National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for high capacity silicon

  1. Carbon-Silicon Core-Shell Nanowires as High Capacity Electrode for Lithium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Carbon-Silicon Core-Shell Nanowires as High Capacity Electrode for Lithium Ion Batteries Li lithium battery electrodes. Amorphous silicon was coated onto carbon nanofibers to form a core during lithium cycling and can function as a mechanical support and an efficient electron conducting

  2. Understanding the insertion of lithium into silicon electrodes for high capacity lithium-ion batteries is likely to have benefits for mobile energy storage, for both electronics and transportation. Silicon nanostructures have proven to be attractive candi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -ion batteries is likely to have benefits for mobile energy storage, for both electronics and transportationUnderstanding the insertion of lithium into silicon electrodes for high capacity lithium. Silicon nanostructures have proven to be attractive candidates for electrodes because they provide less

  3. As one of the most promising materials for high capacity electrode in next generation of lithium ion batteries, silicon has attracted great deal of attention in recent years. Advanced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doctoral Defense Mechanics of Silicon Electrodes in Lithium Ion Batteries Yonghao An Advisor: Prof. Hanqing ion batteries, silicon has attracted great deal of attention in recent years. AdvancedAs one of the most promising materials for high capacity electrode in next generation of lithium

  4. CSTI high capacity power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  5. Graphene Enhances Li Storage Capacity of Porous Single-crystalline Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.; Han, W.

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrated that graphene significantly enhances the reversible capacity of porous silicon nanowires used as the anode in Li-ion batteries. We prepared our experimental nanomaterials, viz., graphene and porous single-crystalline silicon nanowires, respectively, using a liquid-phase graphite exfoliation method and an electroless HF/AgNO{sub 3} etching process. The Si porous nanowire/graphene electrode realized a charge capacity of 2470 mAh g{sup -1} that is much higher than the 1256 mAh g{sup -1} of porous Si nanowire/C-black electrode and 6.6 times the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite. This relatively high capacity could originate from the favorable charge-transportation characteristics of the combination of graphene with the porous Si 1D nanostructure.

  6. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Brzezinski, Mark A. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  7. High capacity immobilized amine sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahan L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Fredericktown, PA); Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Filburn, Thomas (Granby, CT)

    2007-10-30

    A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  8. Capacity and Energy Cost of Information in Biological and Silicon Photoreceptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    Capacity and Energy Cost of Information in Biological and Silicon Photoreceptors PAMELA ABSHIRE of infor- mation capacity (in bits per second) versus energy cost of infor- mation (in joules per bit such as size, reliability, and energy re- quirements for natural and engineered sensory microsystems. I

  9. Reduction of heat capacity and phonon group velocity in silicon nanowires Christopher Marchbanks and Zhigang Wua)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    Reduction of heat capacity and phonon group velocity in silicon nanowires Christopher Marchbanks distributions, resulting in an 15% to 23% reduction in heat capacity and an averaged decrease of 31% in acoustic thermoelectrics,10,11 photovoltaic cells,12,13 and light-emitting diodes.14 Nanowire structure and confinement

  10. Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  11. Mesoporous Manganese Oxide Nanowires for High-Capacity, High...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mesoporous Manganese Oxide Nanowires for High-Capacity, High-Rate, Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoporous Manganese Oxide Nanowires...

  12. High index contrast platform for silicon photonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akiyama, Shoji, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis focuses on silicon-based high index contrast (HIC) photonics. In addition to mature fiber optics or low index contrast (LIC) platform, which is often referred to as Planar Lightwave Cirrcuit (PLC) or Silica ...

  13. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Brzezinski, Mark A. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  14. Development of high-capacity cathode materials with integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high-capacity cathode materials with integrated structures Development of high-capacity cathode materials with integrated structures 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  15. Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated Structures Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated Structures...

  16. Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Development of high-capacity cathode materials with integrated structures Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated Structures...

  17. Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy...

  18. HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity Hydrogen Storage HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity Hydrogen Storage Presentation for...

  19. High-Rate, High-Capacity Binder-Free Electrode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that this process could be employed for any high-volume expansion material. * Volumetric capacity at 1C is 2000 mAhcm 3 (3 x graphite). Commercial Fe 3 O 4 material works...

  20. High Q silicon carbide microdisk resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiyuan; Lee, Jonathan Y.; Feng, Philip X.-L.; Lin, Qiang

    2014-05-05

    We demonstrate a silicon carbide (SiC) microdisk resonator with optical Q up to 5.12?×?10{sup 4}. The high optical quality, together with the diversity of whispering-gallery modes and the tunability of external coupling, renders SiC microdisk a promising platform for integrated quantum photonics applications.

  1. Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells...

  2. Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. esp13thackeray.pdf More Documents & Publications Design and Evaluation of High Capacity Cathodes Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Design and...

  3. Managing High-Tech Capacity Expansion Via Reservation Contracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, David

    1 Managing High-Tech Capacity Expansion Via Reservation Contracts Murat Erkoc S. David Wuñ, Bethlehem, PA 18015 merkoc@miami.edu david.wu@lehigh.eduñ We study capacity reservation contracts in high-tech lead time. We conclude the paper by summarizing insights useful for high-tech capacity management. 1

  4. High Performance Silicon Monoxide (SiO) Electrode for Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2015-02-27

    Berkeley Lab’s High Performance Silicon Monoxide Electrode has a capacity retention of more than 90% after ~500 cycles, which translates into a ~20% improvement over the limited energy density of conventional graphite anode-based lithium-ion batteries, enabling next-generation mobile electronics and electric/plug-in vehicles....

  5. Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated Structures Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Design and Evaluation of High...

  6. Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    s049thackeray2012p.pdf More Documents & Publications Design and Evaluation of High Capacity Cathodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Design and Evaluation of High...

  7. Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells Lithium Source For...

  8. Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, George C. (La Crescenta, CA); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (W. Corine, CA)

    1987-01-01

    An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

  9. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Titran, R.; Schmitz, P.; Vandersande, J.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop technology for military and civil applications. Starting in 1986, NASA has funded a technology program to maintain the momentum of promising aerospace technology advancement started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the changes for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for a wide range of future space applications. The elements of the CSTI High Capacity Power Project include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. Technology advancement in all elements is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall project with develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements will be presented, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  10. Modeling Capacity Reservation in High-Tech Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, David

    by rapid innovation and volatile demands. Capacity reservation provides a risk sharing mechanism, manufacturers are confronted with capital intensive facilities and highly skilled labor, operating under long. Physical expansion of manufacturing capacity involves enormous risk. This involves building new facil

  11. Mesoporous Silicon Sponge as an Anti-Pulverization Structure for High-Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaolin; Gu, Meng; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Kennard, Rhiannon; Yan, Pengfei; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Chong M.; Sailor, Michael J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-08

    Nanostructured silicon is a promising anode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries, yet scalable synthesis of such materials, and retaining good cycling stability in high loading electrode remain significant challenges. Here, we combine in-situ transmission electron microscopy and continuum media mechanical calculations to demonstrate that large (>20 micron) mesoporous silicon sponge (MSS) prepared by the scalable anodization method can eliminate the pulverization of the conventional bulk silicon and limit particle volume expansion at full lithiation to ~30% instead of ~300% as observed in bulk silicon particles. The MSS can deliver a capacity of ~750 mAh/g based on the total electrode weight with >80% capacity retention over 1000 cycles. The first-cycle irreversible capacity loss of pre-lithiated MSS based anode is only <5%. The insight obtained from MSS also provides guidance for the design of other materials that may experience large volume variation during operations.

  12. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  13. Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    49thackeray2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Cathodes Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Layered Cathode Materials...

  14. Inelastic hosts as electrodes for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries Kejie Zhao, Matt Pharr, Joost J. Vlassak, and Zhigang Suoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Inelastic hosts as electrodes for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries Kejie Zhao, Matt Pharr, Joost for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. Upon absorbing lithium, silicon swells several times its volume strength. © 2011 American Institute of Physics. doi:10.1063/1.3525990 Lithium-ion batteries

  15. Inelastic hosts as electrodes for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries Kejie Zhao, Matt Pharr, Joost J. Vlassak, and Zhigang Suoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in commercial lithium-ion batteries for both cathodes e.g., LiCoO2 and anodes e.g., graphite . By contrastInelastic hosts as electrodes for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries Kejie Zhao, Matt Pharr, Joost for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. Upon absorbing lithium, silicon swells several times its volume

  16. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n type, intrinsic, p type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography.

  17. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-05-26

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n-type, intrinsic, p-type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography. 18 figs.

  18. Little Boxes: High Tech and the Silicon Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant Workers and the High-Tech Global Economy (Newin a clerical position at high-tech firms like Varian. TheCrawford Little Boxes High-Tech and the Silicon Valley The

  19. Method and apparatus for producing high purity silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.

    1983-05-27

    A method for producing high purity silicon includes forming a copper silicide alloy and positioning the alloy within an enclosure. A filament member is also placed within the enclosure opposite the alloy. The enclosure is then filled with a chemical vapor transport gas adapted for transporting silicon. Finally, both the filament member and the alloy are heated to temperatures sufficient to cause the gas to react with silicon at the alloy surface and deposit the reacted silicon on the filament member. In addition, an apparatus for carrying out this method is also disclosed.

  20. Method and apparatus for producing high purity silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A method for producing high purity silicon includes forming a copper silie alloy and positioning the alloy within an enclosure. A filament member is also placed within the enclosure opposite the alloy. The enclosure is then filled with a chemical vapor transport gas adapted for transporting silicon. Finally, both the filament member and the alloy are heated to temperatures sufficient to cause the gas to react with silicon at the alloy surface and deposit the reacted silicon on the filament member. In addition, an apparatus for carrying out this method is also disclosed.

  1. Amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunctions: The future of high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    ;5 Record efficiencies #12;6 Diffused-junction solar cells Diffused-junction solar cell Chemical passivation to ~650 mV #12;7 Silicon heterojunction solar cells a-Si:H provides excellent passivation of c-Si surface Heterojunction solar cell Chemical passivation Chemical passivation #12;8 Voc and silicon heterojunction solar

  2. SILICON PHOTONIC MICRORING LINKS FOR HIGH-BANDWIDTH-DENSITY,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    /O ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... SILICON PHOTONIC MICRORINGS HAVE DRAWN INTEREST IN RECENT YEARS AS POTENTIAL BUILDING BLOCKS FOR HIGH HIGHLIGHT KEY DEVICE ATTRIBUTES THAT REQUIRE SIGNIFICANT ADVANCEMENT TO REALIZE SUB-PJ/BIT SCALE OPTICAL envelope.1 Researchers have touted silicon microring modulators as ultra-low-power wavelength- division

  3. Low cost routes to high purity silicon and derivatives thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laine, Richard M; Krug, David James; Marchal, Julien Claudius; Mccolm, Andrew Stewart

    2013-07-02

    The present invention is directed to a method for providing an agricultural waste product having amorphous silica, carbon, and impurities; extracting from the agricultural waste product an amount of the impurities; changing the ratio of carbon to silica; and reducing the silica to a high purity silicon (e.g., to photovoltaic silicon).

  4. High Performance Graphene Transistors on Silicon Professor Xu Jianbin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    High Performance Graphene Transistors on Silicon Professor Xu Jianbin Graphene composed of one nanoelectronics. In particular, the mobility of Graphene, which is a measure of how easily electrons can start for use in post-silicon electronics. However, fabrication of the graphene-based electronic devices

  5. Amorphous Silicon as Semiconductor Material for High Resolution LAPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz, Werner

    ) is limited by the properties of the semiconductor material used. We investigated metalAmorphous Silicon as Semiconductor Material for High Resolution LAPS Werner Moritz1 , Tatsuo-insulator- semiconductor (MIS) structures based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) prepared as a thin layer on transparent glass

  6. Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pujari, V.K.; Tracey, D.M.; Foley, M.R.; Paille, N.I.; Pelletier, P.J.; Sales, L.C.; Willkens, C.A.; Yeckley, R.L.

    1998-06-02

    A ceramic body is disclosed comprising at least about 80 w/o silicon nitride and having a mean tensile strength of at least about 800 MPa. 4 figs.

  7. High capacity stabilized complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Mohtadi, Rana F; Fewox, Christopher; Sivasubramanian, Premkumar

    2014-11-11

    Complex hydrides based on Al(BH.sub.4).sub.3 are stabilized by the presence of one or more additional metal elements or organic adducts to provide high capacity hydrogen storage material.

  8. Quantum Mutual Information Capacity for High-Dimensional Entangled States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, P. Ben

    High-dimensional Hilbert spaces used for quantum communication channels offer the possibility of large data transmission capabilities. We propose a method of characterizing the channel capacity of an entangled photonic ...

  9. Silicon nitride ceramic having high fatigue life and high toughness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeckley, Russell L. (Oakham, MA)

    1996-01-01

    A sintered silicon nitride ceramic comprising between about 0.6 mol % and about 3.2 mol % rare earth as rare earth oxide, and between about 85 w/o and about 95 w/o beta silicon nitride grains, wherein at least about 20% of the beta silicon nitride grains have a thickness of greater than about 1 micron.

  10. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, R., E-mail: roberto.martini@imec.be [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark 10, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A. [Department of Physics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Poortmans, J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark 10, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Universiteit Hasselt, Martelarenlaan 42, B-3500 Hasselt (Belgium)

    2014-10-27

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ?100??s or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1??m of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461??s. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  11. High Capacity Graphite Anodes for Li-Ion battery applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    High Capacity Graphite Anodes for Li-Ion battery applications using Tin microencapsulation Basker range 1.6V to 0.01V at 0.05 mV/s Physical characterization SEM, EDAX and XRD #12;SEM images of Bare

  12. High capacity nickel battery material doped with alkali metal cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackovitz, John F. (Monroeville, PA); Pantier, Earl A. (Penn Hills, PA)

    1982-05-18

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.

  13. High-Capacity Sulfur Dioxide Absorbents for Diesel Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2005-01-05

    High capacity sulfur dioxide absorbents based on manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) have been identified. These materials are based on MnO6 octahedra sharing faces and edges to form various tunnel structures (2x2, 2x3, 2x4, 3x3) differentiated by the number of octahedra on a side. The SO2 capacities of these materials, measured at 325 C with a feed containing 250 ppmv SO2 in air, are as high as 70wt% (wt/wt), remarkably higher than conventional metal oxide-based SO2 absorbents. Among the OMS materials the 2x2 member, cryptomelane, exhibits the highest capacity and adsorption rate. Its SO2 absorption behavior has been further characterized as a function of temperature, space velocity, and feed composition. The dominant pathway for SO2 absorption is through the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 by Mn4+ followed by SO3 reaction with Mn2+ to form MnSO4. Absorption can occur in the absence of gas phase oxygen, with a moderate loss in overall capacity. The inclusion of reducible gases NO and CO in the feed does not reduce SO2 capacity. The absorption capacity decreases at high space velocity and lower absorption temperature, indicating the important role of diffusion of sulfate from the surface to the bulk of the material in order to reach full capacity. A color change of cryptomelane from black to yellow-brown after SO2 absorption can be used as an indicator of absorption progress. Cryptomelane can be synthesized using MnSO4 as a reagent. Therefore, after full SO2 absorption the product MnSO4 can be re-used as raw material for a subsequent cryptomelane synthesis. Cryptomelane has a similarly high capacity toward SO3, therefore it can be used for removal of all SOx species generated from a variety of combustion sources. Cryptomelane may find application as a replaceable absorbent for the removal of SOx from diesel truck exhaust, protecting downstream emissions control devices such as particulate filters and NOx traps.

  14. Modelling and fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, A.; Smith, A.W.; Salami, J.

    1991-10-01

    This report covers the research conducted on modelling and development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells during the period May 1989 to August 1990. First, considerable effort was devoted toward developing a ray-tracing program for the photovoltaic community to quantify and optimize surface texturing for solar cells. Second, attempts were made to develop a hydrodynamic model for device simulation. Such a model is somewhat slower than drift-diffusion type models like PC-1D, but it can account for more physical phenomena in the device, such as hot carrier effects, temperature gradients, thermal diffusion, and lattice heat flow. In addition, Fermi-Dirac statistics have been incorporated into the model to deal with heavy doping effects more accurately. Third and final component of the research includes development of silicon cell fabrication capabilities and fabrication of high-efficiency silicon cells. 84 refs., 46 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Chemically Etched Silicon Nanowires as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Hannah Elise

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on silicon as a high capacity replacement anode for Lithium-ion batteries. The challenge of silicon is that it expands ~270% upon lithium insertion which causes particles of silicon to fracture, causing the capacity to fade rapidly. To account for this expansion chemically etched silicon nanowires from the University of Maine were studied as anodes. They were built into electrochemical half-cells and cycled continuously to measure the capacity and capacity fade.

  16. Porous silicon ring resonator for compact, high sensitivity biosensing applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Gilberto A.; Hu, Shuren; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2015-01-01

    A ring resonator is patterned on a porous silicon slab waveguide to produce a compact, high quality factor biosensor with a large internal surface area available for enhanced recognition of biological and chemical molecules. The porous nature of the ring resonator allows molecules to directly interact with the guided mode. Quality factors near 10,000 were measured for porous silicon ring resonators with a radius of 25 ?m. A bulk detection sensitivity of 380 nm/RIU was measured upon exposure to salt water solutions. Specific detection of nucleic acid molecules was demonstrated with a surface detection sensitivity of 4 pm/nM.

  17. Method of enhanced lithiation of doped silicon carbide via high temperature annealing in an inert atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hersam, Mark C.; Lipson, Albert L.; Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna; Karmel, Hunter J; Bedzyk, Michael J

    2014-05-27

    A method for enhancing the lithium-ion capacity of a doped silicon carbide is disclosed. The method utilizes heat treating the silicon carbide in an inert atmosphere. Also disclosed are anodes for lithium-ion batteries prepared by the method.

  18. Highly featured amorphous silicon nanorod arrays for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soleimani-Amiri, Samaneh; Safiabadi Tali, Seied Ali; Azimi, Soheil; Sanaee, Zeinab; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin

    2014-11-10

    High aspect-ratio vertical structures of amorphous silicon have been realized using hydrogen-assisted low-density plasma reactive ion etching. Amorphous silicon layers with the thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 10??m were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Standard photolithography and nanosphere colloidal lithography were employed to realize ultra-small features of the amorphous silicon. The performance of the patterned amorphous silicon structures as a lithium-ion battery electrode was investigated using galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The patterned structures showed a superior Li-ion battery performance compared to planar amorphous silicon. Such structures are suitable for high current Li-ion battery applications such as electric vehicles.

  19. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA); Doshi, Parag (Atlanta, GA)

    1996-01-01

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 16.9% have been achieved. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x.

  20. High-Rate, High-Capacity Binder-Free Electrode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D. Title: ProfessorHigh-Pressure MOFOffice of Energy

  1. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

    1983-11-25

    This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  2. Silicon Sensors for Trackers at High-Luminosity Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timo Peltola

    2015-03-12

    The planned upgrade of the LHC accelerator at CERN, namely the high luminosity (HL) phase of the LHC (HL-LHC foreseen for 2023), will result in a more intense radiation environment than the present tracking system was designed for. The required upgrade of the all-silicon central trackers at the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments will include higher granularity and radiation hard sensors. The radiation hardness of the new sensors must be roughly an order of magnitude higher than the one of LHC detectors. To address this, a massive R&D program is underway within the CERN RD50 collaboration "Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders" to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance. Research topics include the improvement of the intrinsic radiation tolerance of the sensor material and novel detector designs with benefits like reduced trapping probability (thinned and 3D sensors), maximized sensitive area (active edge sensors) and enhanced charge carrier generation (sensors with intrinsic gain). A review of the recent results from both measurements and TCAD simulations of several detector technologies and silicon materials at radiation levels expected for HL-LHC will be presented.

  3. Process for producing high purity silicon nitride by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and nitrogen-hydrogen liquid reactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, Eloise A. (Isla Vista, CA); Morgan, Peter E. D. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, nitrogen, and hydrogen which can then be heated to produce a high purity alpha silicon nitride. The process comprises: reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity nitrogen-hydrogen reactant in its liquid state (such as ammonia or hydrazine) having the formula: N.sub.n H.sub.(n+m) wherein: n=1-4 and m=2 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is straight chain, and 0 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is cyclic. High purity silicon nitride can be formed from this intermediate product by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200.degree.-1700.degree. C. for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours to form a high purity alpha silicon nitride product. The discovery of the existence of a soluble Si-N-H intermediate enables chemical pathways to be explored previously unavailable in conventional solid state approaches to silicon-nitrogen ceramics.

  4. Process for producing high purity silicon nitride by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and nitrogen-hydrogen liquid reactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1987-09-15

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, nitrogen, and hydrogen which can then be heated to produce a high purity alpha silicon nitride. The process comprises: reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity nitrogen-hydrogen reactant in its liquid state (such as ammonia or hydrazine) having the formula: N/sub n/H/sub (n+m)/ wherein: n = 1--4 and m = 2 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is straight chain, and 0 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is cyclic. High purity silicon nitride can be formed from this intermediate product by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200--1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours to form a high purity alpha silicon nitride product. The discovery of the existence of a soluble Si/endash/N/endash/H intermediate enables chemical pathways to be explored previously unavailable in conventional solid-state approaches to silicon-nitrogen ceramics

  5. High-cycle fatigue and durability of polycrystalline silicon thin lms in ambient air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    High-cycle fatigue and durability of polycrystalline silicon thin ®lms in ambient air C. First, silicon-based ®lms are still the dominant structural material for micromachines. Second of MEMS components are critical in this maturing ®eld. The silicon-based ®lms commonly used in micromecha

  6. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Doshi, Parag (Altanta, GA); Tate, John Keith (Lawrenceville, GA); Mejia, Jose (Atlanta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA)

    1998-06-16

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure.

  7. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, A.; Doshi, P.; Tate, J.K.; Mejia, J.; Chen, Z.

    1998-06-16

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO{sub x}. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure. 28 figs.

  8. Forming high efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2014-09-09

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  9. Forming high-efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2015-07-07

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  10. Slow light engineering for high Q high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Slow light engineering for high Q high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors Keywords: Photonic crystal microcavity Biosensor Nanophotonic biosensor a b s t r a c t Current trends in photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon-on-insulator (SOI), that focus on small and smaller

  11. Nanosheet-structured LiV3O8 with high capacity and excellent stability for high energy lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Nanosheet-structured LiV3O8 with high capacity and excellent stability for high energy lithium, with a specific discharge capacity of 260 mAh gÀ1 and no capacity fading over 100 cycles at 100 mA gÀ1 . The excellent cyclic stability and high specific discharge capacity of the material are attributed to the novel

  12. Surface and bulk modified high capacity layered oxide cathodes with low irreversible capacity loss

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manthiram, Arumugam (Austin, TX); Wu, Yan (Austin, TX)

    2010-03-16

    The present invention includes compositions, surface and bulk modifications, and methods of making of (1-x)Li[Li.sub.1/3Mn.sub.2/3]O.sub.2.xLi[Mn.sub.0.5-yNi.sub.0.5-yCo.sub.2- y]O.sub.2 cathode materials having an O3 crystal structure with a x value between 0 and 1 and y value between 0 and 0.5, reducing the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle by surface modification with oxides and bulk modification with cationic and anionic substitutions, and increasing the reversible capacity to close to the theoretical value of insertion/extraction of one lithium per transition metal ion (250-300 mAh/g).

  13. Enhancement of specific heat capacity of high-temperature silica-nanofluids synthesized in alkali chloride salt eutectics for solar thermal-energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Debjyoti

    chloride salt eutectics for solar thermal-energy storage applications Donghyun Shin, Debjyoti Banerjee December 2010 Keywords: Nanoparticle Specific heat capacity Alkali chloride eutectic Silicon dioxide

  14. Low emissivity high-temperature tantalum thin film coatings for silicon Veronika Rinnerbauer,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low emissivity high-temperature tantalum thin film coatings for silicon devices Veronika) The authors study the use of thin ($230 nm) tantalum (Ta) layers on silicon (Si) as a low emissivity (high to achieve such a coating are low emissivity in the near infrared and superior thermal stability at high

  15. Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, M.; DelCueto, J.: Kampas, F.; Xi, J. )

    1993-02-01

    This report describes results from the first phase of a three-phase contract for the development of stable, high-efficiency, same-band-gap, amorphous silicon (a-Si) multijunction photovoltaic (PV) modules. The program involved improving the properties of individual layers of semiconductor and non-semiconductor materials and small-area single-junction and multijunction devices, as well as the multijunction modules. The semiconductor materials research was performed on a-Si p, i, and n layers, and on microcrystalline silicon n layers. These were deposited using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The non-semiconductor materials studied were tin oxide, for use as a transparent-conducting-oxide (TCO), and zinc oxide, for use as a back reflector and as a buffer layer between the TCO and the semiconductor layers. Tin oxide was deposited using atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition. Zinc oxide was deposited using magnetron sputtering. The research indicated that the major challenge in the fabrication of a-Si multijunction PV modules is the contact between the two p-i-n cells. A structure that has low optical absorption but that also facilitates the recombination of electrons from the first p-i-n structure with holes from the second p-i-n structure is required. Non-semiconductor layers and a-Si semiconductor layers were tested without achieving the desired result.

  16. MIMO Outage Capacity in the High SNR Regime Narayan Prasad Mahesh K. Varanasi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varanasi, Mahesh K.

    MIMO Outage Capacity in the High SNR Regime Narayan Prasad Mahesh K. Varanasi NEC Labs. America channel with coherent reception and pro- vide a sharp characterization of the outage capacity in the form on the outage capacities un- der a long-term and a short-term power constraint as well as on the delay

  17. High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    1 High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells PHASE II Annual-Efficiency Single-Junction a-SiGe Solar Cells Section 3 Optimization of High-efficiency a-Si Top Cell Section 4. Figure 2-3 J-V curve of a single-junction a-SiGe solar cell with initial, active-area efficiency

  18. Spin on dopants for high-performance single-crystal silicon transistors on flexible plastic substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Spin on dopants for high-performance single-crystal silicon transistors on flexible plastic February 2005; published online 23 March 2005 Free-standing micro/nanoelements of single-crystal silicon-temperature device substrates, such as plastic, for high-performance mechanically flexible thin-film transistors TFTs

  19. Silicon Photonic Crystal Microcavity Biosensors for Label Free Highly Sensitive and Specific Lung Cancer Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    Silicon Photonic Crystal Microcavity Biosensors for Label Free Highly Sensitive and Specific Lung detect lung cancer cell lysates with high sensitivity down to 2 cells per microliter with silicon based detection of control experiment to verify specificity again. Primary lung cancer develops from epithelial

  20. Large Plastic Deformation in High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries Caused by Charge and Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Large Plastic Deformation in High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries Caused by Charge and Discharge, Massachusetts 02138 Evidence has accumulated recently that a high-capacity elec- trode of a lithium-ion battery in the particle is high, possibly leading to fracture and cavitation. I. Introduction LITHIUM-ION batteries

  1. STATUS OF HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR IRRADIATION OF SILICON CARBIDE/SILICON CARBIDE JOINTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katoh, Yutai; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Kiggans, Jim; Cetiner, Nesrin; McDuffee, Joel

    2014-09-01

    Development of silicon carbide (SiC) joints that retain adequate structural and functional properties in the anticipated service conditions is a critical milestone toward establishment of advanced SiC composite technology for the accident-tolerant light water reactor (LWR) fuels and core structures. Neutron irradiation is among the most critical factors that define the harsh service condition of LWR fuel during the normal operation. The overarching goal of the present joining and irradiation studies is to establish technologies for joining SiC-based materials for use as the LWR fuel cladding. The purpose of this work is to fabricate SiC joint specimens, characterize those joints in an unirradiated condition, and prepare rabbit capsules for neutron irradiation study on the fabricated specimens in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Torsional shear test specimens of chemically vapor-deposited SiC were prepared by seven different joining methods either at Oak Ridge National Laboratory or by industrial partners. The joint test specimens were characterized for shear strength and microstructures in an unirradiated condition. Rabbit irradiation capsules were designed and fabricated for neutron irradiation of these joint specimens at an LWR-relevant temperature. These rabbit capsules, already started irradiation in HFIR, are scheduled to complete irradiation to an LWR-relevant dose level in early 2015.

  2. High Rate and High Capacity Li-Ion Electrodes for Vehicular Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances in both energy density and rate capability for Li-ion batteries are necessary for implementation in electric vehicles. We have employed two different methods to improve the rate capability of high capacity electrodes. For example, we previously demonstrated that thin film high volume expansion MoO{sub 3} nanoparticle electrodes ({approx}2 {micro}m thick) have a stable capacity of {approx}630 mAh/g, at C/2 (charge/dicharge in 2 hours). By fabricating thicker conventional electrodes, an improved reversible capacity of {approx}1000 mAh/g is achieved, but the rate capability decreases. To achieve high-rate capability, we applied a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition coating to enable the high volume expansion and prevent mechanical degradation. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 C. Additionally, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 {angstrom} have been shown to allow LiCoO{sub 2} to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Capacity fade at this high voltage is generally caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte or cobalt dissolution. We have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO{sub 2} and coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. In a different approach we have employed carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) to synthesize binder-free, high-rate capability electrodes, with 95 wt.% active materials. In one case, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are employed as the active storage anode material. Recently, we have also employed this method to demonstrate improved conductivity and highly improved rate capability for a LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode material. Raman spectroscopy was employed to understand how the SWNTs function as a highly flexible conductive additive.

  3. A scalable silicon photonic chip-scale optical switch for high performance computing systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    A scalable silicon photonic chip-scale optical switch for high performance computing systems-scale optical switch for scalable interconnect network in high performance computing systems. The proposed

  4. Low emissivity high-temperature tantalum thin film coatings for silicon devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rinnerbauer, Veronika

    The authors study the use of thin ( ? 230?nm) tantalum (Ta) layers on silicon (Si) as a low emissivity (high reflectivity) coating for high-temperature Si devices. Such coatings are critical to reduce parasitic radiation ...

  5. Stress generation during lithiation of high-capacity electrode particles in lithium ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Ting

    Stress generation during lithiation of high-capacity electrode particles in lithium ion batteries S in controlling stress generation in high-capacity electrodes for lithium ion batteries. Ó 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Lithium ion battery; Lithiation

  6. A High Capacity Hybrid Fiberoptic/Wireless Communication System: An Overview W. D. Jemison1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herczfeld, Peter

    A High Capacity Hybrid Fiberoptic/Wireless Communication System: An Overview by W. D. Jemison1 , P This paper describes the development of a hybrid fiberoptic/wireless communications system. The system picocell. The system can support high-capacity (Gb/s) secure mobile communications for both military

  7. High Yield Silicon Photonic Crystal Microcavity Biosensors with 100fM Detection Limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    High Yield Silicon Photonic Crystal Microcavity Biosensors with 100fM Detection Limit Yi Zou a silicon photonic crystal (PC) microcavity biosensor with 50 femto-molar detection limit. Our devices have, photonic crystal microcavity, biosensor, sub-wavelength grating coupler. *yzou@utexas.edu, swapnajit

  8. Rice husks as a sustainable source of nanostructured silicon for high

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    , such as nanoelectronics11 , photonics12 , biotechnology13­15 , energy harvesting16­18 , and energy storage19­22 . AmongRice husks as a sustainable source of nanostructured silicon for high performance Li-ion battery derivatives. Elemental silicon has a wide range of traditional applications in metallurgy, synthesis

  9. New Nanostructured Li2S/Silicon Rechargeable Battery with High Specific Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    of the active electrode materials. KEYWORDS Energy storage, lithium-sulfur battery, mesoporous carbon, silicon, California 94305 ABSTRACT Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are important energy storage devices; howeverNew Nanostructured Li2S/Silicon Rechargeable Battery with High Specific Energy Yuan Yang,,§ Matthew

  10. The high resolution silicon telescope of the INSULAB group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonfanti, Silvia; Lietti, Daniela; Vallazza, Erik

    This thesis has focused on the study of the performance of the high resolution tracking system (telescope) of the INSULAB group and on the implementation of a new data acquisition (DAQ) to comply with the high rate of the CERN North Area extracted beams. This system has allowed to increase the DAQ rate by a factor two with respect to the “standard” electronics. The INSULAB telescope is designed to test detectors ranging from calorimeters to more complex systems like in the case of the bent crystals studied by the COHERENT experiment. The telescope consists of four 300 $mu$m thick double side silicon strip detector modules with an area of 1.92$\times$1.92 cm$^{2}$ and 384 strips. The readout pitch is 50 $mu$m on both sides of the module but the junction side has an implant pitch of 25 $mu$m (and thus a floating strip) to improve the resolution. The telescope has been installed on the H4 beamline at the CERN SPS for the commissioning of the new readout system in June 2012. The results are analyzed in terms...

  11. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt 2014; published online 14 October 2014) Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced

  12. New Composite Silicon-Defect Graphene Anode Architecture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Composite Silicon-Defect Graphene Anode Architecture for High Capacity, High-Rate Li-ion Batteries Xin Zhao, Cary Hayner, Mayfair Kung, and Harold Kung, Northwestern...

  13. High temperature investigations of crystalline silicon solar cell materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudelson, George David Stephen, III

    2009-01-01

    Crystalline silicon solar cells are a promising candidate to provide a sustainable, clean energy source for the future. In order to bring about widespread adoption of solar cells, much work is needed to reduce their cost. ...

  14. Developing a High Thermal Conductivity Fuel with Silicon Carbide Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    baney, Ronald; Tulenko, James

    2012-11-20

    The objective of this research is to increase the thermal conductivity of uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) without significantly impacting its neutronic properties. The concept is to incorporate another high thermal conductivity material, silicon carbide (SiC), in the form of whiskers or from nanoparticles of SiC and a SiC polymeric precursor into UO{sub 2}. This is expected to form a percolation pathway lattice for conductive heat transfer out of the fuel pellet. The thermal conductivity of SiC would control the overall fuel pellet thermal conductivity. The challenge is to show the effectiveness of a low temperature sintering process, because of a UO{sub 2}-SiC reaction at 1,377°C, a temperature far below the normal sintering temperature. Researchers will study three strategies to overcome the processing difficulties associated with pore clogging and the chemical reaction of SiC and UO{sub 2} at temperatures above 1,300°C:

  15. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herbst, R. Scott (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Blackfoot, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID)

    2008-05-06

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  16. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Blackfoot, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Herbst, Ronald S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-10-05

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  17. Carborane-Based Metal-Organic Framework with High Methane and Hydrogen Storage Capacities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carborane-Based Metal-Organic Framework with High Methane and Hydrogen Storage Capacities Robert DSTP/v. The volumetric hydrogen storage capacity at 55 bar and 77 K is 49 g/L. These properties are comparable to those of current record holders in the area of methane and hydrogen storage. This initial example lays

  18. Dispersion engineering of high-Q silicon microresonators via thermal oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Wei C.; Zhang, Jidong; Usechak, Nicholas G.; Lin, Qiang

    2014-07-21

    We propose and demonstrate a convenient and sensitive technique for precise engineering of group-velocity dispersion in high-Q silicon microresonators. By accurately controlling the surface-oxidation thickness of silicon microdisk resonators, we are able to precisely manage the zero-dispersion wavelength, while simultaneously further improving the high optical quality of our devices, with the optical Q close to a million. The demonstrated dispersion management allows us to achieve parametric generation with precisely engineerable emission wavelengths, which shows great potential for application in integrated silicon nonlinear and quantum photonics.

  19. Demonstration of high-Q mid-infrared chalcogenide glass-on-silicon resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hongtao

    We demonstrated high-index-contrast, waveguide-coupled As[subscript 2]Se[subscript 3] chalcogenide glass resonators monolithically integrated on silicon fabricated using optical lithography and a lift-off process. The ...

  20. High-speed silicon electro-optic modulator for electronic photonic integrated circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gan, Fuwan

    2007-01-01

    The development of future electronic-photonic integrated circuits (EPIC) based on silicon technology critically depends on the availability of CMOS-compatible high-speed modulators that enable the interaction of electronic ...

  1. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Suo, Zhigang E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu

    2014-10-13

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  2. High Wind Penetration Impact on U.S. Wind Manufacturing Capacity and Critical Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laxson, A.; Hand, M. M.; Blair, N.

    2006-10-01

    This study used two different models to analyze a number of alternative scenarios of annual wind power capacity expansion to better understand the impacts of high levels of wind generated electricity production on wind energy manufacturing and installation rates.

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low Cost, High Capacity Non-Intercalation Chemistry Automotive Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sila Nanotechnologies at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low cost, high capacity...

  4. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

    1999-03-16

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

  5. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA); Raley, Norman F. (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

  6. High-frequency and high-quality silicon carbide optomechanical microresonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiyuan; Lin, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) exhibits excellent material properties attractive for broad applications. We demonstrate the first SiC optomechanical microresonators that integrate high mechanical frequency, high mechanical quality, and high optical quality into a single device. The radial-breathing mechanical mode has a mechanical frequency up to 1.69 GHz with a mechanical Q around 5500 in atmosphere, which corresponds to a mechanical f-Q product as high as 9.47x10^12 Hz. The strong optomechanical coupling allows us to efficiently excite and probe the coherent mechanical oscillation by optical waves. The demonstrated devices, in combination with the superior thermal property, chemical inertness, and defect characteristics of SiC, show great potential for applications in metrology, sensing, and quantum photonics, particularly in harsh environments that are challenging for other device platforms.

  7. For Immediate Release AUB to develop its high performance computing capacities in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihadeh, Alan

    For Immediate Release AUB to develop its high performance computing capacities in the service steps to become a high performance computing center that will be able to process massive amounts thousands of servers. According to Wikipedia, supercomputers, or high performance computing, play

  8. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, Georg (Livermore, CA); George, E. Victor (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sooy, Walter (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

    1996-01-01

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes.

  9. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

    1996-06-11

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

  10. Silicon Based Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Yang, Zhenguo; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu; Liu, Jun

    2012-06-15

    Silicon is environmentally benign and ubiquitous. Because of its high specific capacity, it is considered one of the most promising candidates to replace the conventional graphite negative electrode used in today's Li ion batteries. Silicon has a theoretical specific capacity of nearly 4200 mAh/g (Li21Si5), which is 10 times larger than the specific capacity of graphite (LiC6, 372 mAh/g). However, the high capacity of silicon is associated with huge volume changes (more than 300 percent) when alloyed with lithium, which can cause severe cracking and pulverization of the electrode and lead to significant capacity loss. Significant scientific research has been conducted to circumvent the deterioration of silicon based anode materials during cycling. Various strategies, such as reduction of particle size, generation of active/inactive composites, fabrication of silicon based thin films, use of alternative binders, and the synthesis of 1-D silicon nanostructures have been implemented by a number of research groups. Fundamental mechanistic research has also been performed to better understand the electrochemical lithiation and delithiation process during cycling in terms of crystal structure, phase transitions, morphological changes, and reaction kinetics. Although efforts to date have not attained a commercially viable Si anode, further development is expected to produce anodes with three to five times the capacity of graphite. In this chapter, an overview of research on silicon based anodes used for lithium-ion battery applications will be presented. The overview covers electrochemical alloying of the silicon with lithium, mechanisms responsible for capacity fade, and methodologies adapted to overcome capacity degradation observed during cycling. The recent development of silicon nanowires and nanoparticles with significantly improved electrochemical performance will also be discussed relative to the mechanistic understanding. Finally, future directions on the development of silicon based anodes will be considered.

  11. In an effort to design a more low cost, highly efficient alternative to the traditional silicon solar cell, our

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In an effort to design a more low cost, highly efficient alternative to the traditional silicon solar cell, our research implements lead sulfide nanocrystals as light harvesters. Semiconducting

  12. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochbaum, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    effects in highly porous crystalline silicon, Nature 1991,J. , Fabrication of single-crystalline silicon nanowires bySingle crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires Allon I.

  13. An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauly, Markus

    An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity Garret Suen1,2 , Jarrod J symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high

  14. High-efficiency ion-implanted silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitzer, M.B.; Tobin, S.P.

    1984-05-01

    The development of solar cells with AM1 coversion efficiency of 18 percent is reported. The cells comprise an n/sup +/-p-p/sup +/ structure fabricated from float zone silicon having resistivity of 0.3 ..cap omega.. cm. The n/sup +/ and p/sup +/ regions are formed by low energy ion implantation and thermal annealing. An important feature of cell fabrication is the growth of SiO/sub 2/ passivation for reduction of surface recombination velocity. Details of both cell fabrication and testing are reported.

  15. Highly efficient terahertz wave modulators by photo-excitation of organics/silicon bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Hyung Keun; Kang, Chul; Hwang, In-Wook; Yoon, Youngwoon; Lee, Kiejin; Kee, Chul-Sik; Lee, Joong Wook

    2014-07-07

    Using hybrid bilayer systems comprising a molecular organic semiconductor and silicon, we achieve optically controllable active terahertz (THz) modulators that exhibit extremely high modulation efficiencies. A modulation efficiency of 98% is achieved from thermally annealed C{sub 60}/silicon bilayers, due to the rapid photo-induced electron transfer from the excited states of the silicon onto the C{sub 60} layer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the broadband modulation of THz waves. The cut-off condition of the system that is determined by the formation of efficient charge separation by the photo-excitation is highly variable, changing the system from insulating to metallic. The phenomenon enables an extremely high modulation bandwidth and rates of electromagnetic waves of interest. The realization of near-perfect modulation efficiency in THz frequencies opens up the possibilities of utilizing active modulators for THz spectroscopy and communications.

  16. Transport of multiply and highly charged ions through nanoscale apertures in silicon nitride membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . PACS: 34.50.Dy Keywords: Slow highly charged ions; Capillary transmission; Charge exchange 1-the-barrier model (COB) [4­7]. The model can be used to estimate the critical distance for charge transfer dc exchange of multiply and highly charged ions for transmission of aper- tures in silicon nitride targets

  17. Two-axis MEMS scanner with transfer-printed high-reflectivity, broadband monolithic silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Two-axis MEMS scanner with transfer-printed high-reflectivity, broadband monolithic silicon@illinois.edu Abstract: We present a two-axis electrostatic MEMS scanner with high- reflectivity monolithic. The reflective surfaces of the MEMS scanner are transfer-printed PC mirrors with low polarization dependence, low

  18. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  19. A highly stable zirconium-based metal-organic framework material with high surface area and gas storage capacities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutov, Oleksii V.; Bury, Wojciech; Gomez-Gualdron, Diego A.; Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Fairen-Jimenez, David; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Yildirim, Taner; Farha, Omar K.

    2014-08-14

    : 10.1002/chem.201xxxxxx ? Metal-organic frameworks A highly stable zirconium-based metal-organic framework material with high surface area and gas storage capacities Oleksii V. Gutov,†[a] Wojciech Bury,†[a,b] Diego A. Gomez-Gualdron,[c] Vaiva... these parameters is crucial for constructing materials with high-capacity gas uptake, as well as stability. However, most known MOFs are not sufficiently stable to allow their application for gas storage in the presence of water or acid.10 To overcome...

  20. High surface area silicon carbide-coated carbon aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worsley, Marcus A; Kuntz, Joshua D; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr, Joe H

    2014-01-14

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust. Carbon aerogels can be coated with sol-gel silica and the silica can be converted to silicone carbide, improved the thermal stability of the carbon aerogel.

  1. Cleaning the Buildings of High Tech Companies in Silicon Valley: The Case of Mexican Janitors in Sonix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zlolniski, Christián

    2000-01-01

    Cleaning the Buildings of High Tech Companies in SiliconCleaning the Buildings of High-Tech Companies in Siliconand success of the high-tech industry (Alarcon, 1999). Less

  2. SnO2 Filled Mesoporous Tin Phosphate High Capacity Negative Electrode for Lithium Secondary Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    SnO2 Filled Mesoporous Tin Phosphate High Capacity Negative Electrode for Lithium Secondary Battery insulators, and optics.1-6 On the other hand, their applications to electrode materials in lithium secondary batteries have received little attention because of the very limited candidates.7,8 Recently

  3. Alkali slurry ozonation to produce a high capacity nickel battery material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackovitz, John F. (Monroeville, PA); Pantier, Earl A. (Penn Hills, PA)

    1984-11-06

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.

  4. High quality crystalline YBa2Cu307+ films on thin silicon substrates FL Haakenaasen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golovchenko, Jene A.

    High quality crystalline YBa2Cu307+ films on thin silicon substrates FL Haakenaasen Department) films with near perfect crystallinity have been grown epitaxially on Si(100) using two intermediate good crystallinity and be quite thin ((1 m)? Relativistic electrons are sent through the crystal

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Silicon-based High Capacity Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the...

  6. High temperature Hexoloy{trademark} SX silicon carbide. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, G.V.; Lau, S.K.; Storm, R.S. [Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    HEXOLOY{reg_sign} SX-SiC, fabricated with Y and Al containing compounds as sintering aids, has been shown to possess significantly improved strength and toughness over HEXOLOY{reg_sign}SA-SiC. This study was undertaken to establish and benchmark the complete mechanical property database of a first generation material, followed by a process optimization task to further improve the properties. Mechanical characterization on the first generation material indicated that silicon-rich pools, presumably formed as a reaction product during sintering, controlled the strength from room temperature to 1,232 C. At 1,370 C in air, the material was failing due to a glass-phase formation at the surface. This glass-phase formation was attributed to the reaction of yttrium aluminates, which exist as a second phase in the material, with the ambient. This process was determined to be a time-dependent one that leads to slow crack growth. Fatigue experiments clearly indicated that the slow crack growth driven by the reaction occurred only at temperatures >1,300 C, above the melting point of the glass phase. Process optimization tasks conducted included the selection of the best SiC powder source, studies on mixing/milling conditions for SiC powder with the sintering aids, and a designed experiment involving a range of sintering and post-treatment conditions. The optimization study conducted on the densification variables indicated that lower sintering temperatures and higher post-treatment pressures reduce the Si-rich pool formation, thereby improving the room-temperature strength. In addition, it was also determined that furnacing configuration and atmosphere were critical in controlling the Si-rich formation.

  7. Little Boxes: High Tech and the Silicon Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    the garage. ” 19 Once a new high-tech company moves beyondWorkers and the High-Tech Global Economy (New York: New Yorkupwardly mobile tech firms. In 1977, the new company moved

  8. Virus-Enabled Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, X L; Gerasopoulos, K; Guo, J C; Brown, A; Wang, Chunsheng; Ghodssi, Reza; Culver, J N

    2010-01-01

    A novel three-dimensional Tobacco mosaic virus assembled silicon anode is reported. This electrode combines genetically modified virus templates for the production of high aspect ratio nanofeatured surfaces with electroless deposition to produce an integrated nickel current collector followed by physical vapor deposition of a silicon layer to form a high capacity silicon anode. This composite silicon anode produced high capacities (3300 mAh/g), excellent charge?discharge cycling stability (0.20% loss per cycle at 1C), and consistent rate capabilities (46.4% at 4C) between 0 and 1.5 V. The biological templated nanocomposite electrode architecture displays a nearly 10-fold increase in capacity over currently available graphite anodes with remarkable cycling stability.

  9. Response to "Comment on `Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations'" [J. Appl. Phys. 117,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Response to "Comment on `Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non.1063/1.4905182 Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non

  10. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    important evaluation criterion for photovoltaic (PV) technology. Therefore, research on novel structuresTowards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping February 2014; published online 3 March 2014) Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged

  11. Developing a new high capacity anode with long life | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8, 20153DanielthroughDeterminingmanagementa new high capacity

  12. Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates Gang Ning, Bala Haran, Branko N. Popov*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates Gang Ning, Bala Haran at high discharge rates. # 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries collectors can affect up to different degrees the capacity fade of lithium-ion batteries [1­5]. Quantifying

  13. Carborane-Based Metal-Organic Framework with High Methane and Hydrogen Storage Capacities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, RD; Krungleviciute, V; Clingerman, DJ; Mondloch, JE; Peng, Y; Wilmer, CE; Sarjeant, AA; Snurr, RQ; Hupp, JT; Yildirim, T; Farha, OK; Mirkin, CA

    2013-09-10

    A Cu-carborane-based metal organic framework (MOF), NU-135, which contains a quasi-spherical para-carborane moiety, has been synthesized and characterized. NU-135 exhibits a pore volume of 1.02 cm(3)/g and a gravimetric BET surface area of ca. 2600 m(2)/g, and thus represents the first highly porous carborane-based MOF. As a consequence of the, unique geometry of the carborane unit, NU-135 has a very high volumetric BET surface area of ca. 1900 m(2)/cm(3). CH4, CO2, and H-2 adsorption isotherms were measured over a broad range of pressures and temperatures and are in good agreement with computational predictions. The methane storage capacity of NU-135 at 35 bar and 298 K is ca. 187 v(STP)/v. At 298 K, the pressure required to achieve a methane storage density comparable to that of a compressed natural gas (CNG) tank pressurized to 212 bar, which is a typical storage pressure, is only 65 bar. The methane working capacity (5-65 bar) is 170 v(STP)/v. The volumetric hydrogen storage capacity at 55 bar and 77 K is 49 g/L. These properties are comparable to those of current record holders in the area of methane and hydrogen storage. This initial example lays the groundwork for carborane-based materials with high surface areas.

  14. Little Boxes: High Tech and the Silicon Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Park as the key physical site in the development of high-tech industry,industry. In 1975, the Homebrew Computer Club began meeting in Gordon French’s garage in Menlo Park.

  15. New High Capacity Getter for Vacuum-Insulated Mobile Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Londer; G. R. Myneni; P. Adderley; G. Bartlok; J. Setina; W. Knapp; D. Schleussner

    2006-05-01

    Current ''Non evaporable getters'' (NEGs), based on the principle of metallic surface sorption of gas molecules, are important tools for the improving the performance of many vacuum systems. High porosity alloys or powder mixtures of Zr, Ti, Al, V, Fe and other metals are the base materials for this type of getters. The continuous development of vacuum technologies has created new challenges for the field of getter materials. The main sorption parameters of the current NEGs, namely, pumping speed and sorption capacity, have reached certain upper limits. Chemically active metals are the basis of a new generation of NEGs. The introduction of these new materials with high sorption capacity at room temperature is a long-awaited development. These new materials enable the new generation of NEGs to reach faster pumping speeds, significantly higher sticking rates and sorption capacities up to 104 times higher during their lifetimes. Our development efforts focus on producing these chemically active metals with controlled insulation or protection. The main structural forms of our new getter materials are spherical powders, granules and porous multi-layers. The full pumping performance can take place at room temperature with activation temperatures ranging from room temperature to 650 C. In one of our first pilot projects, our proprietary getter solution was successfully introduced as a getter pump in a double-wall mobile LH2 tank system. Our getters were shown to have very high sorption capacity of all relevant residual gases, including H2. This new concept opens the opportunity for significant vacuum improvements, especially in the field of H2 pumping which is an important task in many different vacuum applications.

  16. Graphdiyne as a high-capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Byungryul; Koo, Jahyun; Park, Minwoo; Kwon, Yongkyung; Lee, Hoonkyung; Lee, Hosik; Nam, Jaewook

    2013-12-23

    Using the first-principles calculations, we explored the feasibility of using graphdiyne, a 2D layer of sp and sp{sup 2} hybrid carbon networks, as lithium ion battery anodes. We found that the composite of the Li-intercalated multilayer ?-graphdiyne was C{sub 6}Li{sub 7.31} and that the calculated voltage was suitable for the anode. The practical specific/volumetric capacities can reach up to 2719?mAh?g{sup ?1}/2032?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, much greater than the values of ?372?mAh?g{sup ?1}/?818?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, ?1117?mAh?g{sup ?1}/?1589?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, and ?744?mAh?g{sup ?1} for graphite, graphynes, and ?-graphdiyne, respectively. Our calculations suggest that multilayer ?-graphdiyne can serve as a promising high-capacity lithium ion battery anode.

  17. Dispersion engineered high-Q silicon Nitride Ring-Resonators via Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riemensberger, Johann; Herr, Tobias; Brasch, Victor; Holzwarth, Ronald; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate dispersion engineering of integrated silicon nitride based ring resonators through conformal coating with hafnium dioxide deposited on top of the structures via atomic layer deposition (ALD). Both, magnitude and bandwidth of anomalous dispersion can be significantly increased. All results are confirmed by high resolution frequency-comb-assisted-diode-laser spectroscopy and are in very good agreement with the simulated modification of the mode spectrum.

  18. Value Proposition for High Lifetime (p-type) and Thin Silicon Materials in Solar PV Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich, A.; Woodhouse, M.; Hacke, P.

    2012-06-01

    Most silicon PV road maps forecast a continued reduction in wafer thickness, despite rapid declines in the primary incentive for doing so -- polysilicon feedstock price. Another common feature of most silicon-technology forecasts is the quest for ever-higher device performance at the lowest possible costs. The authors present data from device-performance and manufacturing- and system-installation cost models to quantitatively establish the incentives for manufacturers to pursue advanced (thin) wafer and (high efficiency) cell technologies, in an age of reduced feedstock prices. This analysis exhaustively considers the value proposition for high lifetime (p-type) silicon materials across the entire c-Si PV supply chain.

  19. Plasma polymerization of C[subscript 4]F[subscript 8] thin film on high aspect ratio silicon molds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeo, L. P.

    High aspect ratio polymeric micro-patterns are ubiquitous in many fields ranging from sensors, actuators, optics, fluidics and medical. Second generation PDMS molds are replicated against first generation silicon molds ...

  20. Towards a new high technology development in the Silicon Valley : a 21st century urban design vision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang, Jonathan K. (Jonathan Kam)

    1988-01-01

    Santa Clara Valley, perhaps better known as the Silicon Valley, is currently facing many problems and uncertainties. The explosion of the high technology industry has changed the regional scene faster than anyone could ...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High-Voltage, High-Capacity Polyanion Cathodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by U of Texas at Austin at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high-voltage, high...

  2. Silicon-Polymer Encapsulation of High-Level Calcine Waste for Transportation or Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. G. Loomis; C. M. Miller; J. A. Giansiracusa; R. Kimmel; S. V. Prewett

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental study investigating the potential uses for silicon-polymer encapsulation of High Level Calcine Waste currently stored within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The study investigated two different applications of silicon polymer encapsulation. One application uses silicon polymer to produce a waste form suitable for disposal at a High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility directly, and the other application encapsulates the calcine material for transportation to an offsite melter for further processing. A simulated waste material from INTEC, called pilot scale calcine, which contained hazardous materials but no radioactive isotopes was used for the study, which was performed at the University of Akron under special arrangement with Orbit Technologies, the originators of the silicon polymer process called Polymer Encapsulation Technology (PET). This document first discusses the PET process, followed by a presentation of past studies involving PET applications to waste problems. Next, the results of an experimental study are presented on encapsulation of the INTEC calcine waste as it applies to transportation or disposal of calcine waste. Results relating to long-term disposal include: (1) a characterization of the pilot calcine waste; (2) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing of an optimum mixture of pilot calcine, polysiloxane and special additives; and, (3) Material Characterization Center testing MCC-1P evaluation of the optimum waste form. Results relating to transportation of the calcine material for a mixture of maximum waste loading include: compressive strength testing, 10-m drop test, melt testing, and a Department of Transportation (DOT) oxidizer test.

  3. Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reilly, Raymond W.

    2012-07-30

    This project, Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine was established at the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT). The associated CRADA was established with Campbell Applied Physics (CAP) located in El Dorado Hills, California. This project extends an earlier project involving both CAP and KIPT conducted under a separate CRADA. The initial project developed the basic Plasma Chemical Reactor (PCR) for generation of ozone gas. This project built upon the technology developed in the first project, greatly enhancing the output of the PCR while also improving reliability and system control.

  4. Programmatic status of NASA`s CSTI high capacity power Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Development Program. This work is being conducted under NASA`s Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss the status of test activities with the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Design deficiencies are gradually being corrected and the power converter is now outputting 11.5 kWe at a temperature ratio of 2 (design output is 12.5 kWe). Detail designs have been completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC). The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, gas bearings, superalloy joining technologies and high efficiency alternators. This paper also provides an update of progress in these technologies.

  5. Etching high aspect ratio (110) silicon grooves in CsOH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, S.; Hesketh, P.J.; Macrander, A.T.

    1995-02-01

    In a previous study the authors developed a fabrication process for a single-crystal silicon X-ray analyzer for use at the Advanced Photon Source, a 6 GeV synchrotron accelerator ring under construction at Argonne National Laboratories. The bent silicon crystal will be used as an analyzer to collect and focus a monochromatic beam of X-rays by Bragg reflection with an energy resolution better than 10 meV for the (hhh) planes (H>6) for diffraction near backscattering. The cross-sectional geometry produced by anisotropic etching high aspect ratio (height/width = 115) silicon grooves with CSOH was studied as a function of the solution concentration. At 50 weight percent (w/o) CSOH straight sidewalls are produced, but at 15 and 25 w/o re-entrant tapered profiles are produced. The etch rates are increased in the groove by 25--100% indicating diffusion effects. The etch rate of the surface was in agreement with previous studies of CSOH etching, but unable to predict the dimensional changes in the grooves.

  6. Defect Engineering, Cell Processing, and Modeling for High-Performance, Low-Cost Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buonassisi, Tonio

    2013-02-26

    The objective of this project is to close the efficiency gap between industrial multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) and monocrystalline silicon solar cells, while preserving the economic advantage of low-cost, high-volume substrates inherent to mc-Si. Over the course of this project, we made significant progress toward this goal, as evidenced by the evolution in solar-cell efficiencies. While most of the benefits of university projects are diffuse in nature, several unique contributions can be traced to this project, including the development of novel characterization methods, defect-simulation tools, and novel solar-cell processing approaches mitigate the effects of iron impurities ("Impurities to Efficiency" simulator) and dislocations. In collaboration with our industrial partners, this project contributed to the development of cell processing recipes, specialty materials, and equipment that increased cell efficiencies overall (not just multicrystalline silicon). Additionally, several students and postdocs who were either partially or fully engaged in this project (as evidenced by the publication record) are currently in the PV industry, with others to follow.

  7. High-Efficiency Amorphous Silicon Alloy Based Solar Cells and Modules; Final Technical Progress Report, 30 May 2002--31 May 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, S.; Yang, J.

    2005-10-01

    The principal objective of this R&D program is to expand, enhance, and accelerate knowledge and capabilities for development of high-efficiency hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and amorphous silicon-germanium alloy (a-SiGe:H) related thin-film multijunction solar cells and modules with low manufacturing cost and high reliability. Our strategy has been to use the spectrum-splitting triple-junction structure, a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/a-SiGe:H, to improve solar cell and module efficiency, stability, and throughput of production. The methodology used to achieve the objectives included: (1) explore the highest stable efficiency using the triple-junction structure deposited using RF glow discharge at a low rate, (2) fabricate the devices at a high deposition rate for high throughput and low cost, and (3) develop an optimized recipe using the R&D batch large-area reactor to help the design and optimization of the roll-to-roll production machines. For short-term goals, we have worked on the improvement of a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H alloy solar cells. a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H are the foundation of current a-Si:H based thin-film photovoltaic technology. Any improvement in cell efficiency, throughput, and cost reduction will immediately improve operation efficiency of our manufacturing plant, allowing us to further expand our production capacity.

  8. An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suen, Garret; Barry, Kerrie; Goodwin, Lynne; Scott, Jarrod; Aylward, Frank; Adams, Sandra; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Foster, Clifton; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy; Slater, Steven; Donohue, Timothy; Currie, Cameron; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2010-09-23

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome?s predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low?Cost, High?Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries through Modified Surface and Microstructure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low?cost, high?capacity...

  10. Silicon sheet with molecular beam epitaxy for high efficiency solar cells. Final technical report, March 22, 1982-April 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    A two-year program has been carried out for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in which the UCLA silicon MBE facility has been used to attempt to grow silicon solar cells of high efficiency. MBE ofers the potential of growing complex and arbitrary doping profiles with 10 A depth resolution. It is the only technique taht can readily grow built-in front and back surface fields of any desired depth and value in silicon solar cells, or the more complicated profiles needed for a double junction cascade cell, all in silicon, connected in series by a tunnel junction. Although the dopant control required for such structures has been demonstrated in silicon by UCLA, crystal quality at the p-n junctions is still too poor to allow the other advantages to be exploited. Results from other laboratories indicate that this problem will soon be overcome. A computer analysis of the double cascade all in silicon shows that efficiencies can be raised over that of any single silicon cell by 1 or 2%, and that open circuit voltage of almost twice that of a single cell should be possible.

  11. High efficiency multijunction amorphous silicon alloy-based solar cells and modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, S.; Yang, J.; Banerjeee, A.; Glatfelter, T.; Hoffman, K.; Xu, X. )

    1994-06-30

    We have achieved initial efficiency of 11.4% as confirmed by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on a multijunction amorphous silicon alloy photovoltaic module of one-square-foot-area. [bold This] [bold is] [bold the] [bold highest] [bold initial] [bold efficiency] [bold confirmed] [bold by] [bold NREL] [bold for] [bold any] [bold thin] [bold film] [bold photovoltaic] [bold module]. After light soaking for 1000 hours at 50 [degree]C under one-sun illumination, a module with initial efficiency of 11.1% shows a stabilized efficiency of 9.5%. Key factors that led to this high performance are discussed.

  12. High-Efficiency Volume Reflection of an Ultrarelativistic Proton Beam with a Bent Silicon Crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scandale, Walter; Still, Dean A.; Baricordi, Stefano; Dalpiaz, Pietro; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Guidi, Vincenzo; Martinelli, Giuliano; Mazzolari, Andrea; Milan, Emiliano; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Azzarello, Philipp; Battiston, Roberto; Bertucci, Bruna; Burger, William J.; Ionica, Maria; Zuccon, Paolo; Cavoto, Gianluca; Santacesaria, Roberta; Valente, Paolo; Vallazza, Erik

    2007-04-13

    The volume reflection phenomenon was detected while investigating 400 GeV proton interactions with bent silicon crystals in the external beam H8 of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Such a process was observed for a wide interval of crystal orientations relative to the beam axis, and its efficiency exceeds 95%, thereby surpassing any previously observed value. These observations suggest new perspectives for the manipulation of high-energy beams, e.g., for collimation and extraction in new-generation hadron colliders, such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  13. Testing Hadronic Interaction Models using a Highly Granular Silicon-Tungsten Calorimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The CALICE Collaboration; B. Bilki; J. Repond; J. Schlereth; L. Xia; Z. Deng; Y. Li; Y. Wang; Q. Yue; Z. Yang; G. Eigen; Y. Mikami; T. Price; N. K. Watson; M. A. Thomson; D. R. Ward; D. Benchekroun; A. Hoummada; Y. Khoulaki; C. Cârloganu; S. Chang; A. Khan; D. H. Kim; D. J. Kong; Y. D. Oh; G. C. Blazey; A. Dyshkant; K. Francis; J. G. R. Lima; P. Salcido; V. Zutshi; V. Boisvert; B. Green; A. Misiejuk; F. Salvatore; K. Kawagoe; Y. Miyazaki; Y. Sudo; T. Suehara; T. Tomita; H. Ueno; T. Yoshioka; J. Apostolakis; G. Folger; G. Folger; V. Ivantchenko; A. Ribon; V. Uzhinskiy; S. Cauwenbergh; M. Tytgat; N. Zaganidis; J. -Y. Hostachy; L. Morin; K. Gadow; P. Göttlicher; C. Günter; K. Krüger; B. Lutz; M. Reinecke; F. Sefkow; N. Feege; E. Garutti; S. Laurien; S. Lu; I. Marchesini; M. Matysek; M. Ramilli; A. Kaplan; E. Norbeck; D. Northacker; Y. Onel; E. J. Kim; B. van Doren; G. W. Wilson; M. Wing; B. Bobchenko; M. Chadeeva; R. Chistov; M. Danilov; A. Drutskoy; A. Epifantsev; O. Markin; R. Mizuk; E. Novikov; V. Popov; V. Rusinov; E. Tarkovsky; D. Besson; E. Popova; M. Gabriel; C. Kiesling; F. Simon; C. Soldner; M. Szalay; M. Tesar; L. Weuste; M. S. Amjad; J. Bonis; S. Callier; S. Conforti di Lorenzo; P. Cornebise; Ph. Doublet; F. Dulucq; M. Faucci-Giannelli; J. Fleury; T. Frisson; B. Kégl; N. van der Kolk; H. Li; G. Martin-Chassard; F. Richard; Ch. de la Taille; R. Pöschl; L. Raux; J. Rouëné; N. Seguin-Moreau; M. Anduze; V. Balagura; E. Becheva; V. Boudry; J-C. Brient; R. Cornat; M. Frotin; F. Gastaldi; F. Magniette; A. Matthieu; P. Mora de Freitas; H. Videau; J-E. Augustin; J. David; P. Ghislain; D. Lacour; L. Lavergne; J. Zacek; J. Cvach; P. Gallus; M. Havranek; M. Janata; J. Kvasnicka; D. Lednicky; M. Marcisovsky; I. Polak; J. Popule; L. Tomasek; M. Tomasek; P. Ruzicka; P. Sicho; J. Smolik; V. Vrba; J. Zalesak; D. Jeans; M. Götze

    2015-05-08

    A detailed study of hadronic interactions is presented using data recorded with the highly granular CALICE silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter. Approximately 350,000 selected negatively charged pion events at energies between 2 and 10 GeV have been studied. The predictions of several physics models available within the Geant4 simulation tool kit are compared to this data. A reasonable overall description of the data is observed; the Monte Carlo predictions are within 20% of the data, and for many observables much closer. The largest quantitative discrepancies are found in the longitudinal and transverse distributions of reconstructed energy.

  14. Correlation between radiation processes in silicon and long-time degradation of detectors for high energy physics experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorina Lazanu; Ionel Lazanu

    2006-11-20

    In this contribution, the correlation between fundamental interaction processes induced by radiation in silicon and observable effects which limit the use of silicon detectors in high energy physics experiments is investigated in the frame of a phenomenological model which includes: generation of primary defects at irradiation starting from elementary interactions in silicon; kinetics of defects, effects at the p-n junction detector level. The effects due to irradiating particles (pions, protons, neutrons), to their flux, to the anisotropy of the threshold energy in silicon, to the impurity concentrations and resistivity of the starting material are investigated as time, fluence and temperature dependences of detector characteristics. The expected degradation of the electrical parameters of detectors in the complex hadron background fields at LHC & SLHC are predicted.

  15. Silicon Ink for High-Efficiency Solar Cells Captures a Share of the Market (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    Fact sheet on 2011 R&D 100 Award winner Silicon Ink. Liquid silicon has arrived, and with it comes a power boost for solar cells and dramatic cost savings for cell manufacturers.

  16. A reaction-layer mechanism for the delayed failure of micron-scale polycrystalline silicon structural films subjected to high-cycle fatigue loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muhlstein, C.L.; Stach, E.A.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2001-11-01

    A study has been made of high-cycle fatigue in 2um thick structural films of n+- type, polycrystalline silicon for MEMS applications.

  17. Thin, High Lifetime Silicon Wafers with No Sawing; Re-crystallization in a Thin Film Capsule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emanuel Sachs Tonio Buonassisi

    2013-01-16

    The project fits within the area of renewable energy called photovoltaics (PV), or the generation of electricity directly from sunlight using semiconductor devices. PV has the greatest potential of any renewable energy technology. The vast majority of photovoltaic modules are made on crystalline silicon wafers and these wafers accounts for the largest fraction of the cost of a photovoltaic module. Thus, a method of making high quality, low cost wafers would be extremely beneficial to the PV industry The industry standard technology creates wafers by casting an ingot and then sawing wafers from the ingot. Sawing rendered half of the highly refined silicon feedstock as un-reclaimable dust. Being a brittle material, the sawing is actually a type of grinding operation which is costly both in terms of capital equipment and in terms of consumables costs. The consumables costs associated with the wire sawing technology are particularly burdensome and include the cost of the wire itself (continuously fed, one time use), the abrasive particles, and, waste disposal. The goal of this project was to make wafers directly from molten silicon with no sawing required. The fundamental concept was to create a very low cost (but low quality) wafer of the desired shape and size and then to improve the quality of the wafer by a specialized thermal treatment (called re-crystallization). Others have attempted to create silicon sheet by recrystallization with varying degrees of success. Key among the difficulties encountered by others were: a) difficulty in maintaining the physical shape of the sheet during the recrystallization process and b) difficulty in maintaining the cleanliness of the sheet during recrystallization. Our method solved both of these challenges by encapsulating the preform wafer in a protective capsule prior to recrystallization (see below). The recrystallization method developed in this work was extremely effective at maintaining the shape and the cleanliness of the wafer. In addition, it was found to be suitable for growing very large crystals. The equipment used was simple and inexpensive to operate. Reasonable solar cells were fabricated on re-crystallized material.

  18. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  19. Deposition of silicon carbide films using a high vacuum metalorganic chemical vapor deposition method with a single source precursor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    , high temperature, and high radiation environments. Conventional silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition CVD processes generally utilized multiple precursors such as silane and hydrocarbons, and required temperature alternatives to the conventional SiC CVD methods must be considered. To do this, a relatively

  20. High Volume Manufacturing of Silicon-Film Solar Cells and Modules; Final Subcontract Report, 26 February 2003 - 30 September 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rand, J. A.; Culik, J. S.

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract was to continue to improve AstroPower's technology for manufacturing Silicon-Film* wafers, solar cells, and modules to reduce costs, and increase production yield, throughput, and capacity. As part of the effort, new technology such as the continuous back metallization screen-printing system and the laser scribing system were developed and implemented. Existing processes, such as the silicon nitride antireflection coating system and the fire-through process were optimized. Improvements were made to the statistical process control (SPC) systems of the major manufacturing processes: feedstock preparation, wafer growth, surface etch, diffusion, and the antireflection coating process. These process improvements and improved process control have led to an increase of 5% relative power, and nearly 15% relative improvement in mechanical and visual yield.

  1. A wide bandgap silicon carbide (SiC) gate driver for high-temperature and high-voltage applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamichhane, Ranjan [University of Arkansas; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Frank, Steven Shane [ORNL; BRITTONJr., CHARLES L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Marlino, Laura D [ORNL; Mantooth, Alan [University of Arkansas; Francis, Matt [APEI, Inc.; Shepherd, Dr. Paul [University of Arkansas; Glover, Dr. Michael [University of Arkansas; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Perez, M [University of Arkansas; Mcnutt, Tyler [APEI, Inc.; Whitaker, Mr. Bret [APEI, Inc.; Cole, Mr. Zach [APEI, Inc.

    2014-01-01

    Limitations of silicon (Si) based power electronic devices can be overcome with Silicon Carbide (SiC) because of its remarkable material properties. SiC is a wide bandgap semiconductor material with larger bandgap, lower leakage currents, higher breakdown electric field, and higher thermal conductivity, which promotes higher switching frequencies for high power applications, higher temperature operation, and results in higher power density devices relative to Si [1]. The proposed work is focused on design of a SiC gate driver to drive a SiC power MOSFET, on a Cree SiC process, with rise/fall times (less than 100 ns) suitable for 500 kHz to 1 MHz switching frequency applications. A process optimized gate driver topology design which is significantly different from generic Si circuit design is proposed. The ultimate goal of the project is to integrate this gate driver into a Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charger module. The application of this high frequency charger will result in lighter, smaller, cheaper, and a more efficient power electronics system.

  2. K-shell spectroscopy of silicon ions as diagnostic for high electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loetzsch, R.; Jaeckel, O.; Hoefer, S.; Kaempfer, T.; Uschmann, I.; Kaluza, M. C.; Polz, J.; Foerster, E.; Stambulchik, E.; Kroupp, E.; Maron, Y.

    2012-11-15

    We developed a detection scheme, capable of measuring X-ray line shape of tracer ions in {mu}m thick layers at the rear side of a target foil irradiated by ultra intense laser pulses. We performed simulations of the effect of strong electric fields on the K-shell emission of silicon and developed a spectrometer dedicated to record this emission. The combination of a cylindrically bent crystal in von Hamos geometry and a CCD camera with its single photon counting capability allows for a high dynamic range of the instrument and background free spectra. This approach will be used in future experiments to study electric fields of the order of TV/m at high density plasmas close to solid density.

  3. Critical Vacancy-Driven Phenomena in High-Energy Ion-Implanted Silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, T E

    2008-11-11

    High-energy (MeV) ion implantation is now being rapidly introduced into integrated circuit manufacturing because it promises process simplification and improved device performance. However, high-energy implantation introduces an imbalance of excess vacancies and vacancy-cluster defects in the near-surface region of a silicon crystal. These defects interact with dopants affecting diffusion and electrical activation during subsequent processing. The objective of this project was to develop sufficient understanding of the physical mechanisms underlying the evolution of these defects and interactions with dopant atoms to enable accurate prediction and control of dopant diffusion and defect configurations during processing. This project supported the DOE mission in science and technology by extending ongoing Basic Energy Sciences programs in ion-solid physics and x-ray scattering at ORNL into new areas. It also strengthened the national capability for advanced processing of electronic materials, an enabling technology for DOE programs in energy conversion, use, and defense.

  4. R&D for a highly granular silicon tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pöschl, R

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on first experience with the technological prototype of a highly- granular silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter as envisaged for the detectors at a future lepton collider. In the focus of the analysis is the performance of a highly integrated Application Specific Integrated Circuit designed to meet the requirements in terms of dynamic range, compactness and power consumption. The beam test results show that the circuit will allow a future detector with a signal over noise ratio of at least 10:1. To minimise the power dissipation the ASIC will be operated in a power pulsed mode. So far no conceptual problem was revealed but the studies show the way for further work. The prototype is read out by a DAQ system conceived to meet the needs of a trigger less system with a huge number of readout cells.

  5. Evaluation of a robust, diimide-based, porous organic polymer (POP) as a high-capacity sorbent for representative chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluation of a robust, diimide-based, porous organic polymer (POP) as a high-capacity sorbent A previously described porous organic polymer (NU-POP-1) was evaluated against four representative chemical an activated, impregnated carbon. The ability to remove the highly volatile toxic chemicals ammonia

  6. Fiber-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, Christopher J; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2014-05-13

    A fiber-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The fiber-based adsorbent includes polymer fibers with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight over known fibers to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. The polymer fibers include a circular morphology in some embodiments, having a mean diameter of less than 15 microns, optionally less than about 1 micron. In other embodiments, the polymer fibers include a non-circular morphology, optionally defining multiple gear-shaped, winged-shaped or lobe-shaped projections along the length of the polymer fibers. A method for forming the fiber-based adsorbents includes irradiating high surface area polymer fibers, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting the grafted fibers with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. High surface area fiber-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  7. Investigations of segregation phenomena in highly strained Mn-doped Ge wetting layers and Ge quantum dots embedded in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prestat, E., E-mail: eric.prestat@gmail.com; Porret, C.; Favre-Nicolin, V.; Tainoff, D.; Boukhari, M.; Bayle-Guillemaud, P.; Jamet, M.; Barski, A., E-mail: andre.barski@cea.com [INAC, SP2M, CEA and Université Joseph Fourier, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-03-10

    In this Letter, we investigate manganese diffusion and the formation of Mn precipitates in highly strained, few monolayer thick, Mn-doped Ge wetting layers and nanometric size Ge quantum dot heterostructures embedded in silicon. We show that in this Ge(Mn)/Si system manganese always precipitates and that the size and the position of Mn clusters (precipitates) depend on the growth temperature. At high growth temperature, manganese strongly diffuses from germanium to silicon, whereas decreasing the growth temperature reduces the manganese diffusion. In the germanium quantum dots layers, Mn precipitates are detected, not only in partially relaxed quantum dots but also in fully strained germanium wetting layers between the dots.

  8. Increasing Stabilized Performance Of Amorphous Silicon Based Devices Produced By Highly Hydrogen Diluted Lower Temperature Plasma Deposition.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Yaun-Min (Langhorne, PA); Bennett, Murray S. (Langhorne, PA); Yang, Liyou (Plainsboro, NJ)

    1999-08-24

    High quality, stable photovoltaic and electronic amorphous silicon devices which effectively resist light-induced degradation and current-induced degradation, are produced by a special plasma deposition process. Powerful, efficient single and multi-junction solar cells with high open circuit voltages and fill factors and with wider bandgaps, can be economically fabricated by the special plasma deposition process. The preferred process includes relatively low temperature, high pressure, glow discharge of silane in the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen gas.

  9. Increased Stabilized Performance Of Amorphous Silicon Based Devices Produced By Highly Hydrogen Diluted Lower Temperature Plasma Deposition.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Yaun-Min (Langhorne, PA); Bennett, Murray S. (Langhorne, PA); Yang, Liyou (Plainsboro, NJ)

    1997-07-08

    High quality, stable photovoltaic and electronic amorphous silicon devices which effectively resist light-induced degradation and current-induced degradation, are produced by a special plasma deposition process. Powerful, efficient single and multi-junction solar cells with high open circuit voltages and fill factors and with wider bandgaps, can be economically fabricated by the special plasma deposition process. The preferred process includes relatively low temperature, high pressure, glow discharge of silane in the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen gas.

  10. Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) with Silicon-Carbide-Matrix Coated-Particle Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C. W.; Terrani, Kurt A; Snead, Lance Lewis; Katoh, Yutai

    2012-01-01

    The FHR is a new reactor concept that uses coated-particle fuel and a low-pressure liquid-salt coolant. Its neutronics are similar to a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The power density is 5 to 10 times higher because of the superior cooling properties of liquids versus gases. The leading candidate coolant salt is a mixture of {sup 7}LiF and BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe) possessing a boiling point above 1300 C and the figure of merit {rho}C{sub p} (volumetric heat capacity) for the salt slightly superior to water. Studies are underway to define a near-term base-line concept while understanding longer-term options. Near-term options use graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel where the graphite is both a structural component and the primary neutron moderator. It is the same basic fuel used in HTGRs. The fuel can take several geometric forms with a pebble bed being the leading contender. Recent work on silicon-carbide-matrix (SiCm) coated-particle fuel may create a second longer-term fuel option. SiCm coated-particle fuels are currently being investigated for use in light-water reactors. The replacement of the graphite matrix with a SiCm creates a new family of fuels. The first motivation behind the effort is to take advantage of the superior radiation resistance of SiC compared to graphite in order to provide a stable matrix for hosting coated fuel particles. The second motivation is a much more rugged fuel under accident, repository, and other conditions.

  11. High-capacity Li2Sgraphene oxide composite cathodes with stable cycling performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    such as vehicle electrification and grid energy storage. Herein, we demonstrate facile synthesis of Li2S and grid energy storage applica- tions.1­6 Although rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are widely used2S is in a fully-lithi- ated state and can be paired with lithium metal-free anodes (such as silicon

  12. Low-temperature high-mobility amorphous IZO for silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Morales-Masis, Monica; Martin De Nicolas, Silvia; Holovsky, Jakub; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-07-13

    Parasitic absorption in the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) front electrode is one of the limitations of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells efficiency. To avoid such absorption while retaining high conductivity, TCOs with high electron mobility are preferred over those with high carrier density. Here, we demonstrate improved SHJ solar cell efficiencies by applying high-mobility amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) as the front TCO. We sputtered a-IZO at low substrate temperature and low power density and investigated the optical and electrical properties, as well as subband tail formation-quantified by the Urbach energy (EU)-as a function of the sputtering oxygen partial pressure.more »We obtain an EU as low as 128 meV for films with the highest Hall mobility of 60 cm2/Vs. When comparing the performance of a-IZO films with indium tin oxide (ITO) and hydrogenated indium oxide (IO:H), we find that IO:H (115 cm2/Vs) exhibits a similar EU of 130 meV, while ITO (25 cm2/Vs) presents a much larger EU of up to 270 meV. The high film quality, indicated by the low EU, the high mobility, and low free carrier absorption of the developed a-IZO electrodes, result in a significant current improvement, achieving conversion efficiencies over 21.5%, outperforming those with standard ITO.« less

  13. Research on stable, high-efficiency, large-area, amorphous-silicon-based submodules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delahoy, A.E.; Tonon, T.; Macneil, J. (Chronar Corp., Princeton, NJ (USA))

    1991-06-01

    The primary objective of this subcontract is to develop the technology for same bandgap, amorphous silicon tandem junction photovoltaic modules having an area of at least 900 cm{sup 2} with the goal of achieving an aperture area efficiency of 9%. A further objective is to demonstrate modules that retain 95% of their under standard light soaking conditions. Our approach to the attainment of these objective is based on the following distinctive technologies: (a) in-house deposition of SiO{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2}:F onto soda lime glass by APCVD to provide a textured, transparent electrode, (b) single chamber r.f. flow discharge deposition of the a-Si:H layers onto vertical substrates contained with high package density in a box carrier'' to which the discharge is confined (c) sputter deposition of highly reflecting, ZnO-based back contacts, and (d) laser scribing of the a-Si:H and electrodes with real-time scribe tracking to minimize area loss. Continued development of single junction amorphous silicon was aggressively pursued as proving ground for various optical enhancement schemes, new p-layers, and i-layers quality. We have rigorously demonstrated that the introduction of a transitional i-layer does not impair stability and that the initial gain in performance is retained. We have demonstrated a small improvement in cell stability through a post-fabrication treatment consisting of multiple, intense light flashes followed by sufficient annealing. Finally, several experiments have indicated that long term stability can be improved by overcoating the SnO{sub 2} with ZnO. 25 refs., 17 figs.

  14. Revealing lithium-silicide phase transformations in nano-structured silicon based lithium ion batteries via in-situ NMR spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogata, K.; Salager, E.; Kerr, C. J.; Fraser, A. E.; Ducati, C.; Morris, A. J.; Hofmann, Stephan; Grey, Clare P.

    2014-02-03

    Nano-structured silicon anodes are attractive alternatives to graphitic carbons in rechargeable Li-ion batteries, owing to their extremely high capacities. Despite their advantages, numerous issues remain to be addressed, the most basic being...

  15. Purified silicon production system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2004-03-30

    Method and apparatus for producing purified bulk silicon from highly impure metallurgical-grade silicon source material at atmospheric pressure. Method involves: (1) initially reacting iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to create silicon tetraiodide and impurity iodide byproducts in a cold-wall reactor chamber; (2) isolating silicon tetraiodide from the impurity iodide byproducts and purifying it by distillation in a distillation chamber; and (3) transferring the purified silicon tetraiodide back to the cold-wall reactor chamber, reacting it with additional iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to produce silicon diiodide and depositing the silicon diiodide onto a substrate within the cold-wall reactor chamber. The two chambers are at atmospheric pressure and the system is open to allow the introduction of additional source material and to remove and replace finished substrates.

  16. A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2012-09-30

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

  17. LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS: ENERGY PAYBACK TIMES AND NET ENERGY PRODUCTION VALUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -344-3957, vmf5@columbia.edu 2 Center for Life Cycle Analysis, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA 3 SunLIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS: ENERGY PAYBACK TIMES AND NET ENERGY PRODUCTION VALUE Vasilis Fthenakis1,2 , Rick Betita2 , Mark Shields3 , Rob

  18. ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR- contacted rear being either passivated by atomic-layer- deposited Al2O3 or by stacks consisting-Si passivation to thermal processes. ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED Al2O3 Recently, it was shown that thin films

  19. Abstract --Research on silicon carbide (SiC) power electronics has shown their advantages in high temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    in switching applications such as AC motor control, motion/servo control, uninterruptible power suppliesAbstract -- Research on silicon carbide (SiC) power electronics has shown their advantages in high is verified to have low power loss, fast switching characteristics at 650 V dc bus voltage, 60 A drain current

  20. Metal-organic frameworks with high capacity and selectivity for harmful gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    , MOF-199, and IRMOF-62, as selective adsorbents for eight harmful gases: sulfur dioxide, ammonia, chlorine, tetrahydrothiophene, benzene, dichloromethane, ethyl- ene oxide, and carbon monoxide. Kinetic breakthrough measure- ments are used to determine the calculated dynamic adsorption capacity of each

  1. Dynamic modelling of generation capacity investment in electricity markets with high wind penetration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eager, Daniel

    2012-06-25

    The ability of liberalised electricity markets to trigger investment in the generation capacity required to maintain an acceptable level of security of supply risk has been - and will continue to be - a topic of much ...

  2. Oxidation resistant high temperature thermal cycling resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates and process for the production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, V.K.

    1990-08-21

    An oxidation resistant, high temperature thermal cycling resistant coated ceramic article for ceramic heat engine applications is disclosed. The substrate is a silicon-based material, i.e. a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based monolithic or composite material. The coating is a graded coating of at least two layers: an intermediate AlN or Al[sub x]N[sub y]O[sub z] layer and an aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. The composition of the coating changes gradually from that of the substrate to that of the AlN or Al[sub x]N[sub y]O[sub z] layer and further to the composition of the aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. Other layers may be deposited over the aluminum oxide layer. A CVD process for depositing the graded coating on the substrate is also disclosed.

  3. Oxidation resistant high temperature thermal cycling resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates and process for the production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod K. (Lexington, MA)

    1990-01-01

    An oxidation resistant, high temperature thermal cycling resistant coated ceramic article for ceramic heat engine applications. The substrate is a silicon-based material, i.e. a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based monolithic or composite material. The coating is a graded coating of at least two layers: an intermediate AlN or Al.sub.x N.sub.y O.sub.z layer and an aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. The composition of the coating changes gradually from that of the substrate to that of the AlN or Al.sub.x N.sub.y O.sub.z layer and further to the composition of the aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. Other layers may be deposited over the aluminum oxide layer. A CVD process for depositing the graded coating on the substrate is also disclosed.

  4. Material requirements for the adoption of unconventional silicon crystal and wafer growth techniques for high-efficiency solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hofstetter, Jasmin; del Cañizo, Carlos; Wagner, Hannes; Castellanos, Sergio; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-10-15

    Silicon wafers comprise approximately 40% of crystalline silicon module cost and represent an area of great technological innovation potential. Paradoxically, unconventional wafer-growth techniques have thus far failed to displace multicrystalline and Czochralski silicon, despite four decades of innovation. One of the shortcomings of most unconventional materials has been a persistent carrier lifetime deficit in comparison to established wafer technologies, which limits the device efficiency potential. In this perspective article, we review a defect-management framework that has proven successful in enabling millisecond lifetimes in kerfless and cast materials. Control of dislocations and slowly diffusing metal point defects during growth, coupled tomore »effective control of fast-diffusing species during cell processing, is critical to enable high cell efficiencies. As a result, to accelerate the pace of novel wafer development, we discuss approaches to rapidly evaluate the device efficiency potential of unconventional wafers from injection-dependent lifetime measurements.« less

  5. Cyclic plasticity and shakedown in high-capacity electrodes of lithium-ion batteries Laurence Brassart, Kejie Zhao, Zhigang Suo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Cyclic plasticity and shakedown in high-capacity electrodes of lithium-ion batteries Laurence for lithium-ion batteries. Upon absorbing a large amount of lithium, the electrode swells greatly rights reserved. 1. Introduction Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are energy-storage systems of choice

  6. High-Capacity Micrometer-Sized Li2S Particles as Cathode Materials for Advanced Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Lithium-Ion Batteries Yuan Yang, Guangyuan Zheng, Sumohan Misra,§ Johanna Nelson,§ Michael F. Toney for lithium metal-free rechargeable batteries. It has a theoretical capacity of 1166 mAh/g, which is nearly 1 as the cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high specific energy. INTRODUCTION

  7. Mn3O4-Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Hailiang Wang,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Mn3O4-Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries Hailiang Wang hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery-cost, and environ- mentally friendly anode for lithium ion batteries. Our growth-on- graphene approach should offer

  8. Maximum Li storage in Si nanowires for the high capacity three-dimensional Li-ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Moon-Ho

    , such as fuel cells and secondary batteries. Here we report a coin-type Si nanowire NW half-cell Li-ion battery is the central research subject in various energy conversion systems, such as solar cells, fuel cells must be optimally coordinated.7 In this respect, Si nanowire NW arrays can serve as the high capacity

  9. Advanced Detector Research - Fabrication and Testing of 3D Active-Edge Silicon Sensors: High Speed, High Yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Sherwood I

    2008-09-01

    Development of 3D silicon radiation sensors employing electrodes fabricated perpendicular to the sensor surfaces to improve fabrication yields and increasing pulse speeds.

  10. Behavior of nitrate-nitrogen movement around a pumping high-capacity well: A field example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayers, J.F.; Chen, X.; Gosselin, D.C. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Conservation and Survey Div.

    1998-03-01

    This study examines the near-field flow regime influencing the chemical composition of water samples collected form an irrigation well during short pumping periods. Data on the radial and vertical distribution of nitrate-nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N) and on draw-down were collected from a closely spaced multi-level monitoring well network installed around an irrigation well. Aquifer properties were determined from grain-size analyses performed on samples collected from test holes drilled around the irrigation well and from drawdown data using the method of Neuman (1974). Grain-size characteristics were determined from cumulative distribution curves and used to construct vertical hydraulic conductivity (K) profiles based on frequently used empirical formulas applied to grain-size data for the determination of aquifer properties. Resultant vertical profiles show a general increase in K with depth. Results from the analysis of drawdown curves support the general trend of K determined form the grain-size data, drawdown-based K values, however, were 1.5 to 2 times greater than those determined form the empirical methods. Results from four pump-and-sample experiments at different times during the irrigation season indicate: (1) the distribution of NO{sub 3}-N around the irrigation well is complex and variable over time and space; (2) shapes of concentration-time curves for individual sample points are governed by the initial contaminant distribution, and shapes of concentration-time curves for the pumping well are governed by variables such as well screen position and hydrogeologic properties; (3) irrigation well samples underestimate the highest, as well as the average NO{sub 3}-N concentrations within the aquifer; and (4) a sampling strategy based on the behavioral characteristics of the well as reflected in concentration-time curves can improve the interpretation of water quality data collected from high-capacity wells.

  11. High-Responsivity Graphene-Boron Nitride Photodetector and Autocorrelator in a Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiue, Ren-Jye; Wang, Yifei; Peng, Cheng; Robertson, Alexander D; Efetov, Dimitri; Assefa, Solomon; Koppens, Frank H L; Hone, James; Englund, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials have emerged as promising materials for broadband and ultrafast photodetection and optical modulation. These optoelectronic capabilities can augment complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices for high-speed and low-power optical interconnects. Here, we demonstrate an on-chip ultrafast photodetector based on a two-dimensional heterostructure consisting of high-quality graphene encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride. Coupled to the optical mode of a silicon waveguide, this 2D heterostructure-based photodetector exhibits a maximum responsivity of 0.36 A/W and high-speed operation with a 3 dB cut-off at 42 GHz. From photocurrent measurements as a function of the top-gate and source-drain voltages, we conclude that the photoresponse is consistent with hot electron mediated effects. At moderate peak powers above 50 mW, we observe a saturating photocurrent consistent with the mechanisms of electron-phonon supercollision cooling. This nonlinear photorespo...

  12. HIGH EFFICIENCY AMORPHOUS SILICON GERMANIUM SOLAR CELLS X. Liao, W. Du, X. Yang, H. Povolny, X. Xiang and X. Deng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    -SiGe) alloy has been widely used as narrow bandgap i-layers in multi-junction a-Si based solar cells [1, 2HIGH EFFICIENCY AMORPHOUS SILICON GERMANIUM SOLAR CELLS X. Liao, W. Du, X. Yang, H. Povolny, X ABSTRACT We report high-efficiency single-junction a-SiGe n-i-p solar cells deposited using rf PECVD

  13. FINE-GRAINED NANOCRYSTALLINE SILICON P-LAYER FOR HIGH OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE A-SI:H SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    FINE-GRAINED NANOCRYSTALLINE SILICON P-LAYER FOR HIGH OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE A-SI:H SOLAR CELLS). It is found that the p-layer that leads to high Voc a-Si:H solar cells is a mixed-phase material that contains fine-grained nc-Si:H embedded in a-Si:H matrix. INTRODUCTION A-Si:H single-junction solar cells

  14. Choosing Internet Paths with High Bulk Transfer Capacity Jacob A. Strauss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    precisely, they would like to know the bulk transfer capacity (BTC) of a given path. This thesis compares the ability of several BTC estimation methods to predict which of a pair of Internet paths will have the higher measured BTC. Methods tested include TCP loss rate models, an available bandwidth measuring tool

  15. The Ergodic High SNR Capacity of the Spatially-Correlated Non-Coherent MIMO Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    multiple-input multiple-output channels is not known. In this paper upper and lower bounds are derived of the transmitter cor- relation matrix. Furthermore, the lower bound on this capacity is achieved by input signals of coherent systems usually does not account for the cost of the resources that have to be expended to acquire

  16. High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    of narrow bandgap a-SiGe and µc-SiGe films deposited using different hydrogen dilution Section 3 Triple-junction a-Si Solar Cells with Heavily Doped Thin Interface Layers at the Tunnel Junctions Section 4 High 3-1 I-V performance of triple cell having heavily doped tunnel-junction interface layers

  17. Sacrificial high-temperature phosphorus diffusion gettering for lifetime improvement of multicrystalline silicon wafers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Stephanie Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Iron is among the most deleterious lifetime-limiting impurities in crystalline silicon solar cells. In as-grown material, iron is present in precipitates and in point defects. To achieve conversion efficiencies in excess ...

  18. Inks for Ink Jet Printed Contacts for High Performance Silicon Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA No. CRD-06-199

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginley, D.

    2013-01-01

    The work under the proposed CRADA will be a joint effort by BP Solar and NREL to develop new types of high performance inks for high quality contacts to silicon solar cells. NREL will develop inks that have electronic properties that will allow the formation of high quality ohmic contacts to n- and p-type crystalline silicon, and BP Solar will evaluate these contacts in test contact structures.

  19. Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitor Measurements at the High Temperature Test Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. L. Rempe; K. G. Condie; D. L. Knudson; L. L. Snead

    2010-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) temperature monitors are now available for use as temperature sensors in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) irradiation test capsules. Melt wires or paint spots, which are typically used as temperature sensors in ATR static capsules, are limited in that they can only detect whether a single temperature is or is not exceeded. SiC monitors are advantageous because a single monitor can be used to detect for a range of temperatures that may have occurred during irradiation. As part of the efforts initiated by the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to make SiC temperature monitors available, a capability was developed to complete post-irradiation evaluations of these monitors. As discussed in this report, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) selected the resistance measurement approach for detecting peak irradiation temperature from SiC temperature monitors. This document describes the INL efforts to develop the capability to complete these resistance measurements. In addition, the procedure is reported that was developed to assure that high quality measurements are made in a consistent fashion.

  20. Measurement of Radioactive Contamination in the High-Resistivity Silicon CCDs of the DAMIC Experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.

    2015-08-25

    We present measurements of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used by the DAMIC experiment to search for dark matter particles. Novel analysis methods, which exploit the unique spatial resolution of CCDs, were developed to identify ? and ? particles. Uranium and thorium contamination in the CCD bulk was measured through ? spectroscopy, with an upper limit on the 238U (232Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg-1 d-1 at 95% CL. We also searched for pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks separated in time by up to tens of days, as expected from 32Si –32P or 210Pbmore »–210Bi sequences of b decays. The decay rate of 32Si was found to be 80+110-65 (95% CI). An upper limit of ~35 kg -1 d-1 (95% CL) on the 210Pb decay rate was obtained independently by ? spectroscopy and the ? decay sequence search. Furthermore, these levels of radioactive contamination are sufficiently low for the successful operation of CCDs in the forthcoming 100 g DAMIC detector.« less

  1. Measurement of Radioactive Contamination in the High-Resistivity Silicon CCDs of the DAMIC Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.

    2015-08-25

    We present measurements of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used by the DAMIC experiment to search for dark matter particles. Novel analysis methods, which exploit the unique spatial resolution of CCDs, were developed to identify ? and ? particles. Uranium and thorium contamination in the CCD bulk was measured through ? spectroscopy, with an upper limit on the 238U (232Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg-1 d-1 at 95% CL. We also searched for pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks separated in time by up to tens of days, as expected from 32Si –32P or 210Pb –210Bi sequences of b decays. The decay rate of 32Si was found to be 80+110-65 (95% CI). An upper limit of ~35 kg -1 d-1 (95% CL) on the 210Pb decay rate was obtained independently by ? spectroscopy and the ? decay sequence search. Furthermore, these levels of radioactive contamination are sufficiently low for the successful operation of CCDs in the forthcoming 100 g DAMIC detector.

  2. Measurement of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon CCDs of the DAMIC experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A; Bertou, X; Bole, D; Butner, M; Cancelo, G; Vázquez, A Castañeda; Chavarria, A E; Neto, J R T de Mello; Dixon, S; D'Olivo, J C; Estrada, J; Moroni, G Fernandez; Torres, K P Hernández; Izraelevitch, F; Kavner, A; Kilminster, B; Lawson, I; Liao, J; López, M; Molina, J; Moreno-Granados, G; Pena, J; Privitera, P; Sarkis, Y; Scarpine, V; Schwarz, T; Haro, M Sofo; Tiffenberg, J; Machado, D Torres; Trillaud, F; You, X; Zhou, J

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used by the DAMIC experiment to search for dark matter particles. Novel analysis methods, which exploit the unique spatial resolution of CCDs, were developed to identify $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ particles. Uranium and thorium contamination in the CCD bulk was measured through $\\alpha$ spectroscopy, with an upper limit on the $^{238}$U ($^{232}$Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ at 95% CL. We also searched for pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks separated in time by up to tens of days, as expected from $^{32}$Si-$^{32}$P or $^{210}$Pb-$^{210}$Bi sequences of $\\beta$ decays. The decay rate of $^{32}$Si was found to be $80^{+110}_{-65}$ kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ (95% CI). An upper limit of $\\sim$35 kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ (95% CL) on the $^{210}$Pb decay rate was obtained independently by $\\alpha$ spectroscopy and the $\\beta$ decay sequence search. These levels of radioactive contamination are su...

  3. Measurement of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon CCDs of the DAMIC experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Aguilar-Arevalo; D. Amidei; X. Bertou; D. Bole; M. Butner; G. Cancelo; A. Castañeda Vázquez; A. E. Chavarria; J. R. T. de Mello Neto; S. Dixon; J. C. D'Olivo; J. Estrada; G. Fernandez Moroni; K. P. Hernández Torres; F. Izraelevitch; A. Kavner; B. Kilminster; I. Lawson; J. Liao; M. López; J. Molina; G. Moreno-Granados; J. Pena; P. Privitera; Y. Sarkis; V. Scarpine; T. Schwarz; M. Sofo Haro; J. Tiffenberg; D. Torres Machado; F. Trillaud; X. You; J. Zhou

    2015-07-09

    We present measurements of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used by the DAMIC experiment to search for dark matter particles. Novel analysis methods, which exploit the unique spatial resolution of CCDs, were developed to identify $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ particles. Uranium and thorium contamination in the CCD bulk was measured through $\\alpha$ spectroscopy, with an upper limit on the $^{238}$U ($^{232}$Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ at 95% CL. We also searched for pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks separated in time by up to tens of days, as expected from $^{32}$Si-$^{32}$P or $^{210}$Pb-$^{210}$Bi sequences of $\\beta$ decays. The decay rate of $^{32}$Si was found to be $80^{+110}_{-65}$ kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ (95% CI). An upper limit of $\\sim$35 kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ (95% CL) on the $^{210}$Pb decay rate was obtained independently by $\\alpha$ spectroscopy and the $\\beta$ decay sequence search. These levels of radioactive contamination are sufficiently low for the successful operation of CCDs in the forthcoming 100 g DAMIC detector.

  4. Tritium trapping in silicon carbide in contact with solid breeder under high flux isotope reactor irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Katsui; Y. Katoh; A. Hasegawa; M. Shimada; Y. Hatano; T. Hinoki; S. Nogami; T. Tanaka; S. Nagata; T. Shikama

    2013-11-01

    The trapping of tritium in silicon carbide (SiC) injected from ceramic breeding materials was examined via tritium measurements using imaging plate (IP) techniques. Monolithic SiC in contact with ternary lithium oxide (lithium titanate and lithium aluminate) as a ceramic breeder was irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. The distribution of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) of tritium in SiC was successfully obtained, which separated the contribution of 14C ß-rays to the PSL. The tritium incident from ceramic breeders was retained in the vicinity of the SiC surface even after irradiation at 1073 K over the duration of ~3000 h, while trapping of tritium was not observed in the bulk region. The PSL intensity near the SiC surface in contact with lithium titanate was higher than that obtained with lithium aluminate. The amount of the incident tritium and/or the formation of a Li2SiO3 phase on SiC due to the reaction with lithium aluminate under irradiation likely were responsible for this observation.

  5. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making processmore »regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.« less

  6. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making process regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.

  7. High-capacity nanostructured germanium-containing materials and lithium alloys thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graetz, Jason A. (Upton, NY); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Ahn, Channing (Pasadena, CA); Yazami, Rachid (Los Angeles, CA)

    2010-08-24

    Electrodes comprising an alkali metal, for example, lithium, alloyed with nanostructured materials of formula Si.sub.zGe.sub.(z-1), where 0capacities, cycle lives, and/or cycling rates compared with similar electrodes made from graphite. These electrodes are useful as anodes for secondary electrochemical cells, for example, batteries and electrochemical supercapacitors.

  8. High Efficiency Linguistics Program for Spanish (HELPS): A Cyclic Curriculum for Improving Intrinsic Spanish Language Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burt, D.; Jones, T.; Silber, J.; Woods, W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstracts Issue 2015 High Efficiency Linguistics Program forIn response, the High Efficiency Linguistics Program for

  9. Process for producing silicon nitride based articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huckabee, M.; Buljan, S.T.; Neil, J.T.

    1991-09-10

    A process for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength is disclosed. The process involves densifying to at least 98% of theoretical density a mixture including (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 [mu]m and a surface area of about 8-12 m[sup 2]/g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 [mu]m and a surface area of about 2-4 m[sup 2]/g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. Optionally, the mixture may be blended with a binder and injection molded to form a green body, which then may be densified by, for example, hot isostatic pressing.

  10. Process for producing silicon nitride based articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huckabee, Marvin (Marlboro, MA); Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav (Acton, MA); Neil, Jeffrey T. (Acton, MA)

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength. The process involves densifying to at least 98% of theoretical density a mixture including (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 .mu.m and a surface area of about 8-12 m.sup.2 /g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 .mu.m and a surface area of about 2-4 m.sup.2 /g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. Optionally, the mixture may be blended with a binder and injection molded to form a green body, which then may be densified by, for example, hot isostatic pressing.

  11. Design, microstructure, and high-temperature behavior of silicon nitride sintered with rate-earth oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciniculk, M.K. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering)

    1991-08-01

    The processing-microstructure-property relations of silicon nitride ceramics sintered with rare-earth oxide additives have been investigated with the aim of improving their high-temperature behavior. The additions of the oxides of Y, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, or Yb were compositionally controlled to tailor the intergranular phase. The resulting microstructure consisted of {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grains and a crystalline secondary phase of RE{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}, with a thin residual amorphous phase present at grain boundaries. The lanthanide oxides were found to be as effective as Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} in densifying Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, resulting in identical microstructures. The crystallization behavior of all six disilicates was similar, characterized by a limited nucleation and rapid growth mechanism resulting in large single crystals. Complete crystallization of the intergranular phase was obtained with the exception of a residual amorphous, observed at interfaces and believed to be rich in impurities, the cause of incomplete devitrification. The low resistance to oxidation of these materials was attributed to the minimization of amorphous phases via devitrification to disilicates, compatible with SiO{sub 2}, the oxidation product of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The strength retention of these materials at 1300{degrees}C was found to be between 80% and 91% of room-temperature strength, due to crystallization of the secondary phase and a residual but refractory amorphous grain-boundary phase. The creep behavior was found to be strongly dependent on residual amorphous phase viscosity as well as on the oxidation behavior, as evidenced by the nonsteady-state creep rates of all materials. 122 refs., 51 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. High spatial resolution radiation detectors based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon and scintillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing, T [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Engineering-Nuclear Engineering

    1995-05-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) as a large-area thin film semiconductor with ease of doping and low-cost fabrication capability has given a new impetus to the field of imaging sensors; its high radiation resistance also makes it a good material for radiation detectors. In addition, large-area microelectronics based on a-Si:H or polysilicon can be made with full integration of peripheral circuits, including readout switches and shift registers on the same substrate. Thin a-Si:H p-i-n photodiodes coupled to suitable scintillators are shown to be suitable for detecting charged particles, electrons, and X-rays. The response speed of CsI/a-Si:H diode combinations to individual particulate radiation is limited by the scintillation light decay since the charge collection time of the diode is very short (< 10ns). The reverse current of the detector is analyzed in term of contact injection, thermal generation, field enhanced emission (Poole-Frenkel effect), and edge leakage. A good collection efficiency for a diode is obtained by optimizing the p layer of the diode thickness and composition. The CsI(Tl) scintillator coupled to an a-Si:H photodiode detector shows a capability for detecting minimum ionizing particles with S/N {approximately}20. In such an arrangement a p-i-n diode is operated in a photovoltaic mode (reverse bias). In addition, a p-i-n diode can also work as a photoconductor under forward bias and produces a gain yield of 3--8 for shaping times of 1 {micro}s. The mechanism of the formation of structured CsI scintillator layers is analyzed. Initial nucleation in the deposited layer is sensitive to the type of substrate medium, with imperfections generally catalyzing nucleation. Therefore, the microgeometry of a patterned substrate has a significant effect on the structure of the CsI growth.

  13. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  14. A HighGranularity Scintillator Calorimeter Read Out with Silicon Photomultipliers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Experimental Physics, Moscow, Russia d Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia e Moscow Engineering, the Silicon Photomultiplier. A prototype has been tested using a positron test beam at DESY. The results for the reconstruction of heavy bosons (W, Z, H) in hadronic final states. The goal lies in a measurement of jets

  15. Light-induced V{sub oc} increase and decrease in high-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuckelberger, M., E-mail: michael.stuckelberger@epfl.ch; Riesen, Y.; Despeisse, M.; Schüttauf, J.-W.; Haug, F.-J.; Ballif, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory, Rue de la Maladière 71, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2014-09-07

    High-efficiency amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells were deposited with different thicknesses of the p-type amorphous silicon carbide layer on substrates of varying roughness. We observed a light-induced open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) increase upon light soaking for thin p-layers, but a decrease for thick p-layers. Further, the V{sub oc} increase is enhanced with increasing substrate roughness. After correction of the p-layer thickness for the increased surface area of rough substrates, we can exclude varying the effective p-layer thickness as the cause of the substrate roughness dependence. Instead, we explain the observations by an increase of the dangling-bond density in both the p-layer—causing a V{sub oc} increase—and in the intrinsic absorber layer, causing a V{sub oc} decrease. We present a mechanism for the light-induced increase and decrease, justified by the investigation of light-induced changes of the p-layer and supported by Advanced Semiconductor Analysis simulation. We conclude that a shift of the electron quasi-Fermi level towards the conduction band is the reason for the observed V{sub oc} enhancements, and poor amorphous silicon quality on rough substrates enhances this effect.

  16. Hierarchical Network Architectures of Carbon Fiber Paper Supported Cobalt Oxide Nanonet for High-Capacity Pseudocapacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Hierarchical Network Architectures of Carbon Fiber Paper Supported Cobalt Oxide Nanonet for High as an advantageous architecture for transparent electrodes in optoelectronic devices due primarily to high of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332

  17. Liquid-phase plasma synthesis of silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix for lithium battery anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Ying [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Yu, Hang; Li, Haitao; Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) were fabricated. • SiQDs/C exhibits excellent battery performance as anode materials with high specific capacity. • The good performance was attributed to the marriage of small sized SiQDs and carbon. - Abstract: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) nanocomposites were prepared by a novel liquid-phase plasma assisted synthetic process. The SiQDs/C nanocomposites were demonstrated to show high specific capacity, good cycling life and high coulmbic efficiency as anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  18. High Efficiency Triple-Junction Amorphous Silicon Alloy Photovoltaic Technology, Final Technical Report, 6 March 1998 - 15 October 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, S.

    2001-11-08

    This report describes the research program intended to expand, enhance, and accelerate knowledge and capabilities for developing high-performance, two-terminal multijunction amorphous silicon (a-Si) alloy cells, and modules with low manufacturing cost and high reliability. United Solar uses a spectrum-splitting, triple-junction cell structure. The top cell uses an amorphous silicon alloy of {approx}1.8-eV bandgap to absorb blue photons. The middle cell uses an amorphous silicon germanium alloy ({approx}20% germanium) of {approx}1.6-eV bandgap to capture green photons. The bottom cell has {approx}40% germanium to reduce the bandgap to {approx}1.4-eV to capture red photons. The cells are deposited on a stainless-steel substrate with a predeposited silver/zinc oxide back reflector to facilitate light-trapping. A thin layer of antireflection coating is applied to the top of the cell to reduce reflection loss. The major research activities conducted under this program were: (1) Fundamental studies to improve our understanding of materials and devices; the work included developing and analyzing a-Si alloy and a-SiGe alloy materials prepared near the threshold of amorphous-to-microcrystalline transition and studying solar cells fabricated using these materials. (2) Deposition of small-area cells using a radio-frequency technique to obtain higher deposition rates. (3) Deposition of small-area cells using a modified very high frequency technique to obtain higher deposition rates. (4) Large-area cell research to obtain the highest module efficiency. (5) Optimization of solar cells and modules fabricated using production parameters in a large-area reactor.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Capacity Polyanion Cathodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by The University of Texas at Austin at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Metal-Based High Capacity Li-Ion Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Binghamton University-SUNY at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about metal-based high...

  1. A highly scalable fully non-blocking silicon photonic switch fabric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolova, Dessislava; Liu, Yang; Rumley, Sebastien; Novack, Ari; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael; Bergman, Keren

    2016-01-01

    Large port count spatial optical switches will facilitate flexible and energy efficient data movement in future data communications systems, especially if they are capable of nanosecond-order reconfiguration times. In this work, we demonstrate an 8x8 microring-based silicon photonic switch with software controlled switching. The proposed switch architecture is modular as it assembles multiple identical components with multiplexing/demultiplexing functionalities. The switch is fully non-blocking, has path independent insertion loss, low crosstalk and is straightforward to control. A scalability analysis shows that this architecture can scale to very large port counts. This work represents the first demonstration of real-time firmware controlled switching with silicon photonics devices integrated at the chip scale.

  2. Silicon dioxide and hafnium dioxide evaporation characteristics from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Tsujimoto, N. [MDC Vacuum Products Corporation, Hayward, California 94545 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Reactive oxygen evaporation characteristics were determined as a function of the front-panel control parameters provided by a programmable, high-frequency sweep e-beam system. An experimental design strategy used deposition rate, beam speed, pattern, azimuthal rotation speed, and dwell time as the variables. The optimal settings for obtaining a broad thickness distribution, efficient silicon dioxide boule consumption, and minimal hafnium dioxide defect density were generated. The experimental design analysis showed the compromises involved with evaporating these oxides. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  3. High-capacity single-pressure SF/sub 6/ interrupters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rostron, J R; Berkebile, L E; Spindle, H E

    1983-05-01

    The object of this project was to design and develop a high-voltage, single-pressure, SF/sub 6/ interrupter with an interrupting capability of 120 kA at 145 kV with a continuous current rating of 5000 A and an interrupting time of 1.5 cycles or less. A second objective of 100 kA at 242 kV was added during the project. Mathematical models were used to extrapolate design requirements from existing data for 63 and 80 kA. Two model puffers, one liquid and the other gas, were designed and tested to obtain data at 100 kA. An interrupter, optimized on the basis of total prospective breaker cost, was designed using the mathematical models. A study was made of the construction materials to operate under the high-stress conditions in this interrupter. Existing high-speed movies of high-current arcs under double-flow conditions were analyzed to obtain more information for modeling the interrupter. The optimized interrupter design was built and tested. The interrupting capability confirmed calculations of predicted performance near current zero; however, the dielectric strength after interrupting these high-current arcs was not adequate for the 145-kV or the 242-kV ratings. The dielectric strength was reduced by hot gases flowing out of the interrupter. Valuable data have been obtained for modeling the SF/sub 6/ puffer interrupter for high currents.

  4. Computational design of high performance hybrid perovskite on silicon tandem solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rolland, A; Beck, A; Kepenekian, M; Katan, C; Huang, Y; Wang, S; Cornet, C; Durand, O; Even, J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the optoelectronic properties of a monolithically integrated series-connected tandem solar cell are simulated. Following the large success of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites, which have recently demonstrated large efficiencies with low production costs, we examine the possibility of using the same perovskites as absorbers in a tandem solar cell. The cell consists in a methylammonium mixed bromide-iodide lead perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3(1-x)Br3x (0 < x < 1), top sub-cell and a single-crystalline silicon bottom sub-cell. A Si-based tunnel junction connects the two sub-cells. Numerical simulations are based on a one-dimensional numerical drift-diffusion model. It is shown that a top cell absorbing material with 20% of bromide and a thickness in the 300-400 nm range affords current matching with the silicon bottom cell. Good interconnection between single cells is ensured by standard n and p doping of the silicon at 5.10^19cm-3 in the tunnel junction. A maximum efficiency of 27% is predicted ...

  5. Improved power capacity in a high efficiency klystron-like relativistic backward wave oscillator by distributed energy extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Renzhen; Chen, Changhua; Cao, Yibing; Sun, Jun [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)

    2013-12-07

    With the efficiency increase of a klystron-like relativistic backward wave oscillator, the maximum axial electric field and harmonic current simultaneously appear at the end of the beam-wave interaction region, leading to a highly centralized energy exchange in the dual-cavity extractor and a very high electric field on the cavity surface. Thus, we present a method of distributed energy extraction in this kind of devices. Particle-in-cell simulations show that with the microwave power of 5.1?GW and efficiency of 70%, the maximum axial electric field is decreased from 2.26 MV/cm to 1.28 MV/cm, indicating a threefold increase in the power capacity.

  6. Multiple-part-type systems in high volume manufacturing : long-term capacity planning & time-based production control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hua, Xia, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    This project examines a production station that faces fluctuating demand with seasonal pattern. The cumulative capacity exceeds the cumulative demand in a one year period; however, its weekly capacity is not able to meet ...

  7. A novel high capacity positive electrode material with tunnel-type structure for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Mu, Linqin; Liu, Jue; Yang, Zhenzhong; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong -Sheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Chen, Liquan; et al

    2015-08-06

    In this study, aqueous sodium-ion batteries have shown desired properties of high safety characteristics and low-cost for large-scale energy storage applications such as smart grid, because of the abundant sodium resources as well as the inherently safer aqueous electrolytes. Among various Na insertion electrode materials, tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 has been widely investigated as a positive electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. However, the low achievable capacity hinders its practical applications. Here we report a novel sodium rich tunnel-type positive material with a nominal composition of Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2. The tunnel-type structure of Na0.44MnO2 obtained for this compound was confirmed by XRD and atomic-scale STEM/EELS.more »When cycled as positive electrode in full cells using NaTi2(PO4)3/C as negative electrode in 1M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, this material shows the highest capacity of 76 mAh g-1 among the Na insertion oxides with an average operating voltage of 1.2 V at a current rate of 2C. These results demonstrate that Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2 is a promising positive electrode material for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries.« less

  8. New high-capacity, calcium-based sorbents, calcium silicate sorbents. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenney, M.E.

    1996-02-28

    A search is being carried out for new calcium-based SO{sub 2} sorbents for induct injection. More specifically, a search is being carried out for induct injection calcium silicate sorbents that are highly cost effective. The current year objectives include the study of sorbents made by hydrating ordinary or Type I portland cement or portland cement clinker (a cement intermediate) under carefully selected conditions. Results of this study show that an excellent portland cement sorbent can be prepared by milling cement at 120{degrees}C at 600 rpm for 15 minutes with MgO-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} beads. They also show that clinker, which is cheaper than cement can be used interchangeably with cement as a starting material. Further, it is clear that while a high surface area may be a desirable property of a good sorbent, it is not a requisite property. Among the hydration reaction variables, milling time is highly important, reaction temperature is important and stirring rate and silicate-to-H{sub 2}O ratio are moderately important. The components of hydrated cement sorbent are various combinations of C-S-H, calcium silicate hydrate:Ca(OH){sub 2};AFm. a phase in hydrated cement.

  9. Design and Synthesis of Novel Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) Toward High Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, Eddaoudi; Zaworotko, Michael; Space, Brian; Eckert, Juergen

    2013-05-08

    Statement of Objectives: 1. Synthesize viable porous MOFs for high H2 storage at ambient conditions to be assessed by measuring H2 uptake. 2. Develop a better understanding of the operative interactions of the sorbed H2 with the organic and inorganic constituents of the sorbent MOF by means of inelastic neutron scattering (INS, to characterize the H2-MOF interactions) and computational studies (to interpret the data and predict novel materials suitable for high H2 uptake at moderate temperatures and relatively low pressures). 3. Synergistically combine the outcomes of objectives 1 and 2 to construct a made-to-order inexpensive MOF that is suitable for super H2 storage and meets the DOE targets - 6% H2 per weight (2kWh/kg) by 2010 and 9% H2 per weight (3kWh/kg) by 2015. The ongoing research is a collaborative experimental and computational effort focused on assessing H2 storage and interactions with pre-selected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolite-like MOFs (ZMOFs), with the eventual goal of synthesizing made-to-order high H2 storage materials to achieve the DOE targets for mobile applications. We proposed in this funded research to increase the amount of H2 uptake, as well as tune the interactions (i.e. isosteric heats of adsorption), by targeting readily tunable MOFs:

  10. Single crystal silicon as a macro-world structural material : application to compact, lightweight high pressure vessels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garza, Tanya Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Single crystal silicon has promising inherent structural properties which are attractive for weight sensitive applications. Single crystal silicon, however, is a brittle material which makes the usable strength that can ...

  11. High temperature adhesive silicone foam composition, foam generating system and method of generating foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mead, Judith W. (Peralta, NM); Montoya, Orelio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Rand, Peter B. (Albuquerque, NM); Willan, Vernon O. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-01-01

    Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO.sub.2 in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.

  12. Advanced Materials . 2012, 24, 25922597 High-Rate Capability Silicon Decorated Vertically AlignedCarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    a leading technology for medical and electronic devices as well as electric vehicles. The increasing demand.[1] Then, as nanotechnology develops, various Si-nanostructures have emerged as an appropriate anode material. Specific charge storage capacity about 2000 mAh g-1 is available and stable after one

  13. Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Riccardo Ruffo,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Riccardo Ruffo, Seung Sae Hong as a high-capacity anode in a lithium ion battery. The ac response was measured by using impedance for higher specific energy lithium ion batteries for applications such as electric vehicles, next generation

  14. Mechanism for high hydrogen storage capacity on metal-coated carbon nanotubes: A first principle analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jinlian; Xiao, Hong [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China); Cao, Juexian, E-mail: jxcao@xtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China)

    2012-12-15

    The hydrogen adsorption and binding mechanism on metals (Ca, Sc, Ti and V) decorated single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are investigated using first principle calculations. Our results show that those metals coated on SWCNTs can uptake over 8 wt% hydrogen molecules with binding energy range -0.2--0.6 eV, promising potential high density hydrogen storage material. The binding mechanism is originated from the electrostatic Coulomb attraction, which is induced by the electric field due to the charge transfer from metal 4s to 3d. Moreover, we found that the interaction between the H{sub 2}-H{sub 2} further lowers the binding energy. - Graphical abstract: Five hydrogen molecules bound to individual Ca decorated (8, 0) SWCNT : a potential hydrogen-storage material. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each transition metal atom can adsorb more than four hydrogen molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interation between metal and hydrogen molecule is electrostatic coulomb attraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electric field is induced by the charge transfer from metal 4s to metal 3d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorbed hydrogen molecules which form supermolecule can further lower the binding energy.

  15. Black Conductive Titanium Oxide High-Capacity Materials for Battery Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, W.

    2011-05-18

    Stoichiometric titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is one of the most widely studied transitionmetal oxides because of its many potential applications in photoelectrochemical systems, such as dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} electrodes for photovoltaic solar cells, and water-splitting catalysts for hydrogen generation, and in environmental purification for creating or degrading specific compounds. However, TiO{sub 2} has a wide bandgap and high electrical resistivity, which limits its use as an electrode. A set of non-stoichiometric titanium oxides called the Magneli phases, having a general formula of Ti{sub n}O{sub 2n-1} with n between 4 and 10, exhibits lower bandgaps and resistivities, with the highest electrical conductivities reported for Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7}. These phases have been formulated under different conditions, but in all reported cases the resulting oxides have minimum grain sizes on the order of micrometers, regardless of the size of the starting titanium compounds. In this method, nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2} or hydrogen titanates are first coated with carbon using either wet or dry chemistry methods. During this process the size and shape of the nanoparticles are 'locked in.' Subsequently the carbon-coated nanoparticles are heated. This results in the transformation of the original TiO{sub 2} or hydrogen titanates to Magneli phases without coarsening, so that the original size and shape of the nanoparticles are maintained to a precise degree. People who work on batteries, fuel cells, ultracapacitors, electrosynthesis cells, electro-chemical devices, and soil remediation have applications that could benefit from using nanoscale Magneli phases of titanium oxide. Application of these electrode materials may not be limited to substitution for TiO{sub 2} electrodes. Combining the robustness and photosensitivity of TiO{sub 2} with higher electrical conductivity may result in a general electrode material.

  16. Low noise high-T{sub c} superconducting bolometers on silicon nitride membranes for far-infrared detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Nivelle, M.J.; Bruijn, M.P.; de Vries, R.; Wijnbergen, J.J.; de Korte, P.A. [Space Research Organization Netherlands, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (The Netherlands)] [Space Research Organization Netherlands, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (The Netherlands); Sanchez, S.; Elwenspoek, M. [MESA Research Institute, Twente University, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (The Netherlands)] [MESA Research Institute, Twente University, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (The Netherlands); Heidenblut, T.; Schwierzi, B. [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnologie und Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik, Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 11A, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)] [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnologie und Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik, Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 11A, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Michalke, W.; Steinbeiss, E. [Institut fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie, Helmholtzweg 4, D-07743 Jena (Germany)] [Institut fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie, Helmholtzweg 4, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    1997-11-01

    High-T{sub c} GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} superconductor bolometers with operation temperatures near 89 K, large receiving areas of 0.95mm{sup 2} and very high detectivity have been made. The bolometers are supported by 0.62 {mu}m thick silicon nitride membranes. A specially developed silicon-on-nitride layer was used to enable the epitaxial growth of the high-T{sub c} superconductor. Using a gold black absorption layer an absorption efficiency for wavelengths between 70 and 200 {mu}m of about 83{percent} has been established. The noise of the best devices is fully dominated by the intrinsic phonon noise of the thermal conductance G, and not by the 1/f noise of the superconducting film. The temperature dependence of the noise and the resulting optimum bias temperature have been investigated. In the analysis the often neglected effect of electrothermal feedback has been taken into account. The minimum electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) of a bolometer with a time constant {tau} of 95 ms is 2.9pW/Hz{sup 1/2} which corresponds with an electrical detectivity D{sup {asterisk}} of 3.4{times}10{sup 10}cmHz{sup 1/2}/W. Similar bolometers with {tau}=27ms and NEP=3.8pW/Hz{sup 1/2} were also made. No degradation of the bolometers could be observed after vibration tests, thermal cycling and half a year storage. Measurements of the noise of a Pr doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} film with T{sub c}=40K show that with such films the performance of air bridge type high-T{sub c} bolometers could be improved. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules. Annual subcontract report, 1 December 1991--31 October 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, M.; DelCueto, J.: Kampas, F.; Xi, J.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes results from the first phase of a three-phase contract for the development of stable, high-efficiency, same-band-gap, amorphous silicon (a-Si) multijunction photovoltaic (PV) modules. The program involved improving the properties of individual layers of semiconductor and non-semiconductor materials and small-area single-junction and multijunction devices, as well as the multijunction modules. The semiconductor materials research was performed on a-Si p, i, and n layers, and on microcrystalline silicon n layers. These were deposited using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The non-semiconductor materials studied were tin oxide, for use as a transparent-conducting-oxide (TCO), and zinc oxide, for use as a back reflector and as a buffer layer between the TCO and the semiconductor layers. Tin oxide was deposited using atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition. Zinc oxide was deposited using magnetron sputtering. The research indicated that the major challenge in the fabrication of a-Si multijunction PV modules is the contact between the two p-i-n cells. A structure that has low optical absorption but that also facilitates the recombination of electrons from the first p-i-n structure with holes from the second p-i-n structure is required. Non-semiconductor layers and a-Si semiconductor layers were tested without achieving the desired result.

  18. Process for the deposition of high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, V.K.

    1991-07-30

    A process is disclosed for depositing a high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coating on a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based substrate body. A gas mixture is passed over the substrate at about 900--1500 C and about 1 torr to about ambient pressure. The gas mixture includes one or more halide vapors with other suitable reactant gases. The partial pressure ratios, flow rates, and process times are sufficient to deposit a continuous, fully dense, adherent coating. The halide and other reactant gases are gradually varied during deposition so that the coating is a graded coating of at least two layers. Each layer is a graded layer changing in composition from the material over which it is deposited to the material of the layer and further to the material, if any, deposited thereon, so that no clearly defined compositional interfaces exist. The gases and their partial pressures are varied according to a predetermined time schedule and the halide and other reactant gases are selected so that the layers include (a) an adherent, continuous intermediate layer about 0.5-20 microns thick of an aluminum nitride or an aluminum oxynitride material, over and chemically bonded to the substrate body, and (b) an adherent, continuous first outer layer about 0.5-900 microns thick including an oxide of aluminum or zirconium over and chemically bonded to the intermediate layer.

  19. Research on high-efficiency, multiple-gap, multijunction, amorphous-silicon-based alloy thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, S. )

    1989-06-01

    This report presents results of research on advancing our understanding of amorphous-silicon-based alloys and their use in small-area multijunction solar cells. The principal objectives of the program are to develop a broad scientific base for the chemical, structural, optical, and electronic properties of amorphous-silicon-based alloys; to determine the optimum properties of these alloy materials as they relate to high-efficiency cells; to determine the optimum device configuration for multijunction cells; and to demonstrate proof-of-concept, multijunction, a-Si-alloy-based solar cells with 18% efficiency under standard AM1.5 global insolation conditions and with an area of at least 1 cm{sup 2}. A major focus of the work done during this reporting period was the optimization of a novel, multiple-graded structure that enhances cell efficiency through band-gap profiling. The principles of the operation of devices incorporating such a structure, computer simulations of those, and experimental results for both single- and multijunction cells prepared by using the novel structure are discussed in detail. 14 refs., 35 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Process for the deposition of high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod K. (Lexington, MA)

    1991-01-01

    A process for depositing a high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coating on a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based substrate body. A gas mixture is passed over the substrate at about 900.degree.-1500.degree. C. and about 1 torr to about ambient pressure. The gas mixture includes one or more halide vapors with other suitable reactant gases. The partial pressure ratios, flow rates, and process times are sufficient to deposit a continuous, fully dense, adherent coating. The halide and other reactant gases are gradually varied during deposition so that the coating is a graded coating of at least two layers. Each layer is a graded layer changing in composition from the material over which it is deposited to the material of the layer and further to the material, if any, deposited thereon, so that no clearly defined compositional interfaces exist. The gases and their partial pressures are varied according to a predetermined time schedule and the halide and other reactant gases are selected so that the layers include (a) an adherent, continuous intermediate layer about 0.5-20 microns thick of an aluminum nitride or an aluminum oxynitride material, over and chemically bonded to the substrate body, and (b) an adherent, continuous first outer layer about 0.5-900 microns thick including an oxide of aluminum or zirconium over and chemically bonded to the intermediate layer.

  1. Zeolite Y adsorbents with high vapor uptake capacity and robust cycling stability for potential applications in advanced adsorption heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, XS; Narayanan, S; Michaelis, VK; Ong, TC; Keeler, EG; Kim, H; Mckay, IS; Griffin, RG; Wang, EN

    2015-01-01

    Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg2+ ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg, Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the lab-scale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N-2 sorption, Al-27/Si-29 MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick's 2nd law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H2O and N-2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Silicon nitride swirl lower-chamber for high power turbocharged diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamiya, S.; Murachi, M.; Kawamoto, H.; Kato, S.; Kawakami, S.; Suzuki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes application of sintered silicon nitride to the swirl lower-chamber in order to improve performance of turbocharged diesel engines. Various stress analyses by finite element method and stress measurements have been applied to determine the design specifications for the component, which compromise brittleness of ceramic materials. Material development was conducted to evaluate strength, fracture toughness, and thermal properties for the sintered bodies. Ceramic injection molding has been employed to fabricate components with large quantities. In the present work. Quality assurance for the components can be made by reliability evaluation methods as well as non-destructive and stress loading inspections. It is found that the engine performance with ceramic component has been increased in the power out put of 9ps as compared to that of conventional engines.

  3. The Role of the University in Attracting High Tech Entrepreneurship: A Silicon Valley Tale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huffman, David; Quigley, John M.

    2002-01-01

    THE UNIVERSITY IN ATTRACTING HIGH TECH ENTREPRENEURSHIP: Athe University in Attracting High Tech Entrepreneurship: Athe University in Attracting High Tech Entrepreneurship: A

  4. High-resolution solid-state NMR study of the occurrence and thermal transformations of silicon-containing species in biomass materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freitas, J.C.C.; Emmerich, F.G.; Bonagamba, T.J.

    2000-03-01

    The occurrence of silicon in two kinds of biomass (rice hulls and endocarp of babassu coconut) and the thermal transformations taking place in these materials under heat treatments are studied here. The authors report also the production, characterization, and study of carbonaceous materials with high SiC content through the carbothermal reduction of silica, using these natural precursors. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and {sup 13}C and {sup 29}Si room temperature high-resolution solid-state NMR measurements are used in the characterization and study of the materials as well as the process of SiC formation. Important conclusions about the nature of silicon in these types of biomass and the effects of heat treatments on the structure of silicon-containing species are derived from the results presented. It is shown that silicon in these materials occurs in two distinct forms: amorphous hydrated silica and organically bound silicon species. The influence of spin-lattice relaxation dynamics on the NMR spectra is discussed, evidencing the role played by the paramagnetic defects produced in the materials through pyrolysis.

  5. Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules. Semiannual subcontract report, 1 March 1993--30 November 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, S.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the progress made during the first half of Phase III of the R&D program to obtain high-efficiency amorphous silicon alloy multijunction modules. The highlight of the work includes (1) demonstration of the world`s highest initial module efficiency (area of 0.09 m{sup 2}) of 11.4% as confirmed by NREL, and (2) demonstration of stable module efficiency of 9.5% after 1-sun light soaking for 1000 h at 50{degrees}C. In addition, fundamental studies were carried out to improve material properties of the component cells of the multijunction structure and to understand the optical losses associated with the back reflector.

  6. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calderini, G; Bomben, M; Boscardin, M; Bosisio, L; Chauveau, J; Giacomini, G; La Rosa, A; Marchiori, G; Zorzi, N

    2015-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade for the high luminosity phase (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment is planning to replace the inner detector with an all-silicon system. The n-in-p bulk technology represents a valid solution for the modules of most of the layers, given the significant radiation hardness of this option and the reduced cost. The large area necessary to instrument the outer layers will demand to tile the sensors, a solution for which the inefficient region at the border of each sensor needs to be reduced to the minimum size. This paper reports on a joint R&D project by the ATLAS LPNHE Paris group and FBK Trento on a novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel design, based on the deep-trench process available at FBK.

  7. Solid-Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of Silicon Carbide to Steel for High Temperature MEMS Sensor Packaging and Bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    electroplating of thick gold onto the silicon carbide squares, the samples were again coated with a 2 µm thick protective coating

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Wiring Up Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Stanford University at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about wiring up silicon...

  9. HIGH-Q INTEGRATED INDUCTORS ON TRENCHED SILICON ISLANDS Mina Raieszadeh, Pejman Monajemi, Sang-Woong Yoon, Joy Laskar, and Farrokh Ayazi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayazi, Farrokh

    HIGH-Q INTEGRATED INDUCTORS ON TRENCHED SILICON ISLANDS Mina Raieszadeh, Pejman Monajemi, Sang toxide Figure 1. Layout and equivalent electrical model of a planar spiral inductor. TRENCHED SI ISLAND by converting the electromagnetic energy into heat. Equations 2 and 3 show the components of the induced current

  10. Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravi, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

  11. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 609 2000 Materials Research Society Preparation of Microcrystalline Silicon Based Solar Cells at High i-layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    the efficiencies of the multi-junction devices. The µc-Si cells do not significantly degrade (-light absorbing structures in multi-junction cell with blue-green light absorbing a-Si:H top cells would lead of Microcrystalline Silicon Based Solar Cells at High i-layer Deposition Rates Using a Gas Jet Technique S.J. Jones

  12. Highly stable silicon dioxide films deposited by means of rapid thermal -low-pressure chemical vapor deposition onto InP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    grown by rapid thermal, low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (RT-LPCVD), using pure oxygen (0,) and 2Highly stable silicon dioxide films deposited by means of rapid thermal - low-pressure chemical vapor deposition onto InP A. Katz, A. Feingold, U. K. Chakrabarti, and S. J. Peat-ton AT&T Bell

  13. How Green is Silicon Valley? Ecological Sustainability and the High-tech Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Double Standards in Global High-Tech Production. http://Sustainability and the High-tech Industry Tom Evansand indicators projects. High-tech is often perceived to be

  14. Process for forming retrograde profiles in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiner, Kurt H. (San Jose, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Phoenix, AZ)

    1996-01-01

    A process for forming retrograde and oscillatory profiles in crystalline and polycrystalline silicon. The process consisting of introducing an n- or p-type dopant into the silicon, or using prior doped silicon, then exposing the silicon to multiple pulses of a high-intensity laser or other appropriate energy source that melts the silicon for short time duration. Depending on the number of laser pulses directed at the silicon, retrograde profiles with peak/surface dopant concentrations which vary from 1-1e4 are produced. The laser treatment can be performed in air or in vacuum, with the silicon at room temperature or heated to a selected temperature.

  15. OXIDE / LPCVD NITRIDE STACKS ON SILICON: THE EFFECTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE TREATMENTS ON BULK LIFETIME AND ON SURFACE PASSIVATION.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Sustainable Energy Systems, Engineering Department, The Australian National University, Acton 0200, Australia. ABSTRACT: Silicon dioxide / silicon nitride stacks are potentially useful for solar cell applications due significantly increased process flexibility and hence the realisation of novel cell structures. We used LPCVD

  16. High Areal Capacity Hybrid Magnesium-Lithium-Ion Battery with 99.9% Coulombic Efficiency for Large-Scale Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Areal Capacity Hybrid Magnesium-Lithium-Ion Battery with 99.9% Coulombic Efficiency for Large, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Hybrid magnesium-lithium-ion batteries (MLIBs magnesium-lithium-ion batteries (MLIBs), energy storage, Coulombic efficiency, dendrite-free magnesium

  17. Aluminium doped ceria–zirconia supported palladium-alumina catalyst with high oxygen storage capacity and CO oxidation activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Qiang; Yin, Shu Guo, Chongshen; Wu, Xiaoyong; Kimura, Takeshi; Sato, Tsugio

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} possessed high OSC and CO oxidation activity at low temperature. - Highlights: • A new OSC material of Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is prepared via a mechanochemical method. • Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed high OSC even after calcination at 1000 °C for 20 h. • Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibited the highest CO oxidation activity at low temperature correlates with enhanced OSC. - Abstract: The Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst prepared by a mechanochemical route and calcined at 1000 °C for 20 h in air atmosphere to evaluate the thermal stability. The prepared Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was characterized for the oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and CO oxidation activity in automotive catalysis. For the characterization, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and the Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) technique were employed. The OSC values of all samples were measured at 600 °C using thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis. Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst calcined at 1000 °C for 20 h with a BET surface area of 41 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1} exhibited the considerably high OSC of 583 ?mol-O g{sup ?1} and good OSC performance stability. The same synthesis route was employed for the preparation of the CeO{sub 2}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for comparison.

  18. Six Thousand Electrochemical Cycles of Double-Walled Silicon Nanotube Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, H

    2011-08-18

    Despite remarkable progress, lithium ion batteries still need higher energy density and better cycle life for consumer electronics, electric drive vehicles and large-scale renewable energy storage applications. Silicon has recently been explored as a promising anode material for high energy batteries; however, attaining long cycle life remains a significant challenge due to materials pulverization during cycling and an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase. Here, we report double-walled silicon nanotube electrodes that can cycle over 6000 times while retaining more than 85% of the initial capacity. This excellent performance is due to the unique double-walled structure in which the outer silicon oxide wall confines the inner silicon wall to expand only inward during lithiation, resulting in a stable solid-electrolyte interphase. This structural concept is general and could be extended to other battery materials that undergo large volume changes.

  19. The Effect of High Temperature Annealing on the Grain Characteristics of a Thin Chemical Vapor Deposition Silicon Carbide Layer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isabella J van Rooyen; Philippus M van Rooyen; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2013-08-01

    The unique combination of thermo-mechanical and physiochemical properties of silicon carbide (SiC) provides interest and opportunity for its use in nuclear applications. One of the applications of SiC is as a very thin layer in the TRi-ISOtropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles for high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This SiC layer, produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), is designed to withstand the pressures of fission and transmutation product gases in a high temperature, radiation environment. Various researchers have demonstrated that macroscopic properties can be affected by changes in the distribution of grain boundary plane orientations and misorientations [1 - 3]. Additionally, various researchers have attributed the release behavior of Ag through the SiC layer as a grain boundary diffusion phenomenon [4 - 6]; further highlighting the importance of understanding the actual grain characteristics of the SiC layer. Both historic HTGR fission product release studies and recent experiments at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [7] have shown that the release of Ag-110m is strongly temperature dependent. Although the maximum normal operating fuel temperature of a HTGR design is in the range of 1000-1250°C, the temperature may reach 1600°C under postulated accident conditions. The aim of this specific study is therefore to determine the magnitude of temperature dependence on SiC grain characteristics, expanding upon initial studies by Van Rooyen et al, [8; 9].

  20. Millimeter-wave GaN high electron mobility transistors and their integration with silicon electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Jinwook W. (Jinwook Will)

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the great progress in performance achieved during the last few years, GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) still have several important issues to be solved for millimeter-wave (30 ~ 300 GHz) applications. ...

  1. The importance of surface texture to high silicon solar cell performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitzer, M.B.; Bajgar, C.; Keavney, C.J.; Tobin, S.P.

    1984-08-01

    This paper reviews the utilization of surface texture for attainment of high conversion efficiency in Si p/n junction solar cells. Advantages and disadvantages of surface texture are discussed, and recent research on high efficiency ion-implanted cells that demonstrates some important aspects of texture is reviewed. Texture-etched cells with AMI conversion efficiency of 18% are reported and the manner in which use of texture might lead to even higher efficiency is discussed.

  2. Porous silicon based anode material formed using metal reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Masarapu, Charan; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2015-09-22

    A porous silicon based material comprising porous crystalline elemental silicon formed by reducing silicon dioxide with a reducing metal in a heating process followed by acid etching is used to construct negative electrode used in lithium ion batteries. Gradual temperature heating ramp(s) with optional temperature steps can be used to perform the heating process. The porous silicon formed has a high surface area from about 10 m.sup.2/g to about 200 m.sup.2/g and is substantially free of carbon. The negative electrode formed can have a discharge specific capacity of at least 1800 mAh/g at rate of C/3 discharged from 1.5V to 0.005V against lithium with in some embodiments loading levels ranging from about 1.4 mg/cm.sup.2 to about 3.5 mg/cm.sup.2. In some embodiments, the porous silicon can be coated with a carbon coating or blended with carbon nanofibers or other conductive carbon material.

  3. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4867008] I. INTRODUCTION A central focus of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell research important evaluation criterion for photovoltaic (PV) technology. Therefore, research on novel structures

  4. High-temperature defect engineering for silicon solar cells : predictive process simulation and synchrotron-based microcharacterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenning, David P

    2013-01-01

    Efficiency is a major lever for cost reduction in crystalline silicon solar cells, which dominate the photovoltaics market but cannot yet compete subsidy-free in most areas. Iron impurities are a key performance-limiting ...

  5. Evolution of Nickel-Manganese-Silicon Dominated Phases in Highly Irradiated Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter B Wells; Yuan Wu; Tim Milot; G. Robert Odette; Takuya Yamamoto; Brandon Miller; James Cole

    2014-11-01

    Formation of a high density of Ni-Mn-Si nm-scale precipitates in irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels, both with and without Cu, could lead to severe embrittlement. Models long ago predicted that these precipitates, which are not treated in current embrittlement regulations, would emerge only at high fluence. However, the mechanisms and variables that control Ni-Mn- Si precipitate formation, and their detailed characteristics, have not been well understood. High flux irradiations of six steels with systematic variations in Cu and Ni were carried out at ˜ 295±5°C to high and very high neutron fluences of ˜ 1.3x1020 and 1.1x1021 n/cm2. Atom probe tomography (APT) shows that significant mole fractions of these precipitates form in the Cu bearing steels at ˜ 1.3x1020 n/cm2, while they are only beginning to develop in Cu-free steels. However, large mole fractions, far in excess of those found in previous studies, are observed at 1.1x1021 n/cm2 at all Cu levels. The precipitates diffract, and in one case are compositionally and structurally consistent with the Mn6Ni16Si7 G-phase. At the highest fluence, the large precipitate mole fractions primarily depend on the steel Ni content, rather than Cu, and lead to enormous strength increases up to about 700 MPa. The implications of these results to light water reactor life extension are discussed briefly.

  6. 2013 IEEE 14th International Conference on High Performance Switching and Routing On Capacity Provisioning in Datacenter Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Changcheng

    Provisioning in Datacenter Networks for Full Bandwidth Communication Wenda Ni*, Changcheng Huang*, and Jing Wu.huang}@sce.carleton.ca.jingwu@ieee.org Abstract-Recent advances in datacenter network design have enabled full bandwidth communication based, and under k arbitrary link failures. We derive the minimum link capacity required on two typical datacenter

  7. A Silicon Strip Detector for the Phase II High Luminosity Upgrade of the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos García-Argos

    2015-01-13

    This thesis presents the work carried out in the testing of the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade electronic systems in the future strips tracker after 2023, to be installed for operations in the HL-LHC period. The high luminosity and number of interactions per crossing that will happen after the HL-LHC starts require a complete replacement of the ATLAS tracker. The systems that have been defined for the Phase-II Upgrade will be designed to cope with that increased radiation and have the right granularity to maintain the performance with higher pile-up. In this thesis I present results on single modules and larger structures comprising multiple modules. In the context of the current ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker studies, I present an analysis of the data taken by the detector from the beginning of operation in 2010 until the first Long Shut-down in 2013. The analysis consists of an energy loss study in the Semiconductor Tracker, a task the detector was not designed to perform. However, the availability of the Time-over-Threshold of the signals generated by particles traversing the detector elements allows an estimation of the charge deposited by the particles. This calculation of the energy loss is typically used to perform particle identification, a feature that is usually not required from the tracker. In addition, I present a study that proposes the use of this energy loss calculation as a means of tracking radiation damage in the silicon.

  8. A Highly Granular Silicon-Tungsten Electromagnetic Calorimeter and Top Quark Production at the International Linear Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouëné, J

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with two aspects of the International Linear Collider (ILC) which is a project of a linear electron-positron collider of up to at least 500 GeV center of mass energy. The first aspect is the development of a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (SiW-ECAL) for one of the detectors of the ILC. The concept of this detector is driven by the ILC beam specifications and by the Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA). This requires highly granular calorimeter and very compact one with integrated electronics. To prove the capability of the SiW- ECAL a technological prototype has been built and tested in test beam at DESY. The results are presented here, and show, after the calibration procedure a signal over noise ratio of 10, even in the power pulsing mode. The second aspect is the study of one of the important physics channels of the ILC, the top anti-top quark pairs production. The main goal of this study is to determine the precision that we can expect at the ILC on the top coupling with the W bos...

  9. Characterization of microstructure, texture and magnetic properties in twin-roll casting high silicon non-oriented electrical steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hao-Ze; Liu, Hai-Tao Liu, Zhen-Yu Lu, Hui-Hu; Song, Hong-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2014-02-15

    An Fe-6.5 wt.% Si-0.3 wt.% Al as-cast sheet was produced by twin-roll strip casting process, then treated with hot rolling, warm rolling and annealing. A detailed study of the microstructure and texture evolution at different processing stages was carried out by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction analysis. The initial as-cast strip showed strong columnar grains and pronounced < 001 >//ND texture. The hot rolled and warm rolled sheets were characterized by large amounts of shear bands distributed through the thickness together with strong < 110 >//RD texture and weak < 111 >//ND texture. After annealing, detrimental < 111 >//ND texture almost disappeared while beneficial (001)<210 >, (001)<010 >, (115)<5 ? 10 1 > and (410) < 001 > recrystallization textures were formed, thus the magnetic induction of the annealed sheet was significantly improved. The recrystallization texture in the present study could be explained by preferred nucleation and grain growth mechanism. - Highlights: • A high silicon as-cast strip with columnar structure was produced. • A thin warm rolled sheet without large edge cracks was obtained. • Microstructure and texture evolution at each stage were investigated. • Beneficial (001)<210 >, (001)<010 >, (410)<001 > recrystallization textures were formed. • The magnetic induction of annealed sheet was significantly improved.

  10. Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    microcavity biosensors Hai Yan, Yi Zou, Swapnajit Chakravarty, Chun-Ju Yang, Zheng Wang, Naimei Tang, Donglei-high sensitivity configuration in chip-integrated photonic crystal microcavity bio-sensors Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191109 (2014); 10.1063/1.4875903 On-chip microfluidic biosensor using superparamagnetic microparticles

  11. Silicon photonic parametric optical processing for ultra-high bandwidth on-chip signal grooming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    St., New York, NY 10027, USA ABSTRACT We show wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting using an energy-efficient and optically-transparent alternative for some functionalities currently realized using communication networks, the energy consumption of optical- electrical-optical (OEO) network interfaces and high

  12. Silicon Wafer Processing Dr. Seth P. Bates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    of the few markets in which, as time passes, the power and capacity of the products grows steadily, while to successfully transform the silicon into ICs require an absolute absence of contaminants. Thus, the process the cost of that power and capacity drops. Today, only twenty years later, we are continually pushing

  13. High-G testing of MEMS mechanical non-volatile memory and silicon re-entry

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article)SciTech Connect HighHighin a(Conference)

  14. High-G testing of MEMS mechanical non-volatile memory and silicon re-entry

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article)SciTech Connect HighHighin

  15. Diamond-silicon carbide composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Yusheng

    2006-06-13

    Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=5–8 GPa, T=1400K–2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.dot.m1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

  16. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.; Lin, Guang H.; Ganguly, Gautam

    2004-08-31

    This invention is a photovoltaic device comprising an intrinsic or i-layer of amorphous silicon and where the photovoltaic device is more efficient at converting light energy to electric energy at high operating temperatures than at low operating temperatures. The photovoltaic devices of this invention are suitable for use in high temperature operating environments.

  17. Power mixture and green body for producing silicon nitride base articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huckabee, M.L.; Buljan, S.T.; Neil, J.T.

    1991-09-17

    A powder mixture and a green body for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength are disclosed. The powder mixture includes (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 [mu]m and a surface area of about 8-12m[sup 2]g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 [mu]m and a surface area of about 2-4 m[sup 2]/g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. The green body is formed from the powder mixture, an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid, and an effective amount of a suitable organic binder. No Drawings

  18. Power mixture and green body for producing silicon nitride base & articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huckabee, Marvin L. (Marlboro, MA); Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav (Acton, MA); Neil, Jeffrey T. (Acton, MA)

    1991-01-01

    A powder mixture and a green body for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength. The powder mixture includes 9a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon mitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 .mu.m and a surface area of about 8-12m.sup.2 g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 .mu.m and a surface area of about 2-4 m.sup.2 /g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified articel an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. The green body is formed from the powder mixture, an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid, and an effective amount of a suitable organic binder.

  19. High-fluence Ga-implanted silicon—The effect of annealing and cover layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiedler, J., E-mail: jan.fiedler@hzdr.de; Heera, V.; Hübner, R.; Voelskow, M.; Germer, S.; Schmidt, B.; Skorupa, W. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), D-01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-14

    The influence of SiO{sub 2} and SiN{sub x} cover layers on the dopant distribution as well as microstructure of high fluence Ga implanted Si after thermal processing is investigated. The annealing temperature determines the layer microstructure and the cover layers influence the obtained Ga profile. Rapid thermal annealing at temperatures up to 750?°C leads to a polycrystalline layer structure containing amorphous Ga-rich precipitates. Already after a short 20?ms flash lamp annealing, a Ga-rich interface layer is observed for implantation through the cover layers. This effect can partly be suppressed by annealing temperatures of at least 900?°C. However, in this case, Ga accumulates in larger, cone-like precipitates without disturbing the surrounding Si lattice parameters. Such a Ga-rich crystalline Si phase does not exist in the equilibrium phase diagram according to which the Ga solubility in Si is less than 0.1 at. %. The Ga-rich areas are capped with SiO{sub x} grown during annealing which only can be avoided by the usage of SiN{sub x} cover layers.

  20. High efficiency low cost thin film silicon solar cell design and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1999-01-01

    A semiconductor device having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate, depositing a semiconductive material on the metal-coated substrate to produce a composite structure, and then optically processing the composite structure by illuminating it with infrared electromagnetic radiation according to a unique time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface of the semiconductor material, then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor material and the metal layer, and finally produces a grain-enhanced semiconductor layer. The time-energy profile includes increasing the energy to a first energy level to initiate pit formation and create the desired pit size and density, then ramping up to a second energy level in which the entire device is heated to produce an interfacial melt, and finally reducing the energy to a third energy level and holding for a period of time to allow enhancement in the grain size of the semiconductor layer.

  1. High efficiency low cost thin film silicon solar cell design and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1999-04-27

    A semiconductor device is described having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate, depositing a semiconductive material on the metal-coated substrate to produce a composite structure, and then optically processing the composite structure by illuminating it with infrared electromagnetic radiation according to a unique time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface of the semiconductor material, then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor material and the metal layer, and finally produces a grain-enhanced semiconductor layer. The time-energy profile includes increasing the energy to a first energy level to initiate pit formation and create the desired pit size and density, then ramping up to a second energy level in which the entire device is heated to produce an interfacial melt, and finally reducing the energy to a third energy level and holding for a period of time to allow enhancement in the grain size of the semiconductor layer. 9 figs.

  2. High efficiency, low cost, thin film silicon solar cell design and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A semiconductor device having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate, depositing a semiconductive material on the metal-coated substrate to produce a composite structure, and then optically processing the composite structure by illuminating it with infrared electromagnetic radiation according to a unique time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface of the semiconductor material, then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor material and the metal layer, and finally produces a grain-enhanced semiconductor layer. The time-energy profile includes increasing the energy to a first energy level to initiate pit formation and create the desired pit size and density, then ramping up to a second energy level in which the entire device is heated to produce an interfacial melt, and finally reducing the energy to a third energy level and holding for a period of time to allow enhancement in the grain size of the semiconductor layer.

  3. Deposition of device quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon at high deposition rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahan, Archie Harvin (Golden, CO); Molenbroek, Edith C. (Rotterdam, NL); Gallagher, Alan C. (Louisville, CO); Nelson, Brent P. (Golden, CO); Iwaniczko, Eugene (Lafayette, CO); Xu, Yueqin (Golden, CO)

    2002-01-01

    A method of fabricating device quality, thin-film a-Si:H for use as semiconductor material in photovoltaic and other devices, comprising in any order; positioning a substrate in a vacuum chamber adjacent a plurality of heatable filaments with a spacing distance L between the substrate and the filaments; heating the filaments to a temperature that is high enough to obtain complete decomposition of silicohydride molecules that impinge said filaments into Si and H atomic species; providing a flow of silicohydride gas, or a mixture of silicohydride gas containing Si and H, in said vacuum chamber while maintaining a pressure P of said gas in said chamber, which, in combination with said spacing distance L, provides a P.times.L product in a range of 10-300 mT-cm to ensure that most of the Si atomic species react with silicohydride molecules in the gas before reaching the substrate, to thereby grow a a-Si:H film at a rate of at least 50 .ANG./sec.; and maintaining the substrate at a temperature that balances out-diffusion of H from the growing a-Si:H film with time needed for radical species containing Si and H to migrate to preferred bonding sites.

  4. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Mendez, V.P.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1988-11-15

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. 15 figs.

  5. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Mendez, Victor P. (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  6. System and method for liquid silicon containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cliber, James A; Clark, Roger F; Stoddard, Nathan G; Von Dollen, Paul

    2014-06-03

    This invention relates to a system and a method for liquid silicon containment, such as during the casting of high purity silicon used in solar cells or solar modules. The containment apparatus includes a shielding ember adapted to prevent breaching molten silicon from contacting structural elements or cooling elements of a casting device, and a volume adapted to hold a quantity of breaching molten silicon with the volume formed by a bottom and one or more sides.

  7. System and method for liquid silicon containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cliber, James A; Clark, Roger F; Stoddard, Nathan G; Von Dollen, Paul

    2013-05-28

    This invention relates to a system and a method for liquid silicon containment, such as during the casting of high purity silicon used in solar cells or solar modules. The containment apparatus includes a shielding member adapted to prevent breaching molten silicon from contacting structural elements or cooling elements of a casting device, and a volume adapted to hold a quantity of breaching molten silicon with the volume formed by a bottom and one or more sides.

  8. Floating Silicon Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellerman, Peter

    2013-12-21

    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  9. A 2-terminal perovskite/silicon multijunction solar cell enabled by a silicon tunnel junction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailoa, Jonathan P.

    With the advent of efficient high-bandgap metal-halide perovskite photovoltaics, an opportunity exists to make perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. We fabricate a monolithic tandem by developing a silicon-based interband ...

  10. High-responsivity vertical-illumination Si/Ge uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on silicon-on-insulator substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Chong; Liu, Zhi; Cong, Hui; Cheng, Buwen; Guo, Xia; Liu, Wuming

    2015-01-01

    Si/Ge uni-traveling carrier photodiodes exhibit higher output current when space-charge effects are overcome and thermal effects are suppressed, which is highly beneficial for increasing the dynamic range of various microwave photonic systems and simplifying high-bit-rate digital receivers in different applications. From the point of view of packaging, detectors with vertical-illumination configuration can be easily handled by pick-and-place tools and are a popular choice for making photo-receiver modules. However, vertical-illumination Si/Ge uni-traveling carrier (UTC) devices suffer from inter-constraint between high speed and high responsivity. Here, we report a high responsivity vertical-illumination Si/Ge UTC photodiode based on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. The maximum absorption efficiency of the devices was 2.4 times greater than the silicon substrate owing to constructive interference. The Si/Ge UTC photodiode was successfully fabricated and had a dominant responsivity at 1550 nm of 0.18 A/W, a 5...

  11. First-principles Approaches to Simulate Lithiation in Silicon Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Qianfan; Wang, Enge

    2013-01-01

    Silicon is viewed as an excellent electrode material for lithium batteries due to its high lithium storage capacity. Various Si nano-structures, such as Si nanowires, have performed well as lithium battery anodes and have opened up exciting opportunities for the use of Si in energy storage devices. The mechanism of lithium insertion and the interaction between Li and the Si electrode must be understood at the atomic level; this understanding can be achieved by first-principles simulation. Here, first-principles computations of lithiation in silicon electrodes are reviewed. The review focuses on three aspects: the various properties of bulk Li-Si compounds with different Li concentrations, the electronic structure of Si nanowires and Li insertion behavior in Si nanowires, and the dynamic lithiation process at the Li/Si interface. Potential study directions in this research field and difficulties that the field still faces are discussed at the end.

  12. Capacity Markets for Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creti, Anna; Fabra, Natalia

    2004-01-01

    and design of electricity capacity markets. Our work has twoMarkets for Electricity capacity markets, and so, when thesemain features of electricity capacity markets. We have used

  13. CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION ASSISTED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION for the first time to monocrystalline Si thin-film solar cells from the porous silicon (PSI) layer transfer for manufacturing high efficiency silicon thin-film solar cells. Industrially feasible epitaxy systems therefore

  14. Synthesis, Structure, and Electrochemical Performance of High Capacity Li2Cu0.5Ni0.5O2 Cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ruther, Rose E; Zhou, Hui; Dhital, Chetan; Saravanan, Kuppan; Kercher, Andrew K.; Chen, Guoying; Huq, Ashfia; Delnick, Frank M.; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-09-08

    Orthorhombic Li2NiO2, Li2CuO2, and solid solutions thereof have been studied as potential cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries due to their high theoretical capacity and relatively low cost. While neither endmember shows good cycling stability, the intermediate composition, Li2Cu0.5Ni0.5O2, yields reasonably high reversible capacities. A new synthetic approach and detailed characterization of this phase and the parent Li2CuO2 are presented. The cycle life of Li2Cu0.5Ni0.5O2 is shown to depend critically on the voltage window. The formation of Cu1+ at low voltage and oxygen evolution at high voltage limit the electrochemical reversibility. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), in situ Raman spectroscopy,more »and gas evolution measurements are used to follow the chemical and structural changes that occur as a function of cell voltage.« less

  15. Polarization manipulation in silicon photonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Zhan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Silicon photonics is moving fast toward industrialization. It satisfies the increasing demand for higher speed, larger bandwidth communication. Thus it has a wide range of applications including high-performance computing, ...

  16. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires on HOPG as precursor of new carbon-based anode for high-capacity lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angelucci, Marco; Frau, Eleonora; Betti, Maria Grazia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I - 00185 Roma (Italy); Mura, Francesco [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences for Engineering, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Via A. Scarpa 14/16, I - 00161 Roma (Italy); Panero, Stefania [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I - 00185 Roma (Italy); Mariani, Carlo [Dipartimento di Fisica, CNISM, CNIS, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I - 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2014-06-19

    Iron Oxides nanostructures are very promising systems for new generation of anode material for Lithium-Ion batteries because of their high capacity associated to their surface area. A core-level photoemission study of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires deposited on highly-oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) under Li exposure is presented. The Fe-2p, Fe-3p, and Li-1s core-level lineshape evolution upon Li exposure in ultra-high-vacuum conditions clearly brings to light the Fe ion reduction from fully trivalent to prevalently divalent at saturation. Furthermore, the graphite substrate allows allocation of a large amount of Li ions surrounding the iron-oxide nanowires, opening a new scenario towards the use of graphene for improving the ionic charge exchange.

  17. Diamond-silicon carbide composite and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yusheng (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-06-14

    Uniformly dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites having high hardness, high fracture toughness, and high thermal stability are prepared by consolidating a powder mixture of diamond and amorphous silicon. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPam.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness.

  18. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozzola, A. Kowalczewski, P.; Andreani, L. C.

    2014-03-07

    Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged as an alternative to standard thick wafers technology, but they are less efficient, because of incomplete absorption of sunlight, and non-radiative recombinations. In this paper, we focus on the case of crystalline silicon (c-Si) devices, and we present a full analytic electro-optical model for p-n junction solar cells with Lambertian light trapping. This model is validated against numerical solutions of the drift-diffusion equations. We use this model to investigate the interplay between light trapping, and bulk and surface recombination. Special attention is paid to surface recombination processes, which become more important in thinner devices. These effects are further amplified due to the textures required for light trapping, which lead to increased surface area. We show that c-Si solar cells with thickness of a few microns can overcome 20% efficiency and outperform bulk ones when light trapping is implemented. The optimal device thickness in presence of light trapping, bulk and surface recombination, is quantified to be in the range of 10–80??m, depending on the bulk quality. These results hold, provided the effective surface recombination is kept below a critical level of the order of 100?cm/s. We discuss the possibility of meeting this requirement, in the context of state-of-the-art techniques for light trapping and surface passivation. We show that our predictions are within the capability of present day silicon technologies.

  19. Structural alloy with a protective coating containing silicon or silicon-oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, K.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is comprised of an iron-based alloy containing chromium and optionally, nickel. The alloy has a surface barrier of silicon or silicon plus oxygen which converts at high temperature to a protective silicon compound. The alloy can be used in oxygen-sulfur mixed gases at temperatures up to about 1100{degrees}C.

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Studies on High Capacity Cathodes for Advanced Lithium-ion Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about studies on high...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Studies on High Capacity Cathodes for Advanced Lithium-ion Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about studies on high...

  2. Process for forming silicon carbide films and microcomponents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamza, Alex V. (Livermore, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Moalem, Mehran (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Silicon carbide films and microcomponents are grown on silicon substrates at surface temperatures between 900 K and 1700 K via C.sub.60 precursors in a hydrogen-free environment. Selective crystalline silicon carbide growth can be achieved on patterned silicon-silicon oxide samples. Patterned SiC films are produced by making use of the high reaction probability of C.sub.60 with silicon at surface temperatures greater than 900 K and the negligible reaction probability for C.sub.60 on silicon dioxide at surface temperatures less than 1250 K.

  3. Phase Transfer-Catalyzed Fast CO2 Absorption by MgO-Based Absorbents with High Cycling Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Li, Weizhen; Rohatgi, Aashish; Duan, Yuhua; Singh, Prabhakar; Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2014-06-01

    CO2 capture from pre-combustion syngas in the temperature range of 250-400°C is highly desirable from an energy efficiency perspective. Thermodynamically, MgO is a promising material for CO2 capture, but the gas-solid reaction to produce MgCO3 is kinetically slow due to high lattice energy. We report here fast CO2 absorption over a solid MgO-molten nitrate/nitrite aggregate through phase transfer catalysis, in which the molten phase serves as both a catalyst and reaction medium. Reaction with CO2 at the gas-solid-liquid triple phase boundary results in formation of MgCO3 with significant reaction rate and a high conversion of MgO. This methodology is also applicable to other alkaline earth oxides, inspiring the design of absorbents which require activation of the bulk material.

  4. Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1996-07-23

    Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/{micro}c-Si) solar cells are disclosed which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell. 4 figs.

  5. Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1996-01-01

    Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/.mu.c-Si) solar cells which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell.

  6. Capacity challenges on the California high-speed rail shared corridors : how local decisions gave statewide impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Samuel J. (Samuel Joseph)

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, as a cost-control measure and in response to local opposition in the San Francisco Bay Area, the California High-Speed Rail Authority (CHSRA) adopted a "blended system" at the north and south bookends of the planned ...

  7. High temperature adhesive silicone foam composition, foam generating system and method of generating foam. [For access denial

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mead, J.W.; Montoya, O.J.; Rand, P.B.; Willan, V.O.

    1983-12-21

    Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO/sub 2/ in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.

  8. Lithium Insertion In Silicon Nanowires: An ab Initio Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    opportunities for energy storage. However, a systematic theoretical study on lithium insertion in SiNWs remains storage devices. Silicon has the highest known specific charge capacity (4200 mAh/g), which is 10 timesLithium Insertion In Silicon Nanowires: An ab Initio Study Qianfan Zhang, Wenxing Zhang, Wenhui Wan

  9. Virus-Enabled Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghodssi, Reza

    silicon particles and rapid capacity fading.4 Recently, silicon nanowires and nanotubes have been used particle) for the synthesis of nickel and cobalt nanowires. These struc- tures self-assemble vertically depending upon virus concentration.14 Incorporation of these sur- faces into simple nickel zinc microbatter

  10. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  11. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  12. Neural substrates of cognitive capacity limitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buschman, Tim

    Cognition has a severely limited capacity: Adult humans can retain only about four items “in mind”. This limitation is fundamental to human brain function: Individual capacity is highly correlated with intelligence measures ...

  13. Toward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers and Inorganic Nanocrystals in Close

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    to traditional silicon solar cells due to the capacity of producing high- efficiency solar energy in a cost of nanostructured high-performance, lightweight, flexible, large-area, and low- cost hybrid solar cells. HoweverToward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers

  14. Manganese and Ceria Sorbents for High Temperature Sulfur Removal from Biomass-Derived Syngas -- The Impact of Steam on Capacity and Sorption Mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheah, S.; Parent, Y. O.; Jablonski, W. S.; Vinzant, T.; Olstad, J. L.

    2012-07-01

    Syngas derived from biomass and coal gasification for fuel synthesis or electricity generation contains sulfur species that are detrimental to downstream catalysts or turbine operation. Sulfur removal in high temperature, high steam conditions has been known to be challenging, but experimental reports on methods to tackle the problem are not often reported. We have developed sorbents that can remove hydrogen sulfide from syngas at high temperature (700 C), both in dry and high steam conditions. The syngas composition chosen for our experiments is derived from statistical analysis of the gasification products of wood under a large variety of conditions. The two sorbents, Cu-ceria and manganese-based, were tested in a variety of conditions. In syngas containing steam, the capacity of the sorbents is much lower, and the impact of the sorbent in lowering H{sub 2}S levels is only evident in low space velocities. Spectroscopic characterization and thermodynamic consideration of the experimental results suggest that in syngas containing 45% steam, the removal of H{sub 2}S is primarily via surface chemisorptions. For the Cu-ceria sorbent, analysis of the amount of H{sub 2}S retained by the sorbent in dry syngas suggests both copper and ceria play a role in H{sub 2}S removal. For the manganese-based sorbent, in dry conditions, there is a solid state transformation of the sorbent, primarily into the sulfide form.

  15. Electricity Capacity Expansion Modeling, Analysis, and Visualization. A Summary of High-Renewable Modeling Experience for China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, Nate; Zhou, Ella; Getman, Dan; Arent, Douglas J.

    2015-10-01

    Mathematical and computational models are widely used for the analysis and design of both physical and financial systems. Modeling the electric grid is of particular importance to China for three reasons. First, power-sector assets are expensive and long-lived, and they are critical to any country's development. China's electric load, transmission, and other energy-related infrastructure are expected to continue to grow rapidly; therefore it is crucial to understand and help plan for the future in which those assets will operate (NDRC ERI 2015). Second, China has dramatically increased its deployment of renewable energy (RE), and is likely to continue further accelerating such deployment over the coming decades. Careful planning and assessment of the various aspects (technical, economic, social, and political) of integrating a large amount of renewables on the grid is required. Third, companies need the tools to develop a strategy for their own involvement in the power market China is now developing, and to enable a possible transition to an efficient and high RE future.

  16. 2008 Nature Publishing Group High-performance lithium battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    © 2008 Nature Publishing Group High-performance lithium battery anodes using silicon nanowires in lithium batteries have shown capacity fading and short battery lifetime due to pulverization and loss December 2007; doi:10.1038/nnano.2007.411 There is great interest in developing rechargeable lithium

  17. Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules. Final subcontract report, 1 January 1991--31 August 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, S.

    1994-10-01

    The principal objective of this program is to conduct research on semiconductor materials and non-semiconductor materials to enhance the performance of multibandgap, multijunction, large-area amorphous silicon-based alloy modules. The goal for this program is to demonstrate stabilized module efficiency of 12% for multijunction modules of area greater than 900 cm{sup 2}. Double-junction and triple-junction cells are made on Ag/ZnO back reflector deposited on stainless steel substrates. The top cell uses a-Si alloy; a-SiGe alloy is used for the i layer in the middle and the bottom cells. After evaporation of antireflection coating, silver grids and bus bars are put on the top surface, and the panel is encapsulated in an ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/Tefzel structure to make a one-square-foot monolithic module.

  18. Method for fabricating silicon cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruby, Douglas S. (Albuquerque, NM); Basore, Paul A. (Albuquerque, NM); Schubert, W. Kent (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-08-11

    A process for making high-efficiency solar cells. This is accomplished by forming a diffusion junction and a passivating oxide layer in a single high-temperature process step. The invention includes the class of solar cells made using this process, including high-efficiency solar cells made using Czochralski-grown silicon.

  19. Method for fabricating silicon cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruby, D.S.; Basore, P.A.; Schubert, W.K.

    1998-08-11

    A process is described for making high-efficiency solar cells. This is accomplished by forming a diffusion junction and a passivating oxide layer in a single high-temperature process step. The invention includes the class of solar cells made using this process, including high-efficiency solar cells made using Czochralski-grown silicon. 9 figs.

  20. Iron-oxide catalyzed silicon photoanode for water splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun, Kimin

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents an integrated study of high efficiency photoanodes for water splitting using silicon and iron-oxide. The fundamental limitations of silicon to water splitting applications were overcome by an ultrathin ...

  1. Method for fabricating pixelated silicon device cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nelson, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Benjamin John

    2015-08-18

    A method, apparatus and system for flexible, ultra-thin, and high efficiency pixelated silicon or other semiconductor photovoltaic solar cell array fabrication is disclosed. A structure and method of creation for a pixelated silicon or other semiconductor photovoltaic solar cell array with interconnects is described using a manufacturing method that is simplified compared to previous versions of pixelated silicon photovoltaic cells that require more microfabrication steps.

  2. Amorphous silicon carbide passivating layers for crystalline-silicon-based heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boccard, Mathieu; Holman, Zachary C.

    2015-08-14

    With this study, amorphous silicon enables the fabrication of very high-efficiency crystalline-silicon-based solar cells due to its combination of excellent passivation of the crystalline silicon surface and permeability to electrical charges. Yet, amongst other limitations, the passivation it provides degrades upon high-temperature processes, limiting possible post-deposition fabrication possibilities (e.g., forcing the use of low-temperature silver pastes). We investigate the potential use of intrinsic amorphous silicon carbide passivating layers to sidestep this issue. The passivation obtained using device-relevant stacks of intrinsic amorphous silicon carbide with various carbon contents and doped amorphous silicon are evaluated, and their stability upon annealing assessed, amorphousmore »silicon carbide being shown to surpass amorphous silicon for temperatures above 300°C. We demonstrate open-circuit voltage values over 700 mV for complete cells, and an improved temperature stability for the open-circuit voltage. Transport of electrons and holes across the hetero-interface is studied with complete cells having amorphous silicon carbide either on the hole-extracting side or on the electron-extracting side, and a better transport of holes than of electrons is shown. Also, due to slightly improved transparency, complete solar cells using an amorphous silicon carbide passivation layer on the hole-collecting side are demonstrated to show slightly better performances even prior to annealing than obtained with a standard amorphous silicon layer.« less

  3. High dose neutron irradiation of Hi-Nicalon Type S silicon carbide composites, Part 1: Microstructural evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Bergquist, Alex G; Nozawa, Takashi; Shih, Chunghao Phillip; Leonard, Keith J; Snead, Lance Lewis; Katoh, Yutai

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in the development of silicon carbide (SiC) composites, composed of near-stoichiometric SiC fibers embedded in a crystalline SiC matrix, to the point that such materials can now be considered nuclear grade. Recent neutron irradiation studies of Hi-Nicalon Type S SiC composites showed excellent radiation response at damage levels of 30 40 dpa at temperatures of 300 800 C. However, more recent studies of these same fiber composites irradiated to damage levels of >70 dpa at similar temperatures showed a marked decrease in ultimate flexural strength, particularly at 300 C. Here, electron microscopy is used to analyze the microstructural evolution of these irradiated composites in order to investigate the cause of the degradation. While minimal changes were observed in Hi-Nicalon Type S SiC composites irradiated at 800 C, substantial microstructural evolution is observed in those irradiated at 300 C. Specifically, carbonaceous particles in the fibers grew by 25% compared to the virgin case, and severe cracking occurred at interphase layers.

  4. Electrospun titania-based fibers for high areal capacity Li-ion battery Ethan C. Self, Ryszard Wycisk, Peter N. Pintauro*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    were prepared using electrospinning. Electrospun anodes demonstrate superior performance, as compared Electrospinning Areal capacity Thick electrode a b s t r a c t Electrospinning is utilized to prepare composite C. Electrospinning is also used to prepare ultra- thick anodes (>1 mm) with areal capacities up to 3

  5. Apparatus for obtaining silicon from fluosilicic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanjurjo, Angel (San Jose, CA)

    1986-05-20

    Apparatus for producing low cost, high purity solar grade silicon ingots in single crystal or quasi single crystal ingot form in a substantially continuous operation in a two stage reactor starting with sodium fluosilicate and a metal more electropositive than silicon (preferably sodium) in separate compartments having easy vapor transport therebetween and thermally decomposing the sodium fluosilicate to cause formation of substantially pure silicon and a metal fluoride which may be continuously separated in the melt and silicon may be directly and continuously cast from the melt.

  6. California: Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nextval, Inc., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a Conducting Polymer Binder for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. With a focus on enabling smaller,...

  7. A High Aspect-Ratio Silicon Substrate-ViaTechnology and Applications: Through-Wafer Interconnects for Power and Ground and Faraday Cages for SOC Isolation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    technology in silicon that incorporates a silicon nitride barrier liner and is filled with electroplated Cu],but their vias have only a thin coating of metal inside the via instead of being filled. Our via of the wafer by PECVD, and (3) via filling with electroplated cu. For cross-section imaging of the technology

  8. Modified silicon carbide whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, T.N.; Lindemer, T.B.

    1991-05-21

    Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

  9. Modified silicon carbide whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Lindemer, Terrence B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01

    Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparaging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

  10. Electrochemical characteristics of plasma-etched black silicon as anodes for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Gibaek; Wehrspohn, Ralf B., E-mail: ralf.b.wehrspohn@iwmh.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM, Halle (Saale) 06120, Germany and Department of Physics, Martin-Luther University, Halle (Saale) 06099 (Germany); Schweizer, Stefan L. [Department of Physics, Martin-Luther University, Halle (Saale) 06099 (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    Nanostructured silicon as an anode material for Li-ion batteries is produced for the first time by inductively coupled plasma–plasma etching of Si wafers in the black silicon regime. The microscopic structure strongly resembles other types of nanostructured silicon, with a well-arranged nanostructure possessing a sufficient porosity for accommodating large volume expansion. Despite these features, however, a high first-cycle irreversible capacity loss and a poor cycle life are observed. The main reason for these poor features is the formation of a thick solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer related to the surface condition of the pristine nanostructured black silicon (b-Si) electrode. Therefore, the cycle life of the b-Si electrode is heavily influenced by the constant reformation of the SEI layer depending upon the surface composition in spite of the presence of nanostructured Si. In the fast lithiation experiments, the nanostructure region of the b-Si electrode is detached from the Si substrate owing to the kinetics difference between the lithium ion diffusion and the electron injection and phase transformation in the nanostructured Si region. This means that more Si substrate is involved in lithiation at high current rates. It is therefore important to maintain balance in the chemical kinetics during the lithiation of nanostructured Si electrodes with a Si substrate.

  11. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochbaum, Allon

    2010-01-01

    Quantum Dots: A General crystalline silicon, Nature 1991,1998, 31, 1927-1949. single-crystalline silicon nanowires byof their facilities. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon

  12. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY); Holland, Orin Wayne (Lenoir, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  13. Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    polymeric binders for Lithium-ion battery anode Tianxiang Gao Advisor: Dr. Ximin He April 20, 2015; 2:00 PMTin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries polymeric structure can offer the pathway for Lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte

  14. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    refinery as of January 1, 2006 Tables 1 Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2006 PDF 2 Production Capacity of...

  15. Facile synthesis of Li2Spolypyrrole composite structures for high-performance Li2S cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    /discharge cycles. Introduction Energy storage devices based on rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are now widely and grid energy storage.1­6 As a result, much effort has been devoted to the development of alternative high-capacity anode materials (such as silicon and tin),7,8 but the major limiting factor is still

  16. Nanocrystalline silicon: Lattice dynamics and enhanced thermoelectric properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Claudio, Tania; Stein, Niklas; Stroppa, Daniel G.; Klobes, Benedikt; Koza, Michael Marek; Kudejova, Petra; Petermann, Nils; Wiggers, Hartmut; Schierning, Gabi; Hermann, Raphaël P.

    2014-12-21

    In this study, silicon has several advantages when compared to other thermoelectric materials, but until recently it was not used for thermoelectric applications due to its high thermal conductivity, 156 W K-1 m-1 at room temperature. Nanostructuration as means to decrease thermal transport through enhanced phonon scattering has been a subject of many studies. In this work we have evaluated the effects of nanostructuration on the lattice dynamics of bulk nanocrystalline doped silicon. The samples were prepared by gas phase synthesis, followed by current and pressure assisted sintering. The heat capacity, density of phonons states, and elastic constants were measured,more »which all reveal a significant, ?25%, reduction in the speed of sound. The samples present a significantly decreased lattice thermal conductivity, ?25 W K-1 m-1, which, combined with a very high carrier mobility, results in a dimensionless figure of merit with a competitive value that peaks at ZT ? 0.57 at 973 °C. Due to its easily scalable and extremely low-cost production process, nanocrystalline Si prepared by gas phase synthesis followed by sintering could become the material of choice for high temperature thermoelectric generators.« less

  17. Nanocrystalline silicon: lattice dynamics and enhanced thermoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudio, Tania; Stein, Niklas; Stroppa, Daniel G.; Klobes, Benedikt; Koza, Michael Marek; Kudejova, Petra; Petermann, Nils; Wiggers, Hartmut; Schierning, Gabi; Hermann, Raphaël P.

    2014-12-21

    Silicon has several advantages when compared to other thermoelectric materials, but until recently it was not used for thermoelectric applications due to its high thermal conductivity, 156 W K-1 m-1 at room temperature. Nanostructuration as means to decrease thermal transport through enhanced phonon scattering has been a subject of many studies. In this work we have evaluated the effects of nanostructuration on the lattice dynamics of bulk nanocrystalline doped silicon. The samples were prepared by gas phase synthesis, followed by current and pressure assisted sintering. The heat capacity, density of phonons states, and elastic constants were measured, which all reveal a significant, ?25%, reduction in the speed of sound. The samples present a significantly decreased lattice thermal conductivity, ?25 W K-1 m-1, which, combined with a very high carrier mobility, results in a dimensionless figure of merit with a competitive value that peaks at ZT ? 0.57 at 973 °C. Due to its easily scalable and extremely low-cost production process, nanocrystalline Si prepared by gas phase synthesis followed by sintering could become the material of choice for high temperature thermoelectric generators.

  18. Shannon Capacity Ramsey Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radziszowski, Stanislaw P.

    Shannon Capacity Ramsey Numbers Old links between Shannon and Ramsey New links between Shannon and Ramsey Bounds on Shannon Capacity and Ramsey Numbers from Product of Graphs Xiaodong Xu1 Stanislaw Institute of Technology, NY, USA March 2014 1/24 #12;Shannon Capacity Ramsey Numbers Old links between

  19. Author's personal copy Current status and outlook for silicon-based optical biosensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Sharon

    Author's personal copy Current status and outlook for silicon-based optical biosensors S.M. Weiss a. The advantages of these silicon-based optical biosensors for high sensitivity detection include a low analyte silicon waveguide biosensors. Sections 3 and 4 highlight more conventional silicon photonics technology

  20. In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Probing of Native Oxide and Artificial Layers on Silicon Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Yang; Piper, Daniela M.; Gu, Meng; Travis, Jonathan J.; George, Steven M.; Lee, Se-Hee; Genc, Arda; Pullan, Lee; Liu, Jun; Mao, Scott X.; Zhang, Jiguang; Ban, Chunmei; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-11-25

    Surface modification of silicon nanoparticle via molecular layer deposition (MLD) has been recently proved to be an effective way for dramatically enhancing the cyclic performance in lithium ion batteries. However, the fundamental mechanism as how this thin layer of coating function is not known, which is even complicated by the inevitable presence of native oxide of several nanometers on the silicon nanoparticle. Using in-situ TEM, we probed in detail the structural and chemical evolution of both uncoated and coated silicon particles upon cyclic lithiation/delithation. We discovered that upon initial lithiation, the native oxide layer converts to crystalline Li2O islands, which essentially increases the impedance on the particle, resulting in ineffective lithiation/delithiation, and therefore low coulombic efficiency. In contrast, the alucone MLD coated particles show extremely fast, thorough and highly reversible lithiation behaviors, which are clarified to be associated with the mechanical flexibility and fast Li+/e- conductivity of the alucone coating. Surprisingly, the alucone MLD coating process chemically changes the silicon surface, essentially removing the native oxide layer and therefore mitigates side reaction and detrimental effects of the native oxide. This study provides a vivid picture of how the MLD coating works to enhance the coulombic efficiency and preserve capacity and clarifies the role of the native oxide on silicon nanoparticles during cyclic lithiation and delithiation. More broadly, this work also demonstrated that the effect of the subtle chemical modification of the surface during the coating process may be of equal importance as the coating layer itself.

  1. Design of Low-Noise Output Amplifiers for P-channel Charge-Coupled Devices Fabricated on High-Resistivity Silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haque, S.; Frost, F. Dion R.; Groulx, R.; Holland, S.E.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.F.; Roe, N. A.; Wang, G.; Yu, Y.

    2011-12-22

    We describe the design and optimization of low-noise, single-stage output amplifiers for p-channel charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used for scientific applications in astronomy and other fields. The CCDs are fabricated on high-resistivity, 4000–5000 -cm, n-type silicon substrates. Single-stage amplifiers with different output structure designs and technologies have been characterized. The standard output amplifier is designed with an n{sup +} polysilicon gate that has a metal connection to the sense node. In an effort to lower the output amplifier readout noise by minimizing the capacitance seen at the sense node, buried-contact technology has been investigated. In this case, the output transistor has a p{sup +} polysilicon gate that connects directly to the p{sup +} sense node. Output structures with buried-contact areas as small as 2 ?m × 2 ?m are characterized. In addition, the geometry of the source-follower transistor was varied, and we report test results on the conversion gain and noise of the various amplifier structures. By use of buried-contact technology, better amplifier geometry, optimization of the amplifier biases and improvements in the test electronics design, we obtain a 45% reduction in noise, corresponding to 1.7 e{sup ?} rms at 70 kpixels/sec.

  2. Highly chemoselective palladium-catalyzed conjugate reduction of. cap alpha. ,. beta. -unsaturated carbonyl compounds with silicon hydrides and zinc chloride cocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keinan, E.; Greenspoon, N.

    1986-11-12

    A three-component system comprised of a soluble palladium catalyst, hydridosilane, and zinc chloride is capable of efficient conjugate reduction of ..cap alpha..,..beta..-unsaturated ketones and aldehydes. The optimal set of conditions includes diphenylsilane as the most effective hydride donor, any soluble palladium complex in either the O or II oxidation state, when it is stabilized by phosphine ligands, and ZnCl/sub 2/ as the best Lewis acid cocatalyst. The reaction is very general with respect to a broad range of unsaturated ketones and aldehydes, and it is highly selective for these Michael acceptors, as reduction of ..cap alpha..,..beta..-unsaturated carboxylic acid derivatives is very sluggish under these conditions. When dideuteriodiphenylsilane is used to reduce unsaturated ketones, deuterium is stereoselectivity introduced at the less-hindered fact of the substrate and regioselectively at the ..beta..-position. Conversely, when reductions are carried out in the presence of traces of D/sub 2/O, deuterium incorporation occurs at the ..cap alpha..-position. On the basis of deuterium-incorporation experiments and /sup 1/H NMR studies a catalytic cycle is postulated in which the first step involves reversible coordination of the palladium complex to the electron-deficient olefin and oxidative addition of silicon hydride to form a hydridopalladium olefin complex.

  3. Texturization of multicrystalline silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Dai-Yin

    2010-01-01

    A significant efficiency gain for crystalline silicon solar cells can be achieved by surface texturization. This research was directed at developing a low-cost, high-throughput and reliable texturing method that can create ...

  4. An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timurdogan, Erman

    Silicon photonics has emerged as the leading candidate for implementing ultralow power wavelength–division–multiplexed communication networks in high-performance computers, yet current components (lasers, modulators, filters ...

  5. Studying The Kinetics Of Crystalline Silicon Nanoparticle Lithiation With In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcdowell, Matthew T.; Ryu, Ill; Lee, Seokwoo; Wang, Chong M.; Nix, William D.; Cui, Yi

    2012-11-27

    Silicon is an attractive high-capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries, but a comprehensive understanding of the massive ~300% volume change and fracture during lithiation/delithiation is necessary to reliably employ Si anodes. Here, in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the lithiation of crystalline Si nanoparticles reveals that the reaction slows down as it progresses into the particle interior. Analysis suggests that this behavior is due to the influence of mechanical stress at the reaction front on the driving force for the reaction. These experiments give insight into the factors controlling the kinetics of this unique reaction.

  6. Advanced silicon photonic modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorace, Cheryl M

    2010-01-01

    Various electrical and optical schemes used in Mach-Zehnder (MZ) silicon plasma dispersion effect modulators are explored. A rib waveguide reverse biased silicon diode modulator is designed, tested and found to operate at ...

  7. Passivated Tunneling Contacts to N-Type Wafer Silicon and Their Implementation into High Performance Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stradins, P.; Essig, S.; Nemeth, W.; Lee, B. G.; Young, D.; Norman, A.; Liu, Y.; Luo, J.-W.; Warren, E.; Dameron, A.; LaSalvia, V.; Page, M.; Rohatgi, A.; Upadhyaya, A.; Rounsaville, B.; Ok, Y.-W.; Glunz, S.; Benick, J.; Feldmann, F.; Hermle, M.

    2014-12-01

    We present a case that passivated contacts based on a thin tunneling oxide layer, combined with a transport layer with properly selected work function and band offsets, can lead to high efficiency c-Si solar cells. Passivated contacts contribute to cell efficiency as well as design flexibility, process robustness, and a simplified process flow. Material choices for the transport layer are examined, including transparent n-type oxides and n+-doped poly-Si. SiO2/n+-poly-Si full-area, induced-junction back surface field contacts to n-FZ and n-Cz Si are incorporated into high efficiency cells with deep, passivated boron emitters.

  8. High-performance and power-efficient 2${\\times}$2 optical switch on Silicon-on-Insulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Zheng; Checoury, Xavier; Bourderionnet, Jérôme; Boucaud, Philippe; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    A compact (15{\\mu}m${\\times}${\\mu}m) and highly-optimized 2${\\times}$2 optical switch is demonstrated on a CMOS-compatible photonic crystal technology. On-chip insertion loss are below 1dB, static and dynamic contrast are 40dB and >20dB respectively. Owing to efficient thermo-optic design, the power consumption is below 3 mW while the switching time is 1 {\\mu}s.

  9. Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide 389 Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide 389 X Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide Alexander S. Mukasyan University of Notre Dame USA 1. Introduction Combustion synthesis (CS) is an effective technique by which combustion synthesis can occur: self - propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and volume

  10. Process for producing silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Carleton, Karen L. (Boulder, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A process for producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  11. Process for producing silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.; Carleton, K.L.

    1982-06-10

    A process of producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  12. Enhancing the Lithiation Rate of Silicon Nanowires by the Inclusion of Tin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogart, Timothy D.; Lu, Xiaotang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2014-10-30

    Silicon (Si) has a very high lithium storage capacity and is being explored as a negative electrode material in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Si nanowires can exhibit relatively stable performance for many cycles of charging; however, conductive carbon must often be added to the electrode layer to improve the rate capability due to the relatively low electrical conductivity of Si. The added carbon lowers the capacity of the electrode. Here, we show that the rate capability of Si in LIBs can be substantially enhanced by incorporating tin (Sn) into Si nanowires. The solubility of Sn in Si is very low (0.015 at%); yet, Sn used as a seed for supercritical fluid–liquid–solid (SFLS) growth can be trapped in Si nanowires with relatively high concentration (10 at%). Such Sn-containing Si nanowires and no added conductive carbon in the electrode layer, could be cycled in LIBs with high capacity (*1000 mA h g*1 over 100 cycles) at a current density of 2.8 A g*1 (1 C). Capacities exceeding that of graphite could still be reached at cycle rates as high as 2 C. Real-time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that lithiation occurs five times faster in Si nanowires with significant amounts of Sn than in the Si nanowires without Sn, and twice as fast as in nanowires that were coated with carbon.

  13. Electrodeposition of molten silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Mattei, Robert C. (Sunnyvale, CA); Elwell, Dennis (Palo Alto, CA); Feigelson, Robert S. (Saratoga, CA)

    1981-01-01

    Silicon dioxide is dissolved in a molten electrolytic bath, preferably comprising barium oxide and barium fluoride. A direct current is passed between an anode and a cathode in the bath to reduce the dissolved silicon dioxide to non-alloyed silicon in molten form, which is removed from the bath.

  14. The Influence of High-Energy Lithium Ion Irradiation on Electrical Characteristics of Silicon and GaAs Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Jayashree; Ramani; M. C. Radhakrishna; Anil Agrawal; Saif Ahmad Khan; A. Meulenberg

    2006-10-22

    Space-grade Si and GaAs solar cells were irradiated with 15 & 40 MeV Li ions. Illuminated (AM0 condition) and unilluminated I-V curves reveal that the effect of high-energy Li ion irradiation has produced similar effects to that of proton irradiation. However, an additional, and different, defect mechanism is suggested to dominate in the heavier-ion results. Comparison is made with proton-irradiated solar-cell work and with non-ionizing energy-loss (NIEL) radiation-damage models.

  15. Hybrid Zero-capacity Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergii Strelchuk; Jonathan Oppenheim

    2012-07-04

    There are only two known kinds of zero-capacity channels. The first kind produces entangled states that have positive partial transpose, and the second one - states that are cloneable. We consider the family of 'hybrid' quantum channels, which lies in the intersection of the above classes of channels and investigate its properties. It gives rise to the first explicit examples of the channels, which create bound entangled states that have the property of being cloneable to the arbitrary finite number of parties. Hybrid channels provide the first example of highly cloneable binding entanglement channels, for which known superactivation protocols must fail - superactivation is the effect where two channels each with zero quantum capacity having positive capacity when used together. We give two methods to construct a hybrid channel from any binding entanglement channel. We also find the low-dimensional counterparts of hybrid states - bipartite qubit states which are extendible and possess two-way key.

  16. ORISE: Capacity Building

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capacity Building Because public health agencies must maintain the resources to respond to public health challenges, critical situations and emergencies, the Oak Ridge Institute...

  17. The Silicon and Calcium High-Velocity Features in Type Ia Supernovae from Early to Maximum Phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Xulin; Maeda, Keiichi; Sai, Hanna; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhang, Jujia; Huang, Fang; Rui, Liming; Zhou, Qi; Mo, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The high-velocity features (HVFs) in optical spectra of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are examined with a large sample including very early-time spectra (e.g., t < -7 days). Multiple Gaussian fits are applied to examine the HVFs and their evolutions, using constraints on expansion velocities for the same species (i.e., SiII 5972 and SiII 6355). We find that strong HVFs tend to appear in SNe Ia with smaller decline rates (e.g., dm15(B)<1.4 mag), clarifying that the finding by Childress et al. (2014) for the Ca-HVFs in near-maximum-light spectra applies both to the Si-HVFs and Ca-HVFs in the earlier phase. The Si-HVFs seem to be more common in fast-expanding SNe Ia, which is different from the earlier result that the Ca-HVFs are associated with SNe Ia having slower SiII 6355 velocities at maximum light (i.e., Vsi). This difference can be due to that the HVFs in fast-expanding SNe Ia usually disappear more rapidly and are easily blended with the photospheric components when approaching the maximum light. Mor...

  18. Glass-silicon column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  19. Cordierite silicon nitride filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawyer, J.; Buchan, B. ); Duiven, R.; Berger, M. ); Cleveland, J.; Ferri, J. )

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a silicon nitride based crossflow filter. This report summarizes the findings and results of the project. The project was phased with Phase I consisting of filter material development and crossflow filter design. Phase II involved filter manufacturing, filter testing under simulated conditions and reporting the results. In Phase I, Cordierite Silicon Nitride (CSN) was developed and tested for permeability and strength. Target values for each of these parameters were established early in the program. The values were met by the material development effort in Phase I. The crossflow filter design effort proceeded by developing a macroscopic design based on required surface area and estimated stresses. Then the thermal and pressure stresses were estimated using finite element analysis. In Phase II of this program, the filter manufacturing technique was developed, and the manufactured filters were tested. The technique developed involved press-bonding extruded tiles to form a filter, producing a monolithic filter after sintering. Filters manufactured using this technique were tested at Acurex and at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. The filters did not delaminate during testing and operated and high collection efficiency and good cleanability. Further development in areas of sintering and filter design is recommended.

  20. High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, 1 September 2001--6 March 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, X.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives for the University of Toledo are to: (1) establish a transferable knowledge and technology base for fabricating high-efficiency triple-junction a-Si-based solar cells, and (2) develop high-rate deposition techniques for the growing a-Si-based and related alloys, including poly-Si, c-Si, a-SiGe, and a-Si films and photovoltaic devices with these materials.

  1. Large-Scale Fabrication, 3D Tomography, and Lithium-Ion Battery Application of Porous Silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Large-Scale Fabrication, 3D Tomography, and Lithium-Ion Battery Application of Porous Silicon, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Recently, silicon-based lithium-ion battery anodes have for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries with enhanced capacity and energy density. KEYWORDS: Cost

  2. Silicon nanowire boost for rechargeable batteries Online Shop Contact us Advanced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Silicon nanowire boost for rechargeable batteries Online Shop Contact us Advanced search Chemistry batteries 17 December 2007 Scientists in the US have devised an easy way of using silicon nanowires to increase the capacity of lithium batteries - like those in laptops - by up to five times. A lithium battery

  3. Powerful, Efficient Electric Vehicle Chargers: Low-Cost, Highly-Integrated Silicon Carbide (SiC) Multichip Power Modules (MCPMs) for Plug-In Hybrid Electric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-14

    ADEPT Project: Currently, charging the battery of an electric vehicle (EV) is a time-consuming process because chargers can only draw about as much power from the grid as a hair dryer. APEI is developing an EV charger that can draw as much power as a clothes dryer, which would drastically speed up charging time. APEI's charger uses silicon carbide (SiC)-based power transistors. These transistors control the electrical energy flowing through the charger's circuits more effectively and efficiently than traditional transistors made of straight silicon. The SiC-based transistors also require less cooling, enabling APEI to create EV chargers that are 10 times smaller than existing chargers.

  4. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  5. Shaped Offset QPSK Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahin, Cenk

    2012-08-31

    In this work we compute the capacities and the pragmatic capacities of military-standard shaped-offset quadrature phase-shift keying (SOQPSK-MIL) and aeronautical telemetry SOQPSK (SOQPSK-TG). In the pragmatic approach, SOQPSK is treated as a...

  6. Knudsen heat capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babac, Gulru; Reese, Jason M.

    2014-05-15

    We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

  7. Microtextured Silicon Surfaces for Detectors, Sensors & Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, JE; Mazur, E

    2005-05-19

    With support from this award we studied a novel silicon microtexturing process and its application in silicon-based infrared photodetectors. By irradiating the surface of a silicon wafer with intense femtosecond laser pulses in the presence of certain gases or liquids, the originally shiny, flat surface is transformed into a dark array of microstructures. The resulting microtextured surface has near-unity absorption from near-ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths well below the band gap. The high, broad absorption of microtextured silicon could enable the production of silicon-based photodiodes for use as inexpensive, room-temperature multi-spectral photodetectors. Such detectors would find use in numerous applications including environmental sensors, solar energy, and infrared imaging. The goals of this study were to learn about microtextured surfaces and then develop and test prototype silicon detectors for the visible and infrared. We were extremely successful in achieving our goals. During the first two years of this award, we learned a great deal about how microtextured surfaces form and what leads to their remarkable optical properties. We used this knowledge to build prototype detectors with high sensitivity in both the visible and in the near-infrared. We obtained room-temperature responsivities as high as 100 A/W at 1064 nm, two orders of magnitude higher than standard silicon photodiodes. For wavelengths below the band gap, we obtained responsivities as high as 50 mA/W at 1330 nm and 35 mA/W at 1550 nm, close to the responsivity of InGaAs photodiodes and five orders of magnitude higher than silicon devices in this wavelength region.

  8. Analytical and experimental evaluation of joining silicon carbide to silicon carbide and silicon nitride to silicon nitride for advanced heat engine applications Phase 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundberg, G.J.; Vartabedian, A.M.; Wade, J.A.; White, C.S. [Norton Co., Northboro, MA (United States). Advanced Ceramics Div.

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of joining, Phase 2 was to develop joining technologies for HIP`ed Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with 4wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (NCX-5101) and for a siliconized SiC (NT230) for various geometries including: butt joins, curved joins and shaft to disk joins. In addition, more extensive mechanical characterization of silicon nitride joins to enhance the predictive capabilities of the analytical/numerical models for structural components in advanced heat engines was provided. Mechanical evaluation were performed by: flexure strength at 22 C and 1,370 C, stress rupture at 1,370 C, high temperature creep, 22 C tensile testing and spin tests. While the silicon nitride joins were produced with sufficient integrity for many applications, the lower join strength would limit its use in the more severe structural applications. Thus, the silicon carbide join quality was deemed unsatisfactory to advance to more complex, curved geometries. The silicon carbide joining methods covered within this contract, although not entirely successful, have emphasized the need to focus future efforts upon ways to obtain a homogeneous, well sintered parent/join interface prior to siliconization. In conclusion, the improved definition of the silicon carbide joining problem obtained by efforts during this contract have provided avenues for future work that could successfully obtain heat engine quality joins.

  9. Silicon rich nitride for silicon based laser devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Jae Hyung

    2008-01-01

    Silicon based light sources, especially laser devices, are the key components required to achieve a complete integrated silicon photonics system. However, the fundamental physical limitation of the silicon material as light ...

  10. Ultraviolet selective silicon photodiode 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chintapalli, Koteswara Rao

    1992-01-01

    (' silicon surfa&(& that n&ost of t h&) phologeneraied hole-el( & tron pairs are k&st by surface rccornbinai ion before being nolle&. trxl hy a pr). jun?i, ion. The major cause of surl'a&. e re?omhination is probably due Io lifetim(. shortening ol' Lhe...Luation degrades by &legr(es during (xposure Io high-cncrgy photo(&s such as in ultraviolet light. The second approa?h is a S&:hottky-b))rricr Iype. ol' photodiodc consisting of a iranspar()nt, thin metal film [I I]. ln I. his d(vi?e, ii, is dif%?ult to a...

  11. Silicon micro-mold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-10-24

    The present invention describes a method for rapidly fabricating a robust 3-dimensional silicon-mold for use in preparing complex metal micro-components. The process begins by depositing a conductive metal layer onto one surface of a silicon wafer. A thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask are then used to transfer a trace image pattern onto the opposite surface of the wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is anisotropically etched through the wafer thickness down to conductive metal layer to provide an etched pattern consisting of a series of rectilinear channels and recesses in the silicon which serve as the silicon micro-mold. Microcomponents are prepared with this mold by first filling the mold channels and recesses with a metal deposit, typically by electroplating, and then removing the silicon micro-mold by chemical etching.

  12. First-Principles Study of Novel Conversion Reactions for High-Capacity Li-Ion Battery Anodes in the Li-Mg-B-N-H System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, T.H.; Graetz, J.; Liu, X.; Hong, J.; Majzoub, E.H.

    2011-07-28

    Anodes for Li-ion batteries are primarily carbon-based due to their low cost and long cycle life. However, improvements to the Li capacity of carbon anodes, LiC{sub 6} in particular, are necessary to obtain a larger energy density. State-of-the-art light-metal hydrides for hydrogen storage applications often contain Li and involve reactions requiring Li transport, and light-metal ionic hydrides are candidates for novel conversion materials. Given a set of known solid-state and gas-phase reactants, we have determined the phase diagram in the Li-Mg-B-N-H system in the grand canonical ensemble, as a function of lithium chemical potential. We present computational results for several new conversion reactions with capacities between 2400 and 4000 mAh g{sup -1} that are thermodynamically favorable and that do not involve gas evolution. We provide experimental evidence for the reaction pathway on delithiation for the compound Li{sub 4}BN{sub 3}H{sub 10}. While the predicted reactions involve multiple steps, the maximum volume increase for these materials on lithium insertion is significantly smaller than that for Si.

  13. Micromachined silicon electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert A. (Albuquerque, NM); Seager, Carleton H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    An electrostatic chuck is faced with a patterned silicon plate 11, created y micromachining a silicon wafer, which is attached to a metallic base plate 13. Direct electrical contact between the chuck face 15 (patterned silicon plate's surface) and the silicon wafer 17 it is intended to hold is prevented by a pattern of flat-topped silicon dioxide islands 19 that protrude less than 5 micrometers from the otherwise flat surface of the chuck face 15. The islands 19 may be formed in any shape. Islands may be about 10 micrometers in diameter or width and spaced about 100 micrometers apart. One or more concentric rings formed around the periphery of the area between the chuck face 15 and wafer 17 contain a low-pressure helium thermal-contact gas used to assist heat removal during plasma etching of a silicon wafer held by the chuck. The islands 19 are tall enough and close enough together to prevent silicon-to-silicon electrical contact in the space between the islands, and the islands occupy only a small fraction of the total area of the chuck face 15, typically 0.5 to 5 percent. The pattern of the islands 19, together with at least one hole 12 bored through the silicon veneer into the base plate, will provide sufficient gas-flow space to allow the distribution of the helium thermal-contact gas.

  14. Micromachined silicon electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.A.; Seager, C.H.

    1996-12-10

    An electrostatic chuck is faced with a patterned silicon plate, created by micromachining a silicon wafer, which is attached to a metallic base plate. Direct electrical contact between the chuck face (patterned silicon plate`s surface) and the silicon wafer it is intended to hold is prevented by a pattern of flat-topped silicon dioxide islands that protrude less than 5 micrometers from the otherwise flat surface of the chuck face. The islands may be formed in any shape. Islands may be about 10 micrometers in diameter or width and spaced about 100 micrometers apart. One or more concentric rings formed around the periphery of the area between the chuck face and wafer contain a low-pressure helium thermal-contact gas used to assist heat removal during plasma etching of a silicon wafer held by the chuck. The islands are tall enough and close enough together to prevent silicon-to-silicon electrical contact in the space between the islands, and the islands occupy only a small fraction of the total area of the chuck face, typically 0.5 to 5 percent. The pattern of the islands, together with at least one hole bored through the silicon veneer into the base plate, will provide sufficient gas-flow space to allow the distribution of the helium thermal-contact gas. 6 figs.

  15. Forward capacity market CONEfusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, James F.

    2010-11-15

    In ISO New England and PJM it was assumed that sponsors of new capacity projects would offer them into the newly established forward centralized capacity markets at prices based on their levelized net cost of new entry, or ''Net CONE.'' But the FCCMs have not operated in the way their proponents had expected. To clear up the CONEfusion, FCCM designs should be reconsidered to adapt them to the changing circumstances and to be grounded in realistic expectations of market conduct. (author)

  16. Orientation-Dependent Interfacial Mobility Governs the Anisotropic Swelling in Lithiated Silicon Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Ting

    (LIBs) for portable electronics, hybrid electric vehicles, and large scale energy storage has stimulatedOrientation-Dependent Interfacial Mobility Governs the Anisotropic Swelling in Lithiated Silicon-induced volume expansion in silicon nanowires, nanopillars, and microslabs is highly anisotropic

  17. Stochastic capacity modeling to support demand/capacity gap planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niles, Augusta (Augusta L.)

    2014-01-01

    Capacity strategy has established methods of dealing with uncertainty in future demand. This project advances the concept of capacity strategy under conditions of uncertainty in cases where capacity is the primary source ...

  18. Measuring Speedy Electrons in Silicon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser, Supercomputer Measure Speedy Electrons in Silicon Laser, Supercomputer Measure Speedy Electrons in Silicon Simulations at NERSC Help Illuminate Attosecond Laser Experiment...

  19. Deposition of device quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon at high deposition rates with increased stability using the hot wire filament technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Molenbroek, Edith C. (Utrecht, NL); Mahan, Archie Harvin (Golden, CO); Gallagher, Alan C. (Louisville, CO)

    2000-09-26

    A method or producing hydrogenated amorphous silicon on a substrate, comprising the steps of: positioning the substrate in a deposition chamber at a distance of about 0.5 to 3.0 cm from a heatable filament in the deposition chamber; maintaining a pressure in said deposition chamber in the range of about 10 to 100 millitorr and pressure times substrate-filament spacing in the range of about 10 to 100 millitorr-cm, heating the filament to a temperature in the range of about 1,500 to 2,000.degree. C., and heating the substrate to a surface temperature in the range of about 280 to 475.degree. C.; and flowing silicohydride gas into the deposition chamber with said heated filament, decomposing said silicohydride gas into silicon and hydrogen atomic species and allowing products of gas reactions between said atomic species and the silicohydride gas to migrate to and deposit on said substrate while adjusting and maintaining said pressure times substrate-filament spacing in said deposition chamber at a value in said 10 to 100 millitorr range to produce statistically about 3 to 50 atomic collisions between the silicon and hydrogen atomic species migrating to said substrate and undecomposed molecules of the silane or other silicohydride gas in the deposition chamber.

  20. Silicone-containing composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohamed, Mustafa

    2012-01-24

    A silicone-containing composition comprises the reaction product of a first component and an excess of an isocyanate component relative to the first component to form an isocyanated intermediary. The first component is selected from one of a polysiloxane and a silicone resin. The first component includes a carbon-bonded functional group selected from one of a hydroxyl group and an amine group. The isocyanate component is reactive with the carbon-bonded functional group of the first component. The isocyanated intermediary includes a plurality of isocyanate functional groups. The silicone-containing composition comprises the further reaction product of a second component, which is selected from the other of the polysiloxane and the silicone resin. The second component includes a plurality of carbon-bonded functional groups reactive with the isocyanate functional groups of the isocyanated intermediary for preparing the silicone-containing composition.

  1. Structure, defects, and strain in silicon-silicon oxide interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kova?evi?, Goran Pivac, Branko

    2014-01-28

    The structure of the interfaces between silicon and silicon-oxide is responsible for proper functioning of MOSFET devices while defects in the interface can deteriorate this function and lead to their failure. In this paper we modeled this interface and characterized its defects and strain. MD simulations were used for reconstructing interfaces into a thermodynamically stable configuration. In all modeled interfaces, defects were found in the form of three-coordinated silicon atom, five coordinated silicon atom, threefold-coordinated oxygen atom, or displaced oxygen atom. Three-coordinated oxygen atom can be created if dangling bonds on silicon are close enough. The structure and stability of three-coordinated silicon atoms (P{sub b} defect) depend on the charge as well as on the electric field across the interface. The negatively charged P{sub b} defect is the most stable one, but the electric field resulting from the interface reduces that stability. Interfaces with large differences in periodic constants of silicon and silicon oxide can be stabilized by buckling of silicon layer. The mechanical stress resulted from the interface between silicon and silicon oxide is greater in the silicon oxide layer. Ab initio modeling of clusters representing silicon and silicon oxide shows about three time larger susceptibility to strain in silicon oxide than in silicon if exposed to the same deformation.

  2. Diamond-Silicon Carbide Composite And Method For Preparation Thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Jiang (Los Alamos, NM); Zhao, Yusheng (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-09-06

    Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=5-8 GPa, T=1400K-2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.multidot.m.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

  3. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Robert W. (Wilkinsburg, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  4. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, R.W.

    1984-10-30

    A multi-cylinder compressor particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor rotation is provided with an eccentric cam on a crank pin under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180[degree] apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons whose connecting rods ride on a crank pin without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation. 6 figs.

  5. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  6. Process and apparatus for obtaining silicon from fluosilicic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanjurjo, Angel (San Jose, CA)

    1988-06-28

    Process and apparatus for producing low cost, high purity solar grade silicon ingots in single crystal or quasi single crystal ingot form in a substantially continuous operation in a two stage reactor starting with sodium fluosilicate and a metal more electropositive than silicon (preferably sodium) in separate compartments having easy vapor transport therebetween and thermally decomposing the sodium fluosilicate to cause formation of substantially pure silicon and a metal fluoride which may be continuously separated in the melt and silicon may be directly and continuously cast from the melt.

  7. Process for forming a porous silicon member in a crystalline silicon member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA); Raley, Norman F. (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

  8. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01

    silicon nanowires for lithium ion battery anode with longfor high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes. Appl. Phys.as the anode for a lithium-ion battery with high coulombic

  9. Amorphous silicon passivated contacts for diffused junction silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, J. Yan, D.; Wan, Y.; Cuevas, A.; Demaurex, B.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; De Wolf, S.

    2014-04-28

    Carrier recombination at the metal contacts is a major obstacle in the development of high-performance crystalline silicon homojunction solar cells. To address this issue, we insert thin intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon [a-Si:H(i)] passivating films between the dopant-diffused silicon surface and aluminum contacts. We find that with increasing a-Si:H(i) interlayer thickness (from 0 to 16?nm) the recombination loss at metal-contacted phosphorus (n{sup +}) and boron (p{sup +}) diffused surfaces decreases by factors of ?25 and ?10, respectively. Conversely, the contact resistivity increases in both cases before saturating to still acceptable values of ? 50 m? cm{sup 2} for n{sup +} and ?100 m? cm{sup 2} for p{sup +} surfaces. Carrier transport towards the contacts likely occurs by a combination of carrier tunneling and aluminum spiking through the a-Si:H(i) layer, as supported by scanning transmission electron microscopy–energy dispersive x-ray maps. We explain the superior contact selectivity obtained on n{sup +} surfaces by more favorable band offsets and capture cross section ratios of recombination centers at the c-Si/a-Si:H(i) interface.

  10. Advances in amorphous silicon photovoltaic technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, D.E.; Rajan, K.; Arya, R.R.; Willing, F.; Yang, L.

    1998-10-01

    With the advent of new multijunction thin film solar cells, amorphous silicon photovoltaic technology is undergoing a commercial revival with about 30 megawatts of annual capacity coming on-line in the next year. These new {ital a}{endash}Si multijunction modules should exhibit stabilized conversion efficiencies on the order of 8{percent}, and efficiencies over 10{percent} may be obtained in the next several years. The improved performance results from the development of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon alloy films with improved optoelectronic properties and from the development of more efficient device structures. Moreover, the manufacturing costs for these multijunction modules using the new large-scale plants should be on the order of {dollar_sign}1 per peak watt. These new modules may find widespread use in solar farms, photovoltaic roofing, as well as in traditional remote applications. {copyright} {ital 1998 Materials Research Society.}

  11. Preparation of silicon carbide fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, G.C.

    1983-10-12

    Silicon carbide fibers suitable for use in the fabrication of dense, high-strength, high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments are fabricated by a new, simplified method wherein a mixture of short-length rayon fibers and colloidal silica is homogenized in a water slurry. Water is removed from the mixture by drying in air at 120/sup 0/C and the fibers are carbonized by (pyrolysis) heating the mixture to 800 to 1000/sup 0/C in argon. The mixture is subsequently reacted at 1550 to 1900/sup 0/C in argon to yield pure ..beta..-SiC fibers.

  12. High Performance Anode for Advanced Li Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lake, Carla

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  13. Field emission study of cobalt ion implanted porous silicon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hongbiao

    1995-01-01

    as an electrode in field emission applications. In this project, the formation of a CoSi2, conducting layer on porous silicon by high dose ion implantation while preserving the pore structure and field emission properties of the underlying porous silicon...

  14. Fracture of crystalline silicon nanopillars during electrochemical lithium insertion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    - chanism for energy storage is the insertion of secondary species into solid electrodes, as opposedFracture of crystalline silicon nanopillars during electrochemical lithium insertion Seok Woo Leea ion battery plasticity silicon anode In modern high-energy density battery systems, the primary me

  15. Robustness of amorphous silicon during the initial lithiation/ delithiation cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    technology in applications requiring lightweight and high-power rechargeable energy storage [1Robustness of amorphous silicon during the initial lithiation/ delithiation cycle Lucas A. Berla a g h l i g h t s We probe the lithiation and delithiation behavior of amorphous silicon micropillars

  16. Silicon optical nanocrystal memory R. J. Walters,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    Silicon optical nanocrystal memory R. J. Walters,a) P. G. Kik, J. D. Casperson, and H. A. Atwater (Received 19 January 2004; accepted 22 July 2004) We describe the operation of a silicon optical nanocrystal memory device. The programmed logic state of the device is read optically by the detection of high or low

  17. Method for improving the stability of amorphous silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branz, Howard M.

    2004-03-30

    A method of producing a metastable degradation resistant amorphous hydrogenated silicon film is provided, which comprises the steps of growing a hydrogenated amorphous silicon film, the film having an exposed surface, illuminating the surface using an essentially blue or ultraviolet light to form high densities of a light induced defect near the surface, and etching the surface to remove the defect.

  18. Epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide: Introduction to structured graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide: Introduction to structured graphene Ming Ruan 1 , Yike Hu 1, France Abstract We present an introduction to the rapidly growing field of epitaxial graphene on silicon present, highly evolved state. The potential of epitaxial graphene as a new electronic material is now

  19. Capacity Demand Power (GW)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Capacity Demand Power (GW) Hour of the Day The "Dip" Electricity Demand in Electricity Demand Every weekday, Japan's electricity use dips about 6 GW at 12 but it also shows that: · Behavior affects naHonal electricity use in unexpected ways

  20. Single-crystalline silicon lift-off films for metaloxidesemiconductor devices on arbitrary substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    Single-crystalline silicon lift-off films for metal­oxide­semiconductor devices on arbitrary Received 9 March 2000; accepted for publication 31 May 2000 We present a technique to mount single-crystalline,4 Combining silicon microelectronics on crystalline, high- quality thin silicon films with the properties

  1. GHZ ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON SILICON DIOXIDE MICRO BRIDGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, William C

    1 GHZ ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON SILICON DIOXIDE MICRO BRIDGES SHENG F. YEN1 of an approach to reduce the high-frequency capacitive feedthrough and dielectric leakages of carbon nanotubes grown on silicon dioxide micro bridges suspended over silicon substrates. The microwave reflection

  2. Efficient organic light-emitting diodes using polycrystalline silicon thin films as semitransparent anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1063/1.2032604 Organic light-emitting diodes OLED have attracted much interest due to their potential application in flat with silicon microdisplay OLED.8,9 However, silicon has high absorption in the visible light which greatlyEfficient organic light-emitting diodes using polycrystalline silicon thin films as semitransparent

  3. Device Architecture Simplification of Laser Pattering in High-Volume Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Fabrication using Intensive Computation for Design and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grupp Mueller, Guenther; Herfurth, Hans; Dunham, Scott; Xu, Baomin

    2013-11-15

    Prices of Si based solar modules have been continuously declining in recent years. Goodrich is pointing out that a significant portion of these cost reductions have come about due to ?economies of scale? benefits, but there is a point of diminishing returns when trying to lower cost by simply expanding production capacity [1]. Developing innovative high volume production technologies resulting in an increase of conversion efficiency without adding significant production cost will be necessary to continue the projected cost reductions. The Foundational Program to Advance Cell Efficiency (F-PACE) is seeking to achieve this by closing the PV efficiency gap between theoretical achievable maximum conversion efficiency - 29% for c-Si - and the current typical production - 18.5% for a typical full area back contact c-Si Solar cell ? while targeting a module cost of $0.50/Watt . The research conducted by SolarWorldUSA and it?s partners within the FPACE framework focused on the development of a Hybrid metal-wrap-through (MWT) and laser-ablated PERC solar cell design employing a extrusion metallization scheme to achieve >20% efficient devices. The project team was able to simulate, develop and demonstrate the technologies necessary to build p-type MWT PERC cells with extruded front contacts. Conversion efficiencies approaching 20% were demonstrated and a path for further efficiency improvements identified. A detailed cost of ownership calculation for such a device was based on a NREL cost model and is predicting a $/Watt cost below 85 cents on a 180 micron substrate. Several completed or planned publications by SolarWorldUSA and our partners are based on the research conducted within this project and are adding to a better understanding of the involved technologies and materials. Several aspects and technologies of the proposed device have been assessed in regards to technical effectiveness and economic feasibility. It has been shown in a pilot demonstration with wafer thicknesses down to 120 micron that further wafer thickness reduction is only economically viable if handling and contact formation limitations are addressed simultaneously. Furthermore the project partners assessed and demonstrated the feasibility of processing wafers with vias connecting front and back sides through a PERC cell process and aligning and connecting those vias with a non-contact metallization. A close cooperation between industry and institutes of higher education in the Pacific Northwest as shown in this project is of direct benefit to the public and is contributing to the education of the next generation of PV engineers and scientist.

  4. Hybrid silicon evanescent approach to optical interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    Big Island, HI, USA, 2006 Hybrid silicon evanescent approach10.1007/s00339-009-5118-1 Hybrid silicon evanescent approachthe recently developed hybrid silicon evanescent platform (

  5. Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE supports crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) research and development efforts that lead to market-ready technologies. Below are a list of the projects, summary of the benefits, and discussion...

  6. Hierarchical nanosheet-constructed yolk–shell TiO? porous microspheres for lithium batteries with high capacity, superior rate and long cycle capability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Jun; Huang, Shao-Zhuan; Li, Yu; Tian, He; Wang, Hong-En; Yu, Yong; Chen, Li-Hua; Hasan, Tawfique; Su, Bao-Lian

    2015-06-26

    . Such a yolk–shell structure with a highly porous shell and dense mesoporous core is quite advantageous as an anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The outer, 2D nanosheet-based porous (15 nm) shell and the nanocrystal-based inner mesoporous (3...

  7. Efficient power coupling to waveguides in high index contrast systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Victor T. (Victor Trinh)

    2006-01-01

    Future integrated optical circuits will hold, on a single chip, several optical components that communicate via high index contrast waveguides. Silicon nitride (SixNy) and silicon oxynitride (SixOyNz) waveguides with silicon ...

  8. Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-03-01

    An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.

  9. Fabrication and properties of microporous silicon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Jianzhong

    1994-01-01

    structure as the wafer from which it was fabricated. Oxidization at 800'C converts the porous silicon totally to amorphous silicon dioxide. Oxidation at 600'C produces a mixture of crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon dioxide. The pore structure...

  10. Transmission Capacity Forum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout / Transforming Y-12Capacity-Forum Sign In About | Careers |

  11. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets160Product:7a. Space5,168Capacity Report

  12. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets160Product:7a. Space5,168Capacity Report5

  13. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets160Product:7a. Space5,168Capacity

  14. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets160Product:7a. Space5,168Capacity Operable

  15. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets160Product:7a. Space5,168Capacity

  16. Method for forming fibrous silicon carbide insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, George C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    A method whereby silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composites are prepared from carbon-bonded C fiber composites is disclosed. Carbon-bonded C fiber composite material is treated with gaseous silicon monoxide generated from the reaction of a mixture of colloidal silica and carbon black at an elevated temperature in an argon atmosphere. The carbon in the carbon bond and fiber is thus chemically converted to SiC resulting in a silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composite that can be used for fabricating dense, high-strength high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments.

  17. The specific heat of pure and hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queen, Daniel Robert

    2011-01-01

    5 Specific heat of electron beam evaporated amorphous 5.1silicon 6 Specific heat of hydrogenated CVD technique 6.1The high temperature specific heat of HWCVD a-Si:H grown at

  18. Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

    1982-12-28

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  19. Simulation of iron impurity gettering in crystalline silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Douglas M. (Douglas Michael)

    2012-01-01

    This work discusses the Impurity-to-Efficiency (12E) simulation tool and applet. The 12E simulator models the physics of iron impurity gettering in silicon solar cells during high temperature processing. The tool also ...

  20. Reactor physics assessment of thick silicon carbide clad PWR fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloore, David A. (David Allan)

    2013-01-01

    High temperature tolerance, chemical stability and low neutron affinity make silicon carbide (SiC) a potential fuel cladding material that may improve the economics and safety of light water reactors (LWRs). "Thick" SiC ...

  1. Single-layer graphene on silicon nitride micromembrane resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Silvan

    Due to their low mass, high quality factor, and good optical properties, silicon nitride (SiN) micromembrane resonators are widely used in force and mass sensing applications, particularly in optomechanics. The metallization ...

  2. Heteroepitaxial Self Assembling Noble Metal Nanoparticles in Monocrystalline Silicon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Michael S.

    2013-08-13

    and investigate fundamental properties. Noble metal nanoparticles made of gold or silver are grown in cavities in monocrystalline silicon formed by helium ion implantation and high temperature annealing at depth greater than 500 nm from the surface. Metals...

  3. Ion implanted silicon solar cells with 18% conversion efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitzer, M.B.; Keavney, C.J.; Milstein, J.B.; Tobin, S.P.

    1984-05-01

    The results of research on the basic understanding of high efficiency in silicon solar cells are presented. It is shown that through the use of low resistivity silicon, texture-etching, ion implantation, surface passivation, and Ta/sub 2/O/sub 5/ antireflection coatings, very high performance can be obtained. Cells with 18% AMI conversion efficiency (100 mW/cm/sup 2/, 28/sup 0/C) are reported, and research to increase the performance to much higher levels is described.

  4. Method for silicon carbide production by reacting silica with hydrocarbon gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glatzmaier, Gregory C. (Boulder, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using a silicon source material and a hydrocarbon. The method is efficient and is characterized by high yield. Finely divided silicon source material is contacted with hydrocarbon at a temperature of 400.degree. C. to 1000.degree. C. where the hydrocarbon pyrolyzes and coats the particles with carbon. The particles are then heated to 1100.degree. C. to 1600.degree. C. to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process.

  5. Method for silicon carbide production by reacting silica with hydrocarbon gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glatzmaier, G.C.

    1994-06-28

    A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using a silicon source material and a hydrocarbon. The method is efficient and is characterized by high yield. Finely divided silicon source material is contacted with hydrocarbon at a temperature of 400 C to 1000 C where the hydrocarbon pyrolyzes and coats the particles with carbon. The particles are then heated to 1100 C to 1600 C to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process. 5 figures.

  6. Electrochemical thinning of silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medernach, John W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR).

  7. Electrochemical thinning of silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medernach, J.W.

    1994-01-11

    Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). 14 figures.

  8. tti.tamu.edu Increasing Capacity,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Readers to Measure Wait Times at the U.S.-Mexico Border Computer Simulations Explore "What If" Disaster Wait Times at the U.S.-Mexico Border 8 Safety-Belt Use at All-Time High in Texas 10 Increasing Capacity. Today -- with the Internet cross-pollinating cultures between countries at the speed of light

  9. Shaanxi Tianhong Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity for Low EmissionTianhong Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to:

  10. Fabrication of porous silicon membranes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yue, Wing Kong

    1988-01-01

    . Porous silicon layer is formed by the local dissolution which is initiated by the surface layer and is promoted by the hindrance layers composed of the silicic acid. Local etching or local dissolution is the cause of forming porous structure... of pores were 25 to 45 A with a mean value of 38 A. Microstructure of porous silicon studied by Besle et al. showed two distinct 17 patterns: the structure pattern of porous silicon film on heavily doped silicon and that on slightly doped silicon [26...

  11. Silicon on insulator achieved using electrochemical etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Bulk crystalline silicon wafers are transferred after the completion of circuit fabrication to form thin films of crystalline circuitry on almost any support, such as metal, semiconductor, plastic, polymer, glass, wood, and paper. In particular, this technique is suitable to form silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, whereby the devices and circuits formed exhibit superior performance after transfer due to the removal of the silicon substrate. The added cost of the transfer process to conventional silicon fabrication is insignificant. No epitaxial, lift-off, release or buried oxide layers are needed to perform the transfer of single or multiple wafers onto support members. The transfer process may be performed at temperatures of 50.degree. C. or less, permits transparency around the circuits and does not require post-transfer patterning. Consequently, the technique opens up new avenues for the use of integrated circuit devices in high-brightness, high-resolution video-speed color displays, reduced-thickness increased-flexibility intelligent cards, flexible electronics on ultrathin support members, adhesive electronics, touch screen electronics, items requiring low weight materials, smart cards, intelligent keys for encryption systems, toys, large area circuits, flexible supports, and other applications. The added process flexibility also permits a cheap technique for increasing circuit speed of market driven technologies such as microprocessors at little added expense.

  12. Silicon on insulator achieved using electrochemical etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1997-10-07

    Bulk crystalline silicon wafers are transferred after the completion of circuit fabrication to form thin films of crystalline circuitry on almost any support, such as metal, semiconductor, plastic, polymer, glass, wood, and paper. In particular, this technique is suitable to form silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, whereby the devices and circuits formed exhibit superior performance after transfer due to the removal of the silicon substrate. The added cost of the transfer process to conventional silicon fabrication is insignificant. No epitaxial, lift-off, release or buried oxide layers are needed to perform the transfer of single or multiple wafers onto support members. The transfer process may be performed at temperatures of 50 C or less, permits transparency around the circuits and does not require post-transfer patterning. Consequently, the technique opens up new avenues for the use of integrated circuit devices in high-brightness, high-resolution video-speed color displays, reduced-thickness increased-flexibility intelligent cards, flexible electronics on ultrathin support members, adhesive electronics, touch screen electronics, items requiring low weight materials, smart cards, intelligent keys for encryption systems, toys, large area circuits, flexible supports, and other applications. The added process flexibility also permits a cheap technique for increasing circuit speed of market driven technologies such as microprocessors at little added expense. 57 figs.

  13. Design and Evaluation of High Capacity Cathodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  14. Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  15. Electrochemically Induced High Capacity Displacement Reaction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Laboratory; Binghamton University; Brookhaven National University; University of California, San Diego; University of Cambridge, UK; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory;...

  16. Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Herman, H.; Burchell, T.D.

    1994-07-26

    The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1,600 C which transforms the coating to silicon carbide. 3 figs.

  17. Pulsed energy synthesis and doping of silicon carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Truher, J.B.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Thompson, J.B.; Sigmon, T.W.

    1995-06-20

    A method for producing beta silicon carbide thin films by co-depositing thin films of amorphous silicon and carbon onto a substrate is disclosed, whereafter the films are irradiated by exposure to a pulsed energy source (e.g. excimer laser) to cause formation of the beta-SiC compound. Doped beta-SiC may be produced by introducing dopant gases during irradiation. Single layers up to a thickness of 0.5-1 micron have been produced, with thicker layers being produced by multiple processing steps. Since the electron transport properties of beta silicon carbide over a wide temperature range of 27--730 C is better than these properties of alpha silicon carbide, they have wide application, such as in high temperature semiconductors, including HETEROJUNCTION-junction bipolar transistors and power devices, as well as in high bandgap solar arrays, ultra-hard coatings, light emitting diodes, sensors, etc.

  18. Pulsed energy synthesis and doping of silicon carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Truher, Joel B. (San Rafael, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Beaverton, OR)

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing beta silicon carbide thin films by co-depositing thin films of amorphous silicon and carbon onto a substrate, whereafter the films are irradiated by exposure to a pulsed energy source (e.g. excimer laser) to cause formation of the beta-SiC compound. Doped beta-SiC may be produced by introducing dopant gases during irradiation. Single layers up to a thickness of 0.5-1 micron have been produced, with thicker layers being produced by multiple processing steps. Since the electron transport properties of beta silicon carbide over a wide temperature range of 27.degree.-730.degree. C. is better than these properties of alpha silicon carbide, they have wide application, such as in high temperature semiconductors, including hetero-junction bipolar transistors and power devices, as well as in high bandgap solar arrays, ultra-hard coatings, light emitting diodes, sensors, etc.

  19. Silicon And Silicon-germanium Epitaxy For Quantum Dot Device Fabrications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as they provide highly tunable structures for trapping and manipu- lating individual electrons/silicon- germanium material heterosystem. We describe the growth of two-dimensional electron gas structures advisor Professor James C. Sturm, whose perpetual enthusiasm, stimulating insight, and constant

  20. Improving microstructure of silicon/carbon nanofiber composites as a Li battery anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, Jane Y; Meyer III, Harry M; Burton, David J.; Qi, Dr. Yue; Nazri, Maryam; Nazri, G. Abbas; Palmer, Andrew C.; Lake, Patrick D.

    2013-01-01

    We report the interfacial study of a silicon/carbon nanofiber (Si/CNF) nanocomposite material as a potentially high performance anode for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The carbon nanofiber is hollow, with a graphitic interior and turbostratic exterior. Amorphous silicon layers were uniformly coated via chemical vapor deposition on both the exterior and interior surfaces of the CNF. The resulting Si/CNF composites were tested as anodes for Li ion batteries and exhibited capacities near 800 mAh g1 for 100 cycles. After cycling, we found that more Si had fallen off from the outer wall than from the innerwall of CNF. Theoretical calculations confirmed that this is due to a higher interfacial strength at the Si/Cedge interface at the inner wall than that of the Si/C-basal interface at the outer wall. Based upon the experimental analysis and theoretical calculation, we have proposed several interfacial engineering approaches to improve the performance of the electrodes by optimizing the microstructure of this nanocomposite.

  1. On the Capacity of Hybrid Wireless Networks Benyuan Liu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    On the Capacity of Hybrid Wireless Networks Benyuan Liu , Zhen Liu + , Don Towsley Department 704 Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 Abstract-- We study the throughput capacity of hybrid wireless networks stations are assumed to be connected by a high-bandwidth wired network and act as relays for wireless nodes

  2. In-Situ TEM Study Of Lithiation Behavior Of Silicon Nanoparticles Attached To And Embedded In A Carbon Matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Li, Ying; Li, Xiaolin; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Zhang, Xiangwu; Xu, Wu; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Juan; Wang, Chong M.

    2012-08-23

    Rational design of silicon and carbon nanocomposite with a special topological feature has been demonstrated to be a feasible way for mitigating the capacity fading associated with the large volume change of silicon anode in lithium ion batteries. Although the lithiation behavior of silicon and carbon as individual component has been well understood, lithium ion transport behavior across a network of silicon and carbon are still lacking. In this paper, we probe the lithiation behavior of silicon nanoparticles attached to and embedded in a carbon nanofiber using in-situ TEM and continuum mechanical calculation. We found that aggregated silicon nanoparticles show contact flattering upon initial lithiation, which is characteristically analogous to the classic sintering of powder particles by neck-growth mechanism. As compared with the surface-attached silicon particle, particles embedded in the carbon matrix show delayed lithiation. Depending on the strength of the carbon matrix, lithiation of the embedded silicon nanoparticle can lead to the fracture of the carbon fiber. These observations provide insights on lithium ion transport in the network structured composite of silicon and carbon, and ultimately provide fundamental guidance for mitigating the failure of battery due to the large volume change of silicon anode.

  3. Synthesis of silicon nanotubes by DC arc plasma method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tank, C. M.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.

    2012-06-05

    Plasma synthesis is a novel technique of synthesis of nanomaterials as they provide high rate of production and promote metastable reactions. Very thin walled silicon nanotubes were synthesized in a DC direct arc thermal plasma reactor. The effect of parameters of synthesis i.e. arc current and presence of hydrogen on the morphology of Si nanoparticles is reported. Silicon nanotubes were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Local Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM).

  4. Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Kwanyong; Wober, Munib; Steinvurzel, P.; Schonbrun, E.; Dan, Yaping; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate that vertical silicon nanowires take on a surprising variety of colors covering the entire visible spectrum, in marked contrast to the gray color of bulk silicon. This effect is readily observable by bright-field microscopy, or even to the naked eye. The reflection spectra of the nanowires each show a dip whose position depends on the nanowire radii. We compare the experimental data to the results of finite difference time domain simulations to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the phenomena we observe. The nanowires are fabricated as arrays, but the vivid colors arise not from scattering or diffractive effects of the array, but from the guided mode properties of the individual nanowires. Each nanowire can thus define its own color, allowing for complex spatial patterning. We anticipate that the color filter effect we demonstrate could be employed in nanoscale image sensor devices.

  5. Making silicon stronger.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyce, Brad Lee

    2010-11-01

    Silicon microfabrication has seen many decades of development, yet the structural reliability of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is far from optimized. The fracture strength of Si MEMS is limited by a combination of poor toughness and nanoscale etch-induced defects. A MEMS-based microtensile technique has been used to characterize the fracture strength distributions of both standard and custom microfabrication processes. Recent improvements permit 1000's of test replicates, revealing subtle but important deviations from the commonly assumed 2-parameter Weibull statistical model. Subsequent failure analysis through a combination of microscopy and numerical simulation reveals salient aspects of nanoscale flaw control. Grain boundaries, for example, suffer from preferential attack during etch-release thereby forming failure-critical grain-boundary grooves. We will discuss ongoing efforts to quantify the various factors that affect the strength of polycrystalline silicon, and how weakest-link theory can be used to make worst-case estimates for design.

  6. A silicon electromechanical photodetector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tallur, Siddharth

    2013-01-01

    Opto-mechanical systems have enabled wide-band optical frequency conversion and multi-channel all-optical radio frequency amplification. Realization of an on-chip silicon communication platform is limited by photodetectors needed to convert optical information to electrical signals for further signal processing. In this paper we present a coupled silicon micro-resonator, which converts near-IR optical intensity modulation at 174.2MHz and 1.198GHz into motional electrical current. This device emulates a photodetector which detects intensity modulation of continuous wave laser light in the full-width-at-half-maximum bandwidth of the mechanical resonance. The resonant principle of operation eliminates dark current challenges associated with convetional photodetectors.

  7. Analysis of system wide distortion in an integrated power system utilizing a high voltage DC bus and silicon carbide power devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fallier, William F. (William Frederick)

    2007-01-01

    This research investigates the distortion on the electrical distribution system for a high voltage DC Integrated Power System (IPS). The analysis was concentrated on the power supplied to a propulsion motor driven by an ...

  8. Simulation of Large-Area Silicon Solar Cells1 Gernot Heiser2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    Simulation of Large-Area Silicon Solar Cells1 Gernot Heiser2 Pietro P. Altermatt3 The University of high-efficiency silicon solar cells. In the past, however, such modelling could only be applied to produce an accurate model of a full-sized high-efficiency solar cell. We demon- strate the power

  9. CapacityRetention(%) Cycle Index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PERFORMANCE Since their 1990 market debut by Sony, Li-ion batteries (LIBs) have become a popular energy storage platform in portable electronics. Electric vehicles powered by LIBs have also experienced recent-day electrodes (e.g., the graphite used as the anode material). Silicon is a promising candidate for next

  10. Low-resistivity photon-transparent window attached to photo-sensitive silicon detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen Edward (Hercules, CA)

    2000-02-15

    The invention comprises a combination of a low resistivity, or electrically conducting, silicon layer that is transparent to long or short wavelength photons and is attached to the backside of a photon-sensitive layer of silicon, such as a silicon wafer or chip. The window is applied to photon sensitive silicon devices such as photodiodes, charge-coupled devices, active pixel sensors, low-energy x-ray sensors and other radiation detectors. The silicon window is applied to the back side of a photosensitive silicon wafer or chip so that photons can illuminate the device from the backside without interference from the circuit printed on the frontside. A voltage sufficient to fully deplete the high-resistivity photosensitive silicon volume of charge carriers is applied between the low-resistivity back window and the front, patterned, side of the device. This allows photon-induced charge created at the backside to reach the front side of the device and to be processed by any circuitry attached to the front side. Using the inventive combination, the photon sensitive silicon layer does not need to be thinned beyond standard fabrication methods in order to achieve full charge-depletion in the silicon volume. In one embodiment, the inventive backside window is applied to high resistivity silicon to allow backside illumination while maintaining charge isolation in CCD pixels.

  11. Stochastic modelling of silicon nanoparticle synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menz, William Jefferson

    2014-01-07

    - ical and chemical processes in the soil may form inorganic nanoparticles [9], and organic structures such as viruses are often considered to be a type of nanoparticle [43]. Regardless of their origin, nanoparticles are of intense interest due... reported [75, 113]. Despite this, the product properties can be tightly con- trolled [56], and highly spherical particles, such as those in Figure 2.5, can be obtained. Production of silicon nanoparticles through laser pyrolysis typically uses a CO2 laser...

  12. Vertical silicon nanowire arrays for gas sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hangbo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to fabricate and characterize vertically aligned silicon nanowire gas sensors. Silicon nanowires are very attractive for gas sensing applications and vertically aligned silicon nanowires are ...

  13. Solution-processed amorphous silicon surface passivation layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mews, Mathias Sontheimer, Tobias; Korte, Lars; Rech, Bernd; Mader, Christoph; Traut, Stephan; Wunnicke, Odo

    2014-09-22

    Amorphous silicon thin films, fabricated by thermal conversion of neopentasilane, were used to passivate crystalline silicon surfaces. The conversion is investigated using X-ray and constant-final-state-yield photoelectron spectroscopy, and minority charge carrier lifetime spectroscopy. Liquid processed amorphous silicon exhibits high Urbach energies from 90 to 120?meV and 200?meV lower optical band gaps than material prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Applying a hydrogen plasma treatment, a minority charge carrier lifetime of 1.37?ms at an injection level of 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 3} enabling an implied open circuit voltage of 724?mV was achieved, demonstrating excellent silicon surface passivation.

  14. On the Capacity of the Vector MAC and BC with Feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jafar, Syed A.

    On the Capacity of the Vector MAC and BC with Feedback Syed Ali Jafar Qualcomm Incorporated San to scalar MACs and BCs, respectively. We also determine the capacity enhancement due to feedback at high SNR

  15. Solution-Grown Silicon Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Solution-Grown Silicon Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes Candace K. Chan, Reken N. Patel interest in using nanomaterials for advanced lithium-ion battery electrodes, par- ticularly for increasing storage capacity (theoretical values of 4200 vs 372 mAh/g for graphite). How- ever, the insertion

  16. AMORPHOUS SILICON-BASED MINIMODULES WITH SILICONE ELASTOMER ENCAPSULATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    improved, which may make them suitable for encapsulating solar cells once again. We have recently of terrestrial solar cells. It is well known that EVA turns yellow upon extended exposure to ultraviolet light-based polymers (silicones) may not show this effect. Although silicones were used to encapsulate solar cells

  17. Adhesion Impact of Silicone Contamination during Encapsulation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Adhesion Impact of Silicone Contamination during Encapsulation. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Adhesion Impact of Silicone Contamination during Encapsulation. Abstract...

  18. CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES Public Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Wendell T.

    CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES School of Public Health Dean Principal Investigator Community Advisory System Faculty & Students School of Public Health Faculty & Students Prince George's County Washington, D.C. Community Members Practitioners, Residents and Public Health Professionals Research Projects Forum (CAC

  19. Compensated amorphous silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E. (Yardley, PA)

    1980-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell incorporates a region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon fabricated by a glow discharge wherein said intrinsic region is compensated by P-type dopants in an amount sufficient to reduce the space charge density of said region under illumination to about zero.

  20. Compensated amorphous silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devaud, Genevieve (629 S. Humphrey Ave., Oak Park, IL 60304)

    1983-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell including an electrically conductive substrate, a layer of glow discharge deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon over said substrate and having regions of differing conductivity with at least one region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has opposed first and second major surfaces where the first major surface contacts the electrically conductive substrate and an electrode for electrically contacting the second major surface. The intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon region is deposited in a glow discharge with an atmosphere which includes not less than about 0.02 atom percent mono-atomic boron. An improved N.I.P. solar cell is disclosed using a BF.sub.3 doped intrinsic layer.

  1. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing, between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.

  2. Transparent electrodes in silicon heterojunction solar cells: Influence on contact passivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasi, Andrea; Sahli, Florent; Seif, Johannes Peter; Fanni, Lorenzo; de Nicolas Agut, Silvia Martin; Geissbuhler, Jonas; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand; Nicolay, Sylvain; Barraud, Loris; Niesen, Bjoern; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-10-26

    Charge carrier collection in silicon heterojunction solar cells occurs via intrinsic/doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer stacks deposited on the crystalline silicon wafer surfaces. Usually, both the electron and hole collecting stacks are externally capped by an n-type transparent conductive oxide, which is primarily needed for carrier extraction. Earlier, it has been demonstrated that the mere presence of such oxides can affect the carrier recombination in the crystalline silicon absorber. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the impact of this phenomenon on both the electron and hole collecting sides, including its consequences for the operating voltages of silicon heterojunction solar cells. As a result, we define guiding principles for improved passivating contact design for high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  3. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing,more »between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.« less

  4. Transparent electrodes in silicon heterojunction solar cells: Influence on contact passivation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tomasi, Andrea; Sahli, Florent; Seif, Johannes Peter; Fanni, Lorenzo; de Nicolas Agut, Silvia Martin; Geissbuhler, Jonas; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand; Nicolay, Sylvain; Barraud, Loris; Niesen, Bjoern; et al

    2015-10-26

    Charge carrier collection in silicon heterojunction solar cells occurs via intrinsic/doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer stacks deposited on the crystalline silicon wafer surfaces. Usually, both the electron and hole collecting stacks are externally capped by an n-type transparent conductive oxide, which is primarily needed for carrier extraction. Earlier, it has been demonstrated that the mere presence of such oxides can affect the carrier recombination in the crystalline silicon absorber. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the impact of this phenomenon on both the electron and hole collecting sides, including its consequences for the operating voltages of silicon heterojunction solarmore »cells. As a result, we define guiding principles for improved passivating contact design for high-efficiency silicon solar cells.« less

  5. Toward a Monolithic Lattice-Matched III-V on Silicon Tandem Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geisz, J. F.; Olson, J. M.; Friedman, D. J.

    2004-09-01

    A two-junction device consisting of a 1.7-eV GaNPAs junction on a 1.1-eV silicon junction has the theoretical potential to achieve nearly optimal efficiency for a two-junction tandem cell. We have demonstrated some of the key components toward realizing such a cell, including GaNPAs top cells grown on silicon substrates, GaP-based tunnel junctions grown on silicon substrates, and diffused silicon junctions formed during the epitaxial growth of GaNP on silicon. These components have required the development of techniques for the growth of high crystalline quality GaNPAs on silicon by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy.

  6. Philips Lumileds Is Exploring the Use of Silicon Substrates to Lower the Cost of LEDs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Philips Lumileds is exploring the use of nitride epitaxy on 150mm silicon substrates to produce low-cost, warm-white, high-performance general-illumination LEDs. Most LEDs are made with C-plane sapphire substrates, but silicon—at roughly half a penny per square millimeter—is much cheaper, and it's also easier to obtain. Philips Lumileds is attempting to adapt the use of silicon to the manufacture of LEDs, drawing upon the knowledge base and depreciated equipment of the computer industry, which has been using silicon substrates for decades.

  7. Reuse Distance Based Circuit Replacement in Silicon Photonic Interconnection Networks for HPC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    -scale distance, can help to further scale data-movement capabilities in high performance computing (HPC demands within high performance computing (HPC) systems. Silicon photonic (SiP) interconnects [1-3], which

  8. Silicon carbide process development for microengine applications : residual stress control and microfabrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Dongwon, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    The high power densities expected for the MIT microengine (silicon MEMS-based micro-gas turbine generator) require the turbine and compressor spool to rotate at a very high speed at elevated temperatures (1300 to 1700 K). ...

  9. Deposition of device quality low H content, amorphous silicon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahan, Archie H. (Golden, CO); Carapella, Jeffrey C. (Evergreen, CO); Gallagher, Alan C. (Louisville, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH.sub.4) over a high temperature, 2000.degree. C., tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400.degree. C., substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20-30 times before being deposited on the hot substrate. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films thus produced have only about one atomic percent hydrogen, yet have device quality electrical, chemical, and structural properties, despite this lowered hydrogen content.

  10. Deposition of device quality low H content, amorphous silicon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahan, A.H.; Carapella, J.C.; Gallagher, A.C.

    1995-03-14

    A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH{sub 4}) over a high temperature, 2,000 C, tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400 C, substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20--30 times before being deposited on the hot substrate. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films thus produced have only about one atomic percent hydrogen, yet have device quality electrical, chemical, and structural properties, despite this lowered hydrogen content. 7 figs.

  11. In-situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy observation of silicon nanocrystal nucleation in a SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, T. C.-J. Wu, L.; Lin, Z.; Jia, X.; Puthen-Veettil, B.; Zhang, T.; Conibeer, G.; Perez-Wurfl, I.; Kauffmann, Y.; Rothschild, A.

    2014-08-04

    Solid-state nucleation of Si nanocrystals in a SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrix was observed at temperatures as low as 450?°C. This was achieved by aberration corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with real-time in-situ heating up to 600?°C. This technique is a valuable characterization tool especially with the recent interest in Si nanostructures for light emitting devices, non-volatile memories, and third-generation photovoltaics which all typically require a heating step in their fabrication. The control of size, shape, and distribution of the Si nanocrystals are critical for these applications. This experimental study involves in-situ observation of the nucleation of Si nanocrystals in a SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrix fabricated through radio frequency co-sputtering. The results show that the shapes of Si nanocrystals in amorphous SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrices are irregular and not spherical, in contrast to many claims in the literature. Furthermore, the Si nanocrystals are well confined within their layers by the amorphous SiO{sub 2}. This study demonstrates the potential of in-situ HRTEM as a tool to observe the real time nucleation of Si nanocrystals in a SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrix. Furthermore, ideas for improvements on this in-situ heating HRTEM technique are discussed.

  12. Lithium Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon Skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogart, Timothy D.; Oka, Daichi; Lu, Xiaotang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2013-12-06

    Silicon (Si) nanomaterials have emerged as a leading candidate for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes. However, the low electrical conductivity of Si requires the use of conductive additives in the anode film. Here we report a solution-based synthesis of Si nanowires with a conductive carbon skin. Without any conductive additive, the Si nanowire electrodes exhibited capacities of over 2000 mA h g-1 for 100 cycles when cycled at C/10 and over 1200 mA h g-1 when cycled more rapidly at 1C against Li metal.. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation reveals that the carbon skin performs dual roles: it speeds lithiation of the Si nanowires significantly, while also constraining the final volume expansion. The present work sheds light on ways to optimize lithium battery performance by smartly tailoring the nanostructure of composition of materials based on silicon and carbon.

  13. The Role of Silicon Interstitials in the Formation of Boron-Oxygen Defects in Crystalline Silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Role of Silicon Interstitials in the Formation of Boron-Oxygen Defects in Crystalline Silicon@ise.fhg.de Keywords: crystalline silicon, Czochralski, boron-oxygen defect, silicon interstitial Abstract. Oxygen-rich crystalline silicon materials doped with boron are plagued by the presence of a well-known carrier

  14. Finite Ground Coplanar Lines on CMOS Grade Silicon with a Thick Embedded Silicon Oxide Layer Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    Finite Ground Coplanar Lines on CMOS Grade Silicon with a Thick Embedded Silicon Oxide Layer Using grade silicon wafer (poxide layer have been developed using on a CMOS grade silicon substrate ( ~ 4 . 0 1Cl-cm) with an embedded thick silicon oxide layer using

  15. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01

    and Photovoltaic Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Amorphous Silicon as a Photovoltaic Material 2.1.2ii Photovoltaic Model . . . . . . . . . . .

  16. Large-area silicon-film{sup {trademark}} panels and solar cells. Phase I annual technical report, July 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rand, J.A.; Barnett, A.M.; Checchi, J.C.; Culik, J.S.

    1996-06-01

    AstroPower is establishing a low cost manufacturing process for Silicon-Film{trademark} solar cells and panels by taking advantage of the continuous nature of the Silicon-Film{trademark} technology. Under this effort, each step used in Silicon-Film{trademark} panel fabrication is being developed into a continuous/in-line manufacturing process. The following benefits are expected: an accelerated reduction of PV manufacturing cost for installed systems; a foundation for significantly increased production capacity; and a reduction in handling and waste streams. The process development will be based on a new 31-cm wide continuous Silicon-Film{trademark} sheet. Long-term goals include the development of a 24W, 30 cm x 60 cm Silicon-Film{trademark} solar cell and a manufacturing capability for a 384W, 4 inches x 8 inches Silicon-Film{trademark} panel for deployment in utility-scale applications.

  17. Atmospheric ageing of nanosized silicon nitride powders Janos Szepvolgyi,*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    by the vapour phase reaction of silicon tetrachloride and ammonia has been studied in this work. Aliquots chemical analysis, XPS, TG-MS, FTIR, XRD and TEM methods. No signi®cant changes were detected on storage of silicon tetrachloride and ammonia have many interesting properties including high purity, mainly amorphous

  18. Self-healing chemistry enables the stable operation of silicon microparticle anodes for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    -healing feature is particularly desirable for energy storage because the lifetimes of many rechargeable batteriesSelf-healing chemistry enables the stable operation of silicon microparticle anodes for high, such as silicon anodes, is shortened by mechanical fractures generated during the cycling process. Here, inspired

  19. Improved efficiency of smooth and aligned single walled carbon nanotube/silicon hybrid solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark

    and versatility of CNTs in energy storage and conversion devices. In fact, CNT has already been used to contactImproved efficiency of smooth and aligned single walled carbon nanotube/silicon hybrid solar cells on silicon (Si) together with post treatments result in SWNT/Si hybrid solar cells with unprecedented high

  20. Improving the cycling stability of silicon nanowire anodes with conducting polymer coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    identified as the most promising energy storage technology for portable electronics and electric vehicles.1Improving the cycling stability of silicon nanowire anodes with conducting polymer coatings Yan Yao April 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2ee21437g For silicon nanowires (Si NWs) to be used as a successful high

  1. Optical Properties of Crystalline-Amorphous Core-Shell Silicon Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anantaram, M. P.

    higher absorption between wave- lengths of 400 and 800 nm compared to thin film amor- phous silicon.12 absorption of down to less than 2% at long wavelengths ( > 780 nm). These results indicate that our nanowires and creat- ing a p-n junction in high efficiency heterojunctions a-Si/ crystalline silicon solar cells.13

  2. Worldwide Energy Efficiency Action through Capacity Building...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Worldwide Energy Efficiency Action through Capacity Building and Training (WEACT) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Worldwide Energy Efficiency Action through Capacity Building and...

  3. Calculation of heat capacities of light and heavy water by path-integral molecular dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Steven O.

    Calculation of heat capacities of light and heavy water by path-integral molecular dynamics 30 September 2005 As an application of atomistic simulation methods to heat capacities, path-integral has estimated the heat capacities too high, the quantum simulation based on path-integral molecular

  4. Robust Capacity Planning in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    its sensitivity to product mix, the uncertainty in future demand, the long lead time for .... “windows” in the thick oxide/nitride film into the otherwise insulating silicon

  5. Method of forming buried oxide layers in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY); Holland, Orin Wayne (Lenoir City, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  6. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines and products formed thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1988-04-04

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about O/degree/C up to about 300/degree/C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200-1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  7. Nitrification Capacities of Texas Soil Types and Factors which Affect Nitrification. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterges, A. J.; Fraps, G S. (George Stronach)

    1947-01-01

    capacities of soils for ammonium sulphate may range from (I to loo percent but additions of bacteria and calcium carbonate will increase the nitrifying capacities of most soils and subsoils to a high extent. Soils with low nitrification capacities have... percent of that of ammonium sulphate, but in >oils of low nitrifying capacity, nitrogen of cottonseed meal may be nitrified more reaclily than that of ammonium sulphate. When the fertilizing values of organic nitrogenous fertilizers are to be compared...

  8. Factory capacity limits Machine dependencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, Simon

    Factory capacity limits Machine dependencies Employee scheduling Raw material availability Other internal operations (and also possibly the actions of other suppliers that supply raw materials) and at an international workshop at the multi-agent conference (AAMAS'06). Manufacturer Customer demand Penalties for non

  9. Mechanical Dissipation in Silicon Flexures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Reid; G. Cagnoli; D. R. M. Crooks; J. Hough; P. Murray; S. Rowan; M. M. Fejer; R. Route; S. Zappe

    2005-10-28

    The thermo-mechanical properties of silicon make it of significant interest as a possible material for mirror substrates and suspension elements for future long-baseline gravitational wave detectors. The mechanical dissipation in 92um thick single-crystal silicon cantilevers has been observed over the temperature range 85 K to 300 K, with dissipation approaching levels down to phi = 4.4E-7.

  10. Silicon carbide oxidation in high temperature steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Ramsey Paul

    2011-01-01

    The commercial nuclear power industry is continually looking for ways to improve reactor productivity and efficiency and to increase reactor safety. A concern that is closely regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ...

  11. Constrained capacity of MIMO Rayleigh fading channels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Wenyan

    2011-08-08

    though) as the deflnition of outage capacity in (2.4). Telatar conjectured that the optimal input covariance matrix Q is a diagonal matrix with the power equally shared among a subset of the transmit antennas [1]. Furthermore, the higher the rate... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 B. Outage Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 III PSK CONSTRAINED MIMO CAPACITY : : : : : : : : : : : : 13 A. PSK Constrained MIMO Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1. The Covariance Matrix...

  12. Online Capacity Identification of Multitier Websites Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Cheng-Zhong

    to resource contention and algorithmic overhead for load management [15]. Knowledge about the server capacity

  13. Surface-Coating Regulated Lithiation Kinetics and Degradation in Silicon Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Langli; Yang, Hui; Yan, Pengfei; Travis, Jonathan J.; Lee, Younghee; Liu, Nian; Piper, Daniela M.; Lee, Se-Hee; Zhao, Peng; George, Steven M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Cui, Yi; Zhang, Sulin; Ban, Chunmei; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-05-26

    Silicon (Si)-based materials hold promise as the next-generation anodes for high-energy lithium (Li)-ion batteries. Enormous research efforts have been undertaken to mitigate the chemo-mechanical failure due to the large volume changes of Si during lithiation and delithiation cycles. It has been found nanostructured Si coated with carbon or other functional materials can lead to significantly improved cyclability. However, the underlying mechanism and comparative performance of different coatings remain poorly understood. Herein, using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) through a nanoscale half-cell battery, in combination with chemo-mechanical simulation, we explored the effect of thin (~5 nm) alucone and Al2O3 coatings on the lithiation kinetics of Si nanowires (SiNWs). We observed that the alucone coating leads to a “V-shaped” lithiation front of the SiNWs , while the Al2O3 coating yields an “H-shaped” lithiation front. These observations indicate that the difference between the Li surface diffusivity and bulk diffusivity of the coatings dictates lithiation induced morphological evolution in the nanowires. Our experiments also indicate that the reaction rate in the coating layer can be the limiting step for lithiation and therefore critically influences the rate performance of the battery. Further, the failure mechanism of the Al2O3 coated SiNWs was also explored. Our studies shed light on the design of high capacity, high rate and long cycle life Li-ion batteries.

  14. Direct Production of Silicones From Sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon

    2001-09-30

    Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

  15. A micron resolution optical scanner for characterization of silicon detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, R. A.; Dugad, S. R. Gopal, A. V.; Gupta, S. K.; Prabhu, S. S.; Garde, C. S.

    2014-02-15

    The emergence of high position resolution (?10 ?m) silicon detectors in recent times have highlighted the urgent need for the development of new automated optical scanners of micron level resolution suited for characterizing microscopic features of these detectors. More specifically, for the newly developed silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) that are compact, possessing excellent photon detection efficiency with gain comparable to photo-multiplier tube. In a short time, since their invention the SiPMs are already being widely used in several high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments as the photon readout element. The SiPM is a high quantum efficiency, multi-pixel photon counting detector with fast timing and high gain. The presence of a wide variety of photo sensitive silicon detectors with high spatial resolution requires their performance evaluation to be carried out by photon beams of very compact spot size. We have designed a high resolution optical scanner that provides a monochromatic focused beam on a target plane. The transverse size of the beam was measured by the knife-edge method to be 1.7 ?m at 1 ? ? level. Since the beam size was an order of magnitude smaller than the typical feature size of silicon detectors, this optical scanner can be used for selective excitation of these detectors. The design and operational details of the optical scanner, high precision programmed movement of target plane (0.1 ?m) integrated with general purpose data acquisition system developed for recording static and transient response photo sensitive silicon detector are reported in this paper. Entire functionality of scanner is validated by using it for selective excitation of individual pixels in a SiPM and identifying response of active and dead regions within SiPM. Results from these studies are presented in this paper.

  16. Luoyang Zhonggui High Technology Co Ltd aka Luoyang Polysilicon...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zhonggui High Technology Co Ltd aka Luoyang Polysilicon Company China Silicon High Tech Jump to: navigation, search Name: Luoyang Zhonggui High Technology Co Ltd (aka Luoyang...

  17. Silicon Tetrafluoride on Io

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Schaefer; Bruce Fegley Jr

    2005-06-01

    Silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4) is observed in terrestrial volcanic gases and is predicted to be the major F - bearing species in low temperature volcanic gases on Io (Schaefer and Fegley, 2005b). SiF4 gas is also a potential indicator of silica-rich crust on Io. We used F/S ratios in terrestrial and extraterrestrial basalts, and gas/lava enrichment factors for F and S measured at terrestrial volcanoes to calculate equilibrium SiF4/SO2 ratios in volcanic gases on Io. We conclude that SiF4 can be produced at levels comparable to the observed NaCl/SO2 gas ratio. We also considered potential loss processes for SiF4 in volcanic plumes and in Io's atmosphere including ion-molecule reactions, electron chemistry, photochemistry, reactions with the major atmospheric constituents, and condensation. Photochemical destruction (tchem ~ 266 days) and/or condensation as Na2SiF6 (s) appear to be the major sinks for SiF4. We recommend searching for SiF4 with infrared spectroscopy using its 9.7 micron band as done on Earth.

  18. Deposition of polyaniline film onto porous silicon layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkhutik, V.P.; Martinez-Duart, J.M. [Univ. of Madrid, (Spain); Callegja, R.D.; Matveeva, E.M. [Polytechnical Univ. of Valencia, (Spain)

    1993-12-31

    Presently porous silicon (PS) layers are being considered a promising visible light emitting sources. Current research concentrates on the understanding of the nature of the light emission and the development of practical luminescent devices. The last goal is to find an appropriate solid contact to the rough surface of PS layers to ensure high electric conductivity and transparency. The aim of this work is to study the deposition of polyaniline (PANI) films onto porous silicon layers as an alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) as the electrode.

  19. Fabrication and testing of oxidized porous silicon field emitter strips 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madduri, Vasanta Bhanu

    1992-01-01

    28 30 15. Reaction Cell for Anodization 32 16. 17. Cross-section of a Porous Silicon Field Emitting Strip Ctoss-section of the Anode Tester 34 36 LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Figure 18. Testing Set-up for the Diode Arrays 19. I-V Curves... electrolyte in place of HF. In this process of oxide formation the oxide is formed at the bottom of the porous layer. The top PS layer can be recrystallized by high temperature annealing or laser processing. Light Emitting Porous Silicon Attempts to use...

  20. Characteristic study of silicon sensor for ILD ECAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shusuke Takada; Hiroto Hirai; Kiyotomo Kawagoe; Yohei Miyazaki; Yuji Sudo; Taikan Suehara; Hiroki Sumida; Tatsuhiko Tomita; Hiraku Ueno; Tamaki Yoshioka

    2015-03-31

    Excellent jet energy measurement is important at the International Linear Collider (ILC) because most of interesting physics processes decay into multi-jet final states. We employ a particle flow method to reconstruct particles, hence International Large Detector (ILD) needs high spatial resolution which can separate each particle in jets. We study pixelized silicon sensors as active material of ILD Silicon electro- magnetic calorimeter (SiECAL). This paper reports studies of temperature and humidity dependence on dark current and response of laser injection.