurements. To showcase new opportunities offered by such tools, we make a rigorous analysis of theoretical statistical uncertainties in nuclear density functional theory using Bayesian inference methods. By considering the recent mass measurements from the Canadian Penning Trap at Argonne National Laboratory, we demonstrate how the Bayesian analysis and a direct least-squares optimization, combined with high-performance computing, can be used to assess the information content of the new data with respect to a model based on the Skyrme energy density functional approach. Employing the posterior probability distribution computed with a Gaussian process emulator, w...

McDonnell, J D; Higdon, D; Sarich, J; Wild, S M; Nazarewicz, W

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Progressive flow cracking of coal/oil mixtures with high metals content catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for economically producing liquid fuel products at least partly from coal. It comprises: introducing a progressive flow catalytic cracking zone a charge stock comprising a pumpable mixture of solid, particulate coal and carbo-metallic oil and forming within the zone a stream having a linear velocity of at least about 25 feet per second. The stream comprising the charge stock and a hydrocarbon zeolite cracking catalyst promoting dehydrogenation of the charge stock; forming mobile hydrogen within the zone by the dehydrogenation; introducing the mobile hydrogen into the stream by dehydrogenation of the charge stock in the absence of added molecular hydrogen, thereby producing liquid products from the charge stock while laying down coke on the hydrocarbon cracking catalyst in the range of about 0.3% to about 3% and thereby producing spent catalyst; separating from the spent catalyst the liquid products.

Zandona, O.J.

1989-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

492

High content live cell imaging for the discovery of new antimalarial marine natural products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistantresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); vancomycin-resistantand ARCA, respectively). MRSA is a patho- genic bacterium

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Radiocarbon Content of CO 2 Respired from High Arctic Tundra in Northwest Greenland  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. E. , 2002: Survey of Greenland instrumental temperaturetypes in northwestern Greenland. Arctic, Antarctic, andfen ecosystem in NE-Greenland. Theoretical and Applied

Czimczik, Claudia I; Welker, Jeffrey M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

automated high-content screening: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: of a partial automation since they act on the control part of the vehicle. This increasing automationABV- A Low Speed Automation Project to Study the...

495

Simulation of Self-Irradiation of High-Sodium Content Nuclear Waste Glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alkali-borosilicate glasses are widely used in nuclear industry as a matrix for immobilisation of hazardous radioactive wastes. Durability or corrosion resistance of these glasses is one of key parameters in waste storage and disposal safety. It is influenced by many factors such as composition of glass and surrounding media, temperature, time and so on. As these glasses contain radioactive elements most of their properties including corrosion resistance are also impacted by self-irradiation. The effect of external gamma-irradiation on the short-term (up to 27 days) dissolution of waste borosilicate glasses at moderate temperatures (30 deg. to 60 deg. C) was studied. The glasses studied were Magnox Waste glass used for immobilisation of HLW in UK, and K-26 glass used in Russia for ILW immobilisation. Glass samples were irradiated under {gamma}-source (Co-60) up to doses 1 and 11 MGy. Normalised rates of elemental release and activation energy of release were measured for Na, Li, Ca, Mg, B, Si and Mo before and after irradiation. Irradiation up to 1 MGy results in increase of leaching rate of almost all elements from both MW and K-26 with the exception of Na release from MW glass. Further irradiation up to a dose of 11 MGy leads to the decrease of elemental release rates to nearly initial value. Another effect of irradiation is increase of activation energies of elemental release. (authors)

Pankov, Alexey S.; Ojovan, Michael I. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Batyukhnova, Olga G. [International Education Training Centre, SUE SIA 'Radon', The 7-th Rostovsky Lane 2/14, Moscow, 119121 (Russian Federation); Lee, William E. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, Exhibition Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Table of Contents flux a publication of the national high magnetic field laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

......Kitchen Table Science How to make an electromagnet of your own, step by step. PG. 0......Great experiments ­ everything from the mechanics of cancer to the behavior of particles that make up matter in its most to building and mentoring the next generation of scientists. At the heart of the Magnet Lab's mission

Weston, Ken

497

REMEDIATION OF HIGH WATER CONTENT GEOMATERIALS: A REVIEW OF GEOTEXTILE FILTER PERFORMANCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

costly remediation alternatives is capping of surface impoundments such as lagoons, ponds or old quarries

Aydilek, Ahmet

498

Numerical and Experimental Study of Mixing Processes Associated with Hydrogen and High Hydrogen Content Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As simulation capability improves exponentially with increasingly more cost effective CPUs and hardware, it can be used ?routinely? for engineering applications. Many commercial products are available and they are marketed as increasingly powerful and easy to use. The question remains as to the overall accuracy of results obtained. To support the validation of the CFD, a hierarchical experiment was established in which the type of fuel injection (radial, axial) as well as level of swirl (non-swirling, swirling) could be systematically varied. The effort was limited to time efficient approaches (i.e., generally RANS approaches) although limited assessment of time resolved methods (i.e., unsteady RANS and LES) were considered. Careful measurements of the flowfield velocity and fuel concentration were made using both intrusive and non-intrusive methods. This database was then used as the basis for the assessment of the CFD approach. The numerical studies were carried out with a statistically based matrix. As a result, the effect of turbulence model, fuel type, axial plane, turbulent Schmidt number, and injection type could be studied using analysis of variance. The results for the non-swirling cases could be analyzed as planned, and demonstrate that turbulence model selection, turbulence Schmidt number, and the type of injection will strongly influence the agreement with measured values. Interestingly, the type of fuel used (either hydrogen or methane) has no influence on the accuracy of the simulations. For axial injection, the selection of proper turbulence Schmidt number is important, whereas for radial injection, the results are relatively insensitive to this parameter. In general, it was found that the nature of the flowfield influences the performance of the predictions. This result implies that it is difficult to establish a priori the ?best? simulation approach to use. However, the insights from the relative orientation of the jet and flow do offer some guidance for which approach to take. Overall, the results underscore the importance of model ?anchoring? (i.e., ?tuning? the model to provide ?reasonable? agreement with a well characterized geometry/flow). Finally, the results obtained have been carefully compiled into a standalone database following a standard format that is contained in an Appendix. This database is thus available for use by others for CFD modeling evaluations.

McDonell, Vincent; Hill, Scott; Akbari, Amin; McDonell, Vincent

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

499

Effect of sewage sludge content on gas quality and solid residues produced by cogasification in an updraft gasifier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cogasification of sewage sludge with wood pellets in updraft gasifier was analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of sewage sludge content on the gasification process were examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sewage sludge addition up to 30 wt.% reduces moderately the process performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At high sewage sludge content slagging and clinker formation occurred. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid residues produced resulted acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous waste. - Abstract: In the present work, the gasification with air of dehydrated sewage sludge (SS) with 20 wt.% moisture mixed with conventional woody biomass was investigated using a pilot fixed-bed updraft gasifier. Attention was focused on the effect of the SS content on the gasification performance and on the environmental impact of the process. The results showed that it is possible to co-gasify SS with wood pellets (WPs) in updraft fixed-bed gasification installations. However, at high content of sewage sludge the gasification process can become instable because of the very high ash content and low ash fusion temperatures of SS. At an equivalent ratio of 0.25, compared with wood pellets gasification, the addition of sewage sludge led to a reduction of gas yield in favor of an increase of condensate production with consequent cold gas efficiency decrease. Low concentrations of dioxins/furans and PAHs were measured in the gas produced by SS gasification, well below the limiting values for the exhaust gaseous emissions. NH{sub 3}, HCl and HF contents were very low because most of these compounds were retained in the wet scrubber systems. On the other hand, high H{sub 2}S levels were measured due to high sulfur content of SS. Heavy metals supplied with the feedstocks were mostly retained in gasification solid residues. The leachability tests performed according to European regulations showed that metals leachability was within the limits for landfilling inert residues. On the other hand, sulfate and chloride releases were found to comply with the limits for non-hazardous residues.

Seggiani, Maurizia, E-mail: m.seggiani@diccism.unipi.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Puccini, Monica, E-mail: m.puccini@diccism.unipi.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Raggio, Giovanni, E-mail: g.raggio@tiscali.it [Italprogetti Engineering SPA, Lungarno Pacinotti, 59/A, 56020 San Romano (Pisa) (Italy); Vitolo, Sandra, E-mail: s.vitolo@diccism.unipi.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

500

RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH-TRUCON)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR limits based on a 10-day shipping period (rather than the standard 60-day shipping period) may be used as specified in an approved content code. Requests for new or revised content codes may be submitted to the WIPP RH-TRU Payload Engineer for review and approval, provided all RH-TRAMPAC requirements are met.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z