National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for high activity drain

  1. Trapping in GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor transistors: Role of high drain bias and hot electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meneghini, M. Bisi, D.; Meneghesso, G.; Zanoni, E.

    2014-04-07

    This paper describes an extensive analysis of the role of off-state and semi-on state bias in inducing the trapping in GaN-based power High Electron Mobility Transistors. The study is based on combined pulsed characterization and on-resistance transient measurements. We demonstrate thatby changing the quiescent bias point from the off-state to the semi-on stateit is possible to separately analyze two relevant trapping mechanisms: (i) the trapping of electrons in the gate-drain access region, activated by the exposure to high drain bias in the off-state; (ii) the trapping of hot-electrons within the AlGaN barrier or the gate insulator, which occurs when the devices are operated in the semi-on state. The dependence of these two mechanisms on the bias conditions and on temperature, and the properties (activation energy and cross section) of the related traps are described in the text.

  2. La Vida Robot - High School Engineering Program Combats Engineering Brain Drain

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Cameron, Allan; Fredi, Lajvardi

    2009-09-01

    Carl Hayden High School has built an impressive reputation with its robotics club. At a time when interest in science, math and engineering is declining, the Falcon Robotics club has young people fired up about engineering. Their program in underwater robots (MATE) and FIRST robotics is becoming a national model, not for building robots, but for building engineers. Teachers Fredi Lajvardi and Allan Cameron will present their story (How kids 'from the mean streets of Phoenix took on the best from M.I.T. in the national underwater bot championship' - Wired Magazine, April 2005) and how every student needs the opportunity to 'do real engineering.'

  3. DNA Persistence in Sink Drain Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm.

  4. Hohokam Irr & Drain Dist | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hohokam Irr & Drain Dist Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hohokam Irr & Drain Dist Place: Arizona Phone Number: (520) 723-7751 Website: hohokamthepowerofchoice.com Outage...

  5. DNA Persistence in Sink Drain Environment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of themore » sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively.« less

  6. Drain-Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat & Cool Water Heating Drain-Water Heat Recovery Drain-Water Heat Recovery Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. ...

  7. Drain-Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool Water Heating Drain-Water Heat Recovery ... Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Any hot water ... Drain-water (or greywater) heat recovery systems capture ...

  8. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1996-06-11

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidation state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  9. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  10. Postlumpectomy Focal Brachytherapy for Simultaneous Treatment of Surgical Cavity and Draining Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrycushko, Brian A.; Li Shihong; Shi Chengyu; Goins, Beth; Liu Yaxi; Phillips, William T.; Otto, Pamela M.; Bao, Ande

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: The primary objective was to investigate a novel focal brachytherapy technique using lipid nanoparticle (liposome)-carried {beta}-emitting radionuclides (rhenium-186 [{sup 186}Re]/rhenium-188 [{sup 188}Re]) to simultaneously treat the postlumpectomy surgical cavity and draining lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Cumulative activity distributions in the lumpectomy cavity and lymph nodes were extrapolated from small animal imaging and human lymphoscintigraphy data. Absorbed dose calculations were performed for lumpectomy cavities with spherical and ellipsoidal shapes and lymph nodes within human subjects by use of the dose point kernel convolution method. Results: Dose calculations showed that therapeutic dose levels within the lumpectomy cavity wall can cover 2- and 5-mm depths for {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re liposomes, respectively. The absorbed doses at 1 cm sharply decreased to only 1.3% to 3.7% of the doses at 2 mm for {sup 186}Re liposomes and 5 mm for {sup 188}Re liposomes. Concurrently, the draining sentinel lymph nodes would receive a high focal therapeutic absorbed dose, whereas the average dose to 1 cm of surrounding tissue received less than 1% of that within the nodes. Conclusions: Focal brachytherapy by use of {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re liposomes was theoretically shown to be capable of simultaneously treating the lumpectomy cavity wall and draining sentinel lymph nodes with high absorbed doses while significantly lowering dose to surrounding healthy tissue. In turn, this allows for dose escalation to regions of higher probability of containing residual tumor cells after lumpectomy while reducing normal tissue complications.

  11. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Activity Dealloyed Catalysts 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Project Kick-Off Frederick T. Wagner General Motors Research & Development Electrochemical Energy Research Lab Honeoye Falls, NY September 28, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 * Project start date: 1 Sept 2010 * Project end date: 31 Aug 2013 * Percent complete: 0% * Barriers addressed - B. Cost * Decrease required loading of precious metals including

  12. Drain-Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Water Heating » Drain-Water Heat Recovery Drain-Water Heat Recovery Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Any hot water that goes down the drain carries away energy with it. That's typically 80%-90% of the energy used to heat water in a home. Drain-water (or greywater) heat recovery systems capture this energy from water you've already used (for example, to shower, wash dishes, or wash clothing) to preheat cold water

  13. Method of making self-aligned lightly-doped-drain structure for MOS transistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiner, Kurt H.; Carey, Paul G.

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating lightly-doped-drains (LDD) for short-channel metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistors. The process utilizes a pulsed laser process to incorporate the dopants, thus eliminating the prior oxide deposition and etching steps. During the process, the silicon in the source/drain region is melted by the laser energy. Impurities from the gas phase diffuse into the molten silicon to appropriately dope the source/drain regions. By controlling the energy of the laser, a lightly-doped-drain can be formed in one processing step. This is accomplished by first using a single high energy laser pulse to melt the silicon to a significant depth and thus the amount of dopants incorporated into the silicon is small. Furthermore, the dopants incorporated during this step diffuse to the edge of the MOS transistor gate structure. Next, many low energy laser pulses are used to heavily dope the source/drain silicon only in a very shallow region. Because of two-dimensional heat transfer at the MOS transistor gate edge, the low energy pulses are inset from the region initially doped by the high energy pulse. By computer control of the laser energy, the single high energy laser pulse and the subsequent low energy laser pulses are carried out in a single operational step to produce a self-aligned lightly-doped-drain-structure.

  14. Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comparato, Joseph R. (Bloomfield, CT); Jacobs, Martin (Hartford, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

  15. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boomer, Kayle D.; Engeman, Jason K.; Gunter, Jason R.; Joslyn, Cameron C.; Vazquez, Brandon J.; Venetz, Theodore J.; Garfield, John S.

    2014-01-20

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

  16. Design criteria Drain Rerouting Project 93-OR-EW-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This document contains the design criteria to be used by the architect-engineer (A--E) in the performance of Title I and II design for the Drain Rerouting Project. The Drain Rerouting project at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee will provide the Y-12 Plant with the capability to reroute particular drains within buildings 9202, 9203 and 9995. Process drains that are presently connected to the storm sewer shall be routed to the sanitary sewer to ensure that any objectionable material inadvertently discharged into process drains will not discharge to East Fork Popular Creek (EFPC) without treatment. The project will also facilitate compliance with the Y-12 Plant`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge permit and allow for future pretreatment of once-through coolant.

  17. LBNL: High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems - 2015...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LBNL: High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Eleanor Lee, LBNL View the Presentation PDF icon LBNL: High Performance Active Perimeter ...

  18. Archaeal and bacterial communities across a chronosequence of drained lake basins in arctic alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao-Kniffin, J.; Woodcroft, B. J.; Carver, S. M.; Bockheim, J. G.; Handelsman, J.; Tyson, G. W.; Hinkel, K. M.; Mueller, C. W.

    2015-12-18

    We examined patterns in soil microbial community composition across a successional gradient of drained lake basins in the Arctic Coastal Plain. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that methanogens closely related to Candidatus ‘Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis’ were the dominant archaea, comprising >50% of the total archaea at most sites, with particularly high levels in the oldest basins and in the top 57 cm of soil (active and transition layers). Bacterial community composition was more diverse, with lineages from OP11, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria found in high relative abundance across all sites. Notably, microbial composition appeared to converge in the active layer, but transition and permafrost layer communities across the sites were significantly different to one another. Microbial biomass using fatty acid-based analysis indicated that the youngest basins had increased abundances of gram-positive bacteria and saprotrophic fungi at higher soil organic carbon levels, while the oldest basins displayed an increase in only the gram-positive bacteria. While this study showed differences in microbial populations across the sites relevant to basin age, the dominance of Candidatus ‘M. stordalenmirensis’ across the chronosequence indicates the potential for changes in local carbon cycling, depending on how these methanogens and associated microbial communities respond to warming temperatures.

  19. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2003-10-28

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  20. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2002-12-03

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  1. DETERMINATION OF LIQUID FILM THICKNESS FOLLOWING DRAINING OF CONTACTORS, VESSELS, AND PIPES IN THE MCU PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-06-06

    The Department of Energy (DOE) identified the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) process as the preferred technology to remove cesium from radioactive waste solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As a result, Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) in the SRS tank farm to process liquid waste for an interim period until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) begins operations. Both the solvent and the strip effluent streams could contain high concentrations of cesium which must be removed from the contactors, process tanks, and piping prior to performing contactor maintenance. When these vessels are drained, thin films or drops will remain on the equipment walls. Following draining, the vessels will be flushed with water and drained to remove the flush water. The draining reduces the cesium concentration in the vessels by reducing the volume of cesium-containing material. The flushing, and subsequent draining, reduces the cesium in the vessels by diluting the cesium that remains in the film or drops on the vessel walls. MCU personnel requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers conduct a literature search to identify models to calculate the thickness of the liquid films remaining in the contactors, process tanks, and piping following draining of salt solution, solvent, and strip solution. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The predicted film thickness of the strip effluent is 0.010 mm on vertical walls, 0.57 mm on horizontal walls and 0.081 mm in horizontal pipes. (2) The predicted film thickness of the salt solution is 0.015 mm on vertical walls, 0.74 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.106 mm in horizontal pipes. (3) The predicted film thickness of the solvent is 0.022 mm on vertical walls, 0.91 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.13 mm in horizontal pipes. (4) The calculated film volume following draining is: (a) Salt solution receipt tank--1.6 gallons; (b) Salt solution feed

  2. Wellton-Mohawk Irr & Drain Dist | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    & Drain Dist Place: Arizona Phone Number: (928) 785-3351 Website: www.wmidd.orgpower.html Outage Hotline: (928) 785-3351 References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 -...

  3. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  4. Archaeal and bacterial communities across a chronosequence of drained lake basins in arctic alaska

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kao-Kniffin, J.; Woodcroft, B. J.; Carver, S. M.; Bockheim, J. G.; Handelsman, J.; Tyson, G. W.; Hinkel, K. M.; Mueller, C. W.

    2015-12-18

    We examined patterns in soil microbial community composition across a successional gradient of drained lake basins in the Arctic Coastal Plain. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that methanogens closely related to Candidatus ‘Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis’ were the dominant archaea, comprising >50% of the total archaea at most sites, with particularly high levels in the oldest basins and in the top 57 cm of soil (active and transition layers). Bacterial community composition was more diverse, with lineages from OP11, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria found in high relative abundance across all sites. Notably, microbial composition appeared to converge in the activemore » layer, but transition and permafrost layer communities across the sites were significantly different to one another. Microbial biomass using fatty acid-based analysis indicated that the youngest basins had increased abundances of gram-positive bacteria and saprotrophic fungi at higher soil organic carbon levels, while the oldest basins displayed an increase in only the gram-positive bacteria. While this study showed differences in microbial populations across the sites relevant to basin age, the dominance of Candidatus ‘M. stordalenmirensis’ across the chronosequence indicates the potential for changes in local carbon cycling, depending on how these methanogens and associated microbial communities respond to warming temperatures.« less

  5. Lead Research and Development Activity for High Temperature,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program Lead Research and Development Activity for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program A presentation to the High ...

  6. LBNL: High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems - 2015 Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems - 2015 Peer Review LBNL: High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Eleanor Lee, LBNL View the Presentation LBNL: High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems - 2015 Peer Review (2 MB) More Documents & Publications FLEXLAB Connected Buildings Interoperability Vision Webinar 2015 DOE CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS PRESENTATIONS

  7. Risk assessment of drain valve failure in the K-West basin south loadout pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-06-23

    The drain valve located in the bottom of the K-West Basin South Loadout Pit (SLOP) could provide an additional leak path from the K Basins if the drain valve were damaged during construction, installation, or operation of the cask loading system. For the K-West Basin SLOP the immersion pail support structure (IPSS) has already been installed, but the immersion pail has not been installed in the IPSS. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the risk of damaging the drain valve during the remaining installation activities or operation of the cask loading system. Valve damage, as used in this analysis, does not necessarily imply large amounts of the water will be released quickly from the basin, rather valve damage implies that the valve's integrity has been compromised. The analysis process is a risk-based uncertainty analysis where best engineering judgement is used to represent each variable in the analysis. The uncertainty associated with each variable is represented by a probability distribution. The uncertainty is propagated through the analysis by Monte Carlo convolution techniques. The corresponding results are developed as a probability distribution and the risk is expressed in terms of the corresponding complementary cumulative distribution function (''risk curve''). The total risk is the area under the ''risk curve''. The risk of potentially dropping a cask into or on the IPSS and damaging the drain valve is approximately 1 x 10{sup -4} to 2 x 10{sup -5} per year. The risk of objects falling behind the IPSS and damaging the valve is 3 x 10{sup -2} to 6 x 10{sup -3} per year. Both risks are expressed as drain value failure frequencies. The risk of objects falling behind the IPSS and damaging the valve can be significantly reduced by an impact limiter and/or installing a gating or plate over the area bounded by the back of the IPSS and the wall of the SLOP. With either of these actions there is a 90 percent confidence that the frequency of drain valve

  8. High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities Breakout Session 1B-Integration of Supply Chains I: ...

  9. High specific activity platinum-195m

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-10-12

    A new composition of matter includes .sup.195m Pt characterized by a specific activity of at least 30 mCi/mg Pt, generally made by method that includes the steps of: exposing .sup.193 Ir to a flux of neutrons sufficient to convert a portion of the .sup.193 Ir to .sup.195m Pt to form an irradiated material; dissolving the irradiated material to form an intermediate solution comprising Ir and Pt; and separating the Pt from the Ir by cation exchange chromatography to produce .sup.195m Pt.

  10. High temperature solid oxide fuel development activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, E.R.

    1993-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Westinghouse tubular SOFC development activities and current program status. Goal is to develop a cell that can operate for 50,000 to 100,000 h. Test results are presented for multiple single cell tests which have now successfully exceeded 40,000 hours of continuous power operation at temperature. Two 25-kW SOFC customer tests units were delivered in 1992; a 20-kW SOFC system is bein manufactured and will be operated by Southern California Edison in 1995. Megawatt class generators are being developed.

  11. Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fraunhofer IPM, new funding situation in Germany, high temperature material and modules, ... Programme 7 and additional activities in Germany Standardization of Transport Properties ...

  12. Active control system for high speed windmills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, D.E.

    1988-01-12

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed. 4 figs.

  13. Active control system for high speed windmills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, Don E.

    1988-01-01

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed.

  14. PPPL researchers advance understanding of plasma turbulence that drains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat from fusion reactors | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab PPPL researchers advance understanding of plasma turbulence that drains heat from fusion reactors By Raphael Rosen February 22, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook PPPL Scientists Walter Guttenfelder and Yang Ren (Photo by Elle Starkman / PPPL Office of Communications) PPPL Scientists Walter Guttenfelder and Yang Ren The life of a subatomic particle can be hectic. The charged nuclei and electrons that zip around the

  15. PPPL researchers advance understanding of plasma turbulence that drains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat from fusion reactors | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab PPPL researchers advance understanding of plasma turbulence that drains heat from fusion reactors By Raphael Rosen February 22, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook PPPL Scientists Walter Guttenfelder and Yang Ren (Photo by Elle Starkman / PPPL Office of Communications) PPPL Scientists Walter Guttenfelder and Yang Ren The life of a subatomic particle can be hectic. The charged nuclei and electrons that zip around the

  16. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts These slides were presented at the 2010 New Fuel Cell Projects Meeting on September 28, 2010. 5_gm_catalysts_wagner.pdf (1.14 MB) More Documents & Publications DOE's Fuel Cell Catalyst R&D Activities Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of the Trench 1 Collection Drain Floodplain Area of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Shiprock, New Mexico, Site | Department of Energy Preliminary Evaluation of the Trench 1 Collection Drain Floodplain Area of the Shiprock, New Mexico, Site Preliminary Evaluation of the Trench 1 Collection Drain Floodplain Area of the Shiprock, New Mexico, Site Preliminary Evaluation of the Trench 1 Collection Drain Floodplain Area of the Shiprock, New Mexico, Site Preliminary Evaluation of the Trench 1 Collection Drain Floodplain Area of the Shiprock, New Mexico, Site (6.81 MB) More

  18. Lead Research and Development Activity for High Temperature, Low Relative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Humidity Membrane Program | Department of Energy Lead Research and Development Activity for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program Lead Research and Development Activity for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program A presentation to the High Temperature Membranes Working Group meeting, May 19, 2006. fenton.pdf (448.4 KB) More Documents & Publications Discussion Overview In Plane Conductivity Testing, BekkTech LLC Progress and Status on Through-Plane

  19. Heavy Duty HCCI Development Activities - DOE High Efficiency Clean

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion (HECC) | Department of Energy Heavy Duty HCCI Development Activities - DOE High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Heavy Duty HCCI Development Activities - DOE High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006_deer_duffy.pdf (33.12 MB) More Documents & Publications Development of Enabling Technologies for High

  20. Highly Potent Bactericidal Activity of Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highly Potent Bactericidal Activity of Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List ... A novel cobalt (Co) based metal-organic framework (MOF) was tested and shown to be ...

  1. A highly active manganese precatalyst for the hydrosilylation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    precatalyst for the hydrosilylation of ketones and esters Authors: Mukhopadhyay, T.K., Flores, M., Groy, T.L., and Trovitch, R.J. Title: A highly active manganese precatalyst for...

  2. Measurement of actinides and strontium-90 in high activity waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nelson, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The reliable measurement of trace radionuclides in high activity waste is important to support waste processing activities at SRS (F and H Area Waste Tanks, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) and In-Tank precipitation (ITP) processing). Separation techniques are needed to remove high levels of gamma activity and alpha/beta interferences prior to analytical measurement. Using new extraction chromatographic resins from EiChrom Industries, Inc., the SRS Central Laboratory has developed new high speed separation methods that enable measurement of neptunium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium-90 in high activity waste solutions. Small particle size resin and applied vacuum are used to reduce analysis times and enhance column performance. Extraction chromatographic resins are easy to use and eliminate the generation of contaminated liquid organic waste.

  3. High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1B—Integration of Supply Chains I: Breaking Down Barriers High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities Kevin Comer, Associate Principal, Antares Group Inc.

  4. Characterization Plan for Soils Around Drain Line PLA-100115

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-05-24

    This Characterization Plan supports the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) closure of soils that may have been contaminated by releases from drain line PLA-100115, located within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The requirements to address the closure of soils contaminated by a potential release from this line in a characterization plan was identified in the "HWMA/RCRA Less Than 90-day Generator Closure Report for the VES-SFE-126."

  5. Rejuvenation and reuse of high-activity catalyst for hydroprocessing high metals residua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hildebrandt, S.J.; Koseoglu, R.O.; Duddy, J.E.; Sherwood, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    In the 1980`s, Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) developed a new catalyst processing technology for recovery and reuse of spent catalysts from hydroprocessing of petroleum residua in the H-Oil Process. Recently, HRI and Texaco have applied Catalyst Rejuvenation Technology to a new high-activity H-Oil catalyst developed by Texaco. This paper will discuss the application of Catalyst Rejuvenation to the high activity Texaco catalyst when processing a high metals vacuum residuum.

  6. Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

    2005-09-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

  7. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treat, R.L.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1993-02-02

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  8. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treat, Russell L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  9. Don't Let Your Money and Hot Water Go Down the Drain | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Don't Let Your Money and Hot Water Go Down the Drain Don't Let Your Money and Hot Water Go Down the Drain December 9, 2008 - 4:00am Addthis John Lippert Do you look at your ...

  10. Method of preparing high specific activity platinum-195m

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-06-15

    A method of preparing high-specific-activity .sup.195m Pt includes the steps of: exposing .sup.193 Ir to a flux of neutrons sufficient to convert a portion of the .sup.193 Ir to .sup.195m Pt to form an irradiated material; dissolving the irradiated material to form an intermediate solution comprising Ir and Pt; and separating the Pt from the Ir by cation exchange chromatography to produce .sup.195m Pt.

  11. Method for preparing high specific activity 177Lu

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-04-06

    A method of separating lutetium from a solution containing Lu and Yb, particularly reactor-produced .sup.177 Lu and .sup.177 Yb, includes the steps of: providing a chromatographic separation apparatus containing LN resin; loading the apparatus with a solution containing Lu and Yb; and eluting the apparatus to chromatographically separate the Lu and the Yb in order to produce high-specific-activity .sup.177 Yb.

  12. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lottes, Steven A.; Bojanowski, Cezary

    2015-09-01

    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.

  13. Prefabricated vertical drains flow resistance under vacuum conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaranta, J.D.; Gabr, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The results of experimental research are presented and discussed with focus on the internal well resistance of prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) under vacuum-induced water flow. Measured results included fluid flow rates for two different cross-sectional hydraulic profiles (Types 1 and 2 PVDs). Experimental results indicated linear relationship, independent of the PVD widths, between extracted fluid velocity and the applied hydraulic gradient. Data showed a laminar flow regime to predominate for test velocities corresponding to hydraulic gradients {lt}0.5. The larger nominal hydraulic radius of the Type 2 PVD is credited with providing a flow rate equal to approximately 3.2 times that of the Type 1 PVD at approximately the same operating total head. There was no apparent dependency of the transmissivity {theta} on the width or lengths (3, 4, and 5 m) of the PVDs tested. In the case of the 100-mm-wide Type 1 PVD, {theta} = 618 mm{sup 2}/s was estimated from the measured data versus {theta} = 1,996 mm{sup 2}/s for Type 2 PVD with the same dimensions.

  14. Inverse problem in anisotropic poroelasticity: Drained constants from undrained ultrasound measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J.G.; Nakagawa, S.

    2009-11-20

    Poroelastic analysis has traditionally focused on the relationship between dry or drained constants which are assumed known and the saturated or undrained constants which are assumed unknown. However, there are many applications in this field of study for which the main measurements can only be made on the saturated/undrained system, and then it is uncertain what the eects of the uids were on the system, since the drained constants remain a mystery. The work presented here shows how to deduce drained constants from undrained constants for anisotropic systems having symmetries ranging from isotropic to orthotropic. Laboratory ultrasound data are then inverted for the drained constants in three granular packings: one of glass beads, and two others for distinct types of more or less angular sand grain packings. Experiments were performed under uniaxial stress, which resulted in hexagonal (transversely isotropic) symmetry of the poroelastic response. One important conclusion from the general analysis is that the drained constants are uniquely related to the undrained constants, assuming that porosity, grain bulk modulus, and pore uid bulk modulus are already known. Since the resulting system of equations for all the drained constants is linear, measurement error in undrained constants also propagates linearly into the computed drained constants.

  15. Plasma Switch for High-Power Active Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-11-04

    Results are presented from experiments carried out at the Naval Research Laboratory X-band magnicon facility on a two-channel X-band active RF pulse compressor that employed plasma switches. Experimental evidence is shown to validate the basic goals of the project, which include: simultaneous firing of plasma switches in both channels of the RF circuit, operation of quasi-optical 3-dB hybrid directional coupler coherent superposition of RF compressed pulses from both channels, and operation of the X-band magnicon directly in the RF pulse compressor. For incident 1.2 ?s pulses in the range 0.63 ? 1.35 MW, compressed pulses of peak powers 5.7 ? 11.3 MW were obtained, corresponding to peak power gain ratios of 8.3 ? 9.3. Insufficient bakeout and conditioning of the high-power RF circuit prevented experiments from being conducted at higher RF input power levels.

  16. High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits Print Many physiological ... (GPCRs), proteins integral to the cell membrane, sense the signal and activate G ...

  17. High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits Print Wednesday, 28 June 2006 00:00 Many ...

  18. Active Fault Controls At High-Temperature Geothermal Sites- Prospectin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    model in which recently active (Holocene) faults are preferred conduits for migration of thermal water from deep crustal depths, and we infer that the detection of sites...

  19. Highly Active and Selective Metal-modified Zeolite Catalysts...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Active and Selective Metal-modified Zeolite Catalysts for Low Temperature Conversion of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether to Gasoline-range Branched Hydrocarbons National Renewable...

  20. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boggs, David Lee; Baraszu, Daniel James; Foulkes, David Mark; Gomes, Enio Goyannes

    1998-01-01

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine's crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages.

  1. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boggs, D.L.; Baraszu, D.J.; Foulkes, D.M.; Gomes, E.G.

    1998-12-29

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine`s crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages. 4 figs.

  2. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH uptake ...

  3. CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Europe | Department of Energy CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe This presentation on high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells was given at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007. htmwg_carisma.pdf (1.44 MB) More Documents & Publications Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in Europe (Presentation) High

  4. EVALUATION OF FABRIC MEMBRANES FOR USE IN SALTSTONE DRAIN WATER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickenheim, B.; Miller, D.; Burket, P.

    2012-03-08

    Saltstone Disposal Unit 2 contains a sheet drain fabric intended to separate solids from drain water to be returned to the Salt Feed Tank. A similar system installed in Vault 4 appears to be ineffective in keeping solids out of the drain water return lines. Waste Solidification Engineering is considering installation of an additional fabric membrane to supplement the existing sheet drain in SDU 2. Amerdrain 200 is the product currently installed in SDU 2. This product is no longer available, so Sitedrain 94 was used as the replacement product in this testing. Fabrics with apparent opening sizes of 10, 25, 50 and 100 microns were evaluated. These fabrics were evaluated under three separate test conditions, a water flow test, a solids retention test and a grout pour test. A flow test with water showed that installation of an additional filter layer will predictably reduce the theoretical flux through the sheet drain. The manufacturer reports the flux for Sitedrain 94 as 150 gpm/ft{sup 2} by ASTM D-4491. This compares reasonably well with the 117 gpm/ft{sup 2} obtained in this testing. A combination of the 10 micron fabric with Sitedrain 94 could be expected to decrease flux by about 10 times as compared to Sitedrain 94 alone. The different media were used to filter a slag and fly ash mixture from water. Slag historically has the smallest nominal particle size of the premix components. Cement was omitted from the test because of its reactivity with water would prohibit accurately particle size measurements of the filtered samples. All four media sizes were able to remove greater than 95% of particles larger than 100 microns from the slurry. The smaller opening sizes were increasingly effective in removing more particles. The 10 micron filter captured 15% of the total amount of solids used in the test. This result implies that some insoluble particles may still be able to enter the drain water collection system, although the overall solids rejection is significantly

  5. Flexible stainless steel hose liner used to rehab drain pipe for seal gates and outlet tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauer, S.J.; Monsanto, R. )

    1993-08-01

    Not unlike other dams, the Bureau of Reclamation's 6,500-MW Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State has a large amount of embedded piping, conduits, and drains. Typically, these features were constructed of ductile iron, cast iron, or carbon steel materials. Over the years, excessive internal corrosion of the drains for 102-inch ring seal gates and outlet tubes created leaks that required attention. Reclamation performed a number of temporary repairs before it became evident that the drain system must be rehabilitated. After considering several alternatives for rehabilitation, Reclamation selected stainless steel flexible hose liners for the job. Reclamation is satisfied with the performance of the stainless steel flexible hose liner. The total cost for installing the liners for nine drain lines (for three outlet tubes) was $15,000. Of that, materials cost $7,500, and labor and overhead cost $7,500. The inserts themselves cost from $640 for an 18-foot by 6-inch section. While this was not the least expensive option, it was the best choice for this job. The procedure will be repeated for other outlet tubes at Grand Coulee. Information used in this rehabilitation is being made available to other Reclamation projects.

  6. Drain Tank Information for Developing Design Basis of the Preliminary Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrada, Juan J

    2012-02-01

    Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) drain tanks (DTs) serve two functions: normal operation and safety operation. Normal DTs are used for regular maintenance operations when draining is necessary. Safety DTs are used to receive the water leaked into the Vacuum Vessel (VV) after an in-vessel loss of coolant accident (LOCA) event. The preliminary design of the DTs shall be based on the information provided by this document. The capacity of the normal DTs is estimated based on the internal volume of in-vessel components [e.g., First Wall/Blanket (FW/BLK) and Divertor (DIV)]; Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) components; and TCWS piping, heat exchangers, electric heaters, pump casing, pressurizers, and valves. Water volumes have been updated based on 2004-design information, changes adopted because of approved Project Change Requests (PCRs), and data verification by US ITER and AREVA Federal Services, the US ITER A and E Company. Two tanks will store water from normal draining operations of the FW/BLK and DIV Primary Heat Transfer Systems (PHTSs). One tank will store water from normal draining operations of the NBI PHTS. The capacity of the safety DTs is based on analysis of a design basis accident: a large leak from in-vessel components. There are two safety DTs that will receive water from a VV LOCA event and drainage from the VV, as needed. In addition, there is one sump tank for the DIV that will be used for collecting drain water from the draining and drying processes and specifically for draining the DIV system as the DIV cassette lines are at a lower elevation than the DT connection point. Information documented in this report must be refined and verified during the preliminary design of the DTs, and there are several aspects to be considered to complete the preliminary design. Input to these design considerations is discussed in this report and includes, but is not limited to, water inventory; operating procedures/maintenance; Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA

  7. Drain Tank Information for Developing Design Basis of the Preliminary Design - R00

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrada, Juan J

    2011-01-01

    Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) drain tanks (DTs) serve two functions: normal operation and safety operation. Normal DTs are used for regular maintenance operations when draining is necessary. Safety DTs are used to receive the water leaked into the Vacuum Vessel (VV) after an in-vessel loss of cooling accident (LOCA) event. The preliminary design of the DTs shall be based on the information provided by this document. The capacity of the normal DTs is estimated based on the internal volume of in-vessel components [e.g., First Wall/Blanket (FW/BLK) and Divertor (DIV)], Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) components, and TCWS piping, heat exchangers, electric heaters, pump casing, pressurizers, and valves. Water volumes have been updated based on 2004 design information, changes adopted because of approved Project Change Requests (PCRs), and data verification by U.S. ITER. Two tanks will store water from normal draining operations of the FW/BLK and DIV Primary Heat Transfer Systems (PHTSs). One tank will store water from normal draining operations of the NBI PHTS. The capacity of the safety DTs is based on analysis of a design-basis accident:1 a large leak from in-vessel components. There are two safety DTs that will receive water from a VV LOCA event and drainage from the VV, as needed. In addition, there is one sump tank for the DIV that will be used for collecting drain water from the draining and drying processes and specifically for draining the DIV system as the DIV cassettes lines are at a lower elevation than the DT connection point. Information documented in this report must be refined and verified during the preliminary design of the DTs, and there are several aspects to be considered to complete the preliminary design. Input to these design considerations is discussed in this report and includes, but is not limited to, water inventory; operating procedures/maintenance; Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA); tank layout anddimensions, including design

  8. Subcellulosome preparation with high cellulase activity from Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, T.; Romaniec, M.P.M.; Fauth, U.; DeMain, A.L. )

    1990-10-01

    The authors have prepared a much simpler cellulase preparation than that of cellulosomes from the extracellular broth of Clostridium thermocellum. This subcellulosome preparation from C. thermocellum was obtained by column chromatography on CM-Bio-Gel A and then on a lectin-affinity material (Jacalin). The subcellulosome preparation is a macromolecular complex, composed of six main protein subunits (molecular weight, 210,000 to 58,000) revealed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The specific activities of carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and Avicelase are 15- and 8-fold-higher, respectively, than those of crude extracellular cellulase. They could not further fractionate this preparation without denaturing it. The optimum pH and temperature of the subcellulosome preparation are 5.5 to 7.0 and 70{degree}C for CMCase and 5.5 to 7.0 and 65{degree}C for Avicelase. The subcellulosome preparation acted on various types of carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose, and p-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-cellobioside but not on p-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-glucoside. Sulfhydryl reagents and N-bromosuccinimide inhibited both CMCase and Avicelase activities, whereas EDTA and o-phenanthroline inhibited Avicelase activity only.

  9. Active high-power RF switch and pulse compression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Ruth, Ronald D.; Zolotorev, Max

    1998-01-01

    A high-power RF switching device employs a semiconductor wafer positioned in the third port of a three-port RF device. A controllable source of directed energy, such as a suitable laser or electron beam, is aimed at the semiconductor material. When the source is turned on, the energy incident on the wafer induces an electron-hole plasma layer on the wafer, changing the wafer's dielectric constant, turning the third port into a termination for incident RF signals, and. causing all incident RF signals to be reflected from the surface of the wafer. The propagation constant of RF signals through port 3, therefore, can be changed by controlling the beam. By making the RF coupling to the third port as small as necessary, one can reduce the peak electric field on the unexcited silicon surface for any level of input power from port 1, thereby reducing risk of damaging the wafer by RF with high peak power. The switch is useful to the construction of an improved pulse compression system to boost the peak power of microwave tubes driving linear accelerators. In this application, the high-power RF switch is placed at the coupling iris between the charging waveguide and the resonant storage line of a pulse compression system. This optically controlled high power RF pulse compression system can handle hundreds of Megawatts of power at X-band.

  10. Revisiting the question: Does high-latitude solar activity lead low-latitude solar activity in time phase?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, D. F.; Qu, Z. N.; Guo, Q. L.

    2014-05-01

    Cross-correlation analysis and wavelet transform methods are used to investigate whether high-latitude solar activity leads low-latitude solar activity in time phase or not, using the data of the Carte Synoptique solar filaments archive from 1919 March to 1989 December. From the cross-correlation analysis, high-latitude solar filaments have a time lead of 12 Carrington solar rotations with respect to low-latitude ones. Both the cross-wavelet transform and wavelet coherence indicate that high-latitude solar filaments lead low-latitude ones in time phase. Furthermore, low-latitude solar activity is better correlated with high-latitude solar activity of the previous cycle than with that of the following cycle, which is statistically significant. Thus, the present study confirms that high-latitude solar activity in the polar regions is indeed better correlated with the low-latitude solar activity of the following cycle than with that of the previous cycle, namely, leading in time phase.

  11. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation.

  12. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1994-02-15

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation. 4 figures.

  13. Enzymatically active high-flux selectively gas-permeable membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Rempe, Susan; FU, Yaqin; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    An ultra-thin, catalyzed liquid transport medium-based membrane structure fabricated with a porous supporting substrate may be used for separating an object species such as a carbon dioxide object species. Carbon dioxide flux through this membrane structures may be several orders of magnitude higher than traditional polymer membranes with a high selectivity to carbon dioxide. Other gases such as molecular oxygen, molecular hydrogen, and other species including non-gaseous species, for example ionic materials, may be separated using variations to the membrane discussed.

  14. High Field 27Al MAS NMR and TPD studies of active sites in ethanol...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Field 27Al MAS NMR and TPD studies of active sites in ethanol dehydration using ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Field 27Al MAS NMR and TPD studies of ...

  15. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineralmore » cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.« less

  16. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; Renholm, J.; Hettich, R. L.; Pollard, W. H.; Omelon, C. R.; Medvigy, David M.; Pffifner, Susan M.; Whyte, L. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineral cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.

  17. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; Renholm, J.; Hettich, R. L.; Pollard, W. H.; Omelon, C. R.; Medvigy, David M.; Pffifner, Susan M.; Whyte, L. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2015-04-14

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineral cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.

  18. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

    2011-08-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  19. Highly dispersed buckybowls as model carbocatalysts for C–H bond activation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Soykal, I. Ilgaz; Wang, Hui; Park, Jewook; Li, An-Ping; Liang, Chengdu; Schwartz, Viviane

    2015-03-19

    Buckybowl fractions dispersed on mesoporous silica constitute an ideal model for studying the catalysis of graphitic forms of carbon since the dispersed carbon nanostructures contain a high ratio of edge defects and curvature induced by non-six-membered rings. Dispersion of the active centers on an easily accessible high surface area material allowed for high density of surface active sites associated with oxygenated structures. This report illustrates a facile method of creating model polycyclic aromatic nano-structures that are not only active for alkane C-H bond activation and oxidative dehydrogenation but also can be practical catalysts to be eventually used in industry.

  20. X-ray K-edge analysis of drain lines in Wilhelm Hall, Ames Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, T.; Whitmore, C. |

    1999-01-05

    From August 12--27, 1998 X-ray K-edge measurements were made on drain lines in seven rooms in Wilhelm Hall, Ames Laboratory. The purpose of these measurements was to determine the extent of thorium (and other heavy metal) contamination inside these pipes. The K-edge method is a noninvasive inspection technique that can provide accurate quantification of heavy metal contamination interior to an object. Of the seven drain lines inspected, one was found to have no significant contamination, three showed significant thorium deposits, two showed mercury contamination, and one line was found to contain mercury, thorium and uranium. The K-edge measurements were found to be consistent with readings from hand-held survey meters, and provided much greater detail on the location and amount of heavy metal contamination.

  1. High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits Print Wednesday, 28 June 2006 00:00 Many physiological processes initiated in response to external (extracellular) signals such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or light are regulated by a complex dance involving GTP-binding (G) proteins: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), proteins integral to the cell membrane, sense the signal and activate G proteins in the cellular

  2. Oxidative stress plays a role in high glucose-induced activation of pancreatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, Gyeong Ryul; Lee, Esder; Chun, Hyun-Ji; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Song, Ki-Ho

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: High glucose increased production of reactive oxygen species in cultured pancreatic stellate cells. High glucose facilitated the activation of these cells. Antioxidant treatment attenuated high glucose-induced activation of these cells. -- Abstract: The activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) is thought to be a potential mechanism underlying islet fibrosis, which may contribute to progressive ?-cell failure in type 2 diabetes. Recently, we demonstrated that antioxidants reduced islet fibrosis in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. However, there is no in vitro study demonstrating that high glucose itself can induce oxidative stress in PSCs. Thus, PSCs were isolated and cultured from Sprague Dawley rats, and treated with high glucose for 72 h. High glucose increased the production of reactive oxygen species. When treated with high glucose, freshly isolated PSCs exhibited myofibroblastic transformation. During early culture (passage 1), PSCs treated with high glucose contained an increased number of ?-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. During late culture (passages 25), PSCs treated with high glucose exhibited increases in cell proliferation, the expression of fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor, release of interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-? and collagen, and cell migration. Finally, the treatment of PSCs with high glucose and antioxidants attenuated these changes. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high glucose increased oxidative stress in primary rat PSCs, thereby facilitating the activation of these cells, while antioxidant treatment attenuated high glucose-induced PSC activation.

  3. High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits Print Many physiological processes initiated in response to external (extracellular) signals such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or light are regulated by a complex dance involving GTP-binding (G) proteins: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), proteins integral to the cell membrane, sense the signal and activate G proteins in the cellular cytoplasm, but enzymes such as G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) inhibit the activity

  4. WO3 and HPA Based System for Ultra-High Activity and Stability of Pt

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    catalysts in PEMFC Cathodes | Department of Energy WO3 and HPA Based System for Ultra-High Activity and Stability of Pt catalysts in PEMFC Cathodes WO3 and HPA Based System for Ultra-High Activity and Stability of Pt catalysts in PEMFC Cathodes These slides were presented at the 2010 New Fuel Cell Projects Meeting on September 28, 2010. 8_nrel_turner.pdf (4.39 MB) More Documents & Publications Catalysis Working Group Meeting: January 2015 DOE's Fuel Cell Catalyst R&D Activities

  5. High Specific Activity Sn-117m by Post Irradiation Isotope Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DAuria, John

    2015-04-16

    ElectroMagnetic Isotope Separation (EMIS) is used in the production of enriched stable isotopes. We demonstrated the feasibility of using EMIS to produce medium Specific Activity 117mSm using high purity 116Sn target material irradiated in a high flux reactor.

  6. Doped Contacts for High-Longevity Optically Activated, High Gain GaAs Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; O'MALLEY,MARTIN W.; HELGESON,WESLEY D.; BROWN,DARWIN JAMES; HJALMARSON,HAROLD P.; BACA,ALBERT G.; THORNTON,R.L.; DONALDSON,R.D.

    1999-12-17

    The longevity of high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) has been extended to over 100 million pulses. This was achieved by improving the ohmic contacts through the incorporation of a doped layer that is very effective in the suppression of filament formation, alleviating current crowding. Damage-free operation is now possible with virtually infinite expected lifetime at much higher current levels than before. The inherent damage-free current capacity of the bulk GaAs itself depends on the thickness of the doped layers and is at least 100A for a dopant diffusion depth of 4pm. The contact metal has a different damage mechanism and the threshold for damage ({approx}40A) is not further improved beyond a dopant diffusion depth of about 2{micro}m. In a diffusion-doped contact switch, the switching performance is not degraded when contact metal erosion occurs, unlike a switch with conventional contacts. This paper will compare thermal diffusion and epitaxial growth as approaches to doping the contacts. These techniques will be contrasted in terms of the fabrication issues and device characteristics.

  7. Activation Layer Stabilization of High Polarization Photocathodes in Sub-Optimal RF Gun Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory A. Mulhollan

    2010-11-16

    Specific activation recipes for bulk, 100 nm thick MBE grown and high polarization III-V photocathode material have been developed which mitigate the effects of exposure to background gasses. Lifetime data using four representative gasses were acquired for bulk GaAs, 100 nm unstrained GaAs and strained superlattice GaAs/GaAsP, all activated both with Cs and then Cs and Li (bi-alkali). Each photoemitter showed marked resilience improvement when activated using the bi-alkali recipe compared to the standard single alkali recipe. A dual alkali activation system at SLAC was constructed, baked and commissioned with the purpose of performing spin-polarization measurements on electrons emitted from the bi-alkali activated surfaces. An end station at SSRL was configured with the required sources for energy resolved photoemission measurements on the bi-alkali activated and CO2 dosed surfaces. The bi-alkali recipes were successfully implemented at SLAC/SSRL. Measurements at SLAC of the photoelectron spin-polarization from the modified activation surface showed no sign of a change in value compared to the standard activated material, i.e., no ill effects. Analysis of photoemission data indicates that the addition of Li to the activation layer results in a multi-layer structure. The presence of Li in the activation layer also acts as an inhibitor to CO2 absorption, hence better lifetimes in worse vacuum were achieved. The bi-alkali activation has been tested on O2 activated GaAs for comparison with NF3 activated surfaces. Comparable resilience to CO2 exposure was achieved for the O2 activated surface. An RF PECVD amorphous silicon growth system was modified to allow high temperature heat cleaning of GaAs substrates prior to film deposition. Growth versus thickness data were collected. Very thin amorphous silicon germanium layers were optimized to exhibit good behavior as an electron emitter. Growth of the amorphous silicon germanium films on the above substrates was fine tuned

  8. Innovative high pressure gas MEM's based neutron detector for ICF and active SNM detection.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Shawn Bryan; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew

    2007-12-01

    An innovative helium3 high pressure gas detection system, made possible by utilizing Sandia's expertise in Micro-electrical Mechanical fluidic systems, is proposed which appears to have many beneficial performance characteristics with regards to making these neutron measurements in the high bremsstrahlung and electrical noise environments found in High Energy Density Physics experiments and especially on the very high noise environment generated on the fast pulsed power experiments performed here at Sandia. This same system may dramatically improve active WMD and contraband detection as well when employed with ultrafast (10-50 ns) pulsed neutron sources.

  9. Moisture measurement for high-level-waste tanks using copper activation probe in cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Reeves, J.H.; Wilson, W.E.

    1995-10-01

    Laboratory tests have established the feasibility of using neutron activation of copper as a means for measuring the moisture in Hanford`s high-level radioactive waste tanks. The performance of the neutron activation technique to measure moisture is equivalent to the neutron moisture gauges or neutron logs commonly used in commercial well-logging. The principle difference is that the activation of {sup 64}Cu (t{sub 1/2} = 12.7 h) replaces the neutron counters used in moisture gauges or neutron logs. For application to highly radioactive waste tanks, the Cu activation technique has the advantage that it is insensitive to very strong gamma radiation fields or high temperatures. In addition, this technique can be deployed through tortuous paths or in confined spaces such as within the bore of a cone penetrometer. However, the results are not available in ``real-time``. The copper probe`s sensitivity to moisture was measured using simulated tank waste of known moisture content. This report describes the preparation of the simulated waste mixtures and the experiments performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the neutron activation technique. These experiments included determination of the calibration curve of count rate versus moisture content using a single copper probe, measurement of the calibration curve based on ``near-field `` to ``far-field`` counting ratios using a multiple probe technique, and profiling the activity of the copper probe as a function of the vertical height within a simulated waste barrel.

  10. Los Alamos National Laboratory ships last of high-activity drums to WIPP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ships last ff high-activity drums to WIPP Los Alamos National Laboratory ships last of high-activity drums to WIPP The November shipment was the final delivery this year to the Carlsbad plant, which is scheduled to undergo facility maintenance through mid-January. November 25, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy

  11. SU-E-T-543: Measurement of Neutron Activation From Different High Energy Varian Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thatcher, T; Madsen, S; Sudowe, R; Meigooni, A Soleimani

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Linear accelerators producing photons above 10 MeV may induce photonuclear reactions in high Z components of the accelerator. These liberated neutrons can then activate the structural components of the accelerator and other materials in the beam path through neutron capture reactions. The induced activity within the accelerator may contribute to additional dose to both patients and personnel. This project seeks to determine the total activity and activity per activated isotope following irradiation in different Varian accelerators at energies above 10 MeV. Methods: A Varian 21IX accelerator was used to irradiate a 30 cm × 30 cm × 20 cm solid water phantom with 15 MV x-rays. The phantom was placed at an SSD of 100 cm and at the center of a 20 cm × 20 cm field. Activation induced gamma spectra were acquired over a 5 minute interval after 1 and 15 minutes from completion of the irradiation. All measurements were made using a CANBERRA Falcon 5000 Portable HPGe detector. The majority of measurements were made in scattering geometry with the detector situated at 90° to the incident beam, 30 cm from the side of the phantom and approximately 10 cm from the top. A 5 minute background count was acquired and automatically subtracted from all subsequent measurements. Photon spectra were acquired for both open and MLC fields. Results: Based on spectral signatures, nuclides have been identified and their activities calculated for both open and MLC fields. Preliminary analyses suggest that activities from the activation products in the microcurie range. Conclusion: Activation isotopes have been identified and their relative activities determined. These activities are only gross estimates since efficiencies have not been determined for this source-detector geometry. Current efforts are focused on accurate determination of detector efficiencies using Monte Carlo calculations.

  12. Adaptive Detached Eddy Simulation of a High Lift Wing with Active Flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility flow around a high lift multi-element wing at maximum lift. Slat, flap and complex supporting structures (right sub figures) that create complex vorticity wakes are resolved in the adaptive, unstructured grid simulation (third subfigure is zoom on the surface of slat, main element and slat support). Adaptive Detached Eddy Simulation of a High Lift Wing with Active Flow Control PI Name: Kenneth Jansen PI Email: jansenke@colorado.edu Institution:

  13. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    school science (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect junior high/middle school science Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  14. A SYSTEMATIC SURVEY OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE EMISSION IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Brooks, David H.

    2012-11-10

    The recent analysis of observations taken with the EUV Imaging Spectrometer and X-Ray Telescope instruments on Hinode suggests that well-constrained measurements of the temperature distribution in solar active regions can finally be made. Such measurements are critical for constraining theories of coronal heating. Past analysis, however, has suffered from limited sample sizes and large uncertainties at temperatures between 5 and 10 MK. Here we present a systematic study of the differential emission measure distribution in 15 active region cores. We focus on measurements in the 'inter-moss' region, that is, the region between the loop footpoints, where the observations are easier to interpret. To reduce the uncertainties at the highest temperatures we present a new method for isolating the Fe XVIII emission in the AIA/SDO 94 A channel. The resulting differential emission measure distributions confirm our previous analysis showing that the temperature distribution in an active region core is often strongly peaked near 4 MK. We characterize the properties of the emission distribution as a function of the total unsigned magnetic flux. We find that the amount of high-temperature emission in the active region core is correlated with the total unsigned magnetic flux, while the emission at lower temperatures, in contrast, is inversely related. These results provide compelling evidence that high-temperature active region emission is often close to equilibrium, although weaker active regions may be dominated by evolving million degree loops in the core.

  15. Measuring bi-directional current through a field-effect transistor by virtue of drain-to-source voltage measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Steven Richard

    2006-12-26

    A method and apparatus for measuring current, and particularly bi-directional current, in a field-effect transistor (FET) using drain-to-source voltage measurements. The drain-to-source voltage of the FET is measured and amplified. This signal is then compensated for variations in the temperature of the FET, which affects the impedance of the FET when it is switched on. The output is a signal representative of the direction of the flow of current through the field-effect transistor and the level of the current through the field-effect transistor. Preferably, the measurement only occurs when the FET is switched on.

  16. High-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes using thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishide, Jun-ichi; Hiraga, Yasuhide; Nakanotani, Hajime; Adachi, Chihaya

    2014-06-09

    White organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) have attracted much attention recently, aimed for next-generation lighting sources because of their high potential to realize high electroluminescence efficiency, flexibility, and low-cost manufacture. Here, we demonstrate high-efficiency WOLED using red, green, and blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials as emissive dopants to generate white electroluminescence. The WOLED has a maximum external quantum efficiency of over 17% with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of (0.30, 0.38).

  17. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-07-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life.

  18. Determination of the crystalline structure of scale solids from the 16H evaporator gravity drain line to tank 38H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2015-10-01

    August 2015, scale solids from the 16H Evaporator Gravity Drain Line (GDL) to the Tank 38H were delivered to SRNL for analysis. The desired analytical goal was to identify and confirm the crystalline structure of the scale material and determine if the form of the aluminosilicate mineral was consistent with previous analysis of the scale material from the GDL.

  19. Designing a highly active soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase for efficient glucose biosensors and biofuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durand, Fabien; Stines-Chaumeil, Claire; Flexer, Victoria; Andre, Isabelle; CNRS, UMR5504, F-31400 Toulouse; INRA, UMR 792 Ingenierie des Systemes Biologiques et des Procedes, F-31400 Toulouse ; Mano, Nicolas

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} A new mutant of PQQ-GDH designed for glucose biosensors application. {yields} First mutant of PQQ-GDH with higher activity for D-glucose than the Wild type. {yields} Position N428 is a key point to increase the enzyme activity. {yields} Molecular modeling shows that the N428 C mutant displays a better interaction for PQQ than the WT. -- Abstract: We report for the first time a soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase that is twice more active than the wild type for glucose oxidation and was obtained by combining site directed mutagenesis, modelling and steady-state kinetics. The observed enhancement is attributed to a better interaction between the cofactor and the enzyme leading to a better electron transfer. Electrochemical experiments also demonstrate the superiority of the new mutant for glucose oxidation and make it a promising enzyme for the development of high-performance glucose biosensors and biofuel cells.

  20. FERROELECTRIC SWITCH FOR A HIGH-POWER Ka-BAND ACTIVE PULSE COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-12-18

    Results are presented for design of a high-power microwave switch for operation at 34.3 GHz, intended for use in an active RF pulse compressor. The active element in the switch is a ring of ferroelectric material, whose dielectric constant can be rapidly changed by application of a high-voltage pulse. As envisioned, two of these switches would be built into a pair of delay lines, as in SLED-II at SLAC, so as to allow 30-MW μs-length Ka-band pulses to be compressed in time by a factor-of-9 and multiplied in amplitude to generate 200 MW peak power pulses. Such high-power pulses could be used for testing and evaluation of high-gradient mm-wave accelerator structures, for example. Evaluation of the switch design was carried out with an X-band (11.43 GHz) prototype, built to incorporate all the features required for the Ka-band version.

  1. Apparatus for draining lower drywell pool water into suppresion pool in boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus which mitigates temperature stratification in the suppression pool water caused by hot water drained into the suppression pool from the lower drywell pool. The outlet of a spillover hole formed in the inner bounding wall of the suppression pool is connected to and in flow communication with one end of piping. The inlet end of the piping is above the water level in the suppression pool. The piping is routed down the vertical downcomer duct and through a hole formed in the thin wall separating the downcomer duct from the suppression pool water. The piping discharge end preferably has an elevation at or near the bottom of the suppression pool and has a location in the horizontal plane which is removed from the point where the piping first emerges on the suppression pool side of the inner bounding wall of the suppression pool. This enables water at the surface of the lower drywell pool to flow into and be discharged at the bottom of the suppression pool.

  2. Reversing the brain drain from Eastern European countries: the push' and pull' factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vizi, E.S. Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY )

    1993-01-01

    A mass departure of intellectuals is going on in countries such as Poland, Russia, the Ukraine, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania. There is growing concern about the increasing number of intellectuals who have left, or are going to leave, these countries. The main problem is not that scientists and intellectuals are leaving to go abroad to work under better conditions - that is certainly beneficial for science as a whole. Rather, the problem occurs when they do not return. The migration of professionals, even if it is only temporary, only reflects the operation of an international market for specialized human capital. However, a minimum level of human capital is indispensable to a country's economic development. A loss of skilled human resources will ultimately have a grave impact on the economy and jeopardize development programs. There are several reasons for this migration. Top-level scientists have always been drawn to countries that offer greater attractions - facilities, salaries, career prospects, satisfaction, prestige. Drastic changes are needed in the official policy toward R D in Eastern European Countries. The atmosphere must be changed to make it more favorable for intellectual work. In addition, international agencies and governments of developed countries should help these poorer countries to reverse the brain drain. A program of Science and Technology for stability should be created in order to provide direct assistance to basic and applied scientific and technical research in these countries. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. A highly-active and stable hydrogen evolution catalyst based on pyrite-structured cobalt phosphosulfide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Wen; Hu, Enyuan; Jiang, Hong; Xiang, Yingjie; Weng, Zhe; Li, Min; Fan, Qi; Yu, Xiqian; Altman, Eric I.; Wang, Hailiang

    2016-02-19

    Rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid structures comprising multiple components with distinctive functionalities are an intriguing and challenging approach to materials development for important energy applications like electrocatalytic hydrogen production, where there is a great need for cost effective, active and durable catalyst materials to replace the precious platinum. Here we report a structure design and sequential synthesis of a highly active and stable hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst material based on pyrite-structured cobalt phosphosulfide nanoparticles grown on carbon nanotubes. The three synthetic steps in turn render electrical conductivity, catalytic activity and stability to the material. The hybrid material exhibits superiormore » activity for hydrogen evolution, achieving current densities of 10 mA cm–2 and 100 mA cm–2 at overpotentials of 48 mV and 109 mV, respectively. Lastly, phosphorus substitution is crucial for the chemical stability and catalytic durability of the material, the molecular origins of which are uncovered by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and computational simulation.« less

  4. Single-molecule imaging at high fluorophore concentrations by local activation of dye

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geertsema, Hylkje J.; Mangel, Walter F.; Schulte, Aartje C.; Spenkelink, Lisanne M.; McGrath, William J.; Morrone, Seamus R.; Sohn, Jungsan; Robinson, Andrew; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2015-02-17

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach to observe biomolecular interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Detecting fluorescent signals from individual, labeled proteins above high levels of background fluorescence remains challenging, however. For this reason, the concentrations of labeled proteins in in vitro assays are often kept low compared to their in vivo concentrations. Here, we present a new fluorescence imaging technique by which single fluorescent molecules can be observed in real time at high, physiologically relevant concentrations. The technique requires a protein and its macromolecular substrate to be labeled each with a different fluorophore. Then, making use of short-distance energy-transfer mechanisms, the fluorescence from only those proteins bound to their substrate are selectively activated. This approach is demonstrated by labeling a DNA substrate with an intercalating stain, exciting the stain, and using energy transfer from the stain to activate the fluorescence of only those labeled DNA-binding proteins bound to the DNA. Such an experimental design allowed us to observe the sequence-independent interaction of Cy5-labeled interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with DNA and the sliding via one-dimensional diffusion of Cy5-labeled adenovirus protease (pVIc-AVP) on DNA in the presence of a background of hundreds of nM Cy5 fluorophore.

  5. Single-molecule imaging at high fluorophore concentrations by local activation of dye

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Geertsema, Hylkje J.; Mangel, Walter F.; Schulte, Aartje C.; Spenkelink, Lisanne M.; McGrath, William J.; Morrone, Seamus R.; Sohn, Jungsan; Robinson, Andrew; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2015-02-17

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach to observe biomolecular interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Detecting fluorescent signals from individual, labeled proteins above high levels of background fluorescence remains challenging, however. For this reason, the concentrations of labeled proteins in in vitro assays are often kept low compared to their in vivo concentrations. Here, we present a new fluorescence imaging technique by which single fluorescent molecules can be observed in real time at high, physiologically relevant concentrations. The technique requires a protein and its macromolecular substrate to be labeled each with a different fluorophore. Then, making use ofmore » short-distance energy-transfer mechanisms, the fluorescence from only those proteins bound to their substrate are selectively activated. This approach is demonstrated by labeling a DNA substrate with an intercalating stain, exciting the stain, and using energy transfer from the stain to activate the fluorescence of only those labeled DNA-binding proteins bound to the DNA. Such an experimental design allowed us to observe the sequence-independent interaction of Cy5-labeled interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with DNA and the sliding via one-dimensional diffusion of Cy5-labeled adenovirus protease (pVIc-AVP) on DNA in the presence of a background of hundreds of nM Cy5 fluorophore.« less

  6. US/Japan Cooperation in High Energy Physics. Review of activities, 1988--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-16

    The objective of the Implementing Arrangement was to further the energy programs of both countries by establishing a framework for cooperation in the field of high energy physics, including research, accelerator and detector instrumentation research and development, the fabrication and subsequent use of new experimental devices and facilities, and related joint efforts as may be mutually agreed. Over the years, this cooperation has been very effective and has strengthened the overall collaborative efforts and the understanding between our nations and their citizens. It has demonstrated to the world our ability to work together to attack difficult problems. High Energy Physics goes across national borders; the bond is clearly intellectual and common ground is shared for the benefit of all in a most effective manner. This review covers the activities conducted under the aegis of the US/Japan Committee for Cooperation in High Energy Physics during the past five years (1988--1993). This was the second such US review of the US/Japan cooperative activities; the first was held in 1987.

  7. Synthesis of high specific activity (1- sup 3 H)-Farnesyl pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saljoughian, M.; Morimoto, H.; Williams, P.G. . Chemical Biodynamics Div.)

    1992-03-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of tritiated farnesyl pyrophosphate with high specific activity is reported. E, E-Farnesol was oxidized to the corresponding aldehyde followed by reduction with lithium aluminum tritide (5% {sup 3}H) to give (1-{sup 3}H)-E, E-Farnesol. The specific radioactivity of the alcohol was determined from its triphenylsilane derivative, prepared under very mild conditions. The tritiated alcohol was phosphorylated by initial conversion to an allylic halide, and subsequent treatment of the halide with tris (tetra-n-butyl) ammonium hydrogen pyrophosphate. The hydride procedure followed in this work has advantages over existing methods for the synthesis of tritiated farnesyl pyrophosphate, giving a much higher radiochemical yield and offering the possibility of achieving theoretical specific activity levels when fully tritiated LiAlT{sub 4} is employed.

  8. High-Resolution Modeling to Assess Tropical Cyclone Activity in Future Climate Regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lackmann, Gary

    2013-06-10

    Applied research is proposed with the following objectives: (i) to determine the most likely level of tropical cyclone intensity and frequency in future climate regimes, (ii) to provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty in these predictions, and (iii) to improve understanding of the linkage between tropical cyclones and the planetary-scale circulation. Current mesoscale weather forecasting models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are capable of simulating the full intensity of tropical cyclones (TC) with realistic structures. However, in order to accurately represent both the primary and secondary circulations in these systems, model simulations must be configured with sufficient resolution to explicitly represent convection (omitting the convective parameterization scheme). Most previous numerical studies of TC activity at seasonal and longer time scales have not utilized such explicit convection (EC) model runs. Here, we propose to employ the moving nest capability of WRF to optimally represent TC activity on a seasonal scale using a downscaling approach. The statistical results of a suite of these high-resolution TC simulations will yield a realistic representation of TC intensity on a seasonal basis, while at the same time allowing analysis of the feedback that TCs exert on the larger-scale climate system. Experiments will be driven with analyzed lateral boundary conditions for several recent Atlantic seasons, spanning a range of activity levels and TC track patterns. Results of the ensemble of WRF simulations will then be compared to analyzed TC data in order to determine the extent to which this modeling setup can reproduce recent levels of TC activity. Next, the boundary conditions (sea-surface temperature, tropopause height, and thermal/moisture profiles) from the recent seasons will be altered in a manner consistent with various future GCM/RCM scenarios, but that preserves the large-scale shear and incipient disturbance

  9. Identification of Highly Active Fe Sites in (Ni,Fe)OOH for Electrocatalytic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Splitting | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Identification of Highly Active Fe Sites in (Ni,Fe)OOH for Electrocatalytic Water Splitting Thursday, April 30, 2015 Operando XAS showing structural changes at Fe dopants in Ni(OH)2/NiOOH host structure. Ni(OH)2 is oxidized into γ-NiOOH under OER operating conditions, inducing significant M-O bond contraction at both Ni and Fe sites. Theoretical modeling of site specific OER overpotentials using DFT+U reveals the origin of

  10. A general method for multimetallic platinum alloy nanowires as highly active and stable oxygen reduction catalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bu, Lingzheng; Ding, Jiabao; Yao, Jianlin; Huang, Xiaoqing; Guo, Shaojun; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang; Su, Dong; Zhu, Xing; Guo, Jun

    2015-10-13

    The production of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) with precise control over structures has always been a central target in various fields of chemistry and physics because the properties of NPs can be desirably manipulated by their structure.[1-4] There has been an intense search for high-performance noble metal NP catalysts particular for Pt.[5-9] Precious platinum (Pt) NPs are active catalysts for various heterogeneous reactions and show particularly superior performance in both the anodic oxidation reaction and the cathodic ORR in the fuel cells, but their rare content and high cost largely impede the practical application.[10-12] A potential strategy to address this tremendousmore » challenge is alloying Pt NPs with the transition metals (TM).[13-16]« less

  11. A general method for multimetallic platinum alloy nanowires as highly active and stable oxygen reduction catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bu, Lingzheng; Ding, Jiabao; Yao, Jianlin; Huang, Xiaoqing; Guo, Shaojun; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang; Su, Dong; Zhu, Xing; Guo, Jun

    2015-10-13

    The production of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) with precise control over structures has always been a central target in various fields of chemistry and physics because the properties of NPs can be desirably manipulated by their structure.[1-4] There has been an intense search for high-performance noble metal NP catalysts particular for Pt.[5-9] Precious platinum (Pt) NPs are active catalysts for various heterogeneous reactions and show particularly superior performance in both the anodic oxidation reaction and the cathodic ORR in the fuel cells, but their rare content and high cost largely impede the practical application.[10-12] A potential strategy to address this tremendous challenge is alloying Pt NPs with the transition metals (TM).[13-16]

  12. Highly efficient electroluminescence from a solution-processable thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wada, Yoshimasa; Kubo, Shosei; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kaji, Hironori; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-11-02

    We developed a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter, 2,4,6-tris(4-(9,9-dimethylacridan-10-yl)phenyl)-1,3,5-triazine (3ACR-TRZ), suitable for use in solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). When doped into 4,4′-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) host at 16 wt. %, 3ACR-TRZ showed a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 98%. Transient photoluminescence decay measurements of the 16 wt. % 3ACR-TRZ:CBP film confirmed that 3ACR-TRZ exhibits efficient TADF with a triplet-to-light conversion efficiency of 96%. This high conversion efficiency makes 3ACR-TRZ attractive as an emitting dopant in OLEDs. Using 3ACR-TRZ as an emitter, we fabricated a solution-processed OLED exhibiting a maximum external quantum efficiency of 18.6%.

  13. ASTATINE-211 RADIOCHEMISTRY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL RADIOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MICHAEL R. ZALUTSKY

    2012-08-08

    -labeled targeted radiotherapeutics currently is a daunting task. Our central hypothesis is that improvements in 211At radiochemistry are critically dependent on gaining an understanding of and compensating for the effects of radiolysis induced by 211At {alpha}-particles. Because of the widespread interest in labeling antibodies, antibody fragments and peptides with 211At, our proposed work plan will initially focus on reagents that we have developed for this purpose. Part of our strategy is the use of synthetic precursors immobilized on polymeric resins or perfluorous and triarylphosphonium supports. Their use could eliminate the need for a purification step to separate unreacted tin precursor from labeled product and hopefully provide a simple kit technology that could be utilized at other institutions. The specific aims of this project are: (1) To optimze methods for 211At production and isolation of 211At from cyclotron targets; (2) To develop convenient and reproducible methodologies for high activity level and high specific activity radiohalogenation of biomolecules with 211At; (3) to develop a procedure for extending the shelf-life of 211At beyond a few hours so that this radionuclide can be utilized at centers remote from its site of production; and (4) to work out high activity level synthesis methods for utilizing support immobilized tin precursors for 211At labeling. If we are successful in achieving our goals, the radiochemical methodologies that are developed could greatly facilitate the use of 211At-labeled targeted cancer therapeutics in patients, even at institutions that are distant from the few sites currently available for 211At production.

  14. Subnanometer platinum clusters highly active and selective catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vajda, S; Pellin, M. J.; Greeley, J. P.; Marshall, C. L.; Curtiss, L. A.; Ballentine, G. A.; Elam, J. W.; Catillon-Mucherie, S.; Redfern, P. C.; Mehmood, F.; Zapol, P.; Yale Univ.

    2009-03-01

    Small clusters are known to possess reactivity not observed in their bulk analogues, which can make them attractive for catalysis. Their distinct catalytic properties are often hypothesized to result from the large fraction of under-coordinated surface atoms. Here, we show that size-preselected Pt{sub 8-10} clusters stabilized on high-surface-area supports are 40-100 times more active for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane than previously studied platinum and vanadia catalysts, while at the same time maintaining high selectivity towards formation of propylene over by-products. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that under-coordination of the Pt atoms in the clusters is responsible for the surprisingly high reactivity compared with extended surfaces. We anticipate that these results will form the basis for development of a new class of catalysts by providing a route to bond-specific chemistry, ranging from energy-efficient and environmentally friendly synthesis strategies to the replacement of petrochemical feedstocks by abundant small alkanes.

  15. Gold-doped graphene: A highly stable and active electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolbov, Sergey Alcntara Ortigoza, Marisol

    2015-04-21

    In addressing the growing need of renewable and sustainable energy resources, hydrogen-fuel-cells stand as one of the most promising routes to transform the current energy paradigm into one that integrally fulfills environmental sustainability. Nevertheless, accomplishing this technology at a large scale demands to surpass the efficiency and enhance the cost-effectiveness of platinum-based cathodes, which catalyze the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this work, our first-principles calculations show that Au atoms incorporated into graphene di-vacancies form a highly stable and cost-effective electrocatalyst that is, at the same time, as or more (dependently of the dopant concentration) active toward ORR than the best-known Pt-based electrocatalysts. We reveal that partial passivation of defected-graphene by gold atoms reduces the reactivity of C dangling bonds and increases that of Au, thus optimizing them for catalyzing the ORR and yielding a system of high thermodynamic and electrochemical stabilities. We also demonstrate that the linear relation among the binding energies of the reaction intermediates assumed in computational high-throughput material screening does not hold, at least for this non-purely transition-metal material. We expect Au-doped graphene to finally overcome the cathode-related challenge hindering the realization of hydrogen-fuel cells as the leading means of powering transportation and portable devices.

  16. Preparation and immunoreactivity of high specific activity indium-111-DTPA labeled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) using ultrapure indium-111

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoghbi, S.S.; Neumann, R.D.; Gottschalk, A.

    1986-10-01

    The preparation of high-specific activity /sup 111/In-DTPA-MoAb without increasing the number of DTPA molecules per Ab was investigated. Instant thin layer chromatography was used to assay the relationship between labeling efficiencies and specific activities. With ultrapurified /sup 111/In, the specific activity of the radiolabeled MoAb approached the expected theoretic maximum of 100 muCi/microgram. The bioactivity of such high-specific activity preparation showed no degradation as measured by in vitro cell binding assay.

  17. Special Form Testing of Sealed Source Encapsulation for High-Alpha-Activity Actinide Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Oscar A

    2016-01-01

    In the United States all transportation of radioactive material is regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Beginning in 2008 a new type of sealed-source encapsulation package was developed and tested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These packages contain high-alpha-activity actinides and are regulated and transported in accordance with the requirements for DOT Class 7 hazardous material. The DOT provides specific regulations pertaining to special form encapsulation designs. The special form designation indicates that the encapsulated radioactive contents have a very low probability of dispersion even when subjected to significant structural events. The special form designs have been shown to simplify the delivery, transport, acceptance, and receipt processes. It is intended for these sealed-source encapsulations to be shipped to various facilities making it very advantageous for them to be certified as special form. To this end, DOT Certificates of Competent Authority (CoCAs) have been sought for the design suitable for containing high-alpha-activity actinide materials. This design consists of the high-alpha-activity material encapsulated within a triangular zirconia canister, referred to as a ZipCan, tile that is then enclosed by a spherical shell. The spherical shell design, with ZipCan tile inside, was tested for compliance with the special form regulations found in 49 CFR 173.469. The spherical enclosure was subjected to 9-m impact, 1 m percussion, and 10-minute thermal tests at the Packaging Evaluation Facility located at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, TN USA and operated by ORNL. Before and after each test, the test units were subjected to a helium leak check and a bubble test. The ZipCan tiles and core were also subjected to the tests required for ISO 2919:2012(E), including a Class IV impact test and heat test and subsequently subjected to helium leakage rate tests [49 CFR 173.469(a)(4)(i)]. The impact

  18. Pu-ZR Alloy high-temperature activation-measurement foil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCuaig, Franklin D.

    1977-08-02

    A nuclear reactor fuel alloy consists essentially of from slightly greater than 7 to about 4 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, and is characterized in that the alloy is castable and is rollable to thin foils. A preferred embodiment of about 7 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, has a melting point substantially above the melting point of plutonium, is rollable to foils as thin as 0.0005 inch thick, and is compatible with cladding material when repeatedly cycled to temperatures above 650.degree. C. Neutron flux densities across a reactor core can be determined with a high-temperature activation-measurement foil which consists of a fuel alloy foil core sandwiched and sealed between two cladding material jackets, the fuel alloy foil core being a 7 w/o zirconium, plutonium foil which is from 0.005 to 0.0005 inch thick.

  19. Determination of uranium and thorium in semiconductor memory materials by high fluence neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyer, F.F.; Emery, J.F.; Northcutt, K.J.; Scott, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium and thorium were measured by absolute neutron activation analysis in high-purity materials used to manufacture semiconductor memories. The main thrust of the study concerned aluminum and aluminum alloys used as sources for thin film preparation, evaporated metal films, and samples from the Czochralski silicon crystal process. Average levels of U and Th were found for the source alloys to be approx. 65 and approx. 45 ppB, respectively. Levels of U and Th in silicon samples fell in the range of a few parts per trillion. Evaporated metal films contained about 1 ppB U and Th, but there is some question about these results due to the possibility of contamination.

  20. Activation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emergency Response Services Activated At the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CARLSBAD, N.M., 252014, 11:43 a.m. (MDT) - Emergency response services have been activated at the Waste...

  1. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  2. Investigation of the Highly Active Manganese Superoxide Dismutase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabelli, D.E.; Barnese, K.; Sheng, Y.; Stich, T.A.; Gralla, E.B.; Britt, R.D.; Valentine, J.S.

    2010-09-15

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) from different species differs in its efficiency in removing high concentrations of superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}), due to different levels of product inhibition. Human MnSOD exhibits a substantially higher level of product inhibition than the MnSODs from bacteria. In order to investigate the mechanism of product inhibition and whether it is a feature common to eukaryotic MnSODs, we purified MnSOD from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScMnSOD). It was a tetramer with 0.6 equiv of Mn per monomer. The catalytic activity of ScMnSOD was investigated by pulse radiolysis and compared with human and two bacterial (Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans) MnSODs. To our surprise, ScMnSOD most efficiently facilitates removal of high concentrations of O{sub 2}{sup -} among these MnSODs. The gating value k{sub 2}/k{sub 3} that characterizes the level of product inhibition scales as ScMnSOD > D. radiodurans MnSOD > E. coli MnSOD > human MnSOD. While most MnSODs rest as the oxidized form, ScMnSOD was isolated in the Mn{sup 2+} oxidation state as revealed by its optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. This finding poses the possibility of elucidating the origin of product inhibition by comparing human MnSOD with ScMnSOD.

  3. THE INTEGRAL HIGH-ENERGY CUT-OFF DISTRIBUTION OF TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malizia, A.; Molina, M.; Bassani, L.; Stephen, J. B.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; Bird, A. J.

    2014-02-20

    In this Letter we present the primary continuum parameters, the photon index Γ, and the high-energy cut-off E {sub c} of 41 type-1 Seyfert galaxies extracted from the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) complete sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We performed broadband (0.3-100 keV) spectral analysis by simultaneously fitting the soft and hard X-ray spectra obtained by XMM and INTEGRAL/IBIS-Swift/BAT, respectively, in order to investigate the general properties of these parameters, in particular their distribution and mean values. We find a mean photon index of 1.73 with a standard deviation of 0.17 and a mean high-energy cut-off of 128 keV with a standard deviation of 46 keV for the whole sample. This is the first time that the cut-off energy is constrained in such a large number of AGNs. We have 26 measurements of the cut-off, which corresponds to 63% of the entire sample, distributed between 50 and 200 keV. There are a further 11 lower limits mostly below 300 keV. Using the main parameters of the primary continuum, we have been able to obtain the actual physical parameters of the Comptonizing region, i.e., the plasma temperature kT {sub e} from 20 to 100 keV and the optical depth τ < 4. Finally, with the high signal-to-noise ratio spectra starting to come from NuSTAR it will soon be possible to better constrain the cut-off values in many AGNs, allowing the determination of more physical models and thus better understand the continuum emission and geometry of the region surrounding black holes.

  4. Millimeter-Wave High Level and Low Activity Waste Glass Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woskov, Paul P.

    2005-06-01

    The primary objectives of the current research is to develop on-line sensors for characterizing molten glass in high-level and low-activity waste glass melters using millimeter-wave (MMW) technology and to use this technology to do novel research of melt dynamics. Existing and planned waste glass melters lack sophisticated diagnostics due to the hot, corrosive, and radioactive melter environments. Without process control diagnostics the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at Hanford operate by a feed forward process control scheme that relies on predictive models with large uncertainties. This scheme severely limits production throughput and waste loading. Also operations at DWPF have shown susceptibility to anomalies such as foaming and combustion gas build up, which can seriously disrupt operations. Future waste chemistries will be even more challenging. The scientific goals of this project are to develop new reliable on-line monitoring capability for important glass process parameters such as temperature profiles, emissivity, density, viscosity, and other characteristics using the unique advantages of millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation. Once successfully developed and implemented, significant cost savings would be realized in melter operations by increasing production through put, reduced storage volumes (through higher waste loading), and reduced risks (prevention or mitigation of anomalies).

  5. Millimeter-Wave Measurements of High Level and Low Level Activity Glass Melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woskov, Paul P.; Sundaram, S.K.; Daniel, William E., Jr.

    2006-06-01

    The primary objectives of the current research is to develop on-line sensors for characterizing molten glass in high-level and low-activity waste glass melters using millimeter-wave (MMW) technology and to use this technology to do novel research of melt dynamics. Existing and planned waste glass melters lack sophisticated diagnostics due to the hot, corrosive, and radioactive melter environments. Without process control diagnostics, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at Hanford operate by a feed forward process control scheme that relies on predictive models with large uncertainties. This scheme severely limits production throughput and waste loading. Also operations at DWPF have shown susceptibility to anomalies such as pouring, foaming, and combustion gas build up, which can seriously disrupt operations. Future waste chemistries will be even more challenging. The scientific goals of this project are to develop new reliable on-line monitoring capability for important glass process parameters such as temperature profiles, emissivity, density, viscosity, and other characteristics using the unique advantages of millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation that can be eventually implemented in the operating melters. Once successfully developed and implemented, significant cost savings would be realized in melter operations by increasing production through put, reduced storage volumes (through higher waste loading), and reduced risks (prevention or mitigation of anomalies).

  6. Risk assessment of K Basin twelve-inch and four-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-06-23

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rate which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. Five four-inch drain valves are located in the north and south loadout pits (NLOP and SLOP), the weasel pit, the technical viewing pit, and the discharge chute pit. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations indicate that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor for the twelve-inch drain valve and that much less of the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor for the five four-inch drain valves. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this analysis are to: (1) evaluate the likelihood of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin and the five four-inch drain valves located in the pits from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the likelihood of exceeding a specific consequence (initial leak rate) from a damaged valve. The analysis process is a risk-based uncertainty analysis where each variable is modeled using available information and engineering judgement. The uncertainty associated with each variable is represented by a probability distribution (probability density function). Uncertainty exists because of the inherent randomness

  7. High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:59pm Addthis Illustration of a high-intensity discharge (HID) lIllustration amp. The lamp is a tall cylindrical shape, and a cutout of the outer tube shows the materials inside. A long, thin cylinder called the arc tube runs through the lamp between two electrodes. The space around the arc tube is labeled as a vacuum. High-intensity discharge (HID) lighting can provide high efficacy and long

  8. Performance of a drain-back solar heating and hot water system with auxiliary heat pump. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karaki, S.

    1984-03-01

    The principal objective of the project was to test and evaluate the BNL collectors in a space heating system. When the BNL collectors delaminated under stagnation conditions, they were replaced with the Chamberlain collectors which were previously used on solar house III, and tests were continued to evaluate performance of a drain-back system. Results leading to the following conclusions are discussed. (1) The Chamberlain collectors have deteriorated in performance compared to previous seasons. Where daily efficiency of 41% were attained in 1978 to 1979 and 1979 to 1980, efficiency was 37%. System efficiency of 29% compares to 30% in prior years. (2) Solar contribution to DHW heating is low, and is probably the result of the artificially imposed load profile and the low recovery rate of the double-wall heat exchanger. (3) System efficiency can be improved by reducing thermal losses from storage.

  9. Highly active non-PGM catalysts prepared from metal organic frameworks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barkholtz, Heather M.; Chong, Lina; Kaiser, Zachary B.; Xu, Tao; Liu, Di -Jia

    2015-06-11

    Finding inexpensive alternatives to platinum group metals (PGMs) is essential for reducing the cost of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Numerous materials have been investigated as potential replacements of Pt, of which the transition metal and nitrogen-doped carbon composites (TM/Nx/C) prepared from iron doped zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are among the most active ones in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction based on recent studies. In this report, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of ZIF-based TM/Nx/C composites can be substantially improved through optimization of synthesis and post-treatment processing conditions. Ultimately, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalytic activity must be demonstratedmore » in membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) of fuel cells. The process of preparing MEAs using ZIF-based non-PGM electrocatalysts involves many additional factors which may influence the overall catalytic activity at the fuel cell level. Evaluation of parameters such as catalyst loading and perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer to catalyst ratio were optimized. Our overall efforts to optimize both the catalyst and MEA construction process have yielded impressive ORR activity when tested in a fuel cell system.« less

  10. Highly active non-PGM catalysts prepared from metal organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barkholtz, Heather M.; Chong, Lina; Kaiser, Zachary B.; Xu, Tao; Liu, Di -Jia

    2015-06-11

    Finding inexpensive alternatives to platinum group metals (PGMs) is essential for reducing the cost of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Numerous materials have been investigated as potential replacements of Pt, of which the transition metal and nitrogen-doped carbon composites (TM/Nx/C) prepared from iron doped zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are among the most active ones in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction based on recent studies. In this report, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of ZIF-based TM/Nx/C composites can be substantially improved through optimization of synthesis and post-treatment processing conditions. Ultimately, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalytic activity must be demonstrated in membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) of fuel cells. The process of preparing MEAs using ZIF-based non-PGM electrocatalysts involves many additional factors which may influence the overall catalytic activity at the fuel cell level. Evaluation of parameters such as catalyst loading and perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer to catalyst ratio were optimized. Our overall efforts to optimize both the catalyst and MEA construction process have yielded impressive ORR activity when tested in a fuel cell system.

  11. Low-Activity Waste and High-Level Waste Feed Processing Data Quality Objectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patello, Gertrude K. ); Truex, Michael J. ); Wiemers, Karyn D.

    1999-04-15

    fallback positions are realized or eliminated early in the planning process. This DQO replaces earlier separate low-activity waste feed data quality objectives (Truex and Wiemers 1998) and high-level waste feed data quality objectives documents (Wiemers et,al. 1998). This combined DQO updates the data requirements based on the TWRS Privatization Contact issued August 1998 (DOE-RL 1998). Regulatory compliance for TWRS Privatization is addressed in a separate DQO (Wiemers et al. 1998). Additional characterization of the Phase I waste feed will be performed by DOE's contractors: the M&I contractor and the private contractor. Characterization for feed certification and waste acceptance will be completed before transfer of the feed to the private contractor facility. Characterization requirements for staged feed will be identified in other DQOS consistent with the Feed Certification Plans, ICDS 19 and 20, and applicable permits. Newly obtained analytical data and contract changes that have become available in parallel with or subsequent to preparation of this DQO update will be assessed and incorporated into the data needs optimization in the next revision of this DQO. Data available at the time of the tank waste sample request will be considered in the development of the Tank Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  12. Relaxed active space: Fixing tailored-CC with high order coupled cluster. II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melnichuk, Ann Bartlett, Rodney J.

    2014-02-14

    Due to the steep increase in computational cost with the inclusion of higher-connected cluster operators in coupled-cluster applications, it is usually not practical to use such methods for larger systems or basis sets without an active space partitioning. This study generates an active space subject to unambiguous statistical criteria to define a space whose size permits treatment at the CCSDT level. The automated scheme makes it unnecessary for the user to judge whether a chosen active space is sufficient to correctly solve the problem. Two demanding applications are presented: twisted ethylene and the transition states for the bicyclo[1,1,0]butane isomerization. As bi-radicals both systems require at least a CCSDT level of theory for quantitative results, for the geometries and energies.

  13. Adaptive Detached Eddy Simulation of a High-Lift Wing with Active Flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Full span view of the flow past a vertical tail assembly of a commercial aircraft with active flow control at Re=360,000. Full span view of the flow past a vertical tail assembly of a commercial aircraft with active flow control at Re=360,000. This picture highlights the root and tip vortex along with the turbulent structures in the wake of a deflected rudder through isosurface of instantaneous Q criterion colored by speed on a locally adapted

  14. Adaptive Detached Eddy Simulation of a High Lift Wing with Active...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vorticity contours colored by speed from a detached eddy simulation of flow around a high lift multi-element wing at maximum lift Vorticity contours colored by speed from a...

  15. Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk Materials and Device Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2011 Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop including an overview about Fraunhofer IPM, new funding situation in Germany, high temperature material and modules, energy-autarkic sensors, and thermoelectric metrology.

  16. Adaptive Detached Eddy Simulation of a High Lift Wing with Active Flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility flow around a high lift multi-element wing at maximum lift Vorticity contours colored by speed from a detached eddy simulation of flow around a high lift multi-element wing at maximum lift. Slat, flap and complex supporting structures (right sub figures) that create complex vorticity wakes are resolved in the adaptive, unstructured grid simulation (third subfigure is zoom on the surface of slat, main element and slat support). Kenneth Jansen,

  17. A High-Conduction Ge Substituted Li3AsS4 Solid Electrolyte with Exceptional Low Activation Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahu, Gayatri [ORNL; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan [ORNL; Li, Juchuan [ORNL; Chen, Yan [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes show potential to enable high-energy-density secondary batteries and offer distinctive safety features as an advantage over traditional liquid electrolytes. Achieving the combination of high ionic conductivity, low activation energy, and outstanding electrochemical stability in crystalline solid electrolytes is a challenge for the synthesis of novel solid electrolytes. Herein we report an exceptionally low activation energy (Ea) and high room temperature superionic conductivity via facile aliovalent substitution of Li3AsS4 by Ge, which increased the conductivity by two orders of magnitude as compared to the parent compound. The composition Li3.334Ge0.334As0.666S4 has a high ionic conductivity of 1.12 mScm-1 at 27oC. Local Li+ hopping in this material is accompanied by distinctive low activation energy Ea of 0.17 eV being the lowest of Li+ solid conductors. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the efficacy of surface passivation of solid electrolyte to achieve compatibility with metallic lithium electrodes.

  18. The Development of the Electrically Controlled High Power RF Switch and Its Application to Active RF Pulse Compression Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jiquan; /SLAC

    2009-03-20

    In the past decades, there has been increasing interest in pulsed high power RF sources for building high-gradient high-energy particle accelerators. Passive RF pulse compression systems have been used in many applications to match the available RF sources to the loads requiring higher RF power but a shorter pulse. Theoretically, an active RF pulse compression system has the advantage of higher efficiency and compactness over the passive system. However, the key component for such a system an element capable of switching hundreds of megawatts of RF power in a short time compared to the compressed pulse width is still an open problem. In this dissertation, we present a switch module composed of an active window based on the bulk effects in semiconductor, a circular waveguide three-port network and a movable short plane, with the capability to adjust the S-parameters before and after switching. The RF properties of the switch module were analyzed. We give the scaling laws of the multiple-element switch systems, which allow the expansion of the system to a higher power level. We present a novel overmoded design for the circular waveguide three-port network and the associated circular-to-rectangular mode-converter. We also detail the design and synthesis process of this novel mode-converter. We demonstrate an electrically controlled ultra-fast high power X-band RF active window built with PIN diodes on high resistivity silicon. The window is capable of handling multi-megawatt RF power and can switch in 2-300ns with a 1000A current driver. A low power active pulse compression experiment was carried out with the switch module and a 375ns resonant delay line, obtaining 8 times compression gain with a compression ratio of 20.

  19. High active nitrogen flux growth of GaN by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McSkimming, Brian M. Speck, James S.; Chaix, Catherine

    2015-09-15

    In the present study, the authors report on a modified Riber radio frequency (RF) nitrogen plasma source that provides active nitrogen fluxes more than 30 times higher than those commonly used for plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) growth of gallium nitride (GaN) and thus a significantly higher growth rate than has been previously reported. GaN films were grown using N{sub 2} gas flow rates between 5 and 25 sccm while varying the plasma source's RF forward power from 200 to 600 W. The highest growth rate, and therefore the highest active nitrogen flux, achieved was ∼7.6 μm/h. For optimized growth conditions, the surfaces displayed a clear step-terrace structure with an average RMS roughness (3 × 3 μm) on the order of 1 nm. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy impurity analysis demonstrates oxygen and hydrogen incorporation of 1 × 10{sup 16} and ∼5 × 10{sup 17}, respectively. In addition, the authors have achieved PAMBE growth of GaN at a substrate temperature more than 150 °C greater than our standard Ga rich GaN growth regime and ∼100 °C greater than any previously reported PAMBE growth of GaN. This growth temperature corresponds to GaN decomposition in vacuum of more than 20 nm/min; a regime previously unattainable with conventional nitrogen plasma sources. Arrhenius analysis of the decomposition rate shows that samples with a flux ratio below stoichiometry have an activation energy greater than decomposition of GaN in vacuum while samples grown at or above stoichiometry have decreased activation energy. The activation energy of decomposition for GaN in vacuum was previously determined to be ∼3.1 eV. For a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼1.5, this activation energy was found to be ∼2.8 eV, while for a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼0.5, it was found to be ∼7.9 eV.

  20. Summary Report on FY12 Small-Scale Test Activities High Temperature Electrolysis Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James O'Brien

    2012-09-01

    This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during JanuaryAugust 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-Scale Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the activities described in this report represent a much smaller effort.

  1. Evidence of High Electrocatalytic Activity of Molybdenum Carbide Supported Platinum Nanorafts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elbaz, Lior; Phillips, Jonathan; Artyushkova, Kateryna; More, Karren Leslie; Brosha, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable new supported metal catalyst structure on Mo2C substrates, ‘rafts’ of platinum consisting of less than 6 atoms, was synthesized and found to be catalytically active electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction. A novel catalytic synthesis method: Reduction-Expansion-Synthesis of Catalysts (RES-C), from rapid heating of dry mixture of solid precursors of molybdenum, platinum and urea in an inert gas environment, led to the creation of unique platinum Nanorafts on Mo2C. The Pt Nanorafts offer a complete utilization of the Pt atoms for electrocatalysis with no “hidden” atoms. This structure is strongly affected by its interaction with the substrate as was observedmore » by XPS. In this work, we show for the first time, evidence of electrocatalytic activity with such small clusters of non-crystalline Pt atoms as catalysts for oxygen reduction. Electrochemical half-cell characterization shows that this structure permit more efficient utilization of platinum, with mass activity conservatively measured to be 50% that of platinum particles generated using traditional approaches. These novel material may dramatically enhance stability relative to the commercial Pt/carbon catalysts.« less

  2. The behavior of measured SEU at low altitude during periods of high solar activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harboe-Sorensen, R.; Daly, E.J.; Adams, L. ); Underwood, C.I.; Ward, J. )

    1990-12-01

    The UoSAT-2 spacecraft, launched in 1984 into a polar orbit of altitude 700 km has a number of systems which have been observed to experience single-event upsets at significant rates. Geographically, the upsets are strongly concentrated in the South-Atlantic Anomaly region from which it has been deduced that in this region they are due to the products of proton-induced nuclear reactions in the devices. During the year 1989, several solar flare events occurred which elevated the upset rates at high latitudes. The October 19 event, in particular, resulted in very high high-latitude upset rates. The authors separate and analyze these data, deriving upset rates for the various memory devices under quiet cosmic-ray, South Atlantic anomaly and solar flare conditions. The authors report on the results of the heavy ion and proton testing of UoSAT memories which were undertaken in order to compare predictions and observations.

  3. Conformable actively multiplexed high-density surface electrode array for brain interfacing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, John; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan

    2015-01-13

    Provided are methods and devices for interfacing with brain tissue, specifically for monitoring and/or actuation of spatio-temporal electrical waveforms. The device is conformable having a high electrode density and high spatial and temporal resolution. A conformable substrate supports a conformable electronic circuit and a barrier layer. Electrodes are positioned to provide electrical contact with a brain tissue. A controller monitors or actuates the electrodes, thereby interfacing with the brain tissue. In an aspect, methods are provided to monitor or actuate spatio-temporal electrical waveform over large brain surface areas by any of the devices disclosed herein.

  4. High-Performance Organic Field-Effect Transistors with Dielectric and Active Layers Printed Sequentially by Ultrasonic Spraying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Ming [ORNL; Sanjib, Das [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Keum, Jong Kahk [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Gu, Gong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    High-performance, flexible organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are reported with PVP dielectric and TIPS-PEN active layers sequentially deposited by ultrasonic spray-coating on plastic substrate. OFETs fabricated in ambient air with a bottom-gate/top-contact geometry are shown to achieve on/off ratios of >104 and mobilities as high as 0.35 cm2/Vs. These rival the characteristics of the best solution-processible small molecule FETs fabricated by other fabrication methods such as drop casting and ink-jet printing.

  5. Gamma/neutron time-correlation for special nuclear material detection – Active stimulation of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paff, Marc G.; Monterial, Mateusz; Marleau, Peter; Kiff, Scott; Nowack, Aaron; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2014-06-21

    A series of simulations and experiments were undertaken to explore and evaluate the potential for a novel new technique for fissile material detection and characterization, the timecorrelated pulse-height (TCPH) method, to be used concurrent with active stimulation of potential nuclear materials. In previous work TCPH has been established as a highly sensitive method for the detection and characterization of configurations of fissile material containing Plutonium in passive measurements. By actively stimulating fission with the introduction of an external radiation source, we have shown that TCPH is also an effective method of detecting and characterizing configurations of fissile material containing Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The TCPH method is shown to be robust in the presence of the proper choice of external radiation source. An evaluation of potential interrogation sources is presented.

  6. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, R.; Schoessow, P.; Talaga, R.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of July 1, 1994--December 31, 1994. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  7. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  8. High glucose induces activation of NF-κB inflammatory signaling through IκBα sumoylation in rat mesangial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Wei; Department of Endocrinology, The People’s Hospital of Xindu, Xindu, Sichuang, 610500 ; Xu, Ling; Zhou, Xueqin; Department of Endocrinology, The People’s Hospital of Leshan, Sichuang ; Gao, Chenlin; Yang, Maojun; Chen, Guo; Zhu, Jianhua; Jiang, Lan; Gan, Huakui; Gou, Fang; Feng, Hong; Peng, Juan; Xu, Yong

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •The expression of SUMO1, SUMO2/3 under high glucose was obviously enhanced. •High glucose induced degradation of IκBα and activation of NF-κB pathway. •Sumoylation of IκBα in high glucose were significantly decreased. •The proteasome inhibitor MG132 could partially revert the degradation of IκBα. -- Abstract: The posttranslational modification of proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) has emerged as an important regulatory mechanism for the alteration of protein activity, stability, and cellular localization. The latest research demonstrates that sumoylation is extensively involved in the regulation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway, which plays a critical role in the regulation of inflammation and contributes to fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the role of sumoylation in the regulation of NF-κB signaling in DN is still unclear. In the present study, we cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) stimulated by high glucose and divided GMCs into six groups: normal glucose group (5.6 mmol/L), high glucose groups (10, 20, and 30 mmol/L), mannitol group (i.e., osmotic control group), and MG132 intervention group (30 mmol/L glucose with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor). The expression of SUMO1, SUMO2/3, IκBα, NF-κBp65, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) was measured by Western blot, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and indirect immunofluorescence laser scanning confocal microscopy. The interaction between SUMO1, SUMO2/3, and IκBα was observed by co-immunoprecipitation. The results showed that the expression of SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 was dose- and time-dependently enhanced by high glucose (p < 0.05). However, the expression of IκBα sumoylation in high glucose was significantly decreased compared with the normal glucose group (p < 0.05). The expression of IκBα was dose- and time-dependently decreased, and NF-κBp65 and MCP-1 were increased under high glucose conditions, which

  9. Facile route to hierarchical silver microstructures with high catalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Sasa; Wang, Wei Tan, Fatang; Gu, Jian; Qiao, Xueliang; Chen, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile route was developed to prepare hierarchical silver microstructures. • The shape and size of secondary units can be tailed by varying reaction conditions. • Hierarchical silver microstructures have excellent catalytic activity. • The morphology and crystallinity of silver particles affect the catalytic activity. - Abstract: A facile, cost-effective and environmentally friendly route was developed to synthesize hierarchical silver microstructures consisting of different shaped secondary units through reducing concentrated silver nitrate with ascorbic acid in the absence of any surfactant. The as-obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The investigation on the morphology evolution revealed that the molar ratio of ascorbic acid to silver nitrate was critical to control the shape of secondary structures. The length of plate-like secondary structures which composed hierarchical silver particles could be controlled by changing the reactant concentrations, and it had a key relationship with the catalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol by NaBH{sub 4}. The catalytic activity of these surfactant-free silver microstructures was about ten times higher than that of silver nanoparticles, and even comparable to that of gold nanoplates, which indicates that the as-obtained silver microstructures are very promising candidates for the catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol due to the simple synthesis route and high catalytic activity.

  10. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME ZERO: OVERVIEW AND COMMERCIAL PATH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  11. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME TWO: INNOVATION & COST OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  12. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME ONE: PRELIMINARY DESIGN REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.; Chow, Ray; Nordenholz, Thomas R.; Wamble, John Lee

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  13. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME THREE: MARKET & TEAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  14. Volume 1, 1st Edition, Multiscale Tailoring of Highly Active and Stable Nanocomposite Catalysts, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veser, Goetz

    2009-08-31

    Nanomaterials have gained much attention as catalysts since the discovery of exceptional CO oxidation activity of nanoscale gold by Haruta. However, many studies avoid testing nanomaterials at the high-temperatures relevant to reactions of interest for the production of clean energy (T > 700C). The generally poor thermal stability of catalytically active noble metals has thus far prevented significant progress in this area. We have recently overcome the poor thermal stability of nanoparticles by synthesizing a platinum barium-hexaaluminate (Pt-BHA) nanocomposite which combines the high activity of noble metal nanoparticles with the thermal stability of hexaaluminates. This Pt-BHA nanocomposite demonstrates excellent activity, selectivity, and long-term stability in CPOM. Pt-BHA is anchored onto a variety of support structures in order to improve the accessibility, safety, and reactivity of the nanocatalyst. Silica felts prove to be particularly amenable to this supporting procedure, with the resulting supported nanocatalyst proving to be as active and stable for CPOM as its unsupported counterpart. Various pre-treatment conditions are evaluated to determine their effectiveness in removing residual surfactant from the active nanoscale platinum particles. The size of these particles is measured across a wide temperature range, and the resulting plateau of stability from 600-900C can be linked to a particle caging effect due to the structure of the supporting ceramic framework. The nanocomposites are used to catalyze the combustion of a dilute methane stream, and the results indicate enhanced activity for both Pt-BHA as well as ceria-doped BHA, as well as an absence of internal mass transfer limitations at the conditions tested. In water-gas shift reaction, nanocomposite Pt-BHA shows stability during prolonged WGS reaction and no signs of deactivation during start-up/shut-down of the reactor. The chemical and thermal stability, low molecular weight, and wealth of

  15. PT AND PT/NI "NEEDLE" ELETROCATALYSTS ON CARBON NANOTUBES WITH HIGH ACTIVITY FOR THE ORR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colon-Mercado, H.

    2011-11-10

    Platinum and platinum/nickel alloy electrocatalysts supported on graphitized (gCNT) or nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (nCNT) are prepared and characterized. Pt deposition onto carbon nanotubes results in Pt 'needle' formations that are 3.5 nm in diameter and {approx}100 nm in length. Subsequent Ni deposition and heat treatment results in PtNi 'needles' with an increased diameter. All Pt and Pt/Ni materials were tested as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The Pt and Pt/Ni catalysts showed excellent performance for the ORR, with the heat treated PtNi/gCNT (1.06 mA/cm{sup 2}) and PtNi/nCNT (0.664 mA/cm{sup 2}) showing the highest activity.

  16. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Pyatina, T.

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  17. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Pyatina, T.

    2014-11-14

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  18. Current Activities Assessing Butt Fusion Joint Integrity in High Density Polyethylene Piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Doctor, Steven R.; Denslow, Kayte M.

    2012-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, conducted initial studies to evaluate the effectiveness of nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing for assessing butt fusion joint integrity in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The work provided insightful information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques for detecting lack of fusion (LOF) conditions in the fusion joints. HDPE has been installed on a limited basis in American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Class 3, buried piping systems at several operating U.S. nuclear power plants and has been proposed for use in new construction. A comparison was made between the results from ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive examinations and the results from mechanical destructive evaluations, specifically the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test, for determining joint integrity. The data comparison revealed that none of the NDE techniques detected all of the lack-of-fusion conditions that were revealed by the destructive tests. Follow-on work has recently been initiated at PNNL to accurately characterize the NDE responses from machined flaws of varying size and location in PE 4710 materials as well as the LOF condition. This effort is directed at quantifying the ability of volumetric NDE techniques to detect flaws in relation to the critical flaw size associated with joint integrity. A status of these latest investigations is presented.

  19. Lead Research and Development Activity for DOE's High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program (Topic 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Fenton, PhD; Darlene Slattery, PhD; Nahid Mohajeri, PhD

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Energy’s High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program was begun in 2006 with the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) as the lead organization. During the first three years of the program, FSEC was tasked with developing non-Nafion® proton exchange membranes with improved conductivity for fuel cells. Additionally, FSEC was responsible for developing protocols for the measurement of in-plane conductivity, providing conductivity measurements for the other funded teams, developing a method for through-plane conductivity and organizing and holding semiannual meetings of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG). The FSEC membrane research focused on the development of supported poly[perfluorosulfonic acid] (PFSA) – Teflon membranes and a hydrocarbon membrane, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The fourth generation of the PFSA membrane (designated FSEC-4) came close to, but did not meet, the Go/No-Go milestone of 0.1 S/cm at 50% relative humidity at 120 °C. In-plane conductivity of membranes provided by the funded teams was measured and reported to the teams and DOE. Late in the third year of the program, DOE used this data and other factors to decide upon the teams to continue in the program. The teams that continued provided promising membranes to FSEC for development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) that could be tested in an operating fuel cell. FSEC worked closely with each team to provide customized support. A logic flow chart was developed and discussed before MEA fabrication or any testing began. Of the five teams supported, by the end of the project, membranes from two of the teams were easily manufactured into MEAs and successfully characterized for performance. One of these teams exceeded performance targets, while the other requires further optimization. An additional team developed a membrane that shows great promise for significantly reducing membrane costs and increasing membrane lifetime.

  20. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: High-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend, Ford F-150 -- Operating Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Karner; Francfort, James Edward

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents the results of 4,695 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 50% hydrogen–50% CNG fuel.

  1. Highly Active Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries Based on [Mg2(?-Cl)2]2+ Cation Complex in Dimethoxyethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yingwen; Stolley, Ryan M.; Han, Kee Sung; Shao, Yuyan; Arey, Bruce W.; Washton, Nancy M.; Mueller, Karl T.; Helm, Monte L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

    2015-01-01

    Highly active electrolytes based on a novel [Mg2(?-Cl)2]2+ cation complex for reversible Mg deposition were developed and analyzed in this work. These electrolytes were formulated in dimethoxyethane through dehalodimerization of non-nucleophilic MgCl2 by reacting with either Mg salts (such as Mg(TFSI)2, TFSI= bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonylimide) or Lewis acid salts (such as AlEtCl2 or AlCl3). The cation complex was identified for the first time as [Mg2(?-Cl)2(DME)4]2+ (DME=dimethoxyethane) and its molecular structure was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and NMR. The electrolyte synthesis process was studied and rational approaches for formulating highly active electrolytes were proposed. Through control of the anions, electrolytes with efficiency close to 100%, wide electrochemical window (up to 3.5V) and high ionic conductivity (> 6 mS/cm) were obtained. The electrolyte synthesis and understandings developed in this work could bring significant opportunities for rational formulation of electrolytes with the general formula [Mg2(?-Cl)2(DME)4][anion]x for practical Mg batteries.

  2. Supermassive black holes with high accretion rates in active galactic nuclei. II. The most luminous standard candles in the universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jian-Min; Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Netzer, Hagai; Kaspi, Shai [Wise Observatory, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Bai, Jin-Ming; Wang, Fang [Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011, Yunnan (China); Lu, Kai-Xing [Astronomy Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Collaboration: SEAMBH collaboration

    2014-10-01

    This is the second in a series of papers reporting on a large reverberation mapping (RM) campaign to measure black hole (BH) mass in high accretion rate active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The goal is to identify super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs) and to use their unique properties to construct a new method for measuring cosmological distances. Based on theoretical models, the saturated bolometric luminosity of such sources is proportional to the BH mass, which can be used to obtain their distance. Here we report on five new RM measurements and show that in four of the cases, we can measure the BH mass and three of these sources are SEAMBHs. Together with the three sources from our earlier work, we now have six new sources of this type. We use a novel method based on a minimal radiation efficiency to identify nine additional SEAMBHs from earlier RM-based mass measurements. We use a Bayesian analysis to determine the parameters of the new distance expression and the method uncertainties from the observed properties of the objects in the sample. The ratio of the newly measured distances to the standard cosmological ones has a mean scatter of 0.14 dex, indicating that SEAMBHs can be use as cosmological distance probes. With their high luminosity, long period of activity, and large numbers at high redshifts, SEAMBHs have a potential to extend the cosmic distance ladder beyond the range now explored by Type Ia supernovae.

  3. Gamma/neutron time-correlation for special nuclear material detection – Active stimulation of highly enriched uranium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paff, Marc G.; Monterial, Mateusz; Marleau, Peter; Kiff, Scott; Nowack, Aaron; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2014-06-21

    A series of simulations and experiments were undertaken to explore and evaluate the potential for a novel new technique for fissile material detection and characterization, the timecorrelated pulse-height (TCPH) method, to be used concurrent with active stimulation of potential nuclear materials. In previous work TCPH has been established as a highly sensitive method for the detection and characterization of configurations of fissile material containing Plutonium in passive measurements. By actively stimulating fission with the introduction of an external radiation source, we have shown that TCPH is also an effective method of detecting and characterizing configurations of fissile material containing Highlymore » Enriched Uranium (HEU). The TCPH method is shown to be robust in the presence of the proper choice of external radiation source. An evaluation of potential interrogation sources is presented.« less

  4. IceCube expectations for two high-energy neutrino production models at active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argüelles, C.A.; Bustamante, M.; Gago, A.M. E-mail: mbustamante@pucp.edu.pe

    2010-12-01

    We have determined the currently allowed regions of the parameter spaces of two representative models of diffuse neutrino flux from active galactic nuclei (AGN): one by Koers and Tinyakov (KT) and another by Becker and Biermann (BB). Our observable has been the number of upgoing muon-neutrinos expected in the 86-string IceCube detector, after 5 years of exposure, in the range 10{sup 5} ≤ E{sub ν}/GeV ≤ 10{sup 8}. We have used the latest estimated discovery potential of the IceCube-86 array at the 5σ level to determine the lower boundary of the regions, while for the upper boundary we have used either the AMANDA upper bound on the neutrino flux or the more recent preliminary upper bound given by the half-completed IceCube-40 array (IC40). We have varied the spectral index of the proposed power-law fluxes, α, and two parameters of the BB model: the ratio between the boost factors of neutrinos and cosmic rays, Γ{sub ν}/Γ{sub CR}, and the maximum redshift of the sources that contribute to the cosmic-ray flux, z{sub CR}{sup max}. For the KT model, we have considered two scenarios: one in which the number density of AGN does not evolve with redshift and another in which it evolves strongly, following the star formation rate. Using the IC40 upper bound, we have found that the models are visible in IceCube-86 only inside very thin strips of parameter space and that both of them are discarded at the preferred value of α = 2.7 obtained from fits to cosmic-ray data. Lower values of α, notably the values 2.0 and 2.3 proposed in the literature, fare better. In addition, we have analysed the capacity of IceCube-86 to discriminate between the models within the small regions of parameter space where both of them give testable predictions. Within these regions, discrimination at the 5σ level or more is guaranteed.

  5. Experimental Design for Hanford Low-Activity Waste Glasses with High Waste Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Cooley, Scott K.; Vienna, John D.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2015-07-24

    This report discusses the development of an experimental design for the initial phase of the Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) enhanced glass study. This report is based on a manuscript written for an applied statistics journal. Appendices A, B, and E include additional information relevant to the LAW enhanced glass experimental design that is not included in the journal manuscript. The glass composition experimental region is defined by single-component constraints (SCCs), linear multiple-component constraints (MCCs), and a nonlinear MCC involving 15 LAW glass components. Traditional methods and software for designing constrained mixture experiments with SCCs and linear MCCs are not directly applicable because of the nonlinear MCC. A modification of existing methodology to account for the nonlinear MCC was developed and is described in this report. One of the glass components, SO3, has a solubility limit in glass that depends on the composition of the balance of the glass. A goal was to design the experiment so that SO3 would not exceed its predicted solubility limit for any of the experimental glasses. The SO3 solubility limit had previously been modeled by a partial quadratic mixture model expressed in the relative proportions of the 14 other components. The partial quadratic mixture model was used to construct a nonlinear MCC in terms of all 15 components. In addition, there were SCCs and linear MCCs. This report describes how a layered design was generated to (i) account for the SCCs, linear MCCs, and nonlinear MCC and (ii) meet the goals of the study. A layered design consists of points on an outer layer, and inner layer, and a center point. There were 18 outer-layer glasses chosen using optimal experimental design software to augment 147 existing glass compositions that were within the LAW glass composition experimental region. Then 13 inner-layer glasses were chosen with the software to augment the existing and outer

  6. Recent status and improvement of reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steels for high-temperature service

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, L.; Katoh, Y.; Tavassoli, A. -A. F.; Henry, J.; Rieth, M.; Sakasegawa, H.; Tanigawa, H.; Huang, Q.

    2016-07-26

    Reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels, candidate structural materials for fusion reactors, have achieved technological maturity after about three decades of research and development. The recent status of a few developmental aspects of current RAFM steels, such as aging resistance, plate thickness effects, fracture toughness, and fatigue, is updated in this paper, together with ongoing efforts to develop next-generation RAFM steels for superior high-temperature performance. Additionally, to thermomechanical treatments, including nonstandard heat treatment, alloy chemistry refinements and modifications have demonstrated some improvements in high-temperature performance. Castable nanostructured alloys (CNAs) were developed by significantly increasing the amount of nanoscale MX (M = V/Ta/Ti,more » X = C/N) precipitates and reducing coarse M23C6 (M = Cr). Preliminary results showed promising improvement in creep resistance and Charpy impact toughness. We present and compare limited low-dose neutron irradiation results for one of the CNAs and China low activation martensitic with data for F82H and Eurofer97 irradiated up to ~70 displacements per atom at ~300–325 °C.« less

  7. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Conversion Activities for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renfro, David G; Cook, David Howard; Freels, James D; Griffin, Frederick P; Ilas, Germina; Sease, John D; Chandler, David

    2012-03-01

    This report describes progress made during FY11 in ORNL activities to support converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum (UMo) alloy. With both radial and axial contouring of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current levels achieved with HEU fuel. Studies are continuing to demonstrate that the fuel thermal safety margins can be preserved following conversion. Studies are also continuing to update other aspects of the reactor steady state operation and accident response for the effects of fuel conversion. Technical input has been provided to Oregon State University in support of their hydraulic testing program. The HFIR conversion schedule was revised and provided to the GTRI program. In addition to HFIR conversion activities, technical support was provided directly to the Fuel Fabrication Capability program manager.

  8. GOODS-HERSCHEL: SEPARATING HIGH-REDSHIFT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES USING INFRARED COLOR DIAGNOSTICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Dasyra, Kalliopi; Leiton, Roger; Scott, Douglas; Magnelli, Benjamin; Popesso, Paola; Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela; Valtchanov, Ivan; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Dickinson, Mark; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Magdis, Georgios

    2013-02-15

    We have compiled a large sample of 151 high-redshift (z = 0.5-4) galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m (S {sub 24} > 100 {mu}Jy) in the GOODS-N and ECDFS fields for which we have deep Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, allowing us to decompose the mid-infrared spectrum into contributions from star formation and activity in the galactic nuclei. In addition, we have a wealth of photometric data from Spitzer IRAC/MIPS and Herschel PACS/SPIRE. We explore how effective different infrared color combinations are at separating our mid-IR spectroscopically determined active galactic nuclei from our star-forming galaxies. We look in depth at existing IRAC color diagnostics, and we explore new color-color diagnostics combining mid-IR, far-IR, and near-IR photometry, since these combinations provide the most detail about the shape of a source's IR spectrum. An added benefit of using a color that combines far-IR and mid-IR photometry is that it is indicative of the power source driving the IR luminosity. For our data set, the optimal color selections are S {sub 250}/S {sub 24} versus S {sub 8}/S {sub 3.6} and S {sub 100}/S {sub 24} versus S {sub 8}/S {sub 3.6}; both diagnostics have {approx}10% contamination rate in the regions occupied primarily by star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei, respectively. Based on the low contamination rate, these two new IR color-color diagnostics are ideal for estimating both the mid-IR power source of a galaxy when spectroscopy is unavailable and the dominant power source contributing to the IR luminosity. In the absence of far-IR data, we present color diagnostics using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR bands which can efficiently select out high-z (z {approx} 2) star-forming galaxies.

  9. HST/COS OBSERVATIONS OF GALACTIC HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS: FOUR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS SIGHT LINES THROUGH COMPLEX C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shull, J. Michael; Stevans, Matthew; Danforth, Charles; Penton, Steven V. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Lockman, Felix J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV 29444 (United States); Arav, Nahum, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu, E-mail: matthew.stevans@colorado.edu, E-mail: charles.danforth@colorado.edu, E-mail: steven.penton@colorado.edu, E-mail: jlockman@nrao.edu, E-mail: arav@vt.edu [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    We report ultraviolet spectra of Galactic high-velocity clouds (HVCs) in Complex C, taken by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), together with new 21 cm spectra from the Green Bank Telescope. The wide spectral coverage and higher signal-to-noise ratio, compared to previous HST spectra, provide better velocity definition of the HVC absorption, additional ionization species (including high ions), and improved abundances in this halo gas. Complex C has a metallicity of 10%-30% solar and a wide range of ions, suggesting dynamical and thermal interactions with hot gas in the Galactic halo. Spectra in the COS medium-resolution G130M (1133-1468 A) and G160M (1383-1796 A) gratings detect ultraviolet absorption lines from eight elements in low-ionization states (O I, N I, C II, S II, Si II, Al II, Fe II, P II) and three elements in intermediate- and high-ionization states (Si III, Si IV, C IV, N V). Our four active galactic nucleus sight lines toward Mrk 817, Mrk 290, Mrk 876, and PG 1259+593 have high-velocity H I and O VI column densities, log N{sub Hi}= 19.39-20.05 and log N{sub Ovi}= 13.58-14.10, with substantial amounts of kinematically associated photoionized gas. The high-ion abundance ratios are consistent with cooling interfaces between photoionized and collisionally ionized gas: N(C IV)/N(O VI) {approx} 0.3-0.5, N(Si IV)/N(O VI) {approx} 0.05-0.11, N(N V)/N(O VI) {approx} 0.07-0.13, and N(Si IV)/N(Si III) {approx}0.2.

  10. Aluminium doped ceriazirconia supported palladium-alumina catalyst with high oxygen storage capacity and CO oxidation activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Qiang; Yin, Shu Guo, Chongshen; Wu, Xiaoyong; Kimura, Takeshi; Sato, Tsugio

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} possessed high OSC and CO oxidation activity at low temperature. - Highlights: A new OSC material of Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is prepared via a mechanochemical method. Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed high OSC even after calcination at 1000 C for 20 h. Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibited the highest CO oxidation activity at low temperature correlates with enhanced OSC. - Abstract: The Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst prepared by a mechanochemical route and calcined at 1000 C for 20 h in air atmosphere to evaluate the thermal stability. The prepared Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was characterized for the oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and CO oxidation activity in automotive catalysis. For the characterization, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and the BrunauerEmmetTeller (BET) technique were employed. The OSC values of all samples were measured at 600 C using thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis. Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst calcined at 1000 C for 20 h with a BET surface area of 41 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1} exhibited the considerably high OSC of 583 ?mol-O g{sup ?1} and good OSC performance stability. The same synthesis route was employed for the preparation of the CeO{sub 2}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for comparison.

  11. Parametric Evaluation of Active Neutron Interrogation for the Detection of Shielded Highly-Enriched Uranium in the Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Chcihester; E. H. Seabury; S. J. Thompson; R. R. C. Clement

    2011-10-01

    Parametric studies using numerical simulations are being performed to assess the performance capabilities and limits of active neutron interrogation for detecting shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU). Varying the shield material, HEU mass, HEU depth inside the shield, and interrogating neutron source energy, the simulations account for both neutron and photon emission signatures from the HEU with resolution in both energy and time. The results are processed to represent different irradiation timing schemes and several different classes of radiation detectors, and evaluated using a statistical approach considering signal intensity over background. This paper describes the details of the modeling campaign and some preliminary results, weighing the strengths of alternative measurement approaches for the different irradiation scenarios.

  12. SOLIDIFICATION TESTING FOR A HIGH ACTIVITY WASTESTREAM FROM THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE USING GROUT AND GAMMA RADIATION SHEILDING MATERIALS - 10017

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, H.

    2009-11-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating grouts that include gamma radiation shielding materials to solidify surrogates of liquid aqueous radioactive wastes from across the DOE Complex. The Savannah River Site (SRS) identified a High Activity Waste (HAW) that will be treated and solidified at the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for surrogate grout testing. The HAW, which is produced at the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), is an acidic aqueous wastestream generated by the alkaline treatment process and the aqueous purification process. The HAW surrogate was solidified using Portland cement with and without the inclusion of different gamma radiation shielding materials to determine the shielding material that is the most effective to attenuate gamma radiation for this application.

  13. Immobilizing Highly Catalytically Active Pt Nanoparticles inside the Pores of Metal-Organic Framework: A Double Solvents Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aijaz, Arshad; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Choi, Young Joon; Tsumori, Nobuko; Ronnebro, Ewa; Autrey, Thomas; Shioyama, Hiroshi; Xu, Qiang

    2012-08-29

    Ultrafine Pt nanoparticles were successfully immobilized inside the pores of a metal-organic framework MIL-101 without deposition of Pt nanoparticles on the external surfaces of framework by using a 'double solvents' method. The resulting Pt@MIL-101 composites with different Pt loadings represent the first highly active MOF-immobilized metal nanocatalysts for catalytic reactions in all three phases: liquid-phase ammonia borane hydrolysis; solid-phase ammonia borane thermal dehy-drogenation and gas-phase CO oxidation. The observed excellent catalytic performances are at-tributed to the small Pt nanoparticles within the pores of MIL-101. 'We are thankful to AIST and METI for financial support. TA & AK are thankful for support from the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. PNNL is operated by Battelle.'

  14. Evolution of high cellulolytic activity in symbiotic Streptomyces through selection of expanded gene content and coordinated gene expression

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Book, Adam J.; Lewin, Gina R.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Doering, Drew T.; Suh, Steven; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Fox, Brian G.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2016-06-08

    In this study, the evolution of cellulose degradation was a defining event in the history of life. Without efficient decomposition and recycling, dead plant biomass would quickly accumulate and become inaccessible to terrestrial food webs and the global carbon cycle. On land, the primary drivers of plant biomass deconstruction are fungi and bacteria in the soil or associated with herbivorous eukaryotes. While the ecological importance of plant-decomposing microbes is well established, little is known about the distribution or evolution of cellulolytic activity in any bacterial genus. Here we show that in Streptomyces, a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil andmore » symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy) are widespread in Streptomyces, key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that cellulolytic strains express a suite of multi-domain CAZy enzymes that are coregulated by the CebR transcriptional regulator. Using targeted gene deletions, we verify the importance of a highly expressed cellulase (GH6 family cellobiohydrolase) and the CebR transcriptional repressor to the cellulolytic phenotype. Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces, including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. Our results suggest that host-associated niches have selected some symbiotic Streptomyces for increased cellulose degrading activity and that symbiotic bacteria are a rich biochemical and enzymatic resource for biotechnology.« less

  15. CENTRAL STORAGE FACILITY PROJECT IN COLOMBIA TO PROVIDE THE SAFE STORAGE AND PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenberg, Raymond; Wright, Kyle A.; McCaw, Erica E.; Vallejo, Jorge

    2009-10-07

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. Internationally, over 40 countries are cooperating with GTRI to enhance the security of these materials. The GTRI program has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials, including orphaned and disused high-activity sources. GTRI began cooperation with the Republic of Colombia in April 2004. This cooperation has been a resounding success by securing forty high-risk sites, consolidating disused/orphan sources at an interim secure national storage facility, and developing a comprehensive approach to security, training, and sustainability. In 2005 the Colombian Ministry of Mines and Energy requested the Department of Energys support in the construction of a new Central Storage Facility (CSF). In December 2005, the Ministry selected to construct this facility at the Institute of Geology and Mining (Ingeominas) site in Bogota. This site already served as Colombias national repository, where disused sources were housed in various buildings around the complex. The CSF project was placed under contract in May 2006, but environmental issues and public protests, which led to a class action lawsuit against the Colombian Government, forced the Ministry to quickly suspend activities, thereby placing the project in jeopardy. Despite these challenges, however, the Ministry of Mines and Energy worked closely with public and environmental authorities to resolve these issues, and continued to be a strong advocate of the GTRI program. In June 2008, the Ministry of Mines and Energy was granted the construction and environmental licenses. As a result, construction immediately resumed and the CSF was completed by December 2008. A commissioning ceremony was held for the new facility in January 2009, which was attended by representatives from the Department of Energy, U.S. Embassy, and

  16. THE MOST MASSIVE ACTIVE BLACK HOLES AT z ∼ 1.5-3.5 HAVE HIGH SPINS AND RADIATIVE EFFICIENCIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2014-07-01

    The radiative efficiencies (η) of 72 luminous unobscured active galactic nuclei at z ∼ 1.5-3.5, powered by some of the most massive black holes (BHs), are constrained. The analysis is based on accretion disk (AD) models, which link the continuum luminosity at rest-frame optical wavelengths and the BH mass (M {sub BH}) to the accretion rate through the AD, M-dot {sub AD}. The data are gathered from several literature samples with detailed measurements of the Hβ emission line complex, observed at near-infrared bands. When coupled with standard estimates of bolometric luminosities (L {sub bol}), the analysis suggests high radiative efficiencies, with most of the sources showing η > 0.2, that is, higher than the commonly assumed value of 0.1, and the expected value for non-spinning BHs (η = 0.057). Even under more conservative assumptions regarding L {sub bol} (i.e., L {sub bol} = 3 × L {sub 5100}), most of the extremely massive BHs in the sample (i.e., M {sub BH} ≳ 3 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}) show radiative efficiencies which correspond to very high BH spins (a {sub *}), with typical values well above a {sub *} ≅ 0.7. These results stand in contrast to the predictions of a ''spin-down'' scenario, in which a series of randomly oriented accretion episodes leads to a {sub *} ∼ 0. Instead, the analysis presented here strongly supports a ''spin-up'' scenario, which is driven by either prolonged accretion or a series of anisotropically oriented accretion episodes. Considering the fact that these extreme BHs require long-duration or continuous accretion to account for their high masses, it is argued that the most probable scenario for the super-massive black holes under study is that of an almost continuous sequence of randomly yet not isotropically oriented accretion episodes.

  17. THERMAL AND RADIATIVE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK HAVE A LIMITED IMPACT ON STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roos, Orianne; Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Gabor, Jared M.

    2015-02-10

    The effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on their host galaxies depend on the coupling between the injected energy and the interstellar medium (ISM). Here, we model and quantify the impact of long-range AGN ionizing radiation—in addition to the often considered small-scale energy deposition—on the physical state of the multi-phase ISM of the host galaxy and on its total star formation rate (SFR). We formulate an AGN spectral energy distribution matched with observations, which we use with the radiative transfer (RT) code Cloudy to compute AGN ionization in a simulated high-redshift disk galaxy. We use a high-resolution (∼6 pc) simulation including standard thermal AGN feedback and calculate RT in post-processing. Surprisingly, while these models produce significant AGN-driven outflows, we find that AGN ionizing radiation and heating reduce the SFR by a few percent at most for a quasar luminosity (L {sub bol} = 10{sup 46.5} erg s{sup –1}). Although the circumgalactic gaseous halo can be kept almost entirely ionized by the AGN, most star-forming clouds (n ≳ 10{sup 2} {sup –} {sup 3} cm{sup –3}) and even the reservoirs of cool atomic gas (n ∼ 0.3-10 cm{sup –3})—which are the sites of future star formation (SF; 100-200 Myr), are generally too dense to be significantly affected. Our analysis ignores any absorption from a putative torus, making our results upper limits on the effects of ionizing radiation. Therefore, while the AGN-driven outflows can remove substantial amounts of gas in the long term, the impact of AGN feedback on the SF efficiency in the interstellar gas in high-redshift galaxies is marginal, even when long-range radiative effects are accounted for.

  18. High rate mesophilic, thermophilic, and temperature phased anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge: A pilot scale study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolzonella, David; Cavinato, Cristina; Fatone, Francesco; Pavan, Paolo; Cecchi, Franco

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High temperatures were tested in single and two-stage anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The increased temperature demonstrated the possibility of improving typical yields of the conventional mesophilic process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature phased anaerobic digestion process (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) showed the best performances with yields of 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia and phosphate released from solids destruction determined the precipitation of struvite in the reactor. - Abstract: The paper reports the findings of a two-year pilot scale experimental trial for the mesophilic (35 Degree-Sign C), thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) and temperature phased (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. During the mesophilic and thermophilic runs, the reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 20 days. In the temperature phased run, the first reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 15 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 2 days while the second reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 18 days (20 days for the whole temperature phased system). The performance of the reactor improved with increases in temperature. The COD removal increased from 35% in mesophilic conditions, to 45% in thermophilic conditions, and 55% in the two stage temperature phased system. As a consequence, the specific biogas production increased from 0.33 to 0.45 and to 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed} at 35, 55, and 65 + 55 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The extreme thermophilic reactor working at 65 Degree-Sign C showed a high hydrolytic capability and a specific yield of 0.33 gCOD (soluble) per gVS{sub fed}. The effluent of the extreme thermophilic reactor showed an average concentration of soluble COD and volatile

  19. Hydrodynamic Effects on Modeling and Control of a High Temperature Active Magnetic Bearing Pump with a Canned Rotor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melin, Alexander M; Kisner, Roger A; Fugate, David L; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Embedding instrumentation and control Embedding instrumentation and control (I\\&C) at the component level in nuclear power plants can improve component performance, lifetime, and resilience by optimizing operation, reducing the constraints on physical design, and providing on-board prognostics and diagnostics. However, the extreme environments that many nuclear power plant components operate in makes embedding instrumentation and control at the component level difficult. Successfully utilizing embedded I\\&C requires developing a deep understanding of the system's dynamics and using that knowledge to overcome material and physical limitations imposed by the environment. In this paper, we will develop a coupled dynamic model of a high temperature (700 $^\\circ$C) canned rotor pump that incorporates rotordynamics, hydrodynamics, and active magnetic bearing dynamics. Then we will compare two control design methods, one that uses a simplified decoupled model of the system and another that utilizes the full coupled system model. It will be seen that utilizing all the available knowledge of the system dynamics in the controller design yield an order of magnitude improvement in the magnitude of the magnetic bearing response to disturbances at the same level of control effort, a large reduction in the settling time of the system, and a smoother control action.

  20. Investigation of Mechanical Activation on Li-N-H Systems Using 6Li Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance at Ultra-High Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Kwak, Ja Hun; Yang, Zhenguo; Osborn, William; Markmaitree, Tippawan; Shaw, Leonard D.

    2008-07-15

    Abstract The significantly enhanced spectral resolution in the 6Li MAS NMR spectra of Li-N-H systems at ultra-high field of 21.1 tesla is exploited, for the first time, to study the detailed electronic and chemical environmental changes associated with mechanical activation of Li-N-H system using high energy balling milling. Complementary to ultra-high field studies, the hydrogen discharge dynamics are investigated using variable temperature in situ 1H MAS NMR at 7.05 tesla field. The significantly enhanced spectral resolution using ultra-high filed of 21.1 tesla was demonstrated along with several major findings related to mechanical activation, including the upfield shift of the resonances in 6Li MAS spectra induced by ball milling, more efficient mechanical activation with ball milling at liquid nitrogen temperature than with ball milling at room temperature, and greatly enhanced hydrogen discharge exhibited by the liquid nitrogen ball milled samples.

  1. A PERMEABLE ACTIVE AMENDMENT CONCRETE (PAAC) FOR CONTAMINANT REMEDIATION AND EROSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, A.; Paller, M.; Dixon, K.

    2012-06-29

    The final project report for SEED SERDP ER - 2134 describes the development of permeable active amendment concrete (PAAC), which was evaluated through four tasks: 1) development of PAAC; 2) assessment of PAAC for contaminant removal; 3) evaluation of promising PAAC formulations for potential environmental impacts; and 4) assessment of the hydraulic, physical, and structural properties of PAAC. Conventional permeable concrete (often referred to as pervious concrete) is concrete with high porosity as a result of an extensive and interconnected void content. It is made from carefully controlled amounts of water and cementitious materials used to create a paste that forms a coating around aggregate particles. The mixture has a substantial void content (e.g., 15% - 25%) that results in a highly permeable structure that drains quickly. In PAAC, the aggregate material is partly replaced by chemically-active amendments that precipitate or adsorb contaminants in water that flows through the concrete interstices. PAAC combines the relatively high structural strength, ample void space, and water permeability of pervious concrete with the contaminant sequestration ability of chemically-active amendments to produce a new material with superior durability and ability to control contaminant mobility. The high surface area provided by the concrete interstices in PAAC provides significant opportunity for contaminants to react with the amendments incorporated into the concrete matrix. PAAC has the potential to immobilize a large variety of organic and inorganic contaminants by incorporating different active sequestering agents including phosphate materials (rock phosphate), organoclays, zeolite, and lime individually or in combinations.

  2. ZnO:H indium-free transparent conductive electrodes for active-matrix display applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shuming Wang, Sisi

    2014-12-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes based on hydrogen (H)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) have been proposed for active-matrix (AM) display applications. When fabricated with optimal H plasma power and optimal plasma treatment time, the resulting ZnO:H films exhibit low sheet resistance of 200 Ω/◻ and high average transmission of 85% at a film thickness of 150 nm. The demonstrated transparent conductive ZnO:H films can potentially replace indium-tin-oxide and serve as pixel electrodes for organic light-emitting diodes as well as source/drain electrodes for ZnO-based thin-film transistors. Use of the proposed ZnO:H electrodes means that two photomask stages can be removed from the fabrication process flow for ZnO-based AM backplanes.

  3. WO3 and HPA based system for ultra high stability Innovation for Our Energy Future ultra-activity and of Pt catalysts in PEMFC cathodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WO 3 and HPA based system for ultra high activity and stability of Innovation for Our Energy Future ultra-high activity and stability of Pt catalysts in PEMFC cathodes 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Project Kick-Off Venue: Washington D.C. Presenter: John Turner Organization: NREL Date: Sept 28th, 2010 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. "This presentation

  4. High-frequency monitoring of water fluxes and nutrient loads to assess the effects of controlled drainage on water storage and nutrient transport

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rozemeijer, J. C.; Visser, A.; Borren, W.; Winegram, M.; van der Velde, Y.; Klein, J.; Broers, H. P.

    2016-01-19

    High nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fluxes from upstream agriculture threaten aquatic ecosystems in surface waters and estuaries, especially in areas characterized by high agricultural N and P inputs and densely drained catchments like the Netherlands. Controlled drainage has been recognized as an effective option to optimize soil moisture conditions for agriculture and to reduce unnecessary losses of fresh water and nutrients. This is achieved by introducing control structures with adjustable overflow levels into subsurface tube drain systems. A small-scale (1 ha) field experiment was designed to investigate the hydrological and chemical changes after introducing controlled drainage. Precipitation rates andmore » the response of water tables and drain fluxes were measured in the periods before the introduction of controlled drainage (2007–2008) and after (2009–2011). For the N and P concentration measurements, auto-analyzers for continuous records were combined with passive samplers for time-averaged concentrations at individual drain outlets. The experimental setup enabled the quantification of changes in the water and solute balance after introducing controlled drainage. The results showed that introducing controlled drainage reduced the drain discharge and increased the groundwater storage in the field. To achieve this, the overflow levels have to be elevated in early spring, before the drain discharge stops due to dryer conditions and falling groundwater levels. The groundwater storage in the field would have been larger if the water levels in the adjacent ditch were controlled as well by an adjustable weir. The N concentrations and loads increased, which was largely related to elevated concentrations in one of the three monitored tube drains. The P loads via the tube drains reduced due to the reduction in discharge after introducing controlled drainage. Furthermore, this may be counteracted by the higher groundwater levels and the larger contribution

  5. Analytical admittance characterization of high mobility channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mammeri, A. M.; Mahi, F. Z.; Varani, L.

    2015-03-30

    In this contribution, we investigate the small-signal admittance of the high electron mobility transistors field-effect channels under a continuation branching of the current between channel and gate by using an analytical model. The analytical approach takes into account the linearization of the 2D Poisson equation and the drift current along the channel. The analytical equations discuss the frequency dependence of the admittance at source and drain terminals on the geometrical transistor parameters.

  6. Hierarchical chlorine-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} spherical clusters of nanorods: Large-scale synthesis and high photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Hua; Zheng Zhi; Zhang Lizhi Zhang Hailu; Deng Feng

    2008-09-15

    In this study, we report the synthesis of hierarchical chlorine-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} spherical clusters of nanorods photocatalyst on a large scale via a soft interface approach. This catalyst showed much higher photocatalytic activity than the famous commercial titania (Degussa P25) under visible light ({lambda}>420 nm). The resulting sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), nitrogen adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, {sup 1}H solid magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. On the basis of characterization results, we found that the doping of chlorine resulted in red shift of absorption and higher surface acidity as well as crystal defects in the photocatalyst, which were the reasons for high photocatalytic activity of chlorine-doped TiO{sub 2} under visible light ({lambda}>420 nm). These hierarchical chlorine-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} spherical clusters of nanorods are very attractive in the fields of environmental pollutants removal and solar cell because of their easy separation and high activity. - Graphical abstract: Hierarchical chlorine-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} spherical clusters of nanorods photocatalyst were synthesized on a large scale via a soft interface approach. This catalyst showed much higher photocatalytic activity than the famous commercial titania (Degussa P25) under visible light ({lambda}>420 nm)

  7. Highly Active TiO2-Based Visible-Light Photocatalyst with Nonmetal Doping and Plasmonic Metal Decoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qiao; Lima, Diana Q.; Chi, Miaofang; Yin, Yadong

    2011-01-01

    A sandwich-structured photocatalyst shows an excellent performance in degradation reactions of a number of organic compounds under UV, visible light, and direct sunlight (see picture). The catalyst was synthesized by a combination of nonmetal doping and plasmonic metal decoration of TiO2 nanocrystals, which improves visible-light activity and enhances light harvesting and charge separation, respectively.

  8. Active wear and failure mechanisms of TiN-coated high speed steel and TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining powder metallurgically made stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, L.; Haenninen, H.; Paro, J.; Kauppinen, V.

    1996-09-01

    In this study, active wear and failure mechanisms of both TiN-coated high speed steel and TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining stainless steels made by powder metallurgy in low and high cutting speed ranges, respectively, have been investigated. Abrasive wear mechanisms, fatigue-induced failure, and adhesive and diffusion wear mechanisms mainly affected the tool life of TiN-coated high speed steel tools at cutting speeds below 35 m/min, between 35 and 45 m/min, and over 45 m/min, respectively. Additionally, fatigue-induced failure was active at cutting speeds over 45 m/min in the low cutting speed range when machining powder metallurgically made duplex stainless steel 2205 and austenitic stainless steel 316L. In the high cutting speed range, from 100 to 250 m/min, fatigue-induced failure together with diffusion wear mechanism, affected the tool life of TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining both 316L and 2205 stainless steels. It was noticed that the tool life of TiN-coated high speed steel tools used in the low cutting speed range when machining 2205 steel was longer than that when machining 316L steel, whereas the tool life of TiN-coated cemented carbide tools used in the high cutting speed range when machining 316L steel was longer than that when machining 2205 steel.

  9. Determination of active doping in highly resistive boron doped silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2} by capacitance voltage measurement on inverted metal oxide semiconductor structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Tian Puthen-Veettil, Binesh; Wu, Lingfeng; Jia, Xuguang; Lin, Ziyun; Yang, Terry Chien-Jen; Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan

    2015-10-21

    We investigate the Capacitance-Voltage (CV) measurement to study the electrically active boron doping in Si nanocrystals (ncSi) embedded in SiO{sub 2}. The ncSi thin films with high resistivity (200–400 Ω cm) can be measured by using an inverted metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) structure (Al/ncSi (B)/SiO{sub 2}/Si). This device structure eliminates the complications from the effects of lateral current flow and the high sheet resistance in standard lateral MOS structures. The characteristic MOS CV curves observed are consistent with the effective p-type doping. The CV modeling method is presented and used to evaluate the electrically active doping concentration. We find that the highly boron doped ncSi films have electrically active doping of 10{sup 18}–10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} despite their high resistivity. The saturation of doping at about 1.4 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} and the low doping efficiency less than 5% are observed and discussed. The calculated effective mobility is in the order of 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V s, indicating strong impurity/defect scattering effect that hinders carriers transport.

  10. Nonaqueous sol-gel synthesis and growth mechanism of single crystalline TiO{sub 2} nanorods with high photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia Huimin; Zheng Zhi; Zhao Hongxiao; Zhang Lizhi; Zou Zhigang

    2009-06-03

    In this paper, we report on a nonaqueous synthesis of single crystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorods by reaction between TiCl{sub 4} and benzyl alcohol at a low temperature of 80 deg. C. The resulting samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We proposed that the TiO{sub 2} nanorods were formed through an oriented attachment mechanism. More importantly, these single crystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorods exhibited significantly higher photocatalytic activities than commercial photocatalyst P25. This study provides an environmentally friendly and economic approach to produce highly active TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst.

  11. Module greenhouse with high efficiency of transformation of solar energy, utilizing active and passive glass optical rasters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korecko, J.; Jirka, V.; Sourek, B.; Cerveny, J.

    2010-10-15

    Since the eighties of the 20th century, various types of linear glass rasters for architectural usage have been developed in the Czech Republic made by the continuous melting technology. The development was focused on two main groups of rasters - active rasters with linear Fresnel lenses in fixed installation and with movable photo-thermal and/or photo-thermal/photo-voltaic absorbers. The second group are passive rasters based on total reflection of rays on an optical prism. During the last years we have been working on their standardization, exact measuring of their optical and thermal-technical characteristics and on creation of a final product that could be applied in solar architecture. With the project supported by the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic we were able to build an experimental greenhouse using these active and passive optical glass rasters. The project followed the growing number of technical objectives. The concept of the greenhouse consisted of interdependence construction - structural design of the greenhouse with its technological equipment securing the required temperature and humidity conditions in the interior of the greenhouse. This article aims to show the merits of the proposed scheme and presents the results of the mathematical model in the TRNSYS environment through which we could predict the future energy balance carried out similar works, thus optimizing the investment and operating costs. In this article description of various technology applications for passive and active utilization of solar radiation is presented, as well as some results of short-term and long-term experiments, including evaluation of 1-year operation of the greenhouse from the energy and interior temperature viewpoints. A comparison of the calculated energy flows in the greenhouse to real measured values, for verification of the installed model is also involved. (author)

  12. The carburization of transition metal molybdates (MxMoO?, M= Cu, Ni or Co) and the generation of highly active metal/carbide catalysts for CO? hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Xu, Wenqian; Ramirez, Pedro J.; Stachiola, Dario; Brito, Joaquin L.

    2015-05-06

    A new approach has been tested for the preparation of metal/Mo?C catalysts using mixed-metal oxide molybdates as precursors. Synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction was used to study the reduction and carburization processes of Cu?(MoO?)?(OH)?, a-NiMoO? and CoMoO?nH?O by thermal treatment under mixtures of hydrogen and methane. In all cases, the final product was ?-Mo?C and a metal phase (Cu, Ni, or Co), but the transition sequence varied with the different metals, and it could be related to the reduction potential of the Cu?, Ni? and Co? cations inside each molybdate. The synthesized Cu/Mo?C, Ni/Mo?C and Co/Mo?C catalysts were highly active for the hydrogenation of CO?. The metal/Mo?C systems exhibited large variations in the selectivity towards methanol, methane and CnH?n?? (n > 2) hydrocarbons depending on the nature of the supported metal and its ability to cleave C-O bonds. Cu/Mo?C displayed a high selectivity for CO and methanol production. Ni/Mo?C and Co/Mo?C were the most active catalysts for the activation and full decomposition of CO?, showing high selectivity for the production of methane (Ni case) and CnH?n?? (n > 2) hydrocarbons (Co case).

  13. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 335: Area 6 Injection Well and Drain Pit Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revison 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the June 2003, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 335: Area 6 Injection Well and Drain Pit as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for: • CAS 06-20-02, 20-inch Cased Hole • CAS 06-23-03, Drain Pit These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove these URs because

  14. High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) imager. Final report, 29 August 1991-29 August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lance, C.; Eather, R.

    1993-09-30

    A low-light-level monochromatic imaging system was designed and fabricated which was optimized to detect and record optical emissions associated with high-power rf heating of the ionosphere. The instrument is capable of detecting very low intensities, of the order of 1 Rayleigh, from typical ionospheric atomic and molecular emissions. This is achieved through co-adding of ON images during heater pulses and subtraction of OFF (background) images between pulses. Images can be displayed and analyzed in real time and stored in optical disc for later analysis. Full image processing software is provided which was customized for this application and uses menu or mouse user interaction.

  15. Application of electrolytic in-process dressing for high-efficiency grinding of ceramic parts. Research activities 1995--96

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, B.P.

    1997-02-01

    The application of Electrolytic In-Process Dressing (ELID) for highly efficient and stable grinding of ceramic parts is discussed. This research was performed at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Tokyo, Japan, June 1995 through August 1995. Experiments were conducted using a vertical machining center. The silicon nitride work material, of Japanese manufacture and supplied in the form of a rectangular block, was clamped to a vice which was firmly fixed on the base of a strain gage dynamometer. The dynamometer was clamped on the machining center table. Reciprocating grinding was performed with a flat-faced diamond grinding wheel. The output from the dynamometer was recorded with a data acquisition system and the normal component of the force was monitored. Experiments were carried out under various cutting conditions, different ELID conditions, and various grinding wheel bonds types. Rough grinding wheels of grit sizes {number_sign}170 and {number_sign}140 were used in the experiments. Compared to conventional grinding, there was a significant reduction in grinding force with ELID grinding. Therefore, ELID grinding can be recommended for high material removal rate grinding, low rigidity machines, and low rigidity workpieces. Compared to normal grinding, a reduction in grinding ratio was observed when ELID grinding was performed. A negative aspect of the process, this reduced G-ratio derives from bond erosion and can be improved somewhat by adjustments in the ELID current. The results of this investigation are discussed in detail in this report.

  16. Sub-micron fracture mechanism in silica-based glass activated by permanent densification from high-strain loading

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Waters, Shirley B.; Parten, Randy J.; Pye, L. David

    2016-04-26

    Several silica-based glasses were fractured at high strain energy via drop-weight testing on small specimens. A cylindrical specimen geometry was chosen to promote initially simple, axisymmetric, and uniform compressive loading. The imposed uniaxial compressive strain at impact was sufficiently high to qualitatively cause permanent densification. Produced fragments were collected for postmortem and a fraction of them, for all the silica-based glasses, consistently had distinct sub-micron-sized fractures (~ 300–1000 nm), designated here as “microkernels”, on their surfaces. They would most often appear as a sub-micron pore on the fragment - apparently if the microkernel had popped out as a consequence ofmore » the local crack plane running through it, tensile-strain release, and the associated formation of the fragment it was on. No fractographic evidence was found to show the microkernels were associated with local failure initiation. However, their positioning and habit sometimes suggested they were associated with localized crack branching and that they could have influenced secondary fracturing that occurred during overall crushing and comminution and associated fragment size and shape creation. Furthermore, the size range of these microkernels is much too small to affect structural flexure strength of these glasses for most applications but are of a size and concentration that may affect their ballistic, shock, crush, and comminution responses when permanent densification is concomitantly occurring.« less

  17. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 3 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  18. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 2 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  19. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 1 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck Colleen M,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  20. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of the metastable Bi{sub 20}TiO{sub 32} synthesized by a high-temperature quenching method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng Hefeng; Huang Baibiao; Dai Ying; Qin Xiaoyan; Zhang Xiaoyang; Wang Zeyan; Jiang Minhua

    2009-08-15

    Metastable Bi{sub 20}TiO{sub 32} samples were synthesized by a high-temperature quenching method using alpha-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and anatase TiO{sub 2} as raw materials. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples was measured with the photodegradation of methyl orange at room temperature under visible light irradiation. The Bi{sub 20}TiO{sub 32} samples exhibited good absorption in the visible light region with a band gap of about 2.38 eV and the band structure of Bi{sub 20}TiO{sub 32} was studied. Photodegradation against methyl orange was much better than alpha-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} prepared by the same way. The photocatalytic activity of Bi{sub 20}TiO{sub 32} samples is supposed to be associated with the hybridized Bi 6s and O 2p orbitals. In addition, the dispersive characteristic of Bi 6s orbital in the hybridized valence band facilitates the mobility of the photogenerated carriers and hampers their recombination. - Graphical abstract: Metastable Bi{sub 20}TiO{sub 32} samples were successfully synthesized by a quenching process. Photodegradation against methyl orange showed high visible-light activity and it was supposed to be associated with its corresponding band structure.

  1. Electron tunneling spectroscopy study of electrically active traps in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jie Cui, Sharon; Ma, T. P.; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Nath, Digbijoy; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-11-25

    We investigate the energy levels of electron traps in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by the use of electron tunneling spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of a typical spectrum, obtained in a wide gate bias range and with both bias polarities, suggests the existence of electron traps both in the bulk of AlGaN and at the AlGaN/GaN interface. The energy levels of the electron traps have been determined to lie within a 0.5?eV band below the conduction band minimum of AlGaN, and there is strong evidence suggesting that these traps contribute to Frenkel-Poole conduction through the AlGaN barrier.

  2. DEEP SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF INFRARED-FAINT RADIO SOURCES: HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Ray P.; Mao, Minnie; Afonso, Jose; Cava, Antonio; Farrah, Duncan; Oliver, Seb; Huynh, Minh T.; Mauduit, Jean-Christophe; Surace, Jason; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, Matt; Lacy, Mark; Maraston, Claudia; Middelberg, Enno; Seymour, Nick

    2011-07-20

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRSs) are a rare class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelengths but very faint at infrared and optical wavelengths. Here we present sensitive near-infrared observations of a sample of these sources taken as part of the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey. Nearly all the IFRSs are undetected at a level of {approx}1 {mu}Jy in these new deep observations, and even the detections are consistent with confusion with unrelated galaxies. A stacked image implies that the median flux density is S{sub 3.6{mu}m} {approx} 0.2 {mu}Jy or less, giving extreme values of the radio-infrared flux density ratio. Comparison of these objects with known classes of object suggests that the majority are probably high-redshift radio-loud galaxies, possibly suffering from significant dust extinction.

  3. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: High-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend Ford F-150 Operating Summary - January 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

    2003-01-22

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents the results of 4,695 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 50% hydrogen-50% CNG fuel.

  4. Analysis of Flow Cytometry DNA Damage Response Protein Activation Kinetics Following X-rays and High Energy Iron Nuclei Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Universities Space Research Association; Chappell, Lori J.; Whalen, Mary K.; Gurai, Sheena; Ponomarev, Artem; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Pluth, Janice M.

    2010-12-15

    We developed a mathematical method to analyze flow cytometry data to describe the kinetics of {gamma}H2AX and pATF2 phosphorylations ensuing various qualities of low dose radiation in normal human fibroblast cells. Previously reported flow cytometry kinetic results for these DSB repair phospho-proteins revealed that distributions of intensity were highly skewed, severely limiting the detection of differences in the very low dose range. Distributional analysis reveals significant differences between control and low dose samples when distributions are compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Radiation quality differences are found in the distribution shapes and when a nonlinear model is used to relate dose and time to the decay of the mean ratio of phosphoprotein intensities of irradiated samples to controls. We analyzed cell cycle phase and radiation quality dependent characteristic repair times and residual phospho-protein levels with these methods. Characteristic repair times for {gamma}H2AX were higher following Fe nuclei as compared to X-rays in G1 cells (4.5 {+-} 0.46 h vs 3.26 {+-} 0.76 h, respectively), and in S/G2 cells (5.51 {+-} 2.94 h vs 2.87 {+-} 0.45 h, respectively). The RBE in G1 cells for Fe nuclei relative to X-rays for {gamma}H2AX was 2.05 {+-} 0.61 and 5.02 {+-} 3.47, at 2 h and 24-h postirradiation, respectively. For pATF2, a saturation effect is observed with reduced expression at high doses, especially for Fe nuclei, with much slower characteristic repair times (>7 h) compared to X-rays. RBEs for pATF2 were 0.66 {+-} 0.13 and 1.66 {+-} 0.46 at 2 h and 24 h, respectively. Significant differences in {gamma}H2AX and pATF2 levels comparing irradiated samples to control were noted even at the lowest dose analyzed (0.05 Gy) using these methods of analysis. These results reveal that mathematical models can be applied to flow cytometry data to uncover important and subtle differences following exposure to various qualities of low dose radiation.

  5. Microstructural characterization of highly HDS-active Co{sub 6}S{sub 8}-pillared molybdenum sulfides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenner, J.; Marshall, C. L.; Ellis, L.; Tomczyk, N.

    1998-05-01

    In this work, we have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study Co{sub 6}S{sub 8}(PPh{sub 3}){sub x}-pillared MoS{sub 2} and have directly observed that the Co clusters can either intercalate into the bulk or can bind to defect sites at the edges of MoS{sub 2}. A distribution of discrete 0.87 nm scattering centers has been assigned to remnants of the Co{sub 6}S{sub 8}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 6} clusters. On the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, a lattice expansion of 1.48 nm was expected if the triphenylphosphine ligands remained intact. The distribution of Co scattering centers, however, was consistent with that expected for a Co{sub 6}S{sub 8} core (0.8 nm). The expansion of the {l_brace}00l{r_brace}-MoS{sub 2} planes was almost always localized about a single Co cluster, and the degree of lattice expansion (0.78 nm) was also consistent with the dimensions of the Co{sub 6}S{sub 8} cores, confirming that the ligands had been nearly completely removed. The organic ligands were removed either during the vacuum pumpdown in the TEM specimen chamber or almost immediately upon electron-beam exposure. Additional electron-beam exposures of up to 1 h caused no further structural changes. The inorganic framework remained intact throughout the duration of the experiment. The Co{sub 6}S{sub 8}-pillared MoS{sub 2} materials possessed dibenzothiophene (DBT) hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activities that were slightly better than that of a commercial sulfided Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst under low-severity HDS conditions. However, the selectivity to biphenyl was somewhat poorer than that of commercial Co-Mo and Ni-Mo catalysts under all conditions examined. The HDS and TEM results suggest that the role of Co in sulfided Co-Mo catalysts is to prop apart MoS{sub 2} layers, creating a higher percentage of 'rim' sites (in the Daage-Chianelli terminology) and enhancing hydrogenation capability.

  6. Microstructural characterization of highly HDS-active Co{sub 6}S{sub 8-}pillared molybdenum sulfide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenner, J.; Marshall, C.; Ellis, L.; Tomczyk, N.; Chemistry

    1998-01-01

    In this work, we have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study Co{sub 6}S{sub 8}(PPh{sub 3}){sub x}-pillared MoS2 and have directly observed that the Co clusters can either intercalate into the bulk or can bind to defect sites at the edges of MoS{sub 2}. A distribution of discrete 0.87 nm scattering centers has been assigned to remnants of the Co{sub 6}S{sub 8}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 6} clusters. On the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, a lattice expansion of 1.48 nm was expected if the triphenylphosphine ligands remained intact. The distribution of Co scattering centers, however, was consistent with that expected for a Co{sub 6}S{sub 8} core (0.8 nm). The expansion of the {l_brace}00l{r_brace}-MoS{sub 2} planes was almost always localized about a single Co cluster, and the degree of lattice expansion (0.78 nm) was also consistent with the dimensions of the Co{sub 6}S{sub 8} cores, confirming that the ligands had been nearly completely removed. The organic ligands were removed either during the vacuum pumpdown in the TEM specimen chamber or almost immediately upon electron-beam exposure. Additional electron-beam exposures of up to 1 h caused no further structural changes. The inorganic framework remained intact throughout the duration of the experiment. The Co{sub 6}S{sub 8}-pillared MoS{sub 2} materials possessed dibenzothiophene (DBT) hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activities that were slightly better than that of a commercial sulfided Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst under low-severity HDS conditions. However, the selectivity to biphenyl was somewhat poorer than that of commercial Co-Mo and Ni-Mo catalysts under all conditions examined. The HDS and TEM results suggest that the role of Co in sulfided Co-Mo catalysts is to prop apart MoS{sub 2} layers, creating a higher percentage of 'rim' sites (in the Daage-Chianelli terminology) and enhancing hydrogenation capability.

  7. The carburization of transition metal molybdates (MxMoO₄, M= Cu, Ni or Co) and the generation of highly active metal/carbide catalysts for CO₂ hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Xu, Wenqian; Ramirez, Pedro J.; Stachiola, Dario; Brito, Joaquin L.

    2015-05-06

    A new approach has been tested for the preparation of metal/Mo₂C catalysts using mixed-metal oxide molybdates as precursors. Synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction was used to study the reduction and carburization processes of Cu₃(MoO₄)₂(OH)₂, a-NiMoO₄ and CoMoO₄•nH₂O by thermal treatment under mixtures of hydrogen and methane. In all cases, the final product was β-Mo₂C and a metal phase (Cu, Ni, or Co), but the transition sequence varied with the different metals, and it could be related to the reduction potential of the Cu²⁺, Ni²⁺ and Co²⁺ cations inside each molybdate. The synthesized Cu/Mo₂C, Ni/Mo₂C and Co/Mo₂C catalysts were highly active for the hydrogenation of CO₂. The metal/Mo₂C systems exhibited large variations in the selectivity towards methanol, methane and CnH₂n₊₂ (n > 2) hydrocarbons depending on the nature of the supported metal and its ability to cleave C-O bonds. Cu/Mo₂C displayed a high selectivity for CO and methanol production. Ni/Mo₂C and Co/Mo₂C were the most active catalysts for the activation and full decomposition of CO₂, showing high selectivity for the production of methane (Ni case) and CnH₂n₊₂ (n > 2) hydrocarbons (Co case).

  8. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1996-01-01

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  9. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  10. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1996-01-30

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  11. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1998-06-02

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  12. RCRA Facility Investigation Plan K-1004 Area Lab Drain and the K-1007-B Pond - Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant - Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ORGDP, Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc.

    1988-12-01

    Within the confines of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) are hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities; some are in operation while others are no longer in use. these solid waste management units (SWMUs) are subject to assessment by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI) Plans are scheduled to be submitted for all units during calendar years 1987 and 1988. The RFI Plan - General Document (K/HS-132) includes information applicable to all the ORGDP SMWUs and serves as a reference document for the site-specific RFI plans. This document is the site-specific RFI Plan for the K-1004 Area Lab Drain (ALD) and the K-1007-B Pond. This plan is based upon requirements described in the draft document, RFI Guidance, Vols. I-IV, December 1987 (EPA 530/SW-87-001). This unit is regulated by Section 3004(u) of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Contained within this document are geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological data specific to the K-1004 ALD and the K-1007-B Pond. The potential for release of contamination through the various media to receptors is addressed. A sampling plan is proposed to further determine the extent (if any) of release of contamination to the surrounding environment. Included are health and safety procedures to be followed when implementing the sampling plan. Quality control (QC) procedures for remedial action occurring on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are presented in 'The Environmental Surveillance Procedures Quality Control Program, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (ESH/Sub/87-21706/1), and quality assurance (QA) guidelines for ORGDP investigations are contained in The K-25 Remedial Actions Program Quality Assurance Plan, K/HS-231.

  13. Evaluation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment drain tanks for reuse in salt disposal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-05-01

    This report was prepared to identify the source documentation used to evaluate the drain tanks in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The evaluation considered the original quality of the tanks, their service history, and their intended use during the removal of fluoride salts. It also includes recommendations for a quality verification plan. The estimates of corrosion damage to the salt containing system at the MSRE are low enough to lend optimism that the system will be fit for its intended use, which is disposal of the salt by transferring it to transport containers. The expected corrosion to date is estimated between 10 and 50 mil, or 2 to 10% of the shell wall. The expected corrosion rate when the tanks are used to remove the salt at 110 F is estimated to be .025 to 0.1 mil per hour of exposure to HF and molten salt. To provide additional assurance that the estimates of corrosion damage are accurate, cost effective nondestructive examination (NDE) has been recommended. The NDE procedures are compared with industry standards and give a perspective for the extent of additional measures taken in the recommendation. A methodology for establishing the remaining life has been recommended, and work is progressing towards providing an engineering evaluation based upon thickness and design conditions for the future use of the tanks. These extra measures and the code based analysis will serve to define the risk of salt or radioactive gases leaking during processing and transfer of the salt as acceptable.

  14. Gamma/neutron analysis for SNM signatures at high-data rates(greater than 107 cps) for single-pulse active interrogation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forman L.; Dioszegi, I.; Salwen, C.

    2011-04-26

    We are developing a high data gamma/neutron spectrometer suitable for active interrogation of special nuclear materials (SNM) activated by a single burst from an intense source. We have tested the system at Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) Mercury pulsed-power facility at distances approaching 10 meters from a depleted uranium (DU) target. We have found that the gamma-ray field in the target room 'disappears' 10 milliseconds after the x-ray flash, and that gamma ray spectroscopy will then be dominated by isomeric states/beta decay of fission products. When a polyethylene moderator is added to the DU target, a time-dependent signature of the DU is produced by thermalized neutrons. We observe this signature in gamma-spectra measured consecutively in the 0.1-1.0 ms time range. These spectra contain the Compton edge line (2.2 MeV) from capture in hydrogen, and a continuous high energy gamma-spectrum from capture or fission in minority constituents of the DU.

  15. High Catalytic Activity of Au/CeOx/TiO2(110) Controlled by the Nature of the Mixed Metal Oxide at the Nanometer Level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J.; Graciani, J; Evans, J; Stacchiola, D; Ma, S; Liu, P; Nambu, A; Sanz, J; Hrbek, J; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-metal oxides play a very important role in many areas of chemistry, physics, materials science, and geochemistry. Recently, there has been a strong interest in understanding phenomena associated with the deposition of oxide nanoparticles on the surface of a second (host) oxide. Here, scanning tunneling microscopy, photoemission, and density-functional calculations are used to study the behavior of ceria nanoparticles deposited on a TiO2(110) surface. The titania substrate imposes nontypical coordination modes on the ceria nanoparticles. In the CeOx/TiO2(110) systems, the Ce cations adopt an structural geometry and an oxidation state (+3) that are quite different from those seen in bulk ceria or for ceria nanoparticles deposited on metal substrates. The increase in the stability of the Ce3+ oxidation state leads to an enhancement in the chemical and catalytic activity of the ceria nanoparticles. The codeposition of ceria and gold nanoparticles on a TiO2(110) substrate generates catalysts with an extremely high activity for the production of hydrogen through the water-gas shift reaction (H2O + CO ? H2 + CO2) or for the oxidation of carbon monoxide (2CO + O2 ? 2CO2). The enhanced stability of the Ce3+ state is an example of structural promotion in catalysis described here on the atomic level. The exploration of mixed-metal oxides at the nanometer level may open avenues for optimizing catalysts through stabilization of unconventional surface structures with special chemical activity.

  16. The carburization of transition metal molybdates (MxMoO₄, M= Cu, Ni or Co) and the generation of highly active metal/carbide catalysts for CO₂ hydrogenation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Xu, Wenqian; Ramirez, Pedro J.; Stachiola, Dario; Brito, Joaquin L.

    2015-05-06

    A new approach has been tested for the preparation of metal/Mo₂C catalysts using mixed-metal oxide molybdates as precursors. Synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction was used to study the reduction and carburization processes of Cu₃(MoO₄)₂(OH)₂, a-NiMoO₄ and CoMoO₄•nH₂O by thermal treatment under mixtures of hydrogen and methane. In all cases, the final product was β-Mo₂C and a metal phase (Cu, Ni, or Co), but the transition sequence varied with the different metals, and it could be related to the reduction potential of the Cu²⁺, Ni²⁺ and Co²⁺ cations inside each molybdate. The synthesized Cu/Mo₂C, Ni/Mo₂C and Co/Mo₂C catalysts were highlymore » active for the hydrogenation of CO₂. The metal/Mo₂C systems exhibited large variations in the selectivity towards methanol, methane and CnH₂n₊₂ (n > 2) hydrocarbons depending on the nature of the supported metal and its ability to cleave C-O bonds. Cu/Mo₂C displayed a high selectivity for CO and methanol production. Ni/Mo₂C and Co/Mo₂C were the most active catalysts for the activation and full decomposition of CO₂, showing high selectivity for the production of methane (Ni case) and CnH₂n₊₂ (n > 2) hydrocarbons (Co case).« less

  17. Erbium and nitrogen co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} with highly visible light photocatalytic activity and stability by solvothermal synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jing; Wei, Yuelin; Huang, Yunfang; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Xuanqing; Sun, Zhixian; Wu, Ying; Tao, Xinling; Fan, Leqing; Wu, Jihuai

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Er/N co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} was prepared by a solvothermal process at low temperature. • The co-doping induces the band gap narrowing and prominent absorbance in visible light region. • The samples show excellent catalytic activity and stability under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Erbium–nitrogen co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} photocatalysts have been synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. The resulting samples were analyzed by FE-SEM, XRD, BET-surface area and UV–vis. The UV–vis absorption spectra of these powders indicated that erbium–nitrogen co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} possessed stronger absorption bands in the visible light region in comparison with that of pure SrTiO{sub 3}. The occurrence of the erbium–nitrogen co-doped cubic SrTiO{sub 3} induced the higher photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under irradiation by ultraviolet light and visible light, respectively, being superior to that of pure SrTiO{sub 3} and commercial TiO{sub 2} (P-25) powders. In addition, the Er–N co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} (initial molar ratios of Sr/Er/N = 1:0.015:0.1, designated as S5) sample showed the best photocatalytic activity with the degradation rate as high as 98% after 30 min under the visible light irradiation. After five cycles, the photocatalytic activity of the S5 catalyst showed no significant decrease, which indicated that the photocatalysts were stable under visible light irradiation.

  18. GeoChip 3.0 as a high-thoughput tool for analyzing microbial community composition, structure, and functional activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Z.; Deng, Y.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Tu, Q.; Xu, M.; Hemme, C.L.; Li, X.; Wu, L.; Gentry, T.J.; Yin, Y.; Liebich, J.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2010-04-01

    A new generation of functional gene arrays (FGAs; GeoChip 3.0) has been developed, with {approx}28,000 probes covering approximately 57,000 gene variants from 292 functional gene families involved in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur cycles, energy metabolism, antibiotic resistance, metal resistance and organic contaminant degradation. GeoChip 3.0 also has several other distinct features, such as a common oligo reference standard (CORS) for data normalization and comparison, a software package for data management and future updating and the gyrB gene for phylogenetic analysis. Computational evaluation of probe specificity indicated that all designed probes would have a high specificity to their corresponding targets. Experimental analysis with synthesized oligonucleotides and genomic DNAs showed that only 0.0036-0.025% false-positive rates were observed, suggesting that the designed probes are highly specific under the experimental conditions examined. In addition, GeoChip 3.0 was applied to analyze soil microbial communities in a multifactor grassland ecosystem in Minnesota, USA, which showed that the structure, composition and potential activity of soil microbial communities significantly changed with the plant species diversity. As expected, GeoChip 3.0 is a high-throughput powerful tool for studying microbial community functional structure, and linking microbial communities to ecosystem processes and functioning.

  19. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of orally administered acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyanoenone), a highly potent Nrf2 activator with a reversible covalent mode of action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostov, Rumen V.; Knatko, Elena V.; McLaughlin, Lesley A.; Henderson, Colin J.; Zheng, Suqing; Huang, Jeffrey T.-J.; Honda, Tadashi; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.

    2015-09-25

    The acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyanoenone) TBE-31 is a highly potent cysteine targeting compound with a reversible covalent mode of action; its best-characterized target being Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1), the cellular sensor for oxidants and electrophiles. TBE-31 reacts with cysteines of Keap1, impairing its ability to target nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) for degradation. Consequently, Nrf2 accumulates and orchestrates cytoprotective gene expression. In this study we investigated the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of TBE-31 in C57BL/6 mice. After a single oral dose of 10 μmol/kg (∼200 nmol/animal), the concentration of TBE-31 in blood exhibited two peaks, at 22.3 nM and at 15.5 nM, 40 min and 4 h after dosing, respectively, as determined by a quantitative stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method. The AUC{sub 0–24h} was 195.5 h/nmol/l, the terminal elimination half-life was 10.2 h, and the k{sub el} was 0.068 h{sup −1}. To assess the pharmacodynamics of Nrf2 activation by TBE-31, we determined the enzyme activity of its prototypic target, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and found it elevated by 2.4- and 1.5-fold in liver and heart, respectively. Continuous feeding for 18 days with diet delivering the same daily doses of TBE-31 under conditions of concurrent treatment with the immunosuppressive agent azathioprine had a similar effect on Nrf2 activation without any indications of toxicity. Together with previous reports showing the cytoprotective effects of TBE-31 in animal models of carcinogenesis, our results demonstrate the high potency, efficacy and suitability for chronic administration of cysteine targeting reversible covalent drugs. - Highlights: • TBE-31 is a cysteine targeting compound with a reversible covalent mode of action. • After a single oral dose, the blood concentration of TBE-31 exhibits two peaks. • Oral TBE-31 is a potent activator of Nrf2-dependent enzymes in

  20. Widening the envelope of UK HLW vitrification - Experimental studies with high waste loadings and new product formulations on a full scale non-active vitrification plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, R.; Gribble, N. [Nexia Solutions, Sellafield, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Riley, A. [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG, UK (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    The Vitrification Test Rig is a full scale waste vitrification plant that processes non-radioactive liquid HLW simulants based on the active waste streams produced by the reprocessing plants in the UK. Previous work on the rig has primarily concerned increasing the operational envelopes for the active waste vitrification plants at Sellafield to accommodate higher throughputs of Blended waste streams, higher waste oxide incorporation rates in the vitrified products, and the incorporation of legacy waste streams from early reactor commissioning and reprocessing operations at Sellafield. Recent operations have focussed on four main areas; dilute liquid feeds, very high Magnox waste stream incorporation levels, alternative base glass formulations and providing an operational envelope for 28 %w/w Magnox waste vitrification. This paper details the work performed and the major findings of that work. In summary: The VTR has been successfully used to determine operational envelopes and product quality for several HLW feed variations that will allow WVP to increase overall plant throughput via increased waste loading in canisters, increased HLW feed rates or a combination of both. The VTR has also demonstrated the ability to go to waste incorporations, feed rates and glass compositions that are currently beyond WVP specified limits, but that are feasible for future vitrification regimes. In addition, the VTR has trialled dilute feeds similar to those that are likely to be received by WVP in the future and the data obtained from these experiments will allow WVP to prepare adequately for the high throughput challenge of such feeds. Furthermore, new equipment has been trialled on the VTR in water feed mode to determine its suitability and operational limitations for WVP. Future operations will, in the short term, be concerned with increasing the throughput of WVP and are likely to focus on HLW decommissioning operations waste streams in the longer term. (authors)

  1. Highly Active and Stable MgAl2O4 Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts for Methane Steam Reforming: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Donghai; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Kovarik, Libor; Wan, Haiying; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gerber, Mark A.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2014-07-01

    In this work we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of stable MgAl2O4 spinel-supported Rh and Ir catalysts for the steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction. Firstly, catalytic performance for a series of noble metal catalysts supported on MgAl2O4 spinel was evaluated for SMR at 600-850°C. Turnover rate at 850°C follows the order: Pd > Pt > Ir > Rh > Ru > Ni. However, Rh and Ir were found to have the best combination of activity and stability for methane steam reforming in the presence of simulated biomass-derived syngas. It was found that highly dispersed ~2 nm Rh and ~1 nm Ir clusters were formed on the MgAl2O4 spinel support. Scanning Transition Electron Microscopy (STEM) images show that excellent dispersion was maintained even under challenging high temperature conditions (e.g. at 850°C in the presence of steam) while Ir and Rh catalysts supported on Al2O3 were observed to sinter at increased rates under the same conditions. These observations were further confirmed by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations which find that ~1 nm Rh and Ir particles (50-atom cluster) bind strongly to the MgAl2O4 surfaces via a redox process leading to a strong metal-support interaction, thus helping anchor the metal clusters and reduce the tendency to sinter. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that these supported smaller Rh and Ir particles have a lower work function than larger more bulk-like ones, which enables them to activate both water and methane more effectively than larger particles, yet have a minimal influence on the relative stability of coke precursors. In addition, theoretical mechanistic studies were used to probe the relationship between structure and reactivity. Consistent with the experimental observations, our theoretical modeling results also suggest that the small spinel-supported Ir particle catalyst is more active than the counterpart of Rh catalyst for SMR. This work was financially supported by the

  2. Rapid microwave hydrothermal synthesis of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high photocatalytic activity toward aromatic compounds in air and dyes in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Meng; Li Danzhen; Zhang Wenjuan; Chen Zhixin; Huang Hanjie; Li Wenjuan; He Yunhui; Fu Xianzhi

    2012-06-15

    ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized from Ga(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and ZnCl{sub 2} via a rapid and facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic properties of the as-prepared ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} were evaluated by the degradation of pollutants in air and aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination. The results demonstrated that ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photocatalytic activities higher than that of commercial P25 (Degussa Co.) in the degradation of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, respectively. In the liquid phase degradation of dyes (methyl orange, Rhodamine B, and methylene blue), ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} has also exhibited remarkable activities higher than that of P25. After 32 min of UV light irradiation, the decomposition ratio of methyl orange (10 ppm, 150 mL) over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.06 g) was up to 99%. The TOC tests revealed that the mineralization ratio of MO (10 ppm, 150 mL) was 88.1% after 90 min of reaction. A possible mechanism of the photocatalysis over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was also proposed. - Graphical abstract: In the degradation of RhB under UV light irradiation, ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photo-activity, and after only 24 min of irradiation the decomposition ratio was up to 99.8%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and facile M-H method to synthesize ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalyst exhibits high activity toward benzene and dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst possesses more surface hydroxyl sites than TiO{sub 2} (P25). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep oxidation of different aromatic compounds and dyes over catalyst.

  3. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Nuclear Materials Contained in High-Activity Waste Arising from the Operations at the 'SHELTER' Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherkas, Dmytro

    2011-10-01

    As a result of the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, the explosion dispeesed nuclear materials contained in the nuclear fuel of the reactor core over the destroyed facilities at Unit No. 4 and over the territory immediately adjacent to the destroyed unit. The debris was buried under the Cascade Wall. Nuclear materials at the SHELTER can be characterized as spent nuclear fuel, fresh fuel assemblies (including fuel assemblies with damaged geometry and integrity, and individual fuel elements), core fragments of the Chernobyl NPP Unit No. 4, finely-dispersed fuel (powder/dust), uranium and plutonium compounds in water solutions, and lava-like nuclear fuel-containing masses. The new safe confinement (NSC) is a facility designed to enclose the Chernobyl NPP Unit No. 4 destroyed by the accident. Construction of the NSC involves excavating operations, which are continuously monitored including for the level of radiation. The findings of such monitoring at the SHELTER site will allow us to characterize the recovered radioactive waste. When a process material categorized as high activity waste (HAW) is detected the following HLW management operations should be involved: HLW collection; HLW fragmentation (if appropriate); loading HAW into the primary package KT-0.2; loading the primary package filled with HAW into the transportation cask KTZV-0.2; and storing the cask in temporary storage facilities for high-level solid waste. The CDAS system is a system of 3He tubes for neutron coincidence counting, and is designed to measure the percentage ratio of specific nuclear materials in a 200-liter drum containing nuclear material intermixed with a matrix. The CDAS consists of panels with helium counter tubes and a polyethylene moderator. The panels are configured to allow one to position a waste-containing drum and a drum manipulator. The system operates on the ‘add a source’ basis using a small Cf-252 source to identify irregularities in the matrix during an assay

  4. P-doping-free III-nitride high electron mobility light-emitting diodes and transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Baikui; Tang, Xi; Chen, Kevin J.; Wang, Jiannong

    2014-07-21

    We report that a simple metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diode is capable of producing GaN band-edge ultraviolet emission at 3.4?eV at a small forward bias larger than ?2?V at room temperature. Based on the surface states distribution of AlGaN, a mature impact-ionization-induced Fermi-level de-pinning model is proposed to explain the underlying mechanism of the electroluminescence (EL) process. By experimenting with different Schottky metals, Ni/Au and Pt/Au, we demonstrated that this EL phenomenon is a universal property of metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diodes. Since this light-emitting Schottky diode shares the same active structure and fabrication processes as the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, straight-forward and seamless integration of photonic and electronic functional devices has been demonstrated on doping-free III-nitride heterostructures. Using a semitransparent Schottky drain electrode, an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility light-emitting transistor is demonstrated.

  5. Correlation between antitumor activity of protein A and in vivo formation of defined high molecular weight complexes with immunoglobulin G in BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, C.; Langone, J.J.

    1987-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that antitumor activity of staphylococcal protein A (SpA) is related to the composition of complexes formed in vivo with IgG. BALB/c mice were inoculated intradermally with 10(6) Meth A fibrosarcoma cells on day 0 and treated i.v. on days 3 and 7 with between 1 and 405 micrograms of SpA. The 45- and 15-micrograms doses significantly inhibited tumor growth and enhanced survival time compared to saline controls in four of four and two of four experiments, respectively. Sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation was used to show that serum from tumor-bearing or normal mice given 45 or 15 micrograms of /sup 125/I-labeled SpA contained only high molecular weight ((IgG)2SpA)2 complexes for up to 24 h after injection, whereas serum from mice given higher ineffective doses (135 and 405 micrograms) contained low molecular weight (IgG)(SpA) complexes over the first 1-4 h. Serum from mice undergoing successful therapy with 45 micrograms of unlabeled SpA also contained only ((IgG)2SpA)2 complexes. In contrast, when mice with large tumors (120-150 mm2) were treated on days 16 and 20, only the 135- and 405-micrograms doses significantly inhibited further tumor growth. Serum from mice with 16-day tumors contained only ((IgG)2SpA)2 complexes even after 5 min and when 135 or 405 micrograms of 125I-SpA was given. This result is consistent with significantly higher levels of total and SpA-reactive IgG in serum from these mice compared to normal mice or mice with 3-day tumors. Our results demonstrate a correlation between antitumor activity of SpA and in vivo formation of ((IgG)2SpA)2 complexes in an established animal model, and help to define the mechanism of SpA action at the molecular level.

  6. C-H surface diamond field effect transistors for high temperature (400 °C) and high voltage (500 V) operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawarada, H.; Tsuboi, H.; Naruo, T.; Yamada, T.; Xu, D.; Daicho, A.; Saito, T.; Hiraiwa, A.

    2014-07-07

    By forming a highly stable Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide on a C-H bonded channel of diamond, high-temperature, and high-voltage metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) has been realized. From room temperature to 400 °C (673 K), the variation of maximum drain-current is within 30% at a given gate bias. The maximum breakdown voltage (V{sub B}) of the MOSFET without a field plate is 600 V at a gate-drain distance (L{sub GD}) of 7 μm. We fabricated some MOSFETs for which V{sub B}/L{sub GD} > 100 V/μm. These values are comparable to those of lateral SiC or GaN FETs. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was deposited on the C-H surface by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 450 °C using H{sub 2}O as an oxidant. The ALD at relatively high temperature results in stable p-type conduction and FET operation at 400 °C in vacuum. The drain current density and transconductance normalized by the gate width are almost constant from room temperature to 400 °C in vacuum and are about 10 times higher than those of boron-doped diamond FETs.

  7. Successful Characterization Strategies for the Active High Risk Y-12 National Security Complex 9201-5 (Alpha-5) Facility, Oak Ridge, TN - 12164

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birchfield, Joseph W. III; Albrecht, Linda

    2012-07-01

    Building 9201-5 (Alpha 5) was completed in May 1944 and served as a production facility for National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Y-12 Weapons Plant. During the Manhattan Project, it functioned as a uranium enrichment facility. The facility was renovated and altered over the years, converting the calutrons to support other missions. Alpha 5 consists of 4 floors and a basement measuring approximately 600,000 square feet. The facility contains various pieces of equipment remaining from legacy operations. A significant amount (approximately 200,000 kgs) of mercury (Hg) has been spilled in the facility over the operational history of the building. To further complicate matters, beryllium (Be) contamination in 9201-5 is found throughout approximately sixty percent of the facility. Concentrations varying from very low (< 0.2 micrograms (μg)/100 cm{sup 2}) to areas where concentrations are relatively high, approximately 600 μg/100 cm{sup 2}, in regulated beryllium areas. The primary site related contaminants (SRCs) for the waste in this facility are enriched uranium, depleted uranium, beryllium and mercury. This facility represents the highest environmental risk for DOE-ORO EM and NNSA at Y-12 and must be quickly addressed to minimize impacts to future Y-12 missions, as well as human health and the environment. As part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), approximately 700,000 cubic feet of legacy material was removed in 2010 and 2011. In addition, characterization of the 9201-5 facility was scheduled in the winter and spring of 2011. This activity was initiated in January 2011 and was completed in July 2011. Heavy schedule pressure was further complicated by the fact that this building has active utility, security and process systems. Given these complex variables, a unique, out of the box characterization strategy was forged in an effort to bound radiological and chemical contaminants, as well as providing the appropriate level of quality to

  8. FOSTERING MULTI-LATERAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF MEXICO, COLOMBIA, AND THE UNITED STATES TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, Nicholas; Watson, Erica E.; Wright, Kyle A.

    2009-10-07

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI program has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Mexico, GTRI first made contact in 2005. The project then lost momentum and stalled. At the same time, GTRIs cooperation with the Republic of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRIs interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Mexico and to facilitate this cooperation, they offered to invite their Mexican counterparts to Colombia to observe its successful cooperation with GTRI. Shortly after that visit, the Government of Mexico agreed to move forward and requested that the cooperative efforts in Mexico be performed in a tripartite manner, leveraging the skills, experience, and resources of the Colombians. As a result, 22 of Mexicos largest radioactive sites have had security upgrades in place within 18 months of cooperation.

  9. Neutron Damage in Mechanically-Cooled High-Purity Germanium Detectors for Field-Portable Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.H. Seabury; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey; J.B. McCabe; C. DeW. Van Siclen

    2013-10-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation (PGNAA) systems require the use of a gamma-ray spectrometer to record the gamma-ray spectrum of an object under test and allow the determination of the object’s composition. Field-portable systems, such as Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS system, have used standard liquid-nitrogen-cooled high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to perform this function. These detectors have performed very well in the past, but the requirement of liquid-nitrogen cooling limits their use to areas where liquid nitrogen is readily available or produced on-site. Also, having a relatively large volume of liquid nitrogen close to the detector can impact some assessments, possibly leading to a false detection of explosives or other nitrogen-containing chemical. Use of a mechanically-cooled HPGe detector is therefore very attractive for PGNAA applications where nitrogen detection is critical or where liquid-nitrogen logistics are problematic. Mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors constructed from p-type germanium, such as Ortec’s trans-SPEC, have been commercially available for several years. In order to assess whether these detectors would be suitable for use in a fielded PGNAA system, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been performing a number of tests of the resistance of mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors to neutron damage. These detectors have been standard commercially-available p-type HPGe detectors as well as prototype n-type HPGe detectors. These tests compare the performance of these different detector types as a function of crystal temperature and incident neutron fluence on the crystal.

  10. FOSTERING MULTI-LATERAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, COLOMBIA, AND THE UNITED STATES TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, Nicholas; McCaw, Erica E.; Wright, Kyle A.; Medina, Maximo

    2009-10-06

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Dominican Republic, the GTRI first received contact in 2008 from the Government of Dominican Republic. They requested cooperation that was similar to the tri-partite cooperation between Colombia, Mexico and the United States. Throughout the region it was widely known that the GTRIs cooperation with the Government of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The Government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. In 2007, Colombia was an integral component of GTRI multi-lateral cooperation initiation in Mexico. As a result, twenty two of Mexicos largest radioactive sites have been upgraded in the past eighteen months. These two endeavors served as catalysts for cooperation opportunities in the Dominican Republic. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRIs interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Dominican Republic and to facilitate this cooperation, they

  11. High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

  12. Pink-Beam, Highly-Accurate Compact Water Cooled Slits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Jayne, Richard; Waterman, Dave; Caletka, Dave; Steadman, Paul; Dhesi, Sarnjeet

    2007-01-19

    Advanced Design Consulting, Inc. (ADC) has designed accurate compact slits for applications where high precision is required. The system consists of vertical and horizontal slit mechanisms, a vacuum vessel which houses them, water cooling lines with vacuum guards connected to the individual blades, stepper motors with linear encoders, limit (home position) switches and electrical connections including internal wiring for a drain current measurement system. The total slit size is adjustable from 0 to 15 mm both vertically and horizontally. Each of the four blades are individually controlled and motorized. In this paper, a summary of the design and Finite Element Analysis of the system are presented.

  13. Method for enhancing stability of high explosives, for purposes of transport or storage, and the stabilized high explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nutt, Gerald L.

    1991-01-01

    The stability of porous solid high explosives, for purposes of transport or storage, is enhanced by reducing the sensitivity to shock initiation of a reaction that leads to detonation. The pores of the explosive down to a certain size are filled under pressure with a stable, low melt temperature material in liquid form, and the combined material is cooled so the pore filling material solidifies. The stability can be increased to progressively higher levels by filling smaller pores. The pore filling material can be removed, at least partially, by reheating above its melt temperature and drained off so that the explosive is once more suitable for detonation.

  14. REPORT OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES FOR THE YEARS 2000 - 2003; HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS GROUP; SOUTHERN METHODIST UNIVERSITY; EXPERIMENTAL TASK A AND THEORY TASK B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ryszard Stroynowski

    2003-07-01

    The experimental program in High Energy Physics at SMU was initiated in 1992. Its main goal is the search for new physics phenomena beyond the Standard Model (SSC, LHC) and the study of the properties of heavy quarks and leptons (CLEO, BTeV).

  15. Active-R filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soderstrand, Michael A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational amplifier-type active filter in which the only capacitor in the circuit is the compensating capacitance of the operational amplifiers, the various feedback and coupling elements being essentially solely resistive.

  16. Production Pathways and Separation Procedures for High-Diagnostic-Value Activation Species, Fission Products, and Actinides Required for Preparation of Realistic Synthetic Post-Detonation Nuclear Debris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faye, S A; Shaughnessy, D A

    2015-08-19

    The objective of this project is to provide a comprehensive study on the production routes and chemical separation requirements for activation products, fission products, and actinides required for the creation of realistic post-detonation surrogate debris. Isotopes that have been prioritized by debris diagnosticians will be examined for their ability to be produced at existing irradiation sources, production rates, and availability of target materials, and chemical separation procedures required to rapidly remove the products from the bulk target matrix for subsequent addition into synthetic debris samples. The characteristics and implications of the irradiation facilities on the isotopes of interest will be addressed in addition to a summary of the isotopes that are already regularly produced.

  17. Hot-carrier-induced linear drain current and threshold voltage degradation for thin layer silicon-on-insulator field P-channel lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xin; Qiao, Ming; He, Yitao; Li, Zhaoji; Zhang, Bo

    2015-11-16

    Hot-carrier-induced linear drain current (I{sub dlin}) and threshold voltage (V{sub th}) degradations for the thin layer SOI field p-channel lateral double-diffused MOS (pLDMOS) are investigated. Two competition degradation mechanisms are revealed and the hot-carrier conductance modulation model is proposed. In the channel, hot-hole injection induced positive oxide trapped charge and interface trap gives rise to the V{sub th} increasing and the channel conductance (G{sub ch}) decreasing, then reduces I{sub dlin}. In the p-drift region, hot-electron injection induced negative oxide trapped charge enhances the conductance of drift doping resistance (G{sub d}), and then increases I{sub dlin}. Consequently, the eventual I{sub dlin} degradation is controlled by the competition of the two mechanisms due to conductance modulation in the both regions. Based on the model, it is explained that the measured I{sub dlin} anomalously increases while the V{sub th} is increasing with power law. The thin layer field pLDMOS exhibits more severe V{sub th} instability compared with thick SOI layer structure; as a result, it should be seriously evaluated in actual application in switching circuit.

  18. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor With Results from FY-2011 Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Pope

    2011-10-01

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450

  19. Highly efficient visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaiwichian, Saranyoo; Inceesungvorn, Burapat; Wetchakun, Khatcharin; Phanichphant, Sukon; Kangwansupamonkon, Wiyong; Wetchakun, Natda

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts were obtained using hydrothermal method. Physicochemical properties played a significant role on photocatalytic efficiency. Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterogeneous structures were greatly enhanced for degradation of MB. A tentative mechanism of charge transfer process in MB degradation was proposed. - Abstract: The Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Physical properties of the heterojunction photocatalyst samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The XRD results indicated that BiVO{sub 4} retain monoclinic and tetragonal structures, while Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} presented as orthorhombic structure. The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) adsorptiondesorption of nitrogen gas for specific surface area determination at the temperature of liquid nitrogen was performed on all samples. UVvis diffuse reflectance spectra (UVvis DRS) were used to identify the absorption range and band gap energy of the heterojunction photocatalysts. The photocatalytic performance of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts was studied via the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The results indicated that the heterojunction photocatalyst at 0.5:0.5 mole ratio of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}:BiVO{sub 4} shows the highest photocatalytic activity.

  20. Interactive Activity Detection Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Activity Detection Tools Interactive Activity Detection Tools Tools for detecting specified activities in video data provide a key intelligence capability. High numbers of false alarms, however, reduce tool effectiveness and analyst patience. User feedback reduces false alarms * This project will reduce the number of false alarms generated by activity detection tools (including single vehicle start / stop, multi-vehicle meetings and coordinated driving patterns) by exploiting user feedback in a

  1. Energy Storage Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy Development Energy Storage Testing and ... Testing Overview and Progress of the Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design Activity ...

  2. Interim Closure Activities at Corrective Action Unit 114: Area 25 EMAD Facility, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehlecke, R. F.

    2011-10-24

    This letter report documents interim activities that have been completed at CAU 114 to support ongoing access and generate information necessary to plan future closure activities. General housekeeping and cleanup of debris was conducted in the EMAD yard, cold bays, support areas of Building 3900, and postmortem cell tunnel area of the hot bay. All non-asbestos ceiling tiles and loose and broken non-friable asbestos floor tiles were removed from support galleries and office areas. Non-radiologically contaminated piping and equipment in the cold areas of the building and in the two 120-ton locomotives in the yard were tapped, characterized, drained, and verified free of contents.

  3. A novel magnetically separable TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofiber with high photocatalytic activity under UV-vis light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Cong-Ju; Wang, Jiao-Na; Wang, Bin; Gong, Jian Ru; Lin, Zhang

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: A novel magnetically separable composite photocatalyst TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofiber was prepared by sol-gel method and electrospinning technique, which can be reclaimed with a magnet, and the decolorizing efficiency of MB solution reached 95.87%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofibers with diameter of 110 {+-} 28 nm have been successfully synthesized by the combination of sol-gel method and electrospinning technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of Co{sup 2+} or/and Fe{sup 3+} ions may occupy some of the lattice sites of TiO{sub 2} to form an iron-titanium solid solution and narrow the band gap, which broadens the response region of visible light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resultant nanofibers not only have high decomposition efficiency with methylene blue (MB) under the UV irradiation, which is close to that of Degussa P25, but also can be separated with a magnet and avoid the secondary pollution of the treated water. -- Abstract: A novel magnetically separable heterogeneous photocatalyst TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofiber was prepared by sol-gel method and electrospinning technology, followed by heat treatment at 550 Degree-Sign C for 2 h. The phase structure, morphology and magnetic property of the composite nanofibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer analysis. The photocatalytic studies of TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} fibers suggested that the presence of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} not only enhanced the absorbance of UV light, but also broadened the response region to visible light. The decolorizing efficiency of methylene blue (MB) solution reaches 95.87% over TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofibers under 300 W Hg lamp after 5 h, which is close to that of Degussa P25. Furthermore, these fibers can be collected with a magnet for reuse and

  4. Generating power with drained coal mine methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    The article describes the three technologies most commonly used for generating electricity from coal mine methane: internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and microturbines. The most critical characteristics and features of these technologies, such as efficiency, output and size are highlighted. 5 refs.

  5. Network Activity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Statistics Network Activity Network Activity PDSF Network Uplinks to NERSC (dual 10 Gbps) NERSC Uplink to ESnet Last edited: 2011-03-31 22:20:59...

  6. High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    interoperable dynamic shading, daylighting, and lighting systems that enable reliable, less complex, and cost-effective reductions in energy use and peak demand at the ...

  7. Preparation of high specific activity technetium-96

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mausner, Leonard F.; Srivastava, Suresh C.; Prach, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing Tc-96 from the proton irradiation of a rhodium target and a technique for isolating under remote hot cell conditions the Tc-96 from the proton irradiated target.

  8. Activation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane William [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material lacking a photoluminescent material and generating a by-product of a radioactive decay due to the activator impinging the reeptor material. The method further including, generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect and identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the light.

  9. Microstructural and compositional change of NaOH-activated high calcium fly ash by incorporating Na-aluminate and co-existence of geopolymeric gel and C-S-H(I)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Jae Eun; Moon, Juhyuk; Oh, Sang-Gyun; Clark, Simon M.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2012-05-15

    This study explores the reaction products of alkali-activated Class C fly ash-based aluminosilicate samples by means of high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction (HSXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and compressive strength tests to investigate how the readily available aluminum affects the reaction. Class C fly ash-based aluminosilicate raw materials were prepared by incorporating Na-aluminate into the original fly ashes, then alkali-activated by 10 M NaOH solution. Incorporating Na-aluminate reduced the compressive strength of samples, with the reduction magnitude relatively constant regardless of length of curing period. The HSXRD provides evidence of the co-existence of C-S-H with geopolymeric gels and strongly suggests that the C-S-H formed in the current system is C-S-H(I). The back-scattered electron images suggest that the C-S-H(I) phase exists as small grains in a finely intermixed form with geopolymeric gels. Despite providing extra source of aluminum, adding Na-aluminate to the mixes did not decrease the Si/Al ratio of the geopolymeric gel.

  10. Current collapse imaging of Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by electric field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katsuno, Takashi Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2014-06-23

    Two-dimensional current collapse imaging of a Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor device was achieved by optical electric field-induced second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurements. EFISHG measurements can detect the electric field produced by carriers trapped in the on-state of the device, which leads to current collapse. Immediately after (e.g., 1, 100, or 800 μs) the completion of drain-stress voltage (200 V) in the off-state, the second-harmonic (SH) signals appeared within 2 μm from the gate edge on the drain electrode. The SH signal intensity became weak with time, which suggests that the trapped carriers are emitted from the trap sites. The SH signal location supports the well-known virtual gate model for current collapse.

  11. Recovery in dc and rf performance of off-state step-stressed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Byung-Jae; Hwang, Ya-Hsi; Ahn, Shihyun; Zhu, Weidi; Dong, Chen; Lu, Liu; Ren, Fan; Holzworth, M. R.; Jones, Kevin S.; Pearton, Stephen J.; Smith, David J.; Kim, Jihyun; Zhang, Ming-Lan

    2015-04-13

    The recovery effects of thermal annealing on dc and rf performance of off-state step-stressed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors were investigated. After stress, reverse gate leakage current and sub-threshold swing increased and drain current on-off ratio decreased. However, these degradations were completely recovered after thermal annealing at 450?C for 10 mins for devices stressed either once or twice. The trap densities, which were estimated by temperature-dependent drain-current sub-threshold swing measurements, increased after off-state step-stress and were reduced after subsequent thermal annealing. In addition, the small signal rf characteristics of stressed devices were completely recovered after thermal annealing.

  12. Activated carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanzawa, Y.; Kaneko, K. [Chiba Univ. (Japan)] [Chiba Univ. (Japan); Pekala, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dresselhaus, M.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-25

    Activated carbon aerogels were obtained from the CO{sub 2} activation of the carbon aerogels. The adsorption isotherms of nitrogen on activated carbon aerogels at 77 K were measured and analyzed by the high-resolution {alpha}{sub s} plot to evaluate their porosities. The {alpha}{sub s} plot showed an upward deviation from linearity below {alpha}{sub s} = 0.5, suggesting that the presence of micropores becomes more predominant with the extent of the activation. Activation increased noticeably the pore volume and the surface area (the maximum value: 2600 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}) without change of the basic network structure of primary particles. Activated carbon aerogels had a bimodal pore size distribution of uniform micropores and mesopores. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Investigation of methanol oxidation on a highly active and stable Pt–Sn electrocatalyst supported on carbon–polyaniline composite for application in a passive direct methanol fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amani, Mitra; Kazemeini, Mohammad; Hamedanian, Mahboobeh; Pahlavanzadeh, Hassan; Gharibi, Hussein

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • PtSn/C-PANI performed superior in the MOR compared with a commercial PtRu/C. • Catalytic activity of PtRu/C was highly reduced during the accelerated durability test. • Anode of the PtSn/C-PANI in a passive DMFC lowered methanol crossover by 30%. - Abstract: Polyaniline fiber (PANI) was synthesized and utilized to fabricate a vulcan–polyaniline (C-PANI) composite. Pt/C-PANI and PtSn/C-PANI electro-catalysts with different Pt:Sn atomic ratios were prepared by the impregnation method. These electro-catalysts, along with commercial PtRu/C (Electrochem), were characterized with respect to their structural and electrochemical properties in methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). PtSn(70:30)/C-PANI showed excellent performance in MOR, the obtained maximum current density being about 40% and 50% higher than that for PtRu/C and Pt/C-PANI, respectively. It was also found that the CO tolerance and stability of PtSn(70:30)/C-PANI was considerably higher than that of PtRu/C. Finally, the performance of these two materials was compared in a passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The DMFC test results demonstrated that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) prepared using PtSn(70:30)/C-PANI anode catalyst performed more satisfactorily in terms of maximum power density and lower methanol crossover.

  14. Effect of tunnel injection through the Schottky gate on the static and noise behavior of GaInAs/AlInAs high electron mobility transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moro-Melgar, Diego; Mateos, Javier Gonzlez, Toms Vasallo, Beatriz G.

    2014-12-21

    By using a Monte Carlo simulator, the influence of the tunnel injection through the Schottky contact at the gate electrode of a GaInAs/AlInAs High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) has been studied in terms of the static and noise performance. The method used to characterize the quantum tunnel current has been the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approach. The possibility of taking into account the influence of the image charge effect in the potential barrier height has been included as well. Regarding the static behavior, tunnel injection leads to a decrease in the drain current I{sub D} due to an enhancement of the potential barrier controlling the carrier transport through the channel. However, the pinch-off is degraded due to the tunneling current. Regarding the noise behavior, since the fluctuations in the potential barrier height caused by the tunnel-injected electrons are strongly coupled with the drain current fluctuations, a significant increase in the drain-current noise takes place, even when the tunnel effect is hardly noticeable in the static I-V characteristics, fact that must be taken into account when designing scaled HEMT for low-noise applications. In addition, tunnel injection leads to the appearance of full shot noise in the gate current.

  15. Catalyst activator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McAdon, Mark H.; Nickias, Peter N.; Marks, Tobin J.; Schwartz, David J.

    2001-01-01

    A catalyst activator particularly adapted for use in the activation of metal complexes of metals of Group 3-10 for polymerization of ethylenically unsaturated polymerizable monomers, especially olefins, comprising two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms and a ligand structure including at least one bridging group connecting ligands on the two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms.

  16. CX-004844: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    B-Wing High Activity Drain Exhaust (HADE) Filter HousingCX(s) Applied: B1.3Date: 12/17/2010Location(s): Aiken, South CarolinaOffice(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  17. International fuel cycle and waste management technology exchange activities sponsored by the United States Department of Energy: FY 1982 evaluation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.

    1983-02-01

    In FY 1982, DOE and DOE contractor personnel attended 40 international symposia and conferences on fuel reprocessing and waste management subjects. The treatment of high-level waste was the topic most often covered in the visits, with geologic disposal and general waste management also being covered in numerous visits. Topics discussed less frequently inlcude TRU/LLW treatment, airborne waste treatment, D and D, spent fuel handling, and transportation. The benefits accuring to the US from technology exchange activities with other countries are both tangible, e.g., design of equipment, and intangible, e.g., improved foreign relations. New concepts initiated in other countries, particularly those with sizable nuclear programs, are beginning to appear in US efforts in growing numbers. The spent fuel dry storage concept originating in the FRG is being considered at numerous sites. Similarly, the German handling and draining concepts for the joule-heated ceramic melter used to vitrify wastes are being incorporated in US designs. Other foreigh technologies applicable in the US include the slagging incinerator (Belgium), the SYNROC waste form (Australia), the decontamination experience gained in decommissioning the Eurochemic reprocessing plant (Belgium), the engineered surface storage of low- and intermediate-level waste (Belgium, FRG, France), the air-cooled storage of vitrified high-level waste (France, UK), waste packaging (Canada, FRG, Sweden), disposal in salt (FRG), disposal in granite (Canada, Sweden), and sea dumping (UK, Belgium, The Netherlands, Switzerland). These technologies did not necessarily originated or have been tried in the US but for various reasons are now being applied and extended in other countries. This growing nuclear technological base in other countires reduces the number of technology avenues the US need follow to develop a solid nuclear power program.

  18. High Impact Technology Hub- Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Highlights, outcomes and activities to support the adoption of High Impact Technologies. Technology Highlights preview early results from current technology demonstrations. Case Studies overview...

  19. Magnetic field effect on the terahertz emission from nanometer InGaAs/AlInAs high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyakonova, N.; Teppe, F.; Lusakowski, J.; Knap, W.; Levinshtein, M.; Dmitriev, A.P.; Shur, M.S.; Bollaert, S.; Cappy, A.

    2005-06-01

    The influence of the magnetic field on the excitation of plasma waves in InGaAs/AlInAs lattice matched high electron mobility transistors is reported. The threshold source-drain voltage of the excitation of the terahertz emission shifts to higher values under a magnetic field increasing from 0 to 6 T. We show that the main change of the emission threshold in relatively low magnetic fields (smaller than approximately 4 T) is due to the magnetoresistance of the ungated parts of the channel. In higher magnetic fields, the effect of the magnetic field on the gated region of the device becomes important.

  20. RELATIVISTIC (E > 0.6, > 2.0, AND > 4.0 MeV) ELECTRON ACCELERATION AT GEOSYNCHRONOUS ORBIT DURING HIGH-INTENSITY, LONG-DURATION, CONTINUOUS AE ACTIVITY (HILDCAA) EVENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hajra, Rajkumar; Echer, Ezequiel; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Santolik, Ondrej

    2015-01-20

    Radiation-belt relativistic (E > 0.6, > 2.0, and > 4.0 MeV) electron acceleration is studied for solar cycle 23 (1995-2008). High-intensity, long-duration, continuous AE activity (HILDCAA) events are considered as the basis of the analyses. All of the 35 HILDCAA events under study were found to be characterized by flux enhancements of magnetospheric relativistic electrons of all three energies compared to the pre-event flux levels. For the E > 2.0 MeV electron fluxes, enhancement of >50% occurred during 100% of HILDCAAs. Cluster-4 passes were examined for electromagnetic chorus waves in the 5 < L < 10 and 0 < MLT < 12 region when wave data were available. Fully 100% of these HILDCAA cases were associated with enhanced whistler-mode chorus waves. The enhancements of E > 0.6, > 2.0, and > 4.0 MeV electrons occurred ∼1.0 day, ∼1.5 days, and ∼2.5 days after the statistical HILDCAA onset, respectively. The statistical acceleration rates for the three energy ranges were ∼1.8 × 10{sup 5}, 2.2 × 10{sup 3}, and 1.0 × 10{sup 1} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} sr{sup –1} d{sup –1}, respectively. The relativistic electron-decay timescales were determined to be ∼7.7, 5.5, and 4.0 days for the three energy ranges, respectively. The HILDCAAs were divided into short-duration (D ≤ 3 days) and long-duration (D > 3 days) events to study the dependence of relativistic electron variation on HILDCAA duration. For long-duration events, the flux enhancements during HILDCAAs with respect to pre-event fluxes were ∼290%, 520%, and 82% for E > 0.6, > 2.0, and > 4.0 MeV electrons, respectively. The enhancements were ∼250%, 400%, and 27% respectively, for short-duration events. The results are discussed with respect to the current understanding of radiation-belt dynamics.

  1. Activity report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S W

    2008-08-11

    This report is aimed to show the author's activities to support the LDRD. The title is 'Investigation of the Double-C Behavior in the Pu-Ga Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagram' The sections are: (1) Sample Holder Test; (2) Calculation of x-ray diffraction patterns; (3) Literature search and preparing publications; (4) Tasks Required for APS Experiments; and (5) Communications.

  2. Laboratory Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the laboratory activities performed by PNNLs Vadose Zone Characterization Project in support of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Program, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The results of these studies are contained in numerous reports (Lindenmeier et al. 2002; Serne et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2002e; Lindenmeier et al. 2003; Serne et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown et al. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Serne et al. 2007) and have generated much of the data reported in Chapter 22 (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), Appendix G (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), and Cantrell et al. (2007, SST WMA Geochemistry Data Package in preparation). Sediment samples and characterization results from PNNLs Vadose Zone Characterization Project are also shared with other science and technology (S&T) research projects, such as those summarized in Chapter 12 (Associated Science Activities).

  3. Ultrastable Polymolybdate-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as Highly...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrastable Polymolybdate-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as Highly Active Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Generation...

  4. Fuel Safety Activities in Korea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auh, Geun-Sun; Shin, A.D.; Lee, J.S.; Woo, S.W.; Ryu, Y.H.; Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kim, S.K.; Jeong, Y.H.

    2007-07-01

    The current regulatory requirements for fuel performance were based on earlier test data of fresh or low burnup Zircaloy fuels of less than 40 GWD/MTU. Most countries have not changed the current regulatory requirements even if they are actively investigating the high burnup and new cladding alloy effects. Korea agrees with commonly accepted international consensus that although there are technical issues requiring resolutions, these issues do not constitute immediate safety concerns. The high burnup fuel reactor performance experiences of Korea do not show any major problems even if there have been some burnup related fuel failures which are described in the paper. KINS has recommended the industry to have lower fuel failure rates than 1-2 per 50,000 fuel rods. A research project of High Burnup Fuel Safety Tests and Evaluations has started in 2002 under a joint cooperation of KAERI/KNFC/KEPRI and KINS to obtain performance results of high burnup fuel and to develop evaluation technologies of high burnup fuel safety issues. From 1998, KINS has closely monitored and actively participated in international activities such as OECD/NEA CABRI Water Loop Program to reflect on regulatory requirements if needed. KINS will closely monitor the high burnup fuel performances of Korea to strength the regulatory activities if needed. The research activities in Korea including of LOCA and RIA being performed at KAERI with active supports of the industry are summarized in the paper. (authors)

  5. High Impact Technology Hub

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The High Impact Technology Hub is a one stop shop for information associated with technology demonstrations in occupied, operational buildings. Resources posted to Hub should accelerate the selection and evaluation of technology demonstration projects and enable transparency into DOEs market stimulation and tech to market activities.

  6. High PRF high current switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  7. Solar Energy Educational Material, Activities and Science Projects

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Documents with ActivitiesProjects: Web Pages Solar Energy Education. Renewable Energy Activities for Junior HighMiddle School Science Solar Energy Education. Renewable Energy ...

  8. Thermoelectric Activities of European Community within Framework...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Bulk Materials and Device Development Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk Materials and Device Development Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and HVAC

  9. T-615: IBM Rational System Architect ActiveBar ActiveX Control Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There is a high risk security vulnerability with the ActiveBar ActiveX controls used by IBM Rational System Architect.

  10. Key Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    We partner with industry, small business, universities, regional entities, and other stakeholders to identify and invest in emerging clean energy technologies. We establish collaborative communities focused on developing and commercializing targeted technologies; play a leadership role in the national interagency Advanced Manufacturing Partnership; and encourage a culture of continuous improvement in corporate energy management. Our investments have high impact, use project diversity to spread risk, target nationally important innovation at critical decision points, and contribute to quantifiable energy savings. By reducing the life-cycle energy consumption of manufactured goods by 50 percent over 10 years, we will support the creation of high-quality domestic manufacturing jobs and enhance the competitiveness of the United States. EERE's Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative (CEMI) connects AMO's investments in the development of innovative process and materials technologies over 3 decades with R&D in other EERE offices and focuses on the urgent economic opportunities in U.S. clean energy manufacturing to strengthen U.S. competitiveness across multiple manufacturing industries through increased energy productivity.

  11. High frequency nanotube oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Haibing; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-02-21

    A tunable nanostructure such as a nanotube is used to make an electromechanical oscillator. The mechanically oscillating nanotube can be provided with inertial clamps in the form of metal beads. The metal beads serve to clamp the nanotube so that the fundamental resonance frequency is in the microwave range, i.e., greater than at least 1 GHz, and up to 4 GHz and beyond. An electric current can be run through the nanotube to cause the metal beads to move along the nanotube and changing the length of the intervening nanotube segments. The oscillator can operate at ambient temperature and in air without significant loss of resonance quality. The nanotube is can be fabricated in a semiconductor style process and the device can be provided with source, drain, and gate electrodes, which may be connected to appropriate circuitry for driving and measuring the oscillation. Novel driving and measuring circuits are also disclosed.

  12. High output lamp with high brightness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Bass, Gary K.; Copsey, Jesse F.; Garber, Jr., William E.; Kwong, Vincent H.; Levin, Izrail; MacLennan, Donald A.; Roy, Robert J.; Steiner, Paul E.; Tsai, Peter; Turner, Brian P.

    2002-01-01

    An ultra bright, low wattage inductively coupled electrodeless aperture lamp is powered by a solid state RF source in the range of several tens to several hundreds of watts at various frequencies in the range of 400 to 900 MHz. Numerous novel lamp circuits and components are disclosed including a wedding ring shaped coil having one axial and one radial lead, a high accuracy capacitor stack, a high thermal conductivity aperture cup and various other aperture bulb configurations, a coaxial capacitor arrangement, and an integrated coil and capacitor assembly. Numerous novel RF circuits are also disclosed including a high power oscillator circuit with reduced complexity resonant pole configuration, parallel RF power FET transistors with soft gate switching, a continuously variable frequency tuning circuit, a six port directional coupler, an impedance switching RF source, and an RF source with controlled frequency-load characteristics. Numerous novel RF control methods are disclosed including controlled adjustment of the operating frequency to find a resonant frequency and reduce reflected RF power, controlled switching of an impedance switched lamp system, active power control and active gate bias control.

  13. Improvement of granulation of raw material by using the high-agitating mixer at Kokura No. 3 sintering plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadano, Yasuhiko; Murai, Tatsunori; Kawaguchi, Yosizumi; Komatsu, Shusaku; Sasakawa, Akira; Kawaguchi, Takazo; Matsumura, Masaru

    1995-12-01

    Recently, there have been experiments aimed at increasing the pulverized coal injection rate of a blast furnace. When increasing the pulverized coal injection rate, the gas permeability resistance in a blast furnace increases. One of the methods to decrease the gas permeability resistance in a blast furnace is to use an iron ore burden with high iron content and low slag volume. However, the problem of resource drain has already occurred in the hematite deposit in West Australia, which is the principal supplier of a good quality lumpy iron ore. As a result, pellet feed iron ore must be selected as its substitute. In this paper, the authors investigated a granulation technique for producing an iron ore sinter with high iron content and low slag volume. In addition, they developed the granulation technique of agitating materials and water at high speed. It was used in Kokura No. 3 Sinter Plant.

  14. Neutron activation analysis system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, M.C.; Rhodes, J.R.

    1973-12-25

    A neutron activation analysis system for monitoring a generally fluid media, such as slurries, solutions, and fluidized powders, including two separate conduit loops for circulating fluid samples within the range of radiation sources and detectors is described. Associated with the first loop is a neutron source that emits s high flux of slow and thermal neutrons. The second loop employs a fast neutron source, the flux from which is substantially free of thermal neutrons. Adjacent to both loops are gamma counters for spectrographic determination of the fluid constituents. Other gsmma sources and detectors are arranged across a portion of each loop for deterMining the fluid density. (Official Gazette)

  15. High Risk Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon High Risk Plan More Documents & Publications DOE Site Facility Management Contracts Internet Posting DOE Head of Contracting Activity and Procurement Directors' Directory ...

  16. Prenatal monitoring in a family at high risk for ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency: A new mutation of an A-to-C transversion in position +4 of intron 1 of the OTC gene that is likely to abolish enzyme activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoshide, Ryuuji; Matsuura, Toshinobu; Endo, Fumio

    1996-08-23

    DNA analysis of a male propositus with ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency documented an A-to-C substitution in position +4 of intron 1. No other abnormalities were observed in the OTC gene, or at 563 bp upstream of the 5{prime} site, which included a promoter region, or at 383 bp downstream of the termination codon, which included a polyadenylation signal sequence. This mutation produces an RsaI site in the sequence, which was used for prenatal monitoring in the fourth and fifth pregnancies. DNA from amniotic cells in the former case were positive for RsaI digestion and the SRY gene (sex determinant region Y), indicating hemizygosity for the mutant allele. OTC activity was not measureable, and mRNA of the OTC gene was not detected by Northern blotting in the affected fetal liver. RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) demonstrated only the wild-type allele. Thus, the mutation interferes with RNA processing, and an extremely low amount of normally spliced mRNA for the OTC gene seems to have caused the disease in our patient. The fetus of the fifth pregnancy was a normal male, as confirmed postnatally. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  17. New Innovations in Highly Ion Specific Media for Recalcitrant Waste stream Radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denton, M. S.; Wilson, J.; Ahrendt, M. [RWE NUKEM Corporation (RNC), 800 Oak Ridge Tnpk., Suite A701, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Bostick, W. D. [Materials and Chemistry Laboratory (MCL), Inc., East Tennessee Technology Park, Building K-1006, 2010 Highway 58, Suite 1000, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); DeSilva, F.; Meyers, P. [ResinTech, Inc., 1 ResinTech Plaza, 160 Cooper Road, West Berlin, NJ 08091 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Specialty ion specific media were examined and developed for, not only pre- and post-outage waste streams, but also for very difficult outage waste streams. This work was carried out on first surrogate waste streams, then laboratory samples of actual waste streams, and, finally, actual on-site waste streams. This study was particularly focused on PWR wastewaters such as Floor Drain Tank (FDT), Boron Waste Storage Tank (BWST), and Waste Treatment Tank (WTT, or discharge tank). Over the last half decade, or so, treatment technologies have so greatly improved and discharge levels have become so low, that certain particularly problematic isotopes, recalcitrant to current treatment skids, are all that remain prior to discharge. In reality, they have always been present, but overshadowed by the more prevalent and higher activity isotopes. Such recalcitrants include cobalt, especially Co 58 [both ionic/soluble (total dissolved solids, TDS) and colloidal (total suspended solids, TSS)] and antimony (Sb). The former is present in most FDT and BWST wastewaters, while the Sb is primarily present in BWST waste streams. The reasons Co 58 can be elusive to granulated activated carbon (GAC), ultrafiltration (UF) and ion exchange (IX) demineralizers is that it forms submicron colloids as well as has a tendency to form metal complexes with chelating agents (e.g., ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, or EDTA). Such colloids and non-charged complexes will pass through the entire treatment skid. Antimony (Sb) on the other hand, has little or no ionic charge, and will, likewise, pass through both the filtration and de-min skids into the discharge tanks. While the latter will sometimes (the anionic vs. the cationic or neutral species) be removed on the anion bed(s), it will slough off (snow-plow effect) when a higher affinity anion (iodine slugs, etc.) comes along; thus causing effluents not meeting discharge criteria. The answer to these problems found in this study, during an actual

  18. Intermediate Energy Infobook Activities (29 Activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Information about Intermediate Energy Infobook, 29 student activities on energy basics for grades 5-8.

  19. Characteristics of InGaP/InGaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors with triple delta-doped sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Kuei-Yi; Chiang, Meng-Hsueh Cheng, Shiou-Ying; Liu, Wen-Chau

    2012-02-15

    Fundamental and insightful characteristics of InGaP/InGaAs double channel pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (DCPHEMTs) with graded and uniform triple {delta}-doped sheets are coomprehensively studied and demonstrated. To gain physical insight, band diagrams, carrier densities, and direct current characteristics of devices are compared and investigated based on the 2D semiconductor simulator, Atlas. Due to uniform carrier distribution and high electron density in the double InGaAs channel, the DCPHEMT with graded triple {delta}-doped sheets exhibits better transport properties, higher and linear transconductance, and better drain current capability as compared with the uniformly triple {delta}-doped counterpart. The DCPHEMT with graded triple {delta}-doped structure is fabricated and tested, and the experimental data are found to be in good agreement with simulated results.

  20. High e

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    e ne rgy data s am ple ● NuMI beam events provide an useful calibration sample ● Collected over 70K candidates before shutdown The highest energy events are prim arily from kaon decays. Two sam ples at high energy provide normalization and shape inform ation for kaon backgrounds to oscillation analysis: ● ν e events passing oscillation event selection cuts ● ν µ induced CCQE, CCπ+events Reconstructed neutrino energy EνQE(GeV) ν from other particles ν from pions ν from Kaons -

  1. European Neutron Activation System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-01-11

    Version 03 EASY-2010 (European Activation System) consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. The main difference from the previous version is the upper energy limit, which has increased from 20 to 60 MeV. It is designed to investigate both fusion devices and accelerator based materials test facilities that will act as intense sources of high-energymore » neutrons causing significant activation of the surrounding materials. The very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 60 MeV. EASY can be divided into two parts: data and code development tools and user tools and data. The former are required to develop the latter, but EASY users only need to be able to use the inventory code FISPACT and be aware of the contents of the EAF library (the data source). The complete EASY package contains the FISPACT-2007 inventory code, the EAF-2003, EAF-2005, EAF-2007 and EAF-2010 libraries, and the EASY User Interface for the Window version. The activation package EASY-2010 is the result of significant development to extend the upper energy range from 20 to 60 MeV so that it is capable of being used for IFMIF calculations. The EAF-2010 library contains 66,256 reactions, almost five times more than in EAF-2003 (12,617). Deuteron-induced and proton-induced cross section libraries are also included, and can be used with EASY to enable calculations of the activation due to deuterons and proton [2].« less

  2. Secondary Energy Infobook Activities (19 Activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Information about Secondary Energy Infobook, 19 student activities on energy basics for grades 5-8 and 9-12.

  3. Characterization of Pipes, Drain Lines, and Ducts using the Pipe...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... There are a variety of organic scintillator compounds, such ... at GJPO provides the framework for the commercial ... Heavy metal and VOC sensors are also being investigated as ...

  4. Bi-directionally draining pore fluid extraction vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prizio, Joseph (Boulder, CO); Ritt, Alexander (Lakewood, CO); Mower, Timothy E. (Wheat Ridge, CO); Rodine, Lonn (Arvada, CO)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is used to extract pore fluid from porous solids through a combination of mechanical compression and inert-gas injection and comprises a piston for axially compressing samples to force water out, and top and bottom drainage plates for capturing the exuded water and using inert gas to force water to exit when the limits of mechanical compression have been reached.

  5. Steam bubble collapse induced water hammer in draining pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, P.; Silva, R.J.

    1991-08-01

    When hot steam replaces cold condensate in a horizontal or almost horizontal pipe, a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer often results. The effect of condensate drainage velocity and pipe declination on the incidence of steam bubble collapse induced water hammer is investigated experimentally. Declining the pipe more than 2.4{degrees} allows drainage velocities up to 3 ft/sec (1m/s) in a two inch (5 cm) pipe without water hammer. A semi-empirical theory allows extrapolation to other pressures, pipe sizes and inclinations. 4 refs.

  6. Slow Detrapping Transients due to Gate and Drain Bias Stress...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices; Related Information: Proposed for publication in IEEE Transactions on ...

  7. Characterization of Pipes, Drain Lines, and Ducts using the Pipe...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: C.D. Cremer D.T. Kendrick E. Cramer Contractor: Science and Engineering ... 505-884-2300) Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. 6100 Uptown Blvd., NE ...

  8. Non-focusing active warhead

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hornig, Howard C.

    1998-01-01

    A non-nuclear, non-focusing, active warhead that comprises a high explosive charge contained within a casing of reactive metal. When the high explosive is detonated, the reactive metal is dispersed and reacts with the air, which significantly increases the explosive yield of the warhead. The active warhead produces therefore much higher blast effects with significantly reduced weight compared to conventional munitions. The warhead is highly effective against such targets as aircraft which typically have thin fuselages, for example. The explosiveness of this warhead can be enhanced further by elevating the temperature and therefore the reactivity of the reactive metal before or during the explosion. New methods of enhancing the reactivity of the metal are also taught.

  9. Non-focusing active warhead

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hornig, H.C.

    1998-12-22

    A non-nuclear, non-focusing, active warhead that comprises a high explosive charge contained within a casing of reactive metal is disclosed. When the high explosive is detonated, the reactive metal is dispersed and reacts with the air, which significantly increases the explosive yield of the warhead. The active warhead produces therefore much higher blast effects with significantly reduced weight compared to conventional munitions. The warhead is highly effective against such targets as aircraft which typically have thin fuselages, for example. The explosiveness of this warhead can be enhanced further by elevating the temperature and therefore the reactivity of the reactive metal before or during the explosion. New methods of enhancing the reactivity of the metal are also taught. 4 figs.

  10. High Intensity Polarized Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redwine, Robert P.

    2012-07-31

    The goal of the project was to investigate the possibility of building a very high intensity polarized electron gun for the Electron-Ion Collider. This development is crucial for the eRHIC project. The gun implements a large area cathode, ring-shaped laser beam and active cathode cooling. A polarized electron gun chamber with a large area cathode and active cathode cooling has been built and tested. A preparation chamber for cathode activation has been built and initial tests have been performed. Major parts for a load-lock chamber, where cathodes are loaded into the vacuum system, have been manufactured.

  11. High frequency reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  12. High frequency reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  13. Study of the effects of GaN buffer layer quality on the dc characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ahn, Shihyun; Zhu, Weidi; Dong, Chen; Le, Lingcong; Hwang, Ya-Hsi; Kim, Byung-Jae; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen J.; Lind, Aaron G.; Jones, Kevin S.; et al

    2015-04-21

    Here we studied the effect of buffer layer quality on dc characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility (HEMTs). AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures with 2 and 5 μm GaN buffer layers on sapphire substrates from two different vendors with the same Al concentration of AlGaN were used. The defect densities of HEMT structures with 2 and 5 μm GaN buffer layer were 7 × 109 and 5 × 108 cm₋2, respectively, as measured by transmission electron microscopy. There was little difference in drain saturation current or in transfer characteristics in HEMTs on these two types of buffer. However, there was no dispersionmore » observed on the nonpassivated HEMTs with 5 μm GaN buffer layer for gate-lag pulsed measurement at 100 kHz, which was in sharp contrast to the 71% drain current reduction for the HEMT with 2 μm GaN buffer layer.« less

  14. Activity Based Costing

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.

  15. Active stewardship: sustainable future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Active stewardship: sustainable future Active stewardship: sustainable future Energy sustainability is a daunting task: How do we develop top-notch innovations with some of the ...

  16. Retrieval Activities - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Farms Retrieval Activities Office of River Protection Tank Farms Retrieval Activities PHOENIX - Tank Monitoring Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant 222-S Laboratory 242-A...

  17. Heavy Duty HCCI Development Activities - DOE High Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. ...

  18. High-Activity Radioactive Materials Removed From Mexico | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    of our long-standing partnership with Mexico to prevent proliferation and secure the materials that can be used by terrorists in an improvised nuclear device or dirty bomb." ...

  19. LBNL High-Tech Buildings Energy Efficiency Activities

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... failure research and failure data collection - - collaborate with ASHRAE collaborate with ASHRAE Demonstrate spray cool technology Demonstrate spray cool technology ...

  20. Development of High Efficiency White Oleds Using Thermally Activated

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. p-19_lee.pdf (1.44 MB) More Documents & Publications Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems Delayed Fluorescence

  1. High-resolution crystal structure of human protease-activated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Nature; Journal Volume: ... Language: ENGLISH Word Cloud More Like This Full Text Journal Articles DOI: 10.1038nature...

  2. Exploration Guides For Active High-Temperature Geothermal Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    field (or ore deposit), iv) hydrothermal fluids and their surface expression, and v) geothermal reservoirs as against epithermal orebodies, have enabled us to formulate...

  3. High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Self-Loading Trailer (SLT) Advanced Logistics Project 1 Results Project Summary * 3 ... that will reduce biomass supply chain costs while meeting quality specifications of ...

  4. High Activity catalysts for Polyols Production From C-6 Sugars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd Werpy; Alan Zacher; John Frye; Keith Peterson; Gary Neuenschwander; Eric Alderson; Daniel Muzatko; Jim White

    2003-05-06

    Over the course of this project, many significant discoveries have been made in the process for the conversion of sorbitol to value added products. The object was developing a process for the production of propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG), and glycerol from sorbitol.

  5. Characterization of anaerobic microbial culture with high acidogenic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De la Torre, I.; Goma, G.

    1981-01-01

    The mixed cultures which were used were isolated from municipal sludge digestors, and the production of organic acids (acetic, propionic, butyric, etc.) from carbohydrates was tested. The behavior of the reference population (culture R) obtained directly from the sewage treatment plant, is compared to that obtained after three months in a plug-flow reactor (Gradostat fermentor) without pH control (culture A) and after six months with pH control (culture B). For culture B, the specific rate of acid production is related to the cell growth rate by (1/X)rp equals 17 mu plus 1.6 with a 0.36 g/g for the initial culture (R) to 0.72 g/g for culture B after six months in continuous culture, and 0.8 g/g in plug-flow continuous culture. The productivity of organic acids reaches 1.7 g/liter/hour. It is suggested that the acidogenic fermentation, the first step of methanogenesis, is a potential process to produce acetic, propionic, and butyric acids.

  6. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  7. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Weatherization and Intergovernmental Activities Annual Performance Results and Targets FY 2008 Congressional Budget

  8. High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Energy Physics High Energy Physics Investigating the field of high energy physics ... Through the Office of High Energy Physics (HEP), Los Alamos conducts research in particle ...

  9. Active magnetic regenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.; Steyert, William A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an active magnetic regenerator apparatus and method. Brayton, Stirling, Ericsson, and Carnot cycles and the like may be utilized in an active magnetic regenerator to provide efficient refrigeration over relatively large temperature ranges.

  10. High Impact Technology HQ | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact Technology Catalyst » High Impact Technology HQ High Impact Technology HQ High Impact Technology HQ Home Resources for Evaluators -- Site Evaluation Checklists, General M&V Plans, General Templates Host a Site -- Current Opportunities for Owners and Operators Provide Information About Technologies -- Open Opportunities, Upcoming Events, Prioritization Tool Input Form Results -- Technology Highlights, Case Studies, Final Technical Reports, Market Stimulation Activities The High Impact

  11. VOLUNTEER ACTIVITY 5

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Energy Conservation: Did I remember to...? Activity Type: Craft and Game Supports Lesson Five: Global Warming Grades 4-6

  12. Method of making a high performance ultracapacitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.

    2000-07-26

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  13. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas Lucian A. Lucia Hasan Jameel

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  14. High Bacterial Diversity of Biological Soil Crusts in Water Tracks over Permafrost in the High Arctic Polar Desert

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Steven, Blaire; Lionard, Marie; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2013-08-13

    In this paper we report the bacterial diversity of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) inhabiting polar desert soils at the northern land limit of the Arctic polar region (83° 05 N). Employing pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes this study demonstrated that these biocrusts harbor diverse bacterial communities, often as diverse as temperate latitude communities. The effect of wetting pulses on the composition of communities was also determined by collecting samples from soils outside and inside of permafrost water tracks, hill slope flow paths that drain permafrost-affected soils. The intermittent flow regime in the water tracks was correlated with altered relativemore » abundance of phylum level taxonomic bins in the bacterial communities, but the alterations varied between individual sampling sites. Bacteria related to the Cyanobacteria and Acidobacteria demonstrated shifts in relative abundance based on their location either inside or outside of the water tracks. Among cyanobacterial sequences, the proportion of sequences belonging to the family Oscillatoriales consistently increased in relative abundance in the samples from inside the water tracks compared to those outside. Acidobacteria showed responses to wetting pulses in the water tracks, increasing in abundance at one site and decreasing at the other two sites. Subdivision 4 acidobacterial sequences tended to follow the trends in the total Acidobacteria relative abundance, suggesting these organisms were largely responsible for the changes observed in the Acidobacteria. Finally, taken together, these data suggest that the bacterial communities of these high latitude polar biocrusts are diverse but do not show a consensus response to intermittent flow in water tracks over high Arctic permafrost.« less

  15. Coming Up With the Latest in High-Tech Water Treatment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many people dont think much about what happens to water once it goes down the drain. Thanks to a vast network of wastewater treatment facilities in the United States, were able to clean and...

  16. Seismicity on the western Greenland Ice Sheet: Surface fracture in the vicinity of active moulins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Joughin, Ian; Behn, Mark D.; Das, Sarah; King, Matt A.; Stevens, Laura; Lizarralde, Dan

    2015-06-25

    We analyzed geophone and GPS measurements collected within the ablation zone of the western Greenland Ice Sheet during a ~35 day period of the 2011 melt season to study changes in ice deformation before, during, and after a supraglacial lake drainage event. During rapid lake drainage, ice flow speeds increased to ~400% of winter values, and icequake activity peaked. At times >7 days after drainage, this seismicity developed variability over both diurnal and longer periods (~10 days), while coincident ice speeds fell to ~150% of winter values and showed nightly peaks in spatial variability. Approximately 95% of all detected seismicity in the lake basin and its immediate vicinity was triggered by fracture propagation within near-surface ice (<330 m deep) that generated Rayleigh waves. Icequakes occurring before and during drainage frequently were collocated with the down flow (west) end of the primary hydrofracture through which the lake drained but shifted farther west and outside the lake basin after the drainage. We interpret these results to reveal vertical hydrofracture opening and local uplift during the drainage, followed by enhanced seismicity and ice flow on the downstream side of the lake basin. This region collocates with interferometric synthetic aperture radar-measured speedup in previous years and could reflect the migration path of the meltwater supplied to the bed by the lake. The diurnal seismic signal can be associated with nightly reductions in surface melt input that increase effective basal pressure and traction, thereby promoting elevated strain in the surficial ice.

  17. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  18. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  19. ALS Activity Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Activity Reports Print These hard-copy annual reports were produced from 1993-2006. They illustrated the depth and breadth of the ALS scientific program with a selection of research results. They also summarized operations and ongoing R&D, highlighted educational outreach efforts and special events, and provided yearly documentation of the beamlines and publications. The Activity Report was replaced in 2007 by ALS Spectrum. The reports for 1996-2006 are available here. Activity Report

  20. ALS Activity Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Activity Reports Print These hard-copy annual reports were produced from 1993-2006. They illustrated the depth and breadth of the ALS scientific program with a selection of research results. They also summarized operations and ongoing R&D, highlighted educational outreach efforts and special events, and provided yearly documentation of the beamlines and publications. The Activity Report was replaced in 2007 by ALS Spectrum. The reports for 1996-2006 are available here. Activity Report 2006

  1. ALS Activity Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Activity Reports Print These hard-copy annual reports were produced from 1993-2006. They illustrated the depth and breadth of the ALS scientific program with a selection of research results. They also summarized operations and ongoing R&D, highlighted educational outreach efforts and special events, and provided yearly documentation of the beamlines and publications. The Activity Report was replaced in 2007 by ALS Spectrum. The reports for 1996-2006 are available here. Activity Report 2006

  2. ALS Activity Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Activity Reports Print These hard-copy annual reports were produced from 1993-2006. They illustrated the depth and breadth of the ALS scientific program with a selection of research results. They also summarized operations and ongoing R&D, highlighted educational outreach efforts and special events, and provided yearly documentation of the beamlines and publications. The Activity Report was replaced in 2007 by ALS Spectrum. The reports for 1996-2006 are available here. Activity Report 2006

  3. Bandwidth and Transfer Activity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average. Graphs for the last 8 days. Historical yearly peak days. Daily Storage Concurrency Transfer Activity This graph shows the number of transfers to the storage systems...

  4. Exploring Hydroelectricity (9 activities)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Integrated and inquiry-based activities that provide a comprehensive understanding of the scientific, economic, environmental, technological, and societal aspects of hydropower to secondary students

  5. Residential Building Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is leading several different activities to develop, demonstrate, and deploy cost-effective solutions to reduce energy consumption across the residential building...

  6. Alabama Power- UESC Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—discusses Alabama Power and its utility energy service contract (UESC) projects and activities.

  7. Activation.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as it becomes available. The Joint Information Center (JIC), located at 4021 National Parks Highway, has been activated to provide public information. For updated information,...

  8. Energy Conservation Standards Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Report to Congress August 2014 United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Energy Conservation Standards Activities Report to Congress | Page i Message from the ...

  9. BEDES Current Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BEDES is continually growing and improving. If you’d like to participate in some of the activities listed here, you can join the BEDES Working Group.

  10. Improvement of magnetic and structural stabilities in high-quality Co{sub 2}FeSi{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}/Si heterointerfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, S.; Tanikawa, K.; Oki, S.; Kawano, M.; Miyao, M.; Hamaya, K.

    2014-08-18

    We study high-quality Co{sub 2}FeSi{sub 1−x}Al{sub x} Heusler compound/Si (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) heterointerfaces for silicon (Si)-based spintronic applications. In thermal treatment conditions, the magnetic and structural stabilities of the Co{sub 2}FeSi{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}/Si heterointerfaces are improved with increasing x in Co{sub 2}FeSi{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}. Compared with L2{sub 1}-ordered Co{sub 2}FeSi/Si, B2-ordered Co{sub 2}FeAl/Si can suppress the diffusion of Si atoms into the Heusler-compound structure. This experimental study will provide an important knowledge for applications in Si-based spin transistors with metallic source/drain contacts.

  11. Rethinking the idealized morphology in high-performance organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rethinking the idealized morphology in high-performance organic photovoltaics December 9, 2011 Tweet EmailPrint Traditionally, organic photovoltaic (OPV) active layers are viewed...

  12. Evaluation of a New Remote Handling Design for High Throughput Annular Centrifugal Contactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David H. Meikrantz; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law; Lawrence L. Macaluso

    2009-09-01

    Advanced designs of nuclear fuel recycling plants are expected to include more ambitious goals for aqueous based separations including; higher separations efficiency, high-level waste minimization, and a greater focus on continuous processes to minimize cost and footprint. Therefore, Annular Centrifugal Contactors (ACCs) are destined to play a more important role for such future processing schemes. Previous efforts defined and characterized the performance of commercial 5 cm and 12.5 cm single-stage ACCs in a cold environment. The next logical step, the design and evaluation of remote capable pilot scale ACCs in a hot or radioactive environment was reported earlier. This report includes the development of remote designs for ACCs that can process the large throughput rates needed in future nuclear fuel recycling plants. Novel designs were developed for the remote interconnection of contactor units, clean-in-place and drain connections, and a new solids removal collection chamber. A three stage, 12.5 cm diameter rotor module has been constructed and evaluated for operational function and remote handling in highly radioactive environments. This design is scalable to commercial CINC ACC models from V-05 to V-20 with total throughput rates ranging from 20 to 650 liters per minute. The V-05R three stage prototype was manufactured by the commercial vendor for ACCs in the U.S., CINC mfg. It employs three standard V-05 clean-in-place (CIP) units modified for remote service and replacement via new methods of connection for solution inlets, outlets, drain and CIP. Hydraulic testing and functional checks were successfully conducted and then the prototype was evaluated for remote handling and maintenance suitability. Removal and replacement of the center position V-05R ACC unit in the three stage prototype was demonstrated using an overhead rail mounted PaR manipulator. This evaluation confirmed the efficacy of this innovative design for interconnecting and cleaning

  13. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5/2011 eere.energy.gov 5 th International Conference on Polymer Batteries & Fuel Cells Argonne, Illinois Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Dr. Sunita Satyapal U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Program Manager August 4, 2011 2 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 8/5/2011 eere.energy.gov Fuel Cells: Benefits & Market Potential The Role of Fuel Cells Key Benefits Very High Efficiency Reduced CO 2 Emissions * 35-50%+ reductions for CHP systems (>80% with

  14. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  15. Shock-activated electrochemical power supplies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benedick, William B.; Graham, Robert A.; Morosin, Bruno

    1988-01-01

    A shock-activated electrochemical power supply is provided which is initiated extremely rapidly and which has a long shelf life. Electrochemical power supplies of this invention are initiated much faster than conventional thermal batteries. Power supplies of this invention comprise an inactive electrolyte and means for generating a high-pressure shock wave such that the shock wave is propagated through the electrolytes rendering the electrolyte electrochemically active.

  16. Shock-activated electrochemical power supplies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benedick, W.B.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.

    1988-11-08

    A shock-activated electrochemical power supply is provided which is initiated extremely rapidly and which has a long shelf life. Electrochemical power supplies of this invention are initiated much faster than conventional thermal batteries. Power supplies of this invention comprise an inactive electrolyte and means for generating a high-pressure shock wave such that the shock wave is propagated through the electrolytes rendering the electrolyte electrochemically active. 2 figs.

  17. Shock-activated electrochemical power supplies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benedick, W.B.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.

    1987-04-20

    A shock-activated electrochemical power supply is provided which is initiated extremely rapidly and which has a long shelf life. Electrochemical power supplies of this invention are initiated much faster than conventional thermal batteries. Power supplies of this invention comprise an inactive electrolyte and means for generating a high-pressure shock wave such that the shock wave is propagated through the electrolyte rendering the electrolyte electrochemically active. 2 figs.

  18. Commercial Building Activities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Building Activities Commercial Building Activities The Building Technologies Office commercial buildings effort researches and deploys advanced technologies and systems to reduce energy consumption in commercial buildings. Industry partners and national laboratories help identify market needs and solutions to accelerate the development of highly energy-efficient buildings. This page outlines some of BTO's key projects. 179d Tax Calculator The 179d Calculator can help determine whether

  19. Activation of fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  20. Activation of fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corbin, David R.; Velenyi, Louis J.; Pepera, Marc A.; Dolhyj, Serge R.

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  1. DIAGNOSING THE TIME DEPENDENCE OF ACTIVE REGION CORE HEATING FROM THE EMISSION MEASURE. II. NANOFLARE TRAINS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reep, J. W.; Bradshaw, S. J.; Klimchuk, J. A. E-mail: stephen.bradshaw@rice.edu

    2013-02-20

    The time dependence of heating in solar active regions can be studied by analyzing the slope of the emission measure distribution coolward of the peak. In a previous study we showed that low-frequency heating can account for 0% to 77% of active region core emission measures. We now turn our attention to heating by a finite succession of impulsive events for which the timescale between events on a single magnetic strand is shorter than the cooling timescale. We refer to this scenario as a 'nanoflare train' and explore a parameter space of heating and coronal loop properties with a hydrodynamic model. Our conclusions are (1) nanoflare trains are consistent with 86% to 100% of observed active region cores when uncertainties in the atomic data are properly accounted for; (2) steeper slopes are found for larger values of the ratio of the train duration {Delta} {sub H} to the post-train cooling and draining timescale {Delta} {sub C}, where {Delta} {sub H} depends on the number of heating events, the event duration and the time interval between successive events ({tau} {sub C}); (3) {tau} {sub C} may be diagnosed from the width of the hot component of the emission measure provided that the temperature bins are much smaller than 0.1 dex; (4) the slope of the emission measure alone is not sufficient to provide information about any timescale associated with heating-the length and density of the heated structure must be measured for {Delta} {sub H} to be uniquely extracted from the ratio {Delta} {sub H}/{Delta} {sub C}.

  2. High pressure neon arc lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2003-07-15

    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  3. High Impact Technology Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies High Impact Technology Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies The Energy Department released the High Impact Technology Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies to serve as an overview of the HIT Catalyst program activities, including a summary of the selection process undertaken to identify, evaluate and prioritize the current HITs, descriptions of the technologies and markets for each HIT, and plans for deployment. High

  4. HIGH EFFICIENCY SYNGAS GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Copeland; Yevgenia Gershanovich; Brian Windecker

    2005-02-01

    sorbent and observed that it has both a good oxygen capacity and operates as a highly effective reforming catalyst. We conducted a long duration tests of the sorbent (1,500 hours of continuous operation in the HOP cycle). Although the sorbent lost some oxygen capacity with cycling, the sorbent oxygen capacity stabilized after 1,000 hours and remained constant to the end of the test, 1,500 hour. The activity of the catalyst to reform methane to a hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixture was unchanged through the oxidation/reduction cycling. Our cost and performance analyses indicated a significant reduction in the cost of GTL production when using the HOP process integrated into a GTL plant.

  5. Microalloying of transition metal silicides by mechanical activation and field-activated reaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Munir, Zuhair A. (Davis, CA); Woolman, Joseph N. (Davis, CA); Petrovic, John J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-09-02

    Alloys of transition metal suicides that contain one or more alloying elements are fabricated by a two-stage process involving mechanical activation as the first stage and densification and field-activated reaction as the second stage. Mechanical activation, preferably performed by high-energy planetary milling, results in the incorporation of atoms of the alloying element(s) into the crystal lattice of the transition metal, while the densification and field-activated reaction, preferably performed by spark plasma sintering, result in the formation of the alloyed transition metal silicide. Among the many advantages of the process are its ability to accommodate materials that are incompatible in other alloying methods.

  6. Active optical zoom system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  7. Photoconductivity of Activated Carbon Fibers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Kuriyama, K.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    1990-08-01

    The photoconductivity is measured on a high-surface-area disordered carbon material, namely activated carbon fibers, to investigate their electronic properties. Measurements of decay time, recombination kinetics and temperature dependence of the photoconductivity generally reflect the electronic properties of a material. The material studied in this paper is a highly disordered carbon derived from a phenolic precursor, having a huge specific surface area of 1000--2000m{sup 2}/g. Our preliminary thermopower measurements suggest that this carbon material is a p-type semiconductor with an amorphous-like microstructure. The intrinsic electrical conductivity, on the order of 20S/cm at room temperature, increases with increasing temperature in the range 30--290K. In contrast with the intrinsic conductivity, the photoconductivity in vacuum decreases with increasing temperature. The recombination kinetics changes from a monomolecular process at room temperature to a biomolecular process at low temperatures. The observed decay time of the photoconductivity is {approx equal}0.3sec. The magnitude of the photoconductive signal was reduced by a factor of ten when the sample was exposed to air. The intrinsic carrier density and the activation energy for conduction are estimated to be {approx equal}10{sup 21}/cm{sup 3} and {approx equal}20meV, respectively. The majority of the induced photocarriers and of the intrinsic carriers are trapped, resulting in the long decay time of the photoconductivity and the positive temperature dependence of the conductivity.

  8. High efficiency and high concentration in photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Luque, A.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper, the authors present the state-of-the-art of multijunction solar cells and the future prospects of this technology. Their use in terrestrial applications will likely be for concentrators operating at very high concentrations. Some trends are also discussed and the authors present a cost calculation showing that highly efficient cells under very high concentration would be able to produce electricity at costs competitive with electricity generation costs for some utilities.

  9. Active Sites Additional Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) supports the Department’s Strategic Plan to complete the environmental remediation of legacy and active sites, while protecting human health and the...

  10. WINDExchange: Deployment Activities

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Deployment Activities Printable Version Bookmark and Share Regional Resource Centers Economic Development Siting Deployment Activities Recent years have seen major growth in wind energy, and deployment projections indicate this trend will continue for all parts of the wind industry, from small distributed and community wind projects to massive land-based and offshore utility-scale facilities. Record numbers of Americans see wind energy as an important contributor to a secure and clean energy

  11. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gelles, D.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Powell, R.W.

    1985-02-07

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  12. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gelles, David S. (West Richland, WA); Ghoniem, Nasr M. (Granada Hills, CA); Powell, Roger W. (Pasco, WA)

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  13. Active stewardship: sustainable future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home Heating Systems » Active Solar Heating Active Solar Heating This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system supplies both domestic hot water and a secondary radiant floor heating system. | Photo courtesy of Jim Schmid Photography, NREL This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system supplies both domestic hot water and a secondary radiant floor heating

  14. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  15. Energy Conservation Standards Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report to Congress August 2014 United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Energy Conservation Standards Activities Report to Congress | Page i Message from the Assistant Secretary I am pleased to provide you with the semi-annual Implementation Report on Energy Conservation Standards Activities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report meets the requirements of Section 141 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005) and Sections 305 and 321 of the Energy Independence and

  16. High Performance Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HPC INL Logo Home High-Performance Computing INL's high-performance computing center provides general use scientific computing capabilities to support the lab's efforts in advanced...

  17. NSLS 2009 Activity Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasta K.; Mona R.

    2009-05-01

    2009 was an incredibly exciting year for light sources at Brookhaven. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) hosted more than 2,200 visiting researchers, who, along with the about 50 members of our scientific staff, produced a total of 957 publications - about 20 percent of which appeared in premier journals. Covering topics ranging from Alzheimer's disease detection to ethanol-powered fuel cells, a sampling of these findings can be found in this Activity Report. We've also seen the resurfacing of some of our long-time users hard work. I was very proud to hear that two of the three recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry have ties to the NSLS. Venki Ramakrishnan, a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department and long-time user of the NSLS, now at Cambridge University, and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University, also a long-time NSLS user, shared the prize with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science for their work on the structure and function of the ribosome. In the late 1990s, Ramakrishnan and Steitz used protein crystallography at the NSLS to gather atomic-level images of two ribosome subunits: 30S (Ramakrishnan) and 50S (Steitz). Both laureates solved the high-resolution structures for these subunits based on this data. After struggling with a rough budget for several years, we received excellent funding, and then some, this year. In addition to NSLS operations funding, we received $3 million in funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). We used that additional money for two exciting projects: construction of a full-field x-ray microscope and acquisition of several advanced x-ray detectors. The x-ray microscope will be able to image objects with a targeted spatial resolution of 30 nanometers. This capability will be particularly important for new initiatives in energy research and will prepare our users for the projected 1-nanometer resolution benchmark at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II). The

  18. EM Active Sites (large) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Active Sites (large) EM Active Sites (large) Center

  19. Physics Division activities report, 1986--1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the research activities of the Physics Division for the years 1986 and 1987. Areas of research discussed in this paper are: research on e/sup +/e/sup /minus// interactions; research on p/bar p/ interactions; experiment at TRIUMF; double beta decay; high energy astrophysics; interdisciplinary research; and advanced technology development and the SSC.

  20. Active imaging system with Faraday filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, J.J.

    1993-04-13

    An active imaging system has a low to medium powered laser transmitter and receiver wherein the receiver includes a Faraday filter with an ultranarrow optical bandpass and a bare (nonintensified) CCD camera. The laser is locked in the vicinity of the passband of the Faraday filter. The system has high sensitivity to the laser illumination while eliminating solar background.

  1. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  2. PV Research & Development Activities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, ... for investors, which translates into a high cost of capital for PV project investments. ...

  3. Better Buildings Workforce Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    durable, high- quality work Define the job tasks and the knowledge, skills & abilities ... ensure efficient, sustainable operations and the satisfaction of the facility occupants. ...

  4. R&D Activities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... surfaces such as collectors and PV panels, to quantify potential hazards and ... the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (185 ...

  5. Electron density and currents of AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with thin GaN/AlN buffer layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bairamis, A.; Zervos, Ch.; Georgakilas, A.; Adikimenakis, A.; Kostopoulos, A.; Kayambaki, M.; Tsagaraki, K.; Konstantinidis, G.

    2014-09-15

    AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures with thin GaN/AlN buffer layer have been analyzed theoretically and experimentally, and the effects of the AlN barrier and GaN buffer layer thicknesses on two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density and transport properties have been evaluated. HEMT structures consisting of [300?nm GaN/ 200?nm AlN] buffer layer on sapphire were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and exhibited a remarkable agreement with the theoretical calculations, suggesting a negligible influence of the crystalline defects that increase near the heteroepitaxial interface. The 2DEG density varied from 6.8??10{sup 12} to 2.1 10{sup 13} cm{sup ?2} as the AlN barrier thickness increased from 2.2 to 4.5?nm, while a 4.5?nm AlN barrier would result to 3.1??10{sup 13} cm{sup ?2} on a GaN buffer layer. The 3.0?nm AlN barrier structure exhibited the highest 2DEG mobility of 900?cm{sup 2}/Vs for a density of 1.3??10{sup 13} cm{sup ?2}. The results were also confirmed by the performance of 1??m gate-length transistors. The scaling of AlN barrier thickness from 1.5?nm to 4.5?nm could modify the drain-source saturation current, for zero gate-source voltage, from zero (normally off condition) to 0.63?A/mm. The maximum drain-source current was 1.1?A/mm for AlN barrier thickness of 3.0?nm and 3.7?nm, and the maximum extrinsic transconductance was 320 mS/mm for 3.0?nm AlN barrier.

  6. Effect of proton irradiation dose on InAlN/GaN metal-oxide semiconductor high electron mobility transistors with Al2O3 gate oxide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ahn, Shihyun; Kim, Byung -Jae; Lin, Yi -Hsuan; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen J.; Yang, Gwangseok; Kim, Jihyun; Kravchenko, Ivan I.

    2016-07-26

    The effects of proton irradiation on the dc performance of InAlN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOSHEMTs) with Al2O3 as the gate oxide were investigated. The InAlN/GaN MOSHEMTs were irradiated with doses ranging from 1×1013 to 1×1015cm–2 at a fixed energy of 5MeV. There was minimal damage induced in the two dimensional electron gas at the lowest irradiation dose with no measurable increase in sheet resistance, whereas a 9.7% increase of the sheet resistance was observed at the highest irradiation dose. By sharp contrast, all irradiation doses created more severe degradation in the Ohmic metal contacts, with increases of specificmore » contact resistance from 54% to 114% over the range of doses investigated. These resulted in source-drain current–voltage decreases ranging from 96 to 242 mA/mm over this dose range. The trap density determined from temperature dependent drain current subthreshold swing measurements increased from 1.6 × 1013 cm–2 V–1 for the reference MOSHEMTs to 6.7 × 1013 cm–2 V–1 for devices irradiated with the highest dose. In conclusion, the carrier removal rate was 1287 ± 64 cm–1, higher than the authors previously observed in AlGaN/GaN MOSHEMTs for the same proton energy and consistent with the lower average bond energy of the InAlN.« less

  7. Weldability of High Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maroef, I

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of silicon and iron on the weldability of HAYNES HR-160{reg_sign} alloy. HR-I60 alloy is a solid solution strengthened Ni-Co-Cr-Si alloy. The alloy is designed to resist corrosion in sulfidizing and other aggressive high temperature environments. Silicon is added ({approx}2.75%) to promote the formation of a protective oxide scale in environments with low oxygen activity. HR-160 alloy has found applications in waste incinerators, calciners, pulp and paper recovery boilers, coal gasification systems, and fluidized bed combustion systems. HR-160 alloy has been successfully used in a wide range of welded applications. However, the alloy can be susceptible to solidification cracking under conditions of severe restraint. A previous study by DuPont, et al. [1] showed that silicon promoted solidification cracking in the commercial alloy. In earlier work conducted at Haynes, and also from published work by DuPont et al., it was recognized that silicon segregates to the terminal liquid, creating low melting point liquid films on solidification grain boundaries. Solidification cracking has been encountered when using the alloy as a weld overlay on steel, and when joining HR-160 plate in a thickness greater than19 millimeters (0.75 inches) with matching filler metal. The effect of silicon on the weldability of HR-160 alloy has been well documented, but the effect of iron is not well understood. Prior experience at Haynes has indicated that iron may be detrimental to the solidification cracking resistance of the alloy. Iron does not segregate to the terminal solidification product in nickel-base alloys, as does silicon [2], but iron may have an indirect or interactive influence on weldability. A set of alloys covering a range of silicon and iron contents was prepared and characterized to better understand the welding metallurgy of HR-160 alloy.

  8. High strength and high toughness steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parker, Earl R.; Zackay, Victor F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural steel which possess both high strength and high toughness and has particular application of cryogenic uses. The steel is produced by the utilization of thermally induced phase transformation following heating in a three-phase field in iron-rich alloys of the Fe-Ni-Ti system, with a preferred composition of 12% nickel, 0.5% titanium, the remainder being iron.

  9. High strength, high ductility low carbon steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koo, Jayoung; Thomas, Gareth

    1978-01-01

    A high strength, high ductility low carbon steel consisting essentially of iron, 0.05-0.15 wt% carbon, and 1-3 wt% silicon. Minor amounts of other constituents may be present. The steel is characterized by a duplex ferrite-martensite microstructure in a fibrous morphology. The microstructure is developed by heat treatment consisting of initial austenitizing treatment followed by annealing in the (.alpha. + .gamma.) range with intermediate quenching.

  10. High Performance Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    activities span repeated lifetimes of supercomputing systems and infrastructure: Defining Future Environments Communication and collaborations with industry and academia to follow...

  11. Work Force Restructuring Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Work Force Restructuring Activities December 10, 2008 Note: Current updates are in bold # Planned Site/Contractor HQ Approved Separations Status General * LM has finalized the compilation of contractor management team separation data for the end of FY07 actuals and end of FY08 and FY09 projections. LM has submitted to Congress the FY 2007 Annual Report on contractor work force restructuring activities. The report has been posted to the LM website. *LM conducted a DOE complex-wide data call to

  12. Activated carbon material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, A. Gary

    1978-01-01

    Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards.

  13. Bandwidth and Transfer Activity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Activity Bandwidth and Transfer Activity Data Rate vs. File Size The graph below shows the bandwidth for individual file transfers for one day. The graph also gives a quick overview of the traffic and maximum bandwidth and file size for a given day. Historical yearly peak days. Daily Rate vs. Size Aggregate Transfer Bandwidth This graph shows the aggregate transfer rate to the storage systems as a function of time of day. The red line is the peak bandwidth observed within each one minute

  14. Active microrheology in active matter systems: Mobility, intermittency...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on March 24, 2016 Title: Active microrheology in active matter systems: Mobility, intermittency, and...

  15. EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program manages several transportation regulatory activities established by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended by the Energy Conservation Reauthorization Act of 1998, EPAct 2005, and the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA).

  16. Active-bridge oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2001-01-01

    An active bridge oscillator is formed from a differential amplifier where positive feedback is a function of the impedance of one of the gain elements and a relatively low value common emitter resistance. This use of the nonlinear transistor parameter h stabilizes the output and eliminates the need for ALC circuits common to other bridge oscillators.

  17. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, E.L.

    1980-01-28

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5-MeV neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  18. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Eddy L.

    1981-01-01

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5 Mev neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  19. Highly Dispersed Metal Catalyst - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Highly Dispersed Metal Catalyst Method for full dispersion of active metals into a high surface area of support to promote efficiency Savannah River National Laboratory Contact SRNL About This Technology Dr. X. Steve Xiao, Fellow Engineer, Savannah River National Laboratory Dr. X. Steve Xiao, Fellow Engineer, Savannah River National Laboratory Technology Marketing Summary

  20. High temperature two component explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles

    1981-01-01

    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K. At temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  1. Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in Europe

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Presentation) | Department of Energy Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in Europe (Presentation) Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in Europe (Presentation) Presented at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting (HTMWG) held October 10, 2007 in Washington, D.C. htwmg_oct07_jones.pdf (3.12 MB) More Documents & Publications CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe Minutes of the High Temperature

  2. Principal Building Activities--1995 CBECS

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Detailed Tables > Principal Building Activities Table Number of Buildings, Total Floorspace, and Total Site and Primary Energy Consumption for All Principal Building Activities,...

  3. Intermediate Energy Activation File - 2001.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-08-21

    Version 00 The IEAF-2001 activation library is suitable for activation analyses in fusion technology and intermediate energy applications such as the IFMIF D-Li neutron source.

  4. Activ Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activ Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Activ Solar Address: Vienna, Wipplingerstrasse 35 Place: Austria Zip: 1010 Sector: Solar Product: The company's main business areas...

  5. Key Activities | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    About the Fuel Cell Technologies Office Key Activities Key Activities The Fuel Cell Technologies Office conducts work in several key areas to advance the development and ...

  6. High School Internship Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High School Internship Program High School Internship Program Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich in intellectual vitality and opportunities for growth. Contact Program Manager Scott Robbins Student Programs (505) 667-3639 Email Program Coordinator Brenda Montoya Student Programs (505) 667-4866 Email Opportunities for Northern New Mexico high school seniors The High School Internship Program provides qualified

  7. High Explosives Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration | (NNSA) High Explosives Application Facility A Livermore scientist uses a laser spectroscopic method with a diamond anvil DOE/NNSA has identified LLNL's High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF) as the complex-wide "Center of Excellence" for High-Explosives Research and Development. In this capacity, HEAF is a source of subject matter expertise for high explosives and other energetic materials. Its mission is to provide this expertise to serve multiple government

  8. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  9. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  10. High performance systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil, M.B.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  11. Process for preparing active oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berard, Michael F.; Hunter, Jr., Orville; Shiers, Loren E.; Dole, Stephen L.; Scheidecker, Ralph W.

    1979-02-20

    An improved process for preparing active oxide powders in which cation hydroxide gels, prepared in the conventional manner are chemically dried by alternately washing the gels with a liquid organic compound having polar characteristics and a liquid organic compound having nonpolar characteristics until the mechanical water is removed from the gel. The water-free cation hydroxide is then contacted with a final liquid organic wash to remove the previous organic wash and speed drying. The dried hydroxide treated in the conventional manner will form a highly sinterable active oxide powder.

  12. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  13. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, Clifford B.

    1993-01-01

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  14. LANSCE Activity Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amy Robinson; Audrey Archuleta; Barbara Maes; Dan Strottman; Earl Hoffman; Garth Tietjen; Gene Farnum; Geoff Greene; Joyce Roberts; Ken Johnson; Paul Lewis; Roger Pynn; Stan Schriber; Steve Sterbenz; Steve Wender; Sue Harper

    1999-02-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Activity Report describes scientific and technological progress and achievements in LANSCE Division during the period of 1995 to 1998. This report includes a message from the Division Director, an overview of LANSCE, sponsor overviews, research highlights, advanced projects and facility upgrades achievements, experimental and user program accomplishments, news and events, and a list of publications. The research highlights cover the areas of condensed-matter science and engineering, accelerator science, nuclear science, and radiography. This report also contains a compact disk that includes an overview, the Activity Report itself, LANSCE operations progress reports for 1996 and 1997, experiment reports from LANSCE users, as well as a search capability.

  15. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  16. Geothermal Energy (5 Activities)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Energy (Five Activities) Grades: 5-8 Topic: Geothermal Authors: Laura J. W. Butterfield, Ph.D., Brandon A. Gillette, and Richard Shin Owner: National Renewable Energy Laboratory This educational material is brought to you by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Geothermal Energy Laura J. W. Butterfield, Ph.D. Brandon A. Gillette Richard Shin Middle School For the Teacher Deep inside the Earth, at depths near 150 kilometers, the temperature

  17. NREL: International Activities - Webmaster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Webmaster Please enter your name and email address in the boxes provided, then type your message below. When you are finished, click "Send Message." NOTE: If you enter your e-mail address incorrectly, we will be unable to reply. Your name: Your email address: Your message: Send Message Printable Version International Activities Home Bilateral Partnerships Multilateral Partnerships Assessments & Tools Working with Us Did you find what you needed? Yes 1 No 0 Thank you for your

  18. High Tech Halloween

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Tech Halloween High Tech Halloween WHEN: Oct 30, 2015 4:00 PM - 6:30 PM WHERE: Bradbury Science Museum 1350 Central Avenue, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87544 USA CONTACT: Linda Anderman (505) 665-9196 CATEGORY: Bradbury INTERNAL: Calendar Login High Tech Halloween Event Description High-Tech Halloween is the Bradbury Science Museum's contribution to Downtown Los Alamos' annual Trick-or-Treat on MainStreet event taking place the Friday before Halloween. At this year's High-Tech Halloween, you

  19. LANL ACTIVITIES IN THE FIELD OF RF SUPERCONDUCTIVITY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Jason, Andy; Kelley, Patrick J.; Krawczyk, Frank L.; Liu, Jianfei; Schrage, Dale L.; Shapiro, Alan H.; Findikoglu, Alp T.; Peterson,, Dean E.

    2003-07-29

    This report briefly summarizes activities, including: tests of elliptical cavities; design and testing of high-power couplers and cryomodules; design, procurement, and tests of 2-gap spoke cavities. It also summarizes critical technology issues.

  20. Assessment and management of aquatic impacts from airport de-icing activities -- The Canadian perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent, R.A.; Andersen, D.; Simpson, A.

    1995-12-31

    Historically, aircraft deicing fluids have simply drained from aircraft and runway surfaces into airport drainage systems and invariably end up in surrounding receiving aquatic systems. This led to recent concerns over environmental impacts from glycol-based fluids typically used for deicing aircraft. Glycols from de-icing fluids have been detected at high levels at Canadian airports. Concern not only stems from the high volumes being used at relatively few point sources, but also to the higher toxicity of the formulated de-icing fluids, compared to pure glycols. As a result, significant environmental management efforts have been made at Canadian airports over the last 4 years, including extensive stormwater monitoring, glycol mitigation and pollution prevention plans. Site-specific mitigation plans have been implemented at 15 major Canadian airports which typically include glycol containment, collection and removal. While a reasonable dataset is available on the toxicity of pure glycols, much less information is available on the toxicity of formulated deicers. Furthermore, there have been very few field assessments of the aquatic impacts of de-icing. To date, management regimes developed to address the problem in Canada have focused almost exclusively on glycols and voluntary compliance to discharge limits and receiving water quality guidelines. This approach has resulted in reductions in the quantities of glycols which are released from Canadian airports into the surrounding environment. Currently, government and industry are refining this management system with an examination of new approaches and options such as more holistic airport wastewater quality assessments and toxicity-based guidelines.

  1. Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

  2. FULLY INTEGRATED HIGH SPEED MEGAWATT CLASS MOTOR AND HIGH FREQUENCY...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FULLY INTEGRATED HIGH SPEED MEGAWATT CLASS MOTOR AND HIGH FREQUENCY VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE SYSTEM FULLY INTEGRATED HIGH SPEED MEGAWATT CLASS MOTOR AND HIGH FREQUENCY VARIABLE SPEED ...

  3. High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered diamonds Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic ...

  4. High Tech Halloween

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    your way over to Critter Alley to get a glimpse at things that creep and crawl Scary music will also accompany your activities while you make your way over to the pumpkin glow....

  5. Poster: Reporting Unethical or Illegal Activity | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Poster: Reporting Unethical or Illegal Activity High standards are more than a slogan or catch phrase - they represent the way we do business. Maintaining high standards means conducting business ethically and legally. Adhering to these standards helps us protect the reputation for excellence and integrity that we've built as an organization. If you see or suspect unethical or illegal activity, report it immediately. While speaking directly to a manager or supervisor may be the

  6. Presentation to EAC: Renewable Electricity Futures Activities & Status,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    October 29, 2010 | Department of Energy Presentation to EAC: Renewable Electricity Futures Activities & Status, October 29, 2010 Presentation to EAC: Renewable Electricity Futures Activities & Status, October 29, 2010 Presentation to the Electricity Advisory Committee, October 29, 2010, on Renewable Electricity Futures Activities & Status. The presentation provides a high-level overview of the Renewable Electricity Futures study, its current status, modeling approach, and key

  7. Superconducting active impedance converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.

    1993-11-16

    A transimpedance amplifier for use with high temperature superconducting, other superconducting, and conventional semiconductors allows for appropriate signal amplification and impedance matching to processing electronics. The amplifier incorporates the superconducting flux flow transistor into a differential amplifier configuration which allows for operation over a wide temperature range, and is characterized by high gain, relatively low noise, and response times less than 200 picoseconds over at least a 10-80 K. temperature range. The invention is particularly useful when a signal derived from either far-IR focal plane detectors or from Josephson junctions is to be processed by higher signal/higher impedance electronics, such as conventional semiconductor technology. 12 figures.

  8. Superconducting active impedance converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Martens, Jon S.

    1993-01-01

    A transimpedance amplifier for use with high temperature superconducting, other superconducting, and conventional semiconductor allows for appropriate signal amplification and impedance matching to processing electronics. The amplifier incorporates the superconducting flux flow transistor into a differential amplifier configuration which allows for operation over a wide temperature range, and is characterized by high gain, relatively low noise, and response times less than 200 picoseconds over at least a 10-80 K. temperature range. The invention is particularly useful when a signal derived from either far-IR focal plane detectors or from Josephson junctions is to be processed by higher signal/higher impedance electronics, such as conventional semiconductor technology.

  9. Energy Conservation Contract (4 activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students learn about saving energy and encourage their families to conserve by completing the following activities

  10. High pressure and high temperature apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voronov, Oleg A.

    2005-09-13

    A design for high pressure/high temperature apparatus and reaction cell to achieve .about.30 GPa pressure in .about.1 cm volume and .about.100 GPa pressure in .about.1 mm volumes and 20-5000.degree. C. temperatures in a static regime. The device includes profiled anvils (28) action on a reaction cell (14, 16) containing the material (26) to be processed. The reaction cell includes a heater (18) surrounded by insulating layers and screens. Surrounding the anvils are cylindrical inserts and supporting rings (30-48) whose hardness increases towards the reaction cell. These volumes may be increased considerably if applications require it, making use of presses that have larger loading force capability, larger frames and using larger anvils.

  11. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  12. HIGH VOLTAGE, HIGH CURRENT SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dike, R.S.; Lier, D.W.; Schofield, A.E.; Tuck, J.L.

    1962-04-17

    A high voltage and current spark gap switch comprising two main electrodes insulatingly supported in opposed spaced relationship and a middle electrode supported medially between the main electrodes and symmetrically about the median line of the main electrodes is described. The middle electrode has a perforation aligned with the median line and an irradiation electrode insulatingly supported in the body of the middle electrode normal to the median line and protruding into the perforation. (AEC)

  13. GTT Activities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Grid Tech Team » Activities/Outreach » GTT Activities GTT Activities GTT Activities Activities To receive input and feedback on the development of the future grid vision and other GTT documents, the GTT hosts targeted workshops and meetings to inform its deliberations. 2014 Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop, September 30-October1 2013 HVDC Workshop, April 22 2013 ARPA-E Summit, February 25-27 2012 Transmission Workshop, November 1-2 Distribution

  14. Political Activity | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Activity Political Activity Policy Flash 2011-2, issued October 5, 2010, provided information on the prohibition on using Government property and facilities to conduct political activities. Recently, there was an alleged misuse of the Department of Energy (DOE) e-mail system to conduct political activities by a DOE contractor. This Policy Flash serves as a reminder on political activities in the workplace during this election season. Government property and facilities are not authorized for

  15. Seismicity on the western Greenland Ice Sheet: Surface fracture in the vicinity of active moulins

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Joughin, Ian; Behn, Mark D.; Das, Sarah; King, Matt A.; Stevens, Laura; Lizarralde, Dan

    2015-06-25

    We analyzed geophone and GPS measurements collected within the ablation zone of the western Greenland Ice Sheet during a ~35 day period of the 2011 melt season to study changes in ice deformation before, during, and after a supraglacial lake drainage event. During rapid lake drainage, ice flow speeds increased to ~400% of winter values, and icequake activity peaked. At times >7 days after drainage, this seismicity developed variability over both diurnal and longer periods (~10 days), while coincident ice speeds fell to ~150% of winter values and showed nightly peaks in spatial variability. Approximately 95% of all detected seismicitymore » in the lake basin and its immediate vicinity was triggered by fracture propagation within near-surface ice (<330 m deep) that generated Rayleigh waves. Icequakes occurring before and during drainage frequently were collocated with the down flow (west) end of the primary hydrofracture through which the lake drained but shifted farther west and outside the lake basin after the drainage. We interpret these results to reveal vertical hydrofracture opening and local uplift during the drainage, followed by enhanced seismicity and ice flow on the downstream side of the lake basin. This region collocates with interferometric synthetic aperture radar-measured speedup in previous years and could reflect the migration path of the meltwater supplied to the bed by the lake. The diurnal seismic signal can be associated with nightly reductions in surface melt input that increase effective basal pressure and traction, thereby promoting elevated strain in the surficial ice.« less

  16. Highly directional thermal emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric A; Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2015-03-24

    A highly directional thermal emitter device comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of heavily doped semiconductor structures on a surface of a substrate. The array provides a highly directional thermal emission at a peak wavelength between 3 and 15 microns when the array is heated. For example, highly doped silicon (HDSi) with a plasma frequency in the mid-wave infrared was used to fabricate nearly perfect absorbing two-dimensional gratings structures that function as highly directional thermal radiators. The absorption and emission characteristics of the HDSi devices possessed a high degree of angular dependence for infrared absorption in the 10-12 micron range, while maintaining high reflectivity of solar radiation (.about.64%) at large incidence angles.

  17. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, John P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  18. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

  19. Technology development activities supporting tank waste remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonner, W.F.; Beeman, G.H.

    1994-06-01

    This document summarizes work being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development (EM-50) in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The specific work activities are organized by the following categories: safety, characterization, retrieval, barriers, pretreatment, low-level waste, and high-level waste. In most cases, the activities presented here were identified as supporting tank remediation by EM-50 integrated program or integrated demonstration lead staff and the selections were further refined by contractor staff. Data sheets were prepared from DOE-HQ guidance to the field issued in September 1993. Activities were included if a significant portion of the work described provides technology potentially needed by TWRS; consequently, not all parts of each description necessarily support tank remediation.

  20. FY 1996 activity summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety provides nuclear safety policy, independent technical evaluation, and technical support. A summary of these activities is provided in this report. These include: (1) changing the mission of the former production facilities to storage and waste management; (2) stabilizing nuclear materials not recycled due to production cessation or interruptions; (3) reformulating the authorization basis for existing facilities to convert to a standards based approach for operations consistent with modern expectations; and (4) implementing a modern regulatory framework for nuclear facilities. Enforcement of the Price-Anderson Amendments Act is also reported.

  1. Reuse of activated alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobensack, J.E.

    1991-12-31

    Activated alumina is used as a trapping media to remove trace quantities of UF{sub 6} from process vent streams. The current uranium recovery method employs concentrated nitric acid which destroys the alumina pellets and forms a sludge which is a storage and disposal problem. A recently developed technique using a distilled water rinse followed by three dilute acid rinses removes on average 97% of the uranium, and leaves the pellets intact with crush strength and surface area values comparable with new material. Trapping tests confirm the effectiveness of the recycled alumina as UF{sub 6} trapping media.

  2. Monitoring international nuclear activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, R.B.

    2006-05-19

    The LBNL Table of Isotopes website provides primary nuclearinformation to>150,000 different users annually. We have developedthe covert technology to identify users by IP address and country todetermine the kinds of nuclear information they are retrieving. Wepropose to develop pattern recognition software to provide an earlywarning system to identify Unusual nuclear activity by country or regionSpecific nuclear/radioactive material interests We have monitored nuclearinformation for over two years and provide this information to the FBIand LLNL. Intelligence is gleaned from the website log files. Thisproposal would expand our reporting capabilities.

  3. High temperature refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

  4. High temperature furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  5. Photodetector having high speed and sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention provides a photodetector having an advantageous combination of sensitivity and speed; it has a high sensitivity while retaining high speed. In a preferred embodiment, visible light is detected, but in some embodiments, x-rays can be detected, and in other embodiments infrared can be detected. The present invention comprises a photodetector having an active layer, and a recombination layer. The active layer has a surface exposed to light to be detected, and comprises a semiconductor, having a bandgap graded so that carriers formed due to interaction of the active layer with the incident radiation tend to be swept away from the exposed surface. The graded semiconductor material in the active layer preferably comprises Al.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x As. An additional sub-layer of graded In.sub.1-y Ga.sub.y As may be included between the Al.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x As layer and the recombination layer. The recombination layer comprises a semiconductor material having a short recombination time such as a defective GaAs layer grown in a low temperature process. The recombination layer is positioned adjacent to the active layer so that carriers from the active layer tend to be swept into the recombination layer. In an embodiment, the photodetector may comprise one or more additional layers stacked below the active and recombination layers. These additional layers may include another active layer and another recombination layer to absorb radiation not absorbed while passing through the first layers. A photodetector having a stacked configuration may have enhanced sensitivity and responsiveness at selected wavelengths such as infrared.

  6. high renewable energy penetration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high renewable energy penetration - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future ...

  7. High Performance Sustainable Buildings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    science and bioscience capabiities. Occupational Medicine will become a High Performance Sustainable Building in 2013. On the former County landfill, a photovoltaic array field...

  8. High School Science Bowl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High School Science Bowl High School Science Bowl WHEN: Feb 07, 2015 8:00 AM - 4:00 PM WHERE: Highland High School 4700 Coal Ave SE, Albuquerque, USA CATEGORY: Community INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description The Science Bowl is a Jeopardy-like event for high school and middle school students who have a strong interest in mathematics and science. The competition is in the form of a round robin in the morning and double elimination after lunch. Teams consist of four students and one optional

  9. high-power LEDs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cost The high-brightness, rapidly pulsed, multicolor light-emitting diode (LED) driver delivers lighting performance that exceeds that of conventional (laserarc-light) sources ...

  10. Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Deputy Program Manager Fuel Cell Technologies Program United States Department of Energy Military Energy and Alternative Fuels Conference March 17-18, 2010 San Diego, CA 2 1. Overview, Challenges & Technology Status 2. DOE Program Activities and Progress 3. Market Transformation Outline 3 Fuel Cells: Addressing Energy Challenges Energy Efficiency and Resource Diversity  Fuel cells offer a highly efficient way to use diverse fuels and energy sources. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Air

  11. High power, high frequency, vacuum flange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felker, Brian (Livermore, CA); McDaniel, Michael R. (Manteca, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An improved waveguide flange is disclosed for high power operation that helps prevent arcs from being initiated at the junctions between waveguide sections. The flanges at the end of the waveguide sections have counterbores surrounding the waveguide tubes. When the sections are bolted together the counterbores form a groove that holds a fully annealed copper gasket. Each counterbore has a beveled step that is specially configured to insure the gasket forms a metal-to-metal vacuum seal without gaps or sharp edges. The resultant inner surface of the waveguide is smooth across the junctions between waveguide sections, and arcing is prevented.

  12. High power, high frequency, vacuum flange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felker, B.; McDaniel, M.R.

    1993-03-23

    An improved waveguide flange is disclosed for high power operation that helps prevent arcs from being initiated at the junctions between waveguide sections. The flanges at the end of the waveguide sections have counter bores surrounding the waveguide tubes. When the sections are bolted together the counter bores form a groove that holds a fully annealed copper gasket. Each counterbore has a beveled step that is specially configured to insure the gasket forms a metal-to-metal vacuum seal without gaps or sharp edges. The resultant inner surface of the waveguide is smooth across the junctions between waveguide sections, and arcing is prevented.

  13. High density photovoltaic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haigh, R.E.; Jacobson, G.F.; Wojtczuk, S.

    1997-10-14

    Photovoltaic technology can directly generate high voltages in a solid state material through the series interconnect of many photovoltaic diodes. We are investigating the feasibility of developing an electrically isolated, high-voltage power supply using miniature photovoltaic devices that convert optical energy to electrical energy.

  14. High temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature sensor includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1,000 to 2,000 K.). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  15. High coking value pitch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  16. Microwave Ablation of Pulmonary Malignancies Using a Novel High-energy Antenna System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, Mark W.; Chung, Daniel; Boardman, Philip; Gleeson, Fergus V.; Anderson, Ewan M.

    2013-04-15

    To evaluate the technical success, safety, and imaging follow-up of malignant pulmonary nodules treated with a novel high-energy percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) system. Between July 2010 and September 2011, a total of 23 patients, 12 men, mean age 68 (range 30-87) years with 29 pulmonary malignancies of median diameter 19 (range 8-57) mm, underwent computed tomography (CT)-guided MWA with a 16G microwave needle antenna enabling power up to 180 W. Technical success was defined as needle placement in the intended lesion without death or serious injury. Adequacy of ablation was assessed at 24 h on contrast-enhanced CT. Circumferential solid or ground glass opacification >5 mm was used to define an ideal ablation. Local tumor recurrence was assessed at 1, 3, and 6 months after ablation on contrast-enhanced CT. MWA was technically successful in 93 % (n = 27). Mean ablation duration was 3.6 (range 1-9) min. Ten patients (43 %) developed a pneumothorax as a result of the MWA; only 3 (13 %) required placement of a chest drain. Thirty-day mortality rate was 0 %. The mean hospital stay was 1.5 (range 1-7) days. A total of 22 lesions (75 %) were surrounded by {>=}5 mm ground glass or solid opacification after the procedure. At a median follow-up of 6 months, local recurrence was identified in 3 out of 26 lesions, giving a local control rate of 88 %. MWA using a high-power antenna of pulmonary malignancies is safe, technically achievable, and enables fast ablation times.

  17. Group-III nitride based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with barrier/spacer layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chavarkar, Prashant; Smorchkova, Ioulia P.; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh; Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Wu, Yifeng

    2005-02-01

    A Group III nitride based high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) is disclosed that provides improved high frequency performance. One embodiment of the HEMT comprises a GaN buffer layer, with an Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N (y=1 or y 1) layer on the GaN buffer layer. An Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5) barrier layer on to the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer, opposite the GaN buffer layer, Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer having a higher Al concentration than that of the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. A preferred Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer has y=1 or y.about.1 and a preferred Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer has 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. A 2DEG forms at the interface between the GaN buffer layer and the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer. Respective source, drain and gate contacts are formed on the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. The HEMT can also comprising a substrate adjacent to the buffer layer, opposite the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer and a nucleation layer between the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N buffer layer and the substrate.

  18. NREL Climate Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NREL Climate Activities (Redirected from Climate Activities at NREL) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Climate Activities at NREL Name Climate Activities at NREL AgencyCompany...

  19. Financial and Activity Reports | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Financial and Activity Reports Financial and Activity Reports June 30, 2013 Financial and Activity Report - June 30, 2013 May 31, 2013 Financial and Activity Report - May 31, 2013 ...

  20. Activated sludge stress testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, F.H.; Darida, C.J. ); Alam, A.M.Z.; Chien, T. )

    1991-11-01

    In 1989 and 1990, the Middlesex County Utilities Authority (MCUA) conducted a facilities planning study to expand the capacity of the existing 5.2-m{sup 3}/s (120-mgd) treatment plant for treating projected wastewater flows up to the year 2020. As a part of this study, MCUA stress-tested the existing plant facilities - specifically, the UNOX activated sludge reactors and aerobic sludge digesters - to determine the dependable treatment capacity of each unit process. Before establishing expansion needs, it was necessary to determine the real treatment capacities of existing treatment plant facilities and process units as compared to plant design criteria and the effectiveness of the existing treatment systems and their operations, increased plant capacity, and reduced future plant expansion needs and associated construction costs.

  1. Carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane for high electron mobility transistor applications: Growth and device results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X.; Nilsson, D.; Danielsson, Ö.; Pedersen, H.; Janzén, E.; Forsberg, U.; Bergsten, J.; Rorsman, N.

    2015-12-28

    The creation of a semi insulating (SI) buffer layer in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) devices is crucial for preventing a current path beneath the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). In this investigation, we evaluate the use of a gaseous carbon gas precursor, propane, for creating a SI GaN buffer layer in a HEMT structure. The carbon doped profile, using propane gas, is a two stepped profile with a high carbon doping (1.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) epitaxial layer closest to the substrate and a lower doped layer (3 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3}) closest to the 2DEG channel. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurement shows a uniform incorporation versus depth, and no memory effect from carbon doping can be seen. The high carbon doping (1.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) does not influence the surface morphology, and a roughness root-mean-square value of 0.43 nm is obtained from Atomic Force Microscopy. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements show very sharp peaks and no structural degradation can be seen related to the heavy carbon doped layer. HEMTs are fabricated and show an extremely low drain induced barrier lowering value of 0.1 mV/V, demonstrating an excellent buffer isolation. The carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane gas is compared to samples using carbon from the trimethylgallium molecule, showing equally low leakage currents, demonstrating the capability of growing highly resistive buffer layers using a gaseous carbon source.

  2. Minutes of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Meeting Minutes of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting High Temperature Membrane Working Group members meet October 10, 2007 in Washington, DC. minutes_of_htmwg_mtg.pdf (92.47 KB) More Documents & Publications High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting (HTWGM) Agenda Strategy for Aging Tests of Fuel Cell Membranes (Presentation) CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe

  3. Final Report. Research in Theoretical High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greensite, Jeffrey P.; Golterman, Maarten F.L.

    2015-04-30

    Grant-supported research in theoretical high-energy physics, conducted in the period 1992-2015 is briefly described, and a full listing of published articles result from those research activities is supplied.

  4. Ultrastable Polymolybdate-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as Highly...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal-Organic Frameworks as Highly Active Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Generation from Water Previous Next List Qin, Jun-Sheng; Du, Dong-Ying; Guan, Wei; Bo, Xiang-Jie; Li,...

  5. Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2010-041 Kick-Off Meeting for New Fuel Cell Projects CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities ...

  6. Sandia Energy - Successful Conclusion of SSLS EFRC's High School...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were between their junior and senior years of high school, and had strong backgrounds math and science. Our interns participated in a wide range of activities: ES&H courses,...

  7. Idaho High-Level Waste & Facilities Disposition, Final Environmental...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    A.1 Introduction A-1 A.2 Methodology A-1 A.3 High-Level Waste Treatment and Interim ... Evaluation Process A-6 A.4 Low-Activity Waste Disposal Site Selection A-6 A.4.1 ...

  8. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  9. WIPP Activates Emergency Operations Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 5, 2015 WIPP Activates Emergency Operations Center At approximately 7:00 p.m. MDT on Tuesday, August 4, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) activated the Emergency...

  10. Dual control active superconductive devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1993-07-20

    A superconducting active device has dual control inputs and is constructed such that the output of the device is effectively a linear mix of the two input signals. The device is formed of a film of superconducting material on a substrate and has two main conduction channels, each of which includes a weak link region. A first control line extends adjacent to the weak link region in the first channel and a second control line extends adjacent to the weak link region in the second channel. The current flowing from the first channel flows through an internal control line which is also adjacent to the weak link region of the second channel. The weak link regions comprise small links of superconductor, separated by voids, through which the current flows in each channel. Current passed through the control lines causes magnetic flux vortices which propagate across the weak link regions and control the resistance of these regions. The output of the device taken across the input to the main channels and the output of the second main channel and the internal control line will constitute essentially a linear mix of the two input signals imposed on the two control lines. The device is especially suited to microwave applications since it has very low input capacitance, and is well suited to being formed of high temperature superconducting materials since all of the structures may be formed coplanar with one another on a substrate.

  11. 2006 ALARA Activities at DOE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE 2006 Report 4- Section Four ALARA Activities at DOE 4 ALARA Activities at DOE In past years, the published annual report has included descriptions of ALARA activities at DOE for the purposes of sharing strategies and techniques that have shown promise in the reduction of radiation exposure. For 2006, these ALARA activity descriptions have been moved to the HSS REMS Web site to facilitate the dissemination among DOE radiation protection managers and others interested in these project

  12. Wonders of Wind (10 Activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Hands-on investigation that introduce scientific concepts of wind energy to elementary students with the following activities

  13. Prestart Activities Continue at WIPP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    waste handling personnel review a procedure as part of prestart activities at WIPP. WIPP UPDATE: June 22, 2016 Prestart Activities Continue at WIPP Prestart activities are continuing at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as employees verify and validate operating procedures in preparation for resuming transuranic waste emplacement operations at WIPP. On June 1 WIPP workers began the phase of prestart activities referred to as Cold Operations. Cold Operations includes verifying adequacy of

  14. Catalytic activity in lithium-treated core-shell MoOx/MoS2 nanowires...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The high electrochemical activity in the nanowires results ... 119; Journal Issue: 40; Journal ID: ISSN 1932-7447 Publisher: American Chemical Society Research Org: Los Alamos ...

  15. Locating an active fault zone in Coso geothermal field by analyzing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    waves from microearthquake data Abstract Active fault systems usually provide high-permeability channels for hydrothermal outflow in geothermal fields. Locating such fault systems...

  16. On the redox origin of surface trapping in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Chen, Di; Tuller, Harry L.; Thompson, Carl V.; Palacios, Toms

    2014-03-28

    Water-related redox couples in ambient air are identified as an important source of the surface trapping states, dynamic on-resistance, and drain current collapse in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Through in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), direct signature of the water-related specieshydroxyl groups (OH) was found at the AlGaN surface at room temperature. It was also found that these species, as well as the current collapse, can be thermally removed above 200?C in vacuum conditions. An electron trapping mechanism based on the H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O/O{sub 2} redox couples is proposed to explain the 0.5?eV energy level commonly attributed to the surface trapping states. Finally, the role of silicon nitride passivation in successfully removing current collapse in these devices is explained by blocking the water molecules away from the AlGaN surface.

  17. International Activities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Activities International Activities International Activities The International Program assists the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) in identifying technologies and strategies for waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, spent nuclear fuel and surplus nuclear material disposition, and facility deactivation and decommissioning. The International Program seeks to transform advances in science and engineering into practical solutions for environmental remediation.

  18. Active magnetic regenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Steyert, W.A.

    1981-01-27

    An apparatus and method for refrigeration are disclosed which provides efficient refrigeration over temperature ranges in excess of 20/sup 0/C and which requires no maintenance and is, therefore, usable on an unmanned satellite. The apparatus comprises a superconducting magnet which may be solenoidal. A piston comprising a substance such as a rare earth substance which is maintained near its Curie temperature reciprocates through the bore of the solenoidal magnet. A magnetic drive rod is connected to the piston and appropriate heat sinks are connected thereto. The piston is driven by a suitable mechanical drive such as an electric motor and cam. In practicing the invention, the body of the piston is magnetized and demagnetized as it moves through the magnetic field of the solenoid to approximate any of the following cycles or a condition thereof as well as, potentially, other cycles: Brayton, Carnot, Ericsson, and Stirling. Advantages of the present invention include: that refrigeration can be accomplished over at least a 20/sup 0/C scale at superconducting temperatures as well as at more conventional temperatures; very high efficiency, high reliability, and small size. (LCL)

  19. High-Speed Photography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.; Schelev, M.Y.

    1998-08-01

    The applications of high-speed photography to a diverse set of subjects including inertial confinement fusion, laser surgical procedures, communications, automotive airbags, lightning etc. are briefly discussed. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.}

  20. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  1. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  2. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  3. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  4. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  5. High Performance Sustainable Building

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-11-09

    This Guide provides approaches for implementing the High Performance Sustainable Building (HPSB) requirements of DOE Order 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets. Supersedes DOE G 413.3-6.

  6. High Performance Sustainable Building

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-11-09

    This Guide highlights the DOE O 413.3B drivers for incorporating high performance sustainable building (HPSB) principles into Critical Decisions 1 through 4 and provides guidance for implementing the Order's HPSB requirements.

  7. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul; Scandrol, Roy O.

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  8. HIGH TEMPERATURE THERMOCOUPLE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eshayu, A.M.

    1963-02-12

    This invention contemplates a high temperature thermocouple for use in an inert or a reducing atmosphere. The thermocouple limbs are made of rhenium and graphite and these limbs are connected at their hot ends in compressed removable contact. The rhenium and graphite are of high purity and are substantially stable and free from diffusion into each other even without shielding. Also, the graphite may be thick enough to support the thermocouple in a gas stream. (AEC)

  9. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  10. High-temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  11. High conductivity composite metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Ruoyi; Smith, James L.; Embury, John David

    1998-01-01

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps.

  12. High conductivity composite metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, R.; Smith, J.L.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-01-06

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them are disclosed, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps. 10 figs.

  13. High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration | (NNSA) High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program Steady advances in increasing the energy, power, and brightness of lasers and particle beams and advances in pulsed power systems have made possible the exploration of matter at extremely high energy density in the laboratory. Exciting new experimental regimes are being realized by exploiting the scientific capabilities of existing ICF Office facilities, as well as the relevant Department of Defense (DoD) and university

  14. High Performance Sustainable Buildings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Buildings Goal 3: High Performance Sustainable Buildings Maintaining the conditions of a building improves the health of not only the surrounding ecosystems, but also the well-being of its occupants. Energy Conservation» Efficient Water Use & Management» High Performance Sustainable Buildings» Greening Transportation» Green Purchasing & Green Technology» Pollution Prevention» Science Serving Sustainability» ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY GOALS at LANL The Radiological Laboratory

  15. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy ...

  16. High Burnup Effects Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barner, J.O.; Cunningham, M.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Lanning, D.D.

    1990-04-01

    This is the final report of the High Burnup Effects Program (HBEP). It has been prepared to present a summary, with conclusions, of the HBEP. The HBEP was an international, group-sponsored research program managed by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). The principal objective of the HBEP was to obtain well-characterized data related to fission gas release (FGR) for light water reactor (LWR) fuel irradiated to high burnup levels. The HBEP was organized into three tasks as follows: Task 1 -- high burnup effects evaluations; Task 2 -- fission gas sampling; and Task 3 -- parameter effects study. During the course of the HBEP, a program that extended over 10 years, 82 fuel rods from a variety of sources were characterized, irradiated, and then examined in detail after irradiation. The study of fission gas release at high burnup levels was the principal objective of the program and it may be concluded that no significant enhancement of fission gas release at high burnup levels was observed for the examined rods. The rim effect, an as yet unquantified contributor to athermal fission gas release, was concluded to be the one truly high-burnup effect. Though burnup enhancement of fission gas release was observed to be low, a full understanding of the rim region and rim effect has not yet emerged and this may be a potential area of further research. 25 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. High surface area, high permeability carbon monoliths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Processing Dept.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this work is to prepare carbon monoliths having precisely tailored pore size distribution. Prior studies have demonstrated that poly(acrylonitrile) can be processed into a precursor having tailored macropore structure. Since the macropores were preserved during pyrolysis, this synthetic process provided a route to porous carbon having macropores with size =0.1 to 10{mu}m. No micropores of size <2 nm could be detected in the carbon, however, by nitrogen adsorption. In the present work, the authors have processed a different polymer, poly(vinylidene chloride) into a macroporous precursor, Pyrolysis produced carbon monoliths having macropores derived from the polymer precursor as well as extensive microporosity produced during the pyrolysis of the polymer. One of these carbons had BET surface area of 1,050 m{sup 2}/g and about 1.2 cc/g total pore volume, with about 1/3 of the total pore volume in micropores and the remainder in 1{mu}m macropores. No mesopores in the intermediate size range could be detected by nitrogen adsorption. Carbon materials having high surface area as well as micron size pores have potential applications as electrodes for double layer supercapacitors containing liquid electrolyte, or as efficient media for performing chemical separations.

  18. Pressure activated diaphragm bonder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, L.B.; Malba, V.

    1997-05-27

    A device is available for bonding one component to another, particularly for bonding electronic components of integrated circuits, such as chips, to a substrate. The bonder device in one embodiment includes a bottom metal block having a machined opening wherein a substrate is located, a template having machined openings which match solder patterns on the substrate, a thin diaphragm placed over the template after the chips have been positioned in the openings therein, and a top metal block positioned over the diaphragm and secured to the bottom block, with the diaphragm retained therebetween. The top block includes a countersink portion which extends over at least the area of the template and an opening through which a high pressure inert gas is supplied to exert uniform pressure distribution over the diaphragm to keep the chips in place during soldering. A heating means is provided to melt the solder patterns on the substrate and thereby solder the chips thereto. 4 figs.

  19. Pressure activated diaphragm bonder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Leland B.; Malba, Vincent

    1997-01-01

    A device is available for bonding one component to another, particularly for bonding electronic components of integrated circuits, such as chips, to a substrate. The bonder device in one embodiment includes a bottom metal block having a machined opening wherein a substrate is located, a template having machined openings which match solder patterns on the substrate, a thin diaphragm placed over the template after the chips have been positioned in the openings therein, and a top metal block positioned over the diaphragm and secured to the bottom block, with the diaphragm retained therebetween. The top block includes a countersink portion which extends over at least the area of the template and an opening through which a high pressure inert gas is supplied to exert uniform pressure distribution over the diaphragm to keep the chips in place during soldering. A heating means is provided to melt the solder patterns on the substrate and thereby solder the chips thereto.

  20. Patched bimetallic surfaces are active catalysts for ammonia decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Wei; Vlachos, Dionisios G.

    2015-10-07

    In this study, ammonia decomposition is often used as an archetypical reaction for predicting new catalytic materials and understanding the very reason of why some reactions are sensitive on material’s structure. Core–shell or surface-segregated bimetallic nanoparticles expose outstanding activity for many heterogeneously catalysed reactions but the reasons remain elusive owing to the difficulties in experimentally characterizing active sites. Here by performing multiscale simulations in ammonia decomposition on various nickel loadings on platinum (111), we show that the very high activity of core–shell structures requires patches of the guest metal to create and sustain dual active sites: nickel terraces catalyse N-H bond breaking and nickel edge sites drive atomic nitrogen association. The structure sensitivity on these active catalysts depends profoundly on reaction conditions due to kinetically competing relevant elementary reaction steps. We expose a remarkable difference in active sites between transient and steady-state studies and provide insights into optimal material design.

  1. High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction Authors: Fei, Yingwei ; Wang, ...

  2. Subsea completion data show steady activity levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohr, H.O. )

    1993-02-01

    Review of subsea completion statistics indicates 45 installations during 1992 - one more than during 1991. The 45 installations are still considerably less than the all-time high of 66 installations in 1985. Petrobras continues to install three times as many subsea completions as Shell, the next most active user. However, as in the past three years, the overall-lower number of installations last year was due to reduced applications by Petrobras. During 1991, that company installed 10 subsea completions, whereas during 1988, for example, it completed 37 installations. It should be noted that reduced activity by petrobras reflects problems with financing and general activity, rather than a lack of confidence in subsea completions. The number of future subsea completions identified for installation during the next 10 years is 1,144 - some 10% more than the 1,014 identified at the end of 1991. The present planned installation figure is an all-time high; the next highest number of installations identified was 1,083 at the end of 1989. These and other statistics are presented in 10 tables. A brief analysis of each is included.

  3. Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HIGHLY DISPERSED ALLOY CATHODE CATALYST FOR DURABILITY T. D. Jarvi UTC Power Corporation This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information HIGHLY DISPERSED ALLOY CATALYST Objectives of project Characteristic DOE 2010 Target Pt group metal Total Content 0.50 g/kW rated Pt group metal Total Loading 0.30 mg PGM/cm 2 Durability with cycling <80 o C; >80 o C 5000 h; 2000 h Electrochemical Area Loss < 40 % Mass Activity at 900 mV RHE (IR-Free) 0.44 A/mg Pt

  4. Sandia Energy - High Performance Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Performance Computing Home Energy Research Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) High Performance Computing High Performance Computingcwdd2015-03-18T21:41:24+00:00...

  5. High energy density redox flow device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Ho, Bryan Y; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  6. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wells | Department of Energy High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells fabian_ctd_ zonal_isolation_peer2013.pdf (809.57 KB) More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells track 3: enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015

  7. High temperature interface superconductivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-20

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. Here, wemore » conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.« less

  8. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  9. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  10. High brightness electron accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheffield, Richard L.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Young, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

  11. High frequency energy measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stotlar, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    High-frequency (> 100 MHz) energy measurements present special problems to the experimenter. Environment or available electronics often limit the applicability of a given detector type. The physical properties of many detectors are frequency dependent and in some cases, the physical effect employed can be frequency dependent. State-of-the-art measurements generally involve a detection scheme in association with high-speed electronics and a method of data recording. Events can be single or repetitive shot requiring real time, sampling, or digitizing data recording. Potential modification of the pulse by the detector and the associated electronics should not be overlooked. This presentation will review typical applications, methods of choosing a detector, and high-speed detectors. Special considerations and limitations of some applications and devices will be described.

  12. High-energy detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Camarda, Giuseppe; Cui, Yonggang; James, Ralph B.

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  13. HIGH POWER PULSED OSCILLATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singer, S.; Neher, L.K.

    1957-09-24

    A high powered, radio frequency pulse oscillator is described for generating trains of oscillations at the instant an input direct voltage is impressed, or immediately upon application of a light pulse. In one embodiment, the pulse oscillator comprises a photo-multiplier tube with the cathode connected to the first dynode by means of a resistor, and adjacent dynodes are connected to each other through adjustable resistors. The ohmage of the resistors progressively increases from a very low value for resistors adjacent the cathode to a high value adjacent the plate, the last dynode. Oscillation occurs with this circuit when a high negative voltage pulse is applied to the cathode and the photo cathode is bombarded. Another embodiment adds capacitors at the resistor connection points of the above circuit to increase the duration of the oscillator train.

  14. High strength alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  15. High strength alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  16. High Availability Electronics Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2006-12-13

    Availability modeling of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) predicts unacceptably low uptime with current electronics systems designs. High Availability (HA) analysis is being used as a guideline for all major machine systems including sources, utilities, cryogenics, magnets, power supplies, instrumentation and controls. R&D teams are seeking to achieve total machine high availability with nominal impact on system cost. The focus of this paper is the investigation of commercial standard HA architectures and packaging for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation. Application of HA design principles to power systems and detector instrumentation are also discussed.

  17. A novel activated carbon for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Haijie; Liu, Enhui; Xiang, Xiaoxia; Huang, Zhengzheng; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yuhu; Wu, Zhilian; Xie, Hui

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel activated carbon was prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbon has large surface area with microporous, and high heteroatom content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heteroatom-containing functional groups can improve the pseudo-capacitance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physical and chemical properties lead to the good electrochemical properties. -- Abstract: A novel activated carbon has been prepared by simple carbonization and activation of phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin which is synthesized by the condensation polymerization method. The morphology, thermal stability, surface area, elemental composition and surface chemical composition of samples have been investigated by scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurement, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Electrochemical properties have been studied by cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in 6 mol L{sup -1} potassium hydroxide. The activated carbon shows good capacitive behavior and the specific capacitance is up to 210 F g{sup -1}, which indicates that it may be a promising candidate for supercapacitors.

  18. Activation of erbium films for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brumbach, Michael T.; Ohlhausen, James A.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Snow, Clark S.; Woicik, Joseph C.

    2011-06-01

    Hydriding of metals can be routinely performed at high temperature in a rich hydrogen atmosphere. Prior to the hydrogen loading process, a thermal activation procedure is required to promote facile hydrogen sorption into the metal. Despite the wide spread utilization of this activation procedure, little is known about the chemical and electronic changes that occur during activation and how this thermal pretreatment leads to increased rates of hydrogen uptake. This study utilized variable kinetic energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to interrogate the changes during in situ thermal annealing of erbium films, with results confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and low energy ion scattering. Activation can be identified by a large increase in photoemission between the valence band edge and the Fermi level and appears to occur over a two stage process. The first stage involves desorption of contaminants and recrystallization of the oxide, initially impeding hydrogen loading. Further heating overcomes the first stage and leads to degradation of the passive surface oxide leading to a bulk film more accessible for hydrogen loading.

  19. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  20. Ni/Pd core/shell nanoparticles supported on graphene as a highly...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NiPd coreshell nanoparticles supported on graphene as a highly active and reusable ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NiPd coreshell nanoparticles supported on ...