National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for high activity drain

  1. Trapping in GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor transistors: Role of high drain bias and hot electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meneghini, M. Bisi, D.; Meneghesso, G.; Zanoni, E.

    2014-04-07

    This paper describes an extensive analysis of the role of off-state and semi-on state bias in inducing the trapping in GaN-based power High Electron Mobility Transistors. The study is based on combined pulsed characterization and on-resistance transient measurements. We demonstrate thatby changing the quiescent bias point from the off-state to the semi-on stateit is possible to separately analyze two relevant trapping mechanisms: (i) the trapping of electrons in the gate-drain access region, activated by the exposure to high drain bias in the off-state; (ii) the trapping of hot-electrons within the AlGaN barrier or the gate insulator, which occurs when the devices are operated in the semi-on state. The dependence of these two mechanisms on the bias conditions and on temperature, and the properties (activation energy and cross section) of the related traps are described in the text.

  2. La Vida Robot - High School Engineering Program Combats Engineering Brain Drain

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Cameron, Allan; Fredi, Lajvardi

    2009-09-01

    Carl Hayden High School has built an impressive reputation with its robotics club. At a time when interest in science, math and engineering is declining, the Falcon Robotics club has young people fired up about engineering. Their program in underwater robots (MATE) and FIRST robotics is becoming a national model, not for building robots, but for building engineers. Teachers Fredi Lajvardi and Allan Cameron will present their story (How kids 'from the mean streets of Phoenix took on the best from M.I.T. in the national underwater bot championship' - Wired Magazine, April 2005) and how every student needs the opportunity to 'do real engineering.'

  3. DNA Persistence in Sink Drain Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm.

  4. Hohokam Irr & Drain Dist | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hohokam Irr & Drain Dist Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hohokam Irr & Drain Dist Place: Arizona Phone Number: (520) 723-7751 Website: hohokamthepowerofchoice.com Outage...

  5. DNA Persistence in Sink Drain Environment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of themore » sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively.« less

  6. Drain-Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat & Cool Water Heating Drain-Water Heat Recovery Drain-Water Heat Recovery Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. ...

  7. Drain-Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool Water Heating Drain-Water Heat Recovery ... Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Any hot water ... Drain-water (or greywater) heat recovery systems capture ...

  8. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1996-06-11

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidation state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  9. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  10. Postlumpectomy Focal Brachytherapy for Simultaneous Treatment of Surgical Cavity and Draining Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrycushko, Brian A.; Li Shihong; Shi Chengyu; Goins, Beth; Liu Yaxi; Phillips, William T.; Otto, Pamela M.; Bao, Ande

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: The primary objective was to investigate a novel focal brachytherapy technique using lipid nanoparticle (liposome)-carried {beta}-emitting radionuclides (rhenium-186 [{sup 186}Re]/rhenium-188 [{sup 188}Re]) to simultaneously treat the postlumpectomy surgical cavity and draining lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Cumulative activity distributions in the lumpectomy cavity and lymph nodes were extrapolated from small animal imaging and human lymphoscintigraphy data. Absorbed dose calculations were performed for lumpectomy cavities with spherical and ellipsoidal shapes and lymph nodes within human subjects by use of the dose point kernel convolution method. Results: Dose calculations showed that therapeutic dose levels within the lumpectomy cavity wall can cover 2- and 5-mm depths for {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re liposomes, respectively. The absorbed doses at 1 cm sharply decreased to only 1.3% to 3.7% of the doses at 2 mm for {sup 186}Re liposomes and 5 mm for {sup 188}Re liposomes. Concurrently, the draining sentinel lymph nodes would receive a high focal therapeutic absorbed dose, whereas the average dose to 1 cm of surrounding tissue received less than 1% of that within the nodes. Conclusions: Focal brachytherapy by use of {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re liposomes was theoretically shown to be capable of simultaneously treating the lumpectomy cavity wall and draining sentinel lymph nodes with high absorbed doses while significantly lowering dose to surrounding healthy tissue. In turn, this allows for dose escalation to regions of higher probability of containing residual tumor cells after lumpectomy while reducing normal tissue complications.

  11. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Activity Dealloyed Catalysts 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Project Kick-Off Frederick T. Wagner General Motors Research & Development Electrochemical Energy Research Lab Honeoye Falls, NY September 28, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 * Project start date: 1 Sept 2010 * Project end date: 31 Aug 2013 * Percent complete: 0% * Barriers addressed - B. Cost * Decrease required loading of precious metals including

  12. Drain-Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Water Heating » Drain-Water Heat Recovery Drain-Water Heat Recovery Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Any hot water that goes down the drain carries away energy with it. That's typically 80%-90% of the energy used to heat water in a home. Drain-water (or greywater) heat recovery systems capture this energy from water you've already used (for example, to shower, wash dishes, or wash clothing) to preheat cold water

  13. Method of making self-aligned lightly-doped-drain structure for MOS transistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiner, Kurt H.; Carey, Paul G.

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating lightly-doped-drains (LDD) for short-channel metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistors. The process utilizes a pulsed laser process to incorporate the dopants, thus eliminating the prior oxide deposition and etching steps. During the process, the silicon in the source/drain region is melted by the laser energy. Impurities from the gas phase diffuse into the molten silicon to appropriately dope the source/drain regions. By controlling the energy of the laser, a lightly-doped-drain can be formed in one processing step. This is accomplished by first using a single high energy laser pulse to melt the silicon to a significant depth and thus the amount of dopants incorporated into the silicon is small. Furthermore, the dopants incorporated during this step diffuse to the edge of the MOS transistor gate structure. Next, many low energy laser pulses are used to heavily dope the source/drain silicon only in a very shallow region. Because of two-dimensional heat transfer at the MOS transistor gate edge, the low energy pulses are inset from the region initially doped by the high energy pulse. By computer control of the laser energy, the single high energy laser pulse and the subsequent low energy laser pulses are carried out in a single operational step to produce a self-aligned lightly-doped-drain-structure.

  14. Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comparato, Joseph R. (Bloomfield, CT); Jacobs, Martin (Hartford, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

  15. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boomer, Kayle D.; Engeman, Jason K.; Gunter, Jason R.; Joslyn, Cameron C.; Vazquez, Brandon J.; Venetz, Theodore J.; Garfield, John S.

    2014-01-20

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

  16. Design criteria Drain Rerouting Project 93-OR-EW-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This document contains the design criteria to be used by the architect-engineer (A--E) in the performance of Title I and II design for the Drain Rerouting Project. The Drain Rerouting project at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee will provide the Y-12 Plant with the capability to reroute particular drains within buildings 9202, 9203 and 9995. Process drains that are presently connected to the storm sewer shall be routed to the sanitary sewer to ensure that any objectionable material inadvertently discharged into process drains will not discharge to East Fork Popular Creek (EFPC) without treatment. The project will also facilitate compliance with the Y-12 Plant`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge permit and allow for future pretreatment of once-through coolant.

  17. LBNL: High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems - 2015...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LBNL: High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Eleanor Lee, LBNL View the Presentation PDF icon LBNL: High Performance Active Perimeter ...

  18. Archaeal and bacterial communities across a chronosequence of drained lake basins in arctic alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao-Kniffin, J.; Woodcroft, B. J.; Carver, S. M.; Bockheim, J. G.; Handelsman, J.; Tyson, G. W.; Hinkel, K. M.; Mueller, C. W.

    2015-12-18

    We examined patterns in soil microbial community composition across a successional gradient of drained lake basins in the Arctic Coastal Plain. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that methanogens closely related to Candidatus ‘Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis’ were the dominant archaea, comprising >50% of the total archaea at most sites, with particularly high levels in the oldest basins and in the top 57 cm of soil (active and transition layers). Bacterial community composition was more diverse, with lineages from OP11, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria found in high relative abundance across all sites. Notably, microbial composition appeared to converge in the active layer, but transition and permafrost layer communities across the sites were significantly different to one another. Microbial biomass using fatty acid-based analysis indicated that the youngest basins had increased abundances of gram-positive bacteria and saprotrophic fungi at higher soil organic carbon levels, while the oldest basins displayed an increase in only the gram-positive bacteria. While this study showed differences in microbial populations across the sites relevant to basin age, the dominance of Candidatus ‘M. stordalenmirensis’ across the chronosequence indicates the potential for changes in local carbon cycling, depending on how these methanogens and associated microbial communities respond to warming temperatures.

  19. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2003-10-28

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  20. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2002-12-03

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  1. DETERMINATION OF LIQUID FILM THICKNESS FOLLOWING DRAINING OF CONTACTORS, VESSELS, AND PIPES IN THE MCU PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-06-06

    The Department of Energy (DOE) identified the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) process as the preferred technology to remove cesium from radioactive waste solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As a result, Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) in the SRS tank farm to process liquid waste for an interim period until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) begins operations. Both the solvent and the strip effluent streams could contain high concentrations of cesium which must be removed from the contactors, process tanks, and piping prior to performing contactor maintenance. When these vessels are drained, thin films or drops will remain on the equipment walls. Following draining, the vessels will be flushed with water and drained to remove the flush water. The draining reduces the cesium concentration in the vessels by reducing the volume of cesium-containing material. The flushing, and subsequent draining, reduces the cesium in the vessels by diluting the cesium that remains in the film or drops on the vessel walls. MCU personnel requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers conduct a literature search to identify models to calculate the thickness of the liquid films remaining in the contactors, process tanks, and piping following draining of salt solution, solvent, and strip solution. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The predicted film thickness of the strip effluent is 0.010 mm on vertical walls, 0.57 mm on horizontal walls and 0.081 mm in horizontal pipes. (2) The predicted film thickness of the salt solution is 0.015 mm on vertical walls, 0.74 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.106 mm in horizontal pipes. (3) The predicted film thickness of the solvent is 0.022 mm on vertical walls, 0.91 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.13 mm in horizontal pipes. (4) The calculated film volume following draining is: (a) Salt solution receipt tank--1.6 gallons; (b) Salt solution feed

  2. Wellton-Mohawk Irr & Drain Dist | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    & Drain Dist Place: Arizona Phone Number: (928) 785-3351 Website: www.wmidd.orgpower.html Outage Hotline: (928) 785-3351 References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 -...

  3. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  4. Archaeal and bacterial communities across a chronosequence of drained lake basins in arctic alaska

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kao-Kniffin, J.; Woodcroft, B. J.; Carver, S. M.; Bockheim, J. G.; Handelsman, J.; Tyson, G. W.; Hinkel, K. M.; Mueller, C. W.

    2015-12-18

    We examined patterns in soil microbial community composition across a successional gradient of drained lake basins in the Arctic Coastal Plain. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that methanogens closely related to Candidatus ‘Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis’ were the dominant archaea, comprising >50% of the total archaea at most sites, with particularly high levels in the oldest basins and in the top 57 cm of soil (active and transition layers). Bacterial community composition was more diverse, with lineages from OP11, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria found in high relative abundance across all sites. Notably, microbial composition appeared to converge in the activemore » layer, but transition and permafrost layer communities across the sites were significantly different to one another. Microbial biomass using fatty acid-based analysis indicated that the youngest basins had increased abundances of gram-positive bacteria and saprotrophic fungi at higher soil organic carbon levels, while the oldest basins displayed an increase in only the gram-positive bacteria. While this study showed differences in microbial populations across the sites relevant to basin age, the dominance of Candidatus ‘M. stordalenmirensis’ across the chronosequence indicates the potential for changes in local carbon cycling, depending on how these methanogens and associated microbial communities respond to warming temperatures.« less

  5. Lead Research and Development Activity for High Temperature,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program Lead Research and Development Activity for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program A presentation to the High ...

  6. LBNL: High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems - 2015 Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems - 2015 Peer Review LBNL: High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Eleanor Lee, LBNL View the Presentation LBNL: High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems - 2015 Peer Review (2 MB) More Documents & Publications FLEXLAB Connected Buildings Interoperability Vision Webinar 2015 DOE CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS PRESENTATIONS

  7. Risk assessment of drain valve failure in the K-West basin south loadout pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-06-23

    The drain valve located in the bottom of the K-West Basin South Loadout Pit (SLOP) could provide an additional leak path from the K Basins if the drain valve were damaged during construction, installation, or operation of the cask loading system. For the K-West Basin SLOP the immersion pail support structure (IPSS) has already been installed, but the immersion pail has not been installed in the IPSS. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the risk of damaging the drain valve during the remaining installation activities or operation of the cask loading system. Valve damage, as used in this analysis, does not necessarily imply large amounts of the water will be released quickly from the basin, rather valve damage implies that the valve's integrity has been compromised. The analysis process is a risk-based uncertainty analysis where best engineering judgement is used to represent each variable in the analysis. The uncertainty associated with each variable is represented by a probability distribution. The uncertainty is propagated through the analysis by Monte Carlo convolution techniques. The corresponding results are developed as a probability distribution and the risk is expressed in terms of the corresponding complementary cumulative distribution function (''risk curve''). The total risk is the area under the ''risk curve''. The risk of potentially dropping a cask into or on the IPSS and damaging the drain valve is approximately 1 x 10{sup -4} to 2 x 10{sup -5} per year. The risk of objects falling behind the IPSS and damaging the valve is 3 x 10{sup -2} to 6 x 10{sup -3} per year. Both risks are expressed as drain value failure frequencies. The risk of objects falling behind the IPSS and damaging the valve can be significantly reduced by an impact limiter and/or installing a gating or plate over the area bounded by the back of the IPSS and the wall of the SLOP. With either of these actions there is a 90 percent confidence that the frequency of drain valve

  8. High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities Breakout Session 1B-Integration of Supply Chains I: ...

  9. High specific activity platinum-195m

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-10-12

    A new composition of matter includes .sup.195m Pt characterized by a specific activity of at least 30 mCi/mg Pt, generally made by method that includes the steps of: exposing .sup.193 Ir to a flux of neutrons sufficient to convert a portion of the .sup.193 Ir to .sup.195m Pt to form an irradiated material; dissolving the irradiated material to form an intermediate solution comprising Ir and Pt; and separating the Pt from the Ir by cation exchange chromatography to produce .sup.195m Pt.

  10. High temperature solid oxide fuel development activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, E.R.

    1993-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Westinghouse tubular SOFC development activities and current program status. Goal is to develop a cell that can operate for 50,000 to 100,000 h. Test results are presented for multiple single cell tests which have now successfully exceeded 40,000 hours of continuous power operation at temperature. Two 25-kW SOFC customer tests units were delivered in 1992; a 20-kW SOFC system is bein manufactured and will be operated by Southern California Edison in 1995. Megawatt class generators are being developed.

  11. Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fraunhofer IPM, new funding situation in Germany, high temperature material and modules, ... Programme 7 and additional activities in Germany Standardization of Transport Properties ...

  12. Active control system for high speed windmills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, D.E.

    1988-01-12

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed. 4 figs.

  13. Active control system for high speed windmills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, Don E.

    1988-01-01

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed.

  14. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts These slides were presented at the 2010 New Fuel Cell Projects Meeting on September 28, 2010. 5_gm_catalysts_wagner.pdf (1.14 MB) More Documents & Publications DOE's Fuel Cell Catalyst R&D Activities Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

  15. PPPL researchers advance understanding of plasma turbulence that drains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat from fusion reactors | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab PPPL researchers advance understanding of plasma turbulence that drains heat from fusion reactors By Raphael Rosen February 22, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook PPPL Scientists Walter Guttenfelder and Yang Ren (Photo by Elle Starkman / PPPL Office of Communications) PPPL Scientists Walter Guttenfelder and Yang Ren The life of a subatomic particle can be hectic. The charged nuclei and electrons that zip around the

  16. PPPL researchers advance understanding of plasma turbulence that drains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat from fusion reactors | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab PPPL researchers advance understanding of plasma turbulence that drains heat from fusion reactors By Raphael Rosen February 22, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook PPPL Scientists Walter Guttenfelder and Yang Ren (Photo by Elle Starkman / PPPL Office of Communications) PPPL Scientists Walter Guttenfelder and Yang Ren The life of a subatomic particle can be hectic. The charged nuclei and electrons that zip around the

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of the Trench 1 Collection Drain Floodplain Area of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Shiprock, New Mexico, Site | Department of Energy Preliminary Evaluation of the Trench 1 Collection Drain Floodplain Area of the Shiprock, New Mexico, Site Preliminary Evaluation of the Trench 1 Collection Drain Floodplain Area of the Shiprock, New Mexico, Site Preliminary Evaluation of the Trench 1 Collection Drain Floodplain Area of the Shiprock, New Mexico, Site Preliminary Evaluation of the Trench 1 Collection Drain Floodplain Area of the Shiprock, New Mexico, Site (6.81 MB) More

  18. Heavy Duty HCCI Development Activities - DOE High Efficiency Clean

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion (HECC) | Department of Energy Heavy Duty HCCI Development Activities - DOE High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Heavy Duty HCCI Development Activities - DOE High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006_deer_duffy.pdf (33.12 MB) More Documents & Publications Development of Enabling Technologies for High

  19. Lead Research and Development Activity for High Temperature, Low Relative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Humidity Membrane Program | Department of Energy Lead Research and Development Activity for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program Lead Research and Development Activity for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program A presentation to the High Temperature Membranes Working Group meeting, May 19, 2006. fenton.pdf (448.4 KB) More Documents & Publications Discussion Overview In Plane Conductivity Testing, BekkTech LLC Progress and Status on Through-Plane

  20. A highly active manganese precatalyst for the hydrosilylation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    precatalyst for the hydrosilylation of ketones and esters Authors: Mukhopadhyay, T.K., Flores, M., Groy, T.L., and Trovitch, R.J. Title: A highly active manganese precatalyst for...

  1. Highly Potent Bactericidal Activity of Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highly Potent Bactericidal Activity of Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List ... A novel cobalt (Co) based metal-organic framework (MOF) was tested and shown to be ...

  2. High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1B—Integration of Supply Chains I: Breaking Down Barriers High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities Kevin Comer, Associate Principal, Antares Group Inc.

  3. Measurement of actinides and strontium-90 in high activity waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nelson, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The reliable measurement of trace radionuclides in high activity waste is important to support waste processing activities at SRS (F and H Area Waste Tanks, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) and In-Tank precipitation (ITP) processing). Separation techniques are needed to remove high levels of gamma activity and alpha/beta interferences prior to analytical measurement. Using new extraction chromatographic resins from EiChrom Industries, Inc., the SRS Central Laboratory has developed new high speed separation methods that enable measurement of neptunium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium-90 in high activity waste solutions. Small particle size resin and applied vacuum are used to reduce analysis times and enhance column performance. Extraction chromatographic resins are easy to use and eliminate the generation of contaminated liquid organic waste.

  4. Characterization Plan for Soils Around Drain Line PLA-100115

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-05-24

    This Characterization Plan supports the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) closure of soils that may have been contaminated by releases from drain line PLA-100115, located within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The requirements to address the closure of soils contaminated by a potential release from this line in a characterization plan was identified in the "HWMA/RCRA Less Than 90-day Generator Closure Report for the VES-SFE-126."

  5. Rejuvenation and reuse of high-activity catalyst for hydroprocessing high metals residua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hildebrandt, S.J.; Koseoglu, R.O.; Duddy, J.E.; Sherwood, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    In the 1980`s, Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) developed a new catalyst processing technology for recovery and reuse of spent catalysts from hydroprocessing of petroleum residua in the H-Oil Process. Recently, HRI and Texaco have applied Catalyst Rejuvenation Technology to a new high-activity H-Oil catalyst developed by Texaco. This paper will discuss the application of Catalyst Rejuvenation to the high activity Texaco catalyst when processing a high metals vacuum residuum.

  6. Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

    2005-09-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

  7. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treat, R.L.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1993-02-02

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  8. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treat, Russell L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  9. Method of preparing high specific activity platinum-195m

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-06-15

    A method of preparing high-specific-activity .sup.195m Pt includes the steps of: exposing .sup.193 Ir to a flux of neutrons sufficient to convert a portion of the .sup.193 Ir to .sup.195m Pt to form an irradiated material; dissolving the irradiated material to form an intermediate solution comprising Ir and Pt; and separating the Pt from the Ir by cation exchange chromatography to produce .sup.195m Pt.

  10. Method for preparing high specific activity 177Lu

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-04-06

    A method of separating lutetium from a solution containing Lu and Yb, particularly reactor-produced .sup.177 Lu and .sup.177 Yb, includes the steps of: providing a chromatographic separation apparatus containing LN resin; loading the apparatus with a solution containing Lu and Yb; and eluting the apparatus to chromatographically separate the Lu and the Yb in order to produce high-specific-activity .sup.177 Yb.

  11. Don't Let Your Money and Hot Water Go Down the Drain | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Don't Let Your Money and Hot Water Go Down the Drain Don't Let Your Money and Hot Water Go Down the Drain December 9, 2008 - 4:00am Addthis John Lippert Do you look at your ...

  12. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lottes, Steven A.; Bojanowski, Cezary

    2015-09-01

    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.

  13. Prefabricated vertical drains flow resistance under vacuum conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaranta, J.D.; Gabr, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The results of experimental research are presented and discussed with focus on the internal well resistance of prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) under vacuum-induced water flow. Measured results included fluid flow rates for two different cross-sectional hydraulic profiles (Types 1 and 2 PVDs). Experimental results indicated linear relationship, independent of the PVD widths, between extracted fluid velocity and the applied hydraulic gradient. Data showed a laminar flow regime to predominate for test velocities corresponding to hydraulic gradients {lt}0.5. The larger nominal hydraulic radius of the Type 2 PVD is credited with providing a flow rate equal to approximately 3.2 times that of the Type 1 PVD at approximately the same operating total head. There was no apparent dependency of the transmissivity {theta} on the width or lengths (3, 4, and 5 m) of the PVDs tested. In the case of the 100-mm-wide Type 1 PVD, {theta} = 618 mm{sup 2}/s was estimated from the measured data versus {theta} = 1,996 mm{sup 2}/s for Type 2 PVD with the same dimensions.

  14. Inverse problem in anisotropic poroelasticity: Drained constants from undrained ultrasound measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J.G.; Nakagawa, S.

    2009-11-20

    Poroelastic analysis has traditionally focused on the relationship between dry or drained constants which are assumed known and the saturated or undrained constants which are assumed unknown. However, there are many applications in this field of study for which the main measurements can only be made on the saturated/undrained system, and then it is uncertain what the eects of the uids were on the system, since the drained constants remain a mystery. The work presented here shows how to deduce drained constants from undrained constants for anisotropic systems having symmetries ranging from isotropic to orthotropic. Laboratory ultrasound data are then inverted for the drained constants in three granular packings: one of glass beads, and two others for distinct types of more or less angular sand grain packings. Experiments were performed under uniaxial stress, which resulted in hexagonal (transversely isotropic) symmetry of the poroelastic response. One important conclusion from the general analysis is that the drained constants are uniquely related to the undrained constants, assuming that porosity, grain bulk modulus, and pore uid bulk modulus are already known. Since the resulting system of equations for all the drained constants is linear, measurement error in undrained constants also propagates linearly into the computed drained constants.

  15. Plasma Switch for High-Power Active Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-11-04

    Results are presented from experiments carried out at the Naval Research Laboratory X-band magnicon facility on a two-channel X-band active RF pulse compressor that employed plasma switches. Experimental evidence is shown to validate the basic goals of the project, which include: simultaneous firing of plasma switches in both channels of the RF circuit, operation of quasi-optical 3-dB hybrid directional coupler coherent superposition of RF compressed pulses from both channels, and operation of the X-band magnicon directly in the RF pulse compressor. For incident 1.2 ?s pulses in the range 0.63 ? 1.35 MW, compressed pulses of peak powers 5.7 ? 11.3 MW were obtained, corresponding to peak power gain ratios of 8.3 ? 9.3. Insufficient bakeout and conditioning of the high-power RF circuit prevented experiments from being conducted at higher RF input power levels.

  16. High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits Print Many physiological ... (GPCRs), proteins integral to the cell membrane, sense the signal and activate G ...

  17. High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits Print Wednesday, 28 June 2006 00:00 Many ...

  18. Highly Active and Selective Metal-modified Zeolite Catalysts...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Active and Selective Metal-modified Zeolite Catalysts for Low Temperature Conversion of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether to Gasoline-range Branched Hydrocarbons National Renewable...

  19. Active Fault Controls At High-Temperature Geothermal Sites- Prospectin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    model in which recently active (Holocene) faults are preferred conduits for migration of thermal water from deep crustal depths, and we infer that the detection of sites...

  20. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boggs, David Lee; Baraszu, Daniel James; Foulkes, David Mark; Gomes, Enio Goyannes

    1998-01-01

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine's crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages.

  1. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boggs, D.L.; Baraszu, D.J.; Foulkes, D.M.; Gomes, E.G.

    1998-12-29

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine`s crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages. 4 figs.

  2. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH uptake ...

  3. CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Europe | Department of Energy CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe This presentation on high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells was given at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007. htmwg_carisma.pdf (1.44 MB) More Documents & Publications Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in Europe (Presentation) High

  4. EVALUATION OF FABRIC MEMBRANES FOR USE IN SALTSTONE DRAIN WATER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickenheim, B.; Miller, D.; Burket, P.

    2012-03-08

    Saltstone Disposal Unit 2 contains a sheet drain fabric intended to separate solids from drain water to be returned to the Salt Feed Tank. A similar system installed in Vault 4 appears to be ineffective in keeping solids out of the drain water return lines. Waste Solidification Engineering is considering installation of an additional fabric membrane to supplement the existing sheet drain in SDU 2. Amerdrain 200 is the product currently installed in SDU 2. This product is no longer available, so Sitedrain 94 was used as the replacement product in this testing. Fabrics with apparent opening sizes of 10, 25, 50 and 100 microns were evaluated. These fabrics were evaluated under three separate test conditions, a water flow test, a solids retention test and a grout pour test. A flow test with water showed that installation of an additional filter layer will predictably reduce the theoretical flux through the sheet drain. The manufacturer reports the flux for Sitedrain 94 as 150 gpm/ft{sup 2} by ASTM D-4491. This compares reasonably well with the 117 gpm/ft{sup 2} obtained in this testing. A combination of the 10 micron fabric with Sitedrain 94 could be expected to decrease flux by about 10 times as compared to Sitedrain 94 alone. The different media were used to filter a slag and fly ash mixture from water. Slag historically has the smallest nominal particle size of the premix components. Cement was omitted from the test because of its reactivity with water would prohibit accurately particle size measurements of the filtered samples. All four media sizes were able to remove greater than 95% of particles larger than 100 microns from the slurry. The smaller opening sizes were increasingly effective in removing more particles. The 10 micron filter captured 15% of the total amount of solids used in the test. This result implies that some insoluble particles may still be able to enter the drain water collection system, although the overall solids rejection is significantly

  5. Flexible stainless steel hose liner used to rehab drain pipe for seal gates and outlet tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauer, S.J.; Monsanto, R. )

    1993-08-01

    Not unlike other dams, the Bureau of Reclamation's 6,500-MW Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State has a large amount of embedded piping, conduits, and drains. Typically, these features were constructed of ductile iron, cast iron, or carbon steel materials. Over the years, excessive internal corrosion of the drains for 102-inch ring seal gates and outlet tubes created leaks that required attention. Reclamation performed a number of temporary repairs before it became evident that the drain system must be rehabilitated. After considering several alternatives for rehabilitation, Reclamation selected stainless steel flexible hose liners for the job. Reclamation is satisfied with the performance of the stainless steel flexible hose liner. The total cost for installing the liners for nine drain lines (for three outlet tubes) was $15,000. Of that, materials cost $7,500, and labor and overhead cost $7,500. The inserts themselves cost from $640 for an 18-foot by 6-inch section. While this was not the least expensive option, it was the best choice for this job. The procedure will be repeated for other outlet tubes at Grand Coulee. Information used in this rehabilitation is being made available to other Reclamation projects.

  6. Subcellulosome preparation with high cellulase activity from Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, T.; Romaniec, M.P.M.; Fauth, U.; DeMain, A.L. )

    1990-10-01

    The authors have prepared a much simpler cellulase preparation than that of cellulosomes from the extracellular broth of Clostridium thermocellum. This subcellulosome preparation from C. thermocellum was obtained by column chromatography on CM-Bio-Gel A and then on a lectin-affinity material (Jacalin). The subcellulosome preparation is a macromolecular complex, composed of six main protein subunits (molecular weight, 210,000 to 58,000) revealed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The specific activities of carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and Avicelase are 15- and 8-fold-higher, respectively, than those of crude extracellular cellulase. They could not further fractionate this preparation without denaturing it. The optimum pH and temperature of the subcellulosome preparation are 5.5 to 7.0 and 70{degree}C for CMCase and 5.5 to 7.0 and 65{degree}C for Avicelase. The subcellulosome preparation acted on various types of carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose, and p-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-cellobioside but not on p-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-glucoside. Sulfhydryl reagents and N-bromosuccinimide inhibited both CMCase and Avicelase activities, whereas EDTA and o-phenanthroline inhibited Avicelase activity only.

  7. Drain Tank Information for Developing Design Basis of the Preliminary Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrada, Juan J

    2012-02-01

    Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) drain tanks (DTs) serve two functions: normal operation and safety operation. Normal DTs are used for regular maintenance operations when draining is necessary. Safety DTs are used to receive the water leaked into the Vacuum Vessel (VV) after an in-vessel loss of coolant accident (LOCA) event. The preliminary design of the DTs shall be based on the information provided by this document. The capacity of the normal DTs is estimated based on the internal volume of in-vessel components [e.g., First Wall/Blanket (FW/BLK) and Divertor (DIV)]; Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) components; and TCWS piping, heat exchangers, electric heaters, pump casing, pressurizers, and valves. Water volumes have been updated based on 2004-design information, changes adopted because of approved Project Change Requests (PCRs), and data verification by US ITER and AREVA Federal Services, the US ITER A and E Company. Two tanks will store water from normal draining operations of the FW/BLK and DIV Primary Heat Transfer Systems (PHTSs). One tank will store water from normal draining operations of the NBI PHTS. The capacity of the safety DTs is based on analysis of a design basis accident: a large leak from in-vessel components. There are two safety DTs that will receive water from a VV LOCA event and drainage from the VV, as needed. In addition, there is one sump tank for the DIV that will be used for collecting drain water from the draining and drying processes and specifically for draining the DIV system as the DIV cassette lines are at a lower elevation than the DT connection point. Information documented in this report must be refined and verified during the preliminary design of the DTs, and there are several aspects to be considered to complete the preliminary design. Input to these design considerations is discussed in this report and includes, but is not limited to, water inventory; operating procedures/maintenance; Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA

  8. Drain Tank Information for Developing Design Basis of the Preliminary Design - R00

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrada, Juan J

    2011-01-01

    Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) drain tanks (DTs) serve two functions: normal operation and safety operation. Normal DTs are used for regular maintenance operations when draining is necessary. Safety DTs are used to receive the water leaked into the Vacuum Vessel (VV) after an in-vessel loss of cooling accident (LOCA) event. The preliminary design of the DTs shall be based on the information provided by this document. The capacity of the normal DTs is estimated based on the internal volume of in-vessel components [e.g., First Wall/Blanket (FW/BLK) and Divertor (DIV)], Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) components, and TCWS piping, heat exchangers, electric heaters, pump casing, pressurizers, and valves. Water volumes have been updated based on 2004 design information, changes adopted because of approved Project Change Requests (PCRs), and data verification by U.S. ITER. Two tanks will store water from normal draining operations of the FW/BLK and DIV Primary Heat Transfer Systems (PHTSs). One tank will store water from normal draining operations of the NBI PHTS. The capacity of the safety DTs is based on analysis of a design-basis accident:1 a large leak from in-vessel components. There are two safety DTs that will receive water from a VV LOCA event and drainage from the VV, as needed. In addition, there is one sump tank for the DIV that will be used for collecting drain water from the draining and drying processes and specifically for draining the DIV system as the DIV cassettes lines are at a lower elevation than the DT connection point. Information documented in this report must be refined and verified during the preliminary design of the DTs, and there are several aspects to be considered to complete the preliminary design. Input to these design considerations is discussed in this report and includes, but is not limited to, water inventory; operating procedures/maintenance; Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA); tank layout anddimensions, including design

  9. Active high-power RF switch and pulse compression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Ruth, Ronald D.; Zolotorev, Max

    1998-01-01

    A high-power RF switching device employs a semiconductor wafer positioned in the third port of a three-port RF device. A controllable source of directed energy, such as a suitable laser or electron beam, is aimed at the semiconductor material. When the source is turned on, the energy incident on the wafer induces an electron-hole plasma layer on the wafer, changing the wafer's dielectric constant, turning the third port into a termination for incident RF signals, and. causing all incident RF signals to be reflected from the surface of the wafer. The propagation constant of RF signals through port 3, therefore, can be changed by controlling the beam. By making the RF coupling to the third port as small as necessary, one can reduce the peak electric field on the unexcited silicon surface for any level of input power from port 1, thereby reducing risk of damaging the wafer by RF with high peak power. The switch is useful to the construction of an improved pulse compression system to boost the peak power of microwave tubes driving linear accelerators. In this application, the high-power RF switch is placed at the coupling iris between the charging waveguide and the resonant storage line of a pulse compression system. This optically controlled high power RF pulse compression system can handle hundreds of Megawatts of power at X-band.

  10. Revisiting the question: Does high-latitude solar activity lead low-latitude solar activity in time phase?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, D. F.; Qu, Z. N.; Guo, Q. L.

    2014-05-01

    Cross-correlation analysis and wavelet transform methods are used to investigate whether high-latitude solar activity leads low-latitude solar activity in time phase or not, using the data of the Carte Synoptique solar filaments archive from 1919 March to 1989 December. From the cross-correlation analysis, high-latitude solar filaments have a time lead of 12 Carrington solar rotations with respect to low-latitude ones. Both the cross-wavelet transform and wavelet coherence indicate that high-latitude solar filaments lead low-latitude ones in time phase. Furthermore, low-latitude solar activity is better correlated with high-latitude solar activity of the previous cycle than with that of the following cycle, which is statistically significant. Thus, the present study confirms that high-latitude solar activity in the polar regions is indeed better correlated with the low-latitude solar activity of the following cycle than with that of the previous cycle, namely, leading in time phase.

  11. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation.

  12. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1994-02-15

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation. 4 figures.

  13. High Field 27Al MAS NMR and TPD studies of active sites in ethanol...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Field 27Al MAS NMR and TPD studies of active sites in ethanol dehydration using ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Field 27Al MAS NMR and TPD studies of ...

  14. Enzymatically active high-flux selectively gas-permeable membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Rempe, Susan; FU, Yaqin; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    An ultra-thin, catalyzed liquid transport medium-based membrane structure fabricated with a porous supporting substrate may be used for separating an object species such as a carbon dioxide object species. Carbon dioxide flux through this membrane structures may be several orders of magnitude higher than traditional polymer membranes with a high selectivity to carbon dioxide. Other gases such as molecular oxygen, molecular hydrogen, and other species including non-gaseous species, for example ionic materials, may be separated using variations to the membrane discussed.

  15. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineralmore » cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.« less

  16. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; Renholm, J.; Hettich, R. L.; Pollard, W. H.; Omelon, C. R.; Medvigy, David M.; Pffifner, Susan M.; Whyte, L. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2015-04-14

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineral cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.

  17. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; Renholm, J.; Hettich, R. L.; Pollard, W. H.; Omelon, C. R.; Medvigy, David M.; Pffifner, Susan M.; Whyte, L. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineral cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.

  18. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

    2011-08-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  19. Highly dispersed buckybowls as model carbocatalysts for C–H bond activation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Soykal, I. Ilgaz; Wang, Hui; Park, Jewook; Li, An-Ping; Liang, Chengdu; Schwartz, Viviane

    2015-03-19

    Buckybowl fractions dispersed on mesoporous silica constitute an ideal model for studying the catalysis of graphitic forms of carbon since the dispersed carbon nanostructures contain a high ratio of edge defects and curvature induced by non-six-membered rings. Dispersion of the active centers on an easily accessible high surface area material allowed for high density of surface active sites associated with oxygenated structures. This report illustrates a facile method of creating model polycyclic aromatic nano-structures that are not only active for alkane C-H bond activation and oxidative dehydrogenation but also can be practical catalysts to be eventually used in industry.

  20. High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits Print Wednesday, 28 June 2006 00:00 Many physiological processes initiated in response to external (extracellular) signals such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or light are regulated by a complex dance involving GTP-binding (G) proteins: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), proteins integral to the cell membrane, sense the signal and activate G proteins in the cellular

  1. X-ray K-edge analysis of drain lines in Wilhelm Hall, Ames Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, T.; Whitmore, C. |

    1999-01-05

    From August 12--27, 1998 X-ray K-edge measurements were made on drain lines in seven rooms in Wilhelm Hall, Ames Laboratory. The purpose of these measurements was to determine the extent of thorium (and other heavy metal) contamination inside these pipes. The K-edge method is a noninvasive inspection technique that can provide accurate quantification of heavy metal contamination interior to an object. Of the seven drain lines inspected, one was found to have no significant contamination, three showed significant thorium deposits, two showed mercury contamination, and one line was found to contain mercury, thorium and uranium. The K-edge measurements were found to be consistent with readings from hand-held survey meters, and provided much greater detail on the location and amount of heavy metal contamination.

  2. Oxidative stress plays a role in high glucose-induced activation of pancreatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, Gyeong Ryul; Lee, Esder; Chun, Hyun-Ji; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Song, Ki-Ho

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: High glucose increased production of reactive oxygen species in cultured pancreatic stellate cells. High glucose facilitated the activation of these cells. Antioxidant treatment attenuated high glucose-induced activation of these cells. -- Abstract: The activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) is thought to be a potential mechanism underlying islet fibrosis, which may contribute to progressive ?-cell failure in type 2 diabetes. Recently, we demonstrated that antioxidants reduced islet fibrosis in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. However, there is no in vitro study demonstrating that high glucose itself can induce oxidative stress in PSCs. Thus, PSCs were isolated and cultured from Sprague Dawley rats, and treated with high glucose for 72 h. High glucose increased the production of reactive oxygen species. When treated with high glucose, freshly isolated PSCs exhibited myofibroblastic transformation. During early culture (passage 1), PSCs treated with high glucose contained an increased number of ?-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. During late culture (passages 25), PSCs treated with high glucose exhibited increases in cell proliferation, the expression of fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor, release of interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-? and collagen, and cell migration. Finally, the treatment of PSCs with high glucose and antioxidants attenuated these changes. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high glucose increased oxidative stress in primary rat PSCs, thereby facilitating the activation of these cells, while antioxidant treatment attenuated high glucose-induced PSC activation.

  3. High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits Print Many physiological processes initiated in response to external (extracellular) signals such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or light are regulated by a complex dance involving GTP-binding (G) proteins: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), proteins integral to the cell membrane, sense the signal and activate G proteins in the cellular cytoplasm, but enzymes such as G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) inhibit the activity

  4. WO3 and HPA Based System for Ultra-High Activity and Stability of Pt

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    catalysts in PEMFC Cathodes | Department of Energy WO3 and HPA Based System for Ultra-High Activity and Stability of Pt catalysts in PEMFC Cathodes WO3 and HPA Based System for Ultra-High Activity and Stability of Pt catalysts in PEMFC Cathodes These slides were presented at the 2010 New Fuel Cell Projects Meeting on September 28, 2010. 8_nrel_turner.pdf (4.39 MB) More Documents & Publications Catalysis Working Group Meeting: January 2015 DOE's Fuel Cell Catalyst R&D Activities

  5. High Specific Activity Sn-117m by Post Irradiation Isotope Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DAuria, John

    2015-04-16

    ElectroMagnetic Isotope Separation (EMIS) is used in the production of enriched stable isotopes. We demonstrated the feasibility of using EMIS to produce medium Specific Activity 117mSm using high purity 116Sn target material irradiated in a high flux reactor.

  6. Doped Contacts for High-Longevity Optically Activated, High Gain GaAs Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; O'MALLEY,MARTIN W.; HELGESON,WESLEY D.; BROWN,DARWIN JAMES; HJALMARSON,HAROLD P.; BACA,ALBERT G.; THORNTON,R.L.; DONALDSON,R.D.

    1999-12-17

    The longevity of high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) has been extended to over 100 million pulses. This was achieved by improving the ohmic contacts through the incorporation of a doped layer that is very effective in the suppression of filament formation, alleviating current crowding. Damage-free operation is now possible with virtually infinite expected lifetime at much higher current levels than before. The inherent damage-free current capacity of the bulk GaAs itself depends on the thickness of the doped layers and is at least 100A for a dopant diffusion depth of 4pm. The contact metal has a different damage mechanism and the threshold for damage ({approx}40A) is not further improved beyond a dopant diffusion depth of about 2{micro}m. In a diffusion-doped contact switch, the switching performance is not degraded when contact metal erosion occurs, unlike a switch with conventional contacts. This paper will compare thermal diffusion and epitaxial growth as approaches to doping the contacts. These techniques will be contrasted in terms of the fabrication issues and device characteristics.

  7. Innovative high pressure gas MEM's based neutron detector for ICF and active SNM detection.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Shawn Bryan; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew

    2007-12-01

    An innovative helium3 high pressure gas detection system, made possible by utilizing Sandia's expertise in Micro-electrical Mechanical fluidic systems, is proposed which appears to have many beneficial performance characteristics with regards to making these neutron measurements in the high bremsstrahlung and electrical noise environments found in High Energy Density Physics experiments and especially on the very high noise environment generated on the fast pulsed power experiments performed here at Sandia. This same system may dramatically improve active WMD and contraband detection as well when employed with ultrafast (10-50 ns) pulsed neutron sources.

  8. Activation Layer Stabilization of High Polarization Photocathodes in Sub-Optimal RF Gun Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory A. Mulhollan

    2010-11-16

    Specific activation recipes for bulk, 100 nm thick MBE grown and high polarization III-V photocathode material have been developed which mitigate the effects of exposure to background gasses. Lifetime data using four representative gasses were acquired for bulk GaAs, 100 nm unstrained GaAs and strained superlattice GaAs/GaAsP, all activated both with Cs and then Cs and Li (bi-alkali). Each photoemitter showed marked resilience improvement when activated using the bi-alkali recipe compared to the standard single alkali recipe. A dual alkali activation system at SLAC was constructed, baked and commissioned with the purpose of performing spin-polarization measurements on electrons emitted from the bi-alkali activated surfaces. An end station at SSRL was configured with the required sources for energy resolved photoemission measurements on the bi-alkali activated and CO2 dosed surfaces. The bi-alkali recipes were successfully implemented at SLAC/SSRL. Measurements at SLAC of the photoelectron spin-polarization from the modified activation surface showed no sign of a change in value compared to the standard activated material, i.e., no ill effects. Analysis of photoemission data indicates that the addition of Li to the activation layer results in a multi-layer structure. The presence of Li in the activation layer also acts as an inhibitor to CO2 absorption, hence better lifetimes in worse vacuum were achieved. The bi-alkali activation has been tested on O2 activated GaAs for comparison with NF3 activated surfaces. Comparable resilience to CO2 exposure was achieved for the O2 activated surface. An RF PECVD amorphous silicon growth system was modified to allow high temperature heat cleaning of GaAs substrates prior to film deposition. Growth versus thickness data were collected. Very thin amorphous silicon germanium layers were optimized to exhibit good behavior as an electron emitter. Growth of the amorphous silicon germanium films on the above substrates was fine tuned

  9. Moisture measurement for high-level-waste tanks using copper activation probe in cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Reeves, J.H.; Wilson, W.E.

    1995-10-01

    Laboratory tests have established the feasibility of using neutron activation of copper as a means for measuring the moisture in Hanford`s high-level radioactive waste tanks. The performance of the neutron activation technique to measure moisture is equivalent to the neutron moisture gauges or neutron logs commonly used in commercial well-logging. The principle difference is that the activation of {sup 64}Cu (t{sub 1/2} = 12.7 h) replaces the neutron counters used in moisture gauges or neutron logs. For application to highly radioactive waste tanks, the Cu activation technique has the advantage that it is insensitive to very strong gamma radiation fields or high temperatures. In addition, this technique can be deployed through tortuous paths or in confined spaces such as within the bore of a cone penetrometer. However, the results are not available in ``real-time``. The copper probe`s sensitivity to moisture was measured using simulated tank waste of known moisture content. This report describes the preparation of the simulated waste mixtures and the experiments performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the neutron activation technique. These experiments included determination of the calibration curve of count rate versus moisture content using a single copper probe, measurement of the calibration curve based on ``near-field `` to ``far-field`` counting ratios using a multiple probe technique, and profiling the activity of the copper probe as a function of the vertical height within a simulated waste barrel.

  10. Los Alamos National Laboratory ships last of high-activity drums to WIPP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ships last ff high-activity drums to WIPP Los Alamos National Laboratory ships last of high-activity drums to WIPP The November shipment was the final delivery this year to the Carlsbad plant, which is scheduled to undergo facility maintenance through mid-January. November 25, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy

  11. SU-E-T-543: Measurement of Neutron Activation From Different High Energy Varian Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thatcher, T; Madsen, S; Sudowe, R; Meigooni, A Soleimani

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Linear accelerators producing photons above 10 MeV may induce photonuclear reactions in high Z components of the accelerator. These liberated neutrons can then activate the structural components of the accelerator and other materials in the beam path through neutron capture reactions. The induced activity within the accelerator may contribute to additional dose to both patients and personnel. This project seeks to determine the total activity and activity per activated isotope following irradiation in different Varian accelerators at energies above 10 MeV. Methods: A Varian 21IX accelerator was used to irradiate a 30 cm × 30 cm × 20 cm solid water phantom with 15 MV x-rays. The phantom was placed at an SSD of 100 cm and at the center of a 20 cm × 20 cm field. Activation induced gamma spectra were acquired over a 5 minute interval after 1 and 15 minutes from completion of the irradiation. All measurements were made using a CANBERRA Falcon 5000 Portable HPGe detector. The majority of measurements were made in scattering geometry with the detector situated at 90° to the incident beam, 30 cm from the side of the phantom and approximately 10 cm from the top. A 5 minute background count was acquired and automatically subtracted from all subsequent measurements. Photon spectra were acquired for both open and MLC fields. Results: Based on spectral signatures, nuclides have been identified and their activities calculated for both open and MLC fields. Preliminary analyses suggest that activities from the activation products in the microcurie range. Conclusion: Activation isotopes have been identified and their relative activities determined. These activities are only gross estimates since efficiencies have not been determined for this source-detector geometry. Current efforts are focused on accurate determination of detector efficiencies using Monte Carlo calculations.

  12. Adaptive Detached Eddy Simulation of a High Lift Wing with Active Flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility flow around a high lift multi-element wing at maximum lift. Slat, flap and complex supporting structures (right sub figures) that create complex vorticity wakes are resolved in the adaptive, unstructured grid simulation (third subfigure is zoom on the surface of slat, main element and slat support). Adaptive Detached Eddy Simulation of a High Lift Wing with Active Flow Control PI Name: Kenneth Jansen PI Email: jansenke@colorado.edu Institution:

  13. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    school science (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect junior high/middle school science Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  14. A SYSTEMATIC SURVEY OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE EMISSION IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Brooks, David H.

    2012-11-10

    The recent analysis of observations taken with the EUV Imaging Spectrometer and X-Ray Telescope instruments on Hinode suggests that well-constrained measurements of the temperature distribution in solar active regions can finally be made. Such measurements are critical for constraining theories of coronal heating. Past analysis, however, has suffered from limited sample sizes and large uncertainties at temperatures between 5 and 10 MK. Here we present a systematic study of the differential emission measure distribution in 15 active region cores. We focus on measurements in the 'inter-moss' region, that is, the region between the loop footpoints, where the observations are easier to interpret. To reduce the uncertainties at the highest temperatures we present a new method for isolating the Fe XVIII emission in the AIA/SDO 94 A channel. The resulting differential emission measure distributions confirm our previous analysis showing that the temperature distribution in an active region core is often strongly peaked near 4 MK. We characterize the properties of the emission distribution as a function of the total unsigned magnetic flux. We find that the amount of high-temperature emission in the active region core is correlated with the total unsigned magnetic flux, while the emission at lower temperatures, in contrast, is inversely related. These results provide compelling evidence that high-temperature active region emission is often close to equilibrium, although weaker active regions may be dominated by evolving million degree loops in the core.

  15. Measuring bi-directional current through a field-effect transistor by virtue of drain-to-source voltage measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Steven Richard

    2006-12-26

    A method and apparatus for measuring current, and particularly bi-directional current, in a field-effect transistor (FET) using drain-to-source voltage measurements. The drain-to-source voltage of the FET is measured and amplified. This signal is then compensated for variations in the temperature of the FET, which affects the impedance of the FET when it is switched on. The output is a signal representative of the direction of the flow of current through the field-effect transistor and the level of the current through the field-effect transistor. Preferably, the measurement only occurs when the FET is switched on.

  16. High-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes using thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishide, Jun-ichi; Hiraga, Yasuhide; Nakanotani, Hajime; Adachi, Chihaya

    2014-06-09

    White organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) have attracted much attention recently, aimed for next-generation lighting sources because of their high potential to realize high electroluminescence efficiency, flexibility, and low-cost manufacture. Here, we demonstrate high-efficiency WOLED using red, green, and blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials as emissive dopants to generate white electroluminescence. The WOLED has a maximum external quantum efficiency of over 17% with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of (0.30, 0.38).

  17. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-07-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life.

  18. Determination of the crystalline structure of scale solids from the 16H evaporator gravity drain line to tank 38H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2015-10-01

    August 2015, scale solids from the 16H Evaporator Gravity Drain Line (GDL) to the Tank 38H were delivered to SRNL for analysis. The desired analytical goal was to identify and confirm the crystalline structure of the scale material and determine if the form of the aluminosilicate mineral was consistent with previous analysis of the scale material from the GDL.

  19. Designing a highly active soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase for efficient glucose biosensors and biofuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durand, Fabien; Stines-Chaumeil, Claire; Flexer, Victoria; Andre, Isabelle; CNRS, UMR5504, F-31400 Toulouse; INRA, UMR 792 Ingenierie des Systemes Biologiques et des Procedes, F-31400 Toulouse ; Mano, Nicolas

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} A new mutant of PQQ-GDH designed for glucose biosensors application. {yields} First mutant of PQQ-GDH with higher activity for D-glucose than the Wild type. {yields} Position N428 is a key point to increase the enzyme activity. {yields} Molecular modeling shows that the N428 C mutant displays a better interaction for PQQ than the WT. -- Abstract: We report for the first time a soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase that is twice more active than the wild type for glucose oxidation and was obtained by combining site directed mutagenesis, modelling and steady-state kinetics. The observed enhancement is attributed to a better interaction between the cofactor and the enzyme leading to a better electron transfer. Electrochemical experiments also demonstrate the superiority of the new mutant for glucose oxidation and make it a promising enzyme for the development of high-performance glucose biosensors and biofuel cells.

  20. FERROELECTRIC SWITCH FOR A HIGH-POWER Ka-BAND ACTIVE PULSE COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-12-18

    Results are presented for design of a high-power microwave switch for operation at 34.3 GHz, intended for use in an active RF pulse compressor. The active element in the switch is a ring of ferroelectric material, whose dielectric constant can be rapidly changed by application of a high-voltage pulse. As envisioned, two of these switches would be built into a pair of delay lines, as in SLED-II at SLAC, so as to allow 30-MW μs-length Ka-band pulses to be compressed in time by a factor-of-9 and multiplied in amplitude to generate 200 MW peak power pulses. Such high-power pulses could be used for testing and evaluation of high-gradient mm-wave accelerator structures, for example. Evaluation of the switch design was carried out with an X-band (11.43 GHz) prototype, built to incorporate all the features required for the Ka-band version.

  1. Reversing the brain drain from Eastern European countries: the push' and pull' factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vizi, E.S. Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY )

    1993-01-01

    A mass departure of intellectuals is going on in countries such as Poland, Russia, the Ukraine, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania. There is growing concern about the increasing number of intellectuals who have left, or are going to leave, these countries. The main problem is not that scientists and intellectuals are leaving to go abroad to work under better conditions - that is certainly beneficial for science as a whole. Rather, the problem occurs when they do not return. The migration of professionals, even if it is only temporary, only reflects the operation of an international market for specialized human capital. However, a minimum level of human capital is indispensable to a country's economic development. A loss of skilled human resources will ultimately have a grave impact on the economy and jeopardize development programs. There are several reasons for this migration. Top-level scientists have always been drawn to countries that offer greater attractions - facilities, salaries, career prospects, satisfaction, prestige. Drastic changes are needed in the official policy toward R D in Eastern European Countries. The atmosphere must be changed to make it more favorable for intellectual work. In addition, international agencies and governments of developed countries should help these poorer countries to reverse the brain drain. A program of Science and Technology for stability should be created in order to provide direct assistance to basic and applied scientific and technical research in these countries. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Apparatus for draining lower drywell pool water into suppresion pool in boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus which mitigates temperature stratification in the suppression pool water caused by hot water drained into the suppression pool from the lower drywell pool. The outlet of a spillover hole formed in the inner bounding wall of the suppression pool is connected to and in flow communication with one end of piping. The inlet end of the piping is above the water level in the suppression pool. The piping is routed down the vertical downcomer duct and through a hole formed in the thin wall separating the downcomer duct from the suppression pool water. The piping discharge end preferably has an elevation at or near the bottom of the suppression pool and has a location in the horizontal plane which is removed from the point where the piping first emerges on the suppression pool side of the inner bounding wall of the suppression pool. This enables water at the surface of the lower drywell pool to flow into and be discharged at the bottom of the suppression pool.

  3. A highly-active and stable hydrogen evolution catalyst based on pyrite-structured cobalt phosphosulfide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Wen; Hu, Enyuan; Jiang, Hong; Xiang, Yingjie; Weng, Zhe; Li, Min; Fan, Qi; Yu, Xiqian; Altman, Eric I.; Wang, Hailiang

    2016-02-19

    Rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid structures comprising multiple components with distinctive functionalities are an intriguing and challenging approach to materials development for important energy applications like electrocatalytic hydrogen production, where there is a great need for cost effective, active and durable catalyst materials to replace the precious platinum. Here we report a structure design and sequential synthesis of a highly active and stable hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst material based on pyrite-structured cobalt phosphosulfide nanoparticles grown on carbon nanotubes. The three synthetic steps in turn render electrical conductivity, catalytic activity and stability to the material. The hybrid material exhibits superiormore » activity for hydrogen evolution, achieving current densities of 10 mA cm–2 and 100 mA cm–2 at overpotentials of 48 mV and 109 mV, respectively. Lastly, phosphorus substitution is crucial for the chemical stability and catalytic durability of the material, the molecular origins of which are uncovered by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and computational simulation.« less

  4. Single-molecule imaging at high fluorophore concentrations by local activation of dye

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Geertsema, Hylkje J.; Mangel, Walter F.; Schulte, Aartje C.; Spenkelink, Lisanne M.; McGrath, William J.; Morrone, Seamus R.; Sohn, Jungsan; Robinson, Andrew; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2015-02-17

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach to observe biomolecular interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Detecting fluorescent signals from individual, labeled proteins above high levels of background fluorescence remains challenging, however. For this reason, the concentrations of labeled proteins in in vitro assays are often kept low compared to their in vivo concentrations. Here, we present a new fluorescence imaging technique by which single fluorescent molecules can be observed in real time at high, physiologically relevant concentrations. The technique requires a protein and its macromolecular substrate to be labeled each with a different fluorophore. Then, making use ofmore » short-distance energy-transfer mechanisms, the fluorescence from only those proteins bound to their substrate are selectively activated. This approach is demonstrated by labeling a DNA substrate with an intercalating stain, exciting the stain, and using energy transfer from the stain to activate the fluorescence of only those labeled DNA-binding proteins bound to the DNA. Such an experimental design allowed us to observe the sequence-independent interaction of Cy5-labeled interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with DNA and the sliding via one-dimensional diffusion of Cy5-labeled adenovirus protease (pVIc-AVP) on DNA in the presence of a background of hundreds of nM Cy5 fluorophore.« less

  5. Single-molecule imaging at high fluorophore concentrations by local activation of dye

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geertsema, Hylkje J.; Mangel, Walter F.; Schulte, Aartje C.; Spenkelink, Lisanne M.; McGrath, William J.; Morrone, Seamus R.; Sohn, Jungsan; Robinson, Andrew; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2015-02-17

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach to observe biomolecular interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Detecting fluorescent signals from individual, labeled proteins above high levels of background fluorescence remains challenging, however. For this reason, the concentrations of labeled proteins in in vitro assays are often kept low compared to their in vivo concentrations. Here, we present a new fluorescence imaging technique by which single fluorescent molecules can be observed in real time at high, physiologically relevant concentrations. The technique requires a protein and its macromolecular substrate to be labeled each with a different fluorophore. Then, making use of short-distance energy-transfer mechanisms, the fluorescence from only those proteins bound to their substrate are selectively activated. This approach is demonstrated by labeling a DNA substrate with an intercalating stain, exciting the stain, and using energy transfer from the stain to activate the fluorescence of only those labeled DNA-binding proteins bound to the DNA. Such an experimental design allowed us to observe the sequence-independent interaction of Cy5-labeled interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with DNA and the sliding via one-dimensional diffusion of Cy5-labeled adenovirus protease (pVIc-AVP) on DNA in the presence of a background of hundreds of nM Cy5 fluorophore.

  6. US/Japan Cooperation in High Energy Physics. Review of activities, 1988--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-16

    The objective of the Implementing Arrangement was to further the energy programs of both countries by establishing a framework for cooperation in the field of high energy physics, including research, accelerator and detector instrumentation research and development, the fabrication and subsequent use of new experimental devices and facilities, and related joint efforts as may be mutually agreed. Over the years, this cooperation has been very effective and has strengthened the overall collaborative efforts and the understanding between our nations and their citizens. It has demonstrated to the world our ability to work together to attack difficult problems. High Energy Physics goes across national borders; the bond is clearly intellectual and common ground is shared for the benefit of all in a most effective manner. This review covers the activities conducted under the aegis of the US/Japan Committee for Cooperation in High Energy Physics during the past five years (1988--1993). This was the second such US review of the US/Japan cooperative activities; the first was held in 1987.

  7. Synthesis of high specific activity (1- sup 3 H)-Farnesyl pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saljoughian, M.; Morimoto, H.; Williams, P.G. . Chemical Biodynamics Div.)

    1992-03-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of tritiated farnesyl pyrophosphate with high specific activity is reported. E, E-Farnesol was oxidized to the corresponding aldehyde followed by reduction with lithium aluminum tritide (5% {sup 3}H) to give (1-{sup 3}H)-E, E-Farnesol. The specific radioactivity of the alcohol was determined from its triphenylsilane derivative, prepared under very mild conditions. The tritiated alcohol was phosphorylated by initial conversion to an allylic halide, and subsequent treatment of the halide with tris (tetra-n-butyl) ammonium hydrogen pyrophosphate. The hydride procedure followed in this work has advantages over existing methods for the synthesis of tritiated farnesyl pyrophosphate, giving a much higher radiochemical yield and offering the possibility of achieving theoretical specific activity levels when fully tritiated LiAlT{sub 4} is employed.

  8. High-Resolution Modeling to Assess Tropical Cyclone Activity in Future Climate Regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lackmann, Gary

    2013-06-10

    Applied research is proposed with the following objectives: (i) to determine the most likely level of tropical cyclone intensity and frequency in future climate regimes, (ii) to provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty in these predictions, and (iii) to improve understanding of the linkage between tropical cyclones and the planetary-scale circulation. Current mesoscale weather forecasting models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are capable of simulating the full intensity of tropical cyclones (TC) with realistic structures. However, in order to accurately represent both the primary and secondary circulations in these systems, model simulations must be configured with sufficient resolution to explicitly represent convection (omitting the convective parameterization scheme). Most previous numerical studies of TC activity at seasonal and longer time scales have not utilized such explicit convection (EC) model runs. Here, we propose to employ the moving nest capability of WRF to optimally represent TC activity on a seasonal scale using a downscaling approach. The statistical results of a suite of these high-resolution TC simulations will yield a realistic representation of TC intensity on a seasonal basis, while at the same time allowing analysis of the feedback that TCs exert on the larger-scale climate system. Experiments will be driven with analyzed lateral boundary conditions for several recent Atlantic seasons, spanning a range of activity levels and TC track patterns. Results of the ensemble of WRF simulations will then be compared to analyzed TC data in order to determine the extent to which this modeling setup can reproduce recent levels of TC activity. Next, the boundary conditions (sea-surface temperature, tropopause height, and thermal/moisture profiles) from the recent seasons will be altered in a manner consistent with various future GCM/RCM scenarios, but that preserves the large-scale shear and incipient disturbance

  9. Identification of Highly Active Fe Sites in (Ni,Fe)OOH for Electrocatalytic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Splitting | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Identification of Highly Active Fe Sites in (Ni,Fe)OOH for Electrocatalytic Water Splitting Thursday, April 30, 2015 Operando XAS showing structural changes at Fe dopants in Ni(OH)2/NiOOH host structure. Ni(OH)2 is oxidized into γ-NiOOH under OER operating conditions, inducing significant M-O bond contraction at both Ni and Fe sites. Theoretical modeling of site specific OER overpotentials using DFT+U reveals the origin of

  10. A general method for multimetallic platinum alloy nanowires as highly active and stable oxygen reduction catalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bu, Lingzheng; Ding, Jiabao; Yao, Jianlin; Huang, Xiaoqing; Guo, Shaojun; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang; Su, Dong; Zhu, Xing; Guo, Jun

    2015-10-13

    The production of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) with precise control over structures has always been a central target in various fields of chemistry and physics because the properties of NPs can be desirably manipulated by their structure.[1-4] There has been an intense search for high-performance noble metal NP catalysts particular for Pt.[5-9] Precious platinum (Pt) NPs are active catalysts for various heterogeneous reactions and show particularly superior performance in both the anodic oxidation reaction and the cathodic ORR in the fuel cells, but their rare content and high cost largely impede the practical application.[10-12] A potential strategy to address this tremendousmore » challenge is alloying Pt NPs with the transition metals (TM).[13-16]« less

  11. A general method for multimetallic platinum alloy nanowires as highly active and stable oxygen reduction catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bu, Lingzheng; Ding, Jiabao; Yao, Jianlin; Huang, Xiaoqing; Guo, Shaojun; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang; Su, Dong; Zhu, Xing; Guo, Jun

    2015-10-13

    The production of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) with precise control over structures has always been a central target in various fields of chemistry and physics because the properties of NPs can be desirably manipulated by their structure.[1-4] There has been an intense search for high-performance noble metal NP catalysts particular for Pt.[5-9] Precious platinum (Pt) NPs are active catalysts for various heterogeneous reactions and show particularly superior performance in both the anodic oxidation reaction and the cathodic ORR in the fuel cells, but their rare content and high cost largely impede the practical application.[10-12] A potential strategy to address this tremendous challenge is alloying Pt NPs with the transition metals (TM).[13-16]

  12. Highly efficient electroluminescence from a solution-processable thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wada, Yoshimasa; Kubo, Shosei; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kaji, Hironori; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-11-02

    We developed a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter, 2,4,6-tris(4-(9,9-dimethylacridan-10-yl)phenyl)-1,3,5-triazine (3ACR-TRZ), suitable for use in solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). When doped into 4,4′-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) host at 16 wt. %, 3ACR-TRZ showed a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 98%. Transient photoluminescence decay measurements of the 16 wt. % 3ACR-TRZ:CBP film confirmed that 3ACR-TRZ exhibits efficient TADF with a triplet-to-light conversion efficiency of 96%. This high conversion efficiency makes 3ACR-TRZ attractive as an emitting dopant in OLEDs. Using 3ACR-TRZ as an emitter, we fabricated a solution-processed OLED exhibiting a maximum external quantum efficiency of 18.6%.

  13. ASTATINE-211 RADIOCHEMISTRY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL RADIOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MICHAEL R. ZALUTSKY

    2012-08-08

    -labeled targeted radiotherapeutics currently is a daunting task. Our central hypothesis is that improvements in 211At radiochemistry are critically dependent on gaining an understanding of and compensating for the effects of radiolysis induced by 211At {alpha}-particles. Because of the widespread interest in labeling antibodies, antibody fragments and peptides with 211At, our proposed work plan will initially focus on reagents that we have developed for this purpose. Part of our strategy is the use of synthetic precursors immobilized on polymeric resins or perfluorous and triarylphosphonium supports. Their use could eliminate the need for a purification step to separate unreacted tin precursor from labeled product and hopefully provide a simple kit technology that could be utilized at other institutions. The specific aims of this project are: (1) To optimze methods for 211At production and isolation of 211At from cyclotron targets; (2) To develop convenient and reproducible methodologies for high activity level and high specific activity radiohalogenation of biomolecules with 211At; (3) to develop a procedure for extending the shelf-life of 211At beyond a few hours so that this radionuclide can be utilized at centers remote from its site of production; and (4) to work out high activity level synthesis methods for utilizing support immobilized tin precursors for 211At labeling. If we are successful in achieving our goals, the radiochemical methodologies that are developed could greatly facilitate the use of 211At-labeled targeted cancer therapeutics in patients, even at institutions that are distant from the few sites currently available for 211At production.

  14. Subnanometer platinum clusters highly active and selective catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vajda, S; Pellin, M. J.; Greeley, J. P.; Marshall, C. L.; Curtiss, L. A.; Ballentine, G. A.; Elam, J. W.; Catillon-Mucherie, S.; Redfern, P. C.; Mehmood, F.; Zapol, P.; Yale Univ.

    2009-03-01

    Small clusters are known to possess reactivity not observed in their bulk analogues, which can make them attractive for catalysis. Their distinct catalytic properties are often hypothesized to result from the large fraction of under-coordinated surface atoms. Here, we show that size-preselected Pt{sub 8-10} clusters stabilized on high-surface-area supports are 40-100 times more active for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane than previously studied platinum and vanadia catalysts, while at the same time maintaining high selectivity towards formation of propylene over by-products. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that under-coordination of the Pt atoms in the clusters is responsible for the surprisingly high reactivity compared with extended surfaces. We anticipate that these results will form the basis for development of a new class of catalysts by providing a route to bond-specific chemistry, ranging from energy-efficient and environmentally friendly synthesis strategies to the replacement of petrochemical feedstocks by abundant small alkanes.

  15. Gold-doped graphene: A highly stable and active electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolbov, Sergey Alcntara Ortigoza, Marisol

    2015-04-21

    In addressing the growing need of renewable and sustainable energy resources, hydrogen-fuel-cells stand as one of the most promising routes to transform the current energy paradigm into one that integrally fulfills environmental sustainability. Nevertheless, accomplishing this technology at a large scale demands to surpass the efficiency and enhance the cost-effectiveness of platinum-based cathodes, which catalyze the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this work, our first-principles calculations show that Au atoms incorporated into graphene di-vacancies form a highly stable and cost-effective electrocatalyst that is, at the same time, as or more (dependently of the dopant concentration) active toward ORR than the best-known Pt-based electrocatalysts. We reveal that partial passivation of defected-graphene by gold atoms reduces the reactivity of C dangling bonds and increases that of Au, thus optimizing them for catalyzing the ORR and yielding a system of high thermodynamic and electrochemical stabilities. We also demonstrate that the linear relation among the binding energies of the reaction intermediates assumed in computational high-throughput material screening does not hold, at least for this non-purely transition-metal material. We expect Au-doped graphene to finally overcome the cathode-related challenge hindering the realization of hydrogen-fuel cells as the leading means of powering transportation and portable devices.

  16. Preparation and immunoreactivity of high specific activity indium-111-DTPA labeled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) using ultrapure indium-111

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoghbi, S.S.; Neumann, R.D.; Gottschalk, A.

    1986-10-01

    The preparation of high-specific activity /sup 111/In-DTPA-MoAb without increasing the number of DTPA molecules per Ab was investigated. Instant thin layer chromatography was used to assay the relationship between labeling efficiencies and specific activities. With ultrapurified /sup 111/In, the specific activity of the radiolabeled MoAb approached the expected theoretic maximum of 100 muCi/microgram. The bioactivity of such high-specific activity preparation showed no degradation as measured by in vitro cell binding assay.

  17. Special Form Testing of Sealed Source Encapsulation for High-Alpha-Activity Actinide Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Oscar A

    2016-01-01

    In the United States all transportation of radioactive material is regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Beginning in 2008 a new type of sealed-source encapsulation package was developed and tested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These packages contain high-alpha-activity actinides and are regulated and transported in accordance with the requirements for DOT Class 7 hazardous material. The DOT provides specific regulations pertaining to special form encapsulation designs. The special form designation indicates that the encapsulated radioactive contents have a very low probability of dispersion even when subjected to significant structural events. The special form designs have been shown to simplify the delivery, transport, acceptance, and receipt processes. It is intended for these sealed-source encapsulations to be shipped to various facilities making it very advantageous for them to be certified as special form. To this end, DOT Certificates of Competent Authority (CoCAs) have been sought for the design suitable for containing high-alpha-activity actinide materials. This design consists of the high-alpha-activity material encapsulated within a triangular zirconia canister, referred to as a ZipCan, tile that is then enclosed by a spherical shell. The spherical shell design, with ZipCan tile inside, was tested for compliance with the special form regulations found in 49 CFR 173.469. The spherical enclosure was subjected to 9-m impact, 1 m percussion, and 10-minute thermal tests at the Packaging Evaluation Facility located at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, TN USA and operated by ORNL. Before and after each test, the test units were subjected to a helium leak check and a bubble test. The ZipCan tiles and core were also subjected to the tests required for ISO 2919:2012(E), including a Class IV impact test and heat test and subsequently subjected to helium leakage rate tests [49 CFR 173.469(a)(4)(i)]. The impact

  18. Determination of uranium and thorium in semiconductor memory materials by high fluence neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyer, F.F.; Emery, J.F.; Northcutt, K.J.; Scott, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium and thorium were measured by absolute neutron activation analysis in high-purity materials used to manufacture semiconductor memories. The main thrust of the study concerned aluminum and aluminum alloys used as sources for thin film preparation, evaporated metal films, and samples from the Czochralski silicon crystal process. Average levels of U and Th were found for the source alloys to be approx. 65 and approx. 45 ppB, respectively. Levels of U and Th in silicon samples fell in the range of a few parts per trillion. Evaporated metal films contained about 1 ppB U and Th, but there is some question about these results due to the possibility of contamination.

  19. Pu-ZR Alloy high-temperature activation-measurement foil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCuaig, Franklin D.

    1977-08-02

    A nuclear reactor fuel alloy consists essentially of from slightly greater than 7 to about 4 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, and is characterized in that the alloy is castable and is rollable to thin foils. A preferred embodiment of about 7 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, has a melting point substantially above the melting point of plutonium, is rollable to foils as thin as 0.0005 inch thick, and is compatible with cladding material when repeatedly cycled to temperatures above 650.degree. C. Neutron flux densities across a reactor core can be determined with a high-temperature activation-measurement foil which consists of a fuel alloy foil core sandwiched and sealed between two cladding material jackets, the fuel alloy foil core being a 7 w/o zirconium, plutonium foil which is from 0.005 to 0.0005 inch thick.

  20. Activation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emergency Response Services Activated At the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CARLSBAD, N.M., 252014, 11:43 a.m. (MDT) - Emergency response services have been activated at the Waste...

  1. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  2. Investigation of the Highly Active Manganese Superoxide Dismutase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabelli, D.E.; Barnese, K.; Sheng, Y.; Stich, T.A.; Gralla, E.B.; Britt, R.D.; Valentine, J.S.

    2010-09-15

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) from different species differs in its efficiency in removing high concentrations of superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}), due to different levels of product inhibition. Human MnSOD exhibits a substantially higher level of product inhibition than the MnSODs from bacteria. In order to investigate the mechanism of product inhibition and whether it is a feature common to eukaryotic MnSODs, we purified MnSOD from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScMnSOD). It was a tetramer with 0.6 equiv of Mn per monomer. The catalytic activity of ScMnSOD was investigated by pulse radiolysis and compared with human and two bacterial (Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans) MnSODs. To our surprise, ScMnSOD most efficiently facilitates removal of high concentrations of O{sub 2}{sup -} among these MnSODs. The gating value k{sub 2}/k{sub 3} that characterizes the level of product inhibition scales as ScMnSOD > D. radiodurans MnSOD > E. coli MnSOD > human MnSOD. While most MnSODs rest as the oxidized form, ScMnSOD was isolated in the Mn{sup 2+} oxidation state as revealed by its optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. This finding poses the possibility of elucidating the origin of product inhibition by comparing human MnSOD with ScMnSOD.

  3. THE INTEGRAL HIGH-ENERGY CUT-OFF DISTRIBUTION OF TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malizia, A.; Molina, M.; Bassani, L.; Stephen, J. B.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; Bird, A. J.

    2014-02-20

    In this Letter we present the primary continuum parameters, the photon index Γ, and the high-energy cut-off E {sub c} of 41 type-1 Seyfert galaxies extracted from the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) complete sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We performed broadband (0.3-100 keV) spectral analysis by simultaneously fitting the soft and hard X-ray spectra obtained by XMM and INTEGRAL/IBIS-Swift/BAT, respectively, in order to investigate the general properties of these parameters, in particular their distribution and mean values. We find a mean photon index of 1.73 with a standard deviation of 0.17 and a mean high-energy cut-off of 128 keV with a standard deviation of 46 keV for the whole sample. This is the first time that the cut-off energy is constrained in such a large number of AGNs. We have 26 measurements of the cut-off, which corresponds to 63% of the entire sample, distributed between 50 and 200 keV. There are a further 11 lower limits mostly below 300 keV. Using the main parameters of the primary continuum, we have been able to obtain the actual physical parameters of the Comptonizing region, i.e., the plasma temperature kT {sub e} from 20 to 100 keV and the optical depth τ < 4. Finally, with the high signal-to-noise ratio spectra starting to come from NuSTAR it will soon be possible to better constrain the cut-off values in many AGNs, allowing the determination of more physical models and thus better understand the continuum emission and geometry of the region surrounding black holes.

  4. Millimeter-Wave High Level and Low Activity Waste Glass Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woskov, Paul P.

    2005-06-01

    The primary objectives of the current research is to develop on-line sensors for characterizing molten glass in high-level and low-activity waste glass melters using millimeter-wave (MMW) technology and to use this technology to do novel research of melt dynamics. Existing and planned waste glass melters lack sophisticated diagnostics due to the hot, corrosive, and radioactive melter environments. Without process control diagnostics the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at Hanford operate by a feed forward process control scheme that relies on predictive models with large uncertainties. This scheme severely limits production throughput and waste loading. Also operations at DWPF have shown susceptibility to anomalies such as foaming and combustion gas build up, which can seriously disrupt operations. Future waste chemistries will be even more challenging. The scientific goals of this project are to develop new reliable on-line monitoring capability for important glass process parameters such as temperature profiles, emissivity, density, viscosity, and other characteristics using the unique advantages of millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation. Once successfully developed and implemented, significant cost savings would be realized in melter operations by increasing production through put, reduced storage volumes (through higher waste loading), and reduced risks (prevention or mitigation of anomalies).

  5. Millimeter-Wave Measurements of High Level and Low Level Activity Glass Melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woskov, Paul P.; Sundaram, S.K.; Daniel, William E., Jr.

    2006-06-01

    The primary objectives of the current research is to develop on-line sensors for characterizing molten glass in high-level and low-activity waste glass melters using millimeter-wave (MMW) technology and to use this technology to do novel research of melt dynamics. Existing and planned waste glass melters lack sophisticated diagnostics due to the hot, corrosive, and radioactive melter environments. Without process control diagnostics, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at Hanford operate by a feed forward process control scheme that relies on predictive models with large uncertainties. This scheme severely limits production throughput and waste loading. Also operations at DWPF have shown susceptibility to anomalies such as pouring, foaming, and combustion gas build up, which can seriously disrupt operations. Future waste chemistries will be even more challenging. The scientific goals of this project are to develop new reliable on-line monitoring capability for important glass process parameters such as temperature profiles, emissivity, density, viscosity, and other characteristics using the unique advantages of millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation that can be eventually implemented in the operating melters. Once successfully developed and implemented, significant cost savings would be realized in melter operations by increasing production through put, reduced storage volumes (through higher waste loading), and reduced risks (prevention or mitigation of anomalies).

  6. Risk assessment of K Basin twelve-inch and four-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-06-23

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rate which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. Five four-inch drain valves are located in the north and south loadout pits (NLOP and SLOP), the weasel pit, the technical viewing pit, and the discharge chute pit. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations indicate that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor for the twelve-inch drain valve and that much less of the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor for the five four-inch drain valves. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this analysis are to: (1) evaluate the likelihood of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin and the five four-inch drain valves located in the pits from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the likelihood of exceeding a specific consequence (initial leak rate) from a damaged valve. The analysis process is a risk-based uncertainty analysis where each variable is modeled using available information and engineering judgement. The uncertainty associated with each variable is represented by a probability distribution (probability density function). Uncertainty exists because of the inherent randomness

  7. High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:59pm Addthis Illustration of a high-intensity discharge (HID) lIllustration amp. The lamp is a tall cylindrical shape, and a cutout of the outer tube shows the materials inside. A long, thin cylinder called the arc tube runs through the lamp between two electrodes. The space around the arc tube is labeled as a vacuum. High-intensity discharge (HID) lighting can provide high efficacy and long

  8. Performance of a drain-back solar heating and hot water system with auxiliary heat pump. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karaki, S.

    1984-03-01

    The principal objective of the project was to test and evaluate the BNL collectors in a space heating system. When the BNL collectors delaminated under stagnation conditions, they were replaced with the Chamberlain collectors which were previously used on solar house III, and tests were continued to evaluate performance of a drain-back system. Results leading to the following conclusions are discussed. (1) The Chamberlain collectors have deteriorated in performance compared to previous seasons. Where daily efficiency of 41% were attained in 1978 to 1979 and 1979 to 1980, efficiency was 37%. System efficiency of 29% compares to 30% in prior years. (2) Solar contribution to DHW heating is low, and is probably the result of the artificially imposed load profile and the low recovery rate of the double-wall heat exchanger. (3) System efficiency can be improved by reducing thermal losses from storage.

  9. Highly active non-PGM catalysts prepared from metal organic frameworks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barkholtz, Heather M.; Chong, Lina; Kaiser, Zachary B.; Xu, Tao; Liu, Di -Jia

    2015-06-11

    Finding inexpensive alternatives to platinum group metals (PGMs) is essential for reducing the cost of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Numerous materials have been investigated as potential replacements of Pt, of which the transition metal and nitrogen-doped carbon composites (TM/Nx/C) prepared from iron doped zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are among the most active ones in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction based on recent studies. In this report, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of ZIF-based TM/Nx/C composites can be substantially improved through optimization of synthesis and post-treatment processing conditions. Ultimately, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalytic activity must be demonstratedmore » in membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) of fuel cells. The process of preparing MEAs using ZIF-based non-PGM electrocatalysts involves many additional factors which may influence the overall catalytic activity at the fuel cell level. Evaluation of parameters such as catalyst loading and perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer to catalyst ratio were optimized. Our overall efforts to optimize both the catalyst and MEA construction process have yielded impressive ORR activity when tested in a fuel cell system.« less

  10. Highly active non-PGM catalysts prepared from metal organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barkholtz, Heather M.; Chong, Lina; Kaiser, Zachary B.; Xu, Tao; Liu, Di -Jia

    2015-06-11

    Finding inexpensive alternatives to platinum group metals (PGMs) is essential for reducing the cost of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Numerous materials have been investigated as potential replacements of Pt, of which the transition metal and nitrogen-doped carbon composites (TM/Nx/C) prepared from iron doped zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are among the most active ones in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction based on recent studies. In this report, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of ZIF-based TM/Nx/C composites can be substantially improved through optimization of synthesis and post-treatment processing conditions. Ultimately, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalytic activity must be demonstrated in membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) of fuel cells. The process of preparing MEAs using ZIF-based non-PGM electrocatalysts involves many additional factors which may influence the overall catalytic activity at the fuel cell level. Evaluation of parameters such as catalyst loading and perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer to catalyst ratio were optimized. Our overall efforts to optimize both the catalyst and MEA construction process have yielded impressive ORR activity when tested in a fuel cell system.

  11. Low-Activity Waste and High-Level Waste Feed Processing Data Quality Objectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patello, Gertrude K. ); Truex, Michael J. ); Wiemers, Karyn D.

    1999-04-15

    fallback positions are realized or eliminated early in the planning process. This DQO replaces earlier separate low-activity waste feed data quality objectives (Truex and Wiemers 1998) and high-level waste feed data quality objectives documents (Wiemers et,al. 1998). This combined DQO updates the data requirements based on the TWRS Privatization Contact issued August 1998 (DOE-RL 1998). Regulatory compliance for TWRS Privatization is addressed in a separate DQO (Wiemers et al. 1998). Additional characterization of the Phase I waste feed will be performed by DOE's contractors: the M&I contractor and the private contractor. Characterization for feed certification and waste acceptance will be completed before transfer of the feed to the private contractor facility. Characterization requirements for staged feed will be identified in other DQOS consistent with the Feed Certification Plans, ICDS 19 and 20, and applicable permits. Newly obtained analytical data and contract changes that have become available in parallel with or subsequent to preparation of this DQO update will be assessed and incorporated into the data needs optimization in the next revision of this DQO. Data available at the time of the tank waste sample request will be considered in the development of the Tank Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  12. Relaxed active space: Fixing tailored-CC with high order coupled cluster. II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melnichuk, Ann Bartlett, Rodney J.

    2014-02-14

    Due to the steep increase in computational cost with the inclusion of higher-connected cluster operators in coupled-cluster applications, it is usually not practical to use such methods for larger systems or basis sets without an active space partitioning. This study generates an active space subject to unambiguous statistical criteria to define a space whose size permits treatment at the CCSDT level. The automated scheme makes it unnecessary for the user to judge whether a chosen active space is sufficient to correctly solve the problem. Two demanding applications are presented: twisted ethylene and the transition states for the bicyclo[1,1,0]butane isomerization. As bi-radicals both systems require at least a CCSDT level of theory for quantitative results, for the geometries and energies.

  13. Adaptive Detached Eddy Simulation of a High-Lift Wing with Active Flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Full span view of the flow past a vertical tail assembly of a commercial aircraft with active flow control at Re=360,000. Full span view of the flow past a vertical tail assembly of a commercial aircraft with active flow control at Re=360,000. This picture highlights the root and tip vortex along with the turbulent structures in the wake of a deflected rudder through isosurface of instantaneous Q criterion colored by speed on a locally adapted

  14. Adaptive Detached Eddy Simulation of a High Lift Wing with Active...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vorticity contours colored by speed from a detached eddy simulation of flow around a high lift multi-element wing at maximum lift Vorticity contours colored by speed from a...

  15. Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk Materials and Device Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2011 Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop including an overview about Fraunhofer IPM, new funding situation in Germany, high temperature material and modules, energy-autarkic sensors, and thermoelectric metrology.

  16. A High-Conduction Ge Substituted Li3AsS4 Solid Electrolyte with Exceptional Low Activation Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahu, Gayatri [ORNL; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan [ORNL; Li, Juchuan [ORNL; Chen, Yan [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes show potential to enable high-energy-density secondary batteries and offer distinctive safety features as an advantage over traditional liquid electrolytes. Achieving the combination of high ionic conductivity, low activation energy, and outstanding electrochemical stability in crystalline solid electrolytes is a challenge for the synthesis of novel solid electrolytes. Herein we report an exceptionally low activation energy (Ea) and high room temperature superionic conductivity via facile aliovalent substitution of Li3AsS4 by Ge, which increased the conductivity by two orders of magnitude as compared to the parent compound. The composition Li3.334Ge0.334As0.666S4 has a high ionic conductivity of 1.12 mScm-1 at 27oC. Local Li+ hopping in this material is accompanied by distinctive low activation energy Ea of 0.17 eV being the lowest of Li+ solid conductors. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the efficacy of surface passivation of solid electrolyte to achieve compatibility with metallic lithium electrodes.

  17. Adaptive Detached Eddy Simulation of a High Lift Wing with Active Flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility flow around a high lift multi-element wing at maximum lift Vorticity contours colored by speed from a detached eddy simulation of flow around a high lift multi-element wing at maximum lift. Slat, flap and complex supporting structures (right sub figures) that create complex vorticity wakes are resolved in the adaptive, unstructured grid simulation (third subfigure is zoom on the surface of slat, main element and slat support). Kenneth Jansen,

  18. The Development of the Electrically Controlled High Power RF Switch and Its Application to Active RF Pulse Compression Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jiquan; /SLAC

    2009-03-20

    In the past decades, there has been increasing interest in pulsed high power RF sources for building high-gradient high-energy particle accelerators. Passive RF pulse compression systems have been used in many applications to match the available RF sources to the loads requiring higher RF power but a shorter pulse. Theoretically, an active RF pulse compression system has the advantage of higher efficiency and compactness over the passive system. However, the key component for such a system an element capable of switching hundreds of megawatts of RF power in a short time compared to the compressed pulse width is still an open problem. In this dissertation, we present a switch module composed of an active window based on the bulk effects in semiconductor, a circular waveguide three-port network and a movable short plane, with the capability to adjust the S-parameters before and after switching. The RF properties of the switch module were analyzed. We give the scaling laws of the multiple-element switch systems, which allow the expansion of the system to a higher power level. We present a novel overmoded design for the circular waveguide three-port network and the associated circular-to-rectangular mode-converter. We also detail the design and synthesis process of this novel mode-converter. We demonstrate an electrically controlled ultra-fast high power X-band RF active window built with PIN diodes on high resistivity silicon. The window is capable of handling multi-megawatt RF power and can switch in 2-300ns with a 1000A current driver. A low power active pulse compression experiment was carried out with the switch module and a 375ns resonant delay line, obtaining 8 times compression gain with a compression ratio of 20.

  19. High active nitrogen flux growth of GaN by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McSkimming, Brian M. Speck, James S.; Chaix, Catherine

    2015-09-15

    In the present study, the authors report on a modified Riber radio frequency (RF) nitrogen plasma source that provides active nitrogen fluxes more than 30 times higher than those commonly used for plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) growth of gallium nitride (GaN) and thus a significantly higher growth rate than has been previously reported. GaN films were grown using N{sub 2} gas flow rates between 5 and 25 sccm while varying the plasma source's RF forward power from 200 to 600 W. The highest growth rate, and therefore the highest active nitrogen flux, achieved was ∼7.6 μm/h. For optimized growth conditions, the surfaces displayed a clear step-terrace structure with an average RMS roughness (3 × 3 μm) on the order of 1 nm. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy impurity analysis demonstrates oxygen and hydrogen incorporation of 1 × 10{sup 16} and ∼5 × 10{sup 17}, respectively. In addition, the authors have achieved PAMBE growth of GaN at a substrate temperature more than 150 °C greater than our standard Ga rich GaN growth regime and ∼100 °C greater than any previously reported PAMBE growth of GaN. This growth temperature corresponds to GaN decomposition in vacuum of more than 20 nm/min; a regime previously unattainable with conventional nitrogen plasma sources. Arrhenius analysis of the decomposition rate shows that samples with a flux ratio below stoichiometry have an activation energy greater than decomposition of GaN in vacuum while samples grown at or above stoichiometry have decreased activation energy. The activation energy of decomposition for GaN in vacuum was previously determined to be ∼3.1 eV. For a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼1.5, this activation energy was found to be ∼2.8 eV, while for a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼0.5, it was found to be ∼7.9 eV.

  20. Summary Report on FY12 Small-Scale Test Activities High Temperature Electrolysis Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James O'Brien

    2012-09-01

    This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during JanuaryAugust 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-Scale Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the activities described in this report represent a much smaller effort.

  1. Evidence of High Electrocatalytic Activity of Molybdenum Carbide Supported Platinum Nanorafts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elbaz, Lior; Phillips, Jonathan; Artyushkova, Kateryna; More, Karren Leslie; Brosha, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable new supported metal catalyst structure on Mo2C substrates, ‘rafts’ of platinum consisting of less than 6 atoms, was synthesized and found to be catalytically active electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction. A novel catalytic synthesis method: Reduction-Expansion-Synthesis of Catalysts (RES-C), from rapid heating of dry mixture of solid precursors of molybdenum, platinum and urea in an inert gas environment, led to the creation of unique platinum Nanorafts on Mo2C. The Pt Nanorafts offer a complete utilization of the Pt atoms for electrocatalysis with no “hidden” atoms. This structure is strongly affected by its interaction with the substrate as was observedmore » by XPS. In this work, we show for the first time, evidence of electrocatalytic activity with such small clusters of non-crystalline Pt atoms as catalysts for oxygen reduction. Electrochemical half-cell characterization shows that this structure permit more efficient utilization of platinum, with mass activity conservatively measured to be 50% that of platinum particles generated using traditional approaches. These novel material may dramatically enhance stability relative to the commercial Pt/carbon catalysts.« less

  2. The behavior of measured SEU at low altitude during periods of high solar activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harboe-Sorensen, R.; Daly, E.J.; Adams, L. ); Underwood, C.I.; Ward, J. )

    1990-12-01

    The UoSAT-2 spacecraft, launched in 1984 into a polar orbit of altitude 700 km has a number of systems which have been observed to experience single-event upsets at significant rates. Geographically, the upsets are strongly concentrated in the South-Atlantic Anomaly region from which it has been deduced that in this region they are due to the products of proton-induced nuclear reactions in the devices. During the year 1989, several solar flare events occurred which elevated the upset rates at high latitudes. The October 19 event, in particular, resulted in very high high-latitude upset rates. The authors separate and analyze these data, deriving upset rates for the various memory devices under quiet cosmic-ray, South Atlantic anomaly and solar flare conditions. The authors report on the results of the heavy ion and proton testing of UoSAT memories which were undertaken in order to compare predictions and observations.

  3. Conformable actively multiplexed high-density surface electrode array for brain interfacing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, John; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan

    2015-01-13

    Provided are methods and devices for interfacing with brain tissue, specifically for monitoring and/or actuation of spatio-temporal electrical waveforms. The device is conformable having a high electrode density and high spatial and temporal resolution. A conformable substrate supports a conformable electronic circuit and a barrier layer. Electrodes are positioned to provide electrical contact with a brain tissue. A controller monitors or actuates the electrodes, thereby interfacing with the brain tissue. In an aspect, methods are provided to monitor or actuate spatio-temporal electrical waveform over large brain surface areas by any of the devices disclosed herein.

  4. High-Performance Organic Field-Effect Transistors with Dielectric and Active Layers Printed Sequentially by Ultrasonic Spraying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Ming [ORNL; Sanjib, Das [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Keum, Jong Kahk [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Gu, Gong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    High-performance, flexible organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are reported with PVP dielectric and TIPS-PEN active layers sequentially deposited by ultrasonic spray-coating on plastic substrate. OFETs fabricated in ambient air with a bottom-gate/top-contact geometry are shown to achieve on/off ratios of >104 and mobilities as high as 0.35 cm2/Vs. These rival the characteristics of the best solution-processible small molecule FETs fabricated by other fabrication methods such as drop casting and ink-jet printing.

  5. Gamma/neutron time-correlation for special nuclear material detection – Active stimulation of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paff, Marc G.; Monterial, Mateusz; Marleau, Peter; Kiff, Scott; Nowack, Aaron; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2014-06-21

    A series of simulations and experiments were undertaken to explore and evaluate the potential for a novel new technique for fissile material detection and characterization, the timecorrelated pulse-height (TCPH) method, to be used concurrent with active stimulation of potential nuclear materials. In previous work TCPH has been established as a highly sensitive method for the detection and characterization of configurations of fissile material containing Plutonium in passive measurements. By actively stimulating fission with the introduction of an external radiation source, we have shown that TCPH is also an effective method of detecting and characterizing configurations of fissile material containing Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The TCPH method is shown to be robust in the presence of the proper choice of external radiation source. An evaluation of potential interrogation sources is presented.

  6. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  7. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, R.; Schoessow, P.; Talaga, R.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of July 1, 1994--December 31, 1994. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  8. High glucose induces activation of NF-κB inflammatory signaling through IκBα sumoylation in rat mesangial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Wei; Department of Endocrinology, The People’s Hospital of Xindu, Xindu, Sichuang, 610500 ; Xu, Ling; Zhou, Xueqin; Department of Endocrinology, The People’s Hospital of Leshan, Sichuang ; Gao, Chenlin; Yang, Maojun; Chen, Guo; Zhu, Jianhua; Jiang, Lan; Gan, Huakui; Gou, Fang; Feng, Hong; Peng, Juan; Xu, Yong

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •The expression of SUMO1, SUMO2/3 under high glucose was obviously enhanced. •High glucose induced degradation of IκBα and activation of NF-κB pathway. •Sumoylation of IκBα in high glucose were significantly decreased. •The proteasome inhibitor MG132 could partially revert the degradation of IκBα. -- Abstract: The posttranslational modification of proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) has emerged as an important regulatory mechanism for the alteration of protein activity, stability, and cellular localization. The latest research demonstrates that sumoylation is extensively involved in the regulation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway, which plays a critical role in the regulation of inflammation and contributes to fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the role of sumoylation in the regulation of NF-κB signaling in DN is still unclear. In the present study, we cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) stimulated by high glucose and divided GMCs into six groups: normal glucose group (5.6 mmol/L), high glucose groups (10, 20, and 30 mmol/L), mannitol group (i.e., osmotic control group), and MG132 intervention group (30 mmol/L glucose with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor). The expression of SUMO1, SUMO2/3, IκBα, NF-κBp65, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) was measured by Western blot, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and indirect immunofluorescence laser scanning confocal microscopy. The interaction between SUMO1, SUMO2/3, and IκBα was observed by co-immunoprecipitation. The results showed that the expression of SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 was dose- and time-dependently enhanced by high glucose (p < 0.05). However, the expression of IκBα sumoylation in high glucose was significantly decreased compared with the normal glucose group (p < 0.05). The expression of IκBα was dose- and time-dependently decreased, and NF-κBp65 and MCP-1 were increased under high glucose conditions, which

  9. Facile route to hierarchical silver microstructures with high catalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Sasa; Wang, Wei Tan, Fatang; Gu, Jian; Qiao, Xueliang; Chen, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile route was developed to prepare hierarchical silver microstructures. • The shape and size of secondary units can be tailed by varying reaction conditions. • Hierarchical silver microstructures have excellent catalytic activity. • The morphology and crystallinity of silver particles affect the catalytic activity. - Abstract: A facile, cost-effective and environmentally friendly route was developed to synthesize hierarchical silver microstructures consisting of different shaped secondary units through reducing concentrated silver nitrate with ascorbic acid in the absence of any surfactant. The as-obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The investigation on the morphology evolution revealed that the molar ratio of ascorbic acid to silver nitrate was critical to control the shape of secondary structures. The length of plate-like secondary structures which composed hierarchical silver particles could be controlled by changing the reactant concentrations, and it had a key relationship with the catalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol by NaBH{sub 4}. The catalytic activity of these surfactant-free silver microstructures was about ten times higher than that of silver nanoparticles, and even comparable to that of gold nanoplates, which indicates that the as-obtained silver microstructures are very promising candidates for the catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol due to the simple synthesis route and high catalytic activity.

  10. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME ONE: PRELIMINARY DESIGN REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.; Chow, Ray; Nordenholz, Thomas R.; Wamble, John Lee

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  11. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME TWO: INNOVATION & COST OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  12. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME ZERO: OVERVIEW AND COMMERCIAL PATH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  13. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME THREE: MARKET & TEAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  14. Volume 1, 1st Edition, Multiscale Tailoring of Highly Active and Stable Nanocomposite Catalysts, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veser, Goetz

    2009-08-31

    Nanomaterials have gained much attention as catalysts since the discovery of exceptional CO oxidation activity of nanoscale gold by Haruta. However, many studies avoid testing nanomaterials at the high-temperatures relevant to reactions of interest for the production of clean energy (T > 700C). The generally poor thermal stability of catalytically active noble metals has thus far prevented significant progress in this area. We have recently overcome the poor thermal stability of nanoparticles by synthesizing a platinum barium-hexaaluminate (Pt-BHA) nanocomposite which combines the high activity of noble metal nanoparticles with the thermal stability of hexaaluminates. This Pt-BHA nanocomposite demonstrates excellent activity, selectivity, and long-term stability in CPOM. Pt-BHA is anchored onto a variety of support structures in order to improve the accessibility, safety, and reactivity of the nanocatalyst. Silica felts prove to be particularly amenable to this supporting procedure, with the resulting supported nanocatalyst proving to be as active and stable for CPOM as its unsupported counterpart. Various pre-treatment conditions are evaluated to determine their effectiveness in removing residual surfactant from the active nanoscale platinum particles. The size of these particles is measured across a wide temperature range, and the resulting plateau of stability from 600-900C can be linked to a particle caging effect due to the structure of the supporting ceramic framework. The nanocomposites are used to catalyze the combustion of a dilute methane stream, and the results indicate enhanced activity for both Pt-BHA as well as ceria-doped BHA, as well as an absence of internal mass transfer limitations at the conditions tested. In water-gas shift reaction, nanocomposite Pt-BHA shows stability during prolonged WGS reaction and no signs of deactivation during start-up/shut-down of the reactor. The chemical and thermal stability, low molecular weight, and wealth of

  15. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Pyatina, T.

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  16. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Pyatina, T.

    2014-11-14

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  17. PT AND PT/NI "NEEDLE" ELETROCATALYSTS ON CARBON NANOTUBES WITH HIGH ACTIVITY FOR THE ORR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colon-Mercado, H.

    2011-11-10

    Platinum and platinum/nickel alloy electrocatalysts supported on graphitized (gCNT) or nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (nCNT) are prepared and characterized. Pt deposition onto carbon nanotubes results in Pt 'needle' formations that are 3.5 nm in diameter and {approx}100 nm in length. Subsequent Ni deposition and heat treatment results in PtNi 'needles' with an increased diameter. All Pt and Pt/Ni materials were tested as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The Pt and Pt/Ni catalysts showed excellent performance for the ORR, with the heat treated PtNi/gCNT (1.06 mA/cm{sup 2}) and PtNi/nCNT (0.664 mA/cm{sup 2}) showing the highest activity.

  18. Current Activities Assessing Butt Fusion Joint Integrity in High Density Polyethylene Piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Doctor, Steven R.; Denslow, Kayte M.

    2012-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, conducted initial studies to evaluate the effectiveness of nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing for assessing butt fusion joint integrity in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The work provided insightful information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques for detecting lack of fusion (LOF) conditions in the fusion joints. HDPE has been installed on a limited basis in American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Class 3, buried piping systems at several operating U.S. nuclear power plants and has been proposed for use in new construction. A comparison was made between the results from ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive examinations and the results from mechanical destructive evaluations, specifically the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test, for determining joint integrity. The data comparison revealed that none of the NDE techniques detected all of the lack-of-fusion conditions that were revealed by the destructive tests. Follow-on work has recently been initiated at PNNL to accurately characterize the NDE responses from machined flaws of varying size and location in PE 4710 materials as well as the LOF condition. This effort is directed at quantifying the ability of volumetric NDE techniques to detect flaws in relation to the critical flaw size associated with joint integrity. A status of these latest investigations is presented.

  19. Lead Research and Development Activity for DOE's High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program (Topic 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Fenton, PhD; Darlene Slattery, PhD; Nahid Mohajeri, PhD

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Energy’s High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program was begun in 2006 with the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) as the lead organization. During the first three years of the program, FSEC was tasked with developing non-Nafion® proton exchange membranes with improved conductivity for fuel cells. Additionally, FSEC was responsible for developing protocols for the measurement of in-plane conductivity, providing conductivity measurements for the other funded teams, developing a method for through-plane conductivity and organizing and holding semiannual meetings of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG). The FSEC membrane research focused on the development of supported poly[perfluorosulfonic acid] (PFSA) – Teflon membranes and a hydrocarbon membrane, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The fourth generation of the PFSA membrane (designated FSEC-4) came close to, but did not meet, the Go/No-Go milestone of 0.1 S/cm at 50% relative humidity at 120 °C. In-plane conductivity of membranes provided by the funded teams was measured and reported to the teams and DOE. Late in the third year of the program, DOE used this data and other factors to decide upon the teams to continue in the program. The teams that continued provided promising membranes to FSEC for development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) that could be tested in an operating fuel cell. FSEC worked closely with each team to provide customized support. A logic flow chart was developed and discussed before MEA fabrication or any testing began. Of the five teams supported, by the end of the project, membranes from two of the teams were easily manufactured into MEAs and successfully characterized for performance. One of these teams exceeded performance targets, while the other requires further optimization. An additional team developed a membrane that shows great promise for significantly reducing membrane costs and increasing membrane lifetime.

  20. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: High-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend, Ford F-150 -- Operating Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Karner; Francfort, James Edward

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents the results of 4,695 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 50% hydrogen–50% CNG fuel.

  1. Highly Active Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries Based on [Mg2(?-Cl)2]2+ Cation Complex in Dimethoxyethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yingwen; Stolley, Ryan M.; Han, Kee Sung; Shao, Yuyan; Arey, Bruce W.; Washton, Nancy M.; Mueller, Karl T.; Helm, Monte L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

    2015-01-01

    Highly active electrolytes based on a novel [Mg2(?-Cl)2]2+ cation complex for reversible Mg deposition were developed and analyzed in this work. These electrolytes were formulated in dimethoxyethane through dehalodimerization of non-nucleophilic MgCl2 by reacting with either Mg salts (such as Mg(TFSI)2, TFSI= bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonylimide) or Lewis acid salts (such as AlEtCl2 or AlCl3). The cation complex was identified for the first time as [Mg2(?-Cl)2(DME)4]2+ (DME=dimethoxyethane) and its molecular structure was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and NMR. The electrolyte synthesis process was studied and rational approaches for formulating highly active electrolytes were proposed. Through control of the anions, electrolytes with efficiency close to 100%, wide electrochemical window (up to 3.5V) and high ionic conductivity (> 6 mS/cm) were obtained. The electrolyte synthesis and understandings developed in this work could bring significant opportunities for rational formulation of electrolytes with the general formula [Mg2(?-Cl)2(DME)4][anion]x for practical Mg batteries.

  2. Supermassive black holes with high accretion rates in active galactic nuclei. II. The most luminous standard candles in the universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jian-Min; Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Netzer, Hagai; Kaspi, Shai [Wise Observatory, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Bai, Jin-Ming; Wang, Fang [Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011, Yunnan (China); Lu, Kai-Xing [Astronomy Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Collaboration: SEAMBH collaboration

    2014-10-01

    This is the second in a series of papers reporting on a large reverberation mapping (RM) campaign to measure black hole (BH) mass in high accretion rate active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The goal is to identify super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs) and to use their unique properties to construct a new method for measuring cosmological distances. Based on theoretical models, the saturated bolometric luminosity of such sources is proportional to the BH mass, which can be used to obtain their distance. Here we report on five new RM measurements and show that in four of the cases, we can measure the BH mass and three of these sources are SEAMBHs. Together with the three sources from our earlier work, we now have six new sources of this type. We use a novel method based on a minimal radiation efficiency to identify nine additional SEAMBHs from earlier RM-based mass measurements. We use a Bayesian analysis to determine the parameters of the new distance expression and the method uncertainties from the observed properties of the objects in the sample. The ratio of the newly measured distances to the standard cosmological ones has a mean scatter of 0.14 dex, indicating that SEAMBHs can be use as cosmological distance probes. With their high luminosity, long period of activity, and large numbers at high redshifts, SEAMBHs have a potential to extend the cosmic distance ladder beyond the range now explored by Type Ia supernovae.

  3. Gamma/neutron time-correlation for special nuclear material detection – Active stimulation of highly enriched uranium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paff, Marc G.; Monterial, Mateusz; Marleau, Peter; Kiff, Scott; Nowack, Aaron; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2014-06-21

    A series of simulations and experiments were undertaken to explore and evaluate the potential for a novel new technique for fissile material detection and characterization, the timecorrelated pulse-height (TCPH) method, to be used concurrent with active stimulation of potential nuclear materials. In previous work TCPH has been established as a highly sensitive method for the detection and characterization of configurations of fissile material containing Plutonium in passive measurements. By actively stimulating fission with the introduction of an external radiation source, we have shown that TCPH is also an effective method of detecting and characterizing configurations of fissile material containing Highlymore » Enriched Uranium (HEU). The TCPH method is shown to be robust in the presence of the proper choice of external radiation source. An evaluation of potential interrogation sources is presented.« less

  4. IceCube expectations for two high-energy neutrino production models at active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argüelles, C.A.; Bustamante, M.; Gago, A.M. E-mail: mbustamante@pucp.edu.pe

    2010-12-01

    We have determined the currently allowed regions of the parameter spaces of two representative models of diffuse neutrino flux from active galactic nuclei (AGN): one by Koers and Tinyakov (KT) and another by Becker and Biermann (BB). Our observable has been the number of upgoing muon-neutrinos expected in the 86-string IceCube detector, after 5 years of exposure, in the range 10{sup 5} ≤ E{sub ν}/GeV ≤ 10{sup 8}. We have used the latest estimated discovery potential of the IceCube-86 array at the 5σ level to determine the lower boundary of the regions, while for the upper boundary we have used either the AMANDA upper bound on the neutrino flux or the more recent preliminary upper bound given by the half-completed IceCube-40 array (IC40). We have varied the spectral index of the proposed power-law fluxes, α, and two parameters of the BB model: the ratio between the boost factors of neutrinos and cosmic rays, Γ{sub ν}/Γ{sub CR}, and the maximum redshift of the sources that contribute to the cosmic-ray flux, z{sub CR}{sup max}. For the KT model, we have considered two scenarios: one in which the number density of AGN does not evolve with redshift and another in which it evolves strongly, following the star formation rate. Using the IC40 upper bound, we have found that the models are visible in IceCube-86 only inside very thin strips of parameter space and that both of them are discarded at the preferred value of α = 2.7 obtained from fits to cosmic-ray data. Lower values of α, notably the values 2.0 and 2.3 proposed in the literature, fare better. In addition, we have analysed the capacity of IceCube-86 to discriminate between the models within the small regions of parameter space where both of them give testable predictions. Within these regions, discrimination at the 5σ level or more is guaranteed.

  5. Experimental Design for Hanford Low-Activity Waste Glasses with High Waste Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Cooley, Scott K.; Vienna, John D.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2015-07-24

    This report discusses the development of an experimental design for the initial phase of the Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) enhanced glass study. This report is based on a manuscript written for an applied statistics journal. Appendices A, B, and E include additional information relevant to the LAW enhanced glass experimental design that is not included in the journal manuscript. The glass composition experimental region is defined by single-component constraints (SCCs), linear multiple-component constraints (MCCs), and a nonlinear MCC involving 15 LAW glass components. Traditional methods and software for designing constrained mixture experiments with SCCs and linear MCCs are not directly applicable because of the nonlinear MCC. A modification of existing methodology to account for the nonlinear MCC was developed and is described in this report. One of the glass components, SO3, has a solubility limit in glass that depends on the composition of the balance of the glass. A goal was to design the experiment so that SO3 would not exceed its predicted solubility limit for any of the experimental glasses. The SO3 solubility limit had previously been modeled by a partial quadratic mixture model expressed in the relative proportions of the 14 other components. The partial quadratic mixture model was used to construct a nonlinear MCC in terms of all 15 components. In addition, there were SCCs and linear MCCs. This report describes how a layered design was generated to (i) account for the SCCs, linear MCCs, and nonlinear MCC and (ii) meet the goals of the study. A layered design consists of points on an outer layer, and inner layer, and a center point. There were 18 outer-layer glasses chosen using optimal experimental design software to augment 147 existing glass compositions that were within the LAW glass composition experimental region. Then 13 inner-layer glasses were chosen with the software to augment the existing and outer

  6. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Conversion Activities for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renfro, David G; Cook, David Howard; Freels, James D; Griffin, Frederick P; Ilas, Germina; Sease, John D; Chandler, David

    2012-03-01

    This report describes progress made during FY11 in ORNL activities to support converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum (UMo) alloy. With both radial and axial contouring of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current levels achieved with HEU fuel. Studies are continuing to demonstrate that the fuel thermal safety margins can be preserved following conversion. Studies are also continuing to update other aspects of the reactor steady state operation and accident response for the effects of fuel conversion. Technical input has been provided to Oregon State University in support of their hydraulic testing program. The HFIR conversion schedule was revised and provided to the GTRI program. In addition to HFIR conversion activities, technical support was provided directly to the Fuel Fabrication Capability program manager.

  7. Recent status and improvement of reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steels for high-temperature service

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, L.; Katoh, Y.; Tavassoli, A. -A. F.; Henry, J.; Rieth, M.; Sakasegawa, H.; Tanigawa, H.; Huang, Q.

    2016-07-26

    Reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels, candidate structural materials for fusion reactors, have achieved technological maturity after about three decades of research and development. The recent status of a few developmental aspects of current RAFM steels, such as aging resistance, plate thickness effects, fracture toughness, and fatigue, is updated in this paper, together with ongoing efforts to develop next-generation RAFM steels for superior high-temperature performance. Additionally, to thermomechanical treatments, including nonstandard heat treatment, alloy chemistry refinements and modifications have demonstrated some improvements in high-temperature performance. Castable nanostructured alloys (CNAs) were developed by significantly increasing the amount of nanoscale MX (M = V/Ta/Ti,more » X = C/N) precipitates and reducing coarse M23C6 (M = Cr). Preliminary results showed promising improvement in creep resistance and Charpy impact toughness. We present and compare limited low-dose neutron irradiation results for one of the CNAs and China low activation martensitic with data for F82H and Eurofer97 irradiated up to ~70 displacements per atom at ~300–325 °C.« less

  8. GOODS-HERSCHEL: SEPARATING HIGH-REDSHIFT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES USING INFRARED COLOR DIAGNOSTICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Dasyra, Kalliopi; Leiton, Roger; Scott, Douglas; Magnelli, Benjamin; Popesso, Paola; Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela; Valtchanov, Ivan; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Dickinson, Mark; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Magdis, Georgios

    2013-02-15

    We have compiled a large sample of 151 high-redshift (z = 0.5-4) galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m (S {sub 24} > 100 {mu}Jy) in the GOODS-N and ECDFS fields for which we have deep Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, allowing us to decompose the mid-infrared spectrum into contributions from star formation and activity in the galactic nuclei. In addition, we have a wealth of photometric data from Spitzer IRAC/MIPS and Herschel PACS/SPIRE. We explore how effective different infrared color combinations are at separating our mid-IR spectroscopically determined active galactic nuclei from our star-forming galaxies. We look in depth at existing IRAC color diagnostics, and we explore new color-color diagnostics combining mid-IR, far-IR, and near-IR photometry, since these combinations provide the most detail about the shape of a source's IR spectrum. An added benefit of using a color that combines far-IR and mid-IR photometry is that it is indicative of the power source driving the IR luminosity. For our data set, the optimal color selections are S {sub 250}/S {sub 24} versus S {sub 8}/S {sub 3.6} and S {sub 100}/S {sub 24} versus S {sub 8}/S {sub 3.6}; both diagnostics have {approx}10% contamination rate in the regions occupied primarily by star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei, respectively. Based on the low contamination rate, these two new IR color-color diagnostics are ideal for estimating both the mid-IR power source of a galaxy when spectroscopy is unavailable and the dominant power source contributing to the IR luminosity. In the absence of far-IR data, we present color diagnostics using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR bands which can efficiently select out high-z (z {approx} 2) star-forming galaxies.

  9. HST/COS OBSERVATIONS OF GALACTIC HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS: FOUR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS SIGHT LINES THROUGH COMPLEX C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shull, J. Michael; Stevans, Matthew; Danforth, Charles; Penton, Steven V. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Lockman, Felix J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV 29444 (United States); Arav, Nahum, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu, E-mail: matthew.stevans@colorado.edu, E-mail: charles.danforth@colorado.edu, E-mail: steven.penton@colorado.edu, E-mail: jlockman@nrao.edu, E-mail: arav@vt.edu [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    We report ultraviolet spectra of Galactic high-velocity clouds (HVCs) in Complex C, taken by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), together with new 21 cm spectra from the Green Bank Telescope. The wide spectral coverage and higher signal-to-noise ratio, compared to previous HST spectra, provide better velocity definition of the HVC absorption, additional ionization species (including high ions), and improved abundances in this halo gas. Complex C has a metallicity of 10%-30% solar and a wide range of ions, suggesting dynamical and thermal interactions with hot gas in the Galactic halo. Spectra in the COS medium-resolution G130M (1133-1468 A) and G160M (1383-1796 A) gratings detect ultraviolet absorption lines from eight elements in low-ionization states (O I, N I, C II, S II, Si II, Al II, Fe II, P II) and three elements in intermediate- and high-ionization states (Si III, Si IV, C IV, N V). Our four active galactic nucleus sight lines toward Mrk 817, Mrk 290, Mrk 876, and PG 1259+593 have high-velocity H I and O VI column densities, log N{sub Hi}= 19.39-20.05 and log N{sub Ovi}= 13.58-14.10, with substantial amounts of kinematically associated photoionized gas. The high-ion abundance ratios are consistent with cooling interfaces between photoionized and collisionally ionized gas: N(C IV)/N(O VI) {approx} 0.3-0.5, N(Si IV)/N(O VI) {approx} 0.05-0.11, N(N V)/N(O VI) {approx} 0.07-0.13, and N(Si IV)/N(Si III) {approx}0.2.

  10. Aluminium doped ceriazirconia supported palladium-alumina catalyst with high oxygen storage capacity and CO oxidation activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Qiang; Yin, Shu Guo, Chongshen; Wu, Xiaoyong; Kimura, Takeshi; Sato, Tsugio

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} possessed high OSC and CO oxidation activity at low temperature. - Highlights: A new OSC material of Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is prepared via a mechanochemical method. Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed high OSC even after calcination at 1000 C for 20 h. Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibited the highest CO oxidation activity at low temperature correlates with enhanced OSC. - Abstract: The Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst prepared by a mechanochemical route and calcined at 1000 C for 20 h in air atmosphere to evaluate the thermal stability. The prepared Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was characterized for the oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and CO oxidation activity in automotive catalysis. For the characterization, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and the BrunauerEmmetTeller (BET) technique were employed. The OSC values of all samples were measured at 600 C using thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis. Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst calcined at 1000 C for 20 h with a BET surface area of 41 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1} exhibited the considerably high OSC of 583 ?mol-O g{sup ?1} and good OSC performance stability. The same synthesis route was employed for the preparation of the CeO{sub 2}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for comparison.

  11. SOLIDIFICATION TESTING FOR A HIGH ACTIVITY WASTESTREAM FROM THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE USING GROUT AND GAMMA RADIATION SHEILDING MATERIALS - 10017

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, H.

    2009-11-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating grouts that include gamma radiation shielding materials to solidify surrogates of liquid aqueous radioactive wastes from across the DOE Complex. The Savannah River Site (SRS) identified a High Activity Waste (HAW) that will be treated and solidified at the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for surrogate grout testing. The HAW, which is produced at the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), is an acidic aqueous wastestream generated by the alkaline treatment process and the aqueous purification process. The HAW surrogate was solidified using Portland cement with and without the inclusion of different gamma radiation shielding materials to determine the shielding material that is the most effective to attenuate gamma radiation for this application.

  12. Immobilizing Highly Catalytically Active Pt Nanoparticles inside the Pores of Metal-Organic Framework: A Double Solvents Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aijaz, Arshad; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Choi, Young Joon; Tsumori, Nobuko; Ronnebro, Ewa; Autrey, Thomas; Shioyama, Hiroshi; Xu, Qiang

    2012-08-29

    Ultrafine Pt nanoparticles were successfully immobilized inside the pores of a metal-organic framework MIL-101 without deposition of Pt nanoparticles on the external surfaces of framework by using a 'double solvents' method. The resulting Pt@MIL-101 composites with different Pt loadings represent the first highly active MOF-immobilized metal nanocatalysts for catalytic reactions in all three phases: liquid-phase ammonia borane hydrolysis; solid-phase ammonia borane thermal dehy-drogenation and gas-phase CO oxidation. The observed excellent catalytic performances are at-tributed to the small Pt nanoparticles within the pores of MIL-101. 'We are thankful to AIST and METI for financial support. TA & AK are thankful for support from the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. PNNL is operated by Battelle.'

  13. Parametric Evaluation of Active Neutron Interrogation for the Detection of Shielded Highly-Enriched Uranium in the Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Chcihester; E. H. Seabury; S. J. Thompson; R. R. C. Clement

    2011-10-01

    Parametric studies using numerical simulations are being performed to assess the performance capabilities and limits of active neutron interrogation for detecting shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU). Varying the shield material, HEU mass, HEU depth inside the shield, and interrogating neutron source energy, the simulations account for both neutron and photon emission signatures from the HEU with resolution in both energy and time. The results are processed to represent different irradiation timing schemes and several different classes of radiation detectors, and evaluated using a statistical approach considering signal intensity over background. This paper describes the details of the modeling campaign and some preliminary results, weighing the strengths of alternative measurement approaches for the different irradiation scenarios.

  14. Evolution of high cellulolytic activity in symbiotic Streptomyces through selection of expanded gene content and coordinated gene expression

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Book, Adam J.; Lewin, Gina R.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Doering, Drew T.; Suh, Steven; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Fox, Brian G.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2016-06-08

    In this study, the evolution of cellulose degradation was a defining event in the history of life. Without efficient decomposition and recycling, dead plant biomass would quickly accumulate and become inaccessible to terrestrial food webs and the global carbon cycle. On land, the primary drivers of plant biomass deconstruction are fungi and bacteria in the soil or associated with herbivorous eukaryotes. While the ecological importance of plant-decomposing microbes is well established, little is known about the distribution or evolution of cellulolytic activity in any bacterial genus. Here we show that in Streptomyces, a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil andmore » symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy) are widespread in Streptomyces, key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that cellulolytic strains express a suite of multi-domain CAZy enzymes that are coregulated by the CebR transcriptional regulator. Using targeted gene deletions, we verify the importance of a highly expressed cellulase (GH6 family cellobiohydrolase) and the CebR transcriptional repressor to the cellulolytic phenotype. Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces, including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. Our results suggest that host-associated niches have selected some symbiotic Streptomyces for increased cellulose degrading activity and that symbiotic bacteria are a rich biochemical and enzymatic resource for biotechnology.« less

  15. CENTRAL STORAGE FACILITY PROJECT IN COLOMBIA TO PROVIDE THE SAFE STORAGE AND PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenberg, Raymond; Wright, Kyle A.; McCaw, Erica E.; Vallejo, Jorge

    2009-10-07

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. Internationally, over 40 countries are cooperating with GTRI to enhance the security of these materials. The GTRI program has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials, including orphaned and disused high-activity sources. GTRI began cooperation with the Republic of Colombia in April 2004. This cooperation has been a resounding success by securing forty high-risk sites, consolidating disused/orphan sources at an interim secure national storage facility, and developing a comprehensive approach to security, training, and sustainability. In 2005 the Colombian Ministry of Mines and Energy requested the Department of Energys support in the construction of a new Central Storage Facility (CSF). In December 2005, the Ministry selected to construct this facility at the Institute of Geology and Mining (Ingeominas) site in Bogota. This site already served as Colombias national repository, where disused sources were housed in various buildings around the complex. The CSF project was placed under contract in May 2006, but environmental issues and public protests, which led to a class action lawsuit against the Colombian Government, forced the Ministry to quickly suspend activities, thereby placing the project in jeopardy. Despite these challenges, however, the Ministry of Mines and Energy worked closely with public and environmental authorities to resolve these issues, and continued to be a strong advocate of the GTRI program. In June 2008, the Ministry of Mines and Energy was granted the construction and environmental licenses. As a result, construction immediately resumed and the CSF was completed by December 2008. A commissioning ceremony was held for the new facility in January 2009, which was attended by representatives from the Department of Energy, U.S. Embassy, and

  16. THERMAL AND RADIATIVE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK HAVE A LIMITED IMPACT ON STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roos, Orianne; Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Gabor, Jared M.

    2015-02-10

    The effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on their host galaxies depend on the coupling between the injected energy and the interstellar medium (ISM). Here, we model and quantify the impact of long-range AGN ionizing radiation—in addition to the often considered small-scale energy deposition—on the physical state of the multi-phase ISM of the host galaxy and on its total star formation rate (SFR). We formulate an AGN spectral energy distribution matched with observations, which we use with the radiative transfer (RT) code Cloudy to compute AGN ionization in a simulated high-redshift disk galaxy. We use a high-resolution (∼6 pc) simulation including standard thermal AGN feedback and calculate RT in post-processing. Surprisingly, while these models produce significant AGN-driven outflows, we find that AGN ionizing radiation and heating reduce the SFR by a few percent at most for a quasar luminosity (L {sub bol} = 10{sup 46.5} erg s{sup –1}). Although the circumgalactic gaseous halo can be kept almost entirely ionized by the AGN, most star-forming clouds (n ≳ 10{sup 2} {sup –} {sup 3} cm{sup –3}) and even the reservoirs of cool atomic gas (n ∼ 0.3-10 cm{sup –3})—which are the sites of future star formation (SF; 100-200 Myr), are generally too dense to be significantly affected. Our analysis ignores any absorption from a putative torus, making our results upper limits on the effects of ionizing radiation. Therefore, while the AGN-driven outflows can remove substantial amounts of gas in the long term, the impact of AGN feedback on the SF efficiency in the interstellar gas in high-redshift galaxies is marginal, even when long-range radiative effects are accounted for.

  17. THE MOST MASSIVE ACTIVE BLACK HOLES AT z ∼ 1.5-3.5 HAVE HIGH SPINS AND RADIATIVE EFFICIENCIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2014-07-01

    The radiative efficiencies (η) of 72 luminous unobscured active galactic nuclei at z ∼ 1.5-3.5, powered by some of the most massive black holes (BHs), are constrained. The analysis is based on accretion disk (AD) models, which link the continuum luminosity at rest-frame optical wavelengths and the BH mass (M {sub BH}) to the accretion rate through the AD, M-dot {sub AD}. The data are gathered from several literature samples with detailed measurements of the Hβ emission line complex, observed at near-infrared bands. When coupled with standard estimates of bolometric luminosities (L {sub bol}), the analysis suggests high radiative efficiencies, with most of the sources showing η > 0.2, that is, higher than the commonly assumed value of 0.1, and the expected value for non-spinning BHs (η = 0.057). Even under more conservative assumptions regarding L {sub bol} (i.e., L {sub bol} = 3 × L {sub 5100}), most of the extremely massive BHs in the sample (i.e., M {sub BH} ≳ 3 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}) show radiative efficiencies which correspond to very high BH spins (a {sub *}), with typical values well above a {sub *} ≅ 0.7. These results stand in contrast to the predictions of a ''spin-down'' scenario, in which a series of randomly oriented accretion episodes leads to a {sub *} ∼ 0. Instead, the analysis presented here strongly supports a ''spin-up'' scenario, which is driven by either prolonged accretion or a series of anisotropically oriented accretion episodes. Considering the fact that these extreme BHs require long-duration or continuous accretion to account for their high masses, it is argued that the most probable scenario for the super-massive black holes under study is that of an almost continuous sequence of randomly yet not isotropically oriented accretion episodes.

  18. High rate mesophilic, thermophilic, and temperature phased anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge: A pilot scale study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolzonella, David; Cavinato, Cristina; Fatone, Francesco; Pavan, Paolo; Cecchi, Franco

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High temperatures were tested in single and two-stage anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The increased temperature demonstrated the possibility of improving typical yields of the conventional mesophilic process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature phased anaerobic digestion process (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) showed the best performances with yields of 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia and phosphate released from solids destruction determined the precipitation of struvite in the reactor. - Abstract: The paper reports the findings of a two-year pilot scale experimental trial for the mesophilic (35 Degree-Sign C), thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) and temperature phased (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. During the mesophilic and thermophilic runs, the reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 20 days. In the temperature phased run, the first reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 15 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 2 days while the second reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 18 days (20 days for the whole temperature phased system). The performance of the reactor improved with increases in temperature. The COD removal increased from 35% in mesophilic conditions, to 45% in thermophilic conditions, and 55% in the two stage temperature phased system. As a consequence, the specific biogas production increased from 0.33 to 0.45 and to 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed} at 35, 55, and 65 + 55 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The extreme thermophilic reactor working at 65 Degree-Sign C showed a high hydrolytic capability and a specific yield of 0.33 gCOD (soluble) per gVS{sub fed}. The effluent of the extreme thermophilic reactor showed an average concentration of soluble COD and volatile

  19. Investigation of Mechanical Activation on Li-N-H Systems Using 6Li Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance at Ultra-High Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Kwak, Ja Hun; Yang, Zhenguo; Osborn, William; Markmaitree, Tippawan; Shaw, Leonard D.

    2008-07-15

    Abstract The significantly enhanced spectral resolution in the 6Li MAS NMR spectra of Li-N-H systems at ultra-high field of 21.1 tesla is exploited, for the first time, to study the detailed electronic and chemical environmental changes associated with mechanical activation of Li-N-H system using high energy balling milling. Complementary to ultra-high field studies, the hydrogen discharge dynamics are investigated using variable temperature in situ 1H MAS NMR at 7.05 tesla field. The significantly enhanced spectral resolution using ultra-high filed of 21.1 tesla was demonstrated along with several major findings related to mechanical activation, including the upfield shift of the resonances in 6Li MAS spectra induced by ball milling, more efficient mechanical activation with ball milling at liquid nitrogen temperature than with ball milling at room temperature, and greatly enhanced hydrogen discharge exhibited by the liquid nitrogen ball milled samples.

  20. Hydrodynamic Effects on Modeling and Control of a High Temperature Active Magnetic Bearing Pump with a Canned Rotor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melin, Alexander M; Kisner, Roger A; Fugate, David L; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Embedding instrumentation and control Embedding instrumentation and control (I\\&C) at the component level in nuclear power plants can improve component performance, lifetime, and resilience by optimizing operation, reducing the constraints on physical design, and providing on-board prognostics and diagnostics. However, the extreme environments that many nuclear power plant components operate in makes embedding instrumentation and control at the component level difficult. Successfully utilizing embedded I\\&C requires developing a deep understanding of the system's dynamics and using that knowledge to overcome material and physical limitations imposed by the environment. In this paper, we will develop a coupled dynamic model of a high temperature (700 $^\\circ$C) canned rotor pump that incorporates rotordynamics, hydrodynamics, and active magnetic bearing dynamics. Then we will compare two control design methods, one that uses a simplified decoupled model of the system and another that utilizes the full coupled system model. It will be seen that utilizing all the available knowledge of the system dynamics in the controller design yield an order of magnitude improvement in the magnitude of the magnetic bearing response to disturbances at the same level of control effort, a large reduction in the settling time of the system, and a smoother control action.

  1. A PERMEABLE ACTIVE AMENDMENT CONCRETE (PAAC) FOR CONTAMINANT REMEDIATION AND EROSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, A.; Paller, M.; Dixon, K.

    2012-06-29

    The final project report for SEED SERDP ER - 2134 describes the development of permeable active amendment concrete (PAAC), which was evaluated through four tasks: 1) development of PAAC; 2) assessment of PAAC for contaminant removal; 3) evaluation of promising PAAC formulations for potential environmental impacts; and 4) assessment of the hydraulic, physical, and structural properties of PAAC. Conventional permeable concrete (often referred to as pervious concrete) is concrete with high porosity as a result of an extensive and interconnected void content. It is made from carefully controlled amounts of water and cementitious materials used to create a paste that forms a coating around aggregate particles. The mixture has a substantial void content (e.g., 15% - 25%) that results in a highly permeable structure that drains quickly. In PAAC, the aggregate material is partly replaced by chemically-active amendments that precipitate or adsorb contaminants in water that flows through the concrete interstices. PAAC combines the relatively high structural strength, ample void space, and water permeability of pervious concrete with the contaminant sequestration ability of chemically-active amendments to produce a new material with superior durability and ability to control contaminant mobility. The high surface area provided by the concrete interstices in PAAC provides significant opportunity for contaminants to react with the amendments incorporated into the concrete matrix. PAAC has the potential to immobilize a large variety of organic and inorganic contaminants by incorporating different active sequestering agents including phosphate materials (rock phosphate), organoclays, zeolite, and lime individually or in combinations.

  2. ZnO:H indium-free transparent conductive electrodes for active-matrix display applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shuming Wang, Sisi

    2014-12-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes based on hydrogen (H)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) have been proposed for active-matrix (AM) display applications. When fabricated with optimal H plasma power and optimal plasma treatment time, the resulting ZnO:H films exhibit low sheet resistance of 200 Ω/◻ and high average transmission of 85% at a film thickness of 150 nm. The demonstrated transparent conductive ZnO:H films can potentially replace indium-tin-oxide and serve as pixel electrodes for organic light-emitting diodes as well as source/drain electrodes for ZnO-based thin-film transistors. Use of the proposed ZnO:H electrodes means that two photomask stages can be removed from the fabrication process flow for ZnO-based AM backplanes.

  3. WO3 and HPA based system for ultra high stability Innovation for Our Energy Future ultra-activity and of Pt catalysts in PEMFC cathodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WO 3 and HPA based system for ultra high activity and stability of Innovation for Our Energy Future ultra-high activity and stability of Pt catalysts in PEMFC cathodes 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Project Kick-Off Venue: Washington D.C. Presenter: John Turner Organization: NREL Date: Sept 28th, 2010 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. "This presentation

  4. High-frequency monitoring of water fluxes and nutrient loads to assess the effects of controlled drainage on water storage and nutrient transport

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rozemeijer, J. C.; Visser, A.; Borren, W.; Winegram, M.; van der Velde, Y.; Klein, J.; Broers, H. P.

    2016-01-19

    High nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fluxes from upstream agriculture threaten aquatic ecosystems in surface waters and estuaries, especially in areas characterized by high agricultural N and P inputs and densely drained catchments like the Netherlands. Controlled drainage has been recognized as an effective option to optimize soil moisture conditions for agriculture and to reduce unnecessary losses of fresh water and nutrients. This is achieved by introducing control structures with adjustable overflow levels into subsurface tube drain systems. A small-scale (1 ha) field experiment was designed to investigate the hydrological and chemical changes after introducing controlled drainage. Precipitation rates andmore » the response of water tables and drain fluxes were measured in the periods before the introduction of controlled drainage (2007–2008) and after (2009–2011). For the N and P concentration measurements, auto-analyzers for continuous records were combined with passive samplers for time-averaged concentrations at individual drain outlets. The experimental setup enabled the quantification of changes in the water and solute balance after introducing controlled drainage. The results showed that introducing controlled drainage reduced the drain discharge and increased the groundwater storage in the field. To achieve this, the overflow levels have to be elevated in early spring, before the drain discharge stops due to dryer conditions and falling groundwater levels. The groundwater storage in the field would have been larger if the water levels in the adjacent ditch were controlled as well by an adjustable weir. The N concentrations and loads increased, which was largely related to elevated concentrations in one of the three monitored tube drains. The P loads via the tube drains reduced due to the reduction in discharge after introducing controlled drainage. Furthermore, this may be counteracted by the higher groundwater levels and the larger contribution

  5. Analytical admittance characterization of high mobility channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mammeri, A. M.; Mahi, F. Z.; Varani, L.

    2015-03-30

    In this contribution, we investigate the small-signal admittance of the high electron mobility transistors field-effect channels under a continuation branching of the current between channel and gate by using an analytical model. The analytical approach takes into account the linearization of the 2D Poisson equation and the drift current along the channel. The analytical equations discuss the frequency dependence of the admittance at source and drain terminals on the geometrical transistor parameters.

  6. Hierarchical chlorine-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} spherical clusters of nanorods: Large-scale synthesis and high photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Hua; Zheng Zhi; Zhang Lizhi Zhang Hailu; Deng Feng

    2008-09-15

    In this study, we report the synthesis of hierarchical chlorine-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} spherical clusters of nanorods photocatalyst on a large scale via a soft interface approach. This catalyst showed much higher photocatalytic activity than the famous commercial titania (Degussa P25) under visible light ({lambda}>420 nm). The resulting sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), nitrogen adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, {sup 1}H solid magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. On the basis of characterization results, we found that the doping of chlorine resulted in red shift of absorption and higher surface acidity as well as crystal defects in the photocatalyst, which were the reasons for high photocatalytic activity of chlorine-doped TiO{sub 2} under visible light ({lambda}>420 nm). These hierarchical chlorine-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} spherical clusters of nanorods are very attractive in the fields of environmental pollutants removal and solar cell because of their easy separation and high activity. - Graphical abstract: Hierarchical chlorine-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} spherical clusters of nanorods photocatalyst were synthesized on a large scale via a soft interface approach. This catalyst showed much higher photocatalytic activity than the famous commercial titania (Degussa P25) under visible light ({lambda}>420 nm)

  7. Highly Active TiO2-Based Visible-Light Photocatalyst with Nonmetal Doping and Plasmonic Metal Decoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qiao; Lima, Diana Q.; Chi, Miaofang; Yin, Yadong

    2011-01-01

    A sandwich-structured photocatalyst shows an excellent performance in degradation reactions of a number of organic compounds under UV, visible light, and direct sunlight (see picture). The catalyst was synthesized by a combination of nonmetal doping and plasmonic metal decoration of TiO2 nanocrystals, which improves visible-light activity and enhances light harvesting and charge separation, respectively.

  8. Active wear and failure mechanisms of TiN-coated high speed steel and TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining powder metallurgically made stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, L.; Haenninen, H.; Paro, J.; Kauppinen, V.

    1996-09-01

    In this study, active wear and failure mechanisms of both TiN-coated high speed steel and TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining stainless steels made by powder metallurgy in low and high cutting speed ranges, respectively, have been investigated. Abrasive wear mechanisms, fatigue-induced failure, and adhesive and diffusion wear mechanisms mainly affected the tool life of TiN-coated high speed steel tools at cutting speeds below 35 m/min, between 35 and 45 m/min, and over 45 m/min, respectively. Additionally, fatigue-induced failure was active at cutting speeds over 45 m/min in the low cutting speed range when machining powder metallurgically made duplex stainless steel 2205 and austenitic stainless steel 316L. In the high cutting speed range, from 100 to 250 m/min, fatigue-induced failure together with diffusion wear mechanism, affected the tool life of TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining both 316L and 2205 stainless steels. It was noticed that the tool life of TiN-coated high speed steel tools used in the low cutting speed range when machining 2205 steel was longer than that when machining 316L steel, whereas the tool life of TiN-coated cemented carbide tools used in the high cutting speed range when machining 316L steel was longer than that when machining 2205 steel.

  9. Determination of active doping in highly resistive boron doped silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2} by capacitance voltage measurement on inverted metal oxide semiconductor structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Tian Puthen-Veettil, Binesh; Wu, Lingfeng; Jia, Xuguang; Lin, Ziyun; Yang, Terry Chien-Jen; Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan

    2015-10-21

    We investigate the Capacitance-Voltage (CV) measurement to study the electrically active boron doping in Si nanocrystals (ncSi) embedded in SiO{sub 2}. The ncSi thin films with high resistivity (200–400 Ω cm) can be measured by using an inverted metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) structure (Al/ncSi (B)/SiO{sub 2}/Si). This device structure eliminates the complications from the effects of lateral current flow and the high sheet resistance in standard lateral MOS structures. The characteristic MOS CV curves observed are consistent with the effective p-type doping. The CV modeling method is presented and used to evaluate the electrically active doping concentration. We find that the highly boron doped ncSi films have electrically active doping of 10{sup 18}–10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} despite their high resistivity. The saturation of doping at about 1.4 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} and the low doping efficiency less than 5% are observed and discussed. The calculated effective mobility is in the order of 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V s, indicating strong impurity/defect scattering effect that hinders carriers transport.

  10. Nonaqueous sol-gel synthesis and growth mechanism of single crystalline TiO{sub 2} nanorods with high photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia Huimin; Zheng Zhi; Zhao Hongxiao; Zhang Lizhi; Zou Zhigang

    2009-06-03

    In this paper, we report on a nonaqueous synthesis of single crystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorods by reaction between TiCl{sub 4} and benzyl alcohol at a low temperature of 80 deg. C. The resulting samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We proposed that the TiO{sub 2} nanorods were formed through an oriented attachment mechanism. More importantly, these single crystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorods exhibited significantly higher photocatalytic activities than commercial photocatalyst P25. This study provides an environmentally friendly and economic approach to produce highly active TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst.

  11. Module greenhouse with high efficiency of transformation of solar energy, utilizing active and passive glass optical rasters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korecko, J.; Jirka, V.; Sourek, B.; Cerveny, J.

    2010-10-15

    Since the eighties of the 20th century, various types of linear glass rasters for architectural usage have been developed in the Czech Republic made by the continuous melting technology. The development was focused on two main groups of rasters - active rasters with linear Fresnel lenses in fixed installation and with movable photo-thermal and/or photo-thermal/photo-voltaic absorbers. The second group are passive rasters based on total reflection of rays on an optical prism. During the last years we have been working on their standardization, exact measuring of their optical and thermal-technical characteristics and on creation of a final product that could be applied in solar architecture. With the project supported by the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic we were able to build an experimental greenhouse using these active and passive optical glass rasters. The project followed the growing number of technical objectives. The concept of the greenhouse consisted of interdependence construction - structural design of the greenhouse with its technological equipment securing the required temperature and humidity conditions in the interior of the greenhouse. This article aims to show the merits of the proposed scheme and presents the results of the mathematical model in the TRNSYS environment through which we could predict the future energy balance carried out similar works, thus optimizing the investment and operating costs. In this article description of various technology applications for passive and active utilization of solar radiation is presented, as well as some results of short-term and long-term experiments, including evaluation of 1-year operation of the greenhouse from the energy and interior temperature viewpoints. A comparison of the calculated energy flows in the greenhouse to real measured values, for verification of the installed model is also involved. (author)

  12. The carburization of transition metal molybdates (MxMoO?, M= Cu, Ni or Co) and the generation of highly active metal/carbide catalysts for CO? hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Xu, Wenqian; Ramirez, Pedro J.; Stachiola, Dario; Brito, Joaquin L.

    2015-05-06

    A new approach has been tested for the preparation of metal/Mo?C catalysts using mixed-metal oxide molybdates as precursors. Synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction was used to study the reduction and carburization processes of Cu?(MoO?)?(OH)?, a-NiMoO? and CoMoO?nH?O by thermal treatment under mixtures of hydrogen and methane. In all cases, the final product was ?-Mo?C and a metal phase (Cu, Ni, or Co), but the transition sequence varied with the different metals, and it could be related to the reduction potential of the Cu?, Ni? and Co? cations inside each molybdate. The synthesized Cu/Mo?C, Ni/Mo?C and Co/Mo?C catalysts were highly active for the hydrogenation of CO?. The metal/Mo?C systems exhibited large variations in the selectivity towards methanol, methane and CnH?n?? (n > 2) hydrocarbons depending on the nature of the supported metal and its ability to cleave C-O bonds. Cu/Mo?C displayed a high selectivity for CO and methanol production. Ni/Mo?C and Co/Mo?C were the most active catalysts for the activation and full decomposition of CO?, showing high selectivity for the production of methane (Ni case) and CnH?n?? (n > 2) hydrocarbons (Co case).

  13. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 335: Area 6 Injection Well and Drain Pit Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revison 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the June 2003, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 335: Area 6 Injection Well and Drain Pit as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for: • CAS 06-20-02, 20-inch Cased Hole • CAS 06-23-03, Drain Pit These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove these URs because

  14. High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) imager. Final report, 29 August 1991-29 August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lance, C.; Eather, R.

    1993-09-30

    A low-light-level monochromatic imaging system was designed and fabricated which was optimized to detect and record optical emissions associated with high-power rf heating of the ionosphere. The instrument is capable of detecting very low intensities, of the order of 1 Rayleigh, from typical ionospheric atomic and molecular emissions. This is achieved through co-adding of ON images during heater pulses and subtraction of OFF (background) images between pulses. Images can be displayed and analyzed in real time and stored in optical disc for later analysis. Full image processing software is provided which was customized for this application and uses menu or mouse user interaction.

  15. Application of electrolytic in-process dressing for high-efficiency grinding of ceramic parts. Research activities 1995--96

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, B.P.

    1997-02-01

    The application of Electrolytic In-Process Dressing (ELID) for highly efficient and stable grinding of ceramic parts is discussed. This research was performed at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Tokyo, Japan, June 1995 through August 1995. Experiments were conducted using a vertical machining center. The silicon nitride work material, of Japanese manufacture and supplied in the form of a rectangular block, was clamped to a vice which was firmly fixed on the base of a strain gage dynamometer. The dynamometer was clamped on the machining center table. Reciprocating grinding was performed with a flat-faced diamond grinding wheel. The output from the dynamometer was recorded with a data acquisition system and the normal component of the force was monitored. Experiments were carried out under various cutting conditions, different ELID conditions, and various grinding wheel bonds types. Rough grinding wheels of grit sizes {number_sign}170 and {number_sign}140 were used in the experiments. Compared to conventional grinding, there was a significant reduction in grinding force with ELID grinding. Therefore, ELID grinding can be recommended for high material removal rate grinding, low rigidity machines, and low rigidity workpieces. Compared to normal grinding, a reduction in grinding ratio was observed when ELID grinding was performed. A negative aspect of the process, this reduced G-ratio derives from bond erosion and can be improved somewhat by adjustments in the ELID current. The results of this investigation are discussed in detail in this report.

  16. Sub-micron fracture mechanism in silica-based glass activated by permanent densification from high-strain loading

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Waters, Shirley B.; Parten, Randy J.; Pye, L. David

    2016-04-26

    Several silica-based glasses were fractured at high strain energy via drop-weight testing on small specimens. A cylindrical specimen geometry was chosen to promote initially simple, axisymmetric, and uniform compressive loading. The imposed uniaxial compressive strain at impact was sufficiently high to qualitatively cause permanent densification. Produced fragments were collected for postmortem and a fraction of them, for all the silica-based glasses, consistently had distinct sub-micron-sized fractures (~ 300–1000 nm), designated here as “microkernels”, on their surfaces. They would most often appear as a sub-micron pore on the fragment - apparently if the microkernel had popped out as a consequence ofmore » the local crack plane running through it, tensile-strain release, and the associated formation of the fragment it was on. No fractographic evidence was found to show the microkernels were associated with local failure initiation. However, their positioning and habit sometimes suggested they were associated with localized crack branching and that they could have influenced secondary fracturing that occurred during overall crushing and comminution and associated fragment size and shape creation. Furthermore, the size range of these microkernels is much too small to affect structural flexure strength of these glasses for most applications but are of a size and concentration that may affect their ballistic, shock, crush, and comminution responses when permanent densification is concomitantly occurring.« less

  17. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 3 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  18. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 2 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  19. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 1 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck Colleen M,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  20. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of the metastable Bi{sub 20}TiO{sub 32} synthesized by a high-temperature quenching method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng Hefeng; Huang Baibiao; Dai Ying; Qin Xiaoyan; Zhang Xiaoyang; Wang Zeyan; Jiang Minhua

    2009-08-15

    Metastable Bi{sub 20}TiO{sub 32} samples were synthesized by a high-temperature quenching method using alpha-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and anatase TiO{sub 2} as raw materials. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples was measured with the photodegradation of methyl orange at room temperature under visible light irradiation. The Bi{sub 20}TiO{sub 32} samples exhibited good absorption in the visible light region with a band gap of about 2.38 eV and the band structure of Bi{sub 20}TiO{sub 32} was studied. Photodegradation against methyl orange was much better than alpha-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} prepared by the same way. The photocatalytic activity of Bi{sub 20}TiO{sub 32} samples is supposed to be associated with the hybridized Bi 6s and O 2p orbitals. In addition, the dispersive characteristic of Bi 6s orbital in the hybridized valence band facilitates the mobility of the photogenerated carriers and hampers their recombination. - Graphical abstract: Metastable Bi{sub 20}TiO{sub 32} samples were successfully synthesized by a quenching process. Photodegradation against methyl orange showed high visible-light activity and it was supposed to be associated with its corresponding band structure.

  1. Electron tunneling spectroscopy study of electrically active traps in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jie Cui, Sharon; Ma, T. P.; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Nath, Digbijoy; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-11-25

    We investigate the energy levels of electron traps in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by the use of electron tunneling spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of a typical spectrum, obtained in a wide gate bias range and with both bias polarities, suggests the existence of electron traps both in the bulk of AlGaN and at the AlGaN/GaN interface. The energy levels of the electron traps have been determined to lie within a 0.5?eV band below the conduction band minimum of AlGaN, and there is strong evidence suggesting that these traps contribute to Frenkel-Poole conduction through the AlGaN barrier.

  2. DEEP SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF INFRARED-FAINT RADIO SOURCES: HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Ray P.; Mao, Minnie; Afonso, Jose; Cava, Antonio; Farrah, Duncan; Oliver, Seb; Huynh, Minh T.; Mauduit, Jean-Christophe; Surace, Jason; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, Matt; Lacy, Mark; Maraston, Claudia; Middelberg, Enno; Seymour, Nick

    2011-07-20

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRSs) are a rare class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelengths but very faint at infrared and optical wavelengths. Here we present sensitive near-infrared observations of a sample of these sources taken as part of the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey. Nearly all the IFRSs are undetected at a level of {approx}1 {mu}Jy in these new deep observations, and even the detections are consistent with confusion with unrelated galaxies. A stacked image implies that the median flux density is S{sub 3.6{mu}m} {approx} 0.2 {mu}Jy or less, giving extreme values of the radio-infrared flux density ratio. Comparison of these objects with known classes of object suggests that the majority are probably high-redshift radio-loud galaxies, possibly suffering from significant dust extinction.

  3. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: High-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend Ford F-150 Operating Summary - January 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

    2003-01-22

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents the results of 4,695 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 50% hydrogen-50% CNG fuel.

  4. Analysis of Flow Cytometry DNA Damage Response Protein Activation Kinetics Following X-rays and High Energy Iron Nuclei Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Universities Space Research Association; Chappell, Lori J.; Whalen, Mary K.; Gurai, Sheena; Ponomarev, Artem; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Pluth, Janice M.

    2010-12-15

    We developed a mathematical method to analyze flow cytometry data to describe the kinetics of {gamma}H2AX and pATF2 phosphorylations ensuing various qualities of low dose radiation in normal human fibroblast cells. Previously reported flow cytometry kinetic results for these DSB repair phospho-proteins revealed that distributions of intensity were highly skewed, severely limiting the detection of differences in the very low dose range. Distributional analysis reveals significant differences between control and low dose samples when distributions are compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Radiation quality differences are found in the distribution shapes and when a nonlinear model is used to relate dose and time to the decay of the mean ratio of phosphoprotein intensities of irradiated samples to controls. We analyzed cell cycle phase and radiation quality dependent characteristic repair times and residual phospho-protein levels with these methods. Characteristic repair times for {gamma}H2AX were higher following Fe nuclei as compared to X-rays in G1 cells (4.5 {+-} 0.46 h vs 3.26 {+-} 0.76 h, respectively), and in S/G2 cells (5.51 {+-} 2.94 h vs 2.87 {+-} 0.45 h, respectively). The RBE in G1 cells for Fe nuclei relative to X-rays for {gamma}H2AX was 2.05 {+-} 0.61 and 5.02 {+-} 3.47, at 2 h and 24-h postirradiation, respectively. For pATF2, a saturation effect is observed with reduced expression at high doses, especially for Fe nuclei, with much slower characteristic repair times (>7 h) compared to X-rays. RBEs for pATF2 were 0.66 {+-} 0.13 and 1.66 {+-} 0.46 at 2 h and 24 h, respectively. Significant differences in {gamma}H2AX and pATF2 levels comparing irradiated samples to control were noted even at the lowest dose analyzed (0.05 Gy) using these methods of analysis. These results reveal that mathematical models can be applied to flow cytometry data to uncover important and subtle differences following exposure to various qualities of low dose radiation.

  5. Microstructural characterization of highly HDS-active Co{sub 6}S{sub 8}-pillared molybdenum sulfides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenner, J.; Marshall, C. L.; Ellis, L.; Tomczyk, N.

    1998-05-01

    In this work, we have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study Co{sub 6}S{sub 8}(PPh{sub 3}){sub x}-pillared MoS{sub 2} and have directly observed that the Co clusters can either intercalate into the bulk or can bind to defect sites at the edges of MoS{sub 2}. A distribution of discrete 0.87 nm scattering centers has been assigned to remnants of the Co{sub 6}S{sub 8}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 6} clusters. On the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, a lattice expansion of 1.48 nm was expected if the triphenylphosphine ligands remained intact. The distribution of Co scattering centers, however, was consistent with that expected for a Co{sub 6}S{sub 8} core (0.8 nm). The expansion of the {l_brace}00l{r_brace}-MoS{sub 2} planes was almost always localized about a single Co cluster, and the degree of lattice expansion (0.78 nm) was also consistent with the dimensions of the Co{sub 6}S{sub 8} cores, confirming that the ligands had been nearly completely removed. The organic ligands were removed either during the vacuum pumpdown in the TEM specimen chamber or almost immediately upon electron-beam exposure. Additional electron-beam exposures of up to 1 h caused no further structural changes. The inorganic framework remained intact throughout the duration of the experiment. The Co{sub 6}S{sub 8}-pillared MoS{sub 2} materials possessed dibenzothiophene (DBT) hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activities that were slightly better than that of a commercial sulfided Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst under low-severity HDS conditions. However, the selectivity to biphenyl was somewhat poorer than that of commercial Co-Mo and Ni-Mo catalysts under all conditions examined. The HDS and TEM results suggest that the role of Co in sulfided Co-Mo catalysts is to prop apart MoS{sub 2} layers, creating a higher percentage of 'rim' sites (in the Daage-Chianelli terminology) and enhancing hydrogenation capability.

  6. Microstructural characterization of highly HDS-active Co{sub 6}S{sub 8-}pillared molybdenum sulfide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenner, J.; Marshall, C.; Ellis, L.; Tomczyk, N.; Chemistry

    1998-01-01

    In this work, we have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study Co{sub 6}S{sub 8}(PPh{sub 3}){sub x}-pillared MoS2 and have directly observed that the Co clusters can either intercalate into the bulk or can bind to defect sites at the edges of MoS{sub 2}. A distribution of discrete 0.87 nm scattering centers has been assigned to remnants of the Co{sub 6}S{sub 8}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 6} clusters. On the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, a lattice expansion of 1.48 nm was expected if the triphenylphosphine ligands remained intact. The distribution of Co scattering centers, however, was consistent with that expected for a Co{sub 6}S{sub 8} core (0.8 nm). The expansion of the {l_brace}00l{r_brace}-MoS{sub 2} planes was almost always localized about a single Co cluster, and the degree of lattice expansion (0.78 nm) was also consistent with the dimensions of the Co{sub 6}S{sub 8} cores, confirming that the ligands had been nearly completely removed. The organic ligands were removed either during the vacuum pumpdown in the TEM specimen chamber or almost immediately upon electron-beam exposure. Additional electron-beam exposures of up to 1 h caused no further structural changes. The inorganic framework remained intact throughout the duration of the experiment. The Co{sub 6}S{sub 8}-pillared MoS{sub 2} materials possessed dibenzothiophene (DBT) hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activities that were slightly better than that of a commercial sulfided Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst under low-severity HDS conditions. However, the selectivity to biphenyl was somewhat poorer than that of commercial Co-Mo and Ni-Mo catalysts under all conditions examined. The HDS and TEM results suggest that the role of Co in sulfided Co-Mo catalysts is to prop apart MoS{sub 2} layers, creating a higher percentage of 'rim' sites (in the Daage-Chianelli terminology) and enhancing hydrogenation capability.

  7. The carburization of transition metal molybdates (MxMoO₄, M= Cu, Ni or Co) and the generation of highly active metal/carbide catalysts for CO₂ hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Xu, Wenqian; Ramirez, Pedro J.; Stachiola, Dario; Brito, Joaquin L.

    2015-05-06

    A new approach has been tested for the preparation of metal/Mo₂C catalysts using mixed-metal oxide molybdates as precursors. Synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction was used to study the reduction and carburization processes of Cu₃(MoO₄)₂(OH)₂, a-NiMoO₄ and CoMoO₄•nH₂O by thermal treatment under mixtures of hydrogen and methane. In all cases, the final product was β-Mo₂C and a metal phase (Cu, Ni, or Co), but the transition sequence varied with the different metals, and it could be related to the reduction potential of the Cu²⁺, Ni²⁺ and Co²⁺ cations inside each molybdate. The synthesized Cu/Mo₂C, Ni/Mo₂C and Co/Mo₂C catalysts were highly active for the hydrogenation of CO₂. The metal/Mo₂C systems exhibited large variations in the selectivity towards methanol, methane and CnH₂n₊₂ (n > 2) hydrocarbons depending on the nature of the supported metal and its ability to cleave C-O bonds. Cu/Mo₂C displayed a high selectivity for CO and methanol production. Ni/Mo₂C and Co/Mo₂C were the most active catalysts for the activation and full decomposition of CO₂, showing high selectivity for the production of methane (Ni case) and CnH₂n₊₂ (n > 2) hydrocarbons (Co case).

  8. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1996-01-01

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  9. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  10. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1996-01-30

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  11. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1998-06-02

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  12. Gamma/neutron analysis for SNM signatures at high-data rates(greater than 107 cps) for single-pulse active interrogation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forman L.; Dioszegi, I.; Salwen, C.

    2011-04-26

    We are developing a high data gamma/neutron spectrometer suitable for active interrogation of special nuclear materials (SNM) activated by a single burst from an intense source. We have tested the system at Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) Mercury pulsed-power facility at distances approaching 10 meters from a depleted uranium (DU) target. We have found that the gamma-ray field in the target room 'disappears' 10 milliseconds after the x-ray flash, and that gamma ray spectroscopy will then be dominated by isomeric states/beta decay of fission products. When a polyethylene moderator is added to the DU target, a time-dependent signature of the DU is produced by thermalized neutrons. We observe this signature in gamma-spectra measured consecutively in the 0.1-1.0 ms time range. These spectra contain the Compton edge line (2.2 MeV) from capture in hydrogen, and a continuous high energy gamma-spectrum from capture or fission in minority constituents of the DU.

  13. High Catalytic Activity of Au/CeOx/TiO2(110) Controlled by the Nature of the Mixed Metal Oxide at the Nanometer Level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J.; Graciani, J; Evans, J; Stacchiola, D; Ma, S; Liu, P; Nambu, A; Sanz, J; Hrbek, J; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-metal oxides play a very important role in many areas of chemistry, physics, materials science, and geochemistry. Recently, there has been a strong interest in understanding phenomena associated with the deposition of oxide nanoparticles on the surface of a second (host) oxide. Here, scanning tunneling microscopy, photoemission, and density-functional calculations are used to study the behavior of ceria nanoparticles deposited on a TiO2(110) surface. The titania substrate imposes nontypical coordination modes on the ceria nanoparticles. In the CeOx/TiO2(110) systems, the Ce cations adopt an structural geometry and an oxidation state (+3) that are quite different from those seen in bulk ceria or for ceria nanoparticles deposited on metal substrates. The increase in the stability of the Ce3+ oxidation state leads to an enhancement in the chemical and catalytic activity of the ceria nanoparticles. The codeposition of ceria and gold nanoparticles on a TiO2(110) substrate generates catalysts with an extremely high activity for the production of hydrogen through the water-gas shift reaction (H2O + CO ? H2 + CO2) or for the oxidation of carbon monoxide (2CO + O2 ? 2CO2). The enhanced stability of the Ce3+ state is an example of structural promotion in catalysis described here on the atomic level. The exploration of mixed-metal oxides at the nanometer level may open avenues for optimizing catalysts through stabilization of unconventional surface structures with special chemical activity.

  14. RCRA Facility Investigation Plan K-1004 Area Lab Drain and the K-1007-B Pond - Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant - Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ORGDP, Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc.

    1988-12-01

    Within the confines of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) are hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities; some are in operation while others are no longer in use. these solid waste management units (SWMUs) are subject to assessment by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI) Plans are scheduled to be submitted for all units during calendar years 1987 and 1988. The RFI Plan - General Document (K/HS-132) includes information applicable to all the ORGDP SMWUs and serves as a reference document for the site-specific RFI plans. This document is the site-specific RFI Plan for the K-1004 Area Lab Drain (ALD) and the K-1007-B Pond. This plan is based upon requirements described in the draft document, RFI Guidance, Vols. I-IV, December 1987 (EPA 530/SW-87-001). This unit is regulated by Section 3004(u) of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Contained within this document are geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological data specific to the K-1004 ALD and the K-1007-B Pond. The potential for release of contamination through the various media to receptors is addressed. A sampling plan is proposed to further determine the extent (if any) of release of contamination to the surrounding environment. Included are health and safety procedures to be followed when implementing the sampling plan. Quality control (QC) procedures for remedial action occurring on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are presented in 'The Environmental Surveillance Procedures Quality Control Program, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (ESH/Sub/87-21706/1), and quality assurance (QA) guidelines for ORGDP investigations are contained in The K-25 Remedial Actions Program Quality Assurance Plan, K/HS-231.

  15. Evaluation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment drain tanks for reuse in salt disposal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-05-01

    This report was prepared to identify the source documentation used to evaluate the drain tanks in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The evaluation considered the original quality of the tanks, their service history, and their intended use during the removal of fluoride salts. It also includes recommendations for a quality verification plan. The estimates of corrosion damage to the salt containing system at the MSRE are low enough to lend optimism that the system will be fit for its intended use, which is disposal of the salt by transferring it to transport containers. The expected corrosion to date is estimated between 10 and 50 mil, or 2 to 10% of the shell wall. The expected corrosion rate when the tanks are used to remove the salt at 110 F is estimated to be .025 to 0.1 mil per hour of exposure to HF and molten salt. To provide additional assurance that the estimates of corrosion damage are accurate, cost effective nondestructive examination (NDE) has been recommended. The NDE procedures are compared with industry standards and give a perspective for the extent of additional measures taken in the recommendation. A methodology for establishing the remaining life has been recommended, and work is progressing towards providing an engineering evaluation based upon thickness and design conditions for the future use of the tanks. These extra measures and the code based analysis will serve to define the risk of salt or radioactive gases leaking during processing and transfer of the salt as acceptable.

  16. The carburization of transition metal molybdates (MxMoO₄, M= Cu, Ni or Co) and the generation of highly active metal/carbide catalysts for CO₂ hydrogenation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Xu, Wenqian; Ramirez, Pedro J.; Stachiola, Dario; Brito, Joaquin L.

    2015-05-06

    A new approach has been tested for the preparation of metal/Mo₂C catalysts using mixed-metal oxide molybdates as precursors. Synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction was used to study the reduction and carburization processes of Cu₃(MoO₄)₂(OH)₂, a-NiMoO₄ and CoMoO₄•nH₂O by thermal treatment under mixtures of hydrogen and methane. In all cases, the final product was β-Mo₂C and a metal phase (Cu, Ni, or Co), but the transition sequence varied with the different metals, and it could be related to the reduction potential of the Cu²⁺, Ni²⁺ and Co²⁺ cations inside each molybdate. The synthesized Cu/Mo₂C, Ni/Mo₂C and Co/Mo₂C catalysts were highlymore » active for the hydrogenation of CO₂. The metal/Mo₂C systems exhibited large variations in the selectivity towards methanol, methane and CnH₂n₊₂ (n > 2) hydrocarbons depending on the nature of the supported metal and its ability to cleave C-O bonds. Cu/Mo₂C displayed a high selectivity for CO and methanol production. Ni/Mo₂C and Co/Mo₂C were the most active catalysts for the activation and full decomposition of CO₂, showing high selectivity for the production of methane (Ni case) and CnH₂n₊₂ (n > 2) hydrocarbons (Co case).« less

  17. Erbium and nitrogen co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} with highly visible light photocatalytic activity and stability by solvothermal synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jing; Wei, Yuelin; Huang, Yunfang; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Xuanqing; Sun, Zhixian; Wu, Ying; Tao, Xinling; Fan, Leqing; Wu, Jihuai

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Er/N co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} was prepared by a solvothermal process at low temperature. • The co-doping induces the band gap narrowing and prominent absorbance in visible light region. • The samples show excellent catalytic activity and stability under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Erbium–nitrogen co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} photocatalysts have been synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. The resulting samples were analyzed by FE-SEM, XRD, BET-surface area and UV–vis. The UV–vis absorption spectra of these powders indicated that erbium–nitrogen co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} possessed stronger absorption bands in the visible light region in comparison with that of pure SrTiO{sub 3}. The occurrence of the erbium–nitrogen co-doped cubic SrTiO{sub 3} induced the higher photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under irradiation by ultraviolet light and visible light, respectively, being superior to that of pure SrTiO{sub 3} and commercial TiO{sub 2} (P-25) powders. In addition, the Er–N co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} (initial molar ratios of Sr/Er/N = 1:0.015:0.1, designated as S5) sample showed the best photocatalytic activity with the degradation rate as high as 98% after 30 min under the visible light irradiation. After five cycles, the photocatalytic activity of the S5 catalyst showed no significant decrease, which indicated that the photocatalysts were stable under visible light irradiation.

  18. GeoChip 3.0 as a high-thoughput tool for analyzing microbial community composition, structure, and functional activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Z.; Deng, Y.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Tu, Q.; Xu, M.; Hemme, C.L.; Li, X.; Wu, L.; Gentry, T.J.; Yin, Y.; Liebich, J.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2010-04-01

    A new generation of functional gene arrays (FGAs; GeoChip 3.0) has been developed, with {approx}28,000 probes covering approximately 57,000 gene variants from 292 functional gene families involved in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur cycles, energy metabolism, antibiotic resistance, metal resistance and organic contaminant degradation. GeoChip 3.0 also has several other distinct features, such as a common oligo reference standard (CORS) for data normalization and comparison, a software package for data management and future updating and the gyrB gene for phylogenetic analysis. Computational evaluation of probe specificity indicated that all designed probes would have a high specificity to their corresponding targets. Experimental analysis with synthesized oligonucleotides and genomic DNAs showed that only 0.0036-0.025% false-positive rates were observed, suggesting that the designed probes are highly specific under the experimental conditions examined. In addition, GeoChip 3.0 was applied to analyze soil microbial communities in a multifactor grassland ecosystem in Minnesota, USA, which showed that the structure, composition and potential activity of soil microbial communities significantly changed with the plant species diversity. As expected, GeoChip 3.0 is a high-throughput powerful tool for studying microbial community functional structure, and linking microbial communities to ecosystem processes and functioning.

  19. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of orally administered acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyanoenone), a highly potent Nrf2 activator with a reversible covalent mode of action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostov, Rumen V.; Knatko, Elena V.; McLaughlin, Lesley A.; Henderson, Colin J.; Zheng, Suqing; Huang, Jeffrey T.-J.; Honda, Tadashi; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.

    2015-09-25

    The acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyanoenone) TBE-31 is a highly potent cysteine targeting compound with a reversible covalent mode of action; its best-characterized target being Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1), the cellular sensor for oxidants and electrophiles. TBE-31 reacts with cysteines of Keap1, impairing its ability to target nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) for degradation. Consequently, Nrf2 accumulates and orchestrates cytoprotective gene expression. In this study we investigated the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of TBE-31 in C57BL/6 mice. After a single oral dose of 10 μmol/kg (∼200 nmol/animal), the concentration of TBE-31 in blood exhibited two peaks, at 22.3 nM and at 15.5 nM, 40 min and 4 h after dosing, respectively, as determined by a quantitative stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method. The AUC{sub 0–24h} was 195.5 h/nmol/l, the terminal elimination half-life was 10.2 h, and the k{sub el} was 0.068 h{sup −1}. To assess the pharmacodynamics of Nrf2 activation by TBE-31, we determined the enzyme activity of its prototypic target, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and found it elevated by 2.4- and 1.5-fold in liver and heart, respectively. Continuous feeding for 18 days with diet delivering the same daily doses of TBE-31 under conditions of concurrent treatment with the immunosuppressive agent azathioprine had a similar effect on Nrf2 activation without any indications of toxicity. Together with previous reports showing the cytoprotective effects of TBE-31 in animal models of carcinogenesis, our results demonstrate the high potency, efficacy and suitability for chronic administration of cysteine targeting reversible covalent drugs. - Highlights: • TBE-31 is a cysteine targeting compound with a reversible covalent mode of action. • After a single oral dose, the blood concentration of TBE-31 exhibits two peaks. • Oral TBE-31 is a potent activator of Nrf2-dependent enzymes in

  20. Widening the envelope of UK HLW vitrification - Experimental studies with high waste loadings and new product formulations on a full scale non-active vitrification plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, R.; Gribble, N. [Nexia Solutions, Sellafield, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Riley, A. [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG, UK (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    The Vitrification Test Rig is a full scale waste vitrification plant that processes non-radioactive liquid HLW simulants based on the active waste streams produced by the reprocessing plants in the UK. Previous work on the rig has primarily concerned increasing the operational envelopes for the active waste vitrification plants at Sellafield to accommodate higher throughputs of Blended waste streams, higher waste oxide incorporation rates in the vitrified products, and the incorporation of legacy waste streams from early reactor commissioning and reprocessing operations at Sellafield. Recent operations have focussed on four main areas; dilute liquid feeds, very high Magnox waste stream incorporation levels, alternative base glass formulations and providing an operational envelope for 28 %w/w Magnox waste vitrification. This paper details the work performed and the major findings of that work. In summary: The VTR has been successfully used to determine operational envelopes and product quality for several HLW feed variations that will allow WVP to increase overall plant throughput via increased waste loading in canisters, increased HLW feed rates or a combination of both. The VTR has also demonstrated the ability to go to waste incorporations, feed rates and glass compositions that are currently beyond WVP specified limits, but that are feasible for future vitrification regimes. In addition, the VTR has trialled dilute feeds similar to those that are likely to be received by WVP in the future and the data obtained from these experiments will allow WVP to prepare adequately for the high throughput challenge of such feeds. Furthermore, new equipment has been trialled on the VTR in water feed mode to determine its suitability and operational limitations for WVP. Future operations will, in the short term, be concerned with increasing the throughput of WVP and are likely to focus on HLW decommissioning operations waste streams in the longer term. (authors)

  1. Highly Active and Stable MgAl2O4 Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts for Methane Steam Reforming: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Donghai; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Kovarik, Libor; Wan, Haiying; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gerber, Mark A.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2014-07-01

    In this work we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of stable MgAl2O4 spinel-supported Rh and Ir catalysts for the steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction. Firstly, catalytic performance for a series of noble metal catalysts supported on MgAl2O4 spinel was evaluated for SMR at 600-850°C. Turnover rate at 850°C follows the order: Pd > Pt > Ir > Rh > Ru > Ni. However, Rh and Ir were found to have the best combination of activity and stability for methane steam reforming in the presence of simulated biomass-derived syngas. It was found that highly dispersed ~2 nm Rh and ~1 nm Ir clusters were formed on the MgAl2O4 spinel support. Scanning Transition Electron Microscopy (STEM) images show that excellent dispersion was maintained even under challenging high temperature conditions (e.g. at 850°C in the presence of steam) while Ir and Rh catalysts supported on Al2O3 were observed to sinter at increased rates under the same conditions. These observations were further confirmed by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations which find that ~1 nm Rh and Ir particles (50-atom cluster) bind strongly to the MgAl2O4 surfaces via a redox process leading to a strong metal-support interaction, thus helping anchor the metal clusters and reduce the tendency to sinter. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that these supported smaller Rh and Ir particles have a lower work function than larger more bulk-like ones, which enables them to activate both water and methane more effectively than larger particles, yet have a minimal influence on the relative stability of coke precursors. In addition, theoretical mechanistic studies were used to probe the relationship between structure and reactivity. Consistent with the experimental observations, our theoretical modeling results also suggest that the small spinel-supported Ir particle catalyst is more active than the counterpart of Rh catalyst for SMR. This work was financially supported by the

  2. Rapid microwave hydrothermal synthesis of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high photocatalytic activity toward aromatic compounds in air and dyes in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Meng; Li Danzhen; Zhang Wenjuan; Chen Zhixin; Huang Hanjie; Li Wenjuan; He Yunhui; Fu Xianzhi

    2012-06-15

    ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized from Ga(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and ZnCl{sub 2} via a rapid and facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic properties of the as-prepared ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} were evaluated by the degradation of pollutants in air and aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination. The results demonstrated that ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photocatalytic activities higher than that of commercial P25 (Degussa Co.) in the degradation of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, respectively. In the liquid phase degradation of dyes (methyl orange, Rhodamine B, and methylene blue), ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} has also exhibited remarkable activities higher than that of P25. After 32 min of UV light irradiation, the decomposition ratio of methyl orange (10 ppm, 150 mL) over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.06 g) was up to 99%. The TOC tests revealed that the mineralization ratio of MO (10 ppm, 150 mL) was 88.1% after 90 min of reaction. A possible mechanism of the photocatalysis over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was also proposed. - Graphical abstract: In the degradation of RhB under UV light irradiation, ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photo-activity, and after only 24 min of irradiation the decomposition ratio was up to 99.8%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and facile M-H method to synthesize ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalyst exhibits high activity toward benzene and dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst possesses more surface hydroxyl sites than TiO{sub 2} (P25). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep oxidation of different aromatic compounds and dyes over catalyst.

  3. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Nuclear Materials Contained in High-Activity Waste Arising from the Operations at the 'SHELTER' Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherkas, Dmytro

    2011-10-01

    As a result of the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, the explosion dispeesed nuclear materials contained in the nuclear fuel of the reactor core over the destroyed facilities at Unit No. 4 and over the territory immediately adjacent to the destroyed unit. The debris was buried under the Cascade Wall. Nuclear materials at the SHELTER can be characterized as spent nuclear fuel, fresh fuel assemblies (including fuel assemblies with damaged geometry and integrity, and individual fuel elements), core fragments of the Chernobyl NPP Unit No. 4, finely-dispersed fuel (powder/dust), uranium and plutonium compounds in water solutions, and lava-like nuclear fuel-containing masses. The new safe confinement (NSC) is a facility designed to enclose the Chernobyl NPP Unit No. 4 destroyed by the accident. Construction of the NSC involves excavating operations, which are continuously monitored including for the level of radiation. The findings of such monitoring at the SHELTER site will allow us to characterize the recovered radioactive waste. When a process material categorized as high activity waste (HAW) is detected the following HLW management operations should be involved: HLW collection; HLW fragmentation (if appropriate); loading HAW into the primary package KT-0.2; loading the primary package filled with HAW into the transportation cask KTZV-0.2; and storing the cask in temporary storage facilities for high-level solid waste. The CDAS system is a system of 3He tubes for neutron coincidence counting, and is designed to measure the percentage ratio of specific nuclear materials in a 200-liter drum containing nuclear material intermixed with a matrix. The CDAS consists of panels with helium counter tubes and a polyethylene moderator. The panels are configured to allow one to position a waste-containing drum and a drum manipulator. The system operates on the ‘add a source’ basis using a small Cf-252 source to identify irregularities in the matrix during an assay

  4. P-doping-free III-nitride high electron mobility light-emitting diodes and transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Baikui; Tang, Xi; Chen, Kevin J.; Wang, Jiannong

    2014-07-21

    We report that a simple metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diode is capable of producing GaN band-edge ultraviolet emission at 3.4?eV at a small forward bias larger than ?2?V at room temperature. Based on the surface states distribution of AlGaN, a mature impact-ionization-induced Fermi-level de-pinning model is proposed to explain the underlying mechanism of the electroluminescence (EL) process. By experimenting with different Schottky metals, Ni/Au and Pt/Au, we demonstrated that this EL phenomenon is a universal property of metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diodes. Since this light-emitting Schottky diode shares the same active structure and fabrication processes as the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, straight-forward and seamless integration of photonic and electronic functional devices has been demonstrated on doping-free III-nitride heterostructures. Using a semitransparent Schottky drain electrode, an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility light-emitting transistor is demonstrated.

  5. Correlation between antitumor activity of protein A and in vivo formation of defined high molecular weight complexes with immunoglobulin G in BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, C.; Langone, J.J.

    1987-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that antitumor activity of staphylococcal protein A (SpA) is related to the composition of complexes formed in vivo with IgG. BALB/c mice were inoculated intradermally with 10(6) Meth A fibrosarcoma cells on day 0 and treated i.v. on days 3 and 7 with between 1 and 405 micrograms of SpA. The 45- and 15-micrograms doses significantly inhibited tumor growth and enhanced survival time compared to saline controls in four of four and two of four experiments, respectively. Sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation was used to show that serum from tumor-bearing or normal mice given 45 or 15 micrograms of /sup 125/I-labeled SpA contained only high molecular weight ((IgG)2SpA)2 complexes for up to 24 h after injection, whereas serum from mice given higher ineffective doses (135 and 405 micrograms) contained low molecular weight (IgG)(SpA) complexes over the first 1-4 h. Serum from mice undergoing successful therapy with 45 micrograms of unlabeled SpA also contained only ((IgG)2SpA)2 complexes. In contrast, when mice with large tumors (120-150 mm2) were treated on days 16 and 20, only the 135- and 405-micrograms doses significantly inhibited further tumor growth. Serum from mice with 16-day tumors contained only ((IgG)2SpA)2 complexes even after 5 min and when 135 or 405 micrograms of 125I-SpA was given. This result is consistent with significantly higher levels of total and SpA-reactive IgG in serum from these mice compared to normal mice or mice with 3-day tumors. Our results demonstrate a correlation between antitumor activity of SpA and in vivo formation of ((IgG)2SpA)2 complexes in an established animal model, and help to define the mechanism of SpA action at the molecular level.

  6. C-H surface diamond field effect transistors for high temperature (400 °C) and high voltage (500 V) operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawarada, H.; Tsuboi, H.; Naruo, T.; Yamada, T.; Xu, D.; Daicho, A.; Saito, T.; Hiraiwa, A.

    2014-07-07

    By forming a highly stable Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide on a C-H bonded channel of diamond, high-temperature, and high-voltage metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) has been realized. From room temperature to 400 °C (673 K), the variation of maximum drain-current is within 30% at a given gate bias. The maximum breakdown voltage (V{sub B}) of the MOSFET without a field plate is 600 V at a gate-drain distance (L{sub GD}) of 7 μm. We fabricated some MOSFETs for which V{sub B}/L{sub GD} > 100 V/μm. These values are comparable to those of lateral SiC or GaN FETs. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was deposited on the C-H surface by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 450 °C using H{sub 2}O as an oxidant. The ALD at relatively high temperature results in stable p-type conduction and FET operation at 400 °C in vacuum. The drain current density and transconductance normalized by the gate width are almost constant from room temperature to 400 °C in vacuum and are about 10 times higher than those of boron-doped diamond FETs.

  7. Successful Characterization Strategies for the Active High Risk Y-12 National Security Complex 9201-5 (Alpha-5) Facility, Oak Ridge, TN - 12164

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birchfield, Joseph W. III; Albrecht, Linda

    2012-07-01

    Building 9201-5 (Alpha 5) was completed in May 1944 and served as a production facility for National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Y-12 Weapons Plant. During the Manhattan Project, it functioned as a uranium enrichment facility. The facility was renovated and altered over the years, converting the calutrons to support other missions. Alpha 5 consists of 4 floors and a basement measuring approximately 600,000 square feet. The facility contains various pieces of equipment remaining from legacy operations. A significant amount (approximately 200,000 kgs) of mercury (Hg) has been spilled in the facility over the operational history of the building. To further complicate matters, beryllium (Be) contamination in 9201-5 is found throughout approximately sixty percent of the facility. Concentrations varying from very low (< 0.2 micrograms (μg)/100 cm{sup 2}) to areas where concentrations are relatively high, approximately 600 μg/100 cm{sup 2}, in regulated beryllium areas. The primary site related contaminants (SRCs) for the waste in this facility are enriched uranium, depleted uranium, beryllium and mercury. This facility represents the highest environmental risk for DOE-ORO EM and NNSA at Y-12 and must be quickly addressed to minimize impacts to future Y-12 missions, as well as human health and the environment. As part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), approximately 700,000 cubic feet of legacy material was removed in 2010 and 2011. In addition, characterization of the 9201-5 facility was scheduled in the winter and spring of 2011. This activity was initiated in January 2011 and was completed in July 2011. Heavy schedule pressure was further complicated by the fact that this building has active utility, security and process systems. Given these complex variables, a unique, out of the box characterization strategy was forged in an effort to bound radiological and chemical contaminants, as well as providing the appropriate level of quality to

  8. FOSTERING MULTI-LATERAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF MEXICO, COLOMBIA, AND THE UNITED STATES TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, Nicholas; Watson, Erica E.; Wright, Kyle A.

    2009-10-07

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI program has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Mexico, GTRI first made contact in 2005. The project then lost momentum and stalled. At the same time, GTRIs cooperation with the Republic of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRIs interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Mexico and to facilitate this cooperation, they offered to invite their Mexican counterparts to Colombia to observe its successful cooperation with GTRI. Shortly after that visit, the Government of Mexico agreed to move forward and requested that the cooperative efforts in Mexico be performed in a tripartite manner, leveraging the skills, experience, and resources of the Colombians. As a result, 22 of Mexicos largest radioactive sites have had security upgrades in place within 18 months of cooperation.

  9. Neutron Damage in Mechanically-Cooled High-Purity Germanium Detectors for Field-Portable Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.H. Seabury; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey; J.B. McCabe; C. DeW. Van Siclen

    2013-10-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation (PGNAA) systems require the use of a gamma-ray spectrometer to record the gamma-ray spectrum of an object under test and allow the determination of the object’s composition. Field-portable systems, such as Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS system, have used standard liquid-nitrogen-cooled high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to perform this function. These detectors have performed very well in the past, but the requirement of liquid-nitrogen cooling limits their use to areas where liquid nitrogen is readily available or produced on-site. Also, having a relatively large volume of liquid nitrogen close to the detector can impact some assessments, possibly leading to a false detection of explosives or other nitrogen-containing chemical. Use of a mechanically-cooled HPGe detector is therefore very attractive for PGNAA applications where nitrogen detection is critical or where liquid-nitrogen logistics are problematic. Mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors constructed from p-type germanium, such as Ortec’s trans-SPEC, have been commercially available for several years. In order to assess whether these detectors would be suitable for use in a fielded PGNAA system, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been performing a number of tests of the resistance of mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors to neutron damage. These detectors have been standard commercially-available p-type HPGe detectors as well as prototype n-type HPGe detectors. These tests compare the performance of these different detector types as a function of crystal temperature and incident neutron fluence on the crystal.

  10. FOSTERING MULTI-LATERAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, COLOMBIA, AND THE UNITED STATES TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, Nicholas; McCaw, Erica E.; Wright, Kyle A.; Medina, Maximo

    2009-10-06

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Dominican Republic, the GTRI first received contact in 2008 from the Government of Dominican Republic. They requested cooperation that was similar to the tri-partite cooperation between Colombia, Mexico and the United States. Throughout the region it was widely known that the GTRIs cooperation with the Government of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The Government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. In 2007, Colombia was an integral component of GTRI multi-lateral cooperation initiation in Mexico. As a result, twenty two of Mexicos largest radioactive sites have been upgraded in the past eighteen months. These two endeavors served as catalysts for cooperation opportunities in the Dominican Republic. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRIs interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Dominican Republic and to facilitate this cooperation, they

  11. High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

  12. Pink-Beam, Highly-Accurate Compact Water Cooled Slits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Jayne, Richard; Waterman, Dave; Caletka, Dave; Steadman, Paul; Dhesi, Sarnjeet

    2007-01-19

    Advanced Design Consulting, Inc. (ADC) has designed accurate compact slits for applications where high precision is required. The system consists of vertical and horizontal slit mechanisms, a vacuum vessel which houses them, water cooling lines with vacuum guards connected to the individual blades, stepper motors with linear encoders, limit (home position) switches and electrical connections including internal wiring for a drain current measurement system. The total slit size is adjustable from 0 to 15 mm both vertically and horizontally. Each of the four blades are individually controlled and motorized. In this paper, a summary of the design and Finite Element Analysis of the system are presented.

  13. Method for enhancing stability of high explosives, for purposes of transport or storage, and the stabilized high explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nutt, Gerald L.

    1991-01-01

    The stability of porous solid high explosives, for purposes of transport or storage, is enhanced by reducing the sensitivity to shock initiation of a reaction that leads to detonation. The pores of the explosive down to a certain size are filled under pressure with a stable, low melt temperature material in liquid form, and the combined material is cooled so the pore filling material solidifies. The stability can be increased to progressively higher levels by filling smaller pores. The pore filling material can be removed, at least partially, by reheating above its melt temperature and drained off so that the explosive is once more suitable for detonation.

  14. REPORT OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES FOR THE YEARS 2000 - 2003; HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS GROUP; SOUTHERN METHODIST UNIVERSITY; EXPERIMENTAL TASK A AND THEORY TASK B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ryszard Stroynowski

    2003-07-01

    The experimental program in High Energy Physics at SMU was initiated in 1992. Its main goal is the search for new physics phenomena beyond the Standard Model (SSC, LHC) and the study of the properties of heavy quarks and leptons (CLEO, BTeV).

  15. Active-R filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soderstrand, Michael A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational amplifier-type active filter in which the only capacitor in the circuit is the compensating capacitance of the operational amplifiers, the various feedback and coupling elements being essentially solely resistive.

  16. Production Pathways and Separation Procedures for High-Diagnostic-Value Activation Species, Fission Products, and Actinides Required for Preparation of Realistic Synthetic Post-Detonation Nuclear Debris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faye, S A; Shaughnessy, D A

    2015-08-19

    The objective of this project is to provide a comprehensive study on the production routes and chemical separation requirements for activation products, fission products, and actinides required for the creation of realistic post-detonation surrogate debris. Isotopes that have been prioritized by debris diagnosticians will be examined for their ability to be produced at existing irradiation sources, production rates, and availability of target materials, and chemical separation procedures required to rapidly remove the products from the bulk target matrix for subsequent addition into synthetic debris samples. The characteristics and implications of the irradiation facilities on the isotopes of interest will be addressed in addition to a summary of the isotopes that are already regularly produced.

  17. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor With Results from FY-2011 Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Pope

    2011-10-01

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450

  18. Hot-carrier-induced linear drain current and threshold voltage degradation for thin layer silicon-on-insulator field P-channel lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xin; Qiao, Ming; He, Yitao; Li, Zhaoji; Zhang, Bo

    2015-11-16

    Hot-carrier-induced linear drain current (I{sub dlin}) and threshold voltage (V{sub th}) degradations for the thin layer SOI field p-channel lateral double-diffused MOS (pLDMOS) are investigated. Two competition degradation mechanisms are revealed and the hot-carrier conductance modulation model is proposed. In the channel, hot-hole injection induced positive oxide trapped charge and interface trap gives rise to the V{sub th} increasing and the channel conductance (G{sub ch}) decreasing, then reduces I{sub dlin}. In the p-drift region, hot-electron injection induced negative oxide trapped charge enhances the conductance of drift doping resistance (G{sub d}), and then increases I{sub dlin}. Consequently, the eventual I{sub dlin} degradation is controlled by the competition of the two mechanisms due to conductance modulation in the both regions. Based on the model, it is explained that the measured I{sub dlin} anomalously increases while the V{sub th} is increasing with power law. The thin layer field pLDMOS exhibits more severe V{sub th} instability compared with thick SOI layer structure; as a result, it should be seriously evaluated in actual application in switching circuit.

  19. Highly efficient visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaiwichian, Saranyoo; Inceesungvorn, Burapat; Wetchakun, Khatcharin; Phanichphant, Sukon; Kangwansupamonkon, Wiyong; Wetchakun, Natda

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts were obtained using hydrothermal method. Physicochemical properties played a significant role on photocatalytic efficiency. Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterogeneous structures were greatly enhanced for degradation of MB. A tentative mechanism of charge transfer process in MB degradation was proposed. - Abstract: The Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Physical properties of the heterojunction photocatalyst samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The XRD results indicated that BiVO{sub 4} retain monoclinic and tetragonal structures, while Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} presented as orthorhombic structure. The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) adsorptiondesorption of nitrogen gas for specific surface area determination at the temperature of liquid nitrogen was performed on all samples. UVvis diffuse reflectance spectra (UVvis DRS) were used to identify the absorption range and band gap energy of the heterojunction photocatalysts. The photocatalytic performance of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts was studied via the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The results indicated that the heterojunction photocatalyst at 0.5:0.5 mole ratio of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}:BiVO{sub 4} shows the highest photocatalytic activity.

  20. Interactive Activity Detection Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Activity Detection Tools Interactive Activity Detection Tools Tools for detecting specified activities in video data provide a key intelligence capability. High numbers of false alarms, however, reduce tool effectiveness and analyst patience. User feedback reduces false alarms * This project will reduce the number of false alarms generated by activity detection tools (including single vehicle start / stop, multi-vehicle meetings and coordinated driving patterns) by exploiting user feedback in a

  1. Energy Storage Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy Development Energy Storage Testing and ... Testing Overview and Progress of the Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design Activity ...

  2. Interim Closure Activities at Corrective Action Unit 114: Area 25 EMAD Facility, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehlecke, R. F.

    2011-10-24

    This letter report documents interim activities that have been completed at CAU 114 to support ongoing access and generate information necessary to plan future closure activities. General housekeeping and cleanup of debris was conducted in the EMAD yard, cold bays, support areas of Building 3900, and postmortem cell tunnel area of the hot bay. All non-asbestos ceiling tiles and loose and broken non-friable asbestos floor tiles were removed from support galleries and office areas. Non-radiologically contaminated piping and equipment in the cold areas of the building and in the two 120-ton locomotives in the yard were tapped, characterized, drained, and verified free of contents.

  3. A novel magnetically separable TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofiber with high photocatalytic activity under UV-vis light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Cong-Ju; Wang, Jiao-Na; Wang, Bin; Gong, Jian Ru; Lin, Zhang

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: A novel magnetically separable composite photocatalyst TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofiber was prepared by sol-gel method and electrospinning technique, which can be reclaimed with a magnet, and the decolorizing efficiency of MB solution reached 95.87%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofibers with diameter of 110 {+-} 28 nm have been successfully synthesized by the combination of sol-gel method and electrospinning technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of Co{sup 2+} or/and Fe{sup 3+} ions may occupy some of the lattice sites of TiO{sub 2} to form an iron-titanium solid solution and narrow the band gap, which broadens the response region of visible light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resultant nanofibers not only have high decomposition efficiency with methylene blue (MB) under the UV irradiation, which is close to that of Degussa P25, but also can be separated with a magnet and avoid the secondary pollution of the treated water. -- Abstract: A novel magnetically separable heterogeneous photocatalyst TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofiber was prepared by sol-gel method and electrospinning technology, followed by heat treatment at 550 Degree-Sign C for 2 h. The phase structure, morphology and magnetic property of the composite nanofibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer analysis. The photocatalytic studies of TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} fibers suggested that the presence of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} not only enhanced the absorbance of UV light, but also broadened the response region to visible light. The decolorizing efficiency of methylene blue (MB) solution reaches 95.87% over TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofibers under 300 W Hg lamp after 5 h, which is close to that of Degussa P25. Furthermore, these fibers can be collected with a magnet for reuse and

  4. Generating power with drained coal mine methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    The article describes the three technologies most commonly used for generating electricity from coal mine methane: internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and microturbines. The most critical characteristics and features of these technologies, such as efficiency, output and size are highlighted. 5 refs.

  5. Network Activity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Statistics Network Activity Network Activity PDSF Network Uplinks to NERSC (dual 10 Gbps) NERSC Uplink to ESnet Last edited: 2011-03-31 22:20:59...

  6. High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    interoperable dynamic shading, daylighting, and lighting systems that enable reliable, less complex, and cost-effective reductions in energy use and peak demand at the ...

  7. Preparation of high specific activity technetium-96

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mausner, Leonard F.; Srivastava, Suresh C.; Prach, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing Tc-96 from the proton irradiation of a rhodium target and a technique for isolating under remote hot cell conditions the Tc-96 from the proton irradiated target.

  8. Activation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane William [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material lacking a photoluminescent material and generating a by-product of a radioactive decay due to the activator impinging the reeptor material. The method further including, generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect and identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the light.

  9. Microstructural and compositional change of NaOH-activated high calcium fly ash by incorporating Na-aluminate and co-existence of geopolymeric gel and C-S-H(I)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Jae Eun; Moon, Juhyuk; Oh, Sang-Gyun; Clark, Simon M.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2012-05-15

    This study explores the reaction products of alkali-activated Class C fly ash-based aluminosilicate samples by means of high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction (HSXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and compressive strength tests to investigate how the readily available aluminum affects the reaction. Class C fly ash-based aluminosilicate raw materials were prepared by incorporating Na-aluminate into the original fly ashes, then alkali-activated by 10 M NaOH solution. Incorporating Na-aluminate reduced the compressive strength of samples, with the reduction magnitude relatively constant regardless of length of curing period. The HSXRD provides evidence of the co-existence of C-S-H with geopolymeric gels and strongly suggests that the C-S-H formed in the current system is C-S-H(I). The back-scattered electron images suggest that the C-S-H(I) phase exists as small grains in a finely intermixed form with geopolymeric gels. Despite providing extra source of aluminum, adding Na-aluminate to the mixes did not decrease the Si/Al ratio of the geopolymeric gel.

  10. Recovery in dc and rf performance of off-state step-stressed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Byung-Jae; Hwang, Ya-Hsi; Ahn, Shihyun; Zhu, Weidi; Dong, Chen; Lu, Liu; Ren, Fan; Holzworth, M. R.; Jones, Kevin S.; Pearton, Stephen J.; Smith, David J.; Kim, Jihyun; Zhang, Ming-Lan

    2015-04-13

    The recovery effects of thermal annealing on dc and rf performance of off-state step-stressed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors were investigated. After stress, reverse gate leakage current and sub-threshold swing increased and drain current on-off ratio decreased. However, these degradations were completely recovered after thermal annealing at 450?C for 10 mins for devices stressed either once or twice. The trap densities, which were estimated by temperature-dependent drain-current sub-threshold swing measurements, increased after off-state step-stress and were reduced after subsequent thermal annealing. In addition, the small signal rf characteristics of stressed devices were completely recovered after thermal annealing.