Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Carbon-Silicon Core-Shell Nanowires as High Capacity Electrode for Lithium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon-Silicon Core-Shell Nanowires as High Capacity Electrode for Lithium Ion Batteries Li lithium battery electrodes. Amorphous silicon was coated onto carbon nanofibers to form a core during lithium cycling and can function as a mechanical support and an efficient electron conducting

Cui, Yi

2

HIGH-CAPACITY POLYANION CATHODES  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

FY12 - 280K * Funding for FY13 - 280K *Funding for FY14 - 280K Barriers * Barriers - Cost - Cycle life - Energy and power densities * Targets - High-capacity and high-voltage...

3

High capacity immobilized amine sorbents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

Gray, McMahan L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Fredericktown, PA); Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Filburn, Thomas (Granby, CT)

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

4

Capacity and Energy Cost of Information in Biological and Silicon Photoreceptors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capacity and Energy Cost of Information in Biological and Silicon Photoreceptors PAMELA ABSHIRE of infor- mation capacity (in bits per second) versus energy cost of infor- mation (in joules per bit levels of abstraction. At the functional level, we ex- amine the operational and task specification

Maryland at College Park, University of

5

Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

6

HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity Hydrogen Storage HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity Hydrogen Storage Presentation for...

7

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

8

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

9

High index contrast platform for silicon photonics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis focuses on silicon-based high index contrast (HIC) photonics. In addition to mature fiber optics or low index contrast (LIC) platform, which is often referred to as Planar Lightwave Cirrcuit (PLC) or Silica ...

Akiyama, Shoji, 1972-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Production of high specific activity silicon-32  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Brzezinski, Mark A. (Santa Barbara, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Highly Efficient Silicon Light Emitting Diode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

silicon light-emitting diodes (LED) that efficiently emit photons with energy around the silicon bandgap

Leminh Holleman Wallinga; P. Leminh; J. Holleman; H. Wallinga

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

High Q silicon carbide microdisk resonator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a silicon carbide (SiC) microdisk resonator with optical Q up to 5.12?×?10{sup 4}. The high optical quality, together with the diversity of whispering-gallery modes and the tunability of external coupling, renders SiC microdisk a promising platform for integrated quantum photonics applications.

Lu, Xiyuan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Lee, Jonathan Y. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Feng, Philip X.-L. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Lin, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.lin@rochester.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

13

Highly Efficient Silicon Light Emitting Diode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we describe the fabrication, using standard silicon processing techniques, of silicon light-emitting diodes (LED) that efficiently emit photons with energy around the silicon bandgap. The improved efficiency had been explained by the spatial confinement of charge carriers due to a local strain field that is formed by dislocation loop arrays. The dependence of device electroluminescent properties on the annealing conditions is carefully examined as a high temperature process has profound influence on these dislocations. Increased luminescent intensity at higher device temperature, together with pure diffusion current conduction mechanism evidently shows the influence of the dislocation loops. The electrical properties of the diode are reasonable with low leakage reverse current.

Leminh Holleman Wallinga; P. Leminh; J. Holleman; H. Wallinga

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil applications. During 1986 and 1987, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was responsible for maintaining the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In 1988, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA advanced technology project, and provides a bridge to the NASA exploration technology programs. The elements of CSTI high capacity power development include conversion systems - Stirling and thermoelectric, thermal management, power management, system diagnostics, and environmental interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 years lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems while minimizing the impact of day/night operation as well as attitudes and distance from the Sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the program elements will be discussed, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

Winter, J.M.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop technology for military and civil applications. Starting in 1986, NASA has funded a technology program to maintain the momentum of promising aerospace technology advancement started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the changes for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for a wide range of future space applications. The elements of the CSTI High Capacity Power Project include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. Technology advancement in all elements is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall project with develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements will be presented, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Titran, R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Schmitz, P. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center Group; Vandersande, J. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

49thackeray2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Cathodes Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Stabilization of Layered Metal Oxides...

17

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Christopher Johnson and Michael Thackeray Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne Annual Merit Review DOE...

18

Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

Hsu, George C. (La Crescenta, CA); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (W. Corine, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

High-Rate, High-Capacity Binder-Free Electrode  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr FlickrGuidedCH2MLLC High-Rate, High-Capacity Binder-Free Electrode

20

Inelastic hosts as electrodes for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries Kejie Zhao, Matt Pharr, Joost J. Vlassak, and Zhigang Suoa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inelastic hosts as electrodes for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries Kejie Zhao, Matt Pharr, Joost for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. Upon absorbing lithium, silicon swells several times its volume strength. © 2011 American Institute of Physics. doi:10.1063/1.3525990 Lithium-ion batteries

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

Antoniadis, H.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

17johnson2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells Lithium Source...

23

Silicon carbide mirrors for high power applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The advent of synchrotron radiation (SR) sources and high energy lasers (HEL) in recent years has brought about the need for optical materials that can withstand the harsh operating conditions in such devices. SR mirrors must be ultra-high vacuum compatible, must withstand intense x-ray irradiation without surface damage, must maintain surface figure under thermal loading and must be capable of being polished to an extremely smooth surface finish. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide in combination with sintered substrate material meets these requirements and offers additional benefits as well. It is an extremely hard material and offers the possibility of being cleaned and recoated many times without degradation of the surface finish, thereby prolonging the lifetime of expensive optical components. It is an extremely strong material and offers the possibility of weight reduction over conventional mirror materials.

Takacs, P.Z.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n-type, intrinsic, p-type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography. 18 figs.

Street, R.A.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

1992-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

25

High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n type, intrinsic, p type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

long life and improved Safety for PHEV and EV applications. Objectives Develop a low cost synthesis methods to prepare high energy anodes Full structural and...

27

Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ceramic body comprising at least about 80 w/o silicon nitride and having a mean tensile strength of at least about 800 MPa.

Pujari, Vimal K. (Northboro, MA); Tracey, Dennis M. (Medfield, MA); Foley, Michael R. (Oxford, MA); Paille, Norman I. (Oxford, MA); Pelletier, Paul J. (Sutton, MA); Sales, Lenny C. (Grafton, MA); Willkens, Craig A. (Worcester, MA); Yeckley, Russell L. (Latrobe, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

High capacity stabilized complex hydrides for hydrogen storage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Complex hydrides based on Al(BH.sub.4).sub.3 are stabilized by the presence of one or more additional metal elements or organic adducts to provide high capacity hydrogen storage material.

Zidan, Ragaiy; Mohtadi, Rana F; Fewox, Christopher; Sivasubramanian, Premkumar

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

29

Method and apparatus for producing high purity silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing high purity silicon includes forming a copper silicide alloy and positioning the alloy within an enclosure. A filament member is also placed within the enclosure opposite the alloy. The enclosure is then filled with a chemical vapor transport gas adapted for transporting silicon. Finally, both the filament member and the alloy are heated to temperatures sufficient to cause the gas to react with silicon at the alloy surface and deposit the reacted silicon on the filament member. In addition, an apparatus for carrying out this method is also disclosed.

Olson, J.M.

1983-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

30

Amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunctions: The future of high-efficiency silicon solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;5 Record efficiencies #12;6 Diffused-junction solar cells Diffused-junction solar cell Chemical passivation to ~650 mV #12;7 Silicon heterojunction solar cells a-Si:H provides excellent passivation of c-Si surface Heterojunction solar cell Chemical passivation Chemical passivation #12;8 Voc and silicon heterojunction solar

Firestone, Jeremy

31

Low cost routes to high purity silicon and derivatives thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a method for providing an agricultural waste product having amorphous silica, carbon, and impurities; extracting from the agricultural waste product an amount of the impurities; changing the ratio of carbon to silica; and reducing the silica to a high purity silicon (e.g., to photovoltaic silicon).

Laine, Richard M; Krug, David James; Marchal, Julien Claudius; Mccolm, Andrew Stewart

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

32

Etch-free Formation of Porous Silicon by High-energy Ion Irradiation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Etch-free Formation of Porous Silicon by High-energy Ion Irradiation. Etch-free Formation of Porous Silicon by High-energy Ion Irradiation. Abstract: In this study, porous silicon...

33

The freezing tendency towards 4-coordinated amorphous network causes increase in heat capacity of supercooled Stillinger-Weber silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The supercooled liquid silicon, modeled by Stillinger-Weber potential, shows anomalous increase in heat capacity $C_p$, with a maximum $C_p$ value close to 1060 K at zero pressure. We study equilibration and relaxation of the supercooled SW Si, in the temperature range of 1060 K--1070 K at zero pressure. We find that as the relaxation of the metastable supercooled liquid phase initiates, a straight line region (SLR) is formed in cumulative potential energy distributions. The configurational temperature corresponding to the SLR is close to 1060 K, which was earlier identified as the freezing temperature of 4-coordinated amorphous network. The SLR is found to be tangential to the distribution of the metastable liquid phase and thus influences the broadness of the distribution. As the bath temperature is reduced from 1070 K to 1060 K, the effective temperature approaches the bath temperature which results in broadening of the metastable phase distribution. This, in turn, causes an increase in overall fluctuations of potential energy and hence an increase of heat capacity. We also find that during initial stages of relaxation, 4-coordinated atoms form 6-membered rings with a chair--like structure and other structural units that indicate crystallization. Simultaneously a strong correlation is established between the number of chair-shaped 6-membered rings and the number of 4-coordinated atoms in the system. This shows that all properties related to 4-coordinated particles are highly correlated as the SLR is formed in potential energy distributions and this can be interpreted as a consequence of `freezing' of amorphous network formed by 4-coordinated particles.

Pankaj A. Apte; Nandlal Pingua; Arvind Kumar Gautam; Uday Kumar; Soohaeng Yoo Willow; Xiao Cheng Zeng; B. D. Kulkarni

2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

34

Conductive Rigid Skeleton Supported Silicon as High-Performance...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and technologies. Citation: Chen X, X Li, F Ding, W Xu, J Xiao, Y Cao, P Meduri, J Liu, GL Graff, and J Zhang.2012."Conductive Rigid Skeleton Supported Silicon as High-Performance...

35

Silicon nitride ceramic having high fatigue life and high toughness  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sintered silicon nitride ceramic comprising between about 0.6 mol % and about 3.2 mol % rare earth as rare earth oxide, and between about 85 w/o and about 95 w/o beta silicon nitride grains, wherein at least about 20% of the beta silicon nitride grains have a thickness of greater than about 1 micron.

Yeckley, Russell L. (Oakham, MA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible...

37

Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A silicon nitride ceramic comprising: a) inclusions no greater than 25 microns in length, b) agglomerates no greater than 20 microns in diameter, and c) a surface finish of less than about 8 microinches, said ceramic having a four-point flexural strength of at least about 900 MPa.

Pujari, Vimal K. (Northboro, MA); Tracey, Dennis M. (Medfield, MA); Foley, Michael R. (Oxford, MA); Paille, Norman I. (Oxford, MA); Pelletier, Paul J. (Millbury, MA); Sales, Lenny C. (Grafton, MA); Willkens, Craig A. (Sterling, MA); Yeckley, Russell L. (Oakham, MA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

Yunker, Wayne H. (Richland, WA); Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

High-rate chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by radio frequency thermal plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-rate chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by radio frequency Semiconductor, Eden Prairie, MN, USA Received 10 July 2002; accepted 14 July 2002 Abstract Silicon carbide films; Nanomaterials; Silicon carbide; Thermal plasmas; Thin films; Si tetrachlorine precursor Silicon carbide has

Zachariah, Michael R.

40

Method of enhanced lithiation of doped silicon carbide via high temperature annealing in an inert atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for enhancing the lithium-ion capacity of a doped silicon carbide is disclosed. The method utilizes heat treating the silicon carbide in an inert atmosphere. Also disclosed are anodes for lithium-ion batteries prepared by the method.

Hersam, Mark C.; Lipson, Albert L.; Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna; Karmel, Hunter J; Bedzyk, Michael J

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 16.9% have been achieved. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x.

Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA); Doshi, Parag (Atlanta, GA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

1983-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

43

High-efficiency silicon concentrator cell commercialization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the first phase of a forty-one month program to develop a commercial, high-efficiency concentrator solar cell and facility for manufacturing it. The period covered is November 1, 1990 to December 31, 1991. This is a joint program between the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Sandia National Laboratories. (This report is also published by EPRI as EPRI report number TR-102035.) During the first year of the program, SunPower accomplished the following major objectives: (1) a new solar cell fabrication facility, which is called the Cell Pilot Line (CPL), (2) a baseline concentrator cell process has been developed, and (3) a cell testing facility has been completed. Initial cell efficiencies are about 23% for the baseline process. The long-range goal is to improve this efficiency to 27%.

Sinton, R.A.; Swanson, R.M. [SunPower Corp., Sunnyvale, CA (US)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

High-efficiency concentrator silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents results from extensive process development in high-efficiency Si solar cells. An advanced design for a 1.56-cm{sup 2} cell with front grids achieved 26% efficiency at 90 suns. This is especially significant since this cell does not require a prismatic cover glass. New designs for simplified backside-contact solar cells were advanced from a status of near-nonfunctionality to demonstrated 21--22% for one-sun cells in sizes up to 37.5 cm{sup 2}. An efficiency of 26% was achieved for similar 0.64-cm{sup 2} concentrator cells at 150 suns. More fundamental work on dopant-diffused regions is also presented here. The recombination vs. various process and physical parameters was studied in detail for boron and phosphorous diffusions. Emitter-design studies based solidly upon these new data indicate the performance vs design parameters for a variety of the cases of most interest to solar cell designers. Extractions of p-type bandgap narrowing and the surface recombination for p- and n-type regions from these studies have a generality that extends beyond solar cells into basic device modeling. 68 refs., 50 figs.

Sinton, R.A.; Cuevas, A.; King, R.R.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Solid-State Electronics Lab.)

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Silicon Sensors for Trackers at High-Luminosity Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The planned upgrade of the LHC accelerator at CERN, namely the high luminosity (HL) phase of the LHC (HL-LHC foreseen for 2023), will result in a more intense radiation environment than the present tracking system was designed for. The required upgrade of the all-silicon central trackers at the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments will include higher granularity and radiation hard sensors. The radiation hardness of the new sensors must be roughly an order of magnitude higher than the one of LHC detectors. To address this, a massive R&D program is underway within the CERN RD50 collaboration "Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders" to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance. Research topics include the improvement of the intrinsic radiation tolerance of the sensor material and novel detector designs with benefits like reduced trapping probability (thinned and 3D sensors), maximized sensitive area (active edge sensors) and enhanced charge carrier generation (sensors with intrinsic gain). A review of the recent results from both measurements and TCAD simulations of several detector technologies and silicon materials at radiation levels expected for HL-LHC will be presented.

Timo Peltola

2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

46

Surface and bulk modified high capacity layered oxide cathodes with low irreversible capacity loss  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention includes compositions, surface and bulk modifications, and methods of making of (1-x)Li[Li.sub.1/3Mn.sub.2/3]O.sub.2.xLi[Mn.sub.0.5-yNi.sub.0.5-yCo.sub.2- y]O.sub.2 cathode materials having an O3 crystal structure with a x value between 0 and 1 and y value between 0 and 0.5, reducing the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle by surface modification with oxides and bulk modification with cationic and anionic substitutions, and increasing the reversible capacity to close to the theoretical value of insertion/extraction of one lithium per transition metal ion (250-300 mAh/g).

Manthiram, Arumugam (Austin, TX); Wu, Yan (Austin, TX)

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

47

Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO{sub x}. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure. 28 figs.

Rohatgi, A.; Doshi, P.; Tate, J.K.; Mejia, J.; Chen, Z.

1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

48

Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure.

Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Doshi, Parag (Altanta, GA); Tate, John Keith (Lawrenceville, GA); Mejia, Jose (Atlanta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA)

1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

49

Synthesis of high purity sinterable silicon carbide powder  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High purity, submicron silicon carbide powders were produced via gas phase synthesis using a hydrogen/argon plasma. Two test facilities were constructed, a bench-scale unit and a larger pilot scale reactor. Three candidate silicon sources were evaluated:silicon tetrachloride (SiCl{sub 4}). dimethyldichlorosilane (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}(SiCl{sub 2}) and methyltrichlorosilane (CH{sub 3}SiCl{sub 3}). Product powders were evaluated on the basis of pressureless sinterability, surface area, agglomeration, particle size distribution, phase distribution and chemistry. Three commercial powders, Starck A10, Starck B10, and Carborundum submicron alpha silicon carbide, were also evaluated for comparison to the product powders. Powders were reproducibly synthesized at a rate of one pound per hour for standard run times of five hours. Product powders exhibited chemical and physical properties equal to or exceeding the commercial powders evaluated. In limited attempts to pressureless sinter the product powders, densities of 91% of theoretical were obtained with as-produced powder. Post-processing permitted densities in excess of 97% of theoretical. X-ray diffraction of the product indicates that the product powders are primarily beta poly-types, with traces of alpha present. Increased production rates to a target level of seven pounds per hour were not possible due to current transients produced by the pilot scale power supply. Extensive unsuccessful efforts to reduce or eliminate the transients are described. Low recovered product yields resulted from a failure of a product collection filter that was not discovered until the completion of the project.

Boecker, W.D.; Mehosky, B.L.; Rogers, R.S.C.; Storm, R.S.; Venkateswaran, V. (Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (USA). Structural Ceramics Div.)

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Figure 3-1 IV curve of a UT fabricated triple cell, showing 12.7% initial, active-area efficiency. Figure1 High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells PHASE I Annual-junction a-Si Solar Cells with Heavily Doped Thin Interface Layers at the Tunnel Junctions Section 4 High

Deng, Xunming

51

Developing A New High Capacity Anode With Long Cycle Life  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

more than 1000 mAhg with poor cyleability. * The formation of Sn x Co y C z and MO composite could lead to the increase in the capacity, reduce the amount of cobalt in the...

52

Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

year (Phase 2) * Synthesis of high specific capacity anode - Novel Materials Synthesis * bulk crystalline Si, Nanocrystalline Si, Amorphous Si with carbon as a matrix * Nanorods,...

53

Forming high efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

54

Large Plastic Deformation in High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries Caused by Charge and Discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Large Plastic Deformation in High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries Caused by Charge and Discharge, Massachusetts 02138 Evidence has accumulated recently that a high-capacity elec- trode of a lithium-ion battery in the particle is high, possibly leading to fracture and cavitation. I. Introduction LITHIUM-ION batteries

Suo, Zhigang

55

High Capacity Pouch-Type Li-air Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pouch-type Li-air batteries operated in ambient condition are reported in this work. The battery used a heat sealable plastic membrane as package material, O2¬ diffusion membrane and moisture barrier. The large variation in internal resistance of the batteries is minimized by a modified separator which can bind the cell stack together. The cells using the modified separators show improved and repeatable discharge performances. It is also found that addition of about 20% of 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) in PC:EC (1:1) based electrolyte solvent improves can improve the wetability of carbon electrode and the discharge capacities of Li-air batteries, but further increase in DME amount lead to a decreased capacity due to increase electrolyte loss during discharge process. The pouch-type Li-air batteries with the modified separator and optimized electrolyte has demonstrated a specific capacity of 2711 mAh g-1 based on carbon and a specific energy of 344 Wh kg-1 based on the complete batteries including package.

Wang, Deyu; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang

2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

56

Stress generation during lithiation of high-capacity electrode particles in lithium ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stress generation during lithiation of high-capacity electrode particles in lithium ion batteries S in controlling stress generation in high-capacity electrodes for lithium ion batteries. Ã? 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Lithium ion battery; Lithiation

Zhu, Ting

57

High efficiency silicon nanohole/organic heterojunction hybrid solar cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High efficiency hybrid solar cells are fabricated based on silicon with a nanohole (SiNH) structure and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). The SiNH structure is fabricated using electroless chemical etching with silver catalyst, and the heterojunction is formed by spin coating of PEDOT on the SiNH. The hybrid cells are optimized by varying the hole depth, and a maximum power conversion efficiency of 8.3% is achieved with a hole depth of 1??m. The SiNH hybrid solar cell exhibits a strong antireflection and light trapping property attributed to the sub-wavelength dimension of the SiNH structure.

Hong, Lei [Novitas, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Wang, Xincai; Zheng, Hongyu [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); He, Lining; Wang, Hao; Rusli, E-mail: yu.hy@sustc.edu.cn, E-mail: erusli@ntu.edu.sg [Novitas, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yu, Hongyu, E-mail: yu.hy@sustc.edu.cn, E-mail: erusli@ntu.edu.sg [South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen (China)

2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

58

Silicon Photodiodes for High-Efficiency Low-Energy Electron Detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Silicon Photodiodes for High-Efficiency Low-Energy Electron Detection Agata Saki, Lis K. Nanver, T--Solid-state electron detectors have been fabricated using a p+ n silicon photodiode where the p+ region is created near theoretical efficiency at high electron energies. The photodiodes have outstanding performance

Technische Universiteit Delft

59

STATUS OF HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR IRRADIATION OF SILICON CARBIDE/SILICON CARBIDE JOINTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of silicon carbide (SiC) joints that retain adequate structural and functional properties in the anticipated service conditions is a critical milestone toward establishment of advanced SiC composite technology for the accident-tolerant light water reactor (LWR) fuels and core structures. Neutron irradiation is among the most critical factors that define the harsh service condition of LWR fuel during the normal operation. The overarching goal of the present joining and irradiation studies is to establish technologies for joining SiC-based materials for use as the LWR fuel cladding. The purpose of this work is to fabricate SiC joint specimens, characterize those joints in an unirradiated condition, and prepare rabbit capsules for neutron irradiation study on the fabricated specimens in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Torsional shear test specimens of chemically vapor-deposited SiC were prepared by seven different joining methods either at Oak Ridge National Laboratory or by industrial partners. The joint test specimens were characterized for shear strength and microstructures in an unirradiated condition. Rabbit irradiation capsules were designed and fabricated for neutron irradiation of these joint specimens at an LWR-relevant temperature. These rabbit capsules, already started irradiation in HFIR, are scheduled to complete irradiation to an LWR-relevant dose level in early 2015.

Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Koyanagi, Takaaki [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Cetiner, Nesrin [ORNL; McDuffee, Joel [ORNL

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

A scalable silicon photonic chip-scale optical switch for high performance computing systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A scalable silicon photonic chip-scale optical switch for high performance computing systems-scale optical switch for scalable interconnect network in high performance computing systems. The proposed

Yoo, S. J. Ben

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Optical Stability Investigation of High-Performance Silicon-Based VUV Photodiodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Stability Investigation of High-Performance Silicon-Based VUV Photodiodes L. Shi, L. K Netherlands B.V. Veldhoven, the Netherlands Abstract--Silicon p+ n photodiodes fabricated by a pure boron. It is demonstrated that the junctions formed by the B-layer process are so ultrashallow that the photodiodes are able

Technische Universiteit Delft

62

Development of a high capacity longwall conveyor. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this program were to develop, fabricate, and demonstrate a longwall conveying system capable of transporting coal at a rate of 9000 tons/day (1000 tons/hr) and capable of accommodating a surge rate of 20 tons/min. The equipment was required to have the structural durability to perform with an operating availability of 90%. A review of available literature and discussions with longwall operators identified the problem areas of conveyor design that required attention. The conveyor under this contract was designed and fabricated with special attention given to these areas, and also to be easily maintainable. The design utilized twin 300 hp drives and twin inboard 26-mm chain at 270 ft/min; predictions of capacity and reliability based on the design indicating that it would satisfy the program requirements. Conveyor components were critically tested and the complete conveyor was surface-tested, the results verifying the design specifications. In addition, an instrumentation system was developed with analysis by computer techniques to monitor the performance of the conveyor. The conveyor was installed at a selected mine site, and it was the intention to monitor its performance over the entire longwall panel. Monitoring of the conveyor performance was conducted over approximately one-third of the longwall panel, at which point further effort was suspended. However, during the monitored period, data collected from various sources showed the conveyor to have exhibited its capability of transporting coal at the desired rate, and also to have conformed to the program requirements of reliability and availability.

Sparks, C

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

High capacity adsorption media and method of producing - Energy Innovation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr FlickrGuidedCH2M HILLAdministrationHigh SchoolHighHIGH

64

High Wind Penetration Impact on U.S. Wind Manufacturing Capacity and Critical Resources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study used two different models to analyze a number of alternative scenarios of annual wind power capacity expansion to better understand the impacts of high levels of wind generated electricity production on wind energy manufacturing and installation rates.

Laxson, A.; Hand, M. M.; Blair, N.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Hybrid Nano Carbon Fiber/Graphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

D.C. es009jang2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Hybrid Nano Carbon FiberGraphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries 2010 DOE EERE Vehicle...

66

Hybrid Nano Carbon Fiber/Graphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

es009jang2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Hybrid Nano Carbon FiberGraphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Progress of DOE...

67

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. es017johnson2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion...

68

High temperature investigations of crystalline silicon solar cell materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Crystalline silicon solar cells are a promising candidate to provide a sustainable, clean energy source for the future. In order to bring about widespread adoption of solar cells, much work is needed to reduce their cost. ...

Hudelson, George David Stephen, III

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Developing a High Thermal Conductivity Fuel with Silicon Carbide Additives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to increase the thermal conductivity of uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) without significantly impacting its neutronic properties. The concept is to incorporate another high thermal conductivity material, silicon carbide (SiC), in the form of whiskers or from nanoparticles of SiC and a SiC polymeric precursor into UO{sub 2}. This is expected to form a percolation pathway lattice for conductive heat transfer out of the fuel pellet. The thermal conductivity of SiC would control the overall fuel pellet thermal conductivity. The challenge is to show the effectiveness of a low temperature sintering process, because of a UO{sub 2}-SiC reaction at 1,377°C, a temperature far below the normal sintering temperature. Researchers will study three strategies to overcome the processing difficulties associated with pore clogging and the chemical reaction of SiC and UO{sub 2} at temperatures above 1,300°C:

Ronald baney; James Tulenko

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

70

High capacity adsorption media and method of producing - Energy Innovation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr FlickrGuidedCH2M HILLAdministrationHigh SchoolHighHIGHPortal

71

Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Kasei * Focused on High Capacity Manganese Rich (HCMR TM ) cathodes & Silicon-Carbon composite anodes for Lithium ion batteries * Envia's high energy Li-ion battery materials...

72

Dispersion engineering of high-Q silicon microresonators via thermal oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose and demonstrate a convenient and sensitive technique for precise engineering of group-velocity dispersion in high-Q silicon microresonators. By accurately controlling the surface-oxidation thickness of silicon microdisk resonators, we are able to precisely manage the zero-dispersion wavelength, while simultaneously further improving the high optical quality of our devices, with the optical Q close to a million. The demonstrated dispersion management allows us to achieve parametric generation with precisely engineerable emission wavelengths, which shows great potential for application in integrated silicon nonlinear and quantum photonics.

Jiang, Wei C. [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Zhang, Jidong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Usechak, Nicholas G. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Lin, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.lin@rochester.edu [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

73

For Immediate Release AUB to develop its high performance computing capacities in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For Immediate Release AUB to develop its high performance computing capacities in the service steps to become a high performance computing center that will be able to process massive amounts thousands of servers. According to Wikipedia, supercomputers, or high performance computing, play

Shihadeh, Alan

74

High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

75

High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes.

Albrecht, Georg (Livermore, CA); George, E. Victor (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sooy, Walter (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Amorphous Silicon as Semiconductor Material for High Resolution LAPS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-08 3.E -08 0 200 400 600 800 displacem ent/µµµµm current/A 1000 2000 3000 4000 1000 2000 3000 4000-substrate Amorphous silicon -4 -2 0 2 4 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 photocurrenta.u. gate voltage/V 600µm x 600µm area scan

Moritz, Werner

77

NANOMATERIALS FOR HIGH CAPACITY LI-ION BATTERIES Taylor Grieve, Iowa State University, SURF 2009 Fellow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NANOMATERIALS FOR HIGH CAPACITY LI-ION BATTERIES Taylor Grieve, Iowa State University, SURF 2009 energy storage devices continues to grow. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) secondary, or renewable, batteries are of interest due to their high energy and power characteristics. Performance enhancements of Li- ion batteries

Li, Mo

78

Nanosheet-structured LiV3O8 with high capacity and excellent stability for high energy lithium batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for high-energy lithium battery applications. 1. Introduction Energy storage and conversion have sources.1­6 Lithium-ion batteries are considered to be the most promising energy-storage systemsNanosheet-structured LiV3O8 with high capacity and excellent stability for high energy lithium

Cao, Guozhong

79

High temperature mechanical performance of a hot isostatically pressed silicon nitride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon nitride ceramics are an attractive material of choice for designers and manufacturers of advanced gas turbine engine components for many reasons. These materials typically have potentially high temperatures of usefulness (up to 1400{degrees}C), are chemically inert, have a relatively low specific gravity (important for inertial effects), and are good thermal conductors (i.e., resistant to thermal shock). In order for manufacturers to take advantage of these inherent properties of silicon nitride, the high-temperature mechanical performance of the material must first be characterized. The mechanical response of silicon nitride to static, dynamic, and cyclic conditions at elevated temperatures, along with reliable and representative data, is critical information that gas turbine engine designers and manufacturers require for the confident insertion of silicon nitride components into gas turbine engines. This final report describes the high-temperature mechanical characterization and analyses that were conducted on a candidate structural silicon nitride ceramic. The high-temperature strength, static fatigue (creep rupture), and dynamic and cyclic fatigue performance were characterized. The efforts put forth were part of Work Breakdown Structure Subelement 3.2.1, {open_quotes}Rotor Data Base Generation.{close_quotes} PY6 is comparable to other hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) silicon nitrides currently being considered for advanced gas turbine engine applications.

Wereszczak, A.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Jenkins, M.G.; Lin, C.K.J. [and others] [and others

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Development of manufacturing capability for high-concentration, high-efficiency silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a summary of the major results from a program to develop a manufacturable, high-efficiency silicon concentrator solar cell and a cost-effective manufacturing facility. The program was jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute, Sandia National Laboratories through the Concentrator Initiative, and SunPower Corporation. The key achievements of the program include the demonstration of 26%-efficient silicon concentrator solar cells with design-point (20 W/cm{sup 2}) efficiencies over 25%. High-performance front-surface passivations; that were developed to achieve this result were verified to be absolutely stable against degradation by 475 days of field exposure at twice the design concentration. SunPower demonstrated pilot production of more than 1500 of these cells. This cell technology was also applied to pilot production to supply 7000 17.7-cm{sup 2} one-sun cells (3500 yielded wafers) that demonstrated exceptional quality control. The average efficiency of 21.3% for these cells approaches the peak efficiency ever demonstrated for a single small laboratory cell within 2% (absolute). Extensive cost models were developed through this program and calibrated by the pilot-production project. The production levels achieved indicate that SunPower could produce 7-10 MW of concentrator cells per year in the current facility based upon the cell performance demonstrated during the program.

Sinton, R.A.; Verlinden, P.J.; Crane, R.A.; Swanson, R.N. [SunPower Corp., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Theoretical Estimates of HVAC Duct Channel Capacity for High-Speed Internet Access  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Theoretical Estimates of HVAC Duct Channel Capacity for High-Speed Internet Access Ariton E. Xhafa-conditioning (HVAC) ducts based on multi-carrier transmission that uses M-QAM mod- ulation and measured channel- flections in HVAC ducts). Our work also shows that data rates in excess of 300 Mbps are possible over

Stancil, Daniel D.

82

Mathematical model and simulation of gas ow through a porous medium in high breaking capacity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mathematical model and simulation of gas #29;ow through a porous medium in high breaking capacity, France. Abstract. A one-dimensional model is introduced to describe the gas #29;ow and the heat transfer model coupled with a porous medium model taking into account the mechanical interaction gas-silica sand

Sart, Remi

83

A Low Complexity High Capacity ECG Signal Watermark for Wearable Sensor-net Health Monitoring System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Low Complexity High Capacity ECG Signal Watermark for Wearable Sensor-net Health Monitoring, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia Abstract In Wireless telecardiology applications, an ECG signal signal collision attacks). ECG data transmission can be more robustly tied to either patient identity

van Schyndel, Ron

84

High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded Ge photodiodes on a graded optimized relaxed SiGe buffer on Si. The dark current in the Ge mesa are capable of operating at high frequencies 2.35 GHz . The photodiodes exhibit an external quantum efficiency

85

HIGH QUALITY GERMANIUM PHOTODIODES ON SILICON SUBSTRATES USING AN INTERMEDIATE CHEMICAL MECHANICAL POLISHING STEP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIGH QUALITY GERMANIUM PHOTODIODES ON SILICON SUBSTRATES USING AN INTERMEDIATE CHEMICAL MECHANICAL, MA 02139. ABSTRACT Germanium (Ge) photodiodes are capable of high quantum yields and can operate quality Ge/Si can be used to integrate GaAs/Ge solar cells, light emitting devices, and Ge photodiodes

86

Short Channel Amorphous-Silicon TFT's on High-Temperature Clear Plastic Substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short Channel Amorphous-Silicon TFT's on High-Temperature Clear Plastic Substrates K. Long, H@princeton.edu To achieve light-weight flexible AMOLED displays on plastic substrates, the substratesmust be optically clear for plastic. High-temperature plastics such as polyimide (e.g. KaptonB E) have a glass transition temperature

87

Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Silicon-based High Capacity Anodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the...

89

High surface area silicon carbide-coated carbon aerogel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust. Carbon aerogels can be coated with sol-gel silica and the silica can be converted to silicone carbide, improved the thermal stability of the carbon aerogel.

Worsley, Marcus A; Kuntz, Joshua D; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr, Joe H

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

90

Influence Of Ultrasonic Waves On The Formation Of High Pores Silicon Carbide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Challenge to produce a quality Silicon Carbide that combination high surface area is promising and this material can be used in many application such as Hydrogen storage materials. Synthesis of high surface area carbon materials by selective etching of Silicon Carbide with choric acid while exposing ultrasonic wave have been made.Powder Of Sic (surface area 17.8 m{sup 2}/g) was treated in the chloric acetic as well as their mixture of various compositions and various time exposure of ultrasonic waves. Surface area and pore size can be controlled by temperature and concentration composition of Chloric and time exposure of ultrasonic wave.The resultant carbon and carbon-silicon carbide composite powders were characterized X-ray diffraction and Electron microscope. To determine a conversion degree of silicon carbide due to influence of the ultrasonic wave, the samples were annealed in open air at 1000 deg. C. There by carbon component of the carbon/silicon carbide composite was completely oxidized. The analysis of the samples shows the strong influence of time exposure of ultrasonic waves on the formation of pores.

Toana, Musfirah C. F. [Physics Dept. University of Tadulako (Indonesia); Soegijono, B.; Hikam, M. [Physics Dept. University of Indonesia (Indonesia)

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

91

FINE-GRAINED NANOCRYSTALLINE SILICON P-LAYER FOR HIGH OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE A-SI:H SOLAR CELLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FINE-GRAINED NANOCRYSTALLINE SILICON P-LAYER FOR HIGH OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE A-SI:H SOLAR CELLS of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA ABSTRACT Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) single- junction solar). It is found that the p-layer that leads to high Voc a-Si:H solar cells is a mixed-phase material that contains

Deng, Xunming

92

Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge films for high capacity Li ion battery anodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge electrodes fabricated directly on Ni current collector substrates were found to exhibit excellent specific capacities during electrochemical cycling in half-cell configuration with Li metal for a wide range of cycling rates. Structural characterization revealed that the nanostructured electrodes lose porosity during cycling but maintain excellent electrical contact with the metallic current collector substrate. These results suggest that nanostructured Ge electrodes have great promise for use as high performance Li ion battery anodes.

Rudawski, N. G.; Darby, B. L.; Yates, B. R.; Jones, K. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6400 (United States); Elliman, R. G. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Volinsky, A. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa Florida 33620 (United States)

2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

93

Developing a new high capacity anode with long life | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent Companya new high capacity anode with long life

94

Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates Gang Ning, Bala Haran, Branko N. Popov*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates Gang Ning, Bala Haran at high discharge rates. # 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries collectors can affect up to different degrees the capacity fade of lithium-ion batteries [1­5]. Quantifying

Popov, Branko N.

95

Highly Ordered Vertical Silicon Nanowire Array Composite Thin Films for Thermoelectric Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Highly Ordered Vertical Silicon Nanowire Array Composite Thin Films for Thermoelectric Devices for thermoelectric devices are presented. Inter- ference lithography was used to pattern square lattice photoresist. The Si NW arrays were embedded in SOG to form a dense and robust composite material for device

Bowers, John

96

Virus-Enabled Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel three-dimensional Tobacco mosaic virus assembled silicon anode is reported. This electrode combines genetically modified virus templates for the production of high aspect ratio nanofeatured surfaces with electroless deposition to produce an integrated nickel current collector followed by physical vapor deposition of a silicon layer to form a high capacity silicon anode. This composite silicon anode produced high capacities (3300 mAh/g), excellent charge?discharge cycling stability (0.20% loss per cycle at 1C), and consistent rate capabilities (46.4% at 4C) between 0 and 1.5 V. The biological templated nanocomposite electrode architecture displays a nearly 10-fold increase in capacity over currently available graphite anodes with remarkable cycling stability.

Chen, X L; Gerasopoulos, K; Guo, J C; Brown, A; Wang, Chunsheng; Ghodssi, Reza; Culver, J N

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

High temperature Hexoloy{trademark} SX silicon carbide. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEXOLOY{reg_sign} SX-SiC, fabricated with Y and Al containing compounds as sintering aids, has been shown to possess significantly improved strength and toughness over HEXOLOY{reg_sign}SA-SiC. This study was undertaken to establish and benchmark the complete mechanical property database of a first generation material, followed by a process optimization task to further improve the properties. Mechanical characterization on the first generation material indicated that silicon-rich pools, presumably formed as a reaction product during sintering, controlled the strength from room temperature to 1,232 C. At 1,370 C in air, the material was failing due to a glass-phase formation at the surface. This glass-phase formation was attributed to the reaction of yttrium aluminates, which exist as a second phase in the material, with the ambient. This process was determined to be a time-dependent one that leads to slow crack growth. Fatigue experiments clearly indicated that the slow crack growth driven by the reaction occurred only at temperatures >1,300 C, above the melting point of the glass phase. Process optimization tasks conducted included the selection of the best SiC powder source, studies on mixing/milling conditions for SiC powder with the sintering aids, and a designed experiment involving a range of sintering and post-treatment conditions. The optimization study conducted on the densification variables indicated that lower sintering temperatures and higher post-treatment pressures reduce the Si-rich pool formation, thereby improving the room-temperature strength. In addition, it was also determined that furnacing configuration and atmosphere were critical in controlling the Si-rich formation.

Srinivasan, G.V.; Lau, S.K.; Storm, R.S. [Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Boron-layer silicon photodiodes for high-efficiency low-energy electron detection Agata Sakic a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Boron-layer silicon photodiodes for high-efficiency low-energy electron detection Agata Sakic´ a photodiodes Electron detection Low-energy electrons Boron deposition Ultrashallow junctions Responsivity Electron signal gain Electron irradiation Dark current degradation a b s t r a c t Silicon photodiodes

Technische Universiteit Delft

99

HIGH-EFFICIENCY BACK-JUNCTION SILICON SOLAR CELL WITH AN IN-LINE EVAPORATED ALUMINUM FRONT GRID  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIGH-EFFICIENCY BACK-JUNCTION SILICON SOLAR CELL WITH AN IN-LINE EVAPORATED ALUMINUM FRONT GRID M-diffused back-junction emitter. The aluminum front side grid is evaporated in an industrial-type in-thick silicon shadow masks for the in-line evaporation of the aluminum front grid. The masks are fabricated

100

A high-speed, low-power analog-to-digital converter in fully depleted silicon-on-insulator technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis demonstrates a one-volt, high-speed, ultra-low-power, six-bit flash analog-to-digital converter fabricated in a fully depleted silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. Silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology provides ...

Lundberg, Kent Howard

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Ultra-high hydrogen storage capacity of Li-decorated graphyne: A first-principles prediction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphyne, consisting of sp- and sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon atoms, is a new member of carbon allotropes which has a natural porous structure. Here, we report our first-principles calculations on the possibility of Li-decorated graphyne as a hydrogen storage medium. We predict that Li-doping significantly enhances the hydrogen storage ability of graphyne compared to that of pristine graphyne, which can be attributed to the polarization of H{sub 2} molecules induced by the charge transfer from Li atoms to graphyne. The favorite H{sub 2} molecules adsorption configurations on a single side and on both sides of a Li-decorated graphyne layer are determined. When Li atoms are adsorbed on one side of graphyne, each Li can bind four H{sub 2} molecules, corresponding to a hydrogen storage capacity of 9.26 wt. %. The hydrogen storage capacity can be further improved to 15.15 wt. % as graphyne is decorated by Li atoms on both sides, with an optimal average binding energy of 0.226 eV/H{sub 2}. The results show that the Li-decorated graphyne can serve as a high capacity hydrogen storage medium.

Zhang Hongyu; Zhang Meng; Zhao Lixia; Luo Youhua [Department of Physics, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao Mingwen; Bu Hongxia; He Xiujie [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 Shandong (China)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project, Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine was established at the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT). The associated CRADA was established with Campbell Applied Physics (CAP) located in El Dorado Hills, California. This project extends an earlier project involving both CAP and KIPT conducted under a separate CRADA. The initial project developed the basic Plasma Chemical Reactor (PCR) for generation of ozone gas. This project built upon the technology developed in the first project, greatly enhancing the output of the PCR while also improving reliability and system control.

Reilly, Raymond W.

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

103

Rapid Thermal Processing of High Efficiency n-Type Silicon Solar Cells with Al Back Junction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we report on the design, fabrication and modeling of 49 cm{sup 2}, 200-{micro}m thick, 1-5 {Omega}-cm, n- and p-type <111> and <100> screen-printed silicon solar cells. A simple process involving RTP front surface phosphorus diffusion, low frequency PECVD silicon nitride deposition, screen-printing of Al metal and Ag front grid followed by co-firing of front and back contacts produced cell efficiencies of 15.4% on n-type <111> Si, 15.1% on n-type <100> Si, 15.8% on p-type <111> Si and 16.1% on p-type <100> Si. Open circuit voltage was comparable for n and p type cells and was also independent of wafer orientation. High fill factor values (0.771-0.783) for all the devices ruled out appreciable shunting which has been a problem for the development of co-fired n-type <100> silicon solar cells with Al back junction. Model calculations were performed using PC1D to support the experimental results and provide guidelines for achieving >17% n-type silicon solar cells by rapid firing of Al back junction.

Ebong, A.; Upadhyaya, V.; Rounsaville, B.; Kim, D. S.; Meemongkolkiat, V.; Rohatgi, A.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Jones, K. M.; To, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome?s predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

Suen, Garret; Barry, Kerrie; Goodwin, Lynne; Scott, Jarrod; Aylward, Frank; Adams, Sandra; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Foster, Clifton; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy; Slater, Steven; Donohue, Timothy; Currie, Cameron; Tringe, Susannah G.

2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

105

Value Proposition for High Lifetime (p-type) and Thin Silicon Materials in Solar PV Applications: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most silicon PV road maps forecast a continued reduction in wafer thickness, despite rapid declines in the primary incentive for doing so -- polysilicon feedstock price. Another common feature of most silicon-technology forecasts is the quest for ever-higher device performance at the lowest possible costs. The authors present data from device-performance and manufacturing- and system-installation cost models to quantitatively establish the incentives for manufacturers to pursue advanced (thin) wafer and (high efficiency) cell technologies, in an age of reduced feedstock prices. This analysis exhaustively considers the value proposition for high lifetime (p-type) silicon materials across the entire c-Si PV supply chain.

Goodrich, A.; Woodhouse, M.; Hacke, P.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Plasma polymerization of C[subscript 4]F[subscript 8] thin film on high aspect ratio silicon molds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High aspect ratio polymeric micro-patterns are ubiquitous in many fields ranging from sensors, actuators, optics, fluidics and medical. Second generation PDMS molds are replicated against first generation silicon molds ...

Yeo, L. P.

107

High-capacity electric double-layer capacitor with high-density-activated carbon fiber electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently the authors have presented a method to prepare activated carbon fiber with high bulk density (HD-ACF) without using any binders. The possibility of using the HD-ACF as an electrode for electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) was examined in this paper. The capacitance of the EDLC with the HD-ACF electrode increased with the increase of bulk density of the HD-ACF, indicating that individual fibers are highly packed without losing their capacitance. The capacitance also increased in proportion to the size of the HD-ACF electrode. The initial discharge current of the EDLC showed little dependency on either the bulk density or the size of the HD-ACF electrode. These results clarified that the HD-ACF electrode is suitable for constructing a high-power EDLC. The initial discharge current was directly proportional to the conductivity of aqueous KCI used as the electrolyte, indicating that the resistance of the electrolyte is much higher than that of the HD-ACF electrode. This result showed that the efficiency of the HD-ACF was well above the efficiency of the electrolyte used in this study and that the improvement of the ionic conductivity of electrolyte is also necessary for developing a high-power EDLC.

Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Shudo, Atsushi; Miura, Kouichi

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Silicon-on-insulator-based high-voltage, high-temperature integrated circuit gate driver for silicon carbide-based power field effect transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon carbide (SiC)-based field effect transistors (FETs) are gaining popularity as switching elements in power electronic circuits designed for high-temperature environments like hybrid electric vehicle, aircraft, well logging, geothermal power generation etc. Like any other power switches, SiC-based power devices also need gate driver circuits to interface them with the logic units. The placement of the gate driver circuit next to the power switch is optimal for minimising system complexity. Successful operation of the gate driver circuit in a harsh environment, especially with minimal or no heat sink and without liquid cooling, can increase the power-to-volume ratio as well as the power-to-weight ratio for power conversion modules such as a DC-DC converter, inverter etc. A silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based high-voltage, high-temperature integrated circuit (IC) gate driver for SiC power FETs has been designed and fabricated using a commercially available 0.8--m, 2-poly and 3-metal bipolar-complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-double diffused metal oxide semiconductor (DMOS) process. The prototype circuit-s maximum gate drive supply can be 40-V with peak 2.3-A sourcing/sinking current driving capability. Owing to the wide driving range, this gate driver IC can be used to drive a wide variety of SiC FET switches (both normally OFF metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) and normally ON junction field effect transistor (JFET)). The switching frequency is 20-kHz and the duty cycle can be varied from 0 to 100-. The circuit has been successfully tested with SiC power MOSFETs and JFETs without any heat sink and cooling mechanism. During these tests, SiC switches were kept at room temperature and ambient temperature of the driver circuit was increased to 200-C. The circuit underwent numerous temperature cycles with negligible performance degradation.

Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Huque, Mohammad A [ORNL; Blalock, Benjamin J [ORNL; Islam, Syed K [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

High-resolution mapping of quantum efficiency of silicon photodiode via optical-feedback laser microthermography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We map the external quantum efficiency (QE) distribution of a silicon photodiode (PD) sample via a thermographic imaging technique based on optical-feedback laser confocal microscopy. An image pair consisting of the confocal reflectance image and the 2D photocurrent map is simultaneously acquired to delineate the following regions of interest on the sample: the substrate, the n-type region, the pn overlay, and the bonding pad. The 2D QE distribution is derived from the photocurrent map to quantify the optical performance of these sites. The thermal integrity of the sample is then evaluated by deriving the rate of change of QE with temperature T at each point on the silicon PD. These gradient maps function not only as stringent measures of local thermal QE activity but they also expose probable defect locations on the sample at high spatial resolution - a capability that is not feasible with existing bulk measurement techniques.

Cemine, Vernon Julius; Blanca, Carlo Mar; Saloma, Caesar

2006-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

110

In-growth of an electrically active defect in high-purity silicon after proton irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Defect-related energy levels in the lower half of the band gap of silicon have been studied with transient-capacitance techniques in high-purity, carbon and oxygen lean, plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition grown, n-and p-type silicon layers after 2-MeV proton irradiations at temperatures at or just below room temperature. The in-growth of a distinct line in deep-level transient spectroscopy spectra, corresponding to a level in the band gap at E{sub V} + 0.357 eV where E{sub V} is the energy of the valence band edge, takes place for anneal temperatures at around room temperature with an activation energy of 0.95 ± 0.08 eV. The line disappears at an anneal temperature of around 450 K. The corresponding defect is demonstrated not to contain boron, carbon, oxygen, or phosphorus. Possible defect candidates are discussed.

Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Juul Pedersen, H.; Christian Petersen, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Privitera, V. [CNR-IMM, Institute of Microelectronics and Microsystems, Catania (Italy)] [CNR-IMM, Institute of Microelectronics and Microsystems, Catania (Italy); Gurimskaya, Y.; Mesli, A. [IM2NP, CNRS (UMR 7334) and Université Aix-Marseille, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)] [IM2NP, CNRS (UMR 7334) and Université Aix-Marseille, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

111

Laboratory Development of A High Capacity Gas-Fired paper Dryer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Paper drying is the most energy-intensive and temperature-critical aspect of papermaking. It is estimated that about 67% of the total energy required in papermaking is used to dry paper. The conventional drying method uses a series of steam-heated metal cylinders that are required to meet ASME codes for pressure vessels, which limits the steam pressure to about 160 psig. Consequently, the shell temperature and the drying capacity are also limited. Gas Technology Institute together with Boise Paper Solutions, Groupe Laparrier and Verreault (GL&V) USA Inc., Flynn Burner Corporation and with funding support from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. natural gas industry, and Gas Research Institute is developing a high efficiency gas-fired paper dryer based on a combination of a ribbon burner and advanced heat transfer enhancement technique. The Gas-Fired Paper Dryer (GFPD) is a high-efficiency alternative to conventional steam-heated drying drums that typically operate at surface temperatures in the 300���������������ºF range. The new approach was evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale testing at the Western Michigan University Paper Pilot Plant. Drum surface temperatures of more than 400���������������ºF were reached with linerboard (basis weight 126 lb/3000 ft2) production and resulted in a 4-5 times increase in drying rate over a conventional steam-heated drying drum. Successful GFPD development and commercialization will provide large energy savings to the paper industry and increase paper production rates from dryer-limited (space- or steam-limited) paper machines by an estimated 10 to 20%, resulting in significant capital costs savings for both retrofits and new capacity.

Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov; Lester Sherrow

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

112

Final Report: Laboratory Development of a High Capacity Gas-Fired Paper Dryer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Paper drying is the most energy-intensive and temperature-critical aspect of papermaking. It is estimated that about 67% of the total energy required in papermaking is used to dry paper. The conventional drying method uses a series of steam-heated metal cylinders that are required to meet ASME codes for pressure vessels, which limits the steam pressure to about 160 psig. Consequently, the shell temperature and the drying capacity are also limited. Gas Technology Institute together with Boise Paper Solutions, Groupe Laperrier and Verreault (GL&V) USA Inc., Flynn Burner Corporation and with funding support from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. natural gas industry, and Gas Research Institute is developing a high efficiency gas-fired paper dryer based on a combination of a ribbon burner and advanced heat transfer enhancement technique. The Gas-Fired Paper Dryer (GFPD) is a high-efficiency alternative to conventional steam-heated drying drums that typically operate at surface temperatures in the 300 deg F range. The new approach was evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale testing at the Western Michigan University Paper Pilot Plant. Drum surface temperatures of more than 400 deg F were reached with linerboard (basis weight 126 lb/3000 ft2) production and resulted in a 4-5 times increase in drying rate over a conventional steam-heated drying drum. Successful GFPD development and commercialization will provide large energy savings to the paper industry and increase paper production rates from dryer-limited (space- or steam-limited) paper machines by an estimated 10 to 20%, resulting in significant capital costs savings for both retrofits and new capacity.

Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov; Lester Sherrow

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

113

Defect Engineering, Cell Processing, and Modeling for High-Performance, Low-Cost Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to close the efficiency gap between industrial multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) and monocrystalline silicon solar cells, while preserving the economic advantage of low-cost, high-volume substrates inherent to mc-Si. Over the course of this project, we made significant progress toward this goal, as evidenced by the evolution in solar-cell efficiencies. While most of the benefits of university projects are diffuse in nature, several unique contributions can be traced to this project, including the development of novel characterization methods, defect-simulation tools, and novel solar-cell processing approaches mitigate the effects of iron impurities ("Impurities to Efficiency" simulator) and dislocations. In collaboration with our industrial partners, this project contributed to the development of cell processing recipes, specialty materials, and equipment that increased cell efficiencies overall (not just multicrystalline silicon). Additionally, several students and postdocs who were either partially or fully engaged in this project (as evidenced by the publication record) are currently in the PV industry, with others to follow.

Buonassisi, Tonio

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

114

Fiber-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The fiber-based adsorbent includes polymer fibers with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight over known fibers to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. The polymer fibers include a circular morphology in some embodiments, having a mean diameter of less than 15 microns, optionally less than about 1 micron. In other embodiments, the polymer fibers include a non-circular morphology, optionally defining multiple gear-shaped, winged-shaped or lobe-shaped projections along the length of the polymer fibers. A method for forming the fiber-based adsorbents includes irradiating high surface area polymer fibers, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting the grafted fibers with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. High surface area fiber-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

Janke, Christopher J; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

115

Testing Hadronic Interaction Models using a Highly Granular Silicon-Tungsten Calorimeter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A detailed study of hadronic interactions is presented using data recorded with the highly granular CALICE silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter. Approximately 600,000 selected negatively changed pion events at energies between 2 and 10 GeV have been studied. The predictions of several physics models available within the GEANT4 simulation tool kit are compared to this data. Although a reasonable overall description of the data is observed, there are significant quantitative discrepancies in the longitudinal and transverse distributions of reconstructed energy.

Bilki, B; Schlereth, J; Xia, L; Deng, Z; Li, Y; Wang, Y; Yue, Q; Yang, Z; Eigen, G; Mikami, Y; Price, T; Watson, N K; Thomson, M A; Ward, D R; Benchekroun, D; Hoummada, A; Khoulaki, Y; Cârloganu, C; Chang, S; Khan, A; Kim, D H; Kong, D J; Oh, Y D; Blazey, G C; Dyshkant, A; Francis, K; Lima, J G R; Salcido, P; Zutshi, V; Boisvert, V; Green, B; Misiejuk, A; Salvatore, F; Kawagoe, K; Miyazaki, Y; Sudo, Y; Suehara, T; Tomita, T; Ueno, H; Yoshioka, T; Apostolakis, J; Folger, G; Ivantchenko, V; Ribon, A; Uzhinskiy, V; Cauwenbergh, S; Tytgat, M; Zaganidis, N; Hostachy, J -Y; Morin, L; Gadow, K; Göttlicher, P; Günter, C; Krüger, K; Lutz, B; Reinecke, M; Sefkow, F; Feege, N; Garutti, E; Laurien, S; Lu, S; Marchesini, I; Matysek, M; Ramilli, M; Kaplan, A; Norbeck, E; Northacker, D; Onel, Y; Kim, E J; van Doren, B; Wilson, G W; Wing, M; Bobchenko, B; Chadeeva, M; Chistov, R; Danilov, M; Drutskoy, A; Epifantsev, A; Markin, O; Mizuk, R; Novikov, E; Popov, V; Rusinov, V; Tarkovsky, E; Besson, D; Popova, E; Gabriel, M; Kiesling, C; Simon, F; Soldner, C; Szalay, M; Tesar, M; Weuste, L; Amjad, M S; Bonis, J; Callier, S; di Lorenzo, S Conforti; Cornebise, P; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F; Faucci-Giannelli, M; Fleury, J; Frisson, T; Kégl, B; van der Kolk, N; Li, H; Martin-Chassard, G; Richard, F; de la Taille, Ch; Pöschl, R; Raux, L; Rouëné, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Anduze, M; Balagura, V; Becheva, E; Boudry, V; Brient, J-C; Cornat, R; Frotin, M; Gastaldi, F; Magniette, F; Matthieu, A; de Freitas, P Mora; Videau, H; Augustin, J-E; David, J; Ghislain, P; Lacour, D; Lavergne, L; Zacek, J; Cvach, J; Gallus, P; Havranek, M; Janata, M; Kvasnicka, J; Lednicky, D; Marcisovsky, M; Polak, I; Popule, J; Tomasek, L; Tomasek, M; Ruzicka, P; Sicho, P; Smolik, J; Vrba, V; Zalesak, J; Jeans, D; Götze, M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Testing Hadronic Interaction Models using a Highly Granular Silicon-Tungsten Calorimeter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A detailed study of hadronic interactions is presented using data recorded with the highly granular CALICE silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter. Approximately 600,000 selected negatively changed pion events at energies between 2 and 10 GeV have been studied. The predictions of several physics models available within the GEANT4 simulation tool kit are compared to this data. Although a reasonable overall description of the data is observed, there are significant quantitative discrepancies in the longitudinal and transverse distributions of reconstructed energy.

The CALICE Collaboration; B. Bilki; J. Repond; J. Schlereth; L. Xia; Z. Deng; Y. Li; Y. Wang; Q. Yue; Z. Yang; G. Eigen; Y. Mikami; T. Price; N. K. Watson; M. A. Thomson; D. R. Ward; D. Benchekroun; A. Hoummada; Y. Khoulaki; C. Cârloganu; S. Chang; A. Khan; D. H. Kim; D. J. Kong; Y. D. Oh; G. C. Blazey; A. Dyshkant; K. Francis; J. G. R. Lima; P. Salcido; V. Zutshi; V. Boisvert; B. Green; A. Misiejuk; F. Salvatore; K. Kawagoe; Y. Miyazaki; Y. Sudo; T. Suehara; T. Tomita; H. Ueno; T. Yoshioka; J. Apostolakis; G. Folger; G. Folger; V. Ivantchenko; A. Ribon; V. Uzhinskiy; S. Cauwenbergh; M. Tytgat; N. Zaganidis; J. -Y. Hostachy; L. Morin; K. Gadow; P. Göttlicher; C. Günter; K. Krüger; B. Lutz; M. Reinecke; F. Sefkow; N. Feege; E. Garutti; S. Laurien; S. Lu; I. Marchesini; M. Matysek; M. Ramilli; A. Kaplan; E. Norbeck; D. Northacker; Y. Onel; E. J. Kim; B. van Doren; G. W. Wilson; M. Wing; B. Bobchenko; M. Chadeeva; R. Chistov; M. Danilov; A. Drutskoy; A. Epifantsev; O. Markin; R. Mizuk; E. Novikov; V. Popov; V. Rusinov; E. Tarkovsky; D. Besson; E. Popova; M. Gabriel; C. Kiesling; F. Simon; C. Soldner; M. Szalay; M. Tesar; L. Weuste; M. S. Amjad; J. Bonis; S. Callier; S. Conforti di Lorenzo; P. Cornebise; Ph. Doublet; F. Dulucq; M. Faucci-Giannelli; J. Fleury; T. Frisson; B. Kégl; N. van der Kolk; H. Li; G. Martin-Chassard; F. Richard; Ch. de la Taille; R. Pöschl; L. Raux; J. Rouëné; N. Seguin-Moreau; M. Anduze; V. Balagura; E. Becheva; V. Boudry; J-C. Brient; R. Cornat; M. Frotin; F. Gastaldi; F. Magniette; A. Matthieu; P. Mora de Freitas; H. Videau; J-E. Augustin; J. David; P. Ghislain; D. Lacour; L. Lavergne; J. Zacek; J. Cvach; P. Gallus; M. Havranek; M. Janata; J. Kvasnicka; D. Lednicky; M. Marcisovsky; I. Polak; J. Popule; L. Tomasek; M. Tomasek; P. Ruzicka; P. Sicho; J. Smolik; V. Vrba; J. Zalesak; D. Jeans; M. Götze

2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

117

High performance continuous wave 1.3??m quantum dot lasers on silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate record performance 1.3??m InAs quantum dot lasers grown on silicon by molecular beam epitaxy. Ridge waveguide lasers fabricated from the as-grown material achieve room temperature continuous wave thresholds as low as 16?mA, output powers exceeding 176 mW, and lasing up to 119?°C. P-modulation doping of the active region improves T{sub 0} to the range of 100–200?K while maintaining low thresholds and high output powers. Device yield is presented showing repeatable performance across different dies and wafers.

Liu, Alan Y., E-mail: ayliu01@engineering.ucsb.edu; Norman, Justin [Materials Department, University of California Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Zhang, Chong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Snyder, Andrew; Lubyshev, Dmitri; Fastenau, Joel M.; Liu, Amy W. K. [IQE, Inc., Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Gossard, Arthur C.; Bowers, John E. [Materials Department, University of California Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

118

Binder-free Ge-three dimensional graphene electrodes for high-rate capacity Li-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A binder-free, high-rate Ge-three dimensional (3D) graphene composite was synthesized by directly depositing Ge film atop 3D graphene grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on Ni substrate. The Ge-3D graphene structure demonstrates excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium ion battery (LIB) anode with a reversible capacity of 1140 mAh g{sup ?1} at 1/3C over 100 cycles and 835 mAh g{sup ?1} at 8C after 60 cycles, and significantly a discharge capacity of 186 mAh g{sup ?1} was still achieved at 32C. The high capacity and outstanding stability of the Ge-3D graphene composite propose it as a promising electrode in high-performance thin film LIBs.

Wang, C. D.; Chui, Y. S.; Chen, X. F., E-mail: xianfeng.chen@cityu.edu.hk, E-mail: apwjzh@cityu.edu.hk; Zhang, W. J., E-mail: xianfeng.chen@cityu.edu.hk, E-mail: apwjzh@cityu.edu.hk [Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Li, Y. [Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China) [Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

119

Effective electro-optical modulation with high extinction ratio by a graphene-silicon microring resonator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene opens up for novel optoelectronic applications thanks to its high carrier mobility, ultra-large absorption bandwidth, and extremely fast material response. In particular, the opportunity to control optoelectronic properties through tuning of Fermi level enables electro-optical modulation, optical-optical switching, and other optoelectronics applications. However, achieving a high modulation depth remains a challenge because of the modest graphene-light interaction in the graphene-silicon devices, typically, utilizing only a monolayer or few layers of graphene. Here, we comprehensively study the interaction between graphene and a microring resonator, and its influence on the optical modulation depth. We demonstrate graphene-silicon microring devices showing a high modulation depth of 12.5 dB with a relatively low bias voltage of 8.8 V. On-off electro-optical switching with an extinction ratio of 3.8 dB is successfully demonstrated by applying a square-waveform with a 4 V peak-to-peak voltage.

Ding, Yunhong; Xiao, Sanshui; Hu, Hao; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Mortensen, N Asger; Yvind, Kresten

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

High-performance porous silicon solar cell development. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the program was to demonstrate use of porous silicon in new solar cell structures. Porous silicon technology has been developed at Spire for producing visible light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The major aspects that they have demonstrated are the following: porous silicon active layers have been made to show photovoltaic action; porous silicon surface layers can act as antireflection coatings to improve the performance of single-crystal silicon solar cells; and porous silicon surface layers can act as antireflection coatings on polycrystalline silicon solar cells. One problem with the use of porous silicon is to achieve good lateral conduction of electrons and holes through the material. This shows up in terms of poor blue response and photocurrents which increase with increasing reverse bias applied to the diode.

Maruska, P. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)] [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A reaction-layer mechanism for the delayed failure of micron-scale polycrystalline silicon structural films subjected to high-cycle fatigue loading  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study has been made of high-cycle fatigue in 2um thick structural films of n+- type, polycrystalline silicon for MEMS applications.

Muhlstein, C.L.; Stach, E.A.; Ritchie, R.O.

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Thin, High Lifetime Silicon Wafers with No Sawing; Re-crystallization in a Thin Film Capsule  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project fits within the area of renewable energy called photovoltaics (PV), or the generation of electricity directly from sunlight using semiconductor devices. PV has the greatest potential of any renewable energy technology. The vast majority of photovoltaic modules are made on crystalline silicon wafers and these wafers accounts for the largest fraction of the cost of a photovoltaic module. Thus, a method of making high quality, low cost wafers would be extremely beneficial to the PV industry The industry standard technology creates wafers by casting an ingot and then sawing wafers from the ingot. Sawing rendered half of the highly refined silicon feedstock as un-reclaimable dust. Being a brittle material, the sawing is actually a type of grinding operation which is costly both in terms of capital equipment and in terms of consumables costs. The consumables costs associated with the wire sawing technology are particularly burdensome and include the cost of the wire itself (continuously fed, one time use), the abrasive particles, and, waste disposal. The goal of this project was to make wafers directly from molten silicon with no sawing required. The fundamental concept was to create a very low cost (but low quality) wafer of the desired shape and size and then to improve the quality of the wafer by a specialized thermal treatment (called re-crystallization). Others have attempted to create silicon sheet by recrystallization with varying degrees of success. Key among the difficulties encountered by others were: a) difficulty in maintaining the physical shape of the sheet during the recrystallization process and b) difficulty in maintaining the cleanliness of the sheet during recrystallization. Our method solved both of these challenges by encapsulating the preform wafer in a protective capsule prior to recrystallization (see below). The recrystallization method developed in this work was extremely effective at maintaining the shape and the cleanliness of the wafer. In addition, it was found to be suitable for growing very large crystals. The equipment used was simple and inexpensive to operate. Reasonable solar cells were fabricated on re-crystallized material.

Emanuel Sachs

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

123

PIN detector arrays and integrated readout circuitry on high-resistivity float-zone silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new silicon PIN-diode-based pixel detector for ionizing particles integrating a two-dimensional array of detecting elements with readout circuitry has been developed and extensively tested. The signal charge is collected on a low-capacitance electrode avoiding loss of charge into the local readout circuitry within each pixel. The spatial resolution for a given circuitry size is optimized. The approach required back side patterning of the wafer, the only nonconventional part in the Stanford BiCMOS based manufacturing process. Thirteen masks on the front side of the wafer and three on the back yielded both CMOS readout circuitry and detecting elements. A gettering step helped obtain a high minority carrier lifetime (500 [mu]s). Test results obtained by infrared illumination, gamma rays, and high-energy particles, which have been described in detail elsewhere, will be summarized. They include a signal to single-channel-noise performance of about 150 to 1 for a minimum ionizing particle, which is an order of magnitude better than silicon strip detectors currently used, and a record-breaking spatial resolution in the direction of smallest pixel pitch (standard deviation of about 1.8 [mu]m). The authors describe the device and chip operation of the new detector in detail.

Snoeys, W.; Plummer, J. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Center for Integrated Systems); Parker, S.; Kenney, C. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Physics)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

Alptekin, Gokhan

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

125

Dynamic modelling of generation capacity investment in electricity markets with high wind penetration   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ability of liberalised electricity markets to trigger investment in the generation capacity required to maintain an acceptable level of security of supply risk has been - and will continue to be - a topic of much ...

Eager, Daniel

2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

126

Achieving increased spent fuel storage capacity at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HFIR facility was originally designed to store approximately 25 spent cores, sufficient to allow for operational contingencies and for cooling prior to off-site shipment for reprocessing. The original capacity has now been increased to 60 positions, of which 53 are currently filled (September 1994). Additional spent cores are produced at a rate of about 10 or 11 per year. Continued HFIR operation, therefore, depends on a significant near-term expansion of the pool storage capacity, as well as on a future capability of reprocessing or other storage alternatives once the practical capacity of the pool is reached. To store the much larger inventory of spent fuel that may remain on-site under various future scenarios, the pool capacity is being increased in a phased manner through installation of a new multi-tier spent fuel rack design for higher density storage. A total of 143 positions was used for this paper as the maximum practical pool capacity without impacting operations; however, greater ultimate capacities were addressed in the supporting analyses and approval documents. This paper addresses issues related to the pool storage expansion including (1) seismic effects on the three-tier storage arrays, (2) thermal performance of the new arrays, (3) spent fuel cladding corrosion concerns related to the longer period of pool storage, and (4) impacts of increased spent fuel inventory on the pool water quality, water treatment systems, and LLLW volume.

Cook, D.H.; Chang, S.J.; Dabs, R.D.; Freels, J.D.; Morgan, K.A.; Rothrock, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Griess, J.C. [Griess (J.C.), Knoxville, TN (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

127

A wide bandgap silicon carbide (SiC) gate driver for high-temperature and high-voltage applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Limitations of silicon (Si) based power electronic devices can be overcome with Silicon Carbide (SiC) because of its remarkable material properties. SiC is a wide bandgap semiconductor material with larger bandgap, lower leakage currents, higher breakdown electric field, and higher thermal conductivity, which promotes higher switching frequencies for high power applications, higher temperature operation, and results in higher power density devices relative to Si [1]. The proposed work is focused on design of a SiC gate driver to drive a SiC power MOSFET, on a Cree SiC process, with rise/fall times (less than 100 ns) suitable for 500 kHz to 1 MHz switching frequency applications. A process optimized gate driver topology design which is significantly different from generic Si circuit design is proposed. The ultimate goal of the project is to integrate this gate driver into a Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charger module. The application of this high frequency charger will result in lighter, smaller, cheaper, and a more efficient power electronics system.

Lamichhane, Ranjan [University of Arkansas; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Frank, Steven Shane [ORNL; BRITTONJr., CHARLES L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Marlino, Laura D [ORNL; Mantooth, Alan [University of Arkansas; Francis, Matt [APEI, Inc.; Shepherd, Dr. Paul [University of Arkansas; Glover, Dr. Michael [University of Arkansas; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Perez, M [University of Arkansas; Mcnutt, Tyler [APEI, Inc.; Whitaker, Mr. Bret [APEI, Inc.; Cole, Mr. Zach [APEI, Inc.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Mn3O4-Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Hailiang Wang,,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mn3O4-Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries Hailiang Wang hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery stability, owing to the intimate interactions between the graphene substrates and the Mn3O4 nanoparticles

Cui, Yi

129

High-Capacity Micrometer-Sized Li2S Particles as Cathode Materials for Advanced Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lithium-Ion Batteries Yuan Yang, Guangyuan Zheng, Sumohan Misra,§ Johanna Nelson,§ Michael F. Toney for lithium metal-free rechargeable batteries. It has a theoretical capacity of 1166 mAh/g, which is nearly 1 as the cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high specific energy. INTRODUCTION

Cui, Yi

130

Cyclic plasticity and shakedown in high-capacity electrodes of lithium-ion batteries Laurence Brassart, Kejie Zhao, Zhigang Suo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cyclic plasticity and shakedown in high-capacity electrodes of lithium-ion batteries Laurence for lithium-ion batteries. Upon absorbing a large amount of lithium, the electrode swells greatly rights reserved. 1. Introduction Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are energy-storage systems of choice

Suo, Zhigang

131

Maximum Li storage in Si nanowires for the high capacity three-dimensional Li-ion battery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as fuel cells and secondary batteries. Here we report a coin-type Si nanowire NW half-cell Li-ion battery is the central research subject in various energy conversion systems, such as solar cells, fuel cells must be optimally coordinated.7 In this respect, Si nanowire NW arrays can serve as the high capacity

Jo, Moon-Ho

132

R&D for a highly granular silicon tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article reports on first experience with the technological prototype of a highly- granular silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter as envisaged for the detectors at a future lepton collider. In the focus of the analysis is the performance of a highly integrated Application Specific Integrated Circuit designed to meet the requirements in terms of dynamic range, compactness and power consumption. The beam test results show that the circuit will allow a future detector with a signal over noise ratio of at least 10:1. To minimise the power dissipation the ASIC will be operated in a power pulsed mode. So far no conceptual problem was revealed but the studies show the way for further work. The prototype is read out by a DAQ system conceived to meet the needs of a trigger less system with a huge number of readout cells.

Pöschl, R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Visible Photoluminescence from Cubic (3C) Silicon Carbide Microdisks Coupled to High Quality Whispering Gallery Modes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the design, fabrication and characterization of cubic (3C) silicon carbide microdisk resonators with high quality factor modes at visible and near infrared wavelengths (600 - 950 nm). Whispering gallery modes with quality factors as high as 2,300 and corresponding mode volumes V ~ 2 ({\\lambda}/n)^3 are measured using laser scanning confocal microscopy at room temperature. We obtain excellent correspondence between transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) polarized resonances simulated using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and those observed in experiment. These structures based on ensembles of optically active impurities in 3C-SiC resonators could play an important role in diverse applications of nonlinear and quantum photonics, including low power optical switching and quantum memories.

Radulaski, Marina; Müller, Kai; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G; Zhang, Jingyuan Linda; Buckley, Sonia; Kelaita, Yousif A; Alassaad, Kassem; Ferro, Gabriel; Vu?kovi?, Jelena

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Visible Photoluminescence from Cubic (3C) Silicon Carbide Microdisks Coupled to High Quality Whispering Gallery Modes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the design, fabrication and characterization of cubic (3C) silicon carbide microdisk resonators with high quality factor modes at visible and near infrared wavelengths (600 - 950 nm). Whispering gallery modes with quality factors as high as 2,300 and corresponding mode volumes V ~ 2 ({\\lambda}/n)^3 are measured using laser scanning confocal microscopy at room temperature. We obtain excellent correspondence between transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) polarized resonances simulated using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and those observed in experiment. These structures based on ensembles of optically active impurities in 3C-SiC resonators could play an important role in diverse applications of nonlinear and quantum photonics, including low power optical switching and quantum memories.

Marina Radulaski; Thomas M. Babinec; Kai Müller; Konstantinos G. Lagoudakis; Jingyuan Linda Zhang; Sonia Buckley; Yousif A. Kelaita; Kassem Alassaad; Gabriel Ferro; Jelena Vu?kovi?

2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

135

Conductive Rigid Skeleton Supported Silicon as High-Performance Li-Ion Battery Anodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cost effective and scalable method is developed to prepare a core-shell structured Si/B4C composite with graphite coating with high efficiency, exceptional rate performance and long-term stability. In this material, conductive B4C with high Mohs hardness serves not only as micro-/nano- millers in the ball-milling process to break down micron-sized Si but also as the conductive rigid skeleton to support the in-situ formed sub-10 nm Si particles to alleviate the volume expansion during charge/discharge. The Si/B4C composite is coated with a few graphitic layers to further improve the conductivity and stability of the composite. The Si/B4C/graphite (SBG) composite anode shows excellent cyclability with a specific capacity of ~822 mAh?g-1 (based on the weight of the entire electrode, including binder and conductive carbon) and ~94% capacity retention over 100 cycles at 0.8C rate. This new structure has the potential to provide adequate storage capacity and stability for practical applications, and good opportunity for large scale manufacturing using commercially available materials and technologies.

Chen, Xilin; Li, Xiaolin; Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Cao, Yuliang; Meduri, Praveen; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L.; Zhang, Jiguang

2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

136

Increasing Stabilized Performance Of Amorphous Silicon Based Devices Produced By Highly Hydrogen Diluted Lower Temperature Plasma Deposition.  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High quality, stable photovoltaic and electronic amorphous silicon devices which effectively resist light-induced degradation and current-induced degradation, are produced by a special plasma deposition process. Powerful, efficient single and multi-junction solar cells with high open circuit voltages and fill factors and with wider bandgaps, can be economically fabricated by the special plasma deposition process. The preferred process includes relatively low temperature, high pressure, glow discharge of silane in the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen gas.

Li, Yaun-Min (Langhorne, PA); Bennett, Murray S. (Langhorne, PA); Yang, Liyou (Plainsboro, NJ)

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

137

Increased Stabilized Performance Of Amorphous Silicon Based Devices Produced By Highly Hydrogen Diluted Lower Temperature Plasma Deposition.  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High quality, stable photovoltaic and electronic amorphous silicon devices which effectively resist light-induced degradation and current-induced degradation, are produced by a special plasma deposition process. Powerful, efficient single and multi-junction solar cells with high open circuit voltages and fill factors and with wider bandgaps, can be economically fabricated by the special plasma deposition process. The preferred process includes relatively low temperature, high pressure, glow discharge of silane in the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen gas.

Li, Yaun-Min (Langhorne, PA); Bennett, Murray S. (Langhorne, PA); Yang, Liyou (Plainsboro, NJ)

1997-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

138

Development of Regenerable High Capacity Boron Nitrogen Hydrides as Hydrogen Storage Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this three-phase project is to develop synthesis and hydrogen extraction processes for nitrogen/boron hydride compounds that will permit exploitation of the high hydrogen content of these materials. The primary compound of interest in this project is ammonia-borane (NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}), a white solid, stable at ambient conditions, containing 19.6% of its weight as hydrogen. With a low-pressure on-board storage and an efficient heating system to release hydrogen, ammonia-borane has a potential to meet DOE's year 2015 specific energy and energy density targets. If the ammonia-borane synthesis process could use the ammonia-borane decomposition products as the starting raw material, an efficient recycle loop could be set up for converting the decomposition products back into the starting boron-nitrogen hydride. This project is addressing two key challenges facing the exploitation of the boron/nitrogen hydrides (ammonia-borane), as hydrogen storage material: (1) Development of a simple, efficient, and controllable system for extracting most of the available hydrogen, realizing the high hydrogen density on a system weight/volume basis, and (2) Development of a large-capacity, inexpensive, ammonia-borane regeneration process starting from its decomposition products (BNHx) for recycle. During Phase I of the program both catalytic and non-catalytic decomposition of ammonia borane are being investigated to determine optimum decomposition conditions in terms of temperature for decomposition, rate of hydrogen release, purity of hydrogen produced, thermal efficiency of decomposition, and regenerability of the decomposition products. The non-catalytic studies provide a base-line performance to evaluate catalytic decomposition. Utilization of solid phase catalysts mixed with ammonia-borane was explored for its potential to lower the decomposition temperature, to increase the rate of hydrogen release at a given temperature, to lead to decomposition products amenable for regeneration, and direct catalytic hydrogenation of the decomposition products. Two different approaches of heating ammonia-borane are being investigated: (a) 'heat to material approach' in which a fixed compartmentalized ammonia-borane is heated by a carefully controlled heating pattern, and (b) 'material to heat approach' in which a small amount of ammonia-borane is dispensed at a time in a fixed hot zone. All stages of AB decomposition are exothermic which should allow the small 'hot zone' used in the second approach for heating to be self-sustaining. During the past year hydrogen release efforts focused on the second approach determining the amount of hydrogen released, kinetics of hydrogen release, and the amounts of impurities released as a function of AB decomposition temperature in the 'hot zone.'

Damle, A.

2010-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

139

Calcium Compartmentation in Arabidopsis Mesophyll Cells, A Mechanism to Regulate Apoplastic Calcium, Photosynthetic Rates and Growth, Involves Low-affinity, High-capacity Ca2+/H+ Antiporters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low- affinity, High-capacity Ca 2+ /H + Antiporters SimonRoger Leigh The way calcium (Ca) is stored in plants impactsaccumulation patterns for Ca across different plant

Conn, Simon J; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Stephen; Kaiser, Brent; Leigh, Roger

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

High-performance hybrid organic-inorganic solar cell based on planar n-type silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells were fabricated by spin coating the hole transporting conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) film on n-type crystalline silicon (n-Si). By incorporating different additives into the PEDOT:PSS, the conductivity and wettability of PEDOT:PSS film are markedly improved, and the device performance is greatly enhanced accordingly. To further optimize the device performance, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) layer was inserted between the n-Si and PEDOT:PSS layer. The P3HT layer blocks electrons from diffusing to the PEDOT:PSS, and hence reduces recombination at the anode side. The device eventually exhibits a high power conversion efficiency of 11.52%.

Chi, Dan [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Qi, Boyuan; Wang, Jizheng [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Qu, Shengchun, E-mail: qsc@semi.ac.cn; Wang, Zhanguo [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

High-capacity Li2Sgraphene oxide composite cathodes with stable cycling performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxide onto the surface of Li2S through favorable lithium­oxygen interactions helps to minimize and grid energy storage applica- tions.1­6 Although rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are widely used-mentioned applications.1­6 The major limiting factor in lithium-ion batteries today is the low theoretical capacity

Cui, Yi

142

Highly enhanced avalanche probability using sinusoidally-gated silicon avalanche photodiode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on visible light single photon detection using a sinusoidally-gated silicon avalanche photodiode. Detection efficiency of 70.6% was achieved at a wavelength of 520?nm when an electrically cooled silicon avalanche photodiode with a quantum efficiency of 72.4% was used, which implies that a photo-excited single charge carrier in a silicon avalanche photodiode can trigger a detectable avalanche (charge) signal with a probability of 97.6%.

Suzuki, Shingo; Namekata, Naoto, E-mail: nnao@phys.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp; Inoue, Shuichiro [Institute of Quantum Science, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Tsujino, Kenji [Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

143

Versatile Silicon Photodiode Detector Technology for Scanning Electron Microscopy with High-Efficiency Sub-5 keV Electron Detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Versatile Silicon Photodiode Detector Technology for Scanning Electron Microscopy with High for Scanning Electron Microscopy, based on ultrashallow p+ n boron-layer photodiodes, features nm-thin anodes, closely-packed photodiodes and through-wafer apertures allow flexible configurations for optimal material

Technische Universiteit Delft

144

ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR to those measured on reference cells passivated by an aluminum-annealed thermal SiO2, while those of the Al of aluminum ox- ide (Al2O3) grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) pro- vide an excellent level of sur

145

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS: ENERGY PAYBACK TIMES AND NET ENERGY PRODUCTION VALUE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS: ENERGY performance, energy rating, c-Si, cost reduction 1 INTRODUCTION Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is a framework PAYBACK TIMES AND NET ENERGY PRODUCTION VALUE Vasilis Fthenakis1,2 , Rick Betita2 , Mark Shields3 , Rob

146

Oxidation resistant high temperature thermal cycling resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates and process for the production thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxidation resistant, high temperature thermal cycling resistant coated ceramic article for ceramic heat engine applications is disclosed. The substrate is a silicon-based material, i.e. a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based monolithic or composite material. The coating is a graded coating of at least two layers: an intermediate AlN or Al[sub x]N[sub y]O[sub z] layer and an aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. The composition of the coating changes gradually from that of the substrate to that of the AlN or Al[sub x]N[sub y]O[sub z] layer and further to the composition of the aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. Other layers may be deposited over the aluminum oxide layer. A CVD process for depositing the graded coating on the substrate is also disclosed.

Sarin, V.K.

1990-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

147

Oxidation resistant high temperature thermal cycling resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates and process for the production thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxidation resistant, high temperature thermal cycling resistant coated ceramic article for ceramic heat engine applications. The substrate is a silicon-based material, i.e. a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based monolithic or composite material. The coating is a graded coating of at least two layers: an intermediate AlN or Al.sub.x N.sub.y O.sub.z layer and an aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. The composition of the coating changes gradually from that of the substrate to that of the AlN or Al.sub.x N.sub.y O.sub.z layer and further to the composition of the aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. Other layers may be deposited over the aluminum oxide layer. A CVD process for depositing the graded coating on the substrate is also disclosed.

Sarin, Vinod K. (Lexington, MA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Yttrium-dispersed C{sub 60} fullerenes as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interaction between hydrogen molecules and functionalized C{sub 60} is investigated using density functional theory method. Unlike transition metal atoms that tend to cluster on the surface, C{sub 60} decorated with 12 Yttrium atoms on each of its 12 pentagons is extremely stable and remarkably enhances the hydrogen adsorption capacity. Four H{sub 2} molecules can be chemisorbed on a single Y atom through well-known Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson interaction. The nature of bonding is a weak physisorption for the fifth adsorbed H{sub 2} molecule. Consequently, the C{sub 60}Y{sub 12} complex with 60 hydrogen molecules has been demonstrated to lead to a hydrogen storage capacity of ?6.30 wt. %.

Tian, Zi-Ya; Dong, Shun-Le, E-mail: dongshunle2013@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)] [Department of Physics, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

149

Advanced Detector Research - Fabrication and Testing of 3D Active-Edge Silicon Sensors: High Speed, High Yield  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of 3D silicon radiation sensors employing electrodes fabricated perpendicular to the sensor surfaces to improve fabrication yields and increasing pulse speeds.

Parker, Sherwood I

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

High-capacity nanostructured germanium-containing materials and lithium alloys thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrodes comprising an alkali metal, for example, lithium, alloyed with nanostructured materials of formula Si.sub.zGe.sub.(z-1), where 0capacities, cycle lives, and/or cycling rates compared with similar electrodes made from graphite. These electrodes are useful as anodes for secondary electrochemical cells, for example, batteries and electrochemical supercapacitors.

Graetz, Jason A. (Upton, NY); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Ahn, Channing (Pasadena, CA); Yazami, Rachid (Los Angeles, CA)

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

151

CASTOR cask with high loading capacity for transport and storage of VVER 440 spent fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GNB has developed a CASTOR transport and storage cask with a capacity of 84 spent fuel assemblies from reactors of the type VVER 440. The safety analyses are performed with the help of modern, benchmarked calculation programs. The results show that the cask design is able to fulfill both the Type B test conditions on basis of IAEA Regulations-1985 edition and the requirements for interim storage sites in Germany.

Diersch, R.; Methling, D.; Milde, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Behaelter mbH Essen (Germany)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

152

Sacrificial high-temperature phosphorus diffusion gettering for lifetime improvement of multicrystalline silicon wafers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Iron is among the most deleterious lifetime-limiting impurities in crystalline silicon solar cells. In as-grown material, iron is present in precipitates and in point defects. To achieve conversion efficiencies in excess ...

Scott, Stephanie Morgan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon nanostructure arrays by metal-assisted etching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The goal of this research was to explore and understand the mechanisms involved in the fabrication of silicon nanostructures using metal-assisted etching. We developed a method utilizing metal-assisted etching in conjunction ...

Chang, Shih-wei, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Strain induced lithium functionalized graphane as a high capacity hydrogen storage material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strain effects on the stability, electronic structure, and hydrogen storage capacity of lithium-doped graphane (CHLi) have been investigated by stateof-the art first principle density functional theory (DFT). Molecular dynamics MD) simulations have confirmed the stability of Li on graphane sheet when it is subject to 10% of tensile strain. Under biaxial asymmetric strain, the binding energy of Li of graphane (CH) sheet increases by 52% with respect to its bulk's cohesive energy. With 25% doping concentration of Li on CH sheet,the gravimetric density of hydrogen storage is found to reach up to 12.12wt%. The adsorption energies of H2 are found to be within the range of practical H2 storage applications.

Hussain, Tanveer; Ahuja, Rajeev

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitor Measurements at the High Temperature Test Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon carbide (SiC) temperature monitors are now available for use as temperature sensors in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) irradiation test capsules. Melt wires or paint spots, which are typically used as temperature sensors in ATR static capsules, are limited in that they can only detect whether a single temperature is or is not exceeded. SiC monitors are advantageous because a single monitor can be used to detect for a range of temperatures that may have occurred during irradiation. As part of the efforts initiated by the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to make SiC temperature monitors available, a capability was developed to complete post-irradiation evaluations of these monitors. As discussed in this report, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) selected the resistance measurement approach for detecting peak irradiation temperature from SiC temperature monitors. This document describes the INL efforts to develop the capability to complete these resistance measurements. In addition, the procedure is reported that was developed to assure that high quality measurements are made in a consistent fashion.

J. L. Rempe; K. G. Condie; D. L. Knudson; L. L. Snead

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Tritium trapping in silicon carbide in contact with solid breeder under high flux isotope reactor irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The trapping of tritium in silicon carbide (SiC) injected from ceramic breeding materials was examined via tritium measurements using imaging plate (IP) techniques. Monolithic SiC in contact with ternary lithium oxide (lithium titanate and lithium aluminate) as a ceramic breeder was irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. The distribution of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) of tritium in SiC was successfully obtained, which separated the contribution of 14C ß-rays to the PSL. The tritium incident from ceramic breeders was retained in the vicinity of the SiC surface even after irradiation at 1073 K over the duration of ~3000 h, while trapping of tritium was not observed in the bulk region. The PSL intensity near the SiC surface in contact with lithium titanate was higher than that obtained with lithium aluminate. The amount of the incident tritium and/or the formation of a Li2SiO3 phase on SiC due to the reaction with lithium aluminate under irradiation likely were responsible for this observation.

H. Katsui; Y. Katoh; A. Hasegawa; M. Shimada; Y. Hatano; T. Hinoki; S. Nogami; T. Tanaka; S. Nagata; T. Shikama

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Inks for Ink Jet Printed Contacts for High Performance Silicon Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA No. CRD-06-199  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work under the proposed CRADA will be a joint effort by BP Solar and NREL to develop new types of high performance inks for high quality contacts to silicon solar cells. NREL will develop inks that have electronic properties that will allow the formation of high quality ohmic contacts to n- and p-type crystalline silicon, and BP Solar will evaluate these contacts in test contact structures.

Ginley, D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Process for producing silicon nitride based articles of high fracture toughness and strength  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength. The process involves densifying to at least 98% of theoretical density a mixture including (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 .mu.m and a surface area of about 8-12 m.sup.2 /g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 .mu.m and a surface area of about 2-4 m.sup.2 /g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. Optionally, the mixture may be blended with a binder and injection molded to form a green body, which then may be densified by, for example, hot isostatic pressing.

Huckabee, Marvin (Marlboro, MA); Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav (Acton, MA); Neil, Jeffrey T. (Acton, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Process for producing silicon nitride based articles of high fracture toughness and strength  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength is disclosed. The process involves densifying to at least 98% of theoretical density a mixture including (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 [mu]m and a surface area of about 8-12 m[sup 2]/g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 [mu]m and a surface area of about 2-4 m[sup 2]/g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. Optionally, the mixture may be blended with a binder and injection molded to form a green body, which then may be densified by, for example, hot isostatic pressing.

Huckabee, M.; Buljan, S.T.; Neil, J.T.

1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

160

Nanosheet-structured LiV3O8 with high capacity and excellent...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Highly stable LiV3O8 with a nanosheet-structure was successfully prepared using polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer in the precursor solution as the structure modifying agent,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Metal-Based High Capacity Li-Ion Anodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Binghamton University-SUNY at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about metal-based high...

162

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Capacity Polyanion Cathodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by The University of Texas at Austin at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high...

163

Silicone metalization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

164

Silicone metalization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

165

Development of a High Solid-Angle Silicon Detector Array for Measurement of Transfer Reactions in Inverse Kinematics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of high quality radioactive beams, such as those at the HRIBF at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has made possible the measurement of transfer reactions in inverse kinematics on unstable nuclei. Measurement of (d,p) reactions on neutron-rich nuclei yield data on the evolution of nuclear structure away from stability, and are of astrophysical interest due to the proximity of suggested nuclear burning paths in the astrophysical r-process in supernovae. Experimentally, (d,p) reactions on heavy (Z = 50) fission fragments are complicated by the strongly inverse kinematics, and the relatively low beam intensities. Consequently, ejectile detection with high resolution in position and energy, a high dynamic range and a high solid angular coverage is required. The Oak Ridge Rutgers University Barrel Array (ORRUBA) is a new silicon detector array currently under construction, optimized for the measurement of (d,p) reactions in inverse kinematics. It consists of two rings of silicon detectors, providing a high solid angular coverage for angles symmetrically forward and backward of 90 degrees. Resistive strip detectors are used to obtain high precision position and energy measurement of reaction ejectiles.

Pain, S. D. [Rutgers University; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Hatarik, Robert [Rutgers University; Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Thomas, J. S. [Rutgers University; Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Blackmon, Jeff C [ORNL; Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University; Johnson, Micah [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

High-speed digitization readout of silicon photomultipliers for time of flight positron emission tomography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on work to develop a system with about 100 picoseconds (ps) time resolution for time of flight positron emission tomography [TOF-PET]. The chosen photo detectors for the study were Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM's). This study was based on extensive experience in studying timing properties of SiPM's. The readout of these devices used the commercial high speed digitizer DRS4. We applied different algorithms to get the best time resolution of 155 ps Guassian (sigma) for a LYSO crystal coupled to a SiPM. We consider the work as a first step in building a prototype TOF-PET module. The field of positron-emission-tomography (PET) has been rapidly developing. But there are significant limitations in how well current PET scanners can reconstruct images, related to how fast data can be acquired, how much volume they can image, and the spatial and temporal resolution of the generated photons. Typical modern scanners now include multiple rings of detectors, which can image a large volume of the patient. In this type of scanner, one can treat each ring as a separate detector and require coincidences only within the ring, or treat the entire region viewed by the scanner as a single 3 dimensional volume. This 3d technique has significantly better sensitivity since more photon pair trajectories are accepted. However, the scattering of photons within the volume of the patient, and the effect of random coincidences limits the technique. The advent of sub-nanosecond timing resolution detectors means that there is potentially much better rejection of scattered photon events and random coincidence events in the 3D technique. In addition, if the timing is good enough, then the origin of photons pairs can be determined better, resulting in improved spatial resolution - so called 'Time-of-Flight' PET, or TOF-PET. Currently a lot of activity has occurred in applications of SiPMs for TOF-PET. This is due to the devices very good time resolution, low profile, lack of high voltage needed, and their non-sensitivity to magnetic fields. While investigations into this technique have begun elsewhere, we feel that the extensive SiPM characterization and data acquisition expertise of Fermilab, and the historical in-depth research of PET imaging at University of Chicago will combine to make significant strides in this field. We also benefit by a working relationship with the SiPM producer STMicroelectronics (STM).

Ronzhin, A.; Los, S.; Martens, M.; Ramberg, E.; /Fermilab; Kim, H.; Chen, C.; Kao, C.; /Chicago U.; Niessen, K.; /SUNY, Buffalo; Zatserklyaniy, A.; /Puerto Rico U., Mayaguez; Mazzillo, M.; Carbone, B.; /SGS Thomson, Catania

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Reverse saturation current density imaging of highly doped regions in silicon: A photoluminescence approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

´ a , Rolf Brendel a,b a Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin (ISFH), Am Ohrberg 1, 31860 Emmerthal Doping (LTD) as well as standard tube furnace phosphorus diffusion. We find a considerably smaller J0 for process optimization. & 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction In silicon solar cells

168

New, high-capacity, calcium-based sorbents: Calcium silicate sorbents. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A search is being carried out for new calcium-based SO{sub 2} sorbents for induct injection. More specifically, a search is being carried out for induct injection calcium silicate sorbents that are highly cost effective. The objectives of the past year were to study the sorption of SO{sub 2} by representative calcium silicates, to study the composition of the Ca(OH){sub 2}-fly ash sorbent, and to install a humidity sensor in the sorption system.

Kenney, M.E.; Chiang, Ray-Kuang

1993-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

169

New high-capacity, calcium-based sorbents, calcium silicate sorbents. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A search is being carried out for new calcium-based SO{sub 2} sorbents for induct injection. More specifically, a search is being carried out for induct injection calcium silicate sorbents that are highly cost effective. The current year objectives include the study of sorbents made by hydrating ordinary or Type I portland cement or portland cement clinker (a cement intermediate) under carefully selected conditions. Results of this study show that an excellent portland cement sorbent can be prepared by milling cement at 120{degrees}C at 600 rpm for 15 minutes with MgO-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} beads. They also show that clinker, which is cheaper than cement can be used interchangeably with cement as a starting material. Further, it is clear that while a high surface area may be a desirable property of a good sorbent, it is not a requisite property. Among the hydration reaction variables, milling time is highly important, reaction temperature is important and stirring rate and silicate-to-H{sub 2}O ratio are moderately important. The components of hydrated cement sorbent are various combinations of C-S-H, calcium silicate hydrate:Ca(OH){sub 2};AFm. a phase in hydrated cement.

Kenney, M.E.

1996-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

170

Design and Synthesis of Novel Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) Toward High Hydrogen Storage Capacity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Statement of Objectives: 1. Synthesize viable porous MOFs for high H2 storage at ambient conditions to be assessed by measuring H2 uptake. 2. Develop a better understanding of the operative interactions of the sorbed H2 with the organic and inorganic constituents of the sorbent MOF by means of inelastic neutron scattering (INS, to characterize the H2-MOF interactions) and computational studies (to interpret the data and predict novel materials suitable for high H2 uptake at moderate temperatures and relatively low pressures). 3. Synergistically combine the outcomes of objectives 1 and 2 to construct a made-to-order inexpensive MOF that is suitable for super H2 storage and meets the DOE targets - 6% H2 per weight (2kWh/kg) by 2010 and 9% H2 per weight (3kWh/kg) by 2015. The ongoing research is a collaborative experimental and computational effort focused on assessing H2 storage and interactions with pre-selected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolite-like MOFs (ZMOFs), with the eventual goal of synthesizing made-to-order high H2 storage materials to achieve the DOE targets for mobile applications. We proposed in this funded research to increase the amount of H2 uptake, as well as tune the interactions (i.e. isosteric heats of adsorption), by targeting readily tunable MOFs:

Mohamed, Eddaoudi [USF; Zaworotko, Michael [USF; Space, Brian [USF; Eckert, Juergen [USF

2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

171

Simulation and design of various configurations of silicon detectors for high irradiation tolerance up to 6x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} in LHC application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various new configurations (n{sup +}/p/p{sup +}, n{sup +}/n/p{sup +}, and p{sup +}/n/n{sup +}) of silicon detector designs have been simulated using processing and device simulation tools, before and after irradiation to various fluences. The aim of material selection and detector design is to ensure adequate charge collection after being irradiated up to 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2} (or 6x10{sup 14}{pi}/cm{sup 2}) in LHC environment, which corresponds to a net increase (with long term anneal) of space charge of 7x10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Starting materials selected for simulations include high resistivity p-type silicon, medium and low resistivity n-type silicon. Design of multi-guard-rings structure for high voltage operation is also considered. First irradiation data of low resistivity silicon detector is presented.

Li, Z.; Chen, W.; Beuttenmuller, R. [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Liquid-phase plasma synthesis of silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix for lithium battery anodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) were fabricated. • SiQDs/C exhibits excellent battery performance as anode materials with high specific capacity. • The good performance was attributed to the marriage of small sized SiQDs and carbon. - Abstract: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) nanocomposites were prepared by a novel liquid-phase plasma assisted synthetic process. The SiQDs/C nanocomposites were demonstrated to show high specific capacity, good cycling life and high coulmbic efficiency as anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

Wei, Ying [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Yu, Hang; Li, Haitao; Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Mechanism for high hydrogen storage capacity on metal-coated carbon nanotubes: A first principle analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrogen adsorption and binding mechanism on metals (Ca, Sc, Ti and V) decorated single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are investigated using first principle calculations. Our results show that those metals coated on SWCNTs can uptake over 8 wt% hydrogen molecules with binding energy range -0.2--0.6 eV, promising potential high density hydrogen storage material. The binding mechanism is originated from the electrostatic Coulomb attraction, which is induced by the electric field due to the charge transfer from metal 4s to 3d. Moreover, we found that the interaction between the H{sub 2}-H{sub 2} further lowers the binding energy. - Graphical abstract: Five hydrogen molecules bound to individual Ca decorated (8, 0) SWCNT : a potential hydrogen-storage material. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each transition metal atom can adsorb more than four hydrogen molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interation between metal and hydrogen molecule is electrostatic coulomb attraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electric field is induced by the charge transfer from metal 4s to metal 3d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorbed hydrogen molecules which form supermolecule can further lower the binding energy.

Lu, Jinlian; Xiao, Hong [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China); Cao, Juexian, E-mail: jxcao@xtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Black Conductive Titanium Oxide High-Capacity Materials for Battery Electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stoichiometric titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is one of the most widely studied transitionmetal oxides because of its many potential applications in photoelectrochemical systems, such as dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} electrodes for photovoltaic solar cells, and water-splitting catalysts for hydrogen generation, and in environmental purification for creating or degrading specific compounds. However, TiO{sub 2} has a wide bandgap and high electrical resistivity, which limits its use as an electrode. A set of non-stoichiometric titanium oxides called the Magneli phases, having a general formula of Ti{sub n}O{sub 2n-1} with n between 4 and 10, exhibits lower bandgaps and resistivities, with the highest electrical conductivities reported for Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7}. These phases have been formulated under different conditions, but in all reported cases the resulting oxides have minimum grain sizes on the order of micrometers, regardless of the size of the starting titanium compounds. In this method, nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2} or hydrogen titanates are first coated with carbon using either wet or dry chemistry methods. During this process the size and shape of the nanoparticles are 'locked in.' Subsequently the carbon-coated nanoparticles are heated. This results in the transformation of the original TiO{sub 2} or hydrogen titanates to Magneli phases without coarsening, so that the original size and shape of the nanoparticles are maintained to a precise degree. People who work on batteries, fuel cells, ultracapacitors, electrosynthesis cells, electro-chemical devices, and soil remediation have applications that could benefit from using nanoscale Magneli phases of titanium oxide. Application of these electrode materials may not be limited to substitution for TiO{sub 2} electrodes. Combining the robustness and photosensitivity of TiO{sub 2} with higher electrical conductivity may result in a general electrode material.

Han, W.

2011-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

175

Silicon dioxide and hafnium dioxide evaporation characteristics from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reactive oxygen evaporation characteristics were determined as a function of the front-panel control parameters provided by a programmable, high-frequency sweep e-beam system. An experimental design strategy used deposition rate, beam speed, pattern, azimuthal rotation speed, and dwell time as the variables. The optimal settings for obtaining a broad thickness distribution, efficient silicon dioxide boule consumption, and minimal hafnium dioxide defect density were generated. The experimental design analysis showed the compromises involved with evaporating these oxides. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

Chow, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Tsujimoto, N. [MDC Vacuum Products Corporation, Hayward, California 94545 (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

A bipolar monolithic preamplifier for high-capacitance SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) silicon calorimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a preamplifier designed and fabricated specifically to address the requirements of silicon calorimetry for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The topology and its features are discussed in addition to the design methodology employed. The simulated and measured results for noise, power consumption, and speed are presented. Simulated an measured data for radiation damage effects as well as data for post-damage annealing are also presented. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Britton, C.L. Jr. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Kennedy, E.J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Bugg, W.M. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber-reinforced silicon--silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon--silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY); Luthra, Krishan Lal (Schenectady, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber-reinforced silicon-silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon-silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY); Luthra, Krishan Lal (Schenectady, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules. Annual subcontract report, 1 November 1992--31 May 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes progress made in the first half of Phase II of a three-phase program to develop high-efficiency, same-band-gap, amorphous-silicon, tandem-junction modules. Results for both 1-cm- {sup 2} devices and 0.3-m (0.09-m{sup 2}) modules are given. considerable effort was devoted to finding a device structure and layer conditions that reconcile the conflicting requirements of a good ``tunnel junction`` contact between the two stacks and a high-efficiency device. High-band-gap p{sub 2}layers, which enable good voltage and current from the second stack, were found to result in poor tunnel junctions. The best results were obtained by using a thin (1-nm-thick) p{sup +} layer (no carbon) between the n{sub 1} and p{sub 2} layers of the device.

Ghosh, M.; Kampas, F.; Xi, J. [Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Riccardo Ruffo,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resistance and solid state diffusion through the bulk of the nanowires. The surface process is dominatedImpedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Riccardo Ruffo, Seung Sae Hong as a high-capacity anode in a lithium ion battery. The ac response was measured by using impedance

Cui, Yi

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

New Nanostructured Li2S/Silicon Rechargeable Battery with High Specific Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an average voltage of 2.2 V vs Li/Li+ (about 60% of the voltage of conventional Li-ion batteries nanowires R echargeable batteries are critical power sources for mobile applications such as portable-11 the relatively low charge capacity of cathodes remains the limiting factor preventing higher energy density

Cui, Yi

182

Highly efficient photoinduced desorption of N{sub 2}O and CO from porous silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Photoinduced desorption (PID) of N{sub 2}O and CO from porous silicon (PSi) samples is reported. Both adsorbates exhibit unusually large cross sections for PID at 193 nm, up to 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}, 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than the literature values for similar processes on flat Si. Under this UV irradiation, N{sub 2}O molecules undergo photodissociation (a competing process leading to surface oxidation) with a cross section that is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than photodesorption. In the case of CO desorption is the exclusive photodepletion mechanism. PID efficiency decreases with increasing CO coverage suggesting PID hindrance by interactions among the desorbing CO molecules leading to re-adsorption at higher coverage. The wavelength and fluence dependence measurements exclude the possibility of laser induced thermal desorption for both adsorbates. The proposed mechanism for this phenomenon is desorption induced by hot electron transfer from the substrate to the adsorbate. Enhanced lifetime of transient negative adsorbate due to stabilization by localized holes on PSi nanotips can explain the observed abnormally large PID efficiency on top of porous silicon.

Toker, Gil; Sagi, Roey; Bar-Nachum, Shay; Asscher, Micha [Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

183

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Wiring Up Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Stanford University at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about wiring up silicon...

184

Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

Ravi, T. S.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

THE EFFECT OF SILICON ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRACKING BEHAVIOR OF A HIGH STRENGTH STEEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-Alloy, High-Strength Steel, Advanced Research ProjectsTests of High Strength Steels, BISRA Report September 1971.Cracking in High Strength Steels and in Titanium and

Cedeno, M.H.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Proton effects on low noise and high responsivity silicon-based photodiodes for space environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of proton irradiations has been carried out on p-n silicon photodiodes for the purpose of assessing the suitability of these devices for the European Galileo space mission. The irradiations were performed at energies of 60, 100, and 150 MeV with proton fluences ranging from 1.7x10{sup 10} to 1x10{sup 11} protons/cm{sup 2}. Dark current, spectral responsivity, and dark current noise were measured before and after each irradiation step. We observed an increase in both dark current, dark current noise, and noise equivalent power and a drop of the spectral responsivity with increasing displacement damage dose. An analytical model has been developed to investigate proton damage effects through the modeling of the electro-optical characteristics of the photodiode. Experimental degradations were successfully explained taking into account the degradation of the minority carrier diffusion length in the N-region of the photodiode. The degradation model was then applied to assess the end-of-life performance of these devices in the framework of the Galileo mission.

Pedroza, Guillaume; Gilard, Olivier [Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, 18 Avenue E. Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Bourqui, Marie-Lise; Bechou, Laurent; Deshayes, Yannick [IMS Laboratory, University of Bordeaux I-ENSEIRB-CNRS, UMR 5218, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); How, Lip Sun; Rosala, Francois [AdvEOTec, 6/8 Rue de la Closerie, Lisses-ZAC Clos aux Pois, 91052 Evry Cedex (France)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Improved high-efficiency silicon concentrator cells for medium concentration applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes efforts toward design simplification of Si concentrator cells capable of efficiencies in the 25-30% range. A discussion is given on the principal issues involved in the design and fabrication of both backside-contact cells and cells with frontside grids. Several proposed designs are detailed. Results include 23% two-sided 1.5625 cm/sup 2/ cells operating at 14 W/cm/sup 2/ of incident power. This simple design requires only one mask alignment and should approach 25% with further development. With an additional alignment, cells that are 27% efficient are feasible. Neither of these designs will require prismatic cover glasses to achieve this performance. In addition, a new backside contact cell design is described that requires only one mask and no alignments. Cells of this type were demonstrated to be 15.4% efficient at 4 W/cm/sup 2/, without AR coatings or texturization. Fundamental studies of the limiting parameters indicate that the design will exceed 25% in efficiency when fully developed. Finally, a new light-trapping scheme is proposed which could have the effect of increasing the attainable efficiencies of silicon concentrator cells to 32-33%. This same scheme might also be utilized in ways which would allow very simple low-cost cell designs to achieve results comparable to the best cells demonstrated to date. Assorted other practically-oriented results on metalization development, cell mounting, and qualification tests are also presented. 26 refs., 31 figs.

Sinton, R.A.; Swanson, R.M.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Process for forming retrograde profiles in silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for forming retrograde and oscillatory profiles in crystalline and polycrystalline silicon. The process consisting of introducing an n- or p-type dopant into the silicon, or using prior doped silicon, then exposing the silicon to multiple pulses of a high-intensity laser or other appropriate energy source that melts the silicon for short time duration. Depending on the number of laser pulses directed at the silicon, retrograde profiles with peak/surface dopant concentrations which vary from 1-1e4 are produced. The laser treatment can be performed in air or in vacuum, with the silicon at room temperature or heated to a selected temperature.

Weiner, Kurt H. (San Jose, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Phoenix, AZ)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

High-G testing of MEMS mechanical non-volatile memory and silicon re-entry switch.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two different Sandia MEMS devices have been tested in a high-g environment to determine their performance and survivability. The first test was performed using a drop-table to produce a peak acceleration load of 1792 g's over a period of 1.5 ms. For the second test the MEMS devices were assembled in a gun-fired penetrator and shot into a cement target at the Army Waterways Experiment Station in Vicksburg Mississippi. This test resulted in a peak acceleration of 7191 g's for a duration of 5.5 ms. The MEMS devices were instrumented using the MEMS Diagnostic Extraction System (MDES), which is capable of driving the devices and recording the device output data during the high-g event, providing in-flight data to assess the device performance. A total of six devices were monitored during the experiments, four mechanical non-volatile memory devices (MNVM) and two Silicon Reentry Switches (SiRES). All six devices functioned properly before, during, and after each high-g test without a single failure. This is the first known test under flight conditions of an active, powered MEMS device at Sandia.

Baker, Michael Sean; Pohl, Kenneth Roy

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Mesoporous Silicon Sponge as an Anti-Pulverization Structure...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mesoporous Silicon Sponge as an Anti-Pulverization Structure for High-Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes. Mesoporous Silicon Sponge as an Anti-Pulverization Structure for...

191

Six Thousand Electrochemical Cycles of Double-Walled Silicon Nanotube Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite remarkable progress, lithium ion batteries still need higher energy density and better cycle life for consumer electronics, electric drive vehicles and large-scale renewable energy storage applications. Silicon has recently been explored as a promising anode material for high energy batteries; however, attaining long cycle life remains a significant challenge due to materials pulverization during cycling and an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase. Here, we report double-walled silicon nanotube electrodes that can cycle over 6000 times while retaining more than 85% of the initial capacity. This excellent performance is due to the unique double-walled structure in which the outer silicon oxide wall confines the inner silicon wall to expand only inward during lithiation, resulting in a stable solid-electrolyte interphase. This structural concept is general and could be extended to other battery materials that undergo large volume changes.

Wu, H

2011-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

192

The Effect of High Temperature Annealing on the Grain Characteristics of a Thin Chemical Vapor Deposition Silicon Carbide Layer.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The unique combination of thermo-mechanical and physiochemical properties of silicon carbide (SiC) provides interest and opportunity for its use in nuclear applications. One of the applications of SiC is as a very thin layer in the TRi-ISOtropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles for high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This SiC layer, produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), is designed to withstand the pressures of fission and transmutation product gases in a high temperature, radiation environment. Various researchers have demonstrated that macroscopic properties can be affected by changes in the distribution of grain boundary plane orientations and misorientations [1 - 3]. Additionally, various researchers have attributed the release behavior of Ag through the SiC layer as a grain boundary diffusion phenomenon [4 - 6]; further highlighting the importance of understanding the actual grain characteristics of the SiC layer. Both historic HTGR fission product release studies and recent experiments at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [7] have shown that the release of Ag-110m is strongly temperature dependent. Although the maximum normal operating fuel temperature of a HTGR design is in the range of 1000-1250°C, the temperature may reach 1600°C under postulated accident conditions. The aim of this specific study is therefore to determine the magnitude of temperature dependence on SiC grain characteristics, expanding upon initial studies by Van Rooyen et al, [8; 9].

Isabella J van Rooyen; Philippus M van Rooyen; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

A HighGranularity Scintillator Calorimeter Read Out with Silicon Photomultipliers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy of photons and measured hadronic energy of neutral hadrons. Thus, high granu­ larity is necessary Abstract We report upon the design, construction and performance of a prototype for a high­granularity tile. Detector calibration, noise, linearity and stability are discussed, and the energy response in a 1­6 Ge

194

High-temperature defect engineering for silicon solar cells : predictive process simulation and synchrotron-based microcharacterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficiency is a major lever for cost reduction in crystalline silicon solar cells, which dominate the photovoltaics market but cannot yet compete subsidy-free in most areas. Iron impurities are a key performance-limiting ...

Fenning, David P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Evolution of Nickel-Manganese-Silicon Dominated Phases in Highly Irradiated Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Formation of a high density of Ni-Mn-Si nm-scale precipitates in irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels, both with and without Cu, could lead to severe embrittlement. Models long ago predicted that these precipitates, which are not treated in current embrittlement regulations, would emerge only at high fluence. However, the mechanisms and variables that control Ni-Mn- Si precipitate formation, and their detailed characteristics, have not been well understood. High flux irradiations of six steels with systematic variations in Cu and Ni were carried out at ˜ 295±5°C to high and very high neutron fluences of ˜ 1.3x1020 and 1.1x1021 n/cm2. Atom probe tomography (APT) shows that significant mole fractions of these precipitates form in the Cu bearing steels at ˜ 1.3x1020 n/cm2, while they are only beginning to develop in Cu-free steels. However, large mole fractions, far in excess of those found in previous studies, are observed at 1.1x1021 n/cm2 at all Cu levels. The precipitates diffract, and in one case are compositionally and structurally consistent with the Mn6Ni16Si7 G-phase. At the highest fluence, the large precipitate mole fractions primarily depend on the steel Ni content, rather than Cu, and lead to enormous strength increases up to about 700 MPa. The implications of these results to light water reactor life extension are discussed briefly.

Peter B Wells; Yuan Wu; Tim Milot; G. Robert Odette; Takuya Yamamoto; Brandon Miller; James Cole

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

A Highly Granular Silicon-Tungsten Electromagnetic Calorimeter and Top Quark Production at the International Linear Collider  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis deals with two aspects of the International Linear Collider (ILC) which is a project of a linear electron-positron collider of up to at least 500 GeV center of mass energy. The first aspect is the development of a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (SiW-ECAL) for one of the detectors of the ILC. The concept of this detector is driven by the ILC beam specifications and by the Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA). This requires highly granular calorimeter and very compact one with integrated electronics. To prove the capability of the SiW- ECAL a technological prototype has been built and tested in test beam at DESY. The results are presented here, and show, after the calibration procedure a signal over noise ratio of 10, even in the power pulsing mode. The second aspect is the study of one of the important physics channels of the ILC, the top anti-top quark pairs production. The main goal of this study is to determine the precision that we can expect at the ILC on the top coupling with the W bos...

Rouëné, J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

A HighGranularity Scintillator Calorimeter Read Out with Silicon Photomultipliers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy of photons and measured hadronic energy of neutral hadrons. Thus, high granu­ larity is necessary October 2004 DESY 04­143 LC­DET­2004­027 Abstract We report upon the design, construction and performance, and the energy response in a 1­6 GeV positron beam is compared with simulations. Preprint submitted to Elsevier

198

HIGH CHARGE EFFECTS IN SILICON DRIFT DETECTORS WITH LATERAL CONFINEMENT OF ELECTRONS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new drift detector prototype which provides suppression of the lateral diffusion of electrons has been tested as a function of the signal charge up to high charge levels, when electrostatic repulsion is not negligible. The lateral diffusion of the electron cloud has been measured for injected charges up to 2 {center_dot} 10{sup 5} electrons. The maximum number of electrons for which the suppression of the lateral spread is effective is obtained.

CASTOLDI,A.; REHAK,P.

1995-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

199

High temperature 4H-silicon carbide thyristors and power MOSFETs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two types of high temperature power switches, MOSFETs and thyristors, have been demonstrated in 4H-SiC. Vertical UMOS power MOSFETs have been demonstrated to block voltages as high as 260 V with a specific on-resistance of 18 m{Omega}-cm{sup 2}. Larger area, 175 V MOSFETs had a rated current of 2 Amps (200 A/cm{sup 2}) at {ital V}{sub {ital d}}=2.65 V. Previous 4H-SiC UMOS MOSFETs were measured to operate up to 573 K. 4H-SiC npnp thyristors have been successfully operated up to 773 K, and have achieved blocking voltages of 600 V and an on-current of 1.8 A. Larger area, 200 V thyristors had a rated current of 10 Amps (620 A/cm{sup 2}) with a voltage drop of 3.6 V. Current densities as high as 1000 A/cm{sup 2} at {minus}4.0 V has also been achieved. The thyristors have also shown very fast turn-off times, ranging from 360{endash}640 nsec. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Palmour, J.W.; Allen, S.T.; Singh, R.; Lipkin, L.A.; Waltz, D.G. [Cree Research, Inc., 2810 Meridian Parkway, Durham, North Carolina 27713 (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Refinery Capacity Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Refinery Capacity Report Released: June 15, 2006 Refinery Capacity Report --- Full report in PDF (1 MB) XLS --- Refinery Capacity Data by individual refinery as of January 1, 2006...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Capacity Markets for Electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ternative Approaches for Power Capacity Markets”, Papers andprof id=pjoskow. Capacity Markets for Electricity [13]Utility Commission- Capacity Market Questions”, available at

Creti, Anna; Fabra, Natalia

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

High Performance Silicon Monoxide (SiO) Electrode for Next Generation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmas in the Madison SymmetricHigh Carbon|1-3,Lithium Ion

203

Diamond-silicon carbide composite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=5–8 GPa, T=1400K–2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.dot.m1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Yusheng

2006-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

204

Performance of silicon PIN photodiodes at low temperatures and in high magnetic fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The performance of a Si PIN diode (type Hamamatsu S3590-06) as an energy sen- sitive detector operating at cryogenic temperatures (~10 K) and in magnetic fields up to 11 T was investigated, using a 207Bi conversion electron source. It was found that the detector still performs well under these conditions, with small changes in the response function being observed in high magnetic fields, e.g. a 30% to 50% decrease in energy resolution. A GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation showed that the observed effects are mainly due to the modified trajectories of the electrons due to the influence of the magnetic field, which changes the scattering conditions, rather than to intrinsic changes of the performance of the detector itself.

F. Wauters; I. S. Kraev; M. Tandecki; E. Traykov; S. Van Gorp; D. Zakoucky; N. Severijns

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

205

Power mixture and green body for producing silicon nitride base & articles of high fracture toughness and strength  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A powder mixture and a green body for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength. The powder mixture includes 9a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon mitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 .mu.m and a surface area of about 8-12m.sup.2 g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 .mu.m and a surface area of about 2-4 m.sup.2 /g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified articel an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. The green body is formed from the powder mixture, an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid, and an effective amount of a suitable organic binder.

Huckabee, Marvin L. (Marlboro, MA); Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav (Acton, MA); Neil, Jeffrey T. (Acton, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Power mixture and green body for producing silicon nitride base articles of high fracture toughness and strength  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A powder mixture and a green body for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength are disclosed. The powder mixture includes (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 [mu]m and a surface area of about 8-12m[sup 2]g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 [mu]m and a surface area of about 2-4 m[sup 2]/g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. The green body is formed from the powder mixture, an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid, and an effective amount of a suitable organic binder. No Drawings

Huckabee, M.L.; Buljan, S.T.; Neil, J.T.

1991-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

207

Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is a photovoltaic device comprising an intrinsic or i-layer of amorphous silicon and where the photovoltaic device is more efficient at converting light energy to electric energy at high operating temperatures than at low operating temperatures. The photovoltaic devices of this invention are suitable for use in high temperature operating environments.

Carlson, David E.; Lin, Guang H.; Ganguly, Gautam

2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

208

Deposition of device quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon at high deposition rates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of fabricating device quality, thin-film a-Si:H for use as semiconductor material in photovoltaic and other devices, comprising in any order; positioning a substrate in a vacuum chamber adjacent a plurality of heatable filaments with a spacing distance L between the substrate and the filaments; heating the filaments to a temperature that is high enough to obtain complete decomposition of silicohydride molecules that impinge said filaments into Si and H atomic species; providing a flow of silicohydride gas, or a mixture of silicohydride gas containing Si and H, in said vacuum chamber while maintaining a pressure P of said gas in said chamber, which, in combination with said spacing distance L, provides a P.times.L product in a range of 10-300 mT-cm to ensure that most of the Si atomic species react with silicohydride molecules in the gas before reaching the substrate, to thereby grow a a-Si:H film at a rate of at least 50 .ANG./sec.; and maintaining the substrate at a temperature that balances out-diffusion of H from the growing a-Si:H film with time needed for radical species containing Si and H to migrate to preferred bonding sites.

Mahan, Archie Harvin (Golden, CO); Molenbroek, Edith C. (Rotterdam, NL); Gallagher, Alan C. (Louisville, CO); Nelson, Brent P. (Golden, CO); Iwaniczko, Eugene (Lafayette, CO); Xu, Yueqin (Golden, CO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

High efficiency low cost thin film silicon solar cell design and method for making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor device having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate, depositing a semiconductive material on the metal-coated substrate to produce a composite structure, and then optically processing the composite structure by illuminating it with infrared electromagnetic radiation according to a unique time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface of the semiconductor material, then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor material and the metal layer, and finally produces a grain-enhanced semiconductor layer. The time-energy profile includes increasing the energy to a first energy level to initiate pit formation and create the desired pit size and density, then ramping up to a second energy level in which the entire device is heated to produce an interfacial melt, and finally reducing the energy to a third energy level and holding for a period of time to allow enhancement in the grain size of the semiconductor layer.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

High efficiency low cost thin film silicon solar cell design and method for making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor device is described having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate, depositing a semiconductive material on the metal-coated substrate to produce a composite structure, and then optically processing the composite structure by illuminating it with infrared electromagnetic radiation according to a unique time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface of the semiconductor material, then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor material and the metal layer, and finally produces a grain-enhanced semiconductor layer. The time-energy profile includes increasing the energy to a first energy level to initiate pit formation and create the desired pit size and density, then ramping up to a second energy level in which the entire device is heated to produce an interfacial melt, and finally reducing the energy to a third energy level and holding for a period of time to allow enhancement in the grain size of the semiconductor layer. 9 figs.

Sopori, B.L.

1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

211

High efficiency, low cost, thin film silicon solar cell design and method for making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor device having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate, depositing a semiconductive material on the metal-coated substrate to produce a composite structure, and then optically processing the composite structure by illuminating it with infrared electromagnetic radiation according to a unique time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface of the semiconductor material, then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor material and the metal layer, and finally produces a grain-enhanced semiconductor layer. The time-energy profile includes increasing the energy to a first energy level to initiate pit formation and create the desired pit size and density, then ramping up to a second energy level in which the entire device is heated to produce an interfacial melt, and finally reducing the energy to a third energy level and holding for a period of time to allow enhancement in the grain size of the semiconductor layer.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

High-Velocity Features of Calcium and Silicon in the Spectra of Type Ia Supernovae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"High-velocity features" (HVFs) are spectral features in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that have minima indicating significantly higher (by greater than about 6000 km/s) velocities than typical "photospheric-velocity features" (PVFs). The PVFs are absorption features with minima indicating typical photospheric (i.e., bulk ejecta) velocities (usually ~9000-15,000 km/s near B-band maximum brightness). In this work we undertake the most in-depth study of HVFs ever performed. The dataset used herein consists of 445 low-resolution optical and near-infrared (NIR) spectra (at epochs up to 5 d past maximum brightness) of 210 low-redshift SNe Ia that follow the "Phillips relation." A series of Gaussian functions is fit to the data in order to characterise possible HVFs of Ca II H&K, Si II {\\lambda}6355, and the Ca II NIR triplet. The temporal evolution of the velocities and strengths of the PVFs and HVFs of these three spectral features is investigated, as are possible correlations with other SN Ia observables. We f...

Silverman, Jeffrey M; Marion, G H; Wheeler, J Craig; Barna, Barnabas; Szalai, Tamas; Mulligan, Brian; Filippenko, Alexei V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

System and method for liquid silicon containment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a system and a method for liquid silicon containment, such as during the casting of high purity silicon used in solar cells or solar modules. The containment apparatus includes a shielding member adapted to prevent breaching molten silicon from contacting structural elements or cooling elements of a casting device, and a volume adapted to hold a quantity of breaching molten silicon with the volume formed by a bottom and one or more sides.

Cliber, James A; Clark, Roger F; Stoddard, Nathan G; Von Dollen, Paul

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

214

System and method for liquid silicon containment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This invention relates to a system and a method for liquid silicon containment, such as during the casting of high purity silicon used in solar cells or solar modules. The containment apparatus includes a shielding ember adapted to prevent breaching molten silicon from contacting structural elements or cooling elements of a casting device, and a volume adapted to hold a quantity of breaching molten silicon with the volume formed by a bottom and one or more sides.

Cliber, James A; Clark, Roger F; Stoddard, Nathan G; Von Dollen, Paul

2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

215

Floating Silicon Method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

Kellerman, Peter

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

216

Amorphous Silicon  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE has a proven track record of funding successes in amorphous silicon (a-Si)research. A list of current projects, summary of the benefits, and discussion on the production and manufacturing of...

217

Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite powders  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

Dunmead, Stephen D. (Midland, MI); Weimer, Alan W. (Midland, MI); Carroll, Daniel F. (Midland, MI); Eisman, Glenn A. (Midland, MI); Cochran, Gene A. (Midland, MI); Susnitzky, David W. (Midland, MI); Beaman, Donald R. (Midland, MI); Nilsen, Kevin J. (Midland, MI)

1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

218

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Studies on High Capacity Cathodes for Advanced Lithium-ion Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about studies on high...

219

First-principles Approaches to Simulate Lithiation in Silicon Electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Silicon is viewed as an excellent electrode material for lithium batteries due to its high lithium storage capacity. Various Si nano-structures, such as Si nanowires, have performed well as lithium battery anodes and have opened up exciting opportunities for the use of Si in energy storage devices. The mechanism of lithium insertion and the interaction between Li and the Si electrode must be understood at the atomic level; this understanding can be achieved by first-principles simulation. Here, first-principles computations of lithiation in silicon electrodes are reviewed. The review focuses on three aspects: the various properties of bulk Li-Si compounds with different Li concentrations, the electronic structure of Si nanowires and Li insertion behavior in Si nanowires, and the dynamic lithiation process at the Li/Si interface. Potential study directions in this research field and difficulties that the field still faces are discussed at the end.

Zhang, Qianfan; Wang, Enge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Monitoring Infrastructure Capacity Monitoring Infrastructure Capacity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Levinson, D. (2000) Monitoring Infrastructure Capacity p. 165-181 in Land Market Monitoring for Smart Urban) task. Monitoring infrastructure capacity is at least as complex as monitoring urban land markets Levinson, D. (2000) Monitoring Infrastructure Capacity p. 165-181 in Land Market Monitoring for Smart Urban

Levinson, David M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Diamond-silicon carbide composite and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Uniformly dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites having high hardness, high fracture toughness, and high thermal stability are prepared by consolidating a powder mixture of diamond and amorphous silicon. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPam.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness.

Zhao, Yusheng (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

222

Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged as an alternative to standard thick wafers technology, but they are less efficient, because of incomplete absorption of sunlight, and non-radiative recombinations. In this paper, we focus on the case of crystalline silicon (c-Si) devices, and we present a full analytic electro-optical model for p-n junction solar cells with Lambertian light trapping. This model is validated against numerical solutions of the drift-diffusion equations. We use this model to investigate the interplay between light trapping, and bulk and surface recombination. Special attention is paid to surface recombination processes, which become more important in thinner devices. These effects are further amplified due to the textures required for light trapping, which lead to increased surface area. We show that c-Si solar cells with thickness of a few microns can overcome 20% efficiency and outperform bulk ones when light trapping is implemented. The optimal device thickness in presence of light trapping, bulk and surface recombination, is quantified to be in the range of 10–80??m, depending on the bulk quality. These results hold, provided the effective surface recombination is kept below a critical level of the order of 100?cm/s. We discuss the possibility of meeting this requirement, in the context of state-of-the-art techniques for light trapping and surface passivation. We show that our predictions are within the capability of present day silicon technologies.

Bozzola, A., E-mail: angelo.bozzola@unipv.it; Kowalczewski, P.; Andreani, L. C. [Physics Department, University of Pavia and CNISM, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

223

China ups ethylene capacity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

China is continuing with plans to build up its petrochemical sector. Following government approval the Dongying petrochemical complex in Shandong province is expected to get under way early next year. It will be based on a 140,000-m.t./year ethylene plant and will be the second-largest petrochemical complex in the province, after Qilu, about 50 km away. In addition, there are plans to expand capacities of existing ethylene plants. The Dongying complex will be owned by Shengli Oil Field (50%). Shandong province (35%), and the Dongying municipality (15%). Downstream capacities will comprise 80,000 m.t./year of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and 20,000 m.t./year of high-density PE. Butene-1 to be used as comonomer for LLDPE will be shipped from Qilu.

Alperowicz, N.; Wood, A.

1992-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

224

Structural alloy with a protective coating containing silicon or silicon-oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is comprised of an iron-based alloy containing chromium and optionally, nickel. The alloy has a surface barrier of silicon or silicon plus oxygen which converts at high temperature to a protective silicon compound. The alloy can be used in oxygen-sulfur mixed gases at temperatures up to about 1100{degrees}C.

Natesan, K.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Manganese and Ceria Sorbents for High Temperature Sulfur Removal from Biomass-Derived Syngas -- The Impact of Steam on Capacity and Sorption Mode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Syngas derived from biomass and coal gasification for fuel synthesis or electricity generation contains sulfur species that are detrimental to downstream catalysts or turbine operation. Sulfur removal in high temperature, high steam conditions has been known to be challenging, but experimental reports on methods to tackle the problem are not often reported. We have developed sorbents that can remove hydrogen sulfide from syngas at high temperature (700 C), both in dry and high steam conditions. The syngas composition chosen for our experiments is derived from statistical analysis of the gasification products of wood under a large variety of conditions. The two sorbents, Cu-ceria and manganese-based, were tested in a variety of conditions. In syngas containing steam, the capacity of the sorbents is much lower, and the impact of the sorbent in lowering H{sub 2}S levels is only evident in low space velocities. Spectroscopic characterization and thermodynamic consideration of the experimental results suggest that in syngas containing 45% steam, the removal of H{sub 2}S is primarily via surface chemisorptions. For the Cu-ceria sorbent, analysis of the amount of H{sub 2}S retained by the sorbent in dry syngas suggests both copper and ceria play a role in H{sub 2}S removal. For the manganese-based sorbent, in dry conditions, there is a solid state transformation of the sorbent, primarily into the sulfide form.

Cheah, S.; Parent, Y. O.; Jablonski, W. S.; Vinzant, T.; Olstad, J. L.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

High Performance Mixed Signal Circuits Enabled by the Direct Monolithic Heterogeneous Integration of InP HBT and Si CMOS on a Silicon Substrate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present recent results on the direct heterogeneous integration of InP HBTs and Si CMOS on a silicon template wafer or SOLES (Silicon On Lattice Engineered Substrate). InP HBTs whose performance are comparable to HBTs ...

Kazior, T. E.

227

Process for forming silicon carbide films and microcomponents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Silicon carbide films and microcomponents are grown on silicon substrates at surface temperatures between 900 K and 1700 K via C.sub.60 precursors in a hydrogen-free environment. Selective crystalline silicon carbide growth can be achieved on patterned silicon-silicon oxide samples. Patterned SiC films are produced by making use of the high reaction probability of C.sub.60 with silicon at surface temperatures greater than 900 K and the negligible reaction probability for C.sub.60 on silicon dioxide at surface temperatures less than 1250 K.

Hamza, Alex V. (Livermore, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Moalem, Mehran (Berkeley, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

New high-capacity, calcium-based sorbents, calcium silicate sorbents. Final report, 1993--August 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A search is being carried out for new calcium-based S0{sub 2} sorbents for induct injection. More specifically, a search is being carried out for induct injection calcium silicate sorbents that are highly cost effective. The objectives for the current year include the study of sorbents made from Ca(OH){sub 2}, from mixtures of Ca(OH){sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}, and from portland cement. They also include the study of sorbents made from model compounds. During this year, sorbents prepared from Ca(OH){sub 2} and from mixtures of Ca(OH){sub 2} and fumed SiO{sub 2} were investigated. The results show that very good SiO{sub 2}-modified Ca(OH){sub 2} sorbents in which the Si-to-Ca reactant ratio is low can be prepared from Ca(OH){sub 2} and fumed SiO{sub 2}. Sorbents prepared from Ca(OH){sub 2} and natural SiO{sub 2} or natural SiO{sub 2} sources were also studied. The results obtained show that very good SiO{sub 2}-modified Ca(OH){sub 2} sorbents and calcium silicate hydrate sorbents, C-S-H sorbents, can be prepared from Ca(OH){sub 2} and diatomite, pumice or perlite, minerals that are readily available. In addition. sorbents prepared from Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} and {beta}-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and from mixtures of these compounds and SiO{sub 2} were studied. The results secured demonstrate that very good C-S-H rich sorbents can be prepared from these compounds and from mixtures of them with SiO{sub 2}. They also provide information useful for interpreting the cement sorbent results. Sorbents prepared from cement and from mixtures of cement and natural SiO{sub 2} or SiO{sub 2} sources were investigated as well. The results secured show that cement and mixtures of it with diatomite, pumice or perlite rapidly yield excellent sorbents with the proper reaction conditions.

Kenney, M.C.; Chiang, R.K.; Fillgrove, K.L. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Effects of the amorphous oxide intergranular layer structure and bonding on the fracture toughness of a high purity silicon nitride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The microstructural evolution and structural characteristics and transitions in the thin grain-boundary oxide films in a silicon nitride ceramic, specifically between two adjacent grains and not the triple junctions, are investigated to find their effect on the macroscopic fracture properties. It is found that by heat treating a model Si3N4-2wt percent Y2O3 ceramic for {approx}200 hr at 1400 degrees C in air, the fracture toughness can be increased by {approx}100 percent, coincident with a change in fracture mechanism from transgranular to intergranular.

Ziegler, A.; Kisielowski, C.; Hoffmann, M.J.; Ritchie, R.O.

2002-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

230

High temperature adhesive silicone foam composition, foam generating system and method of generating foam. [For access denial  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO/sub 2/ in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.

Mead, J.W.; Montoya, O.J.; Rand, P.B.; Willan, V.O.

1983-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

231

Arrays of Sealed Silicon Nanotubes As Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arrays of Sealed Silicon Nanotubes As Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Taeseup Song, Jianliang Xia ABSTRACT Silicon is a promising candidate for electrodes in lithium ion batteries due to its large reversible capacity and long-term cycle stability. KEYWORDS Lithium ion battery, silicon, nanotubes

Rogers, John A.

232

Solidification of polycrystalline silicon ingots : simulation and characterization of the microstructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.90 1. Introduction. The most important development in silicon solar cells is due to the substitution solidification of poly- crystalline silicon (POLYX). The capacity of the initial furnace was about 1 kg and today the silicon in a graphite crucible using induction heating furnace. The crucible is well insulated to reduce

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

233

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous-silicon-based solar cell Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vol. 609 2000 Materials Research Society Preparation of Microcrystalline Silicon Based Solar Cells at High i-layer Summary: light exposure as do the amorphous silicon-based...

234

amorphous-nanocrystalline silicon thin: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION for the first time to monocrystalline Si thin-film solar cells from the porous silicon (PSI) layer transfer for manufacturing high...

235

Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/{micro}c-Si) solar cells are disclosed which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell. 4 figs.

Kaschmitter, J.L.

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

236

Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/.mu.c-Si) solar cells which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell.

Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

239

Simultaneous P and B diffusion, in-situ surface passivation, impurity filtering and gettering for high-efficiency silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A technique is presented to simultaneously diffuse boron and phosphorus in silicon, and grow an in-situ passivating oxide in a single furnace step. It is shown that limited solid doping sources made from P and B Spin-On Dopant (SOD) films can produce optimal n{sup +} and p{sup +} profiles simultaneously without the deleterious effects of cross doping. A high quality passivating oxide is grown in-situ beneath the thin ({approximately} 60 {angstrom}) diffusion glass, resulting in low J{sub o} values below 100 fA/cm{sup 2} for transparent ({approximately} 100 {Omega}/{open_square}) phosphorus and boron diffusions. For the first time it is shown that impurities present in the boron SOD film can be effectively filtered out by employing separate source wafers, resulting in bulk lifetimes in excess of 1 ms for the sample wafers. The degree of lifetime degradation in the sources is related to the gettering efficiency of boron in silicon. This novel simultaneous diffusion, in-situ oxidation, impurity filtering and gettering technique was successfully used to produce 20.3% Fz, and 19.1% Cz solar cells, in one furnace step.

Krygowski, T.; Rohatgi, A. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Ruby, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Electronic properties and reliability of the silicon dioxide / silicon carbide interface.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Silicon carbide has been preferred over other wide band-gap semiconductors for high power applications because of its unique ability to grow a thermal oxide, challenges… (more)

Rozen, John

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Method for fabricating silicon cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making high-efficiency solar cells. This is accomplished by forming a diffusion junction and a passivating oxide layer in a single high-temperature process step. The invention includes the class of solar cells made using this process, including high-efficiency solar cells made using Czochralski-grown silicon.

Ruby, Douglas S. (Albuquerque, NM); Basore, Paul A. (Albuquerque, NM); Schubert, W. Kent (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

242

Method for fabricating silicon cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for making high-efficiency solar cells. This is accomplished by forming a diffusion junction and a passivating oxide layer in a single high-temperature process step. The invention includes the class of solar cells made using this process, including high-efficiency solar cells made using Czochralski-grown silicon. 9 figs.

Ruby, D.S.; Basore, P.A.; Schubert, W.K.

1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

243

Iron-oxide catalyzed silicon photoanode for water splitting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents an integrated study of high efficiency photoanodes for water splitting using silicon and iron-oxide. The fundamental limitations of silicon to water splitting applications were overcome by an ultrathin ...

Jun, Kimin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

aspect ratio silicon: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

silicon-nitride hard-mask for high aspect-ratio silicon fins V. Jovanovi, S, Zagreb, Croatia Abstract - A method for using hard-masks to achieve sub- 100 nm patterning of...

245

Effect of Al/Si Substitutions and Silanol Nests on the Local Geometry of Si and Al Framework Sites in Silicone-Rich Zeolites: A Combined High Resolution 27  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Al/Si Substitutions and Silanol Nests on the Local Geometry of Si and Al Framework Sites in Silicone-Rich Zeolites: A Combined High Resolution 27 Al and 29 Si NMR and Density Functional TheoryVed: May 6, 2009; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: June 8, 2009 We employed 29 Si and 27 Al (3Q) magic

Sklenak, Stepan

246

Toward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers and Inorganic Nanocrystals in Close  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to traditional silicon solar cells due to the capacity of producing high- efficiency solar energy in a cost these advantages and progress, organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells still exhibit much lower PCEs (iToward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers

Lin, Zhiqun

247

Device integration for silicon microphotonic platforms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Silicon ULSI compatible, high index contrast waveguides and devices provide high density integration for optical networking and on-chip optical interconnects. Four such waveguide systems were fabricated and analyzed: ...

Lim, Desmond Rodney

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Improving high-capacity Li1.2Ni0.15Mn0.55Co0.1O2-based lithium-ion cells by modifiying the positive electrode with alumina  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and EVs), they must meet a range of stringent criteria: for instance, energy densities high enoughImproving high-capacity Li1.2Ni0.15Mn0.55Co0.1O2-based lithium-ion cells by modifiying the positive-ion Atomic layer deposition Al2O3 Coating Secondary ion mass spectrometry Layered oxide a b s t r a c

Spila, Timothy P.

249

Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates Payam Rabiei,1,* Jichi Ma,1 Saeed-confined lithium niobate photonic devices and circuits on silicon substrates is reported based on wafer bonding high- performance lithium niobate microring optical resonators and Mach- Zehnder optical modulators

Fathpour, Sasan

250

Electrochemical characteristics of plasma-etched black silicon as anodes for Li-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanostructured silicon as an anode material for Li-ion batteries is produced for the first time by inductively coupled plasma–plasma etching of Si wafers in the black silicon regime. The microscopic structure strongly resembles other types of nanostructured silicon, with a well-arranged nanostructure possessing a sufficient porosity for accommodating large volume expansion. Despite these features, however, a high first-cycle irreversible capacity loss and a poor cycle life are observed. The main reason for these poor features is the formation of a thick solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer related to the surface condition of the pristine nanostructured black silicon (b-Si) electrode. Therefore, the cycle life of the b-Si electrode is heavily influenced by the constant reformation of the SEI layer depending upon the surface composition in spite of the presence of nanostructured Si. In the fast lithiation experiments, the nanostructure region of the b-Si electrode is detached from the Si substrate owing to the kinetics difference between the lithium ion diffusion and the electron injection and phase transformation in the nanostructured Si region. This means that more Si substrate is involved in lithiation at high current rates. It is therefore important to maintain balance in the chemical kinetics during the lithiation of nanostructured Si electrodes with a Si substrate.

Lee, Gibaek; Wehrspohn, Ralf B., E-mail: ralf.b.wehrspohn@iwmh.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM, Halle (Saale) 06120, Germany and Department of Physics, Martin-Luther University, Halle (Saale) 06099 (Germany); Schweizer, Stefan L. [Department of Physics, Martin-Luther University, Halle (Saale) 06099 (Germany)

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Modified silicon carbide whiskers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

Tiegs, T.N.; Lindemer, T.B.

1991-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

252

Modified silicon carbide whiskers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparaging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Lindemer, Terrence B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Buried oxide layer in silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY); Holland, Orin Wayne (Lenoir, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Hybrid Zero-capacity Channels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There are only two known kinds of zero-capacity channels. The first kind produces entangled states that have positive partial transpose, and the second one - states that are cloneable. We consider the family of 'hybrid' quantum channels, which lies in the intersection of the above classes of channels and investigate its properties. It gives rise to the first explicit examples of the channels, which create bound entangled states that have the property of being cloneable to the arbitrary finite number of parties. Hybrid channels provide the first example of highly cloneable binding entanglement channels, for which known superactivation protocols must fail - superactivation is the effect where two channels each with zero quantum capacity having positive capacity when used together. We give two methods to construct a hybrid channel from any binding entanglement channel. We also find the low-dimensional counterparts of hybrid states - bipartite qubit states which are extendible and possess two-way key.

Sergii Strelchuk; Jonathan Oppenheim

2012-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

255

Physics based analytical modelling of silicon carbide (SiC) MESFET considering different ion implantation energy with high temperature annealing.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A Physics based analytical model of ion implanted SiC MESFET has been developed considering the high temperature annealing effects. The diffusion of implanted impurities has… (more)

Yadavalli, Karthik Vishwanath

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

ORISE: Capacity Building  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Capacity Building Because public health agencies must maintain the resources to respond to public health challenges, critical situations and emergencies, the Oak Ridge Institute...

257

Ultraviolet selective silicon photodiode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(' silicon surfa&(& that n&ost of t h&) phologeneraied hole-el( & tron pairs are k&st by surface rccornbinai ion before being nolle&. trxl hy a pr). jun?i, ion. The major cause of surl'a&. e re?omhination is probably due Io lifetim(. shortening ol' Lhe... drpth corresponded to a high& r shor4wav? length rcsponsiv- ity tlirough liis ( xperimcnial diodes with junction dcpl ha ol'0. -'I to 2 0 pm. I indmayer and Allison [4I] I'abri&. ated n+-p solar cells with junction &lcpths of approximately 0. 1, 0. 15...

Chintapalli, Koteswara Rao

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

3822 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 51, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2004 High Total Dose Tolerance of Prototype Silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3822 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 51, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2004 High Total Dose Tolerance). Alternative technologies that are being developed for the general market are also under eval- uation

Atwater, Harry

259

Rectification properties of n-type nanocrystalline diamond heterojunctions to p-type silicon carbide at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highly rectifying heterojunctions of n-type nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films to p-type 4H-SiC substrates are fabricated to develop p-n junction diodes operable at high temperatures. In reverse bias condition, a potential barrier for holes at the interface prevents the injection of reverse leakage current from the NCD into the SiC and achieves the high rectification ratios of the order of 10{sup 7} at room temperature and 10{sup 4} even at 570?K. The mechanism of the forward current injection is described with the upward shift of the defect energy levels in the NCD to the conduction band of the SiC by forward biasing. The forward current shows different behavior from typical SiC Schottky diodes at high temperatures.

Goto, Masaki; Amano, Ryo; Shimoda, Naotaka [Graduate School of Automotive Science, Kyushu University, Nishiku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kato, Yoshimine, E-mail: yoshimine.kato@zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishiku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Teii, Kungen [Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

260

In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Probing of Native Oxide and Artificial Layers on Silicon Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface modification of silicon nanoparticle via molecular layer deposition (MLD) has been recently proved to be an effective way for dramatically enhancing the cyclic performance in lithium ion batteries. However, the fundamental mechanism as how this thin layer of coating function is not known, which is even complicated by the inevitable presence of native oxide of several nanometers on the silicon nanoparticle. Using in-situ TEM, we probed in detail the structural and chemical evolution of both uncoated and coated silicon particles upon cyclic lithiation/delithation. We discovered that upon initial lithiation, the native oxide layer converts to crystalline Li2O islands, which essentially increases the impedance on the particle, resulting in ineffective lithiation/delithiation, and therefore low coulombic efficiency. In contrast, the alucone MLD coated particles show extremely fast, thorough and highly reversible lithiation behaviors, which are clarified to be associated with the mechanical flexibility and fast Li+/e- conductivity of the alucone coating. Surprisingly, the alucone MLD coating process chemically changes the silicon surface, essentially removing the native oxide layer and therefore mitigates side reaction and detrimental effects of the native oxide. This study provides a vivid picture of how the MLD coating works to enhance the coulombic efficiency and preserve capacity and clarifies the role of the native oxide on silicon nanoparticles during cyclic lithiation and delithiation. More broadly, this work also demonstrated that the effect of the subtle chemical modification of the surface during the coating process may be of equal importance as the coating layer itself.

He, Yang; Piper, Daniela M.; Gu, Meng; Travis, Jonathan J.; George, Steven M.; Lee, Se-Hee; Genc, Arda; Pullan, Lee; Liu, Jun; Mao, Scott X.; Zhang, Jiguang; Ban, Chunmei; Wang, Chong M.

2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Shaped Offset QPSK Capacity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we compute the capacities and the pragmatic capacities of military-standard shaped-offset quadrature phase-shift keying (SOQPSK-MIL) and aeronautical telemetry SOQPSK (SOQPSK-TG). In the pragmatic approach, SOQPSK is treated as a...

Sahin, Cenk

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

262

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Neutralization of space charge on high-current low-energy ion beam by low-energy electrons supplied from silicon based field emitter arrays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neutralization of space charge on a high-current and low-energy ion beam was attempted to reduce the divergence with an aid of low-energy electrons supplied from silicon based field emitter arrays (Si-FEAs). An argon ion beam with the energy of 500 eV and the current of 0.25 mA was produced by a microwave ion source. The initial beam divergence and the emittance were measured at the entrance of the analysis chamber in order to estimate the intrinsic factors for beam divergence. The current density distribution of the beam after transport of 730 mm was measured by a movable Faraday cup, with and without electron supply from Si-FEAs. A similar experiment was performed with tungsten filaments as an electron source. The results indicated that the electron supply from FEA had almost the same effect as the thermionic filament, and it was confirmed that both electron sources can neutralize the ion beam.

Gotoh, Yasuhito; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Shuhei; Ikeda, Keita; Kitagawa, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Junzo; Sakai, Shigeki [Dept. of Electron. Sci. Eng., Kyoto Univ. Kyotodaigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Dept. of Electron. Information Eng., Chubu Univ., 1200, Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan); Nissin Ion Equipment Co., Ltd., 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-cho, Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8502 (Japan)

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

264

Enhancing the Lithiation Rate of Silicon Nanowires by the Inclusion of Tin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon (Si) has a very high lithium storage capacity and is being explored as a negative electrode material in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Si nanowires can exhibit relatively stable performance for many cycles of charging; however, conductive carbon must often be added to the electrode layer to improve the rate capability due to the relatively low electrical conductivity of Si. The added carbon lowers the capacity of the electrode. Here, we show that the rate capability of Si in LIBs can be substantially enhanced by incorporating tin (Sn) into Si nanowires. The solubility of Sn in Si is very low (0.015 at%); yet, Sn used as a seed for supercritical fluid–liquid–solid (SFLS) growth can be trapped in Si nanowires with relatively high concentration (10 at%). Such Sn-containing Si nanowires and no added conductive carbon in the electrode layer, could be cycled in LIBs with high capacity (*1000 mA h g*1 over 100 cycles) at a current density of 2.8 A g*1 (1 C). Capacities exceeding that of graphite could still be reached at cycle rates as high as 2 C. Real-time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that lithiation occurs five times faster in Si nanowires with significant amounts of Sn than in the Si nanowires without Sn, and twice as fast as in nanowires that were coated with carbon.

Bogart, Timothy D.; Lu, Xiaotang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

265

Laser wafering for silicon solar.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current technology cuts solar Si wafers by a wire saw process, resulting in 50% 'kerf' loss when machining silicon from a boule or brick into a wafer. We want to develop a kerf-free laser wafering technology that promises to eliminate such wasteful wire saw processes and achieve up to a ten-fold decrease in the g/W{sub p} (grams/peak watt) polysilicon usage from the starting polysilicon material. Compared to today's technology, this will also reduce costs ({approx}20%), embodied energy, and green-house gas GHG emissions ({approx}50%). We will use short pulse laser illumination sharply focused by a solid immersion lens to produce subsurface damage in silicon such that wafers can be mechanically cleaved from a boule or brick. For this concept to succeed, we will need to develop optics, lasers, cleaving, and high throughput processing technologies capable of producing wafers with thicknesses < 50 {micro}m with high throughput (< 10 sec./wafer). Wafer thickness scaling is the 'Moore's Law' of silicon solar. Our concept will allow solar manufacturers to skip entire generations of scaling and achieve grid parity with commercial electricity rates. Yet, this idea is largely untested and a simple demonstration is needed to provide credibility for a larger scale research and development program. The purpose of this project is to lay the groundwork to demonstrate the feasibility of laser wafering. First, to design and procure on optic train suitable for producing subsurface damage in silicon with the required damage and stress profile to promote lateral cleavage of silicon. Second, to use an existing laser to produce subsurface damage in silicon, and third, to characterize the damage using scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy mapping.

Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sweatt, William C.; Jared, Bradley Howell

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

LASER METALLIZATION AND DOPING FOR SILICON CARBIDE DIODE FABRICATION AND ENDOTAXY.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Silicon carbide is a promising semiconductor material for high voltage, high frequency and high temperature devices due to its wide bandgap, high breakdown electric field… (more)

Tian, Zhaoxu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Advanced silicon photonic modulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Various electrical and optical schemes used in Mach-Zehnder (MZ) silicon plasma dispersion effect modulators are explored. A rib waveguide reverse biased silicon diode modulator is designed, tested and found to operate at ...

Sorace, Cheryl M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Texturization of multicrystalline silicon solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A significant efficiency gain for crystalline silicon solar cells can be achieved by surface texturization. This research was directed at developing a low-cost, high-throughput and reliable texturing method that can create ...

Li, Dai-Yin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide 389 Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by which combustion synthesis can occur: self - propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and volume of the SHS mode (Fig.1a) is that locally initiated, the self-sustained reaction rapidly propagatesCombustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide 389 X Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide Alexander S

Mukasyan, Alexander

270

The Influence of High-Energy Lithium Ion Irradiation on Electrical Characteristics of Silicon and GaAs Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Space-grade Si and GaAs solar cells were irradiated with 15 & 40 MeV Li ions. Illuminated (AM0 condition) and unilluminated I-V curves reveal that the effect of high-energy Li ion irradiation has produced similar effects to that of proton irradiation. However, an additional, and different, defect mechanism is suggested to dominate in the heavier-ion results. Comparison is made with proton-irradiated solar-cell work and with non-ionizing energy-loss (NIEL) radiation-damage models.

B. Jayashree; Ramani; M. C. Radhakrishna; Anil Agrawal; Saif Ahmad Khan; A. Meulenberg

2006-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

271

Amorphous Zn?GeO? Nanoparticles as Anodes with High Reversible Capacity and Long Cycling Life for Li-ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amorphous and crystalline Zn?GeO? nanoparticles were prepared and characterized as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. A higher reversible specific capacity of 1250 mAh/g after 500 cycles and excellent rate capability were obtained for amorphous Zn?GeO? nanoparticles, compared to that of crystalline Zn?GeO? nanoparticles. Small particle size, amorphous phase and incorporation of zinc and oxygen contribute synergetically to the improved performance by effectively mitigating the huge volume variations during lithiation and delithiation process.

Yi, Ran; Feng, Jinkui; Lv, Dongping; Gordin, Mikhail; Chen, Shuru; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

272

Fact Sheet: Award-Winning Silicon Carbide Power Electronics ...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Operating at high temperatures and with reduced energy losses, two silicon carbide power electronics (PE) projects were awarded the prestigious R&D 100 Award. This technology was...

273

California: Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

- 10:17am Addthis Working with Nextval, Inc., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a Conducting Polymer Binder for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. With a...

274

Forward capacity market CONEfusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In ISO New England and PJM it was assumed that sponsors of new capacity projects would offer them into the newly established forward centralized capacity markets at prices based on their levelized net cost of new entry, or ''Net CONE.'' But the FCCMs have not operated in the way their proponents had expected. To clear up the CONEfusion, FCCM designs should be reconsidered to adapt them to the changing circumstances and to be grounded in realistic expectations of market conduct. (author)

Wilson, James F.

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

275

Refinery Capacity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on theThousand7.End1Capacity

276

First-Principles Study of Novel Conversion Reactions for High-Capacity Li-Ion Battery Anodes in the Li-Mg-B-N-H System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anodes for Li-ion batteries are primarily carbon-based due to their low cost and long cycle life. However, improvements to the Li capacity of carbon anodes, LiC{sub 6} in particular, are necessary to obtain a larger energy density. State-of-the-art light-metal hydrides for hydrogen storage applications often contain Li and involve reactions requiring Li transport, and light-metal ionic hydrides are candidates for novel conversion materials. Given a set of known solid-state and gas-phase reactants, we have determined the phase diagram in the Li-Mg-B-N-H system in the grand canonical ensemble, as a function of lithium chemical potential. We present computational results for several new conversion reactions with capacities between 2400 and 4000 mAh g{sup -1} that are thermodynamically favorable and that do not involve gas evolution. We provide experimental evidence for the reaction pathway on delithiation for the compound Li{sub 4}BN{sub 3}H{sub 10}. While the predicted reactions involve multiple steps, the maximum volume increase for these materials on lithium insertion is significantly smaller than that for Si.

Mason, T.H.; Graetz, J.; Liu, X.; Hong, J.; Majzoub, E.H.

2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

277

A Silicon Strip Detector for the Phase II High Luminosity Upgrade of the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents the work carried out in the testing of the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade electronic systems in the future strips tracker after 2023, to be installed for operations in the HL-LHC period. The high luminosity and number of interactions per crossing that will happen after the HL-LHC starts require a complete replacement of the ATLAS tracker. The systems that have been defined for the Phase-II Upgrade will be designed to cope with that increased radiation and have the right granularity to maintain the performance with higher pile-up. In this thesis I present results on single modules and larger structures comprising multiple modules. In the context of the current ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker studies, I present an analysis of the data taken by the detector from the beginning of operation in 2010 until the first Long Shut-down in 2013. The analysis consists of an energy loss study in the Semiconductor Tracker, a task the detector was not designed to perform. However, the availability of the Time-over-Th...

García-Argos, Carlos

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Glass-silicon column  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

Yu, Conrad M.

2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

279

Powerful, Efficient Electric Vehicle Chargers: Low-Cost, Highly-Integrated Silicon Carbide (SiC) Multichip Power Modules (MCPMs) for Plug-In Hybrid Electric  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ADEPT Project: Currently, charging the battery of an electric vehicle (EV) is a time-consuming process because chargers can only draw about as much power from the grid as a hair dryer. APEI is developing an EV charger that can draw as much power as a clothes dryer, which would drastically speed up charging time. APEI's charger uses silicon carbide (SiC)-based power transistors. These transistors control the electrical energy flowing through the charger's circuits more effectively and efficiently than traditional transistors made of straight silicon. The SiC-based transistors also require less cooling, enabling APEI to create EV chargers that are 10 times smaller than existing chargers.

None

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

280

Holey Silicon as an Efficient Thermoelectric Material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work investigated the thermoelectric properties of thin silicon membranes that have been decorated with high density of nanoscopic holes. These ?holey silicon? (HS) structures were fabricated by either nanosphere or block-copolymer lithography, both of which are scalable for practical device application. By reducing the pitch of the hexagonal holey pattern down to 55 nm with 35percent porosity, the thermal conductivity of HS is consistently reduced by 2 orders of magnitude and approaches the amorphous limit. With a ZT value of 0.4 at room temperature, the thermoelectric performance of HS is comparable with the best value recorded in silicon nanowire system.

Tang, Jinyao; Wang, Hung-Ta; Hyun Lee, Dong; Fardy, Melissa; Huo, Ziyang; Russell, Thomas P.; Yang, Peidong

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Black Silicon Enhanced Thin Film Silicon Photovoltaic Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SiOnyx has developed an enhanced thin film silicon photovoltaic device with improved efficiency. Thin film silicon solar cells suffer from low material absorption characteristics resulting in poor cell efficiencies. SiOnyx’s approach leverages Black Silicon, an advanced material fabricated using ultrafast lasers. The laser treated films show dramatic enhancement in optical absorption with measured values in excess of 90% in the visible spectrum and well over 50% in the near infrared spectrum. Thin film Black Silicon solar cells demonstrate 25% higher current generation with almost no impact on open circuit voltage as compared with representative control samples. The initial prototypes demonstrated an improvement of nearly 2 percentage points in the suns Voc efficiency measurement. In addition we validated the capability to scale this processing technology to the throughputs (< 5 min/m2) required for volume production using state of the art commercially available high power industrial lasers. With these results we clearly demonstrate feasibility for the enhancement of thin film solar cells with this laser processing technique.

Martin U. Pralle; James E. Carey

2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

282

Spectral Reflectance of Silicon Photodiodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction Silicon photodiodes are among the most popular photodetectors that combine high performance over a wide wavelength range with unparalleled ease of use. High-quality photodiodes, in the form of a trap detector, 1,2 have many significant applications in precision radiometry. Their predictable responsivity in visible and near-infrared ~NIR! wavelengths allows the realization of high-accuracy spectral responsivity scales. 3,4 The spectral responsivity scales can be utilized in, for example, realization of luminous intensity 5,6 and spectral irradiance scales. 7,8 The spectral responsivity of a silicon photodiode is determined by the reflectance of the diode surface r~l! and the internal quantum deficiency d~l!. The values of d~l! and r~l! can be extrapolated 4 by mathematical models. To extrapolate the val

Atte Haapalinna; Petri Kärhä; Erkki Ikonen

283

Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics. 7 figures.

McCarthy, A.M.

1995-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

284

Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics.

McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerobic exercise capacity Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the aerobic capacity of skeletal muscles (21, 25, 50). Histori- cally, a denser capillary... from animals adapted for high aerobic capacity, ... Source: Garland Jr.,...

286

Dual capacity reciprocating compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-cylinder compressor particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor rotation is provided with an eccentric cam on a crank pin under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180[degree] apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons whose connecting rods ride on a crank pin without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation. 6 figs.

Wolfe, R.W.

1984-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

287

Dual capacity reciprocating compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

Wolfe, Robert W. (Wilkinsburg, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

A high performance differential amplifier through the direct monolithic integration of InP HBTs and Si CMOS on silicon substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present results on the direct monolithic integration of III-V devices and Si CMOS on a silicon substrate. InP HBTs (0.5 times 5 um2 emitter) with ft and fmax > 200 GHz were grown directly in windows adjacent to CMOS ...

Bulsara, Mayank

289

Refinery Capacity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on theThousand7.End1Capacity Report June 2014

290

Refinery Capacity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on theThousand7.End1Capacity Report June

291

Refinery Capacity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on theThousand7.End1Capacity Report

292

Refinery Capacity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on theThousand7.End1Capacity Report Operable

293

Refinery Capacity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on theThousand7.End1Capacity Report

294

Refinery Capacity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on theThousand7.End1Capacity Reportof Last

295

Refinery Capacity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on theThousand7.End1Capacity Reportof

296

Refinery Capacity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on theThousand7.End1Capacity ReportofVacuum

297

Refinery Capacity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on theThousand7.End1CapacityCORPORATION /

298

Refinery Capacity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on theThousand7.End1CapacityCORPORATION

299

Analytical and experimental evaluation of joining silicon carbide to silicon carbide and silicon nitride to silicon nitride for advanced heat engine applications Phase 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of joining, Phase 2 was to develop joining technologies for HIP`ed Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with 4wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (NCX-5101) and for a siliconized SiC (NT230) for various geometries including: butt joins, curved joins and shaft to disk joins. In addition, more extensive mechanical characterization of silicon nitride joins to enhance the predictive capabilities of the analytical/numerical models for structural components in advanced heat engines was provided. Mechanical evaluation were performed by: flexure strength at 22 C and 1,370 C, stress rupture at 1,370 C, high temperature creep, 22 C tensile testing and spin tests. While the silicon nitride joins were produced with sufficient integrity for many applications, the lower join strength would limit its use in the more severe structural applications. Thus, the silicon carbide join quality was deemed unsatisfactory to advance to more complex, curved geometries. The silicon carbide joining methods covered within this contract, although not entirely successful, have emphasized the need to focus future efforts upon ways to obtain a homogeneous, well sintered parent/join interface prior to siliconization. In conclusion, the improved definition of the silicon carbide joining problem obtained by efforts during this contract have provided avenues for future work that could successfully obtain heat engine quality joins.

Sundberg, G.J.; Vartabedian, A.M.; Wade, J.A.; White, C.S. [Norton Co., Northboro, MA (United States). Advanced Ceramics Div.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Silicone plesiotherapy molds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plesiotherapy, the treatment of superficial lesions by radioactive molds has largely been replaced by teletherapy techniques involving high energy photon and electron beams. There are, however, situations for which a short distance type treatment, in one form or another, is superior to any other presently available. Traditionally, molds have taken the form of rigid devices incorporating clamps to attach them to the patient. This ensures a reproducible geometry about a localized region since the molds are applied on a daily basis. To make such devices requires considerable skill and patience. This article describes an alternative method that eliminates the use of cumbersome devices in many situations. Silicone molds made from a plaster cast model have been found suitable for the treatment of surface lesions and especially for lesions in the oral and nasal cavities. With the use of radioactive gold seeds the molds may be left in place for a few days without fear of them moving.

Karolis, C.; Reay-Young, P.S.; Walsh, W.; Velautham, G.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Concentrator silicon cell research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project continued the developments of high-efficiency silicon concentrator solar cells with the goal of achieving a cell efficiency in the 26 to 27 percent range at a concentration level of 150 suns of greater. The target efficiency was achieved with the new PERL (passivated emitter, rear locally diffused) cell structure, but only at low concentration levels around 20 suns. The PERL structure combines oxide passivation of both top and rear surfaces of the cells with small area contact to heavily doped regions on the top and rear surfaces. Efficiency in the 22 to 23 percent range was also demonstrated for large-area concentrator cells fabricated with the buried contact solar cell processing sequence, either when combined with prismatic covers or with other innovative approaches to reduce top contact shadowing. 19 refs.

Green, M.A.; Wenham, S.R.; Zhang, F.; Zhao, J.; Wang, A. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). Solar Photovoltaic Lab.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Micromachined silicon electrostatic chuck  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrostatic chuck is faced with a patterned silicon plate, created by micromachining a silicon wafer, which is attached to a metallic base plate. Direct electrical contact between the chuck face (patterned silicon plate`s surface) and the silicon wafer it is intended to hold is prevented by a pattern of flat-topped silicon dioxide islands that protrude less than 5 micrometers from the otherwise flat surface of the chuck face. The islands may be formed in any shape. Islands may be about 10 micrometers in diameter or width and spaced about 100 micrometers apart. One or more concentric rings formed around the periphery of the area between the chuck face and wafer contain a low-pressure helium thermal-contact gas used to assist heat removal during plasma etching of a silicon wafer held by the chuck. The islands are tall enough and close enough together to prevent silicon-to-silicon electrical contact in the space between the islands, and the islands occupy only a small fraction of the total area of the chuck face, typically 0.5 to 5 percent. The pattern of the islands, together with at least one hole bored through the silicon veneer into the base plate, will provide sufficient gas-flow space to allow the distribution of the helium thermal-contact gas. 6 figs.

Anderson, R.A.; Seager, C.H.

1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

303

Capacity Value of Solar Power  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evaluating the capacity value of renewable energy sources can pose significant challenges due to their variable and uncertain nature. In this paper the capacity value of solar power is investigated. Solar capacity value metrics and their associated calculation methodologies are reviewed and several solar capacity studies are summarized. The differences between wind and solar power are examined, the economic importance of solar capacity value is discussed and other assessments and recommendations are presented.

Duignan, Roisin; Dent, Chris; Mills, Andrew; Samaan, Nader A.; Milligan, Michael; Keane, Andrew; O'Malley, Mark

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

304

Single-crystalline silicon lift-off films for metaloxidesemiconductor devices on arbitrary substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

foils using plasma- enhanced chemical-vapor deposition CVD of hydrogen- passivated, amorphous silicon (a-Si:HGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors on silicon,10 and high electron mobility transistors on quartz and sapphire11

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

305

E-Print Network 3.0 - agile silicon tracker Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

system, based on double-sided silicon strip dectectors... of the pion tracker for HADES The pion tracker is a new detector component for the High Acceptance Di... . Silicon...

306

E-Print Network 3.0 - ams-02 silicon tracker Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

system, based on double-sided silicon strip dectectors... of the pion tracker for HADES The pion tracker is a new detector component for the High Acceptance Di... . Silicon...

307

E-Print Network 3.0 - atlas silicon tracker Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

system, based on double-sided silicon strip dectectors... of the pion tracker for HADES The pion tracker is a new detector component for the High Acceptance Di... . Silicon...

308

Deposition of device quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon at high deposition rates with increased stability using the hot wire filament technique  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method or producing hydrogenated amorphous silicon on a substrate, comprising the steps of: positioning the substrate in a deposition chamber at a distance of about 0.5 to 3.0 cm from a heatable filament in the deposition chamber; maintaining a pressure in said deposition chamber in the range of about 10 to 100 millitorr and pressure times substrate-filament spacing in the range of about 10 to 100 millitorr-cm, heating the filament to a temperature in the range of about 1,500 to 2,000.degree. C., and heating the substrate to a surface temperature in the range of about 280 to 475.degree. C.; and flowing silicohydride gas into the deposition chamber with said heated filament, decomposing said silicohydride gas into silicon and hydrogen atomic species and allowing products of gas reactions between said atomic species and the silicohydride gas to migrate to and deposit on said substrate while adjusting and maintaining said pressure times substrate-filament spacing in said deposition chamber at a value in said 10 to 100 millitorr range to produce statistically about 3 to 50 atomic collisions between the silicon and hydrogen atomic species migrating to said substrate and undecomposed molecules of the silane or other silicohydride gas in the deposition chamber.

Molenbroek, Edith C. (Utrecht, NL); Mahan, Archie Harvin (Golden, CO); Gallagher, Alan C. (Louisville, CO)

2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

309

ORISE: Capacity Building  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory |CHEMPACK Mapping Application ORISE developsRelatedCapacity

310

Refinery Capacity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on theThousand7.End1

311

Refinery Capacity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on

312

Refinery Capacity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on Cokers Catalytic Crackers Hydrocrackers

313

Refinery Capacity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on Cokers Catalytic Crackers

314

Method for producing silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Silicon carbide/silicon nitride composites are prepared by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and optionally crsytalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen.

Dunmead, Stephen D. (Midland, MI); Weimer, Alan W. (Midland, MI); Carroll, Daniel F. (Midland, MI); Eisman, Glenn A. (Midland, MI); Cochran, Gene A. (Midland, MI); Susnitzky, David W. (Midland, MI); Beaman, Donald R. (Midland, MI); Nilsen, Kevin J. (Midland, MI)

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

315

Structure, defects, and strain in silicon-silicon oxide interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structure of the interfaces between silicon and silicon-oxide is responsible for proper functioning of MOSFET devices while defects in the interface can deteriorate this function and lead to their failure. In this paper we modeled this interface and characterized its defects and strain. MD simulations were used for reconstructing interfaces into a thermodynamically stable configuration. In all modeled interfaces, defects were found in the form of three-coordinated silicon atom, five coordinated silicon atom, threefold-coordinated oxygen atom, or displaced oxygen atom. Three-coordinated oxygen atom can be created if dangling bonds on silicon are close enough. The structure and stability of three-coordinated silicon atoms (P{sub b} defect) depend on the charge as well as on the electric field across the interface. The negatively charged P{sub b} defect is the most stable one, but the electric field resulting from the interface reduces that stability. Interfaces with large differences in periodic constants of silicon and silicon oxide can be stabilized by buckling of silicon layer. The mechanical stress resulted from the interface between silicon and silicon oxide is greater in the silicon oxide layer. Ab initio modeling of clusters representing silicon and silicon oxide shows about three time larger susceptibility to strain in silicon oxide than in silicon if exposed to the same deformation.

Kova?evi?, Goran, E-mail: gkova@irb.hr; Pivac, Branko [Department of Materials Physics, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijeni?ka 56, P.O.B. 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

316

AMORPHOUS SILICON-BASED MINIMODULES WITH SILICONE ELASTOMER ENCAPSULATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-based polymers (silicones) may not show this effect. Although silicones were used to encapsulate solar cells improved, which may make them suitable for encapsulating solar cells once again. We have recentlyAMORPHOUS SILICON-BASED MINIMODULES WITH SILICONE ELASTOMER ENCAPSULATION Aarohi Vijh 1

Deng, Xunming

317

Method for forming silicon on a glass substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method by which single-crystal silicon microelectronics may be fabricated on glass substrates at unconventionally low temperatures. This is achieved by fabricating a thin film of silicon on glass and subsequently forming the doped components by a short wavelength (excimer) laser doping procedure and conventional patterning techniques. This method may include introducing a heavily boron doped etch stop layer on a silicon wafer using an excimer laser, which permits good control of the etch stop layer removal process. This method additionally includes dramatically reducing the remaining surface roughness of the silicon thin films after etching in the fabrication of silicon on insulator wafers by scanning an excimer laser across the surface of the silicon thin film causing surface melting, whereby the surface tension of the melt causes smoothing of the surface during recrystallization. Applications for this method include those requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, such as display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard and high temperature electronics.

McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Diamond-Silicon Carbide Composite And Method For Preparation Thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=5-8 GPa, T=1400K-2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.multidot.m.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

Qian, Jiang (Los Alamos, NM); Zhao, Yusheng (Los Alamos, NM)

2005-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

319

Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.

Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Amorphous silicon passivated contacts for diffused junction silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carrier recombination at the metal contacts is a major obstacle in the development of high-performance crystalline silicon homojunction solar cells. To address this issue, we insert thin intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon [a-Si:H(i)] passivating films between the dopant-diffused silicon surface and aluminum contacts. We find that with increasing a-Si:H(i) interlayer thickness (from 0 to 16?nm) the recombination loss at metal-contacted phosphorus (n{sup +}) and boron (p{sup +}) diffused surfaces decreases by factors of ?25 and ?10, respectively. Conversely, the contact resistivity increases in both cases before saturating to still acceptable values of ? 50 m? cm{sup 2} for n{sup +} and ?100 m? cm{sup 2} for p{sup +} surfaces. Carrier transport towards the contacts likely occurs by a combination of carrier tunneling and aluminum spiking through the a-Si:H(i) layer, as supported by scanning transmission electron microscopy–energy dispersive x-ray maps. We explain the superior contact selectivity obtained on n{sup +} surfaces by more favorable band offsets and capture cross section ratios of recombination centers at the c-Si/a-Si:H(i) interface.

Bullock, J., E-mail: james.bullock@anu.edu.au; Yan, D.; Wan, Y.; Cuevas, A. [Research School of Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Demaurex, B.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; De Wolf, S. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of micro engineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronic Laboratory, Maladière 71, CH-200 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

amorphous silicon carbide: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The high power densities expected for the MIT microengine (silicon MEMS-based micro-gas turbine generator) require the turbine and compressor spool to rotate at a very high...

322

ablating silicon carbide: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The high power densities expected for the MIT microengine (silicon MEMS-based micro-gas turbine generator) require the turbine and compressor spool to rotate at a very high...

323

advanced silicon carbide: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The high power densities expected for the MIT microengine (silicon MEMS-based micro-gas turbine generator) require the turbine and compressor spool to rotate at a very high...

324

advanced silicon processing: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The high power densities expected for the MIT microengine (silicon MEMS-based micro-gas turbine generator) require the turbine and compressor spool to rotate at a very high...

325

WINDExchange: Wind Potential Capacity  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption byAbout Printable Version Bookmark and Wind Potential Capacity

326

Fabrication of porous silicon membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF THE FILTER APPLICATION OF POROUS SILICON A. Density of Porous Silicon B. Stabilization of Porous Silicon Membranes C. Flow Test D. Porous Polycrystalline Silicon 54 58 62 65 vn TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) CHAPTER VI EXTENSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS... Membranes 13. Density Change of Porous Silicon at 125'C 14. Density Change oi' Porous Silicon at 250 C 15. Nitrogen Flow on a Porous Silicon Membrane Page 15 16 33 39 39 44 46 54 59 59 62 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 10. 12. 14. 17. 18. 19...

Yue, Wing Kong

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Method for improving the stability of amorphous silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing a metastable degradation resistant amorphous hydrogenated silicon film is provided, which comprises the steps of growing a hydrogenated amorphous silicon film, the film having an exposed surface, illuminating the surface using an essentially blue or ultraviolet light to form high densities of a light induced defect near the surface, and etching the surface to remove the defect.

Branz, Howard M.

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

328

Epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide: Introduction to structured graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide: Introduction to structured graphene Ming Ruan 1 , Yike Hu 1, France Abstract We present an introduction to the rapidly growing field of epitaxial graphene on silicon present, highly evolved state. The potential of epitaxial graphene as a new electronic material is now

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

329

Device Architecture Simplification of Laser Pattering in High-Volume Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Fabrication using Intensive Computation for Design and Optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prices of Si based solar modules have been continuously declining in recent years. Goodrich is pointing out that a significant portion of these cost reductions have come about due to ?economies of scale? benefits, but there is a point of diminishing returns when trying to lower cost by simply expanding production capacity [1]. Developing innovative high volume production technologies resulting in an increase of conversion efficiency without adding significant production cost will be necessary to continue the projected cost reductions. The Foundational Program to Advance Cell Efficiency (F-PACE) is seeking to achieve this by closing the PV efficiency gap between theoretical achievable maximum conversion efficiency - 29% for c-Si - and the current typical production - 18.5% for a typical full area back contact c-Si Solar cell ? while targeting a module cost of $0.50/Watt . The research conducted by SolarWorldUSA and it?s partners within the FPACE framework focused on the development of a Hybrid metal-wrap-through (MWT) and laser-ablated PERC solar cell design employing a extrusion metallization scheme to achieve >20% efficient devices. The project team was able to simulate, develop and demonstrate the technologies necessary to build p-type MWT PERC cells with extruded front contacts. Conversion efficiencies approaching 20% were demonstrated and a path for further efficiency improvements identified. A detailed cost of ownership calculation for such a device was based on a NREL cost model and is predicting a $/Watt cost below 85 cents on a 180 micron substrate. Several completed or planned publications by SolarWorldUSA and our partners are based on the research conducted within this project and are adding to a better understanding of the involved technologies and materials. Several aspects and technologies of the proposed device have been assessed in regards to technical effectiveness and economic feasibility. It has been shown in a pilot demonstration with wafer thicknesses down to 120 micron that further wafer thickness reduction is only economically viable if handling and contact formation limitations are addressed simultaneously. Furthermore the project partners assessed and demonstrated the feasibility of processing wafers with vias connecting front and back sides through a PERC cell process and aligning and connecting those vias with a non-contact metallization. A close cooperation between industry and institutes of higher education in the Pacific Northwest as shown in this project is of direct benefit to the public and is contributing to the education of the next generation of PV engineers and scientist.

Grupp Mueller, Guenther [SolarWorld; Herfurth, Hans [Fraunhofer CLT; Dunham, Scott [University of Washington; Xu, Baomin [PARC

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

DESIGN, MODELING, TESTING, AND SPICE PARAMETER EXTRACTION OF DIMOS TRANSISTOR IN 4H-SILICON CARBIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DESIGN, MODELING, TESTING, AND SPICE PARAMETER EXTRACTION OF DIMOS TRANSISTOR IN 4H-SILICON CARBIDE (DIMOS) transistor structure in 4H-Silicon Carbide (SiC) is presented. Simulation for transport Silicon carbide (SiC), a wide bandgap material, shows a tremendous potential for high temperature

Tolbert, Leon M.

331

Integrated packaging allows for improvement in switching characteristics of silicon carbide devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integrated packaging allows for improvement in switching characteristics of silicon carbide devices will be available after the conference. Abstract Silicon Carbide devices can achieve very high switching speed-mode filtering). The consequences on the switching speed are discussed. 1. Introduction Silicon carbide (Si

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

332

Impact of surface roughness on the electrical parameters of industrial high efficiency NaOH-NaOCl textured multicrystalline silicon solar cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution (1:1 ratio by volume) based texturization process at 80-82 C is an easy, low cost and comparatively new and convenient option for fabrication of any multicrystalline silicon (mC-Si) solar cell. In the present study atomic force microscope is used to observe the intragrain surface in a miniscule area (3 {mu}m x 3 {mu}m) of NaOH-NaOCl textured surface by two and three dimensional analysis, roughness analysis and section analysis. The r.m.s value of the surface parameter of 7.0 nm ascertains the smoothness of the textured surface and further the surface reflectivity is minimized to 4-6% in the 500-1000 nm wavelength range by a proper silicon nitride anti-reflection coating. Comparing with the standard HF-HNO{sub 3}-CH{sub 3}COOH acid textured cell, the NaOH-NaOCl textured cell shows a comparatively lower value of series resistance of 7.17 m{omega}, higher value of shunt resistance of 18.4 {omega} to yield a fill factor of 0.766 leading to more than 15% cell efficiency in the industrial cell processing line. This AFM study yields different surface roughness parameters for the NaOH-NaOCl textured wafers which can be used as a reference standard for optimized texturing. (author)

Basu, P.K. [Department of Physics, Echelon Institute of Technology, Faridabad 121002, Haryana (India); Pujahari, R.M. [Department of Physics, Echelon Institute of Technology, Faridabad 121002, Haryana (India); Department of Physics, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad 121001, Haryana (India); Kaur, Harpreet [Department of Physics, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad 121001, Haryana (India); Department of Physics, Advanced Institute of Technology and Management, Palwal 121105, Haryana (India); Singh, Devi [Department of Physics, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad 121001, Haryana (India); Varandani, D.; Mehta, B.R. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE supports crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) research and development efforts that lead to market-ready technologies. Below are a list of the projects, summary of the benefits, and discussion...

334

Safety profile, efficacy, and biodistribution of a bicistronic high-capacity adenovirus vector encoding a combined immunostimulation and cytotoxic gene therapy as a prelude to a phase I clinical trial for glioblastoma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adenoviral vectors (Ads) are promising gene delivery vehicles due to their high transduction efficiency; however, their clinical usefulness has been hampered by their immunogenicity and the presence of anti-Ad immunity in humans. We reported the efficacy of a gene therapy approach for glioma consisting of intratumoral injection of Ads encoding conditionally cytotoxic herpes simplex type 1 thymidine kinase (Ad-TK) and the immunostimulatory cytokine fms-like tyrosine kinase ligand 3 (Ad-Flt3L). Herein, we report the biodistribution, efficacy, and neurological and systemic effects of a bicistronic high-capacity Ad, i.e., HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L. HC-Ads elicit sustained transgene expression, even in the presence of anti-Ad immunity, and can encode large therapeutic cassettes, including regulatory elements to enable turning gene expression “on” or “off” according to clinical need. The inclusion of two therapeutic transgenes within a single vector enables a reduction of the total vector load without adversely impacting efficacy. Because clinically the vectors will be delivered into the surgical cavity, normal regions of the brain parenchyma are likely to be transduced. Thus, we assessed any potential toxicities elicited by escalating doses of HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L (1 × 10{sup 8}, 1 × 10{sup 9}, or 1 × 10{sup 10} viral particles [vp]) delivered into the rat brain parenchyma. We assessed neuropathology, biodistribution, transgene expression, systemic toxicity, and behavioral impact at acute and chronic time points. The results indicate that doses up to 1 × 10{sup 9} vp of HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L can be safely delivered into the normal rat brain and underpin further developments for its implementation in a phase I clinical trial for glioma. - Highlights: ? High capacity Ad vectors elicit sustained therapeutic gene expression in the brain. ? HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L encodes two therapeutic genes and a transcriptional switch. ? We performed a dose escalation study at acute and chronic time points. ? Doses up to 1 × 10{sup 9} vp of HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L can be safely delivered in the brain. ? Efficacy and safety of HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L merits its use in a GBM Phase I trial.

Puntel, Mariana [Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Michigan School of Medicine, MSRB II, RM 4570C, 1150 West Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5689 (United States); Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, The University of Michigan School of Medicine, MSRB II, RM 4570C, 1150 West Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5689 (United States); Gene Therapeutics Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Ghulam, Muhammad A.K.M. [Gene Therapeutics Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Farrokhi, Catherine [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); VanderVeen, Nathan; Paran, Christopher; Appelhans, Ashley [Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Michigan School of Medicine, MSRB II, RM 4570C, 1150 West Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5689 (United States); Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, The University of Michigan School of Medicine, MSRB II, RM 4570C, 1150 West Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5689 (United States); Kroeger, Kurt M.; Salem, Alireza [Gene Therapeutics Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Lacayo, Liliana [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Pechnick, Robert N. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kelson, Kyle R.; Kaur, Sukhpreet; Kennedy, Sean [Gene Therapeutics Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Palmer, Donna; Ng, Philip [Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); and others

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

336

Design and Evaluation of High Capacity Cathodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

to prepare advanced electrodes and surfaces with stable architectural designs Use atomic-scale modeling as a guide to identify, design and understand the structural...

337

Design and Evaluation of High Capacity Cathodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

338

Optical properties of nanostructured silicon-rich silicon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have conducted a study of the optical properties of sputtered silicon-rich silicon dioxide (SRO) thin films with specific application for the fabrication of erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and lasers, polarization ...

Stolfi, Michael Anthony

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide Nanocomposites for Drill Bits Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide...

340

Light Ions Response of Silicon Carbide Detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Silicon carbide (SiC) Schottky diodes 21 mum thick with small surfaces and high N-dopant concentration have been used to detect alpha particles and low energy light ions. In particular 12C and 16O beams at incident energies between 5 and 18 MeV were used. The diode active-region depletion-thickness, the linearity of the response, energy resolution and signal rise-time were measured for different values of the applied reverse bias. Moreover the radiation damage on SiC diodes irradiated with 53 MeV 16O beam has been explored. The data show that SiC material is radiation harder than silicon but at least one order of magnitude less hard than epitaxial silicon diodes. An inversion in the signal was found at a fluence of 10^15 ions/cm^2.

M. De Napoli; G. Raciti; E. Rapisarda; C. Sfienti

2006-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Method for forming fibrous silicon carbide insulating material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method whereby silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composites are prepared from carbon-bonded C fiber composites is disclosed. Carbon-bonded C fiber composite material is treated with gaseous silicon monoxide generated from the reaction of a mixture of colloidal silica and carbon black at an elevated temperature in an argon atmosphere. The carbon in the carbon bond and fiber is thus chemically converted to SiC resulting in a silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composite that can be used for fabricating dense, high-strength high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments.

Wei, G.C.

1983-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

342

Method for forming fibrous silicon carbide insulating material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method whereby silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composites are prepared from carbon-bonded C fiber composites is disclosed. Carbon-bonded C fiber composite material is treated with gaseous silicon monoxide generated from the reaction of a mixture of colloidal silica and carbon black at an elevated temperature in an argon atmosphere. The carbon in the carbon bond and fiber is thus chemically converted to SiC resulting in a silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composite that can be used for fabricating dense, high-strength high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments.

Wei, George C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Crystalline Silicon Photovolatic Cell Basics  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Crystalline silicon cells are made of silicon atoms connected to one another to form a crystal lattice. This lattice comprises the solid material that forms the photovoltaic (PV) cell's...

344

Simulation of iron impurity gettering in crystalline silicon solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work discusses the Impurity-to-Efficiency (12E) simulation tool and applet. The 12E simulator models the physics of iron impurity gettering in silicon solar cells during high temperature processing. The tool also ...

Powell, Douglas M. (Douglas Michael)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Single-layer graphene on silicon nitride micromembrane resonators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Due to their low mass, high quality factor, and good optical properties, silicon nitride (SiN) micromembrane resonators are widely used in force and mass sensing applications, particularly in optomechanics. The metallization ...

Schmid, Silvan

346

Reactor physics assessment of thick silicon carbide clad PWR fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High temperature tolerance, chemical stability and low neutron affinity make silicon carbide (SiC) a potential fuel cladding material that may improve the economics and safety of light water reactors (LWRs). "Thick" SiC ...

Bloore, David A. (David Allan)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Heteroepitaxial Self Assembling Noble Metal Nanoparticles in Monocrystalline Silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and investigate fundamental properties. Noble metal nanoparticles made of gold or silver are grown in cavities in monocrystalline silicon formed by helium ion implantation and high temperature annealing at depth greater than 500 nm from the surface. Metals...

Martin, Michael S.

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

348

Rapid Wolff–Kishner reductions in a silicon carbide microreactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wolff–Kishner reductions are performed in a novel silicon carbide microreactor. Greatly reduced reaction times and safer operation are achieved, giving high yields without requiring a large excess of hydrazine. The corrosion ...

Newman, Stephen G.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

ULTRA CLEAN COAL PRODUCTION USING DENSE MEDIUM SEPARATION FOR THE SILICON MARKET.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The production of high quality silicon requires the use of ultraclean coal containing less than 1.5% ash. The magnetite used to clean the coal in… (more)

Amini, Seyed Hassan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Electrochemical thinning of silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR).

Medernach, John W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Electrochemical thinning of silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). 14 figures.

Medernach, J.W.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

352

Method for silicon carbide production by reacting silica with hydrocarbon gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using a silicon source material and a hydrocarbon. The method is efficient and is characterized by high yield. Finely divided silicon source material is contacted with hydrocarbon at a temperature of 400.degree. C. to 1000.degree. C. where the hydrocarbon pyrolyzes and coats the particles with carbon. The particles are then heated to 1100.degree. C. to 1600.degree. C. to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process.

Glatzmaier, Gregory C. (Boulder, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Frankfurt, Germany, 24-28 September 2012, 2AO.2.4 HIGH EFFICIENCY BACK-CONTACT BACK-JUNCTION SILICON SOLAR CELLS WITH CELL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Frankfurt, Germany, 24-28 September 2012, 2AO.2 cost of energy in photovoltaics can be achieved by increasing the conversion efficiency as well into the surface of a thick silicon wafer. After sintering at 1100 °C in hydrogen atmosphere silicon is grown

354

Silicon on insulator achieved using electrochemical etching  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Bulk crystalline silicon wafers are transferred after the completion of circuit fabrication to form thin films of crystalline circuitry on almost any support, such as metal, semiconductor, plastic, polymer, glass, wood, and paper. In particular, this technique is suitable to form silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, whereby the devices and circuits formed exhibit superior performance after transfer due to the removal of the silicon substrate. The added cost of the transfer process to conventional silicon fabrication is insignificant. No epitaxial, lift-off, release or buried oxide layers are needed to perform the transfer of single or multiple wafers onto support members. The transfer process may be performed at temperatures of 50.degree. C. or less, permits transparency around the circuits and does not require post-transfer patterning. Consequently, the technique opens up new avenues for the use of integrated circuit devices in high-brightness, high-resolution video-speed color displays, reduced-thickness increased-flexibility intelligent cards, flexible electronics on ultrathin support members, adhesive electronics, touch screen electronics, items requiring low weight materials, smart cards, intelligent keys for encryption systems, toys, large area circuits, flexible supports, and other applications. The added process flexibility also permits a cheap technique for increasing circuit speed of market driven technologies such as microprocessors at little added expense.

McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Silicon on insulator achieved using electrochemical etching  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Bulk crystalline silicon wafers are transferred after the completion of circuit fabrication to form thin films of crystalline circuitry on almost any support, such as metal, semiconductor, plastic, polymer, glass, wood, and paper. In particular, this technique is suitable to form silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, whereby the devices and circuits formed exhibit superior performance after transfer due to the removal of the silicon substrate. The added cost of the transfer process to conventional silicon fabrication is insignificant. No epitaxial, lift-off, release or buried oxide layers are needed to perform the transfer of single or multiple wafers onto support members. The transfer process may be performed at temperatures of 50 C or less, permits transparency around the circuits and does not require post-transfer patterning. Consequently, the technique opens up new avenues for the use of integrated circuit devices in high-brightness, high-resolution video-speed color displays, reduced-thickness increased-flexibility intelligent cards, flexible electronics on ultrathin support members, adhesive electronics, touch screen electronics, items requiring low weight materials, smart cards, intelligent keys for encryption systems, toys, large area circuits, flexible supports, and other applications. The added process flexibility also permits a cheap technique for increasing circuit speed of market driven technologies such as microprocessors at little added expense. 57 figs.

McCarthy, A.M.

1997-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

356

In situ tensile and creep testing of lithiated silicon nanowires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present experimental results for uniaxial tensile and creep testing of fully lithiated silicon nanowires. A reduction in the elastic modulus is observed when silicon nanowires are alloyed with lithium and plastic deformation becomes possible when the wires are saturated with lithium. Creep testing was performed at fixed force levels above and below the tensile strength of the material. A linear dependence of the strain-rate on the applied stress was evident below the yield stress of the alloy, indicating viscous deformation behavior. The observed inverse exponential relationship between wire radius and strain rate below the yield stress indicates that material transport was controlled by diffusion. At stress levels approaching the yield strength of fully lithiated silicon, power-law creep appears to govern the strain-rate dependence on stress. These results have direct implications on the cycling conditions, rate-capabilities, and charge capacity of silicon and should prove useful for the design and construction of future silicon-based electrodes.

Boles, Steven T.; Kraft, Oliver [Institute for Applied Materials, KIT, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)] [Institute for Applied Materials, KIT, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Thompson, Carl V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Mönig, Reiner [Institute for Applied Materials, KIT, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany) [Institute for Applied Materials, KIT, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Helmholtz Institute Ulm for Electrochemical Energy Storage (HIU), 89069 Ulm (Germany)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

357

Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1600.degree.C. which transforms the coating to silicon carbide.

Varacalle, Jr., Dominic J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herman, Herbert (Port Jefferson, NY); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1,600 C which transforms the coating to silicon carbide. 3 figs.

Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Herman, H.; Burchell, T.D.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

359

Comparing capacities and delays at major European and American airports  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Successful air transport systems must satisfy the demand for flights while maintaining a high level of service and safety. For airports, which have limited capacities, policy-makers must compromise between maximizing the ...

Morisset, Thomas (Thomas Marc)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Pulsed energy synthesis and doping of silicon carbide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing beta silicon carbide thin films by co-depositing thin films of amorphous silicon and carbon onto a substrate is disclosed, whereafter the films are irradiated by exposure to a pulsed energy source (e.g. excimer laser) to cause formation of the beta-SiC compound. Doped beta-SiC may be produced by introducing dopant gases during irradiation. Single layers up to a thickness of 0.5-1 micron have been produced, with thicker layers being produced by multiple processing steps. Since the electron transport properties of beta silicon carbide over a wide temperature range of 27--730 C is better than these properties of alpha silicon carbide, they have wide application, such as in high temperature semiconductors, including HETEROJUNCTION-junction bipolar transistors and power devices, as well as in high bandgap solar arrays, ultra-hard coatings, light emitting diodes, sensors, etc.

Truher, J.B.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Thompson, J.B.; Sigmon, T.W.

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Pulsed energy synthesis and doping of silicon carbide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing beta silicon carbide thin films by co-depositing thin films of amorphous silicon and carbon onto a substrate, whereafter the films are irradiated by exposure to a pulsed energy source (e.g. excimer laser) to cause formation of the beta-SiC compound. Doped beta-SiC may be produced by introducing dopant gases during irradiation. Single layers up to a thickness of 0.5-1 micron have been produced, with thicker layers being produced by multiple processing steps. Since the electron transport properties of beta silicon carbide over a wide temperature range of 27.degree.-730.degree. C. is better than these properties of alpha silicon carbide, they have wide application, such as in high temperature semiconductors, including hetero-junction bipolar transistors and power devices, as well as in high bandgap solar arrays, ultra-hard coatings, light emitting diodes, sensors, etc.

Truher, Joel B. (San Rafael, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Beaverton, OR)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Hybrid Silicon Evanescent Lasers John E. Bowersa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

[2]. Finally a 110 nm thick n-doped InP spacer is used as a bonding interface to silicon. The silicon factors of the silicon waveguide and the QWs can be manipulated by the silicon waveguide dimensions silicon waveguide. For the fabricated waveguide dimensions of a 0.7 µm height (H) and 0.6 µm rib

Bowers, John

363

Photonic Crystal Cavities in Cubic Polytype Silicon Carbide Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of high quality factor and small mode volume planar photonic crystal cavities from cubic (3C) thin films (thickness ~ 200 nm) of silicon carbide (SiC) grown epitaxially on a silicon substrate. We demonstrate cavity resonances across the telecommunications band, with wavelengths from 1250 - 1600 nm. Finally, we discuss possible applications in nonlinear optics, optical interconnects, and quantum information science.

Radulaski, Marina; Buckley, Sonia; Rundquist, Armand; Provine, J; Alassaad, Kassem; Ferro, Gabriel; Vu?kovi?, Jelena

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Making silicon stronger.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon microfabrication has seen many decades of development, yet the structural reliability of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is far from optimized. The fracture strength of Si MEMS is limited by a combination of poor toughness and nanoscale etch-induced defects. A MEMS-based microtensile technique has been used to characterize the fracture strength distributions of both standard and custom microfabrication processes. Recent improvements permit 1000's of test replicates, revealing subtle but important deviations from the commonly assumed 2-parameter Weibull statistical model. Subsequent failure analysis through a combination of microscopy and numerical simulation reveals salient aspects of nanoscale flaw control. Grain boundaries, for example, suffer from preferential attack during etch-release thereby forming failure-critical grain-boundary grooves. We will discuss ongoing efforts to quantify the various factors that affect the strength of polycrystalline silicon, and how weakest-link theory can be used to make worst-case estimates for design.

Boyce, Brad Lee

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Analysis of system wide distortion in an integrated power system utilizing a high voltage DC bus and silicon carbide power devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This research investigates the distortion on the electrical distribution system for a high voltage DC Integrated Power System (IPS). The analysis was concentrated on the power supplied to a propulsion motor driven by an ...

Fallier, William F. (William Frederick)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Fabrication and properties of microporous silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microporous silicon layers were fabricated by electrochemical etching of single crystalline silicon wafers in HF-ethanol solutions. The pore properties of porous silicon were examined by physical adsorption of nitrogen and the relationship between...

Shao, Jianzhong

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Temperature Dependence of the EUV Responsivity of Silicon Photodiodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Responsivity of silicon photodiodes was measured from -100 C to +50 C in the 3 to 250 nm wavelength range using synchrotron and laboratory radiation sources. Two types of silicon photodiodes were studied, the AXUV series having a thin nitrided silicon dioxide surface layer and the SXUV series having a thin metal silicide surface layer. Depending on the wavelength, the responsivity increases with temperature with the rates 0.013%/C to 0.053%/C for the AXUV photodiode and 0.020%/C to 0.084%/C for the SXUV photodiode. The increase in responsivity is consistent with the decrease in the silicon bandgap energy which causes a decrease in the pair creation energy. These results are particularly important for dose measurement in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography steppers and sources since the detector temperature often increases because of the high EUV intensities involved.

Kjornrattanawanich,B.; Korde, R.; Boyer, C.; Holland, G.; Seely, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide....  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Abstract: Radiation tolerance is determined by how effectively the...

369

Silicon on insulator with active buried regions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

370

Silicon on insulator with active buried regions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

McCarthy, A.M.

1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

371

Silicon on insulator with active buried regions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Silicon on insulator with active buried regions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

McCarthy, A.M.

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

373

Kampung Capacity Local Solutions for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kampung Capacity Local Solutions for Sustainable Rural Energy in the Baram River Basin, Sarawak with a large-scale hydropower plan for the river basin. Keywords: South East Asia, Malaysia, Rural Energy In this study we explore the potential for rural renewable energy supply through a focus on villages

Kammen, Daniel M.

374

Capacity Allocation with Competitive Retailers Masabumi Furuhata  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to uncertainty of market demands, costly capacity construction and time consuming capacity expansion. This makes the market to be unstable and malfunc- tioning. Such a problem is known as the capacity allocation investigate the properties of capacity allocation mechanisms for the markets where a sin- gle supplier

Zhang, Dongmo

375

Photovoltaic Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To separate electrical charges, crystalline silicon cells must have a built-in electric field. Light shining on crystalline silicon may free electrons within the crystal lattice, but for these electrons to do useful work—such as provide electricity to a light bulb—they must be separated and directed into an electrical circuit.

376

Recent developments in silicon calorimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a survey of some of the recent calorimeter applications of silicon detectors. The numerous attractive features of silicon detectors are summarized, with an emphasis on those aspects important to calorimetry. Several of the uses of this technology are summarized and referenced. We consider applications for electromagnetic calorimetry, hadronic calorimetry, and proposals for the SSC.

Brau, J.E.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

High-Rate, High-Capacity Binder-Free Electrode  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

electrode 4 Why it is better than other technologies Carbon Nanotubes Composite Materials C. Ban, Z. Wu, LChen, Y. Yan and A.C. Dillon Adv. Mat., 2010 Vol22,...

378

Development efforts on silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a summary of the major results from the silicon high-concentration solar cell program at Stanford University from the period 1983--1990. Following a detailed design study, efforts were focused upon experimental verification of the modeled results that predicted 28% efficiencies for a new 500X concentrator solar cell design. A history of the research progress is given detailing the critical experiments that enabled the demonstration of 19.6% cells in 1983, then subsequent improvements culminating in efficiencies over 28% by 1987. In addition to laboratory efficiency improvements, the report details advances in the understanding of the fundamental device physics and modeling of silicon solar cell operation. The latter stages of the program included the development of module-ready cells in large quantity for the EPRI prototype 500X concentrator modules. Several of these 48-cell modules are currently in the field under test.

Sinton, R.A.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Compensated amorphous silicon solar cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An amorphous silicon solar cell including an electrically conductive substrate, a layer of glow discharge deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon over said substrate and having regions of differing conductivity with at least one region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has opposed first and second major surfaces where the first major surface contacts the electrically conductive substrate and an electrode for electrically contacting the second major surface. The intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon region is deposited in a glow discharge with an atmosphere which includes not less than about 0.02 atom percent mono-atomic boron. An improved N.I.P. solar cell is disclosed using a BF.sub.3 doped intrinsic layer.

Devaud, Genevieve (629 S. Humphrey Ave., Oak Park, IL 60304)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Lithium Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon Skin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon (Si) nanomaterials have emerged as a leading candidate for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes. However, the low electrical conductivity of Si requires the use of conductive additives in the anode film. Here we report a solution-based synthesis of Si nanowires with a conductive carbon skin. Without any conductive additive, the Si nanowire electrodes exhibited capacities of over 2000 mA h g-1 for 100 cycles when cycled at C/10 and over 1200 mA h g-1 when cycled more rapidly at 1C against Li metal.. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation reveals that the carbon skin performs dual roles: it speeds lithiation of the Si nanowires significantly, while also constraining the final volume expansion. The present work sheds light on ways to optimize lithium battery performance by smartly tailoring the nanostructure of composition of materials based on silicon and carbon.

Bogart, Timothy D.; Oka, Daichi; Lu, Xiaotang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Process feasibility study in support of silicon material Task I. Final report, October 1, 1975-February 6, 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Low-Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project is directed toward effective cost reduction in the production of silicon for solar cells. Results are presented for process system properties, chemical engineering and economic analyses of the new technologies and processes being developed for the production of lower cost silicon for solar cells. Major physical, thermodynamic and transport property data are reported for the following silicon source and processing chemical materials: silane, silicon tetrachloride, trichlorosilane, dichlorosilane, silicon tetrafluoride, and silicon. The property data are reported for critical temperature, critical pressure, critical volume, vapor pressure, heat of vaporization, heat capacity, density, surface tension, viscosity, thermal conductivity, heat of formation and Gibb's free energy of formation. Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1000 MT/yr capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished for the following processes: UCC silane process for silicon, BCL process for silicon, conventional polysilicon process (Siemens technology), SiI/sub 4/ decomposition process, and DCS process (dichlorosilane).Major activities in chemical engineering analyses include base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provides detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process. Using detailed data from the process design package, economic analyses for a 1000 MT/yr silicon plant were accomplished. Primary results from the economic analyses included plant capital investment and product cost. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

Yaws, C.L.; Li, K.Y.; Hopper, J.R.; Fang, C.S.; Hansen, K.C.

1981-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

382

Philips Lumileds Is Exploring the Use of Silicon Substrates to Lower the Cost of LEDs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

With the help of DOE funding, Philips Lumileds is exploring the use of nitride epitaxy on 150mm silicon substrates to produce low-cost, warm-white, high-performance general-illumination LEDs. Most LEDs are made with C-plane sapphire substrates, but silicon—at roughly half a penny per square millimeter—is much cheaper, and it's also easier to obtain. Philips Lumileds is attempting to adapt the use of silicon to the manufacture of LEDs, drawing upon the knowledge base and depreciated equipment of the computer industry, which has been using silicon substrates for decades.

383

Method for forming silicon on a glass substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method by which single-crystal silicon microelectronics may be fabricated on glass substrates at unconventionally low temperatures. This is achieved by fabricating a thin film of silicon on glass and subsequently forming the doped components by a short wavelength (excimer) laser doping procedure and conventional patterning techniques. This method may include introducing a heavily boron doped etch stop layer on a silicon wafer using an excimer laser, which permits good control of the etch stop layer removal process. This method additionally includes dramatically reducing the remaining surface roughness of the silicon thin films after etching in the fabrication of silicon on insulator wafers by scanning an excimer laser across the surface of the silicon thin film causing surface melting, whereby the surface tension of the melt causes smoothing of the surface during recrystallization. Applications for this method include those requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, such as display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard and high temperature electronics. 15 figs.

McCarthy, A.M.

1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

384

In-situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy observation of silicon nanocrystal nucleation in a SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrix  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-state nucleation of Si nanocrystals in a SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrix was observed at temperatures as low as 450?°C. This was achieved by aberration corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with real-time in-situ heating up to 600?°C. This technique is a valuable characterization tool especially with the recent interest in Si nanostructures for light emitting devices, non-volatile memories, and third-generation photovoltaics which all typically require a heating step in their fabrication. The control of size, shape, and distribution of the Si nanocrystals are critical for these applications. This experimental study involves in-situ observation of the nucleation of Si nanocrystals in a SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrix fabricated through radio frequency co-sputtering. The results show that the shapes of Si nanocrystals in amorphous SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrices are irregular and not spherical, in contrast to many claims in the literature. Furthermore, the Si nanocrystals are well confined within their layers by the amorphous SiO{sub 2}. This study demonstrates the potential of in-situ HRTEM as a tool to observe the real time nucleation of Si nanocrystals in a SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrix. Furthermore, ideas for improvements on this in-situ heating HRTEM technique are discussed.

Yang, T. C.-J., E-mail: terry.yang@unsw.edu.au; Wu, L.; Lin, Z.; Jia, X.; Puthen-Veettil, B.; Zhang, T.; Conibeer, G.; Perez-Wurfl, I. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Kauffmann, Y.; Rothschild, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

385

Deposition of device quality low H content, amorphous silicon films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH{sub 4}) over a high temperature, 2,000 C, tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400 C, substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20--30 times before being deposited on the hot substrate. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films thus produced have only about one atomic percent hydrogen, yet have device quality electrical, chemical, and structural properties, despite this lowered hydrogen content. 7 figs.

Mahan, A.H.; Carapella, J.C.; Gallagher, A.C.

1995-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

386

Silicon carbide process development for microengine applications : residual stress control and microfabrication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The high power densities expected for the MIT microengine (silicon MEMS-based micro-gas turbine generator) require the turbine and compressor spool to rotate at a very high speed at elevated temperatures (1300 to 1700 K). ...

Choi, Dongwon, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Reuse Distance Based Circuit Replacement in Silicon Photonic Interconnection Networks for HPC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-scale distance, can help to further scale data-movement capabilities in high performance computing (HPC demands within high performance computing (HPC) systems. Silicon photonic (SiP) interconnects [1-3], which

Bergman, Keren

388

Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite densified materials prepared using composite powders  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

Dunmead, S.D.; Weimer, A.W.; Carroll, D.F.; Eisman, G.A.; Cochran, G.A.; Susnitzky, D.W.; Beaman, D.R.; Nilsen, K.J.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Crystalline silicon growth in nickel/a-silicon bilayer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of substrate temperature on amorphous Silicon crystallization, mediated by metal impurity is reported. Bilayers of Ni(200nm)/Si(400nm) are deposited on fused silica substrate by electron beam evaporator at 200 and 500 Degree-Sign C. Raman mapping shows that, 2 to 5 micron size crystalline silicon clusters are distributed over the entire surface of the sample. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies demonstrate silicon crystallizes over the metal silicide seeds and grow with the annealing temperature.

Mohiddon, Md Ahamad; Naidu, K. Lakshun [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India) and Department of Physics, University of Trento, 38123 POVO (Trento) (Italy); Dalba, G. [Department of Physics, University of Trento, 38123 POVO (Trento) (Italy); Rocca, F. [IFN-CNR, Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies, Unit FBK-Photonics of Trento, 38123, Trento (Italy); Krishna, M. Ghanashyam [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India)

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

390

EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 16: Silicon Solar Cell Fabrication Techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;3 Screen Printed Solar Cells · Firing the contacts ­ The furnace heats the cell to a high temperature by Efficiency 22 Rear Panel before Lamination 23 Buried Contact Solar Cells · High Efficiency · Laser groved1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 16: Silicon Solar Cell Fabrication Techniques Dr. Todd J. Kaiser

Kaiser, Todd J.

391

Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Photovoltaic Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Amorphous Silicon as a Photovoltaic Material 2.1.2ii Photovoltaic Model . . . . . . . . . . .

Schriver, Maria Christine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Silicon nitride ceramic comprising samaria and ytterbia  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a sintered silicon nitride ceramic comprising samaria and ytterbia for enhanced toughness.

Yeckley, Russell L. (Oakham, MA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Analysis of copper-rich precipitates in silicon: chemical state,gettering, and impact on multicrystalline silicon solar cellmaterial  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, synchrotron-based x-ray absorption microspectroscopy (mu-XAS) is applied to identifying the chemical states of copper-rich clusters within a variety of silicon materials, including as-grown cast multicrystalline silicon solar cell material with high oxygen concentration and other silicon materials with varying degrees of oxygen concentration and copper contamination pathways. In all samples, copper silicide (Cu3Si) is the only phase of copper identified. It is noted from thermodynamic considerations that unlike certain metal species, copper tends to form a silicide and not an oxidized compound because of the strong silicon-oxygen bonding energy; consequently the likelihood of encountering an oxidized copper particle in silicon is small, in agreement with experimental data. In light of these results, the effectiveness of aluminum gettering for the removal of copper from bulk silicon is quantified via x-ray fluorescence microscopy (mu-XRF),and a segregation coefficient is determined from experimental data to beat least (1-2)'103. Additionally, mu-XAS data directly demonstrates that the segregation mechanism of Cu in Al is the higher solubility of Cu in the liquid phase. In light of these results, possible limitations for the complete removal of Cu from bulk mc-Si are discussed.

Buonassisi, Tonio; Marcus, Matthew A.; Istratov, Andrei A.; Heuer, Matthias; Ciszek, Theodore F.; Lai, Barry; Cai, Zhonghou; Weber,Eicke R.

2004-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

394

The Capacity Loss of Dense Constellations Tobias Koch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high SNR, our results recover the power loss of 1.53dB for square signal constellations without-noise channels for suitably high signal- to-noise ratio. Our expression for the capacity loss recovers the power loss of 1.53dB for square signal constellations. I. INTRODUCTION As it is well known, the channel

395

Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun [Hong Ik University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Kun Hyung [Korea Gas Corporation, Incheon, 406-130 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

396

InP-based waveguide photodiodes heterogeneously integrated on silicon-on-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

InP-based waveguide photodiodes heterogeneously integrated on silicon-on- insulator for photonic@virginia.edu Abstract: High-linearity modified uni-traveling carrier photodiodes on silicon-on-insulator with low AM and have an output third order intercept point of 30 dBm at 20 GHz. Photodiode arrays exceed a saturation

Bowers, John

397

Structural changes induced by heavy ion irradiation in titanium silicon carbide J.C. Nappa,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structural changes induced by heavy ion irradiation in titanium silicon carbide Authors J.C. Nappéa, UMR 8609, Bât. 108, 91405 Orsay, France ABSTRACT Carbide-type ceramics, which have remarkable at high temperature. The MAX phases, and more particularly titanium silicon carbide, are distinguished

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

398

Epitaxy of Nanocrystalline Silicon Carbide on Si(111) at Room Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Epitaxy of Nanocrystalline Silicon Carbide on Si(111) at Room Temperature Roberto Verucchi carbide (SiC) has unique chemical, physical, and mechanical properties. A factor strongly limiting Si or plastics that cannot withstand high temperatures. Silicon carbide (SiC) has unique properties that make

Alfè, Dario

399

Strain compensation in boron-indium coimplanted laser thermal processed silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strain compensation in boron-indium coimplanted laser thermal processed silicon Mark H. Clarka Strain in B-implanted laser thermal processed LTP silicon is reduced by coimplantation of In. Strain in the codoped layer is calculated using lattice constants measured by high-resolution x-ray diffraction

Florida, University of

400

Phonon Heat Conduction in Corrugated Silicon Nanowires Below the Casimir Limit Christophe Blanc,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

very low thermal conductances of highly rough silicon nanowires [7, 18], far below the amorphous limit, 2013) The thermal conductance of straight and corrugated monocrystalline silicon nanowires has been of nanostructured materials or low dimen- sional materials has attracted growing interest [1­4], es- pecially

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

High Power, Linear CMOS Power Amplifier for WLAN Applications /  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

components in silicon, achieving a high power enhancement ratio from a single stage LC matching network or single transformer

Afsahi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Lithium Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon Skin . Lithium Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon Skin . Abstract: Silicon (Si) nanomaterials have...

403

Rheology of silicon carbide/vinyl ester nanocomposites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New York, 1999. SILICON CARBIDE/VINYL ESTER NANOCOMPOSITESRheology of Silicon Carbide/Vinyl Ester NanocompositesABSTRACT: Silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles with no

Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Method of forming buried oxide layers in silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY); Holland, Orin Wayne (Lenoir City, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines and products formed thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about O/degree/C up to about 300/degree/C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200-1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

1988-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

406

[working paper] Regional Economic Capacity, Economic Shocks,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 [working paper] Regional Economic Capacity, Economic Shocks, and Economic that makes them more likely to resist economic shocks or to recover quickly from of resilience capacity developed by Foster (2012) is related to economic resilience

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

407

Fair capacity sharing of multiple aperiodic servers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For handling multiple aperiodic tasks with different temporal requirements, multiple aperiodic servers are used. Since capacity is partitioned statically among the multiple servers, they suffer from heavy capacity exhaustions. Bernat and Burns...

Melapudi, Vinod Reddy

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Optically initiated silicon carbide high voltage switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved photoconductive switch having a SiC or other wide band gap substrate material, such as GaAs and field-grading liners composed of preferably SiN formed on the substrate adjacent the electrode perimeters or adjacent the substrate perimeters for grading the electric fields.

Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Sullivan, James S. (Livermore, CA); Sanders; David M. (Livermore, CA)

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

409

Silicon carbide oxidation in high temperature steam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The commercial nuclear power industry is continually looking for ways to improve reactor productivity and efficiency and to increase reactor safety. A concern that is closely regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ...

Arnold, Ramsey Paul

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Production of solar grade (SoG) silicon by refining liquid metallurgical grade (MG) silicon: Annual Report: June 10 1998--October 19, 1999  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pyro-metallurgical refining techniques are being developed for use with molten metallurgical-grade (MG) silicon so that directionally solidified refined MG silicon can be used as solar-grade (SoG) silicon feedstock for photovoltaic applications. The most problematic impurity elements are B and P because of their high segregation coefficients. Refining processes such as evacuation, formation of impurity complexes, oxidation of impurities, and slagging have been effective in removal of impurities from MG silicon. Charge sizes have been scaled up to 60 kg. Impurity analysis of 60-kg charges after refining and directional solidification has shown reduction of most impurities to <1 ppma and B and P to the 10-ppma level. It has been demonstrated that B and P, as well as other impurities, can be reduced from MG silicon. Further reduction of impurities will be necessary for use as SoG silicon. The procedures developed are simple and scaleable to larger charge sizes and carried out in a foundry or MG silicon production plant. Therefore, SoG silicon production using these procedures should be at low cost.

Khattak, C.P.; Joyce, D.B.; Schmid, F.

1999-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

411

Mechanical Dissipation in Silicon Flexures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thermo-mechanical properties of silicon make it of significant interest as a possible material for mirror substrates and suspension elements for future long-baseline gravitational wave detectors. The mechanical dissipation in 92um thick single-crystal silicon cantilevers has been observed over the temperature range 85 K to 300 K, with dissipation approaching levels down to phi = 4.4E-7.

S. Reid; G. Cagnoli; D. R. M. Crooks; J. Hough; P. Murray; S. Rowan; M. M. Fejer; R. Route; S. Zappe

2005-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

412

Cryogenic silicon surface ion trap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Trapped ions are pre-eminent candidates for building quantum information processors and quantum simulators. They have been used to demonstrate quantum gates and algorithms, quantum error correction, and basic quantum simulations. However, to realise the full potential of such systems and make scalable trapped-ion quantum computing a reality, there exist a number of practical problems which must be solved. These include tackling the observed high ion-heating rates and creating scalable trap structures which can be simply and reliably produced. Here, we report on cryogenically operated silicon ion traps which can be rapidly and easily fabricated using standard semiconductor technologies. Single $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions have been trapped and used to characterize the trap operation. Long ion lifetimes were observed with the traps exhibiting heating rates as low as $\\dot{\\bar{n}}=$ 0.33 phonons/s at an ion-electrode distance of 230 $\\mu$m. These results open many new avenues to arrays of micro-fabricated ion traps.

Michael Niedermayr; Kirill Lakhmanskiy; Muir Kumph; Stefan Partel; Johannes Edlinger; Michael Brownnutt; Rainer Blatt

2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

413

Results from a beam test of silicon strip sensors manufactured by Infineon Technologies AG  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most modern particle physics experiments use silicon based sensors for their tracking systems. These sensors are able to detect particles generated in high energy collisions with high spatial resolution and therefore allow the precise reconstruction of particle tracks. So far only a few vendors were capable of producing silicon strip sensors with the quality needed in particle physics experiments. Together with the European-based semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies AG (Infineon) the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (HEPHY) developed planar silicon strip sensors in p-on-n technology. This work presents the first results from a beam test of strip sensors manufactured by Infineon.

Dragicevic, M; Bartl, U; Bergauer, T; Gamerith, S; Hacker, J; König, A; Kröner, F; Kucher, E; Moser, J; Neidhart, T; Schulze, H-J; Schustereder, W; Treberspurg, W; Wübben, T

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Utility-Scale Silicon Carbide Semiconductor: Monolithic Silicon Carbide Anode Switched Thyristor for Medium Voltage Power Conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ADEPT Project: GeneSiC is developing an advanced silicon-carbide (SiC)-based semiconductor called an anode-switched thyristor. This low-cost, compact SiC semiconductor conducts higher levels of electrical energy with better precision than traditional silicon semiconductors. This efficiency will enable a dramatic reduction in the size, weight, and volume of the power converters and electronic devices it's used in.GeneSiC is developing its SiC-based semiconductor for utility-scale power converters. Traditional silicon semiconductors can't process the high voltages that utility-scale power distribution requires, and they must be stacked in complicated circuits that require bulky insulation and cooling hardware. GeneSiC's semiconductors are well suited for high-power applications like large-scale renewable wind and solar energy installations.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Can Science and Technology Capacity be Measured?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ability of a nation to participate in the global knowledge economy depends to some extent on its capacities in science and technology. In an effort to assess the capacity of different countries in science and technology, this article updates a classification scheme developed by RAND to measure science and technology capacity for 150 countries of the world.

Wagner, Caroline S; Dutta, Arindum

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Internal Markets for Supply Chain Capacity Allocation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internal Markets for Supply Chain Capacity Allocation David McAdams and Thomas W. Malone Sloan David McAdams & Thomas Malone #12;Internal Markets for Supply Chain Capacity Allocation David Mc ("internal markets") to help allocate manufacturing capacity and determine the prices, delivery dates

417

Iran outlines oil productive capacity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

National Iranian Oil Co. (NIOC) tested production limits last month to prove a claim of 4 million bd capacity made at September's meeting of the organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Onshore fields account for 3.6 million bd of the total, with offshore fields providing the rest. NIOC plans to expand total capacity to 4.5 million bd by April 1993, consisting of 4 million b/d onshore and 500,000 b/d offshore. Middle East Economic Survey says questions remain about completion dates for gas injection, drilling, and offshore projects, but expansion targets are attainable within the scheduled time. NIOC said some slippage may be unavoidable, but it is confident the objective will be reached by third quarter 1993 at the latest. More than 60 rigs are working or about to be taken under contract to boost development drilling in onshore fields and provide gas injection in some. NIOC has spent $3.2 billion in foreign exchange on the drilling program in the last 2 1/2 years.

Not Available

1992-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

418

Fermilab silicon strip readout chip for BTev  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A chip has been developed for reading out the silicon strip detectors in the new BTeV colliding beam experiment at Fermilab. The chip has been designed in a 0.25 {micro}m CMOS technology for high radiation tolerance. Numerous programmable features have been added to the chip, such as setup for operation at different beam crossing intervals. A full size chip has been fabricated and successfully tested. The design philosophy, circuit features, and test results are presented in this paper.

Yarema, Raymond; Hoff, Jim; Mekkaoui, Abderrezak; Manghisoni, Massimo; Re, Valerio; Angeleri, Valentina; Manfredi, Pier Francesco; Ratti, Lodovico; Speziali, Valeria; /Fermilab /Bergamo U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Silicon point contact concentrator solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental results are presented for thin high resistivity concentrator silicon solar cells which use a back-side point-contact geometry. Cells of 130 and 233 micron thickness were fabricated and characterized. The thin cells were found to have efficiencies greater than 22 percent for incident solar intensities of 3 to 30 W/sq cm. Efficiency peaked at 23 percent at 11 W/sq cm measured at 22-25 C. Strategies for obtaining higher efficiencies with this solar cell design are discussed. 8 references.

Sinton, R.A.; Kwark, Y.; Swirhun, S.; Swanson, R.M.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Capacity fade of Sony 18650 cells cycled at elevated temperatures Part II. Capacity fade analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capacity fade of Sony 18650 cells cycled at elevated temperatures Part II. Capacity fade analysis P August 2002 Abstract A complete capacity fade analysis was carried out for Sony 18650 cells cycled the other losses. # 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Capacity fade; Sony 18650

Popov, Branko N.

422

Optical Damage Threshold of Silicon for Ultrafast Infrared Pulses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While silicon has several properties making it an attractive material for structure-based laser-driven acceleration, its optical damage threshold, a key parameter for high-gradient acceleration, has been unknown. Here we present measurements of the optical damage threshold of crystalline silicon for ultrafast pulses in the mid-infrared. The wavelengths tested span a range from the telecommunications band at 1550 nm extending longer toward the two-photon absorption threshold at around 2200 nm. We discuss the prevailing theories of ultrafast optical breakdown, describe the experimental setup and preliminary results, and propose a relevant performance parameter for candidate accelerator structures.

Cowan, B.; /SLAC

2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

423

Intermediate Band Properties of Femtosecond-Laser Hyperdoped Silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The high concentration of dopants forms an intermediate band (IB), instead of discrete energy levels exhibits broad-band light absorption to wavelengths deep below the corresponding bandgap energy of silicon) using secondary ion mass spectrometry. By varying the pressure of SF6, we find that the surface adsorbed

Mazur, Eric

424

CURRENT NEWS Sandwich Solar Cells May See Off Silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CURRENT NEWS Sandwich Solar Cells May See Off Silicon May 24, 2010 A new manufacturing technique of devices using GaAs chips manufactured in multilayer stacks: light sensors, high-speed transistors and solar cells. The authors also provide a detailed cost comparison. Another advantage of the multilayer

Rogers, John A.

425

X-ray and synchrotron studies of porous silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of comprehensive studies of layers of porous silicon of different conductivity types, grown by anodizing standard Si(111) substrates in an electrolyte based on fluoric acid and ethanol with the addition of 5% of iodine and kept in air for a long time, are discussed. Measurements are performed by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, and ultrasoft X-ray spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The structural parameters of the layers (thickness, strain, and porosity) and atomic and chemical composition of the porous-silicon surface are determined. It is found that an oxide layer 1.5-2.3-nm thick is formed on the surface of the silicon skeleton. The near-edge fine structure of the Si 2p absorption spectrum of this layer corresponds to the fine structure of the 2p spectrum of well coordinated SiO{sub 2}. In this case, the fine structure in the Si 2p-edge absorption region of the silicon skeleton is identical to that of the 2p absorption spectrum of crystalline silicon.

Sivkov, V. N., E-mail: svn@dm.komisc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Lomov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Physical-Technological Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Physical-Technological Institute (Russian Federation); Vasil'ev, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Nekipelov, S. V. [Komi State Pedagogical Institute (Russian Federation)] [Komi State Pedagogical Institute (Russian Federation); Petrova, O. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Electric field geometries dominate quantum transport coupling in silicon nanoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Investigations on the relation between the geometries of silicon nanodevices and the quantum phenomenon they exhibit, such as the Aharonov–Bohm (AB) effect and the Coulomb blockade, were conducted. An arsenic doped silicon nanoring coupled with a nanowire by electron beam lithography was fabricated. At 1.47?K, Coulomb blockade oscillations were observed under modulation from the top gate voltage, and a periodic AB oscillation of ?B?=?0.178?T was estimated for a ring radius of 86?nm under a high sweeping magnetic field. Modulating the flat top gate and the pointed side gate was performed to cluster and separate the many electron quantum dots, which demonstrated that quantum confinement and interference effects coexisted in the doped silicon nanoring.

Lee, Tsung-Han, E-mail: askaleeg@gmail.com, E-mail: sfhu.hu@gmail.com; Hu, Shu-Fen, E-mail: askaleeg@gmail.com, E-mail: sfhu.hu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

427

Protective coating for alumina-silicon carbide whisker composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ceramic composites formed of an alumina matrix reinforced with silicon carbide whiskers homogenously dispersed therein are provided with a protective coating for preventing fracture strength degradation of the composite by oxidation during exposure to high temperatures in oxygen-containing atmospheres. The coating prevents oxidation of the silicon carbide whiskers within the matrix by sealing off the exterior of the matrix so as to prevent oxygen transport into the interior of the matrix. The coating is formed of mullite or mullite plus silicon oxide and alumina and is formed in place by heating the composite in air to a temperature greater than 1200.degree. C. This coating is less than about 100 microns thick and adequately protects the underlying composite from fracture strength degradation due to oxidation.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

A CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING THE DATA INTEGRITY CAPACITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

assurance components, as well as the integrity of data read from high assurance repositories and displayedA CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING THE DATA INTEGRITY CAPACITY OF CERTAIN SECURE SYSTEMS Cynthia E. Irvine of architecture. We discuss the general integrity property that systems can only be trusted to manage modi able

Irvine, Cynthia E.

429

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Studies on High...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Studies on High Capacity Cathodes for Advanced Lithium-ion Systems Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Studies on High Capacity Cathodes for Advanced Lithium-ion Systems...

430

Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrogen dilution in silane on light induced degradation of hydrogenated amor- phous silicon films for solar photovoltaichydrogen content from 14-22%[76]. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon has promise as a photovoltaic

Schriver, Maria Christine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Nucleation and solidification of silicon for photovoltaics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The majority of solar cells produced today are made with crystalline silicon wafers, which are typically manufactured by growing a large piece of silicon and then sawing it into ~200 pm wafers, a process which converts ...

Appapillai, Anjuli T. (Anjuli Tara)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Extended infrared photoresponse and gain in chalcogen-supersaturated silicon photodiodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Highly supersaturated solid solutions of selenium or sulfur in silicon were formed by ion implantation followed by nanosecond pulsed laser melting. n[superscript +]p photodiodes fabricated from these materials exhibit gain ...

Sullivan, Joseph Timothy

433

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenic implanted silicon Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Physics 16 Integration of Laser-Annealed Junctions in a Low-Temperature High-k Metal-Gate MISFET Summary: in Low Energy Arsenic Implanted Silicon", Proc. Ion...

434

Hybridization process for back-illuminated silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a unique hybridization process that permits high-performance back-illuminated silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GM-APDs) to be bonded to custom CMOS readout integrated circuits (ROICs) - a hybridization ...

Schuette, Daniel R.

435

Retrograde melting in transition metal-silicon systems : thermodynamic modeling, experimental verification, and potential application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A theoretical framework is presented in this work for retrograde melting in silicon driven by the retrograde solubility of low-concentration metallic solutes at temperatures above the binary eutectic. High enthalpy of ...

Fenning, David P

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Silicon heterojunction solar cell with passivated hole selective MoO{sub x} contact  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We explore substoichiometric molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub x}, x?silicon solar cells. Using an intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon passivation layer between the oxide and the silicon absorber, we demonstrate a high open-circuit voltage of 711?mV and power conversion efficiency of 18.8%. Due to the wide band gap of MoO{sub x}, we observe a substantial gain in photocurrent of 1.9?mA/cm{sup 2} in the ultraviolet and visible part of the solar spectrum, when compared to a p-type amorphous silicon emitter of a traditional silicon heterojunction cell. Our results emphasize the strong potential for oxides as carrier selective heterojunction partners to inorganic semiconductors.

Battaglia, Corsin; Yin, Xingtian; Zheng, Maxwell; Javey, Ali, E-mail: ajavey@eecs.berkeley.edu [Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Martín de Nicolás, Silvia; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe [Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

437

Silicon Micromachined Dimensional Calibration Artifact for Mesoscale...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Micromachined Dimensional Calibration Artifact for Mesoscale Measurement Machines 1 Silicon Micromachined Dimensional Calibration Artifact for Mesoscale Measurement Machines 2...

438

Copper doped polycrystalline silicon solar cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Photovoltaic cells having improved performance are fabricated from polycrystalline silicon containing copper segregated at the grain boundaries.

Lovelace, Alan M. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space (La Canada, CA); Koliwad, Krishna M. (La Canada, CA); Daud, Taher (La Crescenta, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Silicon crystal growing by oscillating crucible technique  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for growing silicon crystals from a molten melt comprising oscillating the container during crystal growth is disclosed.

Schwuttke, G.H.; Kim, K.M.; Smetana, P.

1983-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

440

Prealloyed catalyst for growing silicon carbide whiskers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A prealloyed metal catalyst is used to grow silicon carbide whiskers, especially in the .beta. form. Pretreating the metal particles to increase the weight percentages of carbon or silicon or both carbon and silicon allows whisker growth to begin immediately upon reaching growth temperature.

Shalek, Peter D. (Los Alamos, NM); Katz, Joel D. (Niagara Falls, NY); Hurley, George F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Process of preparing tritiated porous silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of preparing tritiated porous silicon is described in which porous silicon is equilibrated with a gaseous vapor containing HT/T{sub 2} gas in a diluent for a time sufficient for tritium in the gas phase to replace hydrogen present in the pore surfaces of the porous silicon. 1 fig.

Tam, S.W.

1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

442

Process of preparing tritiated porous silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of preparing tritiated porous silicon in which porous silicon is equilibrated with a gaseous vapor containing HT/T.sub.2 gas in a diluent for a time sufficient for tritium in the gas phase to replace hydrogen present in the pore surfaces of the porous silicon.

Tam, Shiu-Wing (Downers Grove, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Generation capacity expansion in restructured energy markets.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??With a significant number of states in the U.S. and countries around the world trading electricity in restructured markets, a sizeable proportion of capacity expansion… (more)

Nanduri, Vishnuteja

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Increasing water holding capacity for irrigation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Increasing water holding capacity for irrigation Reseachers recommend solutions for sediment trapping in irrigation system LANL and SNL leveraged technical expertise to determine...

445

Quantum Capacities of Channels with small Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the quantum capacity of noisy quantum channels which can be represented by coupling a system to an effectively small environment. A capacity formula is derived for all cases where both system and environment are two-dimensional--including all extremal qubit channels. Similarly, for channels acting on higher dimensional systems we show that the capacity can be determined if the channel arises from a sufficiently small coupling to a qubit environment. Extensions to instances of channels with larger environment are provided and it is shown that bounds on the capacity with unconstrained environment can be obtained from decompositions into channels with small environment.

Michael M. Wolf; David Perez-Garcia

2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

446

Worldwide Energy Efficiency Action through Capacity Building...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Training (WEACT) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Worldwide Energy Efficiency Action through Capacity Building and Training (WEACT) Name Worldwide Energy Efficiency Action...

447

Solar Energy and Capacity Value (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a one-page, two-sided fact sheet on the capacity of solar power to provide value to utilities and power system operators.

Not Available

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Beam Test Performance and Simulation of Prototypes for the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The silicon pixel detector (SPD) of the ALICE experiment in preparation at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is designed to provide the precise vertex reconstruction needed for measuring heavy flavor production in heavy ion collisions at very high energies and high multiplicity. The SPD forms the innermost part of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) which also includes silicon drift and silicon strip detectors. Single assembly prototypes of the ALICE SPD have been tested at the CERN SPS using high energy proton/pion beams in 2002 and 2003. We report on the experimental determination of the spatial precision. We also report on the first combined beam test with prototypes of the other ITS silicon detector technologies at the CERN SPS in November 2004. The issue of SPD simulation is briefly discussed.

Jan Conrad

2005-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

449

Development of a melting and directional solidification process for improving the grain structure and electronic properties of a silicon wafer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A manufacturing process that produces high quality, inexpensive kerfless silicon wafers for photovoltaic cells is highly desirable. The process herein described was developed to melt and directionally solidify fine-grained ...

Greenlee, Alison S

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Method for processing silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystalline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation. 2 figs.

Tsuo, Y.S.; Landry, M.D.; Pitts, J.R.

1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

451

Method for processing silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystallline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation.

Tsuo, Y. Simon (Golden, CO); Landry, Marc D. (Lafayette, CO); Pitts, John R. (Lakewood, CO)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Managing nuclear predominant generating capacity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The most common belief, associated with nuclear power plant, leads to the conclusion that it can only operate, as a base load plant. This observation can be reversed, by just looking at large generating capacity, using an important nuclear generation mix. Nuclear plants may certainly load follow and contribute to the grid frequency control. The French example illustrates these possibilities. The reactor control of French units has been customized to accommodate the grid requests. Managing such a large nuclear plant fleet requires various actions be taken, ranging from a daily to a multi-annual perspective. The paper describes the various contributions leading to safe, reliable, well accepted and cost competitive nuclear plants in France. The combination of all aspects related to operations, maintenance scheduling, nuclear safety management, are presented. The use of PWR units carries considerable weight in economic terms, with several hundred million francs tied in with outage scheduling every year. This necessitates a global view of the entire generating system which can be mobilized to meet demand. There is considerable interaction between units as, on the one hand, they are competing to satisfy the same need, and, on the other hand, reducing maintenance costs means sharing the necessary resources, and thus a coordinated staggering of outages. In addition, nuclear fuel is an energy reserve which remains in the reactor for 3 or 4 years, with some of the fuel renewed each year. Due to the memory effect, the fuel retains a memory of past use, so that today's choices impact upon the future. A medium-term view of fuel management is also necessary.

Bouget, Y.H.; Herbin, H.C.; Carbonnier, D.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

North Dakota Refining Capacity Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

454

Evaluation and silicon nitride internal combustion engine components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility of silicon nitride (Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]) use in internal combustion engines was studied by testing three different components for wear resistance and lower reciprocating mass. The information obtained from these preliminary spin rig and engine tests indicates several design changes are necessary to survive high-stress engine applications. The three silicon nitride components tested were valve spring retainers, tappet rollers, and fuel pump push rod ends. Garrett Ceramic Components' gas-pressure sinterable Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] (GS-44) was used to fabricate the above components. Components were final machined from densified blanks that had been green formed by isostatic pressing of GS-44 granules. Spin rig testing of the valve spring retainers indicated that these Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] components could survive at high RPM levels (9,500) when teamed with silicon nitride valves and lower spring tension than standard titanium components. Silicon nitride tappet rollers showed no wear on roller O.D. or I.D. surfaces, steel axles and lifters; however, due to the uncrowned design of these particular rollers the cam lobes indicated wear after spin rig testing. Fuel pump push rod ends were successful at reducing wear on the cam lobe and rod end when tested on spin rigs and in real-world race applications.

Voldrich, W. (Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Torrance, CA (United States). Garrett Ceramic Components Div.)

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

High mobility strained Si/SiGe heterostructure MOSFETs : channel engineering and virtual substrate optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High quality relaxed silicon-germanium graded buffers are an important platform for monolithic integration of high speed heterostructure field-effect transistors and III-V-based optoelectronics onto silicon substrates. In ...

Leitz, Christopher W. (Christopher William), 1976-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microelectromechanical (MEM) pump is disclosed which includes a porous silicon region sandwiched between an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber. The porous silicon region is formed in a silicon substrate and contains a number of pores extending between the inlet and outlet chambers, with each pore having a cross-section dimension about equal to or smaller than a mean free path of a gas being pumped. A thermal gradient is provided along the length of each pore by a heat source which can be an electrical resistance heater or an integrated circuit (IC). A channel can be formed through the silicon substrate so that inlet and outlet ports can be formed on the same side of the substrate, or so that multiple MEM pumps can be connected in series to form a multi-stage MEM pump. The MEM pump has applications for use in gas-phase MEM chemical analysis systems, and can also be used for passive cooling of ICs.

Lantz, Jeffrey W. (Albuquerque, NM); Stalford, Harold L. (Norman, OK)

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

457

Dispersion toughened silicon carbon ceramics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fracture resistant silicon carbide ceramics are provided by incorporating therein a particulate dispersoid selected from the group consisting of (a) a mixture of boron, carbon and tungsten, (b) a mixture of boron, carbon and molybdenum, (c) a mixture of boron, carbon and titanium carbide, (d) a mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide, and (e) boron nitride. 4 figures.

Wei, G.C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprising an alloy of amorphous silicon and a band gap narrowing element selected from the group consisting of Sn, Ge, and Pb, with an electron donor dopant selected from the group consisting of P, As, Sb, Bi and N. The process for producing the narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprises the steps of forming an alloy comprising amorphous silicon and at least one of the aforesaid band gap narrowing elements in amount sufficient to narrow the band gap of the silicon semiconductor alloy below that of amorphous silicon, and also utilizing sufficient amounts of the aforesaid electron donor dopant to maintain the amorphous silicon alloy as an n-type semiconductor.

Madan, A.; Mahan, A.H.

1985-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

459

Black Silicon Solar Thin-film Microcells Integrating Top Nanocone Structures for Broadband and Omnidirectional Light-Trapping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently developed classes of monocrystalline silicon solar microcells (u-cell) can be assembled into modules with characteristics (i.e., mechanically flexible forms, compact concentrator designs, and high-voltage outputs) that would be impossible to achieve using conventional, wafer-based approaches. In this paper, we describe a highly dense, uniform and non-periodic nanocone forest structure of black silicon (bSi) created on optically-thin (30 um) u-cells for broadband and omnidirectional light-trapping with a lithography-free and high-throughput plasma texturizing process. With optimized plasma etching conditions and a silicon nitride passivation layer, black silicon u-cells, when embedded in a polymer waveguiding layer, display dramatic increases of as much as 65.7% in short circuit current, as compared to a bare silicon device. The conversion efficiency increases from 8% to 11.5% with a small drop in open circuit voltage and fill factor.

Xu, Zhida; Brueckner, Eric P; Li, Lanfang; Jiang, Jing; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Liu, Gang L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work offers the first, thin, MEMS contact-stress (CS) sensor capable of accurate in situ measruement of time-varying, contact-stress between two solid interfaces (e.g. in vivo cartilage contact-stress and body armor dynamic loading). This CS sensor is a silicon-based device with a load sensitive diaphragm. The diaphragm is doped to create piezoresistors arranged in a full Wheatstone bridge. The sensor is similar in performance to established silicon pressure sensors, but it is reliably produced to a thickness of 65 {micro}m. Unlike commercial devices or other research efforts, this CS sensor, including packaging, is extremely thin (< 150 {micro}m fully packaged) so that it can be unobtrusively placed between contacting structures. It is built from elastic, well-characterized materials, providing accurate and high-speed (50+ kHz) measurements over a potential embedded lifetime of decades. This work explored sensor designs for an interface load range of 0-2 MPa; however, the CS sensor has a flexible design architecture to measure a wide variety of interface load ranges.

Kotovsky, J; Tooker, A; Horsley, D A

2009-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Cryogenic Silicon Microstrip Detector Modules for LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CERN is presently constructing the LHC, which will produce collisions of 7 TeV protons in 4 interaction points at a design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The radiation dose resulting from the operation at high luminosity will cause a serious deterioration of the silicon tracker performance. The state-of-art silicon microstrip detectors can tolerate a fluence of about 3 1014 cm-2 of hadrons or charged leptons. This is insufficient, however, for long-term operation in the central parts of the LHC trackers, in particular after the possible luminosity upgrade of the LHC. By operating the detectors at cryogenic temperatures the radiation hardness can be improved by a factor 10. This work proposes a cryogenic microstrip detector module concept which has the features required for the microstrip trackers of the upgraded LHC experiments at CERN. The module can hold an edgeless sensor, being a good candidate for improved luminosity and total cross-section measurements in the ATLAS, CMS and TOTEM experiments. The design o...

Perea-Solano, B

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Capacity fade of Sony 18650 cells cycled at elevated temperatures Part I. Cycling performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capacity fade of Sony 18650 cells cycled at elevated temperatures Part I. Cycling performance P of Sony 18650 Li-ion cells increases with increase in temperature. After 800 cycles, the cells cycled the capacity fade of commercial Li-ion cells cycled at high temperatures. We choose Sony 18650 cells with Li

Popov, Branko N.

463

Enhanced absorption by nanostructured silicon S. Bandiera, D. Jacob, T. Muller, F. Marquier, M. Laroche,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhanced absorption by nanostructured silicon S. Bandiera, D. Jacob, T. Muller, F. Marquier, M such as ultrafast detectors or high efficiency photovoltaics require absorption by thin films. However, close to the bandgap, silicon absorbs very poorly. In this letter, we show that the absorption of a 100 nm slab can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

464

REDUCTION CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE AND SALTSTONE COMPONENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The duration that saltstone retains its ability to immobilize some key radionuclides, such as technetium (Tc), plutonium (Pu), and neptunium (Np), depends on its capacity to maintain a low redox status (or low oxidation state). The reduction capacity is a measure of the mass of reductants present in the saltstone; the reductants are the active ingredients that immobilize Tc, Pu, and Np. Once reductants are exhausted, the saltstone loses its ability to immobilize these radionuclides. The reduction capacity values reported here are based on the Ce(IV)/Fe(II) system. The Portland cement (198 {micro}eq/g) and especially the fly ash (299 {micro}eq/g) had a measurable amount of reduction capacity, but the blast furnace slag (820 {micro}eq/g) not surprisingly accounted for most of the reduction capacity. The blast furnace slag contains ferrous iron and sulfides which are strong reducing and precipitating species for a large number of solids. Three saltstone samples containing 45% slag or one sample containing 90% slag had essentially the same reduction capacity as pure slag. There appears to be some critical concentration between 10% and 45% slag in the Saltstone formulation that is needed to create the maximum reduction capacity. Values from this work supported those previously reported, namely that the reduction capacity of SRS saltstone is about 820 {micro}eq/g; this value is recommended for estimating the longevity that the Saltstone Disposal Facility will retain its ability to immobilize radionuclides.

Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

465

Process for depositing an oxide epitaxially onto a silicon substrate and structures prepared with the process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilizes an ultra high vacuum and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) methods to grow an epitaxial oxide film upon a surface of the substrate. As the film is grown, the lattice of the compound formed at the silicon interface becomes stabilized, and a base layer comprised of an oxide having a sodium chloride-type lattice structure grows epitaxially upon the compound so as to cover the substrate surface. A perovskite may then be grown epitaxially upon the base layer to render a product which incorporates silicon, with its electronic capabilities, with a perovskite having technologically-significant properties of its own.

McKee, Rodney A. (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Laser desorption ionization and peptide sequencing on laser induced silicon microcolumn arrays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method of producing a laser-patterned silicon surface, especially silicon wafers for use in laser desorption ionization (LDI-MS) (including MALDI-MS and SELDI-MS), devices containing the same, and methods of testing samples employing the same. The surface is prepared by subjecting a silicon substrate to multiple laser shots from a high-power picosecond or femtosecond laser while in a processing environment, e.g., underwater, and generates a remarkable homogenous microcolumn array capable of providing an improved substrate for LDI-MS.

Vertes, Akos (Reston, VA); Chen, Yong (San Diego, CA)

2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

467

Rheology and stability kinetics of bare silicon nanoparticle inks for low-cost direct printing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highly dispersed and stable silicon nanoparticles ink is formulated for its application in direct printing or printable electronics. These dispersions are prepared from free-standing silicon nanoparticles which are not capped with any organic ligand, making it suitable for electronic applications. Silicon nanoparticles dispersions are prepared by suspending the nanoparticles in benzonitrile or ethanol by using polypropylene glycol (PPG) as a binder. All the samples show typical shear thinning behavior while the dispersion samples show low viscosities signifying good quality dispersion. Such thinning behavior favors in fabrication of dense films with spin-coating or patterns with drop casting. The dispersion stability is monitored by turbiscan measurements showing good stability for one week. A low-cost direct printing method for dispersion samples is also demonstrated to obtain micro-sized patterns. Low electrical resistivity of resulting patterns, adjustable viscosity and good stability makes these silicon nanoparticles dispersions highly applicable for direct printing process.

More, Priyesh V.; Jeong, Sunho; Seo, Yeong-Hui; Ryu, Beyong-Hwan; Choi, Youngmin [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Jip [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 Korea and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University 5-1 Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Nahm, Sahn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University 5-1 Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

468

Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 States, 1980 through 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to analyze monthly natural gas wellhead productive capacity in the lower 48 States from 1980 through 1992 and project this capacity from 1993 through 1995. For decades, natural gas supplies and productive capacity have been adequate to meet demand. In the 1970`s the capacity surplus was small because of market structure (split between interstate and intrastate), increasing demand, and insufficient drilling. In the early 1980`s, lower demand, together with increased drilling, led to a large surplus capacity as new productive capacity came on line. After 1986, this large surplus began to decline as demand for gas increased, gas prices fell, and gas well completions dropped sharply. In late December 1989, the decline in this surplus, accompanied by exceptionally high demand and temporary weather-related production losses, led to concerns about the adequacy of monthly productive capacity for natural gas. These concerns should have been moderated by the gas system`s performance during the unusually severe winter weather in March 1993 and January 1994. The declining trend in wellhead productive capacity is expected to be reversed in 1994 if natural gas prices and drilling meet or exceed the base case assumption. This study indicates that in the low, base, and high drilling cases, monthly productive capacity should be able to meet normal production demands through 1995 in the lower 48 States (Figure ES1). Exceptionally high peak-day or peak-week production demand might not be met because of physical limitations such as pipeline capacity. Beyond 1995, as the capacity of currently producing wells declines, a sufficient number of wells and/or imports must be added each year in order to ensure an adequate gas supply.

Not Available

1994-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

469

Refiners boost crude capacity; Petrochemical production up  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Continuing demand strength in refined products and petrochemical markets caused refiners to boost crude-charging capacity slightly again last year, and petrochemical producers to increase production worldwide. Product demand strength is, in large part, due to stable product prices resulting from a stabilization of crude oil prices. Crude prices strengthened somewhat in 1987. That, coupled with fierce product competition, unfortunately drove refining margins negative in many regions of the U.S. during the last half of 1987. But with continued strong demand for gasoline, and an increased demand for higher octane gasoline, margins could turn positive by 1989 and remain so for a few years. U.S. refiners also had to have facilities in place to meet the final requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's lead phase-down rules on Jan. 1, 1988. In petrochemicals, plastics demand dept basic petrochemical plants at good utilization levels worldwide. U.S. production of basics such as ethylene and propylene showed solid increases. Many of the derivatives of the basic petrochemical products also showed good production gains. Increased petrochemical production and high plant utilization rates didn't spur plant construction projects, however. Worldwide petrochemical plant projects declined slightly from 1986 figures.

Corbett, R.A.

1988-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

470

Photovoltaics effective capacity: Interim final report 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors provide solid evidence, based on more than 8 million data points, that regional photovoltaic (PV) effective capacity is largely unrelated to the region`s solar resource. They confirm, however, that effective capacity is strongly related to load-shape characteristics. The load-shape effective-capacity relationship appears to be valid for end-use loads as small as 100 kW, except possibly in the case of electrically heated buildings. This relationship was used as a tool to produce a US map of PV`s effective capacity. The regions of highest effective capacities include (1) the central US from the northern Great Plains to the metropolitan areas of Chicago and Detroit, down to the lower Mississippi Valley, (2) California and western Arizona, and (3) the northeast metropolitan corridor. The features of this map are considerably different from the traditional solar resource maps. They tend to reflect the socio-economic and climatic factors that indirectly drive PV`s effective capacity: e.g., commercial air-conditioning, little use of electric heat, and strong summer heat waves. The map provides a new and significant insight to a comprehensive valuation of the PV resource. The authors assembled preliminary evidence showing that end-use load type may be related to PV`s effective capacity. Highest effective capacities were found for (nonelectrically heated) office buildings, followed by hospitals. Lowest capacities were found for airports and residences. Many more data points are needed, however, to ascertain and characterize these preliminary findings.

Perez, R.; Seals, R. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Photonic Crystal Cavities in Cubic (3C) Polytype Silicon Carbide Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of high quality factor and small mode volume planar photonic crystal cavities from cubic (3C) thin films (thickness ~ 200 nm) of silicon carbide (SiC) grown epitaxially on a silicon substrate. We demonstrate cavity resonances across the telecommunications band, with wavelengths from 1,250 - 1,600 nm. Finally, we discuss possible applications in nonlinear optics, optical interconnects, and quantum information science.

Marina Radulaski; Thomas M. Babinec; Sonia Buckley; Armand Rundquist; J Provine; Kassem Alassaad; Gabriel Ferro; Jelena Vu?kovi?

2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

472

Representation of the Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An important emerging issue is the estimation of renewables' contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly, effective load-carrying capacity (ELCC), are considered to be the most robust techniques for addressing this resource variability. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model and other long-term electricity capacity planning models require an approach to estimating CV for generalized PV and system configurations with low computational and data requirements. In this paper we validate treatment of solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity value by ReEDS capacity expansion model by comparing model results to literature for a range of energy penetration levels. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons--despite not being resolved at an hourly scale.

Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Thin Single Crystal Silicon Solar Cells on Ceramic Substrates: November 2009 - November 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this program we have been developing a technology for fabricating thin (< 50 micrometres) single crystal silicon wafers on foreign substrates. We reverse the conventional approach of depositing or forming silicon on foreign substrates by depositing or forming thick (200 to 400 micrometres) ceramic materials on high quality single crystal silicon films ~ 50 micrometres thick. Our key innovation is the fabrication of thin, refractory, and self-adhering 'handling layers or substrates' on thin epitaxial silicon films in-situ, from powder precursors obtained from low cost raw materials. This 'handling layer' has sufficient strength for device and module processing and fabrication. Successful production of full sized (125 mm X 125 mm) silicon on ceramic wafers with 50 micrometre thick single crystal silicon has been achieved and device process flow developed for solar cell fabrication. Impurity transfer from the ceramic to the silicon during the elevated temperature consolidation process has resulted in very low minority carrier lifetimes and resulting low cell efficiencies. Detailed analysis of minority carrier lifetime, metals analysis and device characterization have been done. A full sized solar cell efficiency of 8% has been demonstrated.

Kumar, A.; Ravi, K. V.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

The CDF silicon vertex trigger  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CDF experiment's Silicon Vertex Trigger is a system of 150 custom 9U VME boards that reconstructs axial tracks in the CDF silicon strip detector in a 15 {mu}sec pipeline. SVT's 35 {mu}m impact parameter resolution enables CDF's Level 2 trigger to distinguish primary and secondary particles, and hence to collect large samples of hadronic bottom and charm decays. We review some of SVT's key design features. Speed is achieved with custom VLSI pattern recognition, linearized track fitting, pipelining, and parallel processing. Testing and reliability are aided by built-in logic state analysis and test-data sourcing at each board's input and output, a common inter-board data link, and a universal ''Merger'' board for data fan-in/fan-out. Speed and adaptability are enhanced by use of modern FPGAs.

B. Ashmanskas; A. Barchiesi; A. Bardi

2003-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

475

Bipolar monolithic preamplifiers for SSC silicon calorimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes preamplifiers designed specifically to address the requirements of silicon calorimetry for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). Eight different preamplifiers designed for detector capacitances ranging from 20 pF to 500 pF and operating temperatures from 25{degree}C to {minus}20{degree}C are discussed. The preamplifiers were fabricated with two different high-frequency processes (one with the VTC, Inc. VJ900 process, seven with the Harris Semiconductor VHF Process). The different topologies and their features are discussed in addition to the design methodologies employed. The results for noise, power consumption, speed, and radiation damage effects as well as data for post-damage annealing are presented for the VTC process preamplifier. Simulations for the VHF Process circuits are presented. This work was funded through SSC Generic Detector funding, SSC Detector Subsystem funding, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Detector Center.

Britton, C.L. Jr.; Todd, R.A.; Bauer, M.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Kennedy, E.J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Bugg, W.M. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Junction-side illuminated silicon detector arrays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A junction-side illuminated detector array of pixelated detectors is constructed on a silicon wafer. A junction contact on the front-side may cover the whole detector array, and may be used as an entrance window for light, x-ray, gamma ray and/or other particles. The back-side has an array of individual ohmic contact pixels. Each of the ohmic contact pixels on the back-side may be surrounded by a grid or a ring of junction separation implants. Effective pixel size may be changed by separately biasing different sections of the grid. A scintillator may be coupled directly to the entrance window while readout electronics may be coupled directly to the ohmic contact pixels. The detector array may be used as a radiation hardened detector for high-energy physics research or as avalanche imaging arrays.

Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Patt, Bradley E.; Tull, Carolyn

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

477

Formation of multiple levels of porous silicon for buried insulators and conductors in silicon device technologies  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of forming a multiple level porous silicon substrate for semiconductor integrated circuits including anodizing non-porous silicon layers of a multi-layer silicon substrate to form multiple levels of porous silicon. At least one porous silicon layer is then oxidized to form an insulating layer and at least one other layer of porous silicon beneath the insulating layer is metallized to form a buried conductive layer. Preferably the insulating layer and conductive layer are separated by an anodization barrier formed of non-porous silicon. By etching through the anodization barrier and subsequently forming a metallized conductive layer, a fully or partially insulated buried conductor may be fabricated under single crystal silicon.

Blewer, Robert S. (Albuquerque, NM); Gullinger, Terry R. (Albuquerque, NM); Kelly, Michael J. (Albuquerque, NM); Tsao, Sylvia S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Strained Silicon on Silicon by Wafer Bonding and Layer Transfer from Relaxed SiGe Buffer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the creation of strained silicon on silicon (SSOS) substrate technology. The method uses a relaxed SiGe buffer as a template for inducing tensile strain in a Si layer, which is then bonded to another Si handle ...

Isaacson, David M.

479

Nonlinear absorption in silicon nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nonlinear absorption of light in silicon nanocrystals suspended in glycerol is studied by the Z-scan method. The experimental data are used for calculating the nonlinear absorption coefficient {beta}{sub Si-gl} for silicon nanocrystals in glycerol (with a volume filling factor f=2x10{sup -4}), and the coefficient {beta}{sub Si} for pure silicon with a hypothetical volume filling factor f{approx}1. For the laser radiation wavelength {lambda}=497 nm and the pulse duration {tau}=0.5 ns, these coefficients are {beta}{sub Si-gl}=1.2x10{sup -8} cm W{sup -1} and {beta}{sub Si} =7.36x10{sup -5} cm W{sup -1}, while the corresponding values for {lambda}=532 nm and {tau}=10 ns are {beta}{sub Si-gl}=5.36x10{sup -5} cm W{sup -1} and {beta}{sub Si} =0.25 cm W{sup -1}. Experiments with 540-nm, 20-ps laser pulses performed for two different filling factors equal to 2x10{sup -4} and 3x10{sup -3} gave nonlinear absorption coefficients {beta}{sub Si-gl}=2x10{sup -7} and 3.6x10{sup -6} cm W{sup -1}, respectively. Optical absorption and Raman scattering spectra of silicon nanocrystals are also studied. A theoretical analysis of the experimental results shows that optical absorption can be related to the localisation of photoexcited carriers in the conduction band. The localisation is caused by the action of strong static electric fields on an electron in a nanoparticle. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

Korovin, S B; Orlov, A N; Prokhorov, A M; Pustovoi, V I [Natural Science Center, A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Konstantaki, M; Couris, S; Koudoumas, E [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), Institute of Electronic Structure and Lasers, Crete (Greece)

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

480

DECODING THE MESSAGE FROM METEORITIC STARDUST SILICON CARBIDE GRAINS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Micron-sized stardust grains that originated in ancient stars are recovered from meteorites and analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry. The most widely studied type of stardust is silicon carbide (SiC). Thousands of these grains have been analyzed with high precision for their Si isotopic composition. Here we show that the distribution of the Si isotopic composition of the vast majority of stardust SiC grains carries the imprints of a spread in the age-metallicity distribution of their parent stars and of a power-law increase of the relative formation efficiency of SiC dust with the metallicity. This result offers a solution for the long-standing problem of silicon in stardust SiC grains, confirms the necessity of coupling chemistry and dynamics in simulations of the chemical evolution of our Galaxy, and constrains the modeling of dust condensation in stellar winds as a function of the metallicity.

Lewis, Karen M.; Lugaro, Maria; Gibson, Brad K.; Pilkington, Kate, E-mail: maria.lugaro@monash.edu, E-mail: karen.michelle.lewis@gmail.com, E-mail: bkgibson@uclan.ac.uk, E-mail: kpilkington@uclan.ac.uk [Monash Centre for Astrophysics (MoCA), Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia)

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high capacity silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Decoding the message from meteoritic stardust silicon carbide grains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Micron-sized stardust grains that originated in ancient stars are recovered from meteorites and analysed using high-resolution mass spectrometry. The most widely studied type of stardust is silicon carbide (SiC). Thousands of these grains have been analysed with high precision for their Si isotopic composition. Here we show that the distribution of the Si isotopic composition of the vast majority of stardust SiC grains carry the imprints of a spread in the age-metallicity distribution of their parent stars and of a power-law increase of the relative formation efficiency of SiC dust with the metallicity. This result offers a solution for the long-standing problem of silicon in stardust SiC grains, confirms the necessity of coupling chemistry and dynamics in simulations of the chemical evolution of our Galaxy, and constrains the modelling of dust condensation in stellar winds as function of the metallicity.

Lewis, Karen M; Gibson, Brad K; Pilkington, Kate

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

International Masters Program in Nuclear Security Human Capacity Building in Nuclear Security  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 TUDelft International Masters Program in Nuclear Security Human Capacity Building in Nuclear Security Dirk Jan van den Berg President Del2 University of Technology participants, Nuclear security requires highly skilled experts. Professionals, who are familiar

Langendoen, Koen

483

Internal Markets for Supply Chain Capacity Allocation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper explores the possibility of solving supply chain capacity allocation problems using internal markets among employees of the same company. Unlike earlier forms of transfer pricing, IT now makes it easier for such ...

McAdams, David

2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

484

Capacity Building Project with Howard University  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The purpose of this initiative is to build community capacity for public participation in environmental and energy decision making. The target communities are those impacted by U.S. Department of...

485

Expandability, reversibility, and optimal capacity choice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop continuous-time models of capacity choice when demand fluctuates stochastically, and the firm's opportunities to expand or contract are limited. Specifically, we consider costs of investing or disinvesting that ...

Dixit, Avinash K.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Feedback Capacity of the Compound Channel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, we find the capacity of a compound finite-state channel (FSC) with time-invariant deterministic feedback. We consider the use of fixed length block codes over the compound channel. Our achievability result ...

Shrader, Brooke E.

487

Inventories and capacity utilization in general equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The primary goal of this dissertation is to gain a better understanding, in thecontext of a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium framework, of the role of inventories and capacity utilization (of both capital and labor) and, in particular...

Trupkin, Danilo Rogelio

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

488

Silicon Sheets By Redox Assisted Chemical Exfoliation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we report the direct chemical synthesis of silicon sheets in gram-scale quantities by chemical exfoliation of pre-processed calcium di-silicide (CaSi2). We have used a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to characterize the obtained silicon sheets. We found that the clean and crystalline silicon sheets show a 2-dimensional hexagonal graphitic structure.

Tchalala, Mohamed Rachid; Enriquez, Hanna; Kara, Abdelkader; Lachgar, Abdessadek; Yagoubi, Said; Foy, Eddy; Vega, Enrique; Bendounan, Azzedine; Silly, Mathieu G; Sirotti, Fausto; Nitshe, Serge; Chaudanson, Damien; Jamgotchian, Haik; Aufray, Bernard; Mayne, Andrew J; Dujardin, Gérald; Oughaddou, Hamid

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Process for strengthening silicon based ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for strengthening silicon based ceramic monolithic materials and composite materials that contain silicon based ceramic reinforcing phases that requires that the ceramic be exposed to a wet hydrogen atmosphere at about 1400{degrees}C. The process results in a dense, tightly adherent silicon containing oxide layer that heals, blunts, or otherwise negates the detrimental effect of strength limiting flaws on the surface of the ceramic body.

Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Moorhead, A.J.

1991-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

490

Measuring the capacity impacts of demand response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Critical peak pricing and peak time rebate programs offer benefits by increasing system reliability, and therefore, reducing capacity needs of the electric power system. These benefits, however, decrease substantially as the size of the programs grows relative to the system size. More flexible schemes for deployment of demand response can help address the decreasing returns to scale in capacity value, but more flexible demand response has decreasing returns to scale as well. (author)

Earle, Robert; Kahn, Edward P.; Macan, Edo

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

491

Enhancing the Lithiation Rate of Silicon Nanowires by the Inclusion...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Enhancing the Lithiation Rate of Silicon Nanowires by the Inclusion of Tin. Enhancing the Lithiation Rate of Silicon Nanowires by the Inclusion of Tin. Abstract: Silicon (Si) has a...

492

Microstructure and properties of IN SITU toughened silicon carbide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IN SITU TOUGHENED SILICON CARBIDE LUTGARD C. DE JONGHE 1,2 ,In Situ Toughened Silicon Carbide Lutgard C. De Jonghe 1,2 ,USA ABSTRACT A silicon carbide with a fracture toughness as

De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Zhang, Xiao Feng

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Efficient light trapping structure in thin film silicon solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thin film silicon solar cells are believed to be promising candidates for continuing cost reduction in photovoltaic panels because silicon usage could be greatly reduced. Since silicon is an indirect bandgap semiconductor, ...

Sheng, Xing

494

Microstructure and properties of IN SITU toughened silicon carbide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A silicon carbide with a fracture toughness as high as 9.1 MPa.m1/2 has been developed by hot pressing b-SiC powder with aluminum, boron, and carbon additions (ABC-SiC). Central in this material development has been systematic transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and mechanical characterizations. In particular, atomic-resolution electron microscopy and nanoprobe composition quantification were combined in analyzing grain boundary structure and nanoscale structural features.

De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Zhang, Xiao Feng

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Advanced crystallization techniques of ''solar grade'' silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microstructural, electrical and photovoltaic characteristics of polycristalline silicon solar cells fabricated with silicon ingots containing 5, 100 and 500 ppmw iron are reported and discussed. All silicon ingots were grown by the directional solidification technique in graphite or special quartz molds and doped intentionally with iron, in order to evaluate the potentiality of the D.S. technique when employed with solar silicon feedstocks. Results indicate that structural breakdown limits the amount of the ingot which is usable for solar cells fabrication, but also that efficiencies in excess of 10% are obtained using the ''good'' region of the ingot.

Gasparini, M.; Alessandri, M.; Calligarich, C.; Pizzini, S.; Rava, P.; Redaelli, F.; Sardi, L.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Innovation and Social Capital in Silicon Valley  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Innovation and Social Capital in Silicon Valley * BRIEpath from social capital to innovation has been identified.social capital has for economic development and innovation.

Kenney, Martin; Patton, Donald

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Silicon Materials and Devices (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its silicon materials and devices research. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed.

Not Available

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Silicon Materials and Devices (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Silicon Materials and Devices that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

Not Available

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Ultralow-Power Silicon Microphotonic Communications Platform  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

second). These peta-scale machines are critical for advanced scientific modelling of climate change, biological simulations, advanced materials, and our Ultralow-Power Silicon...

500

Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from inexpensive low-grade silicon. Artist's impression of an intense beam of synchrotron light striking a solar cell and the resulting fluorescence image of the distribution of...