National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hid high-intensity discharge

  1. High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:59pm Addthis Illustration of a high-intensity discharge (HID) lIllustration amp. The lamp is a tall cylindrical shape, and a cutout of the outer tube shows the materials inside. A long, thin cylinder called the arc tube runs through the lamp between two electrodes. The space around the arc tube is labeled as a vacuum. High-intensity discharge (HID) lighting can provide high efficacy and long

  2. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light sources (although the MV exhibits poor color rendering) and HPS produces a yellow-orange color light. A fourth lamp, low-pressure sodium (LPS), is not a HID lamp by definition, but it is used in similar applications and thus is often grouped with HID lamps. With the notable exception of MV which is comparatively inefficient and in decline in the US from both a sales and installed stock point of view; HPS, LPS and MH all have efficacies over 100 lumens per watt. The figure below presents the efficacy trends over time for commercially available HID lamps and LPS, starting with MV and LPS in 1930's followed by the development of HPS and MH in the 1960's. In HID lamps, light is generated by creating an electric arc between two electrodes in an arc tube. The particles in the arc are partially ionized, making them electrically conductive, and a light-emitting 'plasma' is created. This arc occurs within the arc tube, which for most HID lamps is enclosed within an evacuated outer bulb that thermally isolates and protects the hot arc tube from the surroundings. Unlike a fluorescent lamp that produces visible light through down-converting UV light with phosphors, the arc itself is the light source in an HID lamp, emitting visible radiation that is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma. Thus, the mixture of elements included in the arc tube is one critical factor determining the quality of the light emitted from the lamp, including its correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Similar to fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain stable operating conditions, and

  3. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lapatovich, Walter P.; Keeffe, William M.; Liebermann, Richard W.; Maya, Jakob

    1987-01-01

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO.sub.2, with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube.

  4. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

    1987-06-09

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

  5. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... MH lamps, and more specifically, ceramic MH lamps are continuing to improve in efficacy as well as light quality, manufacturability and lamp life. Within an HID lamp, the ...

  6. 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps; Supplemental ...

  7. HID Laboratories Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Park, California Zip: 94025 Product: HID Laboratories develops commercial-grade, high intensity lighting products that manage lighting demand and reduce energy use. References:...

  8. ISSUANCE 2015-12-02: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, Final Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, Final Determination

  9. DEVICE AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING A HIGH INTENSITY ARC DISCHARGE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-01-01

    A device is described for producing an energetic d-c carbon arc discharge between widely spaced electrodes with arc currents in excess of 100 amperes in a magnetic field of about 3000 gauss and witnin an evacuated enclo sure at a pressure of about 10/sup -5/ mm Hg. No defining electrodes are used in the device, thus essentially eliminating the problems of shorting which heretofore limited the amount of current that could be produced in an arc discharge. The energetic carbon arc discharge is sustained by the potential across the electrodes and by carbon ions and electrons released from the electrodes during arc operation. A large part of the potential drop of the arc occurs along the arc and many energetic electrons reach the anode because the arc pressure is relatively low, and few collisions occur. The carbon discharge is also an efficient ion pump.

  10. 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps;

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking | Department of Energy Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking This document is a pre-publication Federal Register supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for high-intesity discharge lamps, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy

  11. Spatiotemporal study of the local thermodynamic equilibrium deviations in high-intensity discharge lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helali, H.; Bchir, T.; Araoud, Z.; Charrada, K.

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this work is to study the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) deviations in arc discharges plasma generated in high-intensity discharge lamps operating under an ac (50 Hz) power supply. To achieve this goal, we elaborate a two-temperature, two-dimensional, and time-depending model. We have found numerical results almost reproducing the experimental data, which allows us to validate this model. After validation, we have discussed different energy term effects on the LTE deviations.

  12. RAPID/Roadmap/18-HI-d | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us Variance from Pollution Control (18-HI-d) A variance is required to discharge water pollutant in excess of applicable...

  13. Contribution to the numerical study of turbulence in high intensity discharge lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaziz, S.; Ben Ahmed, R.; Helali, H.; Gazzah, H.; Charrada, K. [Unite d'Etude des Milieux Ionises et Reactifs, IPEIM, 5019 route de Kairouan Monastir (Tunisia)

    2011-07-15

    We present in this paper a comparison between results obtained with a laminar and turbulent models for high-pressure mercury arc. The two models are based on the resolution of bidimensional time-dependent equations by a semi-implicit finite-element code. The numerical computation of turbulent model is solved with large eddy simulation model; this approach takes into account the various scales of turbulence by a filtering method on each scale. The results show the quantitative influence of turbulence on the flow fields and also the difference between laminar and turbulent effects on the dynamic thermal behaviour and on the characteristics of the discharge.

  14. ,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B39. Lighting Equipment, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Lit Buildings","Lighting Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen" "All Buildings ................",67338,64321,38156,60344,20666,19223,17926 "Building Floorspace" "(Square

  15. ,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Lighting Equipment, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Lit Buildings","Lighting Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen" "All Buildings ................",4657,4172,2193,3778,607,430,572 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)"

  16. Hanford Identification (HID) PIA, Richland Operations Office | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Identification (HID) PIA, Richland Operations Office Hanford Identification (HID) PIA, Richland Operations Office Hanford Identification (HID) PIA, Richland Operations Office Hanford Identification (HID) PIA, Richland Operations Office (69.08 KB) More Documents & Publications Integrated Safety Management Workshop Registration, PIA, Idaho National Laboratory Occupational Medicine - Assistant PIA, Idaho National Laboratory Manchester Software 1099 Reporting PIA, Idaho National

  17. RAPID/Roadmap/14-HI-d | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us 401 Water Quality Certification (14-HI-d) Under Section...

  18. RAPID/Roadmap/3-HI-d | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us Use and Occupancy Permit (3-HI-d) A developer needs a Use and Occupancy Permit from the Hawaii Department of...

  19. RAPID/Roadmap/6-HI-d | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tools Contribute Contact Us Oversize andor Overweight Vehicles and Loads Permit (6-HI-d) 06HIDOversizeOverweightVehiclesAndLoadsPermit.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page...

  20. T-547: Microsoft Windows Human Interface Device (HID) Vulnerability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Microsoft Windows does not properly warn the user before enabling additional Human Interface Device (HID) functionality over USB, which allows user-assisted attackers to execute arbitrary programs via crafted USB data, as demonstrated by keyboard and mouse data sent by malware on a Smartphone that the user connected to the computer.

  1. Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for High-Intensity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... To better represent differences in manufacturing variability between HID lamp types, DOE revises its proposed confidence intervals in this SNOPR (as discussed in section ...

  2. High Intensity Polarized Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redwine, Robert P.

    2012-07-31

    The goal of the project was to investigate the possibility of building a very high intensity polarized electron gun for the Electron-Ion Collider. This development is crucial for the eRHIC project. The gun implements a large area cathode, ring-shaped laser beam and active cathode cooling. A polarized electron gun chamber with a large area cathode and active cathode cooling has been built and tested. A preparation chamber for cathode activation has been built and initial tests have been performed. Major parts for a load-lock chamber, where cathodes are loaded into the vacuum system, have been manufactured.

  3. Very high efficacy electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    1987-01-01

    An electrodeless arc lamp comprises an outer jacket hermetically sealing and thermally protecting an arc tube inside which has an upwardly convex bottom center section. The absence of chemically reactive electrode material makes it possible to use metal halides other than iodides. The tube contains chlorides, bromides or a mixture thereof of scandium and sodium in a nearly equimolar relationship in addition to mercury and an inert gas. Good color balance can be obtained at reduced reservoir temperature and with less power loss. Reduction in wall temperature makes it possible to attain longer lamp life.

  4. Very high efficacy electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, P.D.

    1985-10-03

    An electrodeless arc lamp comprises an outer jacket hermetically sealing and thermally protecting an arc tube inside which has an upwardly convex bottom center section. The absence of chemically reactive electrode material makes it possible to use metal halides other than iodides. The tube contains chlorides, bromides or a mixture thereof of scandium and sodium in a nearly equimolar relationship in addition to mercury and an inert gas. Good color balance can be obtained at reduced reservoir temperature and with less power loss. Reduction in wall temperature makes it possible to attain longer lamp life.

  5. High intensity electron cyclotron resonance proton source for low energy high intensity proton accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roychowdhury, P.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2009-12-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton source at 50 keV, 50 mA has been designed, developed, and commissioned for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA). Plasma characterization of this source has been performed. ECR plasma was generated with 400-1100 W of microwave power at 2.45 GHz, with hydrogen as working gas. Microwave was fed in the plasma chamber through quartz window. Plasma density and temperature was studied under various operating conditions, such as microwave power and gas pressure. Langmuir probe was used for plasma characterization using current voltage variation. The typical hydrogen plasma density and electron temperature measured were 7x10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and 6 eV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 42 mA was extracted, with three-electrode extraction geometry, at 40 keV of beam energy. The extracted ion current was studied as a function of microwave power and gas pressure. Depending on source pressure and discharge power, more than 30% total gas efficiency was achieved. The optimization of the source is under progress to meet the requirement of long time operation. The source will be used as an injector for continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole, a part of 20 MeV LEHIPA. The required rms normalized emittance of this source is less than 0.2 {pi} mm mrad. The simulated value of normalized emittance is well within this limit and will be measured shortly. This paper presents the study of plasma parameters, first beam results, and the status of ECR proton source.

  6. Topanga Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies Place: Canoga Park, California Zip: 91303 Product: Stealth-mode high-intensity discharge (HID) lighting technology developer. References: Topanga Technologies1...

  7. Promising Technology: Parking Lot Light-Emitting Diodes with Controls

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LEDs offer several advantages over conventional high intensity discharge (HID) luminaires. LEDs have longer life times, reduced maintenance and operating costs, superior color rendition, and lower energy consumption.

  8. Promising Technology: High Bay Light-Emitting Diodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    High bay LEDs offer several advantages over conventional high intensity discharge (HID) luminaires including longer lifetimes, reduced maintenance costs, and lower energy consumption.

  9. High intensity, pulsed thermal neutron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1973-12-11

    This invention relates to a high intensity, pulsed thermal neutron source comprising a neutron-producing source which emits pulses of fast neutrons, a moderator block adjacent to the last neutron source, a reflector block which encases the fast neutron source and the moderator block and has a thermal neutron exit port extending therethrough from the moderator block, and a neutron energy- dependent decoupling reflector liner covering the interior surfaces of the thermal neutron exit port and surrounding all surfaces of the moderator block except the surface viewed by the thermal neutron exit port. (Official Gazette)

  10. COLLIMATION OPTIMIZATION IN HIGH INTENSITY RINGS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CATALAN-LASHERAS,N.

    2001-06-18

    In high intensity proton rings, collimation is needed in order to maintain reasonable levels of residual activation and allow hands-on maintenance. Small acceptance to emittance ratio and restrained longitudinal space become important restrictions when dealing with low energy rings. The constraints and specifications when designing a collimation system for this type of machine will be reviewed. The SNS accumulator ring will serve as an examples long which we will illustrate the optimization path. Experimental studies of collimation with 1.3 GeV proton beams are currently under way in the U-70 machine in Protvino. The first results will be presented.

  11. The High Intensity Horizon at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tschirhart, R.S.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Fermilab's high intensity horizon is 'Project-X' which is a US led initiative with strong international participation that aims to realize a next generation proton source that will dramatically extend the reach of Intensity Frontier research. The Project-X research program includes world leading sensitivity in long-baseline and short-baseline neutrino experiments, a rich program of ultra-rare muon and kaon decays, opportunities for next-generation electric dipole moment experiments and other nuclear/particle physics probes, and a platform to investigate technologies for next generation energy applications. A wide range of R&D activities has supported mission critical accelerator subsystems, such as high-gradient superconducting RF accelerating structures, efficient RF power systems, cryo-modules and cryogenic refrigeration plants, advanced beam diagnostics and instrumentation, high-power targetry, as well as the related infrastructure and civil construction preparing for a construction start of a staged program as early as 2017.

  12. Production of high intensity radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    The production of radioactive nuclear beams world-wide is reviewed. The projectile fragmentation and the ISOL approaches are discussed in detail, and the luminosity parameter is used throughout to compare different production methods. In the ISOL approach a thin and a thick target option are distinguished. The role of storage rings in radioactive beam research is evaluated. It is concluded that radioactive beams produced by the projectile fragmentation and the ISOL methods have complementary characteristics and can serve to answer different scientific questions. The decision which kind of facility to build has to depend on the significance and breadth of these questions. Finally a facility for producing a high intensity radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier is proposed, with an expected luminosity of {approximately}10{sup 39} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}, which would yield radioactive beams in excess of 10{sup 11} s{sup {minus}1}. 9 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. SYNCHROTRONS AND ACCUMULATORS FOR HIGH INTENSITY PROTONS: ISSUES AND EXPERIENCES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WEI,J.

    2000-06-30

    This paper summarizes physical and engineering issues of high-intensity synchrotrons and accumulators, and discusses future applications and outlook.

  14. High intensity x-ray source using liquid gallium target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K.; Knapp, Gordon S.; Westbrook, Edwin M.; Forster, George A.

    1990-01-01

    A high intensity x-ray source that uses a flowing stream of liquid gallium as a target with the electron beam impinging directly on the liquid metal.

  15. The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    operation and beam loss control Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam loss control You are accessing a ...

  16. The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam loss control Authors: Brown, Bruce C. ; Adamson, Philip ; Capista, David ; Chou, Weiren ; Kourbanis, Ioanis ; ...

  17. Ultrafast Charge Dynamics Initiated by High-Intensity, Ultrashort...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Ultrafast Charge Dynamics Initiated by High-Intensity, Ultrashort Laser-Matter Interaction Citation ... We report results of recent experiment in which such charge ...

  18. Fourth order resonance of a high intensity linear accelerator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    For a high intensity beam, the 4nu1 resonance of a linear accelerator is manifested through the octupolar term of space charge potential when the depressed phase advance sigma ...

  19. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liska, Donald J.; Schamaun, Roger G.; Clark, Donald C.; Potter, R. Christopher; Frank, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  20. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liska, D.J.; Schamaun, R.G.; Clark, D.C.; Potter, R.C.; Frank, J.A.

    1980-03-11

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  1. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  2. High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:59pm Addthis Illustration of a high-intensity discharge (HID) lIllustration amp. The lamp is a tall cylindrical shape, and a cutout of the outer tube shows the materials inside. A long, thin cylinder called the arc tube runs through the lamp between two electrodes. The space around the arc tube is labeled as a vacuum. High-intensity discharge (HID) lighting can provide high efficacy and long

  3. ORBIT : BEAM DYNAMICS CALCULATIONS FOR HIGH - INTENSITY RINGS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOLMES,J.A.; DANILOV,V.; GALAMBOS,J.; SHISHLO,A.; COUSINEAU,S.; CHOU,W.; MICHELOTTI,L.; OSTIGUY,F.; WEI,J.

    2002-06-03

    We are developing a computer code, ORBIT, specifically for beam dynamics calculations in high-intensity rings. Our approach allows detailed simulation of realistic accelerator problems. ORBIT is a particle-in-cell tracking code that transports bunches of interacting particles through a series of nodes representing elements, effects, or diagnostics that occur in the accelerator lattice. At present, ORBIT contains detailed models for strip-foil injection including painting and foil scattering; rf focusing and acceleration; transport through various magnetic elements; longitudinal and transverse impedances; longitudinal, transverse, and three-dimensional space charge forces; collimation and limiting apertures; and the calculation of many useful diagnostic quantities. ORBIT is an object-oriented code, written in C++ and utilizing a scripting interface for the convenience of the user. Ongoing improvements include the addition of a library of accelerator maps, BEAMLINE/MXYZPTLK the introduction of a treatment magnet errors and fringe fields; the conversion of the scripting interface to the standard scripting language, Python; and the parallelization of the computations using MPI. The ORBIT code is an open source, powerful, and convenient tool for studying beam dynamics in high-intensity rings.

  4. High intensity neutrino source superconducting solenoid cyrostat design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, T.M.; Nicol, T.H.; Feher, S.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is involved in the development of a 100 MeV superconducting linac. This linac is part of the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) R&D Program. The initial beam acceleration in the front end section of the linac is achieved using room temperature spoke cavities, each of which is combined with a superconducting focusing solenoid. These solenoid magnets are cooled with liquid helium at 4.5K, operate at 250 A and have a maximum magnetic field strength of 7.5 T. The solenoid cryostat will house the helium vessel, suspension system, thermal shield, multilayer insulation, power leads, instrumentation, a vacuum vessel and cryogenic distribution lines. This paper discusses the requirements and detailed design of these superconducting solenoid cryostats.

  5. Device for providing high-intensity ion or electron beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClanahan, Edwin D.; Moss, Ronald W.

    1977-01-01

    A thin film of a low-thermionic-work-function material is maintained on the cathode of a device for producing a high-current, low-pressure gas discharge by means of sputter deposition from an auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode includes a surface with a low-work-function material, such as thorium, uranium, plutonium or one of the rare earth elements, facing the cathode but at a disposition and electrical potential so as to extract ions from the gas discharge and sputter the low-work-function material onto the cathode. By continuously replenishing the cathode film, high thermionic emissions and ion plasmas can be realized and maintained over extended operating periods.

  6. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grote, David P.; Friedman, Alex; Vay, Jean-Luc; Haber, Irving

    2005-03-15

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse 'slice' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand. Additional information can be found on the web page http://hif.lbl.gov/theory/WARP{sub s}ummary.html.

  7. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grote, D P; Friedman, A; Vay, J L; Haber, I

    2004-12-09

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse ''slice'' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand. Additional information can be found on the web page http://hif.lbl.gov/theory/WARP{_}summary.html.

  8. High-intensity positron microprobe at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golge, Serkan; Vlahovic, Branislav; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-06-19

    We present a conceptual design for a novel continuous wave electron-linac based high-intensity slow-positron production source with a projected intensity on the order of 1010 e+/s. Reaching this intensity in our design relies on the transport of positrons (T+ below 600 keV) from the electron-positron pair production converter target to a low-radiation and low-temperature area for moderation in a high-efficiency cryogenic rare gas moderator, solid Ne. The performance of the integrated beamline has been verified through computational studies. The computational results include Monte Carlo calculations of the optimized electron/positron beam energies, converter target thickness, synchronized raster system, transport of the beam from the converter target to the moderator, extraction of the beam from the channel, and moderation efficiency calculations. For the extraction of positrons from the magnetic channel a magnetic field terminator plug prototype has been built and experimental data on the effectiveness of this prototype are presented. The dissipation of the heat away from the converter target and radiation protection measures are also discussed.

  9. High-intensity positron microprobe at Jefferson Lab

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Golge, Serkan; Vlahovic, Branislav; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-06-19

    We present a conceptual design for a novel continuous wave electron-linac based high-intensity slow-positron production source with a projected intensity on the order of 1010 e+/s. Reaching this intensity in our design relies on the transport of positrons (T+ below 600 keV) from the electron-positron pair production converter target to a low-radiation and low-temperature area for moderation in a high-efficiency cryogenic rare gas moderator, solid Ne. The performance of the integrated beamline has been verified through computational studies. The computational results include Monte Carlo calculations of the optimized electron/positron beam energies, converter target thickness, synchronized raster system, transport of themore » beam from the converter target to the moderator, extraction of the beam from the channel, and moderation efficiency calculations. For the extraction of positrons from the magnetic channel a magnetic field terminator plug prototype has been built and experimental data on the effectiveness of this prototype are presented. The dissipation of the heat away from the converter target and radiation protection measures are also discussed.« less

  10. Glass Strengthening via High-Intensity Plasma-Arc Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Harper, David C; Duty, Chad E; Patel, P

    2010-01-01

    The use of a high-intensity plasma-arc lamp was used to irradiate the surface of soda-lime silicate glass tiles to determine if an increase in strength could be achieved. The lamp had a power density of 3500 W/cm2, a processing area of 1 cm x 10 cm, irradiated near-infrared heating at a wavelength between 0.2 1.4 m, and was controlled to unidirectionally sweep across 50-mm-square tiles at a constant speed of 8 mm/s. Ring-on-ring (RoR) equibiaxial flexure and 4 pt uni-directional flexure testings of entire tiles were used to measure and compare failure stress distributions of treated and untreated glass. Even with non-optimized processing conditions, RoR failure stress increased by approximately 25% and the 4 pt bend failure stress increased by approximately 65%. Strengthening was due to a fire-polishing-like mechanism. The arc-lamp heat-treatment caused the location of the strength-limiting flaws in the 4-pt-bend tiles to change; namely, failure initiation occurred on the gage section surface for the treated glass whereas it occurred at a gage section edge for the untreated. Arc-lamp heat-treatment is attractive not only because it provides strengthening, but because it can (non-contact) process large amounts of glass quickly and inexpensively, and is a process that either a glass manufacturer or end-user can readily employ.

  11. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul; Dudnikov, Vadim

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  12. Development of Time Resolved X-ray Spectroscopy in High Intensity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Development of Time Resolved X-ray Spectroscopy in High Intensity Laser-Plasma Interactions Authors: Notley, M ; Weber, R ; Fell, B ; Jefferies, J ; Freeman, R ; Mackinnon, ...

  13. Flexible pulse delay control up to picosecond for high-intensity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Flexible pulse delay control up to picosecond for high-intensity twin electron bunches Authors: Zhang, Zhen ; Ding, Yuantao ; Emma, Paul ; Huang, Zhirong ; Marinelli, ...

  14. Response of High-Tc Superconductor Metamaterials to High Intensity THz

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation (Conference) | SciTech Connect Response of High-Tc Superconductor Metamaterials to High Intensity THz Radiation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Response of High-Tc Superconductor Metamaterials to High Intensity THz Radiation Authors: Grady, Nathaniel [1] ; Perkins Jr., Bradford G. [2] ; Hwang, Harold Y. [2] ; Brandt, Nate [2] ; Torchinsky, Darius [2] ; Singh, Ranjan [1] ; Yan, Li [3] ; Jia, Quanxi [1] ; Trugman, Stuart A. [1] ; Taylor, Antoinette J. [1] ; Nelson, Keith

  15. Overview of the High Intensity Neutrino Source Linac R&D program at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webber, R.C.; Appollinari, G.; Carneiro, J.P.; Gonin, I.; Hanna, B.; Hays, S.; Khabiboulline, T.; Lanfranco, G.; Madrak, R.L.; Moretti, A.; Nicol, T.; /Fermilab /Argonne

    2008-09-01

    The Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) Linac R&D program is building a first-of-a-kind 60 MeV superconducting H- linac. The HINS Linac incorporates superconducting solenoids for transverse focusing, high power RF vector modulators for independent control of multiple cavities powered from a single klystron, and superconducting spoke-type accelerating cavities starting at 10 MeV. This will be the first application and demonstration of any of these technologies in a low-energy, high-intensity proton/H- linear accelerator. The HINS effort is relevant to a high intensity, superconducting H- linac that might serve the next generation of neutrino physics and muon storage ring/collider experiments. An overview of the HINS program, machine design, status, and outlook is presented.

  16. A High Intensity Multi-Purpose D-D Neutron Generator for Nuclear Engineering Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ka-Ngo Leung; Jasmina L. Vujic; Edward C. Morse; Per F. Peterson

    2005-11-29

    This NEER project involves the design, construction and testing of a low-cost high intensity D-D neutron generator for teaching nuclear engineering students in a laboratory environment without radioisotopes or a nuclear reactor. The neutron generator was designed, fabricated and tested at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  17. Surface area generation and droplet size control in solvent extraction systems utilizing high intensity electric fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Timothy C.; Wham, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    A method and system for solvent extraction where droplets are shattered by a high intensity electric field. These shattered droplets form a plurality of smaller droplets which have a greater combined surface area than the original droplet. Dispersion, coalescence and phase separation are accomplished in one vessel through the use of the single pulsing high intensity electric field. Electric field conditions are chosen so that simultaneous dispersion and coalescence are taking place in the emulsion formed in the electric field. The electric field creates a large amount of interfacial surface area for solvent extraction when the droplet is disintegrated and is capable of controlling droplet size and thus droplet stability. These operations take place in the presence of a counter current flow of the continuous phase.

  18. Numerical simulations of stripping effects in high-intensity hydrogen ion linacs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carneiro, J.-P.; Mustapha, B.; Ostroumov, P.N.; /Argonne

    2008-12-01

    Numerical simulations of H{sup -} stripping losses from blackbody radiation, electromagnetic fields, and residual gas have been implemented into the beam dynamics code TRACK. Estimates of the stripping losses along two high-intensity H{sup -} linacs are presented: the Spallation Neutron Source linac currently being operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an 8 GeV superconducting linac currently being designed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

  19. Electric characteristics of germanium Vertical Multijunction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells under high intensity illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unishkov, V.A.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the performance evaluation of Vertical Multijunction (VMJ) germanium (Ge) photovoltaic (PV) cells. Vertical Multijunction Germanium Photovoltaic cells offer several advantages for Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications such as high intensity light conversion, low series resistance, more efficient coupling to lower temperature sources, high output voltage, simplified heat rejection system as well as potentially simple fabrication technology and low cost photovoltaic converter device. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. New X-Ray Matter Interaction Observed at Ultra-High Intensity | U.S. DOE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Office of Science (SC) New X-Ray Matter Interaction Observed at Ultra-High Intensity Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 08.05.16 New

  1. Picosecond 14.7 nm interferometry of high intensity laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J; Filevich, J; Smith, R F; Moon, S J; Rocca, J J; Keenan, R; Nilsen, J; Shlyaptsev, V N; Hunter, J R; Ng, A; Marconi, M C

    2004-10-14

    We have developed a compact, 14.7 nm, sub-5 ps x-ray laser source at LLNL together with a Mach-Zehnder type Diffraction Grating Interferometer built at Colorado State University for probing dense, high intensity laser-produced plasmas. The short wavelength and pulse length of the probe reduces refraction and absorption effects within the plasma and minimizes plasma motion blurring. This unique diagnostic capability gives precise 2-D density profile snapshots and is generating new data for rapidly evolving laser-heated plasmas. A review of the results from dense, mm-scale line focus plasma experiments will be described with detailed comparisons to hydrodynamic simulations.

  2. ISSUANCE 2015-01-26: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Lamps, Notice to Reopen Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Lamps, Notice to Reopen Comment Period

  3. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHOU,W.; WEI,J.

    2001-08-14

    The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade.

  4. SU-E-J-04: Integration of Interstitial High Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound Applicators On a Clinical MRI-Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment Planning Software Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellens, N; Partanen, A; Ghoshal, G; Burdette, E; Farahani, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Interstitial high intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) applicators can be used to ablate tissue percutaneously, allowing for minimally-invasive treatment without ionizing radiation [1,2]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and usability of combining multielement interstitial HITU applicators with a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focused ultrasound software platform. Methods: The Sonalleve software platform (Philips Healthcare, Vantaa, Finland) combines anatomical MRI for target selection and multi-planar MRI thermometry to provide real-time temperature information. The MRI-compatible interstitial US applicators (Acoustic MedSystems, Savoy, IL, USA) had 1–4 cylindrical US elements, each 1 cm long with either 180° or 360° of active surface. Each applicator (4 Fr diameter, enclosed within a 13 Fr flexible catheter) was inserted into a tissue-mimicking agar-silica phantom. Degassed water was circulated around the transducers for cooling and coupling. Based on the location of the applicator, a virtual transducer overlay was added to the software to assist targeting and to allow automatic thermometry slice placement. The phantom was sonicated at 7 MHz for 5 minutes with 6–8 W of acoustic power for each element. MR thermometry data were collected during and after sonication. Results: Preliminary testing indicated that the applicator location could be identified in the planning images and the transducer locations predicted within 1 mm accuracy using the overlay. Ablation zones (thermal dose ≥ 240 CEM43) for 2 active, adjacent US elements ranged from 18 mm × 24 mm (width × length) to 25 mm × 25 mm for the 6 W and 8 W sonications, respectively. Conclusion: The combination of interstitial HITU applicators and this software platform holds promise for novel approaches in minimally-invasive MRI-guided therapy, especially when bony structures or air-filled cavities may preclude extracorporeal HIFU.[1] Diederich et al

  5. High-intensity laser-driven proton acceleration enhancement from hydrogen containing ultrathin targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dollar, F.; Reed, S. A.; Matsuoka, T.; Bulanov, S. S.; Chvykov, V.; Kalintchenko, G.; McGuffey, C.; Rousseau, P.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Willingale, L.; Yanovsky, V.; Krushelnick, K.; Maksimchuk, A.; Litzenberg, D. W.

    2013-09-30

    Laser driven proton acceleration experiments from micron and submicron thick targets using high intensity (2 × 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2}), high contrast (10{sup −15}) laser pulses show an enhancement of maximum energy when hydrogen containing targets were used instead of non-hydrogen containing. In our experiments, using thin (<1μm) plastic foil targets resulted in maximum proton energies that were consistently 20%–100% higher than when equivalent thickness inorganic targets, including Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Al, were used. Proton energies up to 20 MeV were measured with a flux of 10{sup 7} protons/MeV/sr.

  6. Radiation Dose Measurement for High-Intensity Laser Interactions with Solid Targets at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Taiee

    2015-09-25

    A systematic study of photon and neutron radiation doses generated in high-intensity laser-solid interactions is underway at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We found that these laser-solid experiments are being performed using a 25 TW (up to 1 J in 40 fs) femtosecond pulsed Ti:sapphire laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source’s (LCLS) Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) facility. Additionally, radiation measurements were performed with passive and active detectors deployed at various locations inside and outside the target chamber. Results from radiation dose measurements for laser-solid experiments at SLAC MEC in 2014 with peak intensity between 1018 to 7.1x1019 W/cm2 are presented.

  7. MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound: Current Status of an Emerging Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napoli, Alessandro Anzidei, Michele Ciolina, Federica Marotta, Eugenio Cavallo Marincola, Beatrice Brachetti, Giulia Mare, Luisa Di Cartocci, Gaia Boni, Fabrizio Noce, Vincenzo Bertaccini, Luca Catalano, Carlo

    2013-10-15

    The concept of ideal tumor surgery is to remove the neoplastic tissue without damaging adjacent normal structures. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) was developed in the 1940s as a viable thermal tissue ablation approach. In clinical practice, HIFU has been applied to treat a variety of solid benign and malignant lesions, including pancreas, liver, prostate, and breast carcinomas, soft tissue sarcomas, and uterine fibroids. More recently, magnetic resonance guidance has been applied for treatment monitoring during focused ultrasound procedures (magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound, MRgFUS). Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging provides the best possible tumor extension and dynamic control of energy deposition using real-time magnetic resonance imaging thermometry. We introduce the fundamental principles and clinical indications of the MRgFUS technique; we also report different treatment options and personal outcomes.

  8. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parkin, Don M.; Dudey, Norman D.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then "boil off" or evaporate a neutron.

  9. Spectroscopic study of gold nanoparticle formation through high intensity laser irradiation of solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Takahiro Sato, Shunichi; Herbani, Yuliati; Ursescu, Daniel; Banici, Romeo; Dabu, Razvan Victor

    2013-08-15

    A spectroscopic study of the gold nanoparticle (NP) formation by high-intensity femtosecond laser irradiation of a gold ion solution was reported. The effect of varying energy density of the laser on the formation of gold NPs was also investigated. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak of the gold nanocolloid in real-time UV-visible absorption spectra during laser irradiation showed a distinctive progress; the SPR absorption peak intensity increased after a certain irradiation time, reached a maximum and then gradually decreased. During this absorption variation, at the same time, the peak wavelength changed from 530 to 507 nm. According to an empirical equation derived from a large volume of experimental data, the estimated mean size of the gold NPs varied from 43.4 to 3.2 nm during the laser irradiation. The mean size of gold NPs formed at specific irradiation times by transmission electron microscopy showed the similar trend as that obtained in the spectroscopic analysis. From these observations, the formation mechanism of gold NPs during laser irradiation was considered to have two steps. The first is a reduction of gold ions by reactive species produced through a non-linear reaction during high intensity laser irradiation of the solution; the second is the laser fragmentation of produced gold particles into smaller pieces. The gold nanocolloid produced after the fragmentation by excess irradiation showed high stability for at least a week without the addition of any dispersant because of the negative charge on the surface of the nanoparticles probably due to the surface oxidation of gold nanoparticles. A higher laser intensity resulted in a higher efficiency of gold NPs fabrication, which was attributed to a larger effective volume of the reaction.

  10. CX-003524: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Efficient Street Lighting Changeover - Light-Emitting Diode (LED)/High Intensity Discharge (HID)CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B1.3, B5.1Date: 08/26/2010Location(s): Oak Harbor, OhioOffice(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  11. Characterization of the fast electrons distribution produced in a high intensity laser target interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westover, B.; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 ; Chen, C. D.; Patel, P. K.; McLean, H.; Beg, F. N.

    2014-03-15

    Experiments on the Titan laser (?150?J, 0.7ps, 2נ10{sup 20}Wcm{sup ?2}) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were carried out in order to study the properties of fast electrons produced by high-intensity, short pulse laser interacting with matter under conditions relevant to Fast Ignition. Bremsstrahlung x-rays produced by these fast electrons were measured by a set of compact filter-stack based x-ray detectors placed at three angles with respect to the target. The measured bremsstrahlung signal allows a characterization of the fast electron beam spectrum, conversion efficiency of laser energy into fast electron kinetic energy and angular distribution. A Monte Carlo code Integrated Tiger Series was used to model the bremsstrahlung signal and infer a laser to fast electron conversion efficiency of 30%, an electron slope temperature of about 2.2?MeV, and a mean divergence angle of 39. Simulations were also performed with the hybrid transport code ZUMA which includes fields in the target. In this case, a conversion efficiency of laser energy to fast electron energy of 34% and a slope temperature between 1.5?MeV and 4?MeV depending on the angle between the target normal direction and the measuring spectrometer are found. The observed temperature of the bremsstrahlung spectrum, and therefore the inferred electron spectrum are found to be angle dependent.

  12. High-order harmonics from bow wave caustics driven by a high-intensity laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pirozhkov, A.S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.; and others

    2012-07-11

    We propose a new mechanism of high-order harmonic generation during an interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with underdense plasma. A tightly focused laser pulse creates a cavity in plasma pushing electrons aside and exciting the wake wave and the bow wave. At the joint of the cavity wall and the bow wave boundary, an annular spike of electron density is formed. This spike surrounds the cavity and moves together with the laser pulse. Collective motion of electrons in the spike driven by the laser field generates high-order harmonics. A strong localization of the electron spike, its robustness to oscillations imposed by the laser field and, consequently, its ability to produce high-order harmonics is explained by catastrophe theory. The proposed mechanism explains the experimental observations of high-order harmonics with the 9 TW J-KAREN laser (JAEA, Japan) and the 120 TW Astra Gemini laser (CLF RAL, UK) [A. S. Pirozhkov, et al., arXiv:1004.4514 (2010); A. S. Pirozhkov et al, AIP Proceedings, this volume]. The theory is corroborated by high-resolution two-and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  13. Intial characterization fo a commerical electron gun for profiling high intensity proton beams in Project X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Thangaraj, J.C.T.; Zhang, D.; Blokland, W.; /Oak Ridge

    2011-03-01

    Measuring the profile of a high-intensity proton beam is problematic in that traditional invasive techniques such as flying wires don't survive the encounter with the beam. One alternative is the use of an electron beam as a probe of the charge distribution in the proton beam as was done at the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL. Here we present an initial characterization of the beam from a commercial electron gun from Kimball Physics, intended for use in the Fermilab Main Injector for Project X. Despite the fact that the horizontal spot size is abnormally large in the high current measurement, the spot size at the downstream cross X2 is reasonable in the context of measuring the deflection. A thin foil OTR would help with the beam heating and should be tried. The next phase of this experiment is to simulate the proton beam with a pair of current carrying wires and to design and construct a fast deflector. Some of the remaining issues to be considered include determining the minimum beam current needed to observe the deflected beam for a given sweep time and the impact of longitudinal variations in the charge density of the bunch.

  14. High-intensity, high-brightness polarized and unpolarized beam production in charge-exchange collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenski, A.; Ritter, J.; Zubets, V.; Steski, D.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.

    2011-03-28

    Basic limitations on the high-intensity H{sup -} ion beam production were experimentally studied in charge-exchange collisions of the neutral atomic hydrogen beam in the Na-vapour jet ionizer cell. These studies are the part of the polarized source upgrade (to 10 mA peak current and 85% polarization) project for RHIC. In the source the atomic hydrogen beam of a 5-10 keV energy and total (equivalent) current up to 5 A is produced by neutralization of proton beam in pulsed hydrogen gas target. Formation of the proton beam (from the surface of the plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature {approx}0.2 eV) is produced by four-electrode spherical multi-aperture ion-optical system with geometrical focusing. The hydrogen atomic beam intensity up to 1.0 A/cm{sup 2} (equivalent) was obtained in the Na-jet ionizer aperture of a 2.0 cm diameter. At the first stage of the experiment H-beam with 36 mA current, 5 keV energy and {approx}1.0 cm {center_dot} mrad normalized emittance was obtained using the flat grids and magnetic focusing.

  15. Production of high intensity {sup 48}Ca for the 88-Inch Cyclotron and other updates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benitez, J. Y.; Hodgkinson, A.; Lyneis, C. M. Strohmeier, M.; Thullier, T.; Todd, D.; Xie, D.; Franzen, K. Y.

    2014-02-15

    Recently the Versatile ECR for NUclear Science (VENUS) ion source was engaged in a 60-day long campaign to deliver high intensity {sup 48}Ca{sup 11+} beam to the 88-Inch Cyclotron. As the first long term use of VENUS for multi-week heavy-element research, new methods were developed to maximize oven to target efficiency. First, the tuning parameters of VENUS for injection into the cyclotron proved to be very different than those used to tune VENUS for maximum beam output of the desired charge state immediately following its bending magnet. Second, helium with no oxygen support gas was used to maximize the efficiency. The performance of VENUS and its low temperature oven used to produce the stable requested 75 e?A of {sup 48}Ca{sup 11+} beam current was impressive. The consumption of {sup 48}Ca in VENUS using the low temperature oven was checked roughly weekly, and was found to be on average 0.27 mg/h with an ionization efficiency into the 11+ charge state of 5.0%. No degradation in performance was noted over time. In addition, with the successful operation of VENUS the 88-Inch cyclotron was able to extract a record 2 p?A of {sup 48}Ca{sup 11+}, with a VENUS output beam current of 219 e?A. The paper describes the characteristics of the VENUS tune used for maximum transport efficiency into the cyclotron as well as ongoing efforts to improve the transport efficiency from VENUS into the cyclotron. In addition, we briefly present details regarding the recent successful repair of the cryostat vacuum system.

  16. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiping Chen

    2006-10-26

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Goup at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; Development of elliptic beam theory; (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX).

  17. Sampling strategies for subsampled segmented EPI PRF thermometry in MR guided high intensity focused ultrasound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oden, Henrik Diakite, Mahamadou; Todd, Nick; Minalga, Emilee; Payne, Allison; Parker, Dennis L.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate k-space subsampling strategies to achieve fast, large field-of-view (FOV) temperature monitoring using segmented echo planar imaging (EPI) proton resonance frequency shift thermometry for MR guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) applications. Methods: Five different k-space sampling approaches were investigated, varying sample spacing (equally vs nonequally spaced within the echo train), sampling density (variable sampling density in zero, one, and two dimensions), and utilizing sequential or centric sampling. Three of the schemes utilized sequential sampling with the sampling density varied in zero, one, and two dimensions, to investigate sampling the k-space center more frequently. Two of the schemes utilized centric sampling to acquire the k-space center with a longer echo time for improved phase measurements, and vary the sampling density in zero and two dimensions, respectively. Phantom experiments and a theoretical point spread function analysis were performed to investigate their performance. Variable density sampling in zero and two dimensions was also implemented in a non-EPI GRE pulse sequence for comparison. All subsampled data were reconstructed with a previously described temporally constrained reconstruction (TCR) algorithm. Results: The accuracy of each sampling strategy in measuring the temperature rise in the HIFU focal spot was measured in terms of the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) compared to fully sampled truth. For the schemes utilizing sequential sampling, the accuracy was found to improve with the dimensionality of the variable density sampling, giving values of 0.65?C, 0.49?C, and 0.35?C for density variation in zero, one, and two dimensions, respectively. The schemes utilizing centric sampling were found to underestimate the temperature rise, with RMSE values of 1.05?C and 1.31?C, for variable density sampling in zero and two dimensions, respectively. Similar subsampling schemes with variable

  18. High-intensity ion sources for accelerators with emphasis on H-beam formation and transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Roderich

    2009-01-01

    This paper lays out the fundamental working principles of a variety of high-current ion sources for accelerators in a tutorial manner, and gives examples of specific source types such as d. c. discharge- and rf-driven multicusp sources. Penning-type and ECR-based sources while discussing those principles, pointing out general performance limits as well as the performance parameters of specific sources. Laser-based, two-chamber-. and surface-ionization sources are briefly mentioned. Main aspects of this review are particle feed. ionization mechanism, beam formation and beam transport. Issues seen with beam formation and low-energy transport of negative hydrogen-ion beams are treated in detail.

  19. A high intensity solar cell invention: The edge-illuminated vertical multi-junction (VNJ) solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sater, B.L.

    1992-08-07

    This report contains a summary of a High Intensity Solar Cell (HI Cell) development carried out under the NIST/DOE Energy-Related Invention Program. The HI Cell, or Edge-Illuminated vertical Multi-junction Solar Cell, eliminates most major problems encountered with other concentrator solar cell designs. Its high voltage and low series resistance features make it ideally suited for efficient operation at high intensities. Computer modeling shows efficiencies near 30% at 500 suns intensity are possible with state-of-art processing. Development of a working model was largely successful before encountering an unexpected problem during the last fabrication step with the anti-reflection coating. Unfortunately, funding was exhausted before its resolution. Recommendations are made to resolve the AR coating problem and to integrate all the knowledge gained during this development into a viable prototype model. The invention will provide the technical and economic performance needed to make photovoltaic systems cost-effective for wide use.

  20. A high intensity solar cell invention: The edge-illuminated vertical multi-junction (VNJ) solar cell. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sater, B.L.

    1992-08-07

    This report contains a summary of a High Intensity Solar Cell (HI Cell) development carried out under the NIST/DOE Energy-Related Invention Program. The HI Cell, or Edge-Illuminated vertical Multi-junction Solar Cell, eliminates most major problems encountered with other concentrator solar cell designs. Its high voltage and low series resistance features make it ideally suited for efficient operation at high intensities. Computer modeling shows efficiencies near 30% at 500 suns intensity are possible with state-of-art processing. Development of a working model was largely successful before encountering an unexpected problem during the last fabrication step with the anti-reflection coating. Unfortunately, funding was exhausted before its resolution. Recommendations are made to resolve the AR coating problem and to integrate all the knowledge gained during this development into a viable prototype model. The invention will provide the technical and economic performance needed to make photovoltaic systems cost-effective for wide use.

  1. Nonsputtering impulse magnetron discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khodachenko, G. V.; Mozgrin, D. V.; Fetisov, I. K.; Stepanova, T. V.

    2012-01-15

    Experiments with quasi-steady high-current discharges in crossed E Multiplication-Sign B fields in various gases (Ar, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and SF{sub 6}) and gas mixtures (Ar/SF{sub 6} and Ar/O{sub 2}) at pressures from 10{sup -3} to 5 Torr in discharge systems with different configurations of electric and magnetic fields revealed a specific type of stable low-voltage discharge that does not transform into an arc. This type of discharge came to be known as a high-current diffuse discharge and, later, a nonsputtering impulse magnetron discharge. This paper presents results from experimental studies of the plasma parameters (the electron temperature, the plasma density, and the temperature of ions and atoms of the plasma-forming gas) of a high-current low-pressure diffuse discharge in crossed E Multiplication-Sign B fields.

  2. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  3. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E.; Miller, John L.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

  4. Dynamics and structure of self-generated magnetics fields on solids following high contrast, high intensity laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albertazzi, B.; Chen, S. N.; Fuchs, J.; Antici, P.; Böker, J.; Swantusch, M.; Willi, O.; Borghesi, M.; Breil, J.; Feugeas, J. L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; D'Humières, E.; Dervieux, V.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Romagnagni, L.; Lancia, L.; Shepherd, R.; Sentoku, Y.; Starodubtsev, M.; and others

    2015-12-15

    The dynamics of self-generated magnetic B-fields produced following the interaction of a high contrast, high intensity (I > 10{sup 19 }W cm{sup −2}) laser beam with thin (3 μm thick) solid (Al or Au) targets is investigated experimentally and numerically. Two main sources drive the growth of B-fields on the target surfaces. B-fields are first driven by laser-generated hot electron currents that relax over ∼10–20 ps. Over longer timescales, the hydrodynamic expansion of the bulk of the target into vacuum also generates B-field induced by non-collinear gradients of density and temperature. The laser irradiation of the target front side strongly localizes the energy deposition at the target front, in contrast to the target rear side, which is heated by fast electrons over a much larger area. This induces an asymmetry in the hydrodynamic expansion between the front and rear target surfaces, and consequently the associated B-fields are found strongly asymmetric. The sole long-lasting (>30 ps) B-fields are the ones growing on the target front surface, where they remain of extremely high strength (∼8–10 MG). These B-fields have been recently put by us in practical use for focusing laser-accelerated protons [B. Albertazzi et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 043502 (2015)]; here we analyze in detail their dynamics and structure.

  5. Surface composition, microstructure and corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy irradiated by high-intensity pulsed ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, P., E-mail: pli@sqnc.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Information Engineering, Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu 476000 (China); Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Lei, M.K., E-mail: surfeng@dlut.edu.cn [Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhu, X.P. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2011-06-15

    High-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) irradiation of AZ31 magnesium alloy is performed and electrochemical corrosion experiment of irradiated samples is carried out by using potentiodynamic polarization technology in order to explore the effect of HIPIB irradiation on corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy. The surface composition, cross-sectional morphology and microstructure are characterized by using electron probe microanalyzer, optical microscope and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The results indicated that HIPIB irradiation leads to a significant improvement in corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy, in terms of the considerable increase in both corrosion potential and pitting breakdown potential. The microstructural refinement and surface purification induced by HIPIB irradiation are responsible for the improved corrosion resistance. - Research Highlights: {yields} A modified layer about 30 {mu}m thick is obtained by HIPIB irradiation. {yields} Selective ablation of element/impurity phase having lower melting point is observed. {yields} More importantly, microstructural refinement occurred on the irradiated surface. {yields} The modified layer exhibited a significantly improved corrosion resistance. {yields} Improved corrosion resistance is ascribed to the combined effect induced by HIPIB.

  6. MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Breast Cancer with a Dedicated Breast Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merckel, Laura G.; Bartels, Lambertus W.; Koehler, Max O.; Bongard, H. J. G. Desiree van den; Deckers, Roel; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Binkert, Christoph A.; Moonen, Chrit T.; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G. A. Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den

    2013-04-15

    Optimizing the treatment of breast cancer remains a major topic of interest. In current clinical practice, breast-conserving therapy is the standard of care for patients with localized breast cancer. Technological developments have fueled interest in less invasive breast cancer treatment. Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a completely noninvasive ablation technique. Focused beams of ultrasound are used for ablation of the target lesion without disrupting the skin and subcutaneous tissues in the beam path. MRI is an excellent imaging method for tumor targeting, treatment monitoring, and evaluation of treatment results. The combination of HIFU and MR imaging offers an opportunity for image-guided ablation of breast cancer. Previous studies of MR-HIFU in breast cancer patients reported a limited efficacy, which hampered the clinical translation of this technique. These prior studies were performed without an MR-HIFU system specifically developed for breast cancer treatment. In this article, a novel and dedicated MR-HIFU breast platform is presented. This system has been designed for safe and effective MR-HIFU ablation of breast cancer. Furthermore, both clinical and technical challenges are discussed, which have to be solved before MR-HIFU ablation of breast cancer can be implemented in routine clinical practice.

  7. Beam Dynamics Studies and the Design, Fabrication and Testing of Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavity for High Intensity Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saini, Arun

    2012-03-01

    The application horizon of particle accelerators has been widening significantly in recent decades. Where large accelerators have traditionally been the tools of the trade for high-energy nuclear and particle physics, applications in the last decade have grown to include large-scale accelerators like synchrotron light sources and spallation neutron sources. Applications like generation of rare isotopes, transmutation of nuclear reactor waste, sub-critical nuclear power, generation of neutrino beams etc. are next area of investigation for accelerator scientific community all over the world. Such applications require high beam power in the range of few mega-watts (MW). One such high intensity proton beam facility is proposed at Fermilab, Batavia, US, named as Project-X. Project-X facility is based on H- linear accelerator (linac), which will operate in continuous wave (CW) mode and accelerate H- ion beam with average current of 1 mA from kinetic energy of 2.5 MeV to 3 GeV to deliver 3MW beam power. One of the most challenging tasks of the Project-X facility is to have a robust design of the CW linac which can provide high quality beam to several experiments simultaneously. Hence a careful design of linac is important to achieve this objective.

  8. HOLLOW CARBON ARC DISCHARGE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-10-11

    A device is described for producing an energetic, direct current, hollow, carbon-arc discharge in an evacuated container and within a strong magnetic field. Such discharges are particularly useful not only in dissociation and ionization of high energy molecular ion beams, but also in acting as a shield or barrier against the instreaming of lowenergy neutral particles into a plasma formed within the hollow discharge when it is used as a dissociating mechanism for forming the plasma. There is maintained a predetermined ratio of gas particles to carbon particles released from the arc electrodes during operation of the discharge. The carbon particles absorb some of the gas particles and are pumped along and by the discharge out of the device, with the result that smaller diffusion pumps are required than would otherwise be necessary to dispose of the excess gas.

  9. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  10. Co-axial discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J. S.; Smith, L. P.

    1960-11-22

    An apparatus is described for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantuge that ions that return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. These discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering the plasma area because of the arc barrier set up by the cylindrical outer arc. (auth)

  11. Dynamic T{sub 2}-mapping during magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound ablation of bone marrow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waspe, Adam C.; Looi, Thomas; Mougenot, Charles; Amaral, Joao; Temple, Michael; Sivaloganathan, Siv; Drake, James M.

    2012-11-28

    Focal bone tumor treatments include amputation, limb-sparing surgical excision with bone reconstruction, and high-dose external-beam radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is an effective non-invasive thermotherapy for palliative management of bone metastases pain. MR thermometry (MRT) measures the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) of water molecules and produces accurate (<1 Degree-Sign C) and dynamic (<5s) thermal maps in soft tissues. PRFS-MRT is ineffective in fatty tissues such as yellow bone marrow and, since accurate temperature measurements are required in the bone to ensure adequate thermal dose, MR-HIFU is not indicated for primary bone tumor treatments. Magnetic relaxation times are sensitive to lipid temperature and we hypothesize that bone marrow temperature can be determined accurately by measuring changes in T{sub 2}, since T{sub 2} increases linearly in fat during heating. T{sub 2}-mapping using dual echo times during a dynamic turbo spin-echo pulse sequence enabled rapid measurement of T{sub 2}. Calibration of T{sub 2}-based thermal maps involved heating the marrow in a bovine femur and simultaneously measuring T{sub 2} and temperature with a thermocouple. A positive T{sub 2} temperature dependence in bone marrow of 20 ms/ Degree-Sign C was observed. Dynamic T{sub 2}-mapping should enable accurate temperature monitoring during MR-HIFU treatment of bone marrow and shows promise for improving the safety and reducing the invasiveness of pediatric bone tumor treatments.

  12. Glow discharge detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2002-01-01

    A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured.

  13. Effects of discharge voltage waveform on the discharge characteristics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    atmospheric plasma jet Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of discharge voltage waveform on the discharge characteristics in a helium atmospheric plasma jet We ...

  14. HILL: The High-Intensity Laser Laboratory Core Team's Reply to Questions from the NNSA Experimental Facilities Panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albright, B J

    2012-08-02

    Question 1 - The type of physics regimes that HILL can access for weapons studies is quite interesting. The question that arises for the proposal team is what priority does this type of experimental data have versus data that can be obtained with NIF, and Z. How does HILL rank in priority compared to MARIE 1.0 in terms of the experimental data it will provide? We reiterate that isochoric heating experiments to be conducted with HILL are complementary to the high energy density physics experiments at NIF and Z and uniquely access states of matter that neither other facility can access. It is our belief that HILL will enable several important questions, e.g., as related to mix morphology, radiation transfer from corrugated surfaces, and equations of state, to be run to ground through carefully diagnosed, 'unit-physics' experiments. Such experiments will substantially improve confidence in our computer models and provide a rigorous science basis for certification. Question 2 - A secondary question relates to the interests of LLNL and SNL in the physics that HILL can address. This should be spelled out clearly. I would like to see the other labs be part of the discussion regarding how important this capability would be if built. Both sister Labs have a keen interest in the physics enabled by high-intensity, high-energy lasers, as evinced by the Z Petawatt and NIF ARC upgrades to their signature facilities. LANL scientists have teamed with scientists from both Laboratories in high-intensity laser 'first experiments' envisioned for HILL and we fully intend to continue these profitable discussions going forward. In the preparation of the HILL proposal, feedback was solicited from the broader HEDP and weapons science communities. The consensus view was that HILL filled a critical gap and that there was a need for a facility like HILL to address outstanding questions in weapons science. It was recognized that co-location of HILL with a facility such as MaRIE 1.0, Z, NIF, or

  15. Hanford Identification (HID) PIA, Richland Operations Office...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Safety Management Workshop Registration, PIA, Idaho National Laboratory Occupational Medicine - Assistant PIA, Idaho National Laboratory Manchester Software 1099 Reporting PIA,...

  16. Stable glow discharge detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2004-05-18

    A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) stable glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The stable glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma and a solid rod electrode. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured. The solid rod electrode provides greater stability and thus easier alignment.

  17. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

  18. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-06-07

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

  19. Powerful glow discharge excilamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Panchenko, Aleksey N.; Skakun, Victor S.; Sosnin, Edward A.; Wang, Francis T.; Myers, Booth R.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A powerful glow discharge lamp comprising two coaxial tubes, the outer tube being optically transparent, with a cathode and anode placed at opposite ends of the tubes, the space between the tubes being filled with working gas. The electrodes are made as cylindrical tumblers placed in line to one other in such a way that one end of the cathode is inserted into the inner tube, one end of the anode coaxially covers the end of the outer tube, the inner tube penetrating and extending through the anode. The increased electrodes' surface area increases glow discharge electron current and, correspondingly, average radiation power of discharge plasma. The inner tube contains at least one cooling liquid tube placed along the axis of the inner tube along the entire lamp length to provide cathode cooling. The anode has a circumferential heat extracting radiator which removes heat from the anode. The invention is related to lighting engineering and can be applied for realization of photostimulated processes under the action of powerful radiation in required spectral range.

  20. Microsoft Word - Groundwater Discharge Permit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    State Renews Groundwater Discharge Permit for WIPP CARLSBAD, N.M., September 11, 2008 - The New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) has renewed the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) groundwater discharge permit until 2013. The permit regulates the discharge of water from WIPP facilities and operations to lined ponds, which protect groundwater resources. The permit allows WIPP to discharge domestic wastewater, non-hazardous wastewater and storm water into 13

  1. Laser activated diffuse discharge switch (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laser activated diffuse discharge switch Title: Laser activated diffuse discharge switch The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch which is capable of changing ...

  2. Continuous pile discharging machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Phillips P.

    1976-05-11

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug.

  3. Oregon Industrial Stormwater Discharge Monitoring Report (DEQ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    discharge. Form Type ApplicationNotice Form Topic Industrial Stormwater Discharge Monitoring Report Organization Oregon Department of Environmental Quality Published...

  4. Searching for minicharged particles via birefringence, dichroism and Raman spectroscopy of the vacuum polarized by a high-intensity laser wave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villalba-Chávez, S. Müller, C.

    2013-12-15

    Absorption and dispersion of probe photons in the field of a high-intensity circularly polarized laser wave are investigated. The optical theorem is applied for determining the absorption coefficients in terms of the imaginary part of the vacuum polarization tensor. Compact expressions for the vacuum refraction indices and the photon absorption coefficients are obtained in various asymptotic regimes of interest. The outcomes of this analysis reveal that, far from the region relatively close to the threshold of the two-photon reaction, the birefringence and dichroism of the vacuum are small and, in some cases, strongly suppressed. On the contrary, in a vicinity of the region in which the photo-production of a pair occurs, these optical properties are manifest with lasers of moderate intensities. We take advantage of such a property in the search of minicharged particles by considering high-precision polarimetric experiments. In addition, Raman-like electromagnetic waves resulting from the inelastic part of the vacuum polarization tensor are suggested as an alternative form for finding exclusion limits on these hypothetical charge carriers. The envisaged parameters of upcoming high-intensity laser facilities are used for establishing upper bounds on the minicharged particles. -- Highlights: •Via dichroism and birefringence of the vacuum by a strong laser wave, minicharged particles can be probed. •The discovery potential is the highest in a vicinity of the first pair production threshold. •As alternative observable, Raman scattered waves are put forward.

  5. Historical Liquid Discharges and Outfalls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    liquids were discharged to Pueblo and Los Alamos Canyons. August 1, 2013 Contamination from the Acid Canyon outfall has been clean up to below residential levels...

  6. High-Intensity Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-12-27

    Analysis is presented for an eight-cavity proton cyclotron accelerator that could have advantages as compared with other accelerators because of its potentially high acceleration gradient. The high gradient is possible since protons orbit in a sequence of TE111 rotating mode cavities of equally diminishing frequencies with path lengths during acceleration that greatly exceed the cavity lengths. As the cavities operate at sequential harmonics of a basic repetition frequency, phase synchronism can be maintained over a relatively wide injection phase window without undue beam emittance growth. It is shown that use of radial vanes can allow cavity designs with significantly smaller radii, as compared with simple cylindrical cavities. Preliminary beam transport studies show that acceptable extraction and focusing of a proton beam after cyclic motion in this accelerator should be possible. Progress is also reported on design and tests of a four-cavity electron counterpart accelerator for experiments to study effects on beam quality arising from variations injection phase window width. This device is powered by four 500-MW pulsed amplifiers at 1500, 1800, 2100, and 2400 MHz that provide phase synchronous outputs, since they are driven from a with harmonics derived from a phase-locked 300 MHz source.

  7. X-ray polarization spectroscopy to study anisotropic velocity distribution of hot electrons produced by an ultra-high-intensity laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inubushi, Y.; Okano, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Cai, H.; Nagatomo, H.; Kai, T.; Fujioka, S.; Nakamura, T.; Johzaki, T.; Mima, K.; Kawamura, T.; Batani, D.; Morace, A.; Redaelli, R.; Fourment, C.; Santos, J. J.; Malka, G.

    2010-03-15

    The anisotropy of the hot-electron velocity distribution in ultra-high-intensity laser produced plasma was studied with x-ray polarization spectroscopy using multilayer planar targets including x-ray emission tracer in the middle layer. This measurement serves as a diagnostic for hot-electron transport from the laser-plasma interaction region to the overdense region where drastic changes in the isotropy of the electron velocity distribution are observed. These polarization degrees are consistent with analysis of a three-dimensional polarization spectroscopy model coupled with particle-in-cell simulations. Electron velocity distribution in the underdense region is affected by the electric field of the laser and that in the overdense region becomes wider with increase in the tracer depth. A full-angular spread in the overdense region of 22.4 deg.{sub -2.4}{sup +5.4} was obtained from the measured polarization degree.

  8. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oakley, D.J.

    1984-05-30

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pins passageway extending through the assembly.

  9. Capillary discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, III, Howard Albert

    2003-11-25

    Debris generation from an EUV electric discharge plasma source device can be significantly reduced or essentially eliminated by encasing the electrodes with dielectric or electrically insulating material so that the electrodes are shielded from the plasma, and additionally by providing a path for the radiation to exit wherein the electrodes are not exposed to the area where the radiation is collected. The device includes: (a) a body, which is made of an electrically insulating material, that defines a capillary bore that has a proximal end and a distal end and that defines at least one radiation exit; (b) a first electrode that defines a first channel that has a first inlet end that is connected to a source of gas and a first outlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore, wherein the first electrode is positioned at the distal end of the capillary bore; (c) a second electrode that defines a second channel that has a second inlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore and an outlet end, wherein the second electrode is positioned at the proximal end of the capillary bore; and (d) a source of electric potential that is connected across the first and second electrodes, wherein radiation generated within the capillary bore is emitted through the at least one radiation exit and wherein the first electrode and second electrode are shielded from the emitted radiation.

  10. HIGH ENERGY GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josephson, V.

    1960-02-16

    The high-energy electrical discharge device described comprises an envelope, a pair of main discharge electrodes supported in opposition in the envelope, and a metallic shell symmetrically disposed around and spaced from the discharge path between the electrodes. The metallic shell comprises a first element of spaced helical turns of metallic material and a second element of spaced helical turns of methllic material insulatedly supported in superposition outside the first element and with the turns overlapping the gap between the turns of the first element.

  11. Historical Liquid Discharges and Outfalls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This drop-down provides the most current six months and six years of data for the table below. For complete history do one of the following: Click on a cell value in the table for the history of an individual data series. Click on the "Download All History" link for all data series shown in the table. Close Window

    Historical Liquid Discharges and Outfalls Historical Liquid Discharges and Outfalls During the 1940s and 1950s, untreated radioactive liquids were discharged to Pueblo and

  12. DISCHARGE DEVICE FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-09-23

    A device is described fur unloading bodies of fissionable material from a neutronic reactor. It is comprised essentially of a wheeled flat car having a receptacle therein containing a liquid coolant fur receiving and cooling the fuel elements as they are discharged from the reactor, and a reciprocating plunger fur supporting the fuel element during discharge thereof prior to its being dropped into the coolant. The flat car is adapted to travel along the face of the reactor adjacent the discharge ends of the coolant tubes.

  13. Discharge cell for ozone generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nakatsuka, Suguru

    2000-01-01

    A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space therebetween, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt %.

  14. Effects of electron recirculation on a hard x-ray source observed during the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with thin Au targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Courtois, C.; Lefebvre, E.; Bourgade, J. L.; Landoas, O.; Thorp, K.; Stoeckl, C.

    2013-12-15

    The interaction of a high intensity laser pulse on the preplasma of a high-Z solid target produced by the pulse's pedestal generates high-energy electrons. These electrons subsequently penetrate inside the solid target and produce bremsstrahlung photons, generating an x-ray source which can be used for photonuclear studies or to radiograph high area density objects. The source characteristics are compared for targets with thin (20 μm) and thick (100 μm) Au foils on the Omega EP laser at Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Simulations using the particle-in-cell code CALDER show that for a 20 μm thickness Au target, electrons perform multiple round-trips in the target under the effect of the laser ponderomotive potential and the target electrostatic potential. These relativistic electrons have random transverse displacements, with respect to the target normal, attributed to electrostatic fluctuation fields. As a result, the x-ray spot size is increased by a factor 2 for thin target compared to thick targets, in agreement with experimental results. In addition, the computed doses agree with the measured ones provided that electron recirculation in the thin target is taken into account. A dose increase by a factor 1.7 is then computed by allowing for recirculation. In the 100 μm target case, on the other hand, this effect is found to be negligible.

  15. Characterisation of a MeV Bremsstrahlung x-ray source produced from a high intensity laser for high areal density object radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courtois, C.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Bazzoli, S.; Bourgade, J. L.; Gazave, J.; Lagrange, J. M.; Landoas, O.; Dain, L. Le; Pichoff, N.; Edwards, R.; Aedy, C.; Mastrosimone, D.; Pien, G.; Stoeckl, C.

    2013-08-15

    Results of an experiment to characterise a MeV Bremsstrahlung x-ray emission created by a short (<10 ps) pulse, high intensity (1.4 × 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser are presented. X-ray emission is characterized using several diagnostics; nuclear activation measurements, a calibrated hard x-ray spectrometer, and dosimeters. Results from the reconstructed x-ray energy spectra are consistent with numerical simulations using the PIC and Monte Carlo codes between 0.3 and 30 MeV. The intense Bremsstrahlung x-ray source is used to radiograph an image quality indicator (IQI) heavily filtered with thick tungsten absorbers. Observations suggest that internal features of the IQI can be resolved up to an external areal density of 85 g/cm{sup 2}. The x-ray source size, inferred by the radiography of a thick resolution grid, is estimated to be approximately 400 μm (full width half maximum of the x-ray source Point Spread Function)

  16. Relativistic self-focusing of ultra-high intensity X-ray laser beams in warm quantum plasma with upward density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibi, M.; Ghamari, F.

    2014-05-15

    The results of a numerical study of high-intensity X-ray laser beam interaction with warm quantum plasma (WQP) are presented. By means of an upward ramp density profile combined with quantum factors specially the Fermi velocity, we have demonstrated significant relativistic self-focusing (RSF) of a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in the WQP where the Fermi temperature term in the dielectric function is important. For this purpose, we have considered the quantum hydrodynamics model that modifies refractive index of inhomogeneous WQPs with the inclusion of quantum correction through the quantum statistical and diffraction effects in the relativistic regime. Also, to better illustration of the physical difference between warm and cold quantum plasmas and their effect on the RSF, we have derived the envelope equation governing the spot size of X-ray laser beam in Q-plasmas. In addition to the upward ramp density profile, we have found that the quantum effects would be caused much higher oscillation and better focusing of X-ray laser beam in the WQP compared to that of cold quantum case. Our computational results reveal the importance of the use of electrons density profile and Fermi speed in enhancing self-focusing of laser beam.

  17. Constricted glow discharge plasma source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre; Anders, Simone; Dickinson, Michael; Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan

    2000-01-01

    A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

  18. Ultraviolet radiation induced discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilson, Verle A.; Schriever, Richard L.; Shearer, James W.

    1978-01-01

    An ultraviolet radiation source associated with a suitable cathode-anode electrode structure, disposed in a gas-filled cavity of a high pressure pulsed laser, such as a transverse electric atmosphere (TEA) laser, to achieve free electron production in the gas by photoelectric interaction between ultraviolet radiation and the cathode prior to the gas-exciting cathode-to-anode electrical discharge, thereby providing volume ionization of the gas. The ultraviolet radiation is produced by a light source or by a spark discharge.

  19. Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Vernon, George E.; Hoke, Darren A.; De Marquis, Virginia K.; Harris, Steven M.

    2007-06-26

    A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

  20. Mechanism and computational model for Lyman-{alpha}-radiation generation by high-intensity-laser four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi; Bakule, Pavel; Yokoyama, Koji; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Iwasaki, Masahiko

    2011-09-15

    We present a theoretical model combined with a computational study of a laser four-wave mixing process under optical discharge in which the non-steady-state four-wave amplitude equations are integrated with the kinetic equations of initial optical discharge and electron avalanche ionization in Kr-Ar gas. The model is validated by earlier experimental data showing strong inhibition of the generation of pulsed, tunable Lyman-{alpha} (Ly-{alpha}) radiation when using sum-difference frequency mixing of 212.6 nm and tunable infrared radiation (820-850 nm). The rigorous computational approach to the problem reveals the possibility and mechanism of strong auto-oscillations in sum-difference resonant Ly-{alpha} generation due to the combined effect of (i) 212.6-nm (2+1)-photon ionization producing initial electrons, followed by (ii) the electron avalanche dominated by 843-nm radiation, and (iii) the final breakdown of the phase matching condition. The model shows that the final efficiency of Ly-{alpha} radiation generation can achieve a value of {approx}5x10{sup -4} which is restricted by the total combined absorption of the fundamental and generated radiation.

  1. Interaction between pulsed discharge and radio frequency discharge burst at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Ying; Shi, Yuncheng; Zhang, Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2015-08-15

    The atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) with dual excitations in terms of pulsed voltage and pulse-modulation radio frequency (rf) power are studied experimentally between two parallel plates electrodes. Pulse-modulation applied in rf APGD temporally separates the discharge into repetitive discharge bursts, between which the high voltage pulses are introduced to ignite sub-microsecond pulsed discharge. The discharge characteristics and spatio-temporal evolution are investigated by means of current voltage characteristics and time resolved imaging, which suggests that the introduced pulsed discharge assists the ignition of rf discharge burst and reduces the maintain voltage of rf discharge burst. Furtherly, the time instant of pulsed discharge between rf discharge bursts is manipulated to study the ignition dynamics of rf discharge burst.

  2. BERNAS ION SOURCE DISCHARGE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUDSKOY,I.; KULEVOY, T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.

    2007-08-26

    The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Bemas ion source is the wide used ion source for ion implantation industry. The new simulation code was developed for the Bemas ion source discharge simulation. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. As well the comparison of results obtained with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test-bench is presented.

  3. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  4. A high intensity 200 mA proton source for the FRANZ-Project (Frankfurt-Neutron-Source at the Stern-Gerlach-Center)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweizer, W. Ratzinger, U.; Klump, B.; Volk, K.

    2014-02-15

    At the University of Frankfurt a high current proton source has been developed and tested for the FRANZ-Project [U. Ratzinger, L. P. Chau, O. Meusel, A. Schempp, K. Volk, M. Heil, F. Kppeler, and R. Stieglitz, Intense pulsed neutron source FRANZ in the 1500 keV range, ICANS-XVIII Proceedings, Dongguan, April 2007, p. 210]. The ion source is a filament driven arc discharge ion source. The new design consists of a plasma generator, equipped with a filter magnet to produce nearly pure proton beams (92 %), and a compact triode extraction system. The beam current density has been enhanced up to 521 mA/cm{sup 2}. Using an emission opening radius of 4 mm, a proton beam current of 240 mA at 50 keV beam energy in continuous wave mode (cw) has been extracted. This paper will present the current status of the proton source including experimental results of detailed investigations of the beam composition in dependence of different plasma parameters. Both, cw and pulsed mode were studied. Furthermore, the performance of the ion source was studied with deuterium as working gas.

  5. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  6. Laser activated diffuse discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch which is capable of changing from a conducting state to an insulating state in the presence of electrons upon the introduction of laser light. The mixture is composed of a buffer gas such as nitrogen or argon and an electron attaching gas such as C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SH, C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SCH.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CHO and CF.sub.3 CHO wherein the electron attachment is brought on by indirect excitation of molecules to long-lived states by exposure to laser light.

  7. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  8. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  9. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Charlton; Bremner, Robert J.; Meng, Sen Y.

    1989-01-01

    A space-saving discharge collector 40 for the rotary pump 28 of a pool-type nuclear reactor 10. An annular collector 50 is located radially outboard for an impeller 44. The annular collector 50 as a closed outer periphery 52 for collecting the fluid from the impeller 44 and producing a uniform circumferential flow of the fluid. Turning means comprising a plurality of individual passageways 54 are located in an axial position relative to the annular collector 50 for receiving the fluid from the annular collector 50 and turning it into a substantially axial direction.

  10. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, C.; Bremmer, R.J.; Meng, S.Y.

    1989-10-17

    This patent describes an improvement in a method for circulating fluid coolant through a reactor core of a pool-type nuclear reactor having a sealed containment vessel containing a reactor core submersed in a body of liquid coolant. The method for circulating coolant including utilization of a rotary pump including an impeller for producing a highly circumferential flow of cooling fluid and a method for collecting and discharging coolant fluid, the improvement to the method of collecting and discharging coolant fluid including the steps of: producing a substantially uniform circumferential flow of the fluid by directing the flow through a plurality of diffuser vanes and into an annular collector located radially outboard from the impeller. The annular collector having an entirely closed outer periphery; and turning the flow of cooling fluid into a substantially axially direction while maintaining a substantially constant average flow velocity by directing the coolant flow from the annular collector into a plurality of individual passageways located in an axial position relative to the annular collector.

  11. HID_TP_SNOPR_2014-04-30_v3

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Excess Uranium Management: Effects of DOE Transfers of Excess Uranium on Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion, and Enrichment Industries; Request for Information AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Extension of comment period. SUMMARY: On July 19, 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a request for information (RFI) seeking comment on certain issues related to DOE's preparation for a potential new Secretarial Determination covering continued transfers of

  12. RL-2007HanfordIdentification(HID)PIA.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

  13. Role of secondary emission on discharge dynamics in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tay, W. H.; Kausik, S. S.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2014-04-15

    The discharge dynamics in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is studied in a DBD reactor consisting of a pair of stainless steel parallel plate electrodes. The DBD discharge has been generated by a 50?Hz ac high voltage power source. The high-speed intensified charge coupled device camera is used to capture the images of filaments occurring in the discharge gap. It is observed that frequent synchronous breakdown of micro discharges occurs across the discharge gap in the case of negative current pulse. The experimental results reveal that secondary emissions from the dielectric surface play a key role in the synchronous breakdown of plasma filaments.

  14. DISCHARGE VALVE FOR GRANULAR MATERIAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoughton, L.D.; Robinson, S.T.

    1962-05-15

    A gravity-red dispenser or valve is designed for discharging the fueled spherical elements used in a pebble bed reactor. The dispenser consists of an axially movable tube terminating under a hood having side walls with openings. When the tube is moved so that its top edge is above the tops of the side openings the elements will not flow. As the tube is moved downwardly, the elements flow into the hood through the side openings and over the top edge into the tube at an increasing rate as the tube is lowered further. The tube is spaced at all times from the hood and side walls a distance greater than the diameter of the largest element to prevent damaging of the elements when the dispenser is closed to flow. (AEC)

  15. Site Discharge Pollution Prevention Plan (SDPPP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SDPPP Individual Permit: Site Discharge Pollution Prevention Plan (SDPPP) The 2014 SDPPP update fully incorporates all changes made during the year and reflects changes projected...

  16. Device for generation of pulsed corona discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutsol, Alexander F.; Fridman, Alexander; Blank, Kenneth; Korobtsev, Sergey; Shiryaevsky, Valery; Medvedev, Dmitry

    2012-05-08

    The invention is a method and system for the generation of high voltage, pulsed, periodic corona discharges capable of being used in the presence of conductive liquid droplets. The method and system can be used, for example, in different devices for cleaning of gaseous or liquid media using pulsed corona discharge. Specially designed electrodes and an inductor increase the efficiency of the system, permit the plasma chemical oxidation of detrimental impurities, and increase the range of stable discharge operations in the presence of droplets of water or other conductive liquids in the discharge chamber.

  17. California Waste Discharge Requirements Website | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Requirements Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: California Waste Discharge Requirements Website Abstract This website contains...

  18. Montana Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (MPDES) Webpage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    System (MPDES) Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (MPDES) Webpage Abstract Provides...

  19. Texas Railroad Commission - Pollution Discharge Regulations ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Texas Railroad Commission - Pollution Discharge Regulations Citation...

  20. CDPHE Industrial Individual Wastewater Discharge Permit Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ApplicationLegal Abstract Application provided by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) for use by all individual industrial process water dischargers...

  1. Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-22

    The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

  2. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  3. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, Scott A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Glish, Gary L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above.

  4. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Kipling, Kent

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  5. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, Howard A.

    2006-04-25

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  6. Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch Title: Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch A new diffuse discharge gas switch wherein a mixture of gases is used to ...

  7. NMED - Discharge Permit Application | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Discharge Permit ApplicationLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2014 Legal Citation Not provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online...

  8. Glow discharge plasma deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weakliem, Herbert A. (Pennington, NJ); Vossen, Jr., John L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

    1984-05-29

    A glow discharge plasma reactor for deposition of thin films from a reactive RF glow discharge is provided with a screen positioned between the walls of the chamber and the cathode to confine the glow discharge region to within the region defined by the screen and the cathode. A substrate for receiving deposition material from a reactive gas is positioned outside the screened region. The screen is electrically connected to the system ground to thereby serve as the anode of the system. The energy of the reactive gas species is reduced as they diffuse through the screen to the substrate. Reactive gas is conducted directly into the glow discharge region through a centrally positioned distribution head to reduce contamination effects otherwise caused by secondary reaction products and impurities deposited on the reactor walls.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Laboratory We have field and laboratory capabilities to measure electrostatic environment generation, storage, and charge transfer effects. Non-contact electrostatic field surveillance techniques are available to monitor charge generation of conductors or dielectrics, and induction or physical contact charging of wiring or pin voltage for electrical system components. The Sandia severe personnel electrostatic discharge simulator, with a maximum charge voltage of 25

  10. Site Discharge Pollution Prevention Plan (SDPPP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SDPPP Individual Permit: Site Discharge Pollution Prevention Plan (SDPPP) The 2015 SDPPP Update fully incorporates all changes made during the year and reflects changes projected for 2016. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Site Discharge Pollution Prevention Plan (SDPPP) The 2015 Update to the SDPPP, Revision 1, fulfills the requirements of Part 1.F of the Individual Permit. The first six drop-down items

  11. Colorado Discharge Permit System General Permit | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to discharge, as of this date, inaccordance with permit requirements and conditions set forth in Parts I and II hereof. All discharges authorized herein shall be consistent with...

  12. 5 CCR 1002-61 Colorado Discharge Permit System Regulations |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Discharge Permit System RegulationsLegal Abstract Regulations implementing the Colorado Water Quality Control Act applying to all operations discharging to waters of the state...

  13. Report of Waste Discharge application (Form 200) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Discharge application (Form 200) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Report of Waste Discharge application (Form 200) Abstract Persons...

  14. Oregon Air Contaminant Discharge Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    library Web Site: Oregon Air Contaminant Discharge Webpage Abstract Provides overview of air quality discharge permit process. Author State of Oregon Published State of Oregon,...

  15. OAR 340-216 - Air Contaminant Discharge Permits | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OAR 340-216 - Air Contaminant Discharge PermitsLegal Abstract Regulations for air contaminant discharge permits issued by the Department of Environmental Quality....

  16. Oregon Air Contaminant Discharge Permits Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Contaminant Discharge Permits Webpage Citation Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. Oregon Air Contaminant Discharge Permits Webpage Internet. State of Oregon....

  17. Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In...

  18. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density Prev Next Title: Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high...

  19. Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering You are ...

  20. Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering High power ...

  1. High intensity SRF proton linac workshop (vugraphs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rusnak, B.A.

    1995-11-01

    The meeting is divided into four sections. The first section is the general introduction and included opening remarks and an overview of APT (accelerator product of tritium). The second section contains vugraphs from the cavity-structures working group. The third section is comprised of vugraphs from the couplers and rf working group. And the fourth section contains vugraphs of the system integration group.

  2. Performances of BNL high-intensity synchrotrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-03-01

    The AGS proton synchrotron was completed in 1960 with initial intensity in the 10 to the 10th power proton per pulse (ppp) range. Over the years, through many upgrades and improvements, the AGS now reached an intensity record of 6.3 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp, the highest world intensity record for a proton synchrotron on a single pulse basis. At the same time, the Booster reached 2.2 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp surpassing the design goal of 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp due to the introduction of second harmonic cavity during injection. The intensity limitation caused by space charge tune spread and its relationship to injection energy at 50 MeV, 200 MeV, and 1,500 MeV will be presented as well as many critical accelerator manipulations. BNL currently participates in the design of an accumulator ring for the SNS project at Oak Ridge. The status on the issues of halo formation, beam losses and collimation are also presented.

  3. High-intensity beam collimation and targetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    Principles, design criteria and realization of reliable collimation systems for the high-power accelerators and hadron colliders are described. Functionality of collimators as the key elements of the machine protection system are discussed along with the substantial progress on the crystal collimation front. The key issues are considered in design of high-power target systems and achieving their best performance. Simulation code requirements are presented.

  4. combines high intensity and short pulse duration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cost The high-brightness, rapidly pulsed, multicolor light-emitting diode (LED) driver delivers lighting performance that exceeds that of conventional (laserarc-light) sources ...

  5. Glow discharge based device for solving mazes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinov, Alexander E. Mironenko, Maxim S.; Selemir, Victor D.; Maksimov, Artem N.; Pylayev, Nikolay A.

    2014-09-15

    A glow discharge based device for solving mazes has been designed and tested. The device consists of a gas discharge chamber and maze-transformer of radial-azimuth type. It allows changing of the maze pattern in a short period of time (within several minutes). The device has been tested with low pressure air. Once switched on, a glow discharge has been shown to find the shortest way through the maze from the very first attempt, even if there is a section with potential barrier for electrons on the way. It has been found that ionization waves (striations) can be excited in the maze along the length of the plasma channel. The dependancy of discharge voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. A reduction in discharge voltage with one or two potential barriers present has been found and explained. The dependency of the magnitude of discharge ignition voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. The reduction of the ignition voltage with the presence of one or two potential barriers has been observed and explained.

  6. Direct current dielectric barrier assistant discharge to get homogeneous plasma in capacitive coupled discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Yinchang; Li, Yangfang; Cao, Jinxiang; Liu, Yu; Wang, Jian; Zheng, Zhe

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, we propose a method to get more homogeneous plasma in the geometrically asymmetric capacitive coupled plasma (CCP) discharge. The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is used for the auxiliary discharge system to improve the homogeneity of the geometrically asymmetric CCP discharge. The single Langmuir probe measurement shows that the DBD can increase the electron density in the low density volume, where the DBD electrodes are mounted, when the pressure is higher than 5?Pa. By this manner, we are able to improve the homogeneity of the plasma production and increase the overall density in the target volume. At last, the finite element simulation results show that the DC bias, applied to the DBD electrodes, can increase the homogeneity of the electron density in the CCP discharge. The simulation results show a good agreement with the experiment results.

  7. Electrodynamic force of dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J. S.; Roveda, F.; Huang, P. G.

    2011-06-01

    The periodic electrostatic force of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in nitrogen for flow control is investigated by a system of physics-based, two-dimensional model equations. The plasma generation process of DBD is mainly the avalanche growth of electrons through the secondary emission from cathode. Therefore, the charged particle motion of a succession of random micro discharges can be approximated by the drift-diffusion model. The force of DBD generated by charge separation and accumulation over the dielectrics is obtained by solving the model equations with the rigorous media interface boundary condition of Maxwell equations in the time domain. The discharge structure and force components by different electrical permittivity and amplitudes of externally applied electrical potential are delineated and quantified.

  8. Pulse circuit apparatus for gas discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradley, Laird P.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus and method using a unique pulse circuit for a known gas discharge laser apparatus to provide an electric field for preconditioning the gas below gas breakdown and thereafter to place a maximum voltage across the gas which maximum voltage is higher than that previously available before the breakdown voltage of that gas laser medium thereby providing greatly increased pumping of the laser.

  9. Discharge temperature higher than 30 deg C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shari Kelley

    2015-06-16

    This submission includes three files from two sources. One file is derived from USGS data and includes a series of manipulations to evaluate only shallow wells with high estimated geothermal gradients. Two other files are springs and wells with discharge temperatures above 30°C from the NMBGMR Aquifer Mapping database

  10. Amplitude scaling of solar array discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogorad, A.; Bowman, C.; Rayadurg, L. . Astro-Space Div.); Sterner, T.; Loman, J.; Armenti, J. . Astro Space Div.)

    1990-12-01

    Sections of solar panel of four different sizes were charged in a 20-keV monoenergetic electron beam. The measured amplitudes of discharge transients coupled into power lines scaled linearly with the length of the rows of parallel-connected solar cells in the solar cell circuits.

  11. Wire chamber radiation detector with discharge control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, Victor; Mulera, Terrence A.

    1984-01-01

    A wire chamber radiation detector (11) has spaced apart parallel electrodes (16) and grids (17, 18, 19) defining an ignition region (21) in which charged particles (12) or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges (93) and defining an adjacent memory region (22) in which sustained glow discharges (94) are initiated by the primary discharges (93). Conductors (29, 32) of the grids (18, 19) at each side of the memory section (22) extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles (12) were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors (29) of one grid (18) while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors (36) of the other grid (19) through glow discharges (94). One of the grids (19) bounding the memory region (22) is defined by an array of conductive elements (32) each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor (36) through a separate resistance (37). The wire chamber (11) avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or near simultaneous charged particles (12) have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced.

  12. Discharge temperature higher than 30 deg C

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shari Kelley

    2015-06-16

    This submission includes three files from two sources. One file is derived from USGS data and includes a series of manipulations to evaluate only shallow wells with high estimated geothermal gradients. Two other files are springs and wells with discharge temperatures above 30C from the NMBGMR Aquifer Mapping database

  13. Influence of discharge gap on the discharge stability in a short vacuum arc ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, L.; Zhang, G. L.; Jin, D. Z.; Dai, J. Y.; Yang, L.

    2012-02-15

    The influence of the discharge gap between cathode and anode on the discharge stability in a short vacuum arc (SVA) ion source is presented in this paper. Planar cathode and cylindrical hollow anode made of titanium are investigated. There is a great need in present accelerator injection research for SVA source to produce the small deviation of the ion current beam. Current research shows that increasing the short discharge gap can reduce the level of ion current deviation and ion charge deviation from 29% and 31% to 15% and 17%, respectively. A microplasma plume generation mechanism in SVA and scanning electron microscopic results can be used to explain this interesting phenomenon.

  14. Particle growth in silane-hydrogen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujundzic, Damir; Gallagher, Alan

    2006-02-01

    The growth of silicon particles has been measured in silane-hydrogen radio-frequency (rf) discharges using a typical hydrogen/silane dilution ratio (20) and the pressure range (1.2-2.2 Torr) used for the production of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films and devices. By operating brief discharges without gas flow, the particle size is obtained from the afterglow diffusion and the particle density from the scattered-light intensity. These small-reactor data thus provide the expected particle size and density versus location-in a commercial large-area-isothermal-flowing-gas reactor. Particle growth rate is a strong function of pressure, whereas film growth rate is almost independent of pressure. Both growth rates are sensitive to rf voltage, although particle growth is more sensitive.

  15. Handling and characterization of glow-discharge polymer samples...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of glow-discharge polymer samples for the light gas gun Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Handling and characterization of glow-discharge polymer samples for the light ...

  16. Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for Plasma Cleaning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for Plasma Cleaning of a CEBAF 5-Cell SRF Cavity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for...

  17. Gas mixture for diffuse-discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, L.G.; Carter, J.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1982-08-31

    Gaseous medium in a diffuse-discharge switch of a high-energy pulse generator is formed of argon combined with a compound selected from the group consisting of CF/sub 4/, C/sub 2/F/sub 6/, C/sub 3/F/sub 8/, n-C/sub 4/F/sub 10/, WF/sub 6/, (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/S and (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/O.

  18. Gas mixture for diffuse-discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; Carter, James G.; Hunter, Scott R.

    1984-01-01

    Gaseous medium in a diffuse-discharge switch of a high-energy pulse generator is formed of argon combined with a compound selected from the group consisting of CF.sub.4, C.sub.2 F.sub.6, C.sub.3 F.sub.8, n-C.sub.4 F.sub.10, WF.sub.6, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 S and (CF.sub.3).sub.2 O.

  19. Magnetism in LithiumOxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13

    Nonaqueous lithiumoxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithiumoxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithiumoxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  20. Surface radicals in silane/hydrogen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horvath, Peter; Gallagher, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Using threshold ionization mass spectrometry, radical densities have been measured at the substrate surface of a radio frequency discharge in silane plus hydrogen vapor. The conditions are 100-300 Pa pressure and a ratio (R) of hydrogen flow/silane flow typical of discharges used to produce large area amorphous (R=20) and microcrystalline (R=40) silicon. For comparison, we include measurements in pure-silane vapor. The neutral radicals observed in the mixed gases are H, SiH{sub 3}, Si{sub 2}H{sub 2}, and Si{sub 2}H{sub 5}, with decreasing flux in that order. (Si{sub 2}H{sub 4} is also seen in pure silane and SiH{sub 2} for R=20.) The H flux is sufficient for major film etching and restructuring, particularly for R=40. The ion-bombardment species were also measured, establishing that Si{sub y}H{sub n}{sup +} (y=1-3) ion flux is much larger than the H{sub n}{sup +} (n=1-3) flux. The ion flux provides 15{+-}4% of the total Si flux to the film for R=20 and 37{+-}10% for R=40. This is larger than in pure-silane discharges, and it may be very important to film properties due to the impact energy.

  1. Capacitor discharge process for welding braided cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Rick D.

    1995-01-01

    A capacitor discharge process for welding a braided cable formed from a plurality of individual cable strands to a solid metallic electrically conductive member comprises the steps of: (a) preparing the electrically conductive member for welding by bevelling one of its end portions while leaving an ignition projection extending outwardly from the apex of the bevel; (b) clamping the electrically conductive member in a cathode fixture; (c) connecting the electrically conductive member clamped in the cathode fixture to a capacitor bank capable of being charged to a preselected voltage value; (d) preparing the braided cable for welding by wrapping one of its end portions with a metallic sheet to form a retaining ring operable to maintain the individual strands of the braided cable in fixed position within the retaining ring; (e) clamping the braided cable and the retaining ring as a unit in an anode fixture so that the wrapped end portion of the braided cable faces the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member; and (f) moving the cathode fixture towards the anode fixture until the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member contacts the end portion of the braided cable thereby allowing the capacitor bank to discharge through the electrically conductive member and through the braided cable and causing the electrically conductive member to be welded to the braided cable via capacitor discharge action.

  2. Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for Plasma Cleaning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ACCELERATORS; BREAKDOWN; CAVITIES; CEBAF ACCELERATOR; CLEANING; HIGH-FREQUENCY DISCHARGES; IMPURITIES; OXIDES; PERFORMANCE; PLASMA; PRESSURE RANGE;...

  3. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility Discharges in 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Signore, John C.

    2015-07-14

    This report documents radioactive discharges from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities (RLWTF) during calendar 2014.

  4. Interpretation of high voltage solar array discharge experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, N.J.; Underwood, C.S.; Jones, M.R. )

    1990-12-01

    High voltage operation of photovoltaic power sources in low Earth orbit is limited by the probability of discharged in the array. These discharges are initiated by an interaction between the negative voltage portions of the array (relative to the space plasma potential) and the space plasma environment. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to characterize these discharges. The authors propose a model that suggests experiments conducted to date have measured transients related to the decharging of the solar cell cover glass as a result of a discharge rather than the discharge itself. The excellent agreement between the experiment data and the analytical predictions argues for the validity of this model.

  5. The transition mechanism from a symmetric single period discharge to a period-doubling discharge in atmospheric helium dielectric-barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Dingzong; Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Period-doubling and chaos phenomenon have been frequently observed in atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier discharges. However, how a normal single period discharge bifurcates into period-doubling state is still unclear. In this paper, by changing the driving frequency, we study numerically the transition mechanisms from a normal single period discharge to a period-doubling state using a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model. The results show that before a discharge bifurcates into a period-doubling state, it first deviates from its normal operation and transforms into an asymmetric single period discharge mode. Then the weaker discharge in this asymmetric discharge will be enhanced gradually with increasing of the frequency until it makes the subsequent discharge weaken and results in the discharge entering a period-doubling state. In the whole transition process, the spatial distribution of the charged particle density and the electric field plays a definitive role. The conclusions are further confirmed by changing the gap width and the amplitude of the applied voltage.

  6. RELATIVISTIC (E > 0.6, > 2.0, AND > 4.0 MeV) ELECTRON ACCELERATION AT GEOSYNCHRONOUS ORBIT DURING HIGH-INTENSITY, LONG-DURATION, CONTINUOUS AE ACTIVITY (HILDCAA) EVENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hajra, Rajkumar; Echer, Ezequiel; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Santolik, Ondrej

    2015-01-20

    Radiation-belt relativistic (E > 0.6, > 2.0, and > 4.0 MeV) electron acceleration is studied for solar cycle 23 (1995-2008). High-intensity, long-duration, continuous AE activity (HILDCAA) events are considered as the basis of the analyses. All of the 35 HILDCAA events under study were found to be characterized by flux enhancements of magnetospheric relativistic electrons of all three energies compared to the pre-event flux levels. For the E > 2.0 MeV electron fluxes, enhancement of >50% occurred during 100% of HILDCAAs. Cluster-4 passes were examined for electromagnetic chorus waves in the 5 < L < 10 and 0 < MLT < 12 region when wave data were available. Fully 100% of these HILDCAA cases were associated with enhanced whistler-mode chorus waves. The enhancements of E > 0.6, > 2.0, and > 4.0 MeV electrons occurred ∼1.0 day, ∼1.5 days, and ∼2.5 days after the statistical HILDCAA onset, respectively. The statistical acceleration rates for the three energy ranges were ∼1.8 × 10{sup 5}, 2.2 × 10{sup 3}, and 1.0 × 10{sup 1} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} sr{sup –1} d{sup –1}, respectively. The relativistic electron-decay timescales were determined to be ∼7.7, 5.5, and 4.0 days for the three energy ranges, respectively. The HILDCAAs were divided into short-duration (D ≤ 3 days) and long-duration (D > 3 days) events to study the dependence of relativistic electron variation on HILDCAA duration. For long-duration events, the flux enhancements during HILDCAAs with respect to pre-event fluxes were ∼290%, 520%, and 82% for E > 0.6, > 2.0, and > 4.0 MeV electrons, respectively. The enhancements were ∼250%, 400%, and 27% respectively, for short-duration events. The results are discussed with respect to the current understanding of radiation-belt dynamics.

  7. State waste discharge permit application: Hydrotest, maintenance and construction discharges. Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US DOE< Richland Operation Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 (216 Consent Order) (Ecology and US DOE 1991). The 216 Consent Order list regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site and requires compliance with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. Hanford Site liquid effluent streams discharging to the soil column have been categorized on the 216 Consent Order as follows: Phase I Streams; Phase II Streams; Miscellaneous Streams. Phase I and Phase II Streams were initially addressed in two report. Miscellaneous Streams are subject to the requirements of several milestones identified in the 216 Consent Order. This document constitutes the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit application for hydrotest,maintenance and construction discharges throughout the Hanford Site. This categorical permit application form was prepared and approved by Ecology.

  8. Phenomena of oscillations in atmospheric pressure direct current glow discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Fu-cheng; Yan, Wen; Wang, De-zhen

    2013-12-15

    Self-sustained oscillations in a dc glow discharge with a semiconductor layer at atmospheric pressure were investigated by means of a one-dimensional fluid model. It is found that the dc glow discharge initially becomes unstable in the subnormal glow region and gives rise to oscillations of plasma parameters. A variety of oscillations with one or more frequencies have been observed under different conditions. The discharge oscillates between the glow discharge mode and the Townsend discharge mode in the oscillations with large amplitude while operates in the subnormal glow discharge mode all the while in the oscillations with small amplitude. Fourier Transform spectra of oscillations reveal the transition mechanism between different oscillations. The effects of semiconductor conductivity on the oscillation frequency of the dominant mode, gas voltage, as well as the discharge current have also been analyzed.

  9. Sensitive glow discharge ion source for aerosol and gas analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2007-08-14

    A high sensitivity glow discharge ion source system for analyzing particles includes an aerodynamic lens having a plurality of constrictions for receiving an aerosol including at least one analyte particle in a carrier gas and focusing the analyte particles into a collimated particle beam. A separator separates the carrier gas from the analyte particle beam, wherein the analyte particle beam or vapors derived from the analyte particle beam are selectively transmitted out of from the separator. A glow discharge ionization source includes a discharge chamber having an entrance orifice for receiving the analyte particle beam or analyte vapors, and a target electrode and discharge electrode therein. An electric field applied between the target electrode and discharge electrode generates an analyte ion stream from the analyte vapors, which is directed out of the discharge chamber through an exit orifice, such as to a mass spectrometer. High analyte sensitivity is obtained by pumping the discharge chamber exclusively through the exit orifice and the entrance orifice.

  10. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steelman, Ryan; Clark, Billy; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  11. Analysis of radiofrequency discharges in plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, D.; McGlynn, S.P.

    1992-08-04

    Separation of laser optogalvanic signals in plasma into two components: (1) an ionization rate change component, and (2) a photoacoustic mediated component. This separation of components may be performed even when the two components overlap in time, by measuring time-resolved laser optogalvanic signals in an rf discharge plasma as the rf frequency is varied near the electrical resonance peak of the plasma and associated driving/detecting circuits. A novel spectrometer may be constructed to make these measurements. Such a spectrometer would be useful in better understanding and controlling such processes as plasma etching and plasma deposition. 15 figs.

  12. Analysis of radiofrequency discharges in plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Devendra; McGlynn, Sean P.

    1992-01-01

    Separation of laser optogalvanic signals in plasma into two components: (1) an ionization rate change component, and (2) a photoacoustic mediated component. This separation of components may be performed even when the two components overlap in time, by measuring time-resolved laser optogalvanic signals in an rf discharge plasma as the rf frequency is varied near the electrical resonance peak of the plasma and associated driving/detecting circuits. A novel spectrometer may be constructed to make these measurements. Such a spectrometer would be useful in better understanding and controlling such processes as plasma etching and plasma deposition.

  13. Electrochemical cell assembled in discharged state

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yao, Neng-Ping; Walsh, William J.

    1976-01-01

    A secondary, electrochemical cell is assembled in a completely discharged state within a sealed containment. As assembled, the cell includes a positive electrode separated from a negative electrode by a molten salt electrolyte. The positive electrode is contained within a porous structure, permitting passage of molten electrolyte, and includes one or more layers of a metallic mesh, e.g. iron, impregnated with an intimate mixture of lithium sulfide and the electrolyte. The negative electrode is a porous plaque of aluminum metal. Prior to using the cell, an electrical charge forms lithium-aluminum alloy within the negative electrode and metal sulfide within the positive electrode.

  14. Electrostatic discharge testing of electroexplosive devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hingorani, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) testing of electroexplosive devices has previously been regarded as single pulse, go/no-go testing, the emphasis being on the safety of the devices when exposed to human handling. For some components it has been found to be a destructive test; for others the test is performed 100% in production product-acceptance testing and is considered a nondestructive and nondegrading test if the component does not fire. Recent studies performed by R. J. Fisher at Sandia have resulted in a new model of the worst case human body electrostatic discharge that is more accurate than the model that is currently in use for testing electroexplosive components. In addition, recent requirements for no degradation or loss of reliability after multiple exposures (up to 100) have changed the go/no-go nature of the test. Several components have been tested to the new ESD model; results regarding both safety and reliability will be presented and discussed. 9 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Low current plasmatron fuel converter having enlarged volume discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabinovich, Alexander; Alexeev, Nikolai; Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Samokhin, Andrei

    2005-04-19

    A novel apparatus and method is disclosed for a plasmatron fuel converter (""plasmatron"") that efficiently uses electrical energy to produce hydrogen rich gas. The volume and shape of the plasma discharge is controlled by a fluid flow established in a plasma discharge volume. A plasmatron according to this invention produces a substantially large effective plasma discharge volume allowing for substantially greater volumetric efficiency in the initiation of chemical reactions within a volume of bulk fluid reactant flowing through the plasmatron.

  16. Low current plasmatron fuel converter having enlarged volume discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabinovich, Alexander; Alexeev, Nikolai; Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Samokhin, Andrei

    2009-10-06

    A novel apparatus and method is disclosed for a plasmatron fuel converter ("plasmatron") that efficiently uses electrical energy to produce hydrogen rich gas. The volume and shape of the plasma discharge is controlled by a fluid flow established in a plasma discharge volume. A plasmatron according to this invention produces a substantially large effective plasma discharge volume allowing for substantially greater volumetric efficiency in the initiation of chemical reactions within a volume of bulk fluid reactant flowing through the plasmatron.

  17. LANL achieves milestone on path to zero wastewater discharge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LANL achieves milestone on wastewater discharge LANL achieves milestone on path to zero wastewater discharge Industrial wastewater will be recycled as the result of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. January 20, 2012 Aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory Aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Contact Colleen Curran Communications Office (505) 664-0344 Email Improved compliance while recycling millions of gallons of industrial

  18. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas.

  19. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  20. Extreme-UV electrical discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fornaciari, Neal R.; Nygren, Richard E.; Ulrickson, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation electric capillary discharge source that includes a boron nitride housing defining a capillary bore that is positioned between two electrodes one of which is connected to a source of electric potential can generate a high EUV and soft x-ray radiation flux from the capillary bore outlet with minimal debris. The electrode that is positioned adjacent the capillary bore outlet is typically grounded. Pyrolytic boron nitride, highly oriented pyrolytic boron nitride, and cubic boron nitride are particularly suited. The boron nitride capillary bore can be configured as an insert that is encased in an exterior housing that is constructed of a thermally conductive material. Positioning the ground electrode sufficiently close to the capillary bore outlet also reduces bore erosion.

  1. Electrostatic Discharge testing of propellants and primers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, R.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the results of testing of selected propellants and primers to Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) characteristic of the human body. It describes the tests and the fixturing built to accommodate loose material (propellants) and the packed energetic material of the primer. The results indicate that all powders passed and some primers, especially the electric primers, failed to pass established requirements which delineate insensitive energetic components. This report details the testing of components and materials to four ESD environments (Standard ESD, Severe ESD, Modified Standard ESD, and Modified Severe ESD). The purpose of this study was to collect data based on the customer requirements as defined in the Sandia Environmental Safety & Health (ES&H) Manual, Chapter 9, and to define static sensitive and insensitive propellants and primers.

  2. Notice of Intent (NOI) for Storm Water Discharges Associated...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (NOI) for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Construction Activities under TPDES General Permit (TXR150000) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  3. Notice of Intent for Stormwater Discharges Associated with Constructio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library Form: Notice of Intent for Stormwater Discharges Associated with Construction Activity on Moderate Risk Sites Abstract Notice of Intent for required for...

  4. Notice of Intent for Stormwater Discharges Associated with Constructio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Application: Notice of Intent for Stormwater Discharges Associated with Construction Activity on Low Risk SitesLegal Abstract Notice of Intent for required for...

  5. WAC - 173 - 220 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WAC - 173 - 220 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Program Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  6. Dual-frequency glow discharges in atmospheric helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xiaojiang; Guo, Ying; Dai, Lu; Zhang, Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the dual-frequency (DF) glow discharges in atmospheric helium were experimented by electrical and optical measurements in terms of current voltage characteristics and optical emission intensity. It is shown that the waveforms of applied voltages or discharge currents are the results of low frequency (LF) waveforms added to high frequency (HF) waveforms. The HF mainly influences discharge currents, and the LF mainly influences applied voltages. The gas temperatures of DF discharges are mainly affected by HF power rather than LF power.

  7. WAC - 173 - 226 - Waste Discharge General Permit Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    6 - Waste Discharge General Permit Program Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: WAC - 173 - 226 - Waste...

  8. AZPDES General Permit for Stormwater Discharges Associated with...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OtherOther: AZPDES General Permit for Stormwater Discharges Associated with Construction Activity (Permit No. AZG2013-001)Legal Abstract This Construction General Permit governs...

  9. WAC - 173-216 State Wastewater Discharge Permit Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract These rules implement a state permit program, applicable to the discharge of waste materials from industrial, commercial, and municipal operations into ground and...

  10. WSDE Report: Wastewater Discharge Permits in Washington State...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wastewater Discharge Permits in Washington State Author Washington State Department of Ecology Organization Washington State Department of Ecology Published Washington State...

  11. Plasmas in Multiphase Media: Bubble Enhanced Discharges in Liquids...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of atmospheric pressure plasmas in the form of dielectric barrier discharges and plasma jets with organic materials and liquids. We also made advances in our ability to use...

  12. EPA - Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control Program) webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA - Ground Water...

  13. Oregon Water Quality Permit Program (Stormwater Discharge Permits...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permits) Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon Water Quality Permit Program (Stormwater Discharge Permits) Website...

  14. Qualitative experiment with arc discharges on negatively biased solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuninaka, Hitoshi )

    1990-12-01

    The present ground simulation of arc discharges using heat-sensitive materials in dense Ar plasma can preclude interactions with the vacuum chamber wall due to its plasma shielding. The results obtained suggest that arc discharges occurred only on the surface of the masked model, and on the model with a clean conductor. Discharge frequency depended on substrate temperature, and surface luminosity was observed on the insulator mask; this last feature suggests that electrons are incident from the conductor region onto the mask. It is necessary to construct a new theory for the arc discharge integrating the effects of the surface gas adsorption/desorption and the secondary electrons. 14 refs.

  15. Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters- Lessons Learned From Mammoth Mountain, USA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  16. Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Journal Article: Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters- Lessons Learned From Mammoth Mountain, Usa Abstract A major campaign to quantify the...

  17. WAC - 173 - 221A - Wastewater Discharge Standards and Effluent...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A - Wastewater Discharge Standards and Effluent Limitations Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: WAC - 173 -...

  18. WAC - 173 - 221 - Discharge Standards and Effluent Limitations...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Discharge Standards and Effluent Limitations for Domestic Wastewater Facilities Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  19. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: Scalable plasma sources ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High power impulse magnetron sputtering and ...

  20. Capacitor discharge pulse analysis. (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This report summarizes an analysis performed on the discharge current data to extract ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Country of ...

  1. File:CDPHE Industrial Individual Wastewater Discharge Permit...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CDPHE Industrial Individual Wastewater Discharge Permit Application.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:CDPHE Industrial Individual...

  2. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, Gary; D'Silva, Arthur P.; Fassel, Velmer A.

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  3. Groundwater Discharge along a Channelized Coastal Plain Stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaSage, Danita M; Sexton, Joshua L; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Fryar, Alan E; Greb, Stephen F

    2015-10-01

    In the Coastal Plain of the southeastern USA, streams have commonly been artificially channelized for flood control and agricultural drainage. However, groundwater discharge along such streams has received relatively little attention. Using a combination of stream- and spring-flow measurements, spring temperature measurements, temperature profiling along the stream-bed, and geologic mapping, we delineated zones of diffuse and focused discharge along Little Bayou Creek, a channelized, first-order perennial stream in western Kentucky. Seasonal variability in groundwater discharge mimics hydraulic-head fluctuations in a nearby monitoring well and spring-discharge fluctuations elsewhere in the region, and is likely to reflect seasonal variability in recharge. Diffuse discharge occurs where the stream is incised into the semi-confined regional gravel aquifer, which is comprised of the Mounds Gravel. Focused discharge occurs upstream where the channel appears to have intersected preferential pathways within the confining unit. Seasonal fluctuations in discharge from individual springs are repressed where piping results in bank collapse. Thereby, focused discharge can contribute to the morphological evolution of the stream channel.

  4. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, G.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1985-04-05

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency, electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  5. Plasma mixing glow discharge device for analytical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A.

    1999-01-01

    An instrument for analyzing a sample has an enclosure that forms a chamber containing an anode which divides the chamber into a discharge region and an analysis region. A gas inlet and outlet are provided to introduce and exhaust a rare gas into the discharge region. A cathode within the discharge region has a plurality of pins projecting in a geometric pattern toward the anode for exciting the gas and producing a plasma discharge between the cathode and the anode. Low energy electrons (e.g. <0.5 eV) pass into the analysis region through an aperture. The sample to be analyzed is placed into the analysis region and bombarded by the metastable rare gas atoms and the low energy electrons extracted into from the discharge region. A mass or optical spectrometer can be coupled to a port of the analysis region to analyze the resulting ions and light emission.

  6. Parallel vacuum arc discharge with microhollow array dielectric and anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Jinghua; Zhou, Lin; Fu, Yuecheng; Zhang, Jianhua; Xu, Rongkun; Chen, Faxin; Li, Linbo; Meng, Shijian

    2014-07-15

    An electrode configuration with microhollow array dielectric and anode was developed to obtain parallel vacuum arc discharge. Compared with the conventional electrodes, more than 10 parallel microhollow discharges were ignited for the new configuration, which increased the discharge area significantly and made the cathode eroded more uniformly. The vacuum discharge channel number could be increased effectively by decreasing the distances between holes or increasing the arc current. Experimental results revealed that plasmas ejected from the adjacent hollow and the relatively high arc voltage were two key factors leading to the parallel discharge. The characteristics of plasmas in the microhollow were investigated as well. The spectral line intensity and electron density of plasmas in microhollow increased obviously with the decease of the microhollow diameter.

  7. Plasma mixing glow discharge device for analytical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnaduwage, L.A.

    1999-04-20

    An instrument for analyzing a sample has an enclosure that forms a chamber containing an anode which divides the chamber into a discharge region and an analysis region. A gas inlet and outlet are provided to introduce and exhaust a rare gas into the discharge region. A cathode within the discharge region has a plurality of pins projecting in a geometric pattern toward the anode for exciting the gas and producing a plasma discharge between the cathode and the anode. Low energy electrons (e.g. <0.5 eV) pass into the analysis region through an aperture. The sample to be analyzed is placed into the analysis region and bombarded by the metastable rare gas atoms and the low energy electrons extracted into from the discharge region. A mass or optical spectrometer can be coupled to a port of the analysis region to analyze the resulting ions and light emission. 3 figs.

  8. Radio frequency discharge with control of plasma potential distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Dudnikov, A.

    2012-02-15

    A RF discharge plasma generator with additional electrodes for independent control of plasma potential distribution is proposed. With positive biasing of this ring electrode relative end flanges and longitudinal magnetic field a confinement of fast electrons in the discharge will be improved for reliable triggering of pulsed RF discharge at low gas density and rate of ion generation will be enhanced. In the proposed discharge combination, the electron energy is enhanced by RF field and the fast electron confinement is improved by enhanced positive plasma potential which improves the efficiency of plasma generation significantly. This combination creates a synergetic effect with a significantly improving the plasma generation performance at low gas density. The discharge parameters can be optimized for enhance plasma generation with acceptable electrode sputtering.

  9. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 400 Area Septic System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affects groundwater or has the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 400 Area Septic System. The influent to the system is domestic waste water. Although the 400 Area Septic System is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. Therefore, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used.

  10. Low-voltage gas-discharge device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kovarik, V.J.; Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1982-06-08

    An electronic device of the type wherein current flow is conducted by an ionized gas comprising a cathode of the type heated by ionic bombardment, an anode, means for maintaining a predetermined pressure in the region between the anode and the cathode and means for maintaining a field in the region is described. The field, which is preferably a combined magnetic and electric field, is oriented so that the mean distance traveled by electrons before reaching the anode is increased. Because of this increased distance traveled electrons moving to the anode will ionize a large number of gas atoms, thus reducing the voltage necessary to initiate gas breakdown. In a preferred embodiment the anode is a main hollow cathode and the cathode is a smaller igniter hollow cathode located within and coaxial with the main hollow cathode. An axial magnetic field is provided in the region between the hollow cathodes in order to facilitate gas breakdown in that region and initiate plasma discharge from the main hollow cathode.

  11. Vacuum ultra-violet emission of plasma discharges with high Xe partial pressure using a cathode protective layer with high secondary electron emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Di; Song, Le; Zhang, Xiong; Kajiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-02-14

    In this work, the mechanism of the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) emission of plasma discharges, with high Xe partial pressure and high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer, is studied by measuring the VUV light emission directly and comparing it with two-dimensional simulations. From the panel measurement, we find that the high intensity of excimer VUV mainly contributes to the high luminous efficacy of SrCaO-plasma display panels (PDP) at a low sustain voltage. The unchanged Xe excitation efficiency indicates that the electron temperature is not decreased by the high secondary electrons emission protective layer, even though the sustain voltage is much lower. From the two-dimensional simulations, we can find that the ratio of excimer VUV to resonant VUV, which is determined by the collision rate in the discharge, is only significantly affected by the Xe partial pressure, while it is independent of the sustain voltage and the secondary-electrons-emission capability of protective layer. The unchanged average electron energy at the moment when the electric field becomes maximum confirms that the improvement of the VUV production efficiency mainly is attributed to the increase in electron heating efficiency of a PDP with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer. Combining the experimental and the simulation results, we conclude about the mechanism by which the VUV production is improved for the plasma display panel with a high Xe partial pressure and a cold cathode with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission.

  12. Detrecting and Locating Partial Discharges in Transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shourbaji, A.; Richards, R.; Kisner, R. A.; Hardy, J.

    2005-02-04

    A collaborative research between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the American Electric Power (AEP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and the State of Ohio Energy Office (OEO) has been formed to conduct a feasibility study to detect and locate partial discharges (PDs) inside large transformers. The success of early detection of the PDs is necessary to avoid costly catastrophic failures that can occur if the process of PD is ignored. The detection method under this research is based on an innovative technology developed by ORNL researchers using optical methods to sense the acoustical energy produced by the PDs. ORNL researchers conducted experimental studies to detect PD using an optical fiber as an acoustic sensor capable of detecting acoustical disturbances at any point along its length. This technical approach also has the potential to locate the point at which the PD was sensed within the transformer. Several optical approaches were experimentally investigated, including interferometric detection of acoustical disturbances along the sensing fiber, light detection and ranging (LIDAR) techniques using frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW), frequency modulated (FM) laser with a multimode fiber, FM laser with a single mode fiber, and amplitude modulated (AM) laser with a multimode fiber. The implementation of the optical fiber-based acoustic measurement technique would include installing a fiber inside a transformer allowing real-time detection of PDs and determining their locations. The fibers are nonconductive and very small (core plus cladding are diameters of 125 μm for single-mode fibers and 230 μm for multimode fibers). The research identified the capabilities and limitations of using optical technology to detect and locate sources of acoustical disturbances such as in PDs in large transformers. Amplitude modulation techniques showed the most promising results and deserve further research to better quantify the technique’s sensitivity

  13. EPA issues draft general permits for industrial stormwater discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    EPA on Nov. 16, 1990, issued stormwater discharge regulations associated with industrial activity'' under the authority of CWA's National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Those regulations established NPDES permit application requirements for industrial and certain municipal separate stormwater discharge systems. Three permit application options were made available for industrial stormwater discharges -- filing an individual application, becoming a participant in a group application or filing a notice of intent to be covered under a general permit and its requirements. The Agency of Nov. 19 proposed a draft general permit for group applications. Industrial dischargers choosing the group option previously were required to file in two parts. Part 1 was due by Sept. 30, 1991, and Part 2 was due by Oct. 1, 1992. The proposed permit would apply to industrial facilities, including certain Indian lands, in selected areas of EPA Regions I, II, III, IV, VI, VIII, IX and X. The permit would cover industrial stormwater discharges to US waters, and would include discharges transmitted through large, medium-sized and other municipal separate storm sewer systems.

  14. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R. Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H.; Akiyama, M.; Lukeš, P.

    2014-09-28

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H₂O₂ and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  15. Pulsed chemical HF laser with a large discharge gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azarov, M A; Klimuk, Evgenii A; Kutumov, Konstantin A; Troshchinenko, G A; Lacour, Bernard M

    2004-11-30

    The characteristics of the radiation emitted by an electric-discharge pulsed chemical HF laser with a discharge gap of 10 cm are studied. The discharge was stabilised by a semiconducting ferroelectric ceramic layer deposited on plane metal electrodes. The specific energy and technical efficiency were 3 J L{sup -1} and 3.4%, respectively, for a laser operating on a nonchain reaction in SF{sub 6}-H{sub 2} mixture and 25 J L{sup -1} and 26%, respectively, for a laser operating on a chain reaction in F{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-SF{sub 6}-H{sub 2} mixture. (lasers)

  16. Plasma Acceleration from RF Discharge in Dielectric Capillary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Dunaevsky; Y. Raitses; N. J. Fisch

    2005-08-09

    Plasma acceleration from rf discharge in dielectric capillary was demonstrated. Observed plasma flow had ion energies of approximately 100 eV and electron energies of approximately 20 eV. The discharge was powered by a MHz-range rf generator and fed by Ar. Experimental results indicate possible validity of assumptions about formation of a potential difference at the open end of the capillary and presence of hot electron fraction in the capillary discharge. Simplicity and small dimensions of the source are attractive for micro-propulsion applications.

  17. Influence of driving frequency on discharge modes in a dielectric-barrier discharge with multiple current pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Weiman; Tang, Jie; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei; Duan, Yixiang; Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064

    2013-07-15

    A one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model was employed to investigate the effect of the driving frequency on the discharge modes in atmospheric-pressure argon discharge with multiple current pulses. The discharge mode was discussed in detail not only at current peaks but also between two adjacent peaks. The simulation results show that different transitions between the Townsend and glow modes during the discharge take place with the driving frequency increased. A complicated transition from the Townsend mode, through glow, Townsend, and glow, and finally back to the Townsend one is found in the discharge with the driving frequency of 8 kHz. There is a tendency of transition from the Townsend to glow mode for the discharge both at the current peaks and troughs with the increasing frequency. The discharge in the half period can all along operate in the glow mode with the driving frequency high enough. This is resulted from the preservation of more electrons in the gas gap and acquisition of more electron energy from the swiftly varying electric field with the increase in driving frequency. Comparison of the spatial and temporal evolutions of the electron density at different driving frequencies indicates that the increment of the driving frequency allows the plasma chemistry to be enhanced. This electrical characteristic is important for the applications, such as surface treatment and biomedical sterilization.

  18. Igniter for gas discharge pipe with a flame detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerra, R.E.

    1990-03-06

    This patent describes a method of burning waste gas, using an igniter of the type having a nozzle, a main gas conduit extending to the nozzle, and an electrical spark means for creating a spark in the nozzle. It comprises: mounting the igniter to a waste gas discharge pipe with the nozzle directed across the opening of the gas discharge pipe; supplying a gaseous fuel to the main gas conduit; igniting the gaseous fuel with the electrical spark means, creating a flame for igniting the waste gas being discharged from the gas discharge pipe; providing the igniter with an auxiliary gas line extending to the vicinity of the nozzle; and supplying a second and lower volume source of waste gas to the auxiliary gas line for burning at the nozzle.

  19. UPDES General Permit for Discharges from Construction Activities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Permit for Discharges from Construction Activities (Permit No. UTRC00000) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther:...

  20. Finding of No Significant Impact for the National Pollution Discharge...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Outfall Z-01: This outfall receives runoff from a drainage area of approximately 51 acres located in the southern portion of Z Area. Due to a lack of any discharge from this ...

  1. Handling and characterization of glow-discharge polymer samples...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for the light gas gun Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Handling and characterization of glow-discharge polymer samples for the light gas gun Authors: Akin, M C ; ...

  2. Montana Facilities Which Do Not Discharge Process Wastewater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Form 2E) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Montana Facilities Which Do Not Discharge Process Wastewater (MDEQ Form 2E) Abstract Form...

  3. Plasma density diagnostic for capillary-discharge based plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plasma density diagnostic for capillary-discharge based plasma channels Authors: Daniels, J. 1 Search SciTech Connect for author "Daniels, J." Search SciTech Connect for...

  4. Investigation on collisions of filament pairs in dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Lifang; Zhang, Chao; Li, Ben; Zhang, Xinpu; He, Yafeng; Li, Xuechen; Hebei Key Laboratory of Optic-electronic Information Materials, Baoding 071002

    2013-12-15

    Collisions of filament pairs in a hexagonal superlattice pattern in dielectric barrier discharge are investigated on different timescales. In the evolution of the pattern, the space scale of each hexagon cell decreases with the increasing voltage. The duration of one collision is seven half voltage cycles at least. Two stable orientations of a pair are approximately perpendicular to each other and the orientational changes occurring during the entire colliding process should be a multiple of 30. The time interval between two consecutive collisions decreases with the increasing voltage. The distance between the paired spots decreases nonmonotonically. Based on the discharge order of the pattern, it is inferred that the collision should be the interaction between a discharging filament and the surface charges deposited by another discharged filament, and the nonmonotonic decrease of distance D is explained.

  5. Use of microalgae to remove pollutants from power plant discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilde, Edward W.; Benemann, John R.; Weissman, Joseph C.; Tillett, David M.

    1991-01-01

    A method and system for removing pollutants dissolved in the aqueous discharge of a plant, such as a power plant, from a body of water having known hydraulogy and physicochemical characteristics, the method comprising (a) modifying the hydraulic system of the body of water including use of physical barriers to define a zone in a portion of the body of water which zone includes the discharge point and where the water has a range of physicochemical characteristics; (b) selecting a large and preferably filamentous, planktonically growing strain of algae adapted to absorb the particular pollutants and genetically dominating algae at the physicochemical characteristics of the zone; (c) establishing a colony of the selected algal strain in the zone; (d) harvesting a portion of the colony; and (e) reinnoculating the zone near the discharge point with a fraction of the harvested portion. The fraction used for reinnoculation can be adjusted to balance the rate of pollutant removal to the rate of pollutant discharge.

  6. Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

    2014-10-14

    A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

  7. Discharge source with gas curtain for protecting optics from particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fornaciari, Neal R.; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2004-03-30

    A gas curtain device is employed to deflect debris that is generated by an extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation discharge source such as an electric discharge plasma source. The gas curtain device projects a stream of gas over the path of the radiation to deflect debris particles into a direction that is different from that of the path of the radiation. The gas curtain can be employed to prevent debris accumulation on the optics used in photolithography.

  8. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1984 to 2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeb, C.M.; Libby, R.A.; Holter, G.M.

    1985-04-01

    The original spent fuel utility data base (SFDB) has been adjusted to produce agreement with the EIA nuclear energy generation forecast. The procedure developed allows the detail of the utility data base to remain intact, while the overall nuclear generation is changed to match any uniform nuclear generation forecast. This procedure adjusts the weight of the reactor discharges as reported on the SFDB and makes a minimal (less than 10%) change in the original discharge exposures in order to preserve discharges of an integral number of fuel assemblies. The procedure used in developing the reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, as well as the resulting data bases themselves, are described in detail in this report. Discussions of the procedure cover the following topics: a description of the data base; data base adjustment procedures; addition of generic power reactors; and accuracy of the data base adjustments. Reactor-specific discharge and storage requirements are presented. Annual and cumulative discharge projections are provided. Annual and cumulative requirements for additional storage are shown for the maximum at-reactor (AR) storage assumption, and for the maximum AR with transshipment assumption. These compare directly to the storage requirements from the utility-supplied data, as reported in the Spent Fuel Storage Requirements Report. The results presented in this report include: the disaggregated spent fuel discharge projections; and disaggregated projections of requirements for additional spent fuel storage capacity prior to 1998. Descriptions of the methodology and the results are included in this report. Details supporting the discussions in the main body of the report, including descriptions of the capacity and fuel discharge projections, are included. 3 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from U.S. reactors 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel Discharges from US Reactors 1994 provides current statistical data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the US. This year`s report provides data on the current inventories and storage capacities at these reactors. Detailed statistics on the data are presented in four chapters that highlight 1994 spent fuel discharges, storage capacities and inventories, canister and nonfuel component data, and assembly characteristics. Five appendices, a glossary, and bibliography are also included. 10 figs., 34 tabs.

  10. Device for generation of pulsed corona discharge (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Device for generation of pulsed corona discharge The invention is a method and system for the generation of high voltage, pulsed, periodic corona discharges capable of being ...

  11. Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing ... discharge; closing; switches; highly; efficient; binary; ternary; gas; mixtures; ...

  12. Improved plasma uniformity in a discharge system with electron injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vizir, A. V.; Tyunkov, A. V.; Shandrikov, M. V.

    2009-02-15

    We present the results of experiments leading to improvement in bulk plasma uniformity of a constricted-arc discharge system with electron injection. The steady-state discharge was in argon, at a gas pressure of 0.5 mTorr, and operated with a main discharge voltage between 20 and 100 V and current between 3 and 15 A. The radial plasma distribution was measured with a movable Langmuir probe. We find that geometric modification of the intermediate electrode exit aperture and the main discharge cathode add little to the plasma uniformity. Improved bulk plasma uniformity is observed when a special distributing grid electrode is used and the main discharge voltage is less than 20-30 V. The application of a weakly divergent magnetic field in the region of the intermediate electrode exit aperture decreases the plasma nonuniformity from 20% to 14% over a radial distance of 30 cm. The plasma uniformity was further improved by compensating the magnetic self-field of the injected electron beam by a reverse magnetic field produced with a special electrode compensator. It is shown that an increase in discharge current causes a proportional increase in back current in the distributing electrode. The approach allows a decrease in plasma nonuniformity from 20% to 13% over a radial distance of 30 cm.

  13. Advances in electron kinetics and theory of gas discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolobov, Vladimir I.; The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899

    2013-10-15

    “Electrons, like people, are fertile and infertile: high-energy electrons are fertile and able to reproduce.”—Lev TsendinModern physics of gas discharges increasingly uses physical kinetics for analysis of non-equilibrium plasmas. The description of underlying physics at the kinetic level appears to be important for plasma applications in modern technologies. In this paper, we attempt to grasp the legacy of Professor Lev Tsendin, who advocated the use of the kinetic approach for understanding fundamental problems of gas discharges. We outline the fundamentals of electron kinetics in low-temperature plasmas, describe elements of the modern kinetic theory of gas discharges, and show examples of the theoretical approach to gas discharge problems used by Lev Tsendin. Important connections between electron kinetics in gas discharges and semiconductors are also discussed. Using several examples, we illustrate how Tsendin's ideas and methods are currently being developed for the implementation of next generation computational tools for adaptive kinetic-fluid simulations of gas discharges used in modern technologies.

  14. Statistical modelling of discharge behavior of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tay, W. H.; Kausik, S. S.; Wong, C. S. Yap, S. L.; Muniandy, S. V.

    2014-11-15

    In this work, stochastic behavior of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been investigated. The experiment is performed in a DBD reactor consisting of a pair of stainless steel parallel plate electrodes powered by a 50?Hz ac high voltage source. Current pulse amplitude distributions for different space gaps and the time separation between consecutive current pulses are studied. A probability distribution function is proposed to predict the experimental distribution function for the current pulse amplitudes and the occurrence of the transition regime of the pulse distribution. Breakdown voltage at different positions on the dielectric surface is suggested to be stochastic in nature. The simulated results based on the proposed distribution function agreed well with the experimental results and able to predict the regime of transition voltage. This model would be useful for the understanding of stochastic behaviors of DBD and the design of DBD device for effective operation and applications.

  15. Numerical study of effect of secondary electron emission on discharge characteristics in low pressure capacitive RF argon discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Qian; Liu, Yue, E-mail: liuyue@dlut.edu.cn; Samir, Tagra; Ma, Zhaoshuai [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Based on the drift and diffusion approximation theory, a 1D fluid model on capacitively coupled RF argon glow discharge at low pressure is established to study the effect of secondary electron emission (SEE) on the discharge characteristics. The model is numerically solved by using a finite difference method and the numerical results are obtained. The numerical results indicate that when the SEE coefficient is larger, the plasma density is higher and the time of reaching steady state is longer. It is also found that the cycle-averaged electric field, electric potential, and electron temperature change a little as the SEE coefficient is increased. Moreover, the discharge characteristics in some nonequilibrium discharge processes with different SEE coefficients have been compared. The analysis shows that when the SEE coefficient is varied from 0.01 to 0.3, the cycle-averaged electron net power absorption, electron heating rate, thermal convective term, electron energy dissipation, and ionization all have different degrees of growth. While the electron energy dissipation and ionization are quite special, there appear two peaks near each sheath region in the discharge with a relatively larger SEE coefficient. In this case, the discharge is certainly operated in a hybrid ?-?-mode.

  16. Consumption of the electric power inside silent discharge reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yehia, Ashraf

    2015-01-15

    An experimental study was made in this paper to investigate the relation between the places of the dielectric barriers, which cover the surfaces of the electrodes in the coaxial cylindrical reactors, and the rate of change of the electric power that is consumed in forming silent discharges. Therefore, silent discharges have been formed inside three coaxial cylindrical reactors. The dielectric barriers in these reactors were pasted on both the internal surface of the outer electrode in the first reactor and the external surface of the inner electrode in the second reactor as well as the surfaces of the two electrodes in the third reactor. The reactor under study has been fed by atmospheric air that flowed inside it with a constant rate at normal temperature and pressure, in parallel with the application of a sinusoidal ac voltage between the electrodes of the reactor. The electric power consumed in forming the silent discharges inside the three reactors was measured as a function of the ac peak voltage. The validity of the experimental results was investigated by applying Manley's equation on the same discharge conditions. The results have shown that the rate of consumption of the electric power relative to the ac peak voltage per unit width of the discharge gap improves by a ratio of either 26.8% or 80% or 128% depending on the places of the dielectric barriers that cover the surfaces of the electrodes inside the three reactors.

  17. Properties of steady discharge in Ar-Kr-F2 gas mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chengen, Z.

    1981-11-01

    Some properties of Ar-Kr-F/sub 2/ laser gas mixture plasma under steady discharge conditions are computed and discussed. Both the excitation rate of the discharging electrons and the distribution of the discharge energy are discussed. The effects of fluoride gas content and impurity gas content on the discharge property are studied.

  18. Capillary - Discharge Based Hand-Held Detector For Chemical Vapor Monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang

    2005-05-31

    A handheld/portable detector for chemical vapor monitoring includes a housing and a discharge chamber that is established therein. The plasma discharge has a relatively small volume, e.g., in the micro-liter range. A first electrode and a second electrode are disposed within the discharge chamber and a discharge gap is established therebetween. A sample gas tube is in fluid communication with the discharge chamber and provides a sample gas to the discharge chamber. Also, a plasma gas tube is in fluid communication with the discharge chamber and provides a plasma gas thereto. Accordingly, the plasma gas can be used to maintain microplasma discharge between the electrodes and the sample gas can be introduced into the microplasma discharge. A spectrometer optically connected to the handheld/portable detector is used to measure the radiation emitted by the sample gas when subjected to the microplasma discharge.

  19. Oxidative processes occurring when pulsed high voltage discharges degrade phenol in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, B.; Sato, Masayuki; Clements, J.S.

    2000-02-01

    In this investigation, results obtained using a pulsed discharge for organic compound removal are presented. The degradation of phenol by a streamer corona discharge and spark discharge, the effects of hydrogen peroxide additive on removal efficiency, and photochemical oxidation by ultraviolet light from the discharge plasma channel were investigated. The intermediate products and final byproducts formed by the spark discharge were also studied. A preliminary study of the degradation mechanism inside and outside the plasma channel was carried out. It was found that the removal efficiency of organic contaminants in the aqueous solution was higher for the spark discharge than for the streamer corona discharge and was greatly influenced by the discharge type and additive. The energy efficiency was the highest for the case with hydrogen peroxide injection and spark discharge. The main intermediate products produced by the spark discharge during the treatment process were hydroquinone, pyrocatechol, and p-benzoquinone. These intermediate products disappeared when the treatment time was increased.

  20. Pulsed discharge ionization source for miniature ion mobility spectrometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Jun; Ramsey, J. Michael; Whitten, William B.

    2004-11-23

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for flowing a sample gas and a reactant gas (38, 43) past a corona discharge electrode (26) situated at a first location in an ion drift chamber (24), applying a pulsed voltage waveform comprising a varying pulse component and a dc bias component to the corona discharge electrode (26) to cause a corona which in turn produces ions from the sample gas and the reactant gas, applying a dc bias to the ion drift chamber (24) to cause the ions to drift to a second location (25) in the ion drift chamber (24), detecting the ions at the second location (25) in the drift chamber (24), and timing the period for the ions to drift from the corona discharge electrode to the selected location in the drift chamber.

  1. Quantitative characterization of arc discharge as vacuum interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, S.; Zhu, K.; Lu, Y. R.; Wang, S. Z.; Hershcovitch, A.; Yang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.

    2014-12-19

    An arc discharge with channel diameters of 3 mm and 6 mm and lengths between 30mm and 60mm was experimentally investigated for its potential to function as plasma window, i.e., interface vacuum regions of different pressures. In this study, electron temperature of the plasma channel measured spectroscopically varied in the range of 7000K to 15000K, increasing with discharge current while decreasing with gas flow rate. The plasma window had a slightly positive I-V characteristics over the whole range of investigated current 30A–70 A. Measurements of pressure separation capability, which were determined by input current, gas flow rate, discharge channel diameter, and length, were well explained by viscosity effect and “thermal-block” effect. The experimental results of global parameters including temperature, gas flow rate, and voltage had a good agreement with the simulation results calculated by an axis-symmetry Fluent-based magneto-hydrodynamic model.

  2. A Compact Reactor Gate Discharge Monitor for Spent Fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, J. B.; Menlove, Howard O.; Eccleston, G. W.; Miller, M. C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new design for a reactor gate discharge monitor that has evolved from the baseline discharge monitors used at the Fugen and Tokai-1 reactors in Japan. The main design innovation is the ability to determine direction-of-motion of spent fuel using a single sensor module, as opposed to the two modules used in both baseline design systems. Use of a single module reduces the final system complexity and weight significantly without compromising functionality. The reactor gate discharge monitor uses standard International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) hardware and software components. The requirements to determine direction-of-motion from a single module precipitated several development efforts described herein in both the MiniGRAND data acquisition hardware and in the uninterruptible power supply source.

  3. Extension of spatiotemporal chaos in glow discharge-semiconductor systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akhmet, Marat Fen, Mehmet Onur; Rafatov, Ismail

    2014-12-15

    Generation of chaos in response systems is discovered numerically through specially designed unidirectional coupling of two glow discharge-semiconductor systems. By utilizing the auxiliary system approach, [H. D. I. Abarbanel, N. F. Rulkov, and M. M. Sushchik, Phys. Rev. E 53, 45284535 (1996)] it is verified that the phenomenon is not a chaos synchronization. Simulations demonstrate various aspects of the chaos appearance in both drive and response systems. Chaotic control is through the external circuit equation and governs the electrical potential on the boundary. The expandability of the theory to collectives of glow discharge systems is discussed, and this increases the potential of applications of the results. Moreover, the research completes the previous discussion of the chaos appearance in a glow discharge-semiconductor system [D. D. ija?i? U. Ebert, and I. Rafatov, Phys. Rev. E 70, 056220 (2004).].

  4. Atmospheric discharges from nuclear facilities during decommissioning: German experiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, H.; Goertz, R.; Weil, L.

    1997-08-01

    In Germany, a substantial amount of experience is available with planning, licensing and realization of decommissioning projects. In total, a number of 18 nuclear power plants including prototype facilities as well as 6 research reactors and 3 fuel cycle facilities have been shut down finally and are at different stages of decommissioning. Only recently the final {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} stage of the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant total dismantlement project has been achieved. From the regulatory point of view, a survey of the decommissioning experience in Germany is presented highlighting the aspects of production and retention of airborne radioactivity. Nuclear air cleaning technology, discharge limits prescribed in licences and actual discharges are presented. As compared to operation, the composition of the discharged radioactivity is different as well as the off-gas discharge rate. In practically all cases, there is no significant amount of short-lived radionuclides. The discussion further includes lessons learned, for example inadvertent discharges of radionuclides expected not to be in the plants inventory. It is demonstrated that, as for operation of nuclear power plants, the limits prescribed in the Ordinance on Radiological Protection can be met using existing air cleaning technology, Optimization of protection results in public exposures substantially below the limits. In the frame of the regulatory investigation programme a study has been conducted to assess the airborne radioactivity created during certain decommissioning activities like decontamination, segmentation and handling of contaminated or activated parts. The essential results of this study are presented, which are supposed to support planning for decommissioning, for LWRs, Co-60 and Cs-137 are expected to be the dominant radionuclides in airborne discharges. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Reinvestigation of the charge density distribution in arc discharge fusion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Lin Horng; Yee, Lee Kim; Nan, Phua Yeong; Thung, Yong Yun; Khok, Yong Thian; Rahman, Faidz Abd

    2015-04-24

    A continual arc discharge system has been setup and the light intensity of arc discharge has been profiled. The mathematical model of local energy density distribution in arc discharge fusion has been simulated which is in good qualitative agreement with light intensity profile of arc discharge in the experiments. Eventually, the local energy density distribution of arc discharge system is able to be precisely manipulated to act as heat source in the fabrication of fused fiber devices.

  6. Numerical simulation of carbon arc discharge for nanoparticle synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kundrapu, M.; Keidar, M.

    2012-07-15

    Arc discharge with catalyst-filled carbon anode in helium background was used for the synthesis of carbon nanoparticles. In this paper, we present the results of numerical simulation of carbon arc discharges with arc current varying from 10 A to 100 A in a background gas pressure of 68 kPa. Anode sublimation rate and current voltage characteristics are compared with experiments. Distribution of temperature and species density, which is important for the estimation of the growth of nanoparticles, is obtained. The probable location of nanoparticle growth region is identified based on the temperature range for the formation of catalyst clusters.

  7. Multifunctional bulk plasma source based on discharge with electron injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klimov, A. S.; Medovnik, A. V.; Tyunkov, A. V.; Savkin, K. P.; Shandrikov, M. V.; Vizir, A. V.

    2013-01-15

    A bulk plasma source, based on a high-current dc glow discharge with electron injection, is described. Electron injection and some special design features of the plasma arc emitter provide a plasma source with very long periods between maintenance down-times and a long overall lifetime. The source uses a sectioned sputter-electrode array with six individual sputter targets, each of which can be independently biased. This discharge assembly configuration provides multifunctional operation, including plasma generation from different gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen, acetylene) and deposition of composite metal nitride and oxide coatings.

  8. High-order harmonic generation in a capillary discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Mumane, Margaret M.; Gaudiosi, David; Grisham, Michael E.; Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Reagan, Brendan A.

    2010-06-01

    A pre-ionized medium created by a capillary discharge results in more efficient use of laser energy in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from ions. It extends the cutoff photon energy, and reduces the distortion of the laser pulse as it propagates down the waveguide. The observed enhancements result from a combination of reduced ionization energy loss and reduced ionization-induced defocusing of the driving laser as well as waveguiding of the driving laser pulse. The discharge plasma also provides a means to spectrally tune the harmonics by tailoring the initial level of ionization of the medium.

  9. Electrochemical cell with high discharge/charge rate capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo

    1988-01-01

    A fully charged positive electrode composition for an electrochemical cell includes FeS.sub.2 and NiS.sub.2 in about equal molar amounts along with about 2-20 mole percent of the reaction product Li.sub.2 S. Through selection of appropriate electrolyte compositions, high power output or low operating temperatures can be obtained. The cell includes a substantially constant electrode impedance through most of its charge and discharge range. Exceptionally high discharge rates and overcharge protection are obtainable through use of the inventive electrode composition.

  10. ArcSafe® with Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ArcSafe® with Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge  2007 R&D 100 Award Entry Form ArcSafe® with Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge  Joint Submitters Submitting Organization Sandia National Laboratories PO Box 5800, MS 1181 Albuquerque, NM 87185-1181 USA Larry Schneider Phone: (505) 845-7135 Fax: (505) 845-7685 Email: lxschne@sandia.gov AFFIRMATION: I affirm that all information submitted as a part of, or supplemental to, this entry is a fair and accurate represen- tation of this product.

  11. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

    1996-12-17

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

  12. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.; Quigley, Gerard P.

    1996-01-01

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm.sup.2 emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm.sup.2 at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing.

  13. Pre-breakdown evaluation of gas discharge mechanisms in microgaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semnani, Abbas; Peroulis, Dimitrios; Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy; Alexeenko, Alina A.

    2013-04-29

    The individual contributions of various gas discharge mechanisms to total pre-breakdown current in microgaps are quantified numerically. The variation of contributions of field emission and secondary electron emission with increasing electric field shows contrasting behavior even for a given gap size. The total current near breakdown decreases rapidly with gap size indicating that microscale discharges operate in a high-current, low-voltage regime. This study provides the first such analysis of breakdown mechanisms and aids in the formulation of physics-based theories for microscale breakdown.

  14. Laboratory Astrophysics Using High Intensity Particle and Photon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ... History has shown that the symbiosis between direct observations and laboratory studies is ...

  15. Practical transverse matching of a high intensity SNS linac ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated ...

  16. Beam loading effects on a high intensity H- superconducting linac...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated ...

  17. Response of High-Tc Superconductor Metamaterials to High Intensity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2 ; Singh, Ranjan 1 ; Yan, Li 3 ; Jia, Quanxi 1 ; Trugman, Stuart A. 1 ; Taylor, Antoinette J. 1 ; Nelson, Keith A. 2 ; Chen, Hou-Tong 1 + Show Author ...

  18. Response of High-Tc Superconductor Metamaterials to High Intensity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hao 3 ; Xiong, Jie 3 ; Yan, Li 3 ; Jia, Quanxi 1 ; Trugman, Stuart A. 1 ; Taylor, Antoinette J. 1 ; Nelson, Keith A. 2 ; Chen, Houtong 1 + Show Author ...

  19. High intensity beam operation of the Brookhaven AGS (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    operated at record proton intensities. This high beam intensity allowed for the simultaneous operation of several high precision rare kaon decay experiments. The record beam ...

  20. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  1. Measurements of High-Intensity Laser Induced Ionizing Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My Library Send to Email Send to Email Email address: Content: Close Send Cite: MLA Format Close Cite: APA ...

  2. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orloff, D.I.; Phelan, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on a sheet-fed pilot-scale shoe press to compare impulse drying and double-felted pressing. Both an IPST (Institute of Paper Science and Technology) ceramic coated and Beloit Type A press roll were evaluated for lienrboard sheet structures having a wide range of z-direction permeability. Purpose was to find ways of correcting sheet sticking problems observed in previous pilot-scale shoe press experiments. Results showed that impulse drying was superior to double felted pressing in both press dryness and in important paper physical properties. Impulse drying critical temperature was found to depend on specific surface of the heated layer of the sheet, thermal properties of the press roll surface, and choice of felt. Impulse drying of recycled and two-ply liner was demonstrated for both Southern Pile and Douglas fir-containing furnishes.

  3. Study of a final focus system for high intensity beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henestroza, Enrique; Eylon, Shmuel; Roy, Prabir K.; Yu, Simon S.; Bieniosek, Frank M.; Shuman, Derek B.; Waldron, William L.

    2004-06-01

    The NTX experiment at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final focus systems for high perveance heavy ion beams. The final focus scenario in an HIF driver consists of several large aperture quadrupole magnets followed by a drift section in which the beam space charge is neutralized by a plasma. This beam is required to hit a millimeter-sized target spot at the end of the drift section. The objective of the NTX experiments and associated theory and simulations is to study the various physical mechanisms that determine the final spot size (radius r{sub s}) at a given distance (f) from the end of the last quadrupole. In a fusion driver, f is the standoff distance required to keep the chamber wall and superconducting magnets properly protected. The NTX final quadrupole focusing system produces a converging beam at the entrance to the neutralized drift section where it focuses to a small spot. The final spot is determined by the conditions of the beam entering the quadrupole section, the beam dynamics in the magnetic lattice, and the plasma neutralization dynamics in the drift section. The main issues are the control of emittance growth due to high order fields from magnetic multipoles and image fields. In this paper, we will describe the theoretical and experimental aspects of the beam dynamics in the quadrupole lattice, and how these physical effects influence the final beam size. In particular, we present theoretical and experimental results on the dependence of final spot size on geometric aberrations and perveance.

  4. HIGH INTENSITY LOW-ENERGY POSITRON SOURCE AT JEFFERSON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serkan Golge, Bogdan Wojtsekhowski, Branislav Vlahovic

    2012-07-01

    We present a novel concept of a low-energy e{sup +} source with projected intensity on the order of 10{sup 10} slow e{sup +}/s. The key components of this concept are a continuous wave e{sup -} beam, a rotating positron-production target, a synchronized raster/anti-raster, a transport channel, and extraction of e{sup +} into a field-free area through a magnetic plug for moderation in a cryogenic solid. Components were designed in the framework of GEANT4-based (G4beamline) Monte Carlo simulation and TOSCA magnetic field calculation codes. Experimental data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the magnetic plug is presented.

  5. High intensity neutrino beams (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publication Date: 2015-07-15 OSTI Identifier: 22490655 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1666; Journal ...

  6. Response of High-Tc Superconductor Metamaterials to High Intensity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: PECS-X: 10th International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures ; 2012-06-03 - 2012-06-08 ; Santa Fe, New Mexico, United ...

  7. A FOURTH ORDER RESONANCE OF A HIGH INTENSITY LINAC (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: 2009 Particle Accelerator Conference, Vancouver, Canada, 20090504, 20090508 Research Org: Oak Ridge National Laboratory ...

  8. Measurements of High-Intensity Laser Induced Ionizing Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  9. Ultra-High Intensity Magnetic Field Generation in Dense Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-08

    I. Grant Objective The main objective of this grant proposal was to explore the efficient generation of intense currents. Whereasthefficient generation of electric current in low-­‐energy-­‐ density plasma has occupied the attention of the magnetic fusion community for several decades, scant attention has been paid to carrying over to high-­‐energy-­‐ density plasma the ideas for steady-­‐state current drive developed for low-­‐energy-­‐ density plasma, or, for that matter, to inventing new methodologies for generating electric current in high-­‐energy-­‐density plasma. What we proposed to do was to identify new mechanisms to accomplish current generation, and to assess the operation, physics, and engineering basis of new forms of current drive in regimes appropriate for new fusion concepts.

  10. High-Intensity Silicon Vertical Multi-Junction Solar Cells |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Versatility Can be used in ground-mounted and roof-mounted deployments. Contact Information Mico Perales (216) 535-9200 mico.perales@greenfieldsolar.com GreenField Solar ...

  11. High intensity proton operation at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrens, L.A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Onillon, E.; Reece, R.K.; Roser, T.; Soukas, A.

    1994-08-01

    With the completion of the AGS rf upgrade, and the implementation of a transition {open_quotes}jump{close_quotes}, all of accelerator systems were in place in 1994 to allow acceleration of the proton intensity available from the AGS Booster injector to AGS extraction energy and delivery to the high energy users. Beam commissioning results with these new systems are presented. Progress in identifying and overcoming other obstacles to higher intensity are given. These include a careful exploration of the stopband strengths present on the AGS injection magnetic porch, and implementation of the AGS single bunch transverse dampers throughout the acceleration cycle.

  12. High Intensity Gamma-Ray Source (HIGS) Program Advisory Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Advisory Committee June 10-11, 2014, DFELL Conference Room PROGRAM The HIGS PAC will meet on June 10 - 11, 2014 on the campus of Duke University. The detailed schedule...

  13. Sixth-Order Resonance of High-Intensity Linear Accelerators ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007 Publisher: American Physical Society Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Free ...

  14. Response of High-Tc Superconductor Metamaterials to High Intensity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: SPIE Optics+Photonics ; 2012-08-12 - 2012-08-16 ; San Diego, California, United States ...

  15. High intensity performance and upgrades at the Brookhaven AGS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; BEAM EMITTANCE; BEAM OPTICS; BROOKHAVEN AGS; GEV RANGE; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; MEV RANGE; ...

  16. Measurements of radiation doses induced by high intensity laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Liang, T. ; SLAC Georgia Tech ; Bauer, J. ; Cimeno, M. ; SLAC ; Ferrari, A. ; HZDR Inst. Radiation Phys., Dresden ; Galtier, E. ; Granados, E. ; Heimann, P. ; Lee, ...

  17. FFAG-BASED HIGH-INTENSITY PROTON DRIVERS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUGGIERO, A.G.

    2004-10-13

    This paper is the summary of a feasibility study of a Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) Accelerator for Protons in the one-to-few GeV energy range, and average beam power of several MWatt. The example they have adopted here is a beam energy of 1 GeV and an average power of 10 MWatt, but of course the same design approach can be used with other beam parameters. The design principles, merits and limitations of the FFAG accelerators have been described previously. In particular, more advanced techniques to minimize magnet dimension and field strength have been recently proposed. The design makes use of a novel concept by which it is possible to cancel chromatic effects, thus making betatron tunes and functions independent of the particle momentum, with an Adjusted Field Profile. The example given here assumes a pulsed mode of operation at the repetition rate of 1.0 kHz.

  18. Measurements of radiation doses induced by high intensity laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: US DOE Office of Science (DOE SC) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Other,OPTICS, SAFETY Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview ...

  19. Laboratory Astrophysics Using High Intensity Particle and Photon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    History has shown that the symbiosis between direct observations and laboratory studies is ... Publisher: Fermilab Colloquia Online: 2000 to the Present Videos of Science Lecture and ...

  20. Response of High-Tc Superconductor Metamaterials to High Intensity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory (LANL) LDRD United States 2012-08-13 English Conference Conference: SPIE Optics+Photonics ; 2012-08-12 - 2012-08-16 ; San Diego, California, United States Medium: ED...

  1. Radiation Dose Measurement for High-Intensity Laser Interactions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Org: SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) Sponsoring Org: US DOE Office of Science (DOE SC) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: OPTICS, SAFETY...

  2. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonterman, J. Ronald; Weinstein, Michael A.

    2006-10-27

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the energy efficiency and reduced emissions that can be obtained with a dual torch DC plasma transferred arc-melting system. Plasmelt Glass Technologies, LLC was formed to solicit and execute the project, which utilize a full-scale test melter system. The system is similar to the one that was originally constructed by Johns Manville, but Plasmelt has added significant improvements to the torch design and melter system that has extended the original JM short torch lives. The original JM design has been shown to achieve melt rates 5 to 10 times faster than conventional gas or electric melting, with improved energy efficiency and reduced emissions. This project began on 7/28/2003 and ended 7/27/06. A laboratory scale melter was designed, constructed, and operated to conduct multiple experimental melting trials on various glass compositions. Glass quality was assessed. Although the melter design is generic and equally applicable to all sectors within the glass industry, the development of this melter has focused primarily on fiberglass with additional exploratory melting trials of frits, specialty, and minerals-melting applications. Throughput, energy efficiency, and glass quality have been shown to be heavily dependent on the selected glass composition. During this project, Plasmelt completed the proof-of-concept work in our Boulder, CO Lab to show the technical feasibility of this transferred-arc plasma melter. Late in the project, the work was focused on developing the processes and evaluating the economic viability of plasma melting aimed at the specific glasses of interest to specific client companies. Post project work is on going with client companies to address broader non-glass materials such as refractories and industrial minerals. Exploratory melting trials have been conducted on several glasses of commercial interest including: C-glass, E-glass, S-Glass, AR-Glass, B-glass, Lighting Glass, NE-Glass, and various frits. Exploratory melts of non-glassy materials, such as wollastonite, zirconium silicate, and alumino-silicate melts were successfully done indicating that plasma melting has potential application beyond glass. Experimental results were generated that show the high quality of plasma-melted fiberglass compositions, such as E-glass, can result in good fiberizing performance. Fiberizing performance and tensile strength data were achieved during the project to support this conclusion. High seed counts are a feature of the current lab scale melter and must be dealt with via other means, since fining work was outside the scope of this project.

  3. Potential fluctuations and energetic ion production in hollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.; Katz, Ira; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2007-10-15

    Ions with energies significantly in excess of the applied discharge voltage have been reported for many years in hollow cathode discharges. Models of dc potential hills downstream of the cathode and instabilities in postulated double layers in the cathode orifice have been proposed to explain this, but have not been substantiated. Measurements of the dc and rf plasma density and potential profiles near the exit of hollow cathodes by miniature fast-scanning probes suggests that turbulent ion acoustic fluctuations and ionization instabilities in the cathode plume significantly increase the energy of the ions that flow from this region. Increases in the discharge current and/or decreases in the cathode gas flow enhance the amplitude of the fluctuations and increase the number and energy of the energetic ions, which increases the erosion rate of the cathode electrodes. The transition from the quiescent 'spot mode' to the noisy 'plume mode' characteristic of these discharges is found to be a gradual transition of increasing fluctuation amplitudes.

  4. Use of microalgae to remove pollutants from power plant discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilde, E.W.; Benemann, J.R.; Weissman, J.C.; Tillett, D.M.

    1991-04-30

    A method and system are described for removing pollutants dissolved in the aqueous discharge of a plant, such as a power plant, from a body of water having known hydraulic and physicochemical characteristics, the method comprising (a) modifying the hydraulic system of the body of water including use of physical barriers to define a zone in a portion of the body of water which zone includes the discharge point and where the water has a range of physicochemical characteristics; (b) selecting a large and preferably filamentous, planktonically growing strain of algae adapted to absorb the particular pollutants and genetically dominating algae at the physicochemical characteristics of the zone; (c) establishing a colony of the selected algal strain in the zone; (d) harvesting a portion of the colony; and (e) reinoculating the zone near the discharge point with a fraction of the harvested portion. The fraction used for reinoculation can be adjusted to balance the rate of pollutant removal to the rate of pollutant discharge. 4 figures.

  5. High-speed micro-electro-discharge machining.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandrasekar, Srinivasan Dr. (.School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN); Moylan, Shawn P. (School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN); Benavides, Gilbert Lawrence

    2005-09-01

    When two electrodes are in close proximity in a dielectric liquid, application of a voltage pulse can produce a spark discharge between them, resulting in a small amount of material removal from both electrodes. Pulsed application of the voltage at discharge energies in the range of micro-Joules results in the continuous material removal process known as micro-electro-discharge machining (micro-EDM). Spark erosion by micro-EDM provides significant opportunities for producing small features and micro-components such as nozzle holes, slots, shafts and gears in virtually any conductive material. If the speed and precision of micro-EDM processes can be significantly enhanced, then they have the potential to be used for a wide variety of micro-machining applications including fabrication of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) components. Toward this end, a better understanding of the impacts the various machining parameters have on material removal has been established through a single discharge study of micro-EDM and a parametric study of small hole making by micro-EDM. The main avenues for improving the speed and efficiency of the micro-EDM process are in the areas of more controlled pulse generation in the power supply and more controlled positioning of the tool electrode during the machining process. Further investigation of the micro-EDM process in three dimensions leads to important design rules, specifically the smallest feature size attainable by the process.

  6. Wire-chamber radiation detector with discharge control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Mulera, T.A.

    1982-03-29

    A wire chamber; radiation detector has spaced apart parallel electrodes and grids defining an ignition region in which charged particles or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges and defining an adjacent memory region in which sustained glow discharges are initiated by the primary discharges. Conductors of the grids at each side of the memory section extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors of one grid while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors of the other grid through glow discharges. One of the grids bounding the memory region is defined by an array of conductive elements each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor through a separate resistance. The wire chamber avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or; near simultaneous charged particles have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced.

  7. State waste discharge permit application: 400 Area secondary cooling water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by the Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered in to Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges.

  8. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility Discharges in 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Signore, John C.

    2012-05-16

    This report documents radioactive discharges from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities (RLWTF) during calendar 2011. During 2011, three pathways were available for the discharge of treated water to the environment: discharge as water through NPDES Outfall 051 into Mortandad Canyon, evaporation via the TA50 cooling towers, and evaporation using the newly-installed natural-gas effluent evaporator at TA50. Only one of these pathways was used; all treated water (3,352,890 liters) was fed to the effluent evaporator. The quality of treated water was established by collecting a weekly grab sample of water being fed to the effluent evaporator. Forty weekly samples were collected; each was analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Weekly samples were also composited at the end of each month. These flow-weighted composite samples were then analyzed for 37 radioisotopes: nine alpha-emitting isotopes, 27 beta emitters, and tritium. These monthly analyses were used to estimate the radioactive content of treated water fed to the effluent evaporator. Table 1 summarizes this information. The concentrations and quantities of radioactivity in Table 1 are for treated water fed to the evaporator. Amounts of radioactivity discharged to the environment through the evaporator stack were likely smaller since only entrained materials would exit via the evaporator stack.

  9. Electron beam switched discharge for rapidly pulsed lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pleasance, Lyn D.; Murray, John R.; Goldhar, Julius; Bradley, Laird P.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for electrical excitation of a laser gas by application of a pulsed voltage across the gas, followed by passage of a pulsed, high energy electron beam through the gas to initiate a discharge suitable for laser excitation. This method improves upon current power conditioning techniques and is especially useful for driving rare gas halide lasers at high repetition rates.

  10. Condenser for extreme-UV lithography with discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C.; Kubiak, Glenn D.

    2001-01-01

    Condenser system, for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography, employs quasi grazing-incidence collector mirrors that are coated with a suitable reflective metal such as ruthenium to collect radiation from a discharge source to minimize the effect of contaminant accumulation on the collecting mirrors.

  11. Radial behavior of the pulsed dielectric-barrier discharge in atmospheric helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Dingzong; Wang Yanhui; Wang Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-12-15

    The radial behavior of the pulsed dielectric-barrier discharge in atmospheric helium is studied by a two-dimensional, self-consistent fluid model. It is found that the two discharges ignited during one voltage pulse can possess different radial behaviors, and the discharge behavior is determined by the electron density distribution right before this discharge is ignited. The electron density distributions before the two discharges start depend on the time intervals between two discharges and their previous discharge processes. If the electron density distribution is radially uniform at the end of the previous discharge, the shorter the time interval between two discharges is, the more uniform the electron density distribution before the next discharge is, and thus the more homogenous the subsequent discharge becomes. In pulsed discharge, the time intervals between two discharges are mainly determined by the duration and repetition frequency of applied voltage pulse. These results are further supported by the investigation of the discharge behaviors under different pulse durations and repetition frequencies.

  12. Observation and interpretation of energy efficient, diffuse direct current glow discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Jie Jiang, Weiman; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei; Li, Jing; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-08-24

    A diffuse direct-current glow discharge was realized with low energy consumption and high energy utilization efficiency at atmospheric pressure. The formation of diffuse discharge was demonstrated by examining and comparing the electrical properties and optical emissions of plasmas. In combination with theoretical derivation and calculation, we draw guidelines that appearance of nitrogen ions at low electron density is crucial to enhance the ambipolar diffusion for the expansion of discharge channel and the increasing ambipolar diffusion near the cathode plays a key role in the onset of diffuse discharge. An individual-discharge-channel expansion model is proposed to explain the diffuse discharge formation.

  13. The boundary effects of the shock wave dispersion in discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markhotok, A.; Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L.

    2008-03-15

    Interaction of shock waves with a weakly ionized gas generated by discharges has been studied. An additional thermal mechanism of the shock wave dispersion on the boundary between a neutral gas and discharge has been proposed [A. Markhotok, S. Popovic, and L. Vuskovic, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Atomic Processes in Plasmas, March 19-22, 2007 (NIST, Gaitersburg, MD, 2007)]. This mechanism can explain a whole set of thermal features of the shock wave-plasma interaction, including acceleration of the shock wave, broadening or splitting of the deflection signals and its consecutive restoration. Application has been made in the case of a shock wave interacting with a laser induced plasma. The experimental observations support well the results of calculation based on this model.

  14. Focused shock spark discharge drill using multiple electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moeny, William M.; Small, James G.

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge focused drill provided with one pulse forming line or a number of pulse forming lines. The pulse forming line is connected to an array of electrodes which would form a spark array. One of the electrodes of each of the array is connected to the high voltage side of the pulse forming line and the other electrodes are at ground potential. When discharged in a liquid, these electrodes produce intense focused shock waves that can pulverize or fracture rock. By delaying the firing of each group of electrodes, the drill can be steered within the earth. Power can be fed to the pulse forming line either downhole or from the surface area. A high voltage source, such as a Marx generator, is suitable for pulse charging the lines.

  15. Leaky insulating paint for preventing discharge anomalies on circuit boards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederickson, A.R.; Enloe, C.L.; Mullen, E.G. ); Nanevicz, J.E.; Thayer, J.S. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports on a semi-insulating paint formulated and tested for preventing pulse discharges from causing damage to circuits on heavily irradiated circuit boards. The paint is tin oxide filled phenoxy resin with a bulk resistivity of 10{sup 8} ohm-cm. A typical coating is then 10{sup 10} ohms per square. It is applied over the finished, conformally coated circuit board and connected to ground where possible on the board. It works by minimizing the stored electric field energy prior to the discharge. With such high resistivity it can not load down most circuits. Tests were performed on circuit boards with and without the paint using energetic electron beams to simulate very high space exposure levels. Many potentially damaging pulses were seen without the paint, but application of the paint removed all large pulses and only a few small pulses were seen.

  16. Evolution of a vortex in glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soukhomlinov, V.S.; Sheverev, V.A.; Oetuegen, M.V.

    2005-05-01

    The evolution of a vortex in glow discharge plasma is studied analytically. Specifically, the mechanism of local energy deposition into the flow by the plasma is considered and its effect on the structure of an inviscid vortex is analyzed. The vortex is modeled by a set of Euler's equations while the energy transferred by the plasma into the gas is represented by Rayleigh mechanism. In this mechanism, the amount of heat addition is a function of local gas density. The analysis indicates that the plasma can have a considerable effect on the structure of a vortex. The inviscid calculations show that in a uniform discharge, a 1 cm vortex dies out in a fraction of a second.

  17. Flush-mounted probe diagnostics for argon glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Liang Cao, Jinxiang; Liu, Yu; Wang, Jian; Du, Yinchang; Zheng, Zhe; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Pi; Zhang, Jin; Li, Xiao; Qin, Yongqiang; Zhao, Liang

    2014-09-15

    A comparison is made between plasma parameters measured by a flush-mounted probe (FP) and a cylindrical probe (CP) in argon glow discharge plasma. Parameters compared include the space potential, the plasma density, and the effective electron temperature. It is found that the ion density determined by the FP agrees well with the electron density determined by the CP in the quasi-neutral plasma to better than 10%. Moreover, the space potential and effective electron temperature calculated from electron energy distribution function measured by the FP is consistent with that measured by the CP over the operated discharge current and pressure ranges. These results present the FP can be used as a reliable diagnostic tool in the stable laboratory plasma and also be anticipated to be applied in other complicated plasmas, such as tokamaks, the region of boundary-layer, and so on.

  18. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from US reactors 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Nuclear Fuel Data Survey, Form RW-859. This form is used to collect data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the United States, and the current inventories and storage capacities of those reactors. These data are important to the design and operation of the equipment and facilities that DOE will use for the future acceptance, transportation, and disposal of spent fuels. The data collected and presented identifies trends in burnup, enrichment, and spent nuclear fuel discharged form commercial light-water reactor as of December 31, 1993. The document covers not only spent nuclear fuel discharges; but also site capacities and inventories; canisters and nonfuel components; and assembly type characteristics.

  19. Numerical investigation on operation mode influenced by external frequency in atmospheric pressure barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Qi [Dalian Institute of Semiconductor Technology, School of Electronics Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Sun Jizhong; Wang Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The influence of external driving frequency on the discharge mode in the dielectric barrier discharge was investigated with a two-dimensional, self-consistent fluid model. The simulation results show that the helium discharge exhibits three operation modes: Townsend, homogeneous glow, and local glow discharges from the lower frequency (1 kHz) to the higher frequency (100 kHz) under discharge parameters specified in this work. The discharge operates in a Townsend mode when the driving frequency varies from 1 to about 7 kHz; while it exhibits homogenous glow characteristics in an approximate range from 7 to 65 kHz; when the external frequency exceeds 65 kHz, it turns into a local glow discharge. The effects of external driving frequency on the discharge mode were revealed and the physical reasons were discussed.

  20. Utah Code Ann. 19-5-107: Discharge of pollutants unlawful...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ann. 19-5-107: Discharge of pollutants unlawful -- Discharge permit required Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute:...

  1. Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meichle, R.H.

    1994-09-29

    The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparison of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions were made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classification.

  2. Examination of interior surfaces using glow-discharge illumination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lord, David E.; Petrini, Richard R.; Carter, Gary W.

    1978-01-01

    Endoscopic examination of the interior of a hollow structure through a light pipe that is inserted into the structure, the interior being illuminated by means of a glow discharge that is established with a high voltage applied between the structure wall as one electrode and a second electrode that is inserted into the structure, or establishing the glow with two electrodes inserted into the structure.

  3. Characteristics of discharge disruptions in the T-10 tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefanovskii, A. M. Dremin, M. M.; Kakurin, A. M.; Kislov, A. Ya.; Mal'tsev, S. G.; Notkin, G. E.; Pavlov, Yu. D.; Poznyak, V. I.; Sushkov, A. V.

    2013-06-15

    The results of experimental studies of discharge disruptions in the T-10 tokamak at the limiting plasma density are presented. On the basis of measurements of the generated soft X-ray emission, for a group of 'slow' disruptions, the dynamics of the magnetic configuration of the central part of the plasma column is studied and the possible role of the m/n = 1/1 mode in the excitation of predisruptions or the final stage of disruption is analyzed. It is shown that the characteristics of plasma electron cooling in predisruptions correspond to those of electron cooling upon pellet injection into T-10 and in discharge predisruptions occurring in regimes with the 'quiet mode.' It is found that, in the latter case, the reason for predisruptions and fast electron cooling in the plasma core is the instability of the m/n = 2/1 mode, its spontaneous spatial reconstruction, and the generation of a 'cooling wave' during this process. Measurements of the electron temperature (determined from the plasma radiation intensity at the second electron cyclotron harmonic) in the zone of the m/n = 2/1 mode have shown that the transformation of the m/n = 2/1 mode leads to the excitation of predisruptions and the final phase of disruption not only in regimes with the 'quiet mode,' but also in disruptions of ordinary ohmic discharges. The experimental results obtained in this work make it possible to determine the scenario of the development of 'slow' discharge disruptions in the T-10 tokamak at the limiting plasma density.

  4. Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M.; Tonkyn, R.G.

    1999-06-22

    The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes. 12 figs.

  5. Innovative Cathode Coating Enables Faster Battery Charging, Discharging |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Innovative Cathode Coating Enables Faster Battery Charging, Discharging Technology available for licensing: Coating increases electrical conductivity of cathode materials Coating does not hinder battery performance Provides two coating processes that yield surface-treated, electro-active materials for a variety of applications, such as in a rechargeable lithium battery in both processes, and primary and secondary lithium battery applications in another process.

  6. Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, Stephan E.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Tonkyn, Russell G.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes.

  7. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.; Scott, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe.sub.M * to form XeBr*.

  8. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, R.C.; Scott, P.B.

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm is disclosed. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr, is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe/sub M/ to form XeBr.

  9. High energy KrCl electric discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.; Scott, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A high energy KrCl laser for producing coherent radiation at 222 nm. Output energies on the order of 100 mJ per pulse are produced utilizing a discharge excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions, thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HCl is used as a halogen donor which undergoes a harpooning reaction with metastable Kr.sub.M * to form KrCl.

  10. Inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    An inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus. The use of a segmented electrode where each segment is attached to an inductive element permits high energy, high efficiency, long-pulsed laser outputs to be obtained. The present apparatus has been demonstrated with rare-gas halide lasing media. Orders of magnitude increase in pulse repetition frequency are obtained in lasing devices that do not utilize gas flow.

  11. Inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, R.C.

    1983-09-01

    An inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus. The use of a segmented electrode where each segment is attached to an inductive element permits high-energy, high-efficiency, long pulsed laser outputs to be obtained. The apparatus has been demonstrated with rare gas halide lasing media. Orders of magnitude increase in pulse repetition frequency are obtained in lasing devices that do not utilize gas flow.

  12. High energy KrCl electric discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, R.C.; Scott, P.B.

    A high energy KrCl laser is presented for producing coherent radiation at 222 nm. Output energies on the order of 100 mJ per pulse are produced utilizing a discharge excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions, thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HCl is used as a halogen donor which undergoes a harpooning reaction with metastable Kr/sub M/ to form KrCl.

  13. Electron beam-switched discharge for rapidly pulsed lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pleasance, L.D.; Murray, J.R.; Goldhar, J.; Bradley, L.P.

    1979-12-11

    A method and apparatus are designed for electrical excitation of a laser gas by application of a pulsed voltage across the gas, followed by passage of a pulsed, high energy electron beam through the gas to initiate a discharge suitable for laser excitation. This method improves upon current power conditioning techniques and is especially useful for driving rare gas halide lasers at high repetition rates.

  14. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1980-12-12

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  15. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Prelec, Krsto

    1983-01-01

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  16. The Use of DC Glow Discharges as Undergraduate Educational Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephanie A. Wissel and Andrew Zwicker, Jerry Ross, and Sophia Gershman

    2012-10-09

    Plasmas have a beguiling way of getting students excited and interested in physics. We argue that plasmas can and should be incorporated into the undergraduate curriculum as both demonstrations and advanced investigations of electromagnetism and quantum effects. Our device, based on a direct current (DC) glow discharge tube, allows for a number of experiments into topics such as electrical breakdown, spectroscopy, magnetism, and electron temperature.

  17. Quantitative characterization of arc discharge as vacuum interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, S.; Zhu, K. Lu, Y. R.; Wang, S. Z.; Hershcovitch, A.; Yang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.

    2014-12-15

    An arc discharge with channel diameters of 3 mm and 6 mm and lengths between 30 mm and 60 mm was experimentally investigated for its potential to function as plasma window, i.e., interface vacuum regions of different pressures. Electron temperature of the plasma channel measured spectroscopically varied in the range of 7000 K to 15 000 K, increasing with discharge current while decreasing with gas flow rate. That plasma window had a slightly positive I-V characteristics over the whole range of investigated current 30 A–70 A. Measurements of pressure separation capability, which were determined by input current, gas flow rate, discharge channel diameter, and length, were well explained by viscosity effect and “thermal-block” effect. The experimental results of global parameters including temperature, gas flow rate, and voltage had a good agreement with the simulation results calculated by an axis-symmetry Fluent-based magneto-hydrodynamic model.

  18. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R.; Overzet, L. J.

    2013-12-28

    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250??m thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8??m thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2??s long current peak as high as 24?mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400?Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few ?s relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

  19. Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana Open Bays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1995-06-23

    Data were collected prior to termination of discharge at three sites (including two open bay sites at Delacroix Island and Bay De Chene) for the risk assessments. The Delacroix Island Oil and Gas Field has been in production since the first well drilling in 1940; the Bay De Chene Field, since 1942. Concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Po, and 228Th were measured in discharges. Radium conc. were measured in fish and shellfish tissues. Sediment PAH and metal conc. were also available. Benthos sampling was conducted. A survey of fishermen was conducted. The tiered risk assessment showed that human health risks from radium in produced water appear to be small; ecological risk from radium and other radionuclides in produced water also appear small. Many of the chemical contaminants discharged to open Louisiana bays appear to present little human health or ecological risk. A conservative screening analysis suggested potential risks to human health from Hg and Pb and a potential risk to ecological receptors from total effluent, Sb, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Ag, Zn, and phenol in the water column and PAHs in sediment; quantitiative risk assessments are being done for these contaminants.

  20. Quantitative characterization of arc discharge as vacuum interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, S.; Zhu, K.; Lu, Y. R.; Wang, S. Z.; Hershcovitch, A.; Yang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.

    2014-12-19

    An arc discharge with channel diameters of 3 mm and 6 mm and lengths between 30mm and 60mm was experimentally investigated for its potential to function as plasma window, i.e., interface vacuum regions of different pressures. In this study, electron temperature of the plasma channel measured spectroscopically varied in the range of 7000K to 15000K, increasing with discharge current while decreasing with gas flow rate. The plasma window had a slightly positive I-V characteristics over the whole range of investigated current 30A–70 A. Measurements of pressure separation capability, which were determined by input current, gas flow rate, discharge channel diameter,more » and length, were well explained by viscosity effect and “thermal-block” effect. The experimental results of global parameters including temperature, gas flow rate, and voltage had a good agreement with the simulation results calculated by an axis-symmetry Fluent-based magneto-hydrodynamic model.« less

  1. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Maya, Jakob

    1987-01-01

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25.degree. C.

  2. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1987-10-06

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25 C. 3 figs.

  3. 2008-03 "Actions Regarding the EPA Stormwater Discharge Permit" |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 3 "Actions Regarding the EPA Stormwater Discharge Permit" 2008-03 "Actions Regarding the EPA Stormwater Discharge Permit" The intent of this recommendation is to prevent any pollutant located at LANL from spreading via stormwater discharge. Rec 2008-03 - July 30, 2008 (20.36

  4. Non-linear macro evolution of a dc driven micro atmospheric glow discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, S. F.; Zhong, X. X.

    2015-10-15

    We studied the macro evolution of the micro atmospheric glow discharge generated between a micro argon jet into ambient air and static water. The micro discharge behaves similarly to a complex ecosystem. Non-linear behaviors are found for the micro discharge when the water acts as a cathode, different from the discharge when water behaves as an anode. Groups of snapshots of the micro discharge formed at different discharge currents are captured by an intensified charge-coupled device with controlled exposure time, and each group consisted of 256 images taken in succession. Edge detection methods are used to identify the water surface and then the total brightness is defined by adding up the signal counts over the area of the micro discharge. Motions of the water surface at different discharge currents show that the water surface lowers increasingly rapidly when the water acts as a cathode. In contrast, the water surface lowers at a constant speed when the water behaves as an anode. The light curves are similar to logistic growth curves, suggesting that a self-inhibition process occurs in the micro discharge. Meanwhile, the total brightness increases linearly during the same time when the water acts as an anode. Discharge-water interactions cause the micro discharge to evolve. The charged particle bomb process is probably responsible for the different behaviors of the micro discharges when the water acts as cathode and anode.

  5. The Discharge Design of HL-2M with the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yudong Pan, S.C. Jardin, and C. Kes

    2007-10-10

    We present results on the discharge design of the HL-2M tokamak, which is to be an upgrade to the existing HL-2A tokamak. We present simulation results for complete 5-sec. discharges, both double null and lower single null, for both ohmic and auxiliary heated discharges. We also discuss the vertical stability properties of the device. __________________________________________________

  6. Two-dimensional simulation of spatiotemporal generation of dielectric barrier columnar discharges in atmospheric helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhiming; Hao, Yanpeng; Yang, Lin; Han, Yongxia; Li, Licheng

    2015-12-15

    A two-dimensional (2D) fluid model is presented to investigate the spatiotemporal generation and dynamic mechanics of dielectric barrier columnar discharges in atmospheric helium. The model was examined with discharge currents measured in experiments and images taken by an intensified charge couple device camera. Based on the model, a columnar discharge was simulated for several cycles after being ignited. The discharge could be regarded as an initial unstable stage for the first three and a half cycles, then a steady state for the following cycles. In the initial stage, the discharge evolves from a uniform pattern into a columnar one. The calculated equipotential lines, 2D radial electric field, and electron density distributions at the edge of uniform discharges show the radial electric field accounts for the shrinking discharge area and the formation of discharge columns in the end. The columnar glow discharges and the Townsend discharges beyond the columns could coexist in the initial stage, and a Townsend discharge might develop into a new glow column in the next half-cycle. The radial electric field surrounding a glow discharge column has an inhibiting effect on the ionization in the peripheral area.

  7. A low-power magnetic-field-assisted plasma jet generated by dielectric-barrier discharge enhanced direct-current glow discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Weiman; Tang, Jie Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei; Duan, Yixiang; Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064

    2014-01-06

    A magnetic field is introduced to the dielectric-barrier discharge enhanced direct-current glow discharge for efficient plasma generation, with the discharge power of 2.7 W and total energy consumption reduced to 34% of the original. By spatially examining the emission spectra and plasma temperature, it is found that their peaks shift from edges to the center and the negative and anode glows merge into the positive column and disappear, accompanied by improvement of uniformity and chemical activity of the enlarged plasma. This lies in the enhancement of ionization in the curved and lengthened electron path and the dispersion of discharge domains.

  8. Is the negative glow plasma of a direct current glow discharge negatively charged?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogdanov, E. A.; Saifutdinov, A. I.; Demidov, V. I.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.

    2015-02-15

    A classic problem in gas discharge physics is discussed: what is the sign of charge density in the negative glow region of a glow discharge? It is shown that traditional interpretations in text-books on gas discharge physics that states a negative charge of the negative glow plasma are based on analogies with a simple one-dimensional model of discharge. Because the real glow discharges with a positive column are always two-dimensional, the transversal (radial) term in divergence with the electric field can provide a non-monotonic axial profile of charge density in the plasma, while maintaining a positive sign. The numerical calculation of glow discharge is presented, showing a positive space charge in the negative glow under conditions, where a one-dimensional model of the discharge would predict a negative space charge.

  9. Vehicle exhaust treatment using electrical discharge and materials chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonkyn, R.G.; Balmer, M.L.; Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M.; Goulette, D.; Hoard, J.

    1997-12-31

    Current 3-way catalytic converters have proven quite effective at removing NO{sub x} from the exhaust of spark ignition vehicles operating near stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratios. However, diesel engines typically operate at very high air-to-fuel ratios. Under such lean burn conditions current catalytic converters are ineffective for NO{sub x} removal. As a result, considerable effort has been made to develop a viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst. Although some materials have been shown to reduce NO{sub x} under lean burn conditions, none exhibit the necessary activity and stability at the high temperatures and humidities found in typical engine exhaust,. As a result, alternative technologies are being explored in an effort to solve the so-called lean NO{sub x} problem. Packed-bed barrier discharge systems are well suited to take advantage of plasma-surface interactions due to the large number of contaminant surface collisions in the bed. The close proximity of the active surface to transient species produced by the plasma may lead to favorable chemistry at considerably lower temperatures than required by thermal catalysts. The authors present data in this paper illustrating that the identity and surface properties of the packing material can alter the discharge-driven chemistry in synthetic leanburn exhaust mixtures. Results using non-porous glass beads as the packing material suggest the limits of NO{sub x} reduction using purely gas phase discharge chemistry. By comparison, encouraging results are reported for several alternative packing materials.

  10. Square grid state in dielectric barrier discharge system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, L. F.; Li, S. F.; Fan, W. L.; Pan, Y. Y.

    2009-12-15

    A square grid state and a hexagonal grid state are observed in a dielectric barrier discharge system. They are selected by different resonance mechanisms, namely, a four-wave interaction for the square grid state and a three-wave interaction for the hexagonal grid state. The spatiotemporal dynamics of the square grid state is studied by an optical method. It is found that the square grid state is an interleaving of three different sublattices, which correspond to a harmonic mode and two subharmonic modes.

  11. Magnetic shielding of Hall thrusters at high discharge voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G. Hofer, Richard R.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.

    2014-08-07

    A series of numerical simulations and experiments have been performed to assess the effectiveness of magnetic shielding in a Hall thruster operating in the discharge voltage range of 300–700 V (I{sub sp} ≈ 2000–2700 s) at 6 kW, and 800 V (I{sub sp} ≈ 3000) at 9 kW. At 6 kW, the magnetic field topology with which highly effective magnetic shielding was previously demonstrated at 300 V has been retained for all other discharge voltages; only the magnitude of the field has been changed to achieve optimum thruster performance. It is found that magnetic shielding remains highly effective for all discharge voltages studied. This is because the channel is long enough to allow hot electrons near the channel exit to cool significantly upon reaching the anode. Thus, despite the rise of the maximum electron temperature in the channel with discharge voltage, the electrons along the grazing lines of force remain cold enough to eliminate or reduce significantly parallel gradients of the plasma potential near the walls. Computed maximum erosion rates in the range of 300–700 V are found not to exceed 10{sup −2} mm/kh. Such rates are ∼3 orders of magnitude less than those observed in the unshielded version of the same thruster at 300 V. At 9 kW and 800 V, saturation of the magnetic circuit did not allow for precisely the same magnetic shielding topology as that employed during the 6-kW operation since this thruster was not designed to operate at this condition. Consequently, the maximum erosion rate at the inner wall is found to be ∼1 order of magnitude higher (∼10{sup −1} mm/kh) than that at 6 kW. At the outer wall, the ion energy is found to be below the sputtering yield threshold so no measurable erosion is expected.

  12. Reproducing continuous radio blackout using glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Kai; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Donglin; Shao, Mingxu [School of Aerospace Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071 (China)] [School of Aerospace Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071 (China); Zhang, Hanlu [School of Communication and Information Engineering, Xi'an University of Posts and Telecommunications, Xi'an 710121 (China)] [School of Communication and Information Engineering, Xi'an University of Posts and Telecommunications, Xi'an 710121 (China)

    2013-10-15

    A novel plasma generator is described that offers large-scale, continuous, non-magnetized plasma with a 30-cm-diameter hollow structure, which provides a path for an electromagnetic wave. The plasma is excited by a low-pressure glow discharge, with varying electron densities ranging from 10{sup 9} to 2.5 10{sup 11} cm{sup ?3}. An electromagnetic wave propagation experiment reproduced a continuous radio blackout in UHF-, L-, and S-bands. The results are consistent with theoretical expectations. The proposed method is suitable in simulating a plasma sheath, and in researching communications, navigation, electromagnetic mitigations, and antenna compensation in plasma sheaths.

  13. Dusty Plasma in He-Ar Glow Discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiorov, S. A.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N.

    2008-09-07

    The paper reports on the first experiments with plasma-dust formations in dc gas discharge plasma for He-Ar mixture. It is shown that under the conventional conditions of the experiments with dusty structures in plasma, the choice of light and heavy gases for the mixture suppresses electron heating in electric field and results in a supersonic jet with high Mach numbers. Distribution functions for drifting ions in the gas mixture are calculated for various mixture concentrations, electric field strengths and gas pressures.

  14. Photocatalyst activation in a pulsed low pressure discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rousseau, A.; Guaitella, O.; Gatilova, L.; Thevenet, F.; Guillard, C.; Roepcke, J.; Stancu, G.D.

    2005-11-28

    The effect of combining plasma and photocatalyst for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) removal was investigated in a pulsed low-pressure dc discharge. The photocatalyst was TiO{sub 2} while the VOC was acetylene (1000 ppm) diluted in dry air. The temporal evolution of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} concentration was measured by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) in the mid-infrared region during the plasma pulse (one second). The contribution of external ultraviolet radiation and plasma exposure were quantified, both with and without a photocatalyst. The synergetic effect was clearly demonstrated.

  15. Electrical discharge machining of type-N(f) microwave connectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haushalter, R.J.

    1996-07-01

    A particular out-of-specification mechanical dimension on Type-N(f) [Type-N(female)] microwave connectors sometimes disqualifies otherwise perfectly acceptable microwave devices from being used in calibration systems. The Miniature Machining Group at Sandia National Laboratories applied a technique called Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) to quickly and economically machine these devices without disassembly. In so doing, they facilitated the use of existing components without the need to purchase new devices. The technique also improves an uncertainty of calibration known as Mismatch Uncertainty by optimizing the reflection coefficient of the calibration test port. This effects a reduction in overall calibration uncertainties.

  16. Instability of plasma plume of micro-hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levko, D.; Bliokh, Y. P.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2015-11-15

    The micro-hollow cathode gas discharge driven by thermionic emission is studied using the two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions simulation. The electron current is extracted from the plasma plume penetrating into the keeper–anode space through a small keeper orifice from the cathode-keeper space. The results of simulations and a simplified analytical model showed that the plasma density and extracted current can exhibit deep modulation in the range of frequencies of tens of MHz. This modulation appears when the space-charge limited current between the plume boundary and the anode exceeds the plasma thermal electron current through the orifice.

  17. COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF STRONG GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CZECHOWICZ, DG; CASTILLO, ER; NIKROO, A

    2002-04-01

    OAK A271 COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF STRONG GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER COATINGS. An investigation of the chemical composition and structure of strong glow discharge (GDP) polymer shells made for cryogenic experiments at OMEGA is described. The investigation was carried out using combustion and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The strongest coatings were observed to have the lowest hydrogen content or hydrogen/carbon H/C ratio, whereas the weakest coatings had the highest hydrogen content or H/C ratio. Chemical composition results from combustion were used to complement FTIR analysis to determine the relative hydrogen content of as-fabricated coatings. Good agreement was observed between composition results obtained from combustion and FTIR analysis. FTIR analysis of coating structures showed the strongest coatings to have less terminal methyl groups and a more double bond or olefinic structure. Strong GDP coatings that were aged in air react more with oxygen and moisture than standard GDP coatings. In addition to a more olefinic structure, there may also be more free-radial sites present in strong GDP coatings, which leads to greater oxygen uptake.

  18. Radio-frequency capacitive discharge with non-flow-type and droplet-jet electrolytic electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaisin, A. F.; Abdullin, I. Sh.; Basyrov, R. Sh.; Khaziev, R. M.; Samitova, G. T.; Shakirova, E. F.

    2014-12-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the shape, structure, and spectral characteristics of an RF capacitive discharge operating between a droplet-jet electrolytic electrode and an electrolytic cell in air at pressures of P = 10{sup 3}10{sup 5} Pa, as well as of a discharge burning between a copper rod and the surface of non-flow electrolyte at atmospheric pressure. It is found that, at voltages of U ? 3500 V, the multichannel discharge burning between the rod and the electrolyte (saturated solution of NaCl in technical water) surface transforms into a torch discharge. Specific features of the burning of a discharge with a droplet electrolytic electrode are investigated. Different forms of discharges burning on the surface of a copper tube and an electrolyte jet are revealed.

  19. Three-electrode low pressure discharge apparatus and method for uniform ionization of gaseous media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLellan, Edward J.

    1983-01-01

    Uniform, transverse electrical discharges are produced in gaseous media without the necessity of switching the main discharge voltage with an external device which carries the entire discharge current. A three-electrode low pressure discharge tube is charged across its anode (1) and cathode (2) to below breakdown voltage using a dc voltage source (3). An array of resistors (4) or capacitors can be made to discharge to the wire screen anode by means of a low energy high voltage pulse circuit (5) producing sufficient preionization in the region between the anode and cathode to initiate and control the main discharge. The invention has been demonstrated to be useful as a CO.sub.2 laser oscillator and pulse-smoother. It can be reliably operated in the sealed-off mode.

  20. Producing a Radioactive Source in a Deuterated Palladium Electrode Under Direct-Current Glow Discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Kazuyoshi; Kawata, Nobuhiko; Kurisawa, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Mitsuru

    2001-03-15

    Anomalous gamma emission was rarely observed during direct-current glow discharge in {approx}3 Torrs of deuterium gas using a deuterated palladium foil cathode. Autoradiography after the discharge experiment showed that isotopes with low- and high-energy radiation components were produced before or during the discharge. The palladium foil after the anomalous gamma-ray emission was analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, which revealed a considerable increase in the content of iron and copper on the surface.

  1. Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meichle, R.H.

    1994-10-21

    This analysis examines activities associated with the installation of isolation barriers in the K Basins at the Hanford Reservation. This revision adds evaluation of barrier drops on stored fuel and basin floor, identifies fuel which will be moved and addresses criticality issues with sludge. The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparisons of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions was made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classifications.

  2. Electron heating during discharges driven by thermionic emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levko, D.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2014-11-15

    The heating of plasma electrons during discharges driven by thermionic emission is studied using one-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions modeling that self-consistently takes the dependence of the thermionic current on the plasma parameters into account. It is found that at a gas pressure of 10{sup 2?}Pa the electron two-stream instability is excited. As a consequence, the electrostatic plasma wave propagates from the cathode to the anode. The trapping of electrons by this wave contributes noticeably to the heating of the plasma. At a larger gas pressure, this instability is not excited. As a consequence, plasma electrons are heated only because of the generation of energetic electrons in ionization events and the scattering of emitted electrons.

  3. Mass dependency of turbulent parameters in stationary glow discharge plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Titus, J. B.; Alexander, A. B.; Wiggins, D. L.; Johnson, J. A. III

    2013-05-15

    A direct current glow discharge tube is used to determine how mass changes the effects of certain turbulence characteristics in a weakly ionized gas. Helium, neon, argon, and krypton plasmas were created, and an axial magnetic field, varied from 0.0 to 550.0 Gauss, was used to enhance mass dependent properties of turbulence. From the power spectra of light emission variations associated with velocity fluctuations, determination of mass dependency on turbulent characteristic unstable modes, energy associated with turbulence, and the rate at which energy is transferred from scale to scale are measured. The magnetic field strength is found to be too weak to overcome particle diffusion to the walls to affect the turbulence in all four types of plasmas, though mass dependency is still detected. Though the total energy and the rate at which the energy moves between scales are mass invariant, the amplitude of the instability modes that characterize each plasma are dependent on mass.

  4. Fueling Requirements for Steady State high butane current fraction discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.Raman

    2003-10-08

    The CT injector originally used for injecting CTs into 1T toroidal field discharges in the TdeV tokamak was shipped PPPL from the Affiliated Customs Brokers storage facility in Montreal during November 2002. All components were transported safely, without damage, and are currently in storage at PPPL, waiting for further funding in order to begin advanced fueling experiments on NSTX. The components are currently insured through the University of Washington. Several technical presentations were made to investigate the feasibility of the CT injector installation on NSTX. These technical presentations, attached to this document, were: (1) Motivation for Compact Toroida Injection in NSTX; (2) Assessment of the Engineering Feasibility of Installing CTF-II on NSTX; (3) Assessment of the Cost for CT Installation on NSTX--A Peer Review; and (4) CT Fueling for NSTX FY 04-08 steady-state operation needs.

  5. Equilibrium and Stability of Partial Toroidal Plasma Discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oz, E.; Myers, C. E.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R.; Xie, J.

    2011-01-04

    The equilibrium and stability of partial toroidal flux ropes are studied in detail in the laboratory, motivated by ubiquitous loop structures on the solar surface. The flux ropes studied here are magnetized arc discharges formed in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX). It is found that these loops robustly maintain their equilibrium on time scales much longer than the Alfven time over a wide range of plasma current, guide eld strength, and angle between electrodes, even in the absence of a strapping fi eld. Additionally, the external kink stability of these flux ropes is found to be governed by the Kruskal-Shafranov limit for a flux rope with line-tied boundary conditions at both ends (q > 1).

  6. Zero discharge firmly entrenched as a powerplant design strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strauss, S.D.

    1994-10-01

    This article describes how, drawing on a variety of options, this environmentally friendly practice has become a fact of life for new powerplant projects. Driven by regulatory restrictions and penalties for withdrawals from the nation's watercourses, powerplant designers have focused strongly on recycling water to minimize flows both into and outside plant boundaries. Quality of, and proximity to, water sources are a major environmental factor in the siting stage and process design. Thereafter, wastewater discharge draws primary emphasis. Cooling-tower blowdown and other waste streams are now processed to recycle water while converting remaining dissolved solids (TDS) to a disposable cake. The available techniques involve mechanical evaporation, side-stream softening, crystallization or spray drying, membrane treatment, and staged cooling. Space limitations, water quality, and other variables determine the best choice for any plant. While each offers certain advantages, none provides a panacea without attendant challenges, ranging from capital cost to pretreatment requirements to equipment operating difficulties.

  7. Self-generated stochastic heating in an rf discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lichtenberg, A.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the nonlinear dynamics of stochastic heating arising from the reflection of electrons from moving sheaths as an underlying mechanism for electron power deposition in r.f. discharges. We examined the dynamics of the electron collision with the sheaths in the regime in which the sheath motion is small compared to the average electron velocity to de rive a mop that describes the electron motion. We have shown that for high frequency, ({omega}/2{pi}{approx gt}50MHz), the electrons will strike the moving wall with random phase. At low pressures this stochasticity is an intrinsic property of the dynamics. The stochastic electron heating leads to a power law electron distribution. The stochastic heating was determined in both the slow sheath and fast sheath velocity regimes assuming an incident Maxwellian distribution.

  8. Electrode configuration for extreme-UV electrical discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spence, Paul Andrew; Fornaciari, Neal Robert; Chang, Jim Jihchyun

    2002-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that debris generation within an electric capillary discharge source, for generating extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray, is dependent on the magnitude and profile of the electric field that is established along the surfaces of the electrodes. An electrode shape that results in uniform electric field strength along its surface has been developed to minimize sputtering and debris generation. The electric discharge plasma source includes: (a) a body that defines a circular capillary bore that has a proximal end and a distal end; (b) a back electrode positioned around and adjacent to the distal end of the capillary bore wherein the back electrode has a channel that is in communication with the distal end and that is defined by a non-uniform inner surface which exhibits a first region which is convex, a second region which is concave, and a third region which is convex wherein the regions are viewed outwardly from the inner surface of the channel that is adjacent the distal end of the capillary bore so that the first region is closest to the distal end; (c) a front electrode positioned around and adjacent to the proximal end of the capillary bore wherein the front electrode has an opening that is communication with the proximal end and that is defined by a non-uniform inner surface which exhibits a first region which is convex, a second region which is substantially linear, and third region which is convex wherein the regions are viewed outwardly from the inner surface of the opening that is adjacent the proximal end of the capillary bore so that the first region is closest to the proximal end; and (d) a source of electric potential that is connected across the front and back electrodes.

  9. Trace elements in coal by glow discharge mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, M.L.; Wilson, C.R.; Pestovich, J. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    A need and a demand exist for determining trace elements in coal and coal related by-products, especially those elements which may potentially be a health hazard. The provisions of the 1990 clean air act require that the EPA evaluate the emissions of electric utilities for trace elements and other potentially hazardous organic compounds. The coal fired electric utility industry supplies roughly 60% of the total generating capacity of 2,882,525 million kilowatt hours (nearly 3 trillion kilowatt hours) generated in the U.S. This is accomplished by 414 power plants scattered across the country that burned 813,508,000 short tons of coal in 1993. The relative volatility of some inorganic constituents in coal makes them more prone to be emitted to the atmosphere following combustion. The production of analytical data for trace elements is known to be a difficult task in coal and by-products of coal combustion (fly ash, bottom ash, gas streams, etc.), in terms of both sample collection and analytical determinations. There are several common analytical methods available to the analyst to determine trace elements in coal and coal by-products. In general analytical germs, the material to be analyzed can be totally solubilized (or extracted), or the elements analytes can be determined in the material as a solid. A relatively new elemental technique, Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) can be used with solids as well. This new analytical technique had never before been applied directly to coal. The radio frequency-glow discharge quadropole mass spectrometer was used to analyze coal directly for the first time ever by rf-GDMS. The rf-GDMS technique is described.

  10. Active electron energy distribution function control in direct current discharge using an auxiliary electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweigert, I. V.; George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 ; Kaganovich, I. D.; Demidov, V. I.; St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg

    2013-10-15

    The electron energy distribution functions are studied in the low voltage dc discharge with a constriction, which is a diaphragm with an opening. The dc discharge glows in helium and is sustained by the electron current emitted from a heated cathode. We performed kinetic simulations of dc discharge characteristics and electron energy distribution functions for different gas pressures (0.8 Torr-4 Torr) and discharge current of 0.1 A. The results of these simulations indicate the ability to control the shape of the electron energy distribution functions by variation of the diaphragm opening radius.

  11. Nonlocal control of electron temperature in short direct current glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demidov, V. I.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Stepanova, O. M.; Kurlyandskaya, I. P.

    2014-09-15

    To demonstrate controlling the electron temperature in nonlocal plasma, experiments have been performed on a short (without positive column) dc glow discharge with a cold cathode by applying different voltages to the conducting discharge wall. The experiments have been performed for low-pressure noble gas discharges. The applied voltage can modify trapping the energetic electrons emitted from the cathode sheath and arising from the atomic and molecular processes in the plasma within the device volume. This phenomenon results in the energetic electrons heating the slow plasma electrons, which consequently modifies the electron temperature. Furthermore, a numerical model of the discharge has demonstrated the electron temperature modification for the above case.

  12. A dielectric-barrier discharge enhanced plasma brush array at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Xuemei; Zhan Xuefang; Yuan Xin; Zhao Zhongjun; Yan Yanyue; Duan Yixiang; Tang Jie

    2013-07-15

    This study developed a large volume cold atmospheric plasma brush array, which was enhanced by a dielectric barrier discharge by integrating a pair of DC glow discharge in parallel. A platinum sheet electrode was placed in the middle of the discharge chamber, which effectively reduced the breakdown voltage and working voltage. Emission spectroscopy diagnosis indicated that many excited argon atoms were distributed almost symmetrically in the lateral direction of the plasma. The concentration variations of reactive species relative to the gas flow rate and discharge current were also examined.

  13. Code of Colorado Regulations 5 CCR 1002-61, Colorado Discharge...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Code of Colorado Regulations 5 CCR 1002-61, Colorado Discharge Permit System Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  14. RF physics of ICWC discharge at high cyclotron harmonics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyssoivan, A.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.; Vervier, M.; Van Schoor, M.; Bobkov, V.; Rohde, V.; Schneider, P.; Douai, D.; Kogut, D.; Kreter, A.; Möller, S.; Philipps, V.; Sergienko, G.; Moiseenko, V.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Collaboration: TEXTOR Team; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-02-12

    Recent experiments on Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ICWC) performed in tokamaks TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade with standard ICRF antennas operated at fixed frequencies but variable toroidal magnetic field demonstrated rather contrasting parameters of ICWC discharge in scenarios with on-axis fundamental ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) for protons,ω=ω{sub H+}, and with its high cyclotron harmonics (HCH), ω=10ω{sub cH+}⋅ HCH scenario: very high antenna coupling to low density RF plasmas (P{sub pl}≈0.9P{sub RF-G}) and low energy Maxwellian distribution of CX hydrogen atoms with temperature T{sub H}≈350 eV. Fundamental ICR: lower antenna-plasma coupling efficiency (by factor of about 1.5 times) and generation of high energy non-Maxwellian CX hydrogen atoms (with local energy E{sub ⊥H} ≥1.0 keV). In the present paper, we analyze the obtained experimental results numerically using (i) newly developed 0-D transport code describing the process of plasma production with electron and ion collisional ionization in helium-hydrogen gas mixture and (ii) earlier developed 1-D Dispersion Relation Solver accounting for finite temperature effects and collision absorption mechanisms for all plasma species in addition to conventionally examined Landau/TTPM damping for electrons and cyclotron absorption for ions. The numerical study of plasma production in helium with minor hydrogen content in low and high toroidal magnetic fields is presented. The investigation of the excitation, conversion and absorption of plasma waves as function of B{sub T}-field suggests that only fast waves (FW) may give a crucial impact on antenna coupling and characteristics of the ICWC discharge using standard poloidally polarized ICRF antennas designed to couple RF power mainly to FW. The collisional (non-resonant) absorption by electrons and ions and IC absorption by resonant ions of minor concentration in low T{sub e} plasmas is studied at fundamental ICR and its high harmonics.

  15. Technical Assistance to Kansas City Plant: Mitigation of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B.B.

    2003-04-21

    Soil and storm water discharges from the Department of Energy Kansas City Plant (KCP) contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) resulting from past spills and discharges. KCP has implemented a range of actions to mitigate the soil contamination and to reduce the measured PCB releases.

  16. Optical Investigations of Dust Particles Distribution in RF and DC Discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramazanov, T. S.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N.; Amangaliyeva, R. Zh.; Filatova, I. I.; Azharonok, V. V.

    2008-09-07

    Optical emission spectroscopy is used to study dust particles movement and conditions of a formation of ordered plasma-dust structures in a capacitively coupled RF discharge. 3D binocular diagnostics of plasma-dust structures in dc discharge was made.

  17. Potential effects of low-volume effluent discharges on past-practice vadose zone contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, D.B., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-30

    Collard, L. B., J. D. Davis, D. B. Barnett, 1996, Potential Effects of Low-Volume Effluent Discharges on Past Practice Vadose Zone Contamination: WHC-SD-LEF-ER-001, Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland Washington. This document estimates the behavior of extremely low-discharges of water in the unsaturated zone in the vicinity of past-practice facilities.

  18. Are the argon metastables important in high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gudmundsson, J. T.; Lundin, D.; Minea, T. M.; Stancu, G. D.; Brenning, N.

    2015-11-15

    We use an ionization region model to explore the ionization processes in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge in argon with a titanium target. In conventional dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS), stepwise ionization can be an important route for ionization of the argon gas. However, in the HiPIMS discharge stepwise ionization is found to be negligible during the breakdown phase of the HiPIMS pulse and becomes significant (but never dominating) only later in the pulse. For the sputtered species, Penning ionization can be a significant ionization mechanism in the dcMS discharges, while in the HiPIMS discharge Penning ionization is always negligible as compared to electron impact ionization. The main reasons for these differences are a higher plasma density in the HiPIMS discharge, and a higher electron temperature. Furthermore, we explore the ionization fraction and the ionized flux fraction of the sputtered vapor and compare with recent experimental work.

  19. Enhancement of the EUV emission of a metallic capillary discharge operated with argon ambient gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, L. S. Tan, D. Saboohi, S. Yap, S. L. Wong, C. S.

    2014-03-05

    In this work, the metallic capillary discharge is operated with two different ambients: air and argon. In the experiments reported here, the chamber is first evacuated to 10{sup ?5} mbar. The discharge is initiated by the transient hollow cathode effect generated electron beam, with either air ambient or argon ambient at 10{sup ?4} mbar. The bombardment of electron beam at the tip of the stainless steel anode gives rise to a metallic vapor, which is injected into the capillary and initiates the main discharge through the capillary. The EUV emission is measured for different discharge voltages for both conditions and compared. It is found that the metallic capillary discharge with argon ambientis able to produce higher EUV energy compared to that with air ambient.

  20. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; and others

    2015-05-15

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  1. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong; Lim, Sooking

    2015-05-15

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm.

  2. Zero discharge and large-scale DCS are plant highlights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solar, R.

    1995-04-01

    This article reports that the Mulberry cogeneration facility has several features that make it notable in the power field. A zero-discharge wastewater system, an inlet-air chilling system, a secondary boiler, and an extensive distributed-control system (DCS) for overall plant operation are examples. Ability to meet the two-stage NO{sub x}-emission limits -- 25 ppm during the first three years and 15 ppm thereafter -- is a unique challenge. The plant design allows the lower limit to be met now, and retrofit with different burners is possible if NO{sub x}-emission limits are tightened later. The facility, near Bartow in Polk County, Fla, is owned by Polk Power Partners LP, whose members include Central and South West Energy Inc (CSW) of Dallas and ARK Energy of Laguna Hills, Calif. The operating company, CSW Operations, is a subsidiary of CSW. Heart of the plant is a single gas-turbine (GT)/HRSG/steam-turbine combined cycle, providing electric power to Tampa Electric Co and Florida Power Corp, with up to 25,000 lb/hr of process steam for an adjacent ethanol plant which was developed by the facility`s partnership. Commercial operation of Mulberry began on Sept 2, 1994.

  3. A subtropical fate awaited freshwater discharged from glacial Lake Agassiz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Condron, Alan; Winsor, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The 8.2 kyr event is the largest abrupt climatic change recorded in the last 10,000 years, and is widely hypothesized to have been triggered by the release of thousands of kilometers cubed of freshwater into the North Atlantic Ocean. Using a high-resolution (1/6) global, ocean-ice circulation model we present an alternative view that freshwater discharged from glacial Lake Agassiz would have remained on the continental shelf as a narrow, buoyant, coastal current, and would have been transported south into the subtropical North Atlantic. The pathway we describe is in contrast to the conceptual idea that freshwater from this lake outburst spread over most of the sub-polar North Atlantic, and covered the deep, open-ocean, convection regions. This coastally confined freshwater pathway is consistent with the present-day routing of freshwater from Hudson Bay, as well as paleoceanographic evidence of this event. Using a coarse-resolution (2.6) version of the same model, we demonstrate that the previously reported spreading of freshwater across the sub-polar North Atlantic results from the inability of numerical models of this resolution to accurately resolve narrow coastal flows, producing instead a diffuse circulation that advects freshwater away from the boundaries. To understand the climatic impact of freshwater released in the past or future (e.g. Greenland and Antarctica), the ocean needs to be modeled at a resolution sufficient to resolve the dynamics of narrow, coastal buoyant flows.

  4. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks.

  5. Study of volume and surface effects in pure hydrogen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taccogna, F.; Schneider, R.; Fantz, U.; Longo, S.; Capitelli, M.

    2007-08-10

    The work concerns the simulation of negative ion formation and acceleration in a radio-frequency discharge for neutral beam injection system for ITER, with particular emphasis on the IPP negative ion source. To generate intense beams of negative ions and to optimize the negative ion source, understanding of transport properties of negative ions H- is indispensable. To study this effect, we have developed a 1D(z)-3V Particle-in-Cell electrostatic model of the production and extraction regions. The motion of charged particles (e, H+, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H-) in their self-consistent electric field and of neutral particles (H(n=1,2,3) and H2(X{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}, {nu}=0,...,14)) is simulated. Surface and volumetric processes involving plasma and neutral systems have been included by using different Monte Carlo Collision methods. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results have been done in order to validate the code.

  6. Plasma potential mapping of high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauch, Albert; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Sanders, Jason M.; Anders, Andre

    2011-12-20

    Pulsed emissive probe techniques have been used to determine the plasma potential distribution of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges. An unbalanced magnetron with a niobium target in argon was investigated for pulse length of 100 ?s at a pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz, giving a peak current of 170 A. The probe data were taken with a time resolution of 20 ns and a spatial resolution of 1 mm. It is shown that the local plasma potential varies greatly in space and time. The lowest potential was found over the targets racetrack, gradually reaching anode potential (ground) several centimeters away from the target. The magnetic pre-sheath exhibits a funnel-shaped plasma potential resulting in an electric field which accelerates ions toward the racetrack. In certain regions and times, the potential exhibits weak local maxima which allow for ion acceleration to the substrate. Knowledge of the local E and static B fields lets us derive the electrons EB drift velocity, which is about 105 m/s and shows structures in space and time.

  7. Integrated Codes Model for Erosion-Deposition in Long Discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, John T

    2006-08-01

    There is increasing interest in understanding the mechanisms causing the deuterium retention rates which are observed in the longest high power tokamak discharges, and its possible relation to near term choices which must be made for plasma-facing components in next generation devices [1]. Both co-deposition and bulk diffusion models are regarded as potentially relevant. This contribution describes a global model for the co-depositio axis of this dilemma, which includes as many of the relevant processes which may contribute to it as is computationally feasible, following the 'maximal ordering / minimal simplification' strategy described in Kruskal's "Asymptotology" [2]. The global model is interpretative, meaning that some key information describing the bulk plasma is provided by experimental measurement, and the models for the impurity processes relevant to retention, given this measured background, are simulated and compared with other data. In particular, the model describes the carbon balance in near steady-state systems, to be able to understand the relation between retention in present devices and the level which might be expected in fusion reactors, or precursor experiments such as ITER. The key modules of the global system describe impurity generation, their transport in and through the SOL, and core impurity transport. The codes IMPFLU, BBQ, and ITC/MIST, in order of the appearance of the processes they describe, are used to calculate the balance: IMPFLU is an adaptation of the TOKAFLU module of CAST3M [3], developed by CEA, which is a 3-D, time-dependent finite elements code which determines the thermal and mechanical properties of plasma-facing components. BBQ [4, 5] is a Monte Carlo guiding center code which describes trace impurity transport in a 3-D defined-plasma background, to calculate observables (line emission) for comparison with spectroscopy. ITC [6] and MIST [7] are radial core multi-species impurity transport codes. The modules are linked

  8. A subtropical fate awaited freshwater discharged from glacial Lake Agassiz

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Condron, Alan; Winsor, Peter

    2011-02-10

    The 8.2 kyr event is the largest abrupt climatic change recorded in the last 10,000 years, and is widely hypothesized to have been triggered by the release of thousands of kilometers cubed of freshwater into the North Atlantic Ocean. Using a high-resolution (1/6°) global, ocean-ice circulation model we present an alternative view that freshwater discharged from glacial Lake Agassiz would have remained on the continental shelf as a narrow, buoyant, coastal current, and would have been transported south into the subtropical North Atlantic. The pathway we describe is in contrast to the conceptual idea that freshwater from this lake outburstmore » spread over most of the sub-polar North Atlantic, and covered the deep, open-ocean, convection regions. This coastally confined freshwater pathway is consistent with the present-day routing of freshwater from Hudson Bay, as well as paleoceanographic evidence of this event. In this study, using a coarse-resolution (2.6°) version of the same model, we demonstrate that the previously reported spreading of freshwater across the sub-polar North Atlantic results from the inability of numerical models of this resolution to accurately resolve narrow coastal flows, producing instead a diffuse circulation that advects freshwater away from the boundaries. To understand the climatic impact of freshwater released in the past or future (e.g. Greenland and Antarctica), the ocean needs to be modeled at a resolution sufficient to resolve the dynamics of narrow, coastal buoyant flows.« less

  9. Penning discharge ion source with self-cleaning aperture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavin, B.F.; MacGill, R.A.; Thatcher, R.K.

    1980-11-10

    An ion source of the Penning discharge type having a self-cleaning aperture is provided by a second dynode with an exit aperture in a position opposite a first dynode, from which the ions are sputtered, two opposing cathodes, each with an anode for accelerating electrons emitted from the cathodes into a cylindrical space defined by the first and second dynode. A support gas maintained in this space is ionized by the electrons. While the cathodes are supplied with a negative pulse to emit electrons, the first dynode is supplied with a negative pulse (e.g., -300 V) to attract atoms of the ionized gas (plasma). At the same time, the second dynode may also be supplied with a small voltage that is negative with respect to the plasma (e.g., -5 V) for tuning the position of the plasma miniscus for optimum extraction geometry. When the negative pulse to the first dynode is terminated, the second dynode is driven strongly negative (e.g., -600 V) thereby allowing heavy sputtering to take place for a short period to remove virtually all of the atoms deposited on the second dynode from material sputtered off the first dynode. An extractor immediately outside the exit aperture of the second dynode is maintained at ground potential while the anode, dynode, and cathode reference voltage is driven strongly positive (about +20 kV to +30 kV) so that ions accelerated through the aperture will be at ground potential. Material from the first dynode deposited on the second dynode will be sputtered, in time, to add to the ion beam.

  10. Penning discharge ion source with self-cleaning aperture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavin, Basil F.; MacGill, Robert A.; Thatcher, Raymond K.

    1982-01-01

    An ion source of the Penning discharge type having a self-cleaning aperture is provided by a second dynode (24) with an exit aperture (12) in a position opposite a first dynode 10a, from which the ions are sputtered, two opposing cathodes (14, 16), each with an anode (18, 20) for accelerating electrons emitted from the cathodes into a cylindrical space defined by the first and second dynode. A support gas maintained in this space is ionized by the electrons. While the cathodes are supplied with a negative pulse to emit electrons, the first dynode is supplied with a negative pulse (e.g., -300 V) to attract atoms of the ionized gas (plasma). At the same time, the second dynode may also be supplied with a small voltage that is negative with respect to the plasma (e.g., -5 V) for tuning the position of the plasma miniscus for optimum extraction geometry. When the negative pulse to the first dynode is terminated, the second dynode is driven strongly negative (e.g., -600 V) thereby allowing heavy sputtering to take place for a short period to remove virtually all of the atoms deposited on the second dynode from material sputtered off the first dynode. An extractor (22) immediately outside the exit aperture of the second dynode is maintained at ground potential during this entire period of sputtering while the anode, dynode and cathode reference voltage is driven strongly positive (about +20 kV to +30 kV) so that ions accelerated through the aperture will be at ground potential. In that manner, material from the first dynode deposited on the second dynode will be sputtered, in time, to add to the ion beam. Atoms sputtered from the second dynode which do not become ionized and exit through the slit will be redeposited on the first dynode, and hence recycled for further ion beam generation during subsequent operating cycles.

  11. Friction, impact, and electrostatic discharge sensitivities of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, P.S.; Hall, G.F.

    1985-05-31

    Impact, friction, and electrostatic discharge sensitivities of energetic materials (explosives and pyrotechnics) used or manufactured at Mound were tested by the ''one-shot'' method. The Bruceton statistical method was used to derive 50% initiation levels, and the results were compared. The materials tested include: PETN, HMX, Plastic Bonded Explosives (PBX), CP, TATB, RX26BB, RX26BH, barium styphnate, LX-15, LX-16, Ti/KClO/sub 4/, TiH/sub 0.65//KClO/sub 4/, TiH/sub 1.65//KClO/sub 4/, Fe/KClO/sub 4/, TiH/sub 1.75//B/CaCrO/sub 4/, Ti/B/CaCrO/sub 4/, B/CaCrO/sub 4/, TiH/sub 0.65//2B, TiH/sub 0.65//3B, 2Ti/B, TiH/sub 1.67//2B, Ti/2B, TiH/sub 1/67//3B, Ti/B, and Ti/3B. Some samples were investigated for aging effects, physical variables, and the effect of manufacturing paramters on sensitivities. The results show that in both friction and impact tests, CP and barium styphnate are the most sensitive; TiH/sub 1.65/KClO/sub 4/, LX-15, TATB and its related materials are the least sensitive; and other materials such as PETN and HMX are in the mid-range. In the electrostatic tests of Ti-based pyrotechnics, a decrease of sensitivity with increasing hydrogen concentration was observed. 20 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Measurement of gas temperature and convection velocity profiles in a dc atmospheric glow discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stepaniuk, Vadim P.; Ioppolo, Tindaro; Oetuegen, M. Volkan; Sheverev, Valery A.

    2007-12-15

    Gas temperature and convective velocity distributions are presented for an unconfined glow discharge in air at atmospheric pressure, with electric currents ranging between 30 and 92 mA. The vertically oriented discharge was formed between a pin anode (top) and an extended cathode. The temperature and velocity profiles were measured using laser-induced Rayleigh scattering and laser Doppler anemometry techniques, respectively. The temperature field exhibited a conical shape with the radius of hot temperature zone increasing toward the anode. A maximum temperature of 2470 K was observed on the discharge axis with the discharge current of 92 mA. Air velocity measurements around the discharge demonstrated that the shape and magnitude of the temperature field are strongly affected by natural convection. Estimates indicate that convective losses may account for more than 50% of the power input into the positive column of the discharge. The measured temperature fields and convective velocity profiles provide a set of data that is important for the evaluation of dc atmospheric glow discharges in various applications such as sound manipulation and acoustic noise mitigation.

  13. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

  14. Pulsed microwave discharge in a capillary filled with atmospheric-pressure gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritsinin, S. I.; Gushchin, P. A.; Davydov, A. M.; Ivanov, E. V.; Kossyi, I. A.

    2013-08-15

    A pulsed microwave coaxial capillary plasma source generating a thin plasma filament along the capillary axis in an atmospheric-pressure argon flow is described. The dynamics of filament formation is studied, and the parameters of the gas and plasma in the contraction region are determined. A physical model of discharge formation and propagation is proposed. The model is based on the assumption that, under the conditions in which the electric fields is substantially below the threshold value, the discharge operates in a specific form known as a self-sustained-non-self-sustained (SNS) microwave discharge.

  15. Detrapping of tungsten nanoparticles in a direct-current argon glow discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coudel, L. Kumar, K. Kishor; Arnas, C.

    2014-12-15

    Nanoparticles are grown from the sputtering of a tungsten cathode in a direct current argon glow discharge. Laser light scattering of a vertical laser sheet going through the plasma reveals that the dust particle cloud is compressed and pushed towards the anode during the discharge. Scanning electron microscopy images of substrates exposed to the plasma for given durations show that dust particles are continuously falling down on the anode during the discharge. These observations are explained by the fact that the electrostatic force at the negative glow-anode sheath boundary cannot balance the ion drag, gravity, and thermophoresis forces for particles of more than a few tens of nanometres in diameter.

  16. Response of nickel/zinc cells to electric-vehicle chopper discharge waveforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cataldo, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary results of simulated electric vehicle chopper controlled discharge of a nickel/zinc (NiZn) battery show delivered energy increases of 5 to 25 percent compared to constant current discharges of the same average current. The percentage-increase was a function of chopper frequency, the ratio of peak-to-average current, and the magnitude of the discharge current. Because the chopper effects are of a complex nature, electric vehicle battery/speed controller interaction must be carefully considered in vehicle design to optimize battery performance.

  17. XeCl Avalanche discharge laser employing Ar as a diluent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.

    1981-01-01

    A XeCl avalanche discharge exciplex laser which uses a gaseous lasing starting mixture of: (0.2%-0.4% chlorine donor/2.5%-10% Xe/97.3%-89.6% Ar). The chlorine donor normally comprises HCl but can also comprise CCl.sub.4 BCl.sub.3. Use of Ar as a diluent gas reduces operating pressures over other rare gas halide lasers to near atmospheric pressure, increases output lasing power of the XeCl avalanche discharge laser by 30% to exceed KrF avalanche discharge lasing outputs, and is less expensive to operate.

  18. XeCl avalanche discharge laser employing Ar as a diluent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, R.C.

    1979-10-10

    A XeCl avalanche discharge exciplex laser which uses a gaseous lasing starting mixture of: 0.2 to 0.4% chlorine donor/2.5% to 10% Xe/97.3% to 89.6% Ar) is provided. The chlorine donor normally comprises HCl but can also comprise CCl/sub 4/ BCl/sub 3/. Use of Ar as a diluent gas reduces operating pressures over other rare gas halide lasers to near atmospheric pressure, increases output lasing power of the XeCl avalanche discharge laser by 30% to exceed KrF avalanche discharge lasing outputs, and is less expensive to operate.

  19. Evaluation of structural issues related to isolation of the 100-KE/100-KW discharge chute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkel, B.V.; Hyde, L.L.

    1995-03-10

    The issue of excessive post-seismic leakage in the discharge chute of the K East and K West fuel storage basins was resolved by designing isolation barriers to maintain basin water levels if the discharge chute should drain. This report addresses the structural issues associated with isolation of the discharge chute. The report demonstrates the structural adequacy of the components associated with chute isolation for normal and seismic loading. Associated issues, such as hardware drop accidents and seismic slosh heights are also addressed.

  20. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.P.

    1996-06-01

    This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced water discharges. The emphasis is on data relating to produced water discharges in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, especially in Louisiana. Much of the summarized data and cited literature are relevant to assessments of impacts in other regions. Data describing effects on marine and estuarine fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and benthic invertebrates are emphasized. This review is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the use of appropriate discharge practices.

  1. Numerical simulation of torus breakdown to chaos in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Wang, Y. H.; Wang, D. Z. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Understanding the routes to chaos occurring in atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge systems by changing controlling parameters is very important to predict and control the dynamical behaviors. In this paper, a route of a quasiperiodic torus to chaos via the strange nonchaotic attractor is observed in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge driven by triangle-wave voltage. By increasing the driving frequency, the discharge system first bifurcates to a quasiperiodic torus from a stable single periodic state, and then torus and phase-locking periodic state appear and disappear alternately. In the meantime, the torus becomes increasingly wrinkling and stretching, and gradually approaches a fractal structure with the nonpositive largest Lyapunov exponent, i.e., a strange nonchaotic attractor. After that, the discharge system enters into chaotic state. If the driving frequency is further increased, another well known route of period-doubling bifurcation to chaos is also observed.

  2. Numerical investigation of pulse-modulated atmospheric radio frequency discharges in helium under different duty cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Jizhong; Ding Zhengfen; Li Xuechun; Wang Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Wang Qi [Dalian Institute of Semiconductor Technology, School of Electronics Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Experiments observed that the pulse duty cycle has effects on the plasma homogeneity in pulse-modulated radio frequency (rf) discharges. In this paper, pulse-modulated rf (13.56 MHz) helium discharges are theoretically investigated using a two dimensional fluid model. With the pulse period being fixed to 15 {mu}s, it is found that when the pulse-on duration is over 4 {mu}s, i.e., the duty cycle is larger than approximately 27%, the discharge transits from an inhomogeneous to a homogeneous mode in every specific part of each pulse cycle under currently-used simulation parameters. More quantitative analysis shows that the discharge becomes more homogeneous as the duty cycle is increased but does not reach complete homogeneity. Possible reasons for the homogeneity improvement are discussed.

  3. Influence of oxygen traces on an atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency capacitive argon plasma discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Shouzhe; Wu Qi; Yan Wen; Wang Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, Electron Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China) and School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Uhm, Han S. [Kwangwoon Academy of Advanced Studies, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    An atmospheric-pressure capacitive discharge source driven by radio-frequency power supply at 13.56 MHz has been developed experimentally that is capable of producing a homogeneous and cold glow discharge in O{sub 2}/Ar. With respect to the influence of oxygen component when diluted into argon plasma discharge on the discharge characteristics, the measurements of the electrical parameters (impedance, phase angle, resistance, and reactance) are made systematically and the densities of the metastable and resonant state of argon are determined by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES). It is shown that the admixture of oxygen into argon plasma not only changes the electric characteristics but also alters the optical emission spectra greatly due to strong interaction between the oxygen content and the argon in the plasma environment.

  4. Title 40 CFR 122.26 Storm water discharges | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    122.26 Storm water discharges Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: Title 40 CFR 122.26 Storm water...

  5. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettleson, David A

    1999-10-28

    The primary objectives of the project are to increase the base of scientific knowledge concerning (1) the fate and environmental effects of organics, trace metals, and NORM in water, sediment, and biota near several offshore oil and gas facilities; (2) the characteristics of produced water and produced sand discharges as they pertain to organics, trace metals, and NORM variably found in association with the discharges; (3) the recovery of three terminated produced water discharge sites located in wetland and high-energy open bay sites of coastal Louisiana; (4) the economic and energy supply impacts of existing and anticipated federal and state offshore and coastal discharge regulations; and (5) the catch, consumption and human use patterns of seafood species collected from coastal and offshore waters. The products of the effort will be a series of technical reports detailing the study procedures, results, and conclusions which contribute to the transfer of technology to the scientific community, petroleum industry, and state and federal agencies.

  6. Spectroscopic characterization of discharge products in Li-Air cells with aprotic carbonate electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veith, Gabriel M; Nanda, Jagjit; Howe, Jane Y; Dudney, Nancy J

    2011-01-01

    Raman, infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to characterize the thick coating of reaction products on carbon and MnO2 coated carbon cathodes produced during discharge of Li-air cells. The results show that neither Li2O2 or Li2O are major components of the insoluble discharge products; instead the products are largely composed of fluorine, lithium, and carbon, with surprisingly little oxygen. The complex reaction chemistry also appears to involve the formation of ethers or alkoxide products at the expense of the carbonate solvent molecules (ethylene carbonate and dimethylcarbonate). The irreversible discharge reaction is likely electrochemically promoted with Li-anion species and dissolved oxygen. Exactly how the molecular O2 participates in the reaction is unclear and requires further study. The addition of a conformal coating of MnO2 on the carbon lowers the cell s operating voltage, but does not alter the overall discharge chemistry.

  7. 49 A.R.S. 255 et seq.: Arizona Pollutant Discharge Elimination...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: 49 A.R.S. 255 et seq.: Arizona Pollutant Discharge Elimination System ProgramLegal Abstract...

  8. Effect of energetic electrons on dust charging in hot cathode filament discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur 782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2011-03-15

    The effect of energetic electrons on dust charging for different types of dust is studied in hydrogen plasma. The hydrogen plasma is produced by hot cathode filament discharge method in a dusty plasma device. A full line cusped magnetic field cage is used to confine the plasma elements. To study the plasma parameters for various discharge conditions, a cylindrical Langmuir probe having 0.15 mm diameter and 10.0 mm length is used. An electronically controlled dust dropper is used to drop the dust particles into the plasma. For different discharge conditions, the dust current is measured using a Faraday cup connected to an electrometer. The effect of secondary emission as well as discharge voltage on charging of dust grains in hydrogen plasma is studied with different dust.

  9. Title 33 CFR 323 Permits for Discharges of Dredged or Fill Material...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Title 33 CFR 323 Permits for Discharges of Dredged or Fill Material Into Waters of the United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal...

  10. File:Texas NOI for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Construction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    metadata was last modified 02:31, 12 March 2013 Software used Acrobat PDFMaker 9.1 for Word Short title Notice of Intent (NOI) for Storm Water Discharges Associated with...

  11. A Catalyst Wire-feed Arc Discharge for Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Catalyst Wire-feed Arc Discharge for Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Particles This invention pertains to a highly effective arc-based synthesis of single wall carbon...

  12. Generation of negative hydrogen ions in low-voltage cesium-hydrogen discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baksht, F.G.; Djuzhev, G.A.; Elizarov, L.I.; Ivanov, V.G.; Kostin, A.A.; Shkolnik, S.M. )

    1992-10-05

    Theory of low-voltage (LV) Cs--H[sub 2] discharge is presented. LV arc plasma is created in consequence of ionization of small Cs amount (N[sub Cs]/N[sub H[sub 2

  13. Utah. Code. Ann. 19-5-115: Spills or discharges of oil or...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utah. Code. Ann. 19-5-115: Spills or discharges of oil or other substance Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute:...

  14. Self-discharge study of Li-alloy/FeS sub 2 thermal cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W. ); Smaga, J.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The capacities of Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2}thermal batteries are influenced by the extent of self-discharge reactions that occur during operation. For some thermal-battery applications involving open-circuit (i.e., wet-stand'') conditions, this self-discharge can result in a significant loss incapacity. A study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the self-discharge of thermal cells, such as temperature, electrolyte composition, and processing of the catholyte (i.e., lithiation and fusion). The cells were discharged after prescribed times at open circuit under isothermal conditions and the capacity to a cutoff voltage was measured. Postmortem characterization of the cells was used to correlate the results of the electrochemical experiments. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Scott R.; Christophorou, Loucas G.

    1990-01-01

    Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches are disclosed. The binary mixtures are combinations of helium or neon and selected perfluorides. The ternary mixtures are combinations of helium, neon, or argon, a selected perfluoride, and a small amount of gas that exhibits enhanced ionization characteristics. These mixtures are shown to be the optimum choices for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches by virtue of the combined physio-electric properties of the mixture components.

  16. Hollow-cathode electrode for high-power, high-pressure discharge devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, J.J.; Alger, T.W.

    1995-08-22

    Several different cold cathode configurations are disclosed for a gas discharge device each having a plurality of grooves of selected spacing, depth and width to improve the emission of electrons in a gas discharge device. Each of the cold cathode configurations can be machined from a single piece of a selected material. Several of the configurations can be assembled with individual elements which is easily seen from the various figures. 8 figs.

  17. Hollow - cathode electrode for high-power, high-pressure discharge devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jim J.; Alger, Terry W.

    1995-01-01

    Several different cold cathode configurations for a gas discharge device each having a plurality of grooves of selected spacing, depth and width to improve the emission of electrons in a gas discharge device. Each of the cold cathode configurations can be machined from a single piece of a selected material. Several of the configurations can be assembled with individual elements which is easily seen from the various figures.

  18. Stationary force produced by an optical pulsating discharge in a laser engine model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grachev, Gennadii N; Tishchenko, V N; Smirnov, A L; Zimin, M I; Apollonov, V V; Gulidov, A I; Sobolev, A V

    2007-07-31

    An optical pulsating discharge produced by repetitively pulses laser radiation (with a pulse repetition rate of up to 100 kHz) is studied in a cylindrical tube simulating the reflector of a laser engine. The pressure of shock waves and the propulsion produced by them are measured. The discharge produced the stationary propulsion {approx}1 N kW{sup -1}. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  19. Drainage capture and discharge variations driven by glaciation in the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ann V. Rowan; Mitchell A. Plummer; Simon H. Brocklehurst; Merren A. Jones; David M. Schultz

    2013-02-01

    Sediment flux in proglacial fluvial settings is primarily controlled by discharge, which usually varies predictably over a glacial–interglacial cycle. However, glaciers can flow against the topographic gradient to cross drainage divides, reshaping fluvial drainage networks and dramatically altering discharge. In turn, these variations in discharge will be recorded by proglacial stratigraphy. Glacial-drainage capture often occurs in alpine environments where ice caps straddle range divides, and more subtly where shallow drainage divides cross valley floors. We investigate discharge variations resulting from glacial-drainage capture over the past 40 k.y. for the adjacent Ashburton, Rangitata, and Rakaia basins in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Although glacial-drainage capture has previously been inferred in the range, our numerical glacier model provides the first quantitative demonstration that this process drives larger variations in discharge for a longer duration than those that occur due to climate change alone. During the Last Glacial Maximum, the effective drainage area of the Ashburton catchment increased to 160% of the interglacial value with drainage capture, driving an increase in discharge exceeding that resulting from glacier recession. Glacial-drainage capture is distinct from traditional (base level–driven) drainage capture and is often unrecognized in proglacial deposits, complicating interpretation of the sedimentary record of climate change.

  20. Gas breakdown mechanism in pulse-modulated asymmetric ratio frequency dielectric barrier discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qi; Sun, Jizhong, E-mail: jsun@dlut.edu.cn; Ding, Zhenfeng; Ding, Hongbin; Wang, Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Nozaki, Tomohiro [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Wang, Zhanhui [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-08-15

    The gas breakdown mechanisms, especially the roles of metastable species in atmospheric pressure pulse-modulated ratio frequency barrier discharges with co-axial cylindrical electrodes, were studied numerically using a one dimensional self-consistent fluid model. Simulation results showed that in low duty cycle cases, the electrons generated from the channels associated with metastable species played a more important role in initializing next breakdown than the direct ionization of helium atoms of electronic grounded states by electron-impact. In order to quantitatively evaluate the contribution to the discharge by the metastables, we defined a characteristic time and examined how the value varied with the gap distance and the electrode asymmetry. The results indicated that the lifetime of the metastable species (including He*and He{sub 2}{sup *}) was much longer than that of the pulse-on period and as effective sources of producing electrons they lasted over a period up to millisecond. When the ratio of the outer radius to the inner radius of the cylindrical electrodes was far bigger than one, it was found that the metastables distributed mainly in a cylindrical region around the inner electrode. When the ratio decreased as the inner electrode moved outward, the density of metastables in the discharge region near the outer electrode became gradually noticeable. As the discharging gap continued to decrease, the two hill-shaped distributions gradually merged to one big hill. When the discharge spacing was fixed, asymmetric electrodes facilitated the discharge.

  1. Charging of dust grains in a nonequilibrium plasma of a stratified glow discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukhinin, G. I.; Fedoseev, A. V.

    2007-12-15

    A theoretical model is presented that describes the charging of dust grains in the positive plasma column of a stratified glow dc discharge in argon. A one-dimensional self-consistent model is used to obtain axial profiles of the electric field, as well as the electron energy distribution function along the axis of the discharge tube. Radial profiles of the electric field are determined in the ambipolar diffusion approximation. It is assumed that, in the radial direction, the electron distribution function depends only on the total electron energy. Two-dimensional distributions of the discharge plasma parameters are calculated and used to determine the potential and charge of a test dust grain at a certain point within the discharge and the electrostatic forces acting on it. It is shown that the grain charge distribution depends strongly on the nonequilibrium electron distribution function and on the nonuniform distribution of the electric field in a stratified glow discharge. A discussion is presented on the suspension of dust grains, the separation of grains by size in the discharge striations, and a possible mechanism for the onset of vortex dust motion at the edge of a dust cloud.

  2. Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA-50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, D.; Williams, N.; Hall, D.; Hargis, K.; Saladen, M.; Sanders, M.; Voit, S.; Worland, P.; Yarbro, S.

    1998-06-01

    Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge system is recommended in addition to two phases of upgrades currently under way. Three additional phases of upgrades to the present radioactive liquid waste system are proposed to accomplish zero liquid discharge. The first phase involves minimization of liquid waste generation, along with improved characterization and monitoring of the remaining liquid waste. The second phase removes dissolved salts from the reverse osmosis concentrate stream to yield a higher effluent quality. In the final phase, the high-quality effluent is reused for industrial purposes within the Laboratory or evaporated. Completion of these three phases will result in zero discharge of treated radioactive liquid wastewater from the RLWTF.

  3. H-mode pedestal characteristics in ITER shape discharges on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborne, T.H.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.

    1998-09-01

    Characteristics of the H-mode pedestal are studied in Type 1 ELM discharges with ITER cross-sectional shape and aspect ratio. The scaling of the width of the edge step gradient region, {delta}, which is most consistent with the data is with the normalized edge pressure, ({beta}{sub POL}{sup PED}){sup 0.4}. Fits of {delta} to a function of temperature, such as {rho}{sub POL}, are ruled out in divertor pumping experiments. The edge pressure gradient is found to scale as would be expected from infinite n ballooning mode theory; however, the value of the pressure gradient exceeds the calculated first stable limit by more than a factor of 2 in some discharges. This high edge pressure gradient is consistent with access to the second stable regime for ideal ballooning for surfaces near the edge. In lower q discharges, including discharges at the ITER value of q, edge second stability requires significant edge current density. Transport simulations give edge bootstrap current of sufficient magnitude to open second stable access in these discharges. Ideal kink analysis using current density profiles including edge bootstrap current indicate that before the ELM these discharges may be unstable to low n, edge localized modes.

  4. An experimental study of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in argon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subedi, D. P.; Tyata, R. B.; Shrestha, R.; Wong, C. S.

    2014-03-05

    In this paper, experimental results on atmospheric pressure argon dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) have been presented. The discharge was generated using a high voltage (0 to 20 kV) power supply operating at frequency of 10 to 30 kHz and was studied by means of electrical and optical measurements. A homogeneous and steady discharge was observed between the electrodes with gap spacing from 1 mm to 3 mm and with a dielectric barrier of thickness 1.5 mm while argon gas is fed at a controlled flow rate of 2liter per min. The electron temperature (T{sub e}) and electron density (n{sub e}) of the plasma have been determined by means of optical emission spectroscopy. Our results show that the electron density is of the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup ?3} while the electron temperature is estimated to be ? 1 eV. The homogeneity and non-thermal nature of the discharge were utilized in the investigation of the change in wettabilty of a polymer sample subjected to the treatment by the discharge. Contact angle analysis showed that the discharge was effective in improving the wettability of low density Polyethylene (LDPE) polymer sample after the treatment.

  5. Dynamic model based on voltage transfer curve for pattern formation in dielectric barrier glow discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ben; He, Feng; Ouyang, Jiting; Duan, Xiaoxi

    2015-12-15

    Simulation work is very important for understanding the formation of self-organized discharge patterns. Previous works have witnessed different models derived from other systems for simulation of discharge pattern, but most of these models are complicated and time-consuming. In this paper, we introduce a convenient phenomenological dynamic model based on the basic dynamic process of glow discharge and the voltage transfer curve (VTC) to study the dielectric barrier glow discharge (DBGD) pattern. VTC is an important characteristic of DBGD, which plots the change of wall voltage after a discharge as a function of the initial total gap voltage. In the modeling, the combined effect of the discharge conditions is included in VTC, and the activation-inhibition effect is expressed by a spatial interaction term. Besides, the model reduces the dimensionality of the system by just considering the integration effect of current flow. All these greatly facilitate the construction of this model. Numerical simulations turn out to be in good accordance with our previous fluid modeling and experimental result.

  6. Numerical study on microwave-sustained argon discharge under atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.; Hua, W. Guo, S. Y.

    2014-04-15

    A numerical study on microwave sustained argon discharge under atmospheric pressure is reported in this paper. The purpose of this study is to investigate both the process and effects of the conditions of microwave-excited gas discharge under atmospheric pressure, thereby aiding improvements in the design of the discharge system, setting the appropriate working time, and controlling the operating conditions. A 3D model is presented, which includes the physical processes of electromagnetic wave propagation, electron transport, heavy species transport, gas flow, and heat transfer. The results can be obtained by means of the fluid approximation. The maxima of the electron density and gas temperature are 4.96 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3} and 2514.8 K, respectively, and the gas pressure remains almost unchanged for typical operating conditions with a gas flow rate of 20 l/min, microwave power of 1000 W, and initial temperature of 473 K. In addition, the conditions (microwave power, gas flow rate, and initial temperature) of discharge are varied to obtain deeper information about the electron density and gas temperature. The results of our numerical study are valid and clearly describe both the physical process and effects of the conditions of microwave-excited argon discharge.

  7. Magnetic confinement in a ring-cusp ion thruster discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, Anita

    2009-05-01

    An experimental investigation, in conjunction with a volume averaged analytical model, has been developed to improve the confinement and production of the discharge plasma for plasma thrusters and ion sources. The research conducted explores the discharge performance of a ring-cusp ion source based on the magnetic field configuration, geometry, and power level. Analytical formulations for electron and ion confinement are developed to predict the ionization efficiency for a given discharge chamber design. Explicit determination of discharge loss and volume averaged plasma parameters are obtained via a series of experimental measurements on a ring-cusp NASA Solar Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) ion thruster to assess the validity of the analytical model. Measurements of the discharge loss with multiple magnetic field configurations compare well with plasma parameter predictions for propellant utilizations between 80% and 95%. The results indicate that increasing the magnetic strength of the first closed magnetic contour line reduces Maxwellian electron diffusion and electrostatically confines the ion population and subsequent loss to the anode wall. The results also indicate that increasing the strength and minimizing the area of the magnetic cusps improves primary electron confinement, increasing the probability of an ionization collision prior to loss at the cusp.

  8. Optical pumping in a microfabricated Rb vapor cell using a microfabricated Rb discharge light source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatraman, V.; Kang, S.; Affolderbach, C.; Mileti, G.; Shea, H.

    2014-02-03

    Miniature (discharge lamp light source, as well as (2) a conventional glass-blown Rb discharge lamp. The microfabricated Rb lamp cell is a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) light source, having the same inner cell volume of around 40 mm{sup 3} as that of the resonance cell, both filled with suitable buffer gases. A miniature (∼2 cm{sup 3} volume) test setup based on the M{sub z} magnetometer interrogation technique was used for observation of optical-radiofrequency double-resonance signals, proving the suitability of the microfabricated discharge lamp to introduce efficient optical pumping. The pumping ability of this light source was found to be comparable to or even better than that of a conventional glass-blown lamp. The reported results indicate that the micro-fabricated DBD discharge lamp has a high potential for the development of a new class of miniature atomic clocks, magnetometers, and quantum sensors.

  9. Neutral gas temperature maps of the pin-to-plate argon micro discharge into the ambient air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, S. F.; Zhong, X. X.; Majeed, Asif

    2015-03-15

    This study is designed to explore the two dimensional temperature maps of the atmospheric argon discharge consisting of pin-to-plane electrodes supplied by a high voltage DC source. After checking the stability of the micro discharge, the two dimensional image plane focused by a quartz lens was scanned by the fiber probe driven by a 3D Mobile Platform. The rotational and vibrational temperatures are calculated using nitrogen emissions collected by the high resolution spectrometer and high sensitive intensified charge coupled device. The rotational temperature varies from 1558.15 K to 2621.14 K and vibrational temperature varies from 3010.38 K to 3774.69 K, indicating a great temperature gradient due to small discharge size. The temperature maps show a lateral expansion and a sharp truncation in the radial direction. A double layers discharge is identified, where an arc discharge coats the glow discharge.

  10. Compression and strong rarefaction in high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horwat, David; Anders, Andre

    2010-11-11

    Gas compression and strong rarefaction have been observed for high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharges using a copper target in argon. Time-resolved ion saturation currents of 35 probes were simultaneously recorded for HIPIMS discharges operating far above the self-sputtering runaway threshold. The argon background pressure was a parameter for the evaluation of the spatial and temporal development of the plasma density distribution. The data can be interpreted by a massive onset of the sputtering flux (sputter wind) that causes a transient densification of the gas, followed by rarefaction and the replacement of gas plasma by the metal plasma of sustained self-sputtering. The plasma density pulse follows closely the power pulse at low pressure. At high pressure, the relatively remote probes recorded a density peak only after the discharge pulse, indicative for slow, diffusive ion transport.

  11. Energy-transformation properties and mechanisms in transverse-flow-discharged CO2 lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhongxiang, W.

    1991-12-10

    We simulated, calculated, and analyzed the effects on the various energy state transformation properties of dielectric media of such factors as dielectric media gas pressures, flow speeds, light cavity position, strength of radiation in the cavity, degree of output coupling, and other similar factors in transverse flow discharged CO2 laser devices. This article did concrete calculations of the corresponding energy transformation properties for the apparatus and the conditions in reference (transverse flow, discharge, CO2 laser device, dielectric medium constituent ratio of CO2:N2:H = 5:17:78, an initial temperature of 293K, a discharge current of 2A, E/N: 2.15X10-16 V/cm2, light cavity 160 cm2 long, height 1.8cm, as well as other parameters).

  12. Best Management Practices (BMP) plan for potable water discharges Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiest, M.C. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    This plan provides guidance to minimize the environmental effects from discharges of chlorinated waters, including: Flushing of potable water lines; Releases from fire hydrants during testing and maintenance of fire protection systems; Releases from sprinkler systems for maintenance or testing purposes; and Other significant releases of chlorinated water. This BMP plan is intended to meet the Y-12 Plant National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit condition, requiring that BWs be used for flushing potable water lines and similar activities. Close adherence to the steps provided in this plan will help prevent the discharge of chlorinated waters ``in concentrations sufficient to be hazardous or otherwise detrimental to humans, livestock, wildlife, plant life, or fish and aquatic life in the receiving stream``.

  13. Striated microdischarges in an asymmetric barrier discharge in argon at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoder, Tomas; Loffhagen, Detlef; Wilke, Christian; Grosch, Helge; Schaefer, Jan; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Brandenburg, Ronny

    2011-10-15

    The investigation of striated microdischarges in barrier discharges in argon at atmospheric pressure is reported. Microdischarges were investigated by means of electrical measurements correlated with intensified CCD camera imaging. The scaling law theory known from low-pressure glow discharge diagnostics was applied in order to describe and explain this phenomenon. The investigated microdischarge is characterized as a transient atmospheric-pressure glow discharge with a stratified column. It can be described by similarity parameters i/r{approx_equal}0.13 A/cm, pr{approx_equal}5 Torr cm, and 3<{lambda}/r<5 with the current i, pressure p, interval of subsequent striations {lambda}, and radius of the plasma channel r. An attempt to describe the mechanism of creation of a striated structure is given, based on an established model of the spatial electron relaxation.

  14. Mechanism of singlet oxygen deactivation in an electric discharge oxygen – iodine laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azyazov, V N; Mikheyev, P A; Torbin, A P; Pershin, A A; Heaven, M C

    2014-12-31

    We have determined the influence of the reaction of molecular singlet oxygen with a vibrationally excited ozone molecule O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) + O{sub 3}(ν) → 2O{sub 2} + O on the removal rate of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) in an electric-discharge-driven oxygen – iodine laser. This reaction has been shown to be a major channel of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) loss at the output of an electric-discharge singlet oxygen generator. In addition, it can also contribute significantly to the loss of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) in the discharge region of the generator. (lasers)

  15. Characteristics of produced water discharged to the Gulf of Mexico hypoxiczone.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Kimmell, T. A.; Rechner, A. C.

    2005-08-24

    Each summer, an area of low dissolved oxygen (the hypoxic zone) forms in the shallow nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters from the Mississippi River Delta westward to near the Texas/Louisiana border. Most scientists believe that the leading contributor to the hypoxic zone is input of nutrients (primarily nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The nutrients stimulate growth of phytoplankton. As the phytoplankton subsequently die, they fall to the bottom waters where they are decomposed by microorganisms. The decomposition process consumes oxygen in the bottom waters to create hypoxic conditions. Sources other than the two rivers mentioned above may also contribute significant quantities of oxygen-demanding pollutants. One very visible potential source is the hundreds of offshore oil and gas platforms located within or near the hypoxic zone. Many of these platforms discharge varying volumes of produced water. However, only limited data characterizing oxygen demand and nutrient concentration and loading from offshore produced water discharges have been collected. No comprehensive and coordinated oxygen demand data exist for produced water discharges in the Gulf of Mexico. This report describes the results of a program to sample 50 offshore oil and gas platforms located within the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone. The program was conducted in response to a requirement in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) general National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for offshore oil and gas discharges. EPA requested information on the amount of oxygen-demanding substances contained in the produced water discharges. This information is needed as inputs to several water quality models that EPA intends to run to estimate the relative contributions of the produced water discharges to the occurrence of the hypoxic zone. Sixteen platforms were sampled 3 times each at approximately one-month intervals to give an estimate of

  16. Methane activation using noble gases in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Sungkwon; Hoon Lee, Dae; Seok Kang, Woo; Song, Young-Hoon

    2013-08-15

    The conversion of methane is measured in a planar-type dielectric barrier discharge reactor using three different noble gasesHe, Ne, and Aras additives. The empirical results obtained clearly indicate that methane activation is considerably affected by thy type of noble gas used. Through 0-D calculations, the discharge parameters inside the reactor, i.e., electron temperature and electron density, are estimated using experiment results. A comparison of the discharge characteristics and experimental results shows that the electron temperature is an important factor in achieving high methane activation and the mixture with Ar gas shows the highest methane conversion. These results are constructed using the mechanisms of energy and charge transfer from excited and ionized noble gas atoms to methane molecules, considering the number density of active atoms of noble gases. Finally, electron temperatures obtained for gas mixtures having different reactant compositions and concentrations are analyzed to estimate methane activation.

  17. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Berrahou, Philip Fadhel; Jandrisevits, Michael

    2003-04-08

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  18. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Berrahou, Philip Fadhel; Jandrisevits, Michael

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  19. The role of gas composition in plasma-dust structures in RF discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiorov, S. A.; Golyatina, R. I.

    2015-03-15

    The influence of a mixture of light and heavy gases, i.e., helium and argon, on plasma-dust structures in the radiofrequency discharge has been studied. The dust chains in the sheath of the radiofrequency discharge, the average distance between the dust particles and their chains, have been analyzed. A significant effect of small amounts of argon on the correlation characteristics of dust particles has been observed. The results of numerical simulation of ion and electron drift in the mixture of helium and argon are presented. It is shown that even 1% of argon admixture to helium produces such an effect that argon ions become the main components of the discharge, as they drift with lightweight helium forming a strongly anisotropic velocity distribution function.

  20. Non-local Effects in a Stratified Glow Discharge With Dusty Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukhinin, G. I.; Fedoseev, A. V.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Amangaliyeva, R. Zh.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N.

    2008-09-07

    The work is aimed to describe non-local effects in the positive column of a low pressure stratified DC glow discharge in argon with dusty particles in a vertical cylindrical discharge tube. The numerical calculations of plasma parameters in the axis of the discharge tube were performed with the help of hybrid model based on the solution of non-local Boltzmann equation for EEDF. Distributions of optical emission from striations were measured experimentally. It is shown that in a stratified positive column the EEDF is not Maxwellian and even non-monotonous. Also, the effect of displacing of optical emission distribution relative to the electric field is shown both by numerical simulation and experimental measurements.

  1. Attenuation of single-tone ultrasound by an atmospheric glow discharge plasma barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stepaniuk, Vadim P.; Ioppolo, Tindaro; Oetuegen, M. Volkan; Sheverev, Valery A.

    2010-09-15

    Propagation of 143 kHz ultrasound through an atmospheric pressure glow discharge in air was studied experimentally. The plasma was a continuous dc discharge formed by a multipin electrode system. Distributions of the gas temperature were also obtained in and around the plasma using laser-induced Rayleigh scattering technique. Results show significant attenuation of the ultrasound by the glow discharge plasma barrier (up to -24 dB). The results indicate that sound attenuation does not depend on the thickness of the plasma and attenuation is caused primarily by reflection of the sound waves from the plasma due to the sharp gas temperatures gradients that form at the plasma boundary. These gradients can be as high as 80 K/mm.

  2. Dynamics of multiple double layers in high pressure glow discharge in a simple torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar Paul, Manash, E-mail: manashkr@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Tripura799 046 (India); Sharma, P. K.; Thakur, A.; Kulkarni, S. V.; Bora, D. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat382 428 (India)

    2014-06-15

    Parametric characterization of multiple double layers is done during high pressure glow discharge in a toroidal vessel of small aspect ratio. Although glow discharge (without magnetic field) is known to be independent of device geometry, but the toroidal boundary conditions are conducive to plasma growth and eventually the plasma occupy the toroidal volume partially. At higher anode potential, the visibly glowing spots on the body of spatially extended anode transform into multiple intensely luminous spherical plasma blob structures attached to the tip of the positive electrode. Dynamics of multiple double layers are observed in argon glow discharge plasma in presence of toroidal magnetic field. The radial profiles of plasma parameters measured at various toroidal locations show signatures of double layer formation in our system. Parametric dependence of double layer dynamics in presence of toroidal magnetic field is presented here.

  3. Continuous On-Line Partial Discharge Monitor for Medium-Voltage Cable Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Fenger

    2005-11-30

    Partial discharge (PD) assessment is one method of detecting cable conditions that predict approaching failure. While not all PDs in cable systems lead to failure, PDs within the cable's insulation can lead to relatively rapid failure. Accordingly, on-line PD assessment may be more useful than periodic PD assessment because the period of partial discharging at the end of a cable's life may be quite short. The research described in this report studied the feasibility of developing an on-line PD monitor for assessing both shielded and unshielded MV cables.

  4. Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, S.R.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1988-04-27

    Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches are disclosed. The binary mixtures are combinations of helium or neon and selected perfluorides. The ternary mixtures are combinations of helium, neon, or argon, a selected perfluoride, and a small amount of gas that exhibits enhanced ionization characteristics. These mixtures are shown to be the optimum choices for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches by virtue if the combines physio-electric properties of the mixture components. 9 figs.

  5. Plasma stability control using dielectric barriers in radio-frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, J. J.; Liu, D. W.; Kong, M. G.

    2006-08-21

    It is widely accepted that electrode insulation is unnecessary for generating radio-frequency (rf) atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGDs). It is also known that rf APGDs with large discharge current are susceptible to the glow-to-arc transition. In this letter, a computational study is presented to demonstrate that dielectric barriers provide an effective control over unlimited current growth and allow rf APGDs to be operated at very high current densities with little danger of the glow-to-arc transition. Characteristics of electrode sheaths are used to show that the stability control is achieved by forcing the plasma-containing electrode unit to acquire positive differential conductivity.

  6. Monitoring Environmental Recovery at Terminated Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents the results of a study of terminated produced water discharge sites in the coastal waters of Louisiana. Environmental recovery at the sites is documented by comparing pre-termination and post-termination (six months and one year) data. Produced water, sediments, and sediment interstitial water samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons. Benthic infauna were identified from samples collected in the vicinity of the discharge and reference sites. Radium isotope activities were determined in fish and crustacean samples. In addition, an environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  7. Estimation of the relationship between remotely sensed anthropogenic heat discharge and building energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Weng, Qihao; Gurney, Kevin R.; Shuai, Yanmin; Hu, Xuefei

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between remotely sensed anthropogenic heat discharge and energy use from residential and commercial buildings across multiple scales in the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Anthropogenic heat discharge was estimated based on a remote sensing-based surface energy balance model, which was parameterized using land cover, land surface temperature, albedo, and meteorological data. Building energy use was estimated using a GIS-based building energy simulation model in conjunction with Department of Energy/ Energy Information Administration survey data, Assessor's parcel data, GIS floor areas data, and remote sensing-derived building height data.

  8. System and method for altering characteristics of materials using an electrohydraulic discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Sujit

    2003-06-03

    System and method for oxidizing contaminants to alter specific properties, such as tack, of contaminants. The present invention reduces the tack of the stickies and pitch by exposing the materials for a short duration to low-energy pulsed electrical discharges between a pair of electrodes that are submerged in a liquid medium, such as a fiber stream, water, a pulp slurry, or whitewater. An electrical discharge in the liquid medium oxidizes materials, which may be dissolved or suspended therein, such as stickies, pitch, sulfide, ink, toner, and other substances, thereby reducing tack, odor, and/or zeta potential, as well as producing other desirable effect.

  9. Transverse-type laser assembly using induced electrical discharge excitation and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, E.R.

    1994-04-19

    A transverse-type laser assembly is disclosed herein. This assembly defines a laser cavity containing a vapor or gaseous substance which lases when subjected to specific electrical discharge excitation between a pair of spaced-apart electrodes located within the cavity in order to produce a source of light. An arrangement located entirely outside the laser cavity is provided for inducing a voltage across the electrodes within the cavity sufficient to provide the necessary electrical discharge excitation to cause a vapor substance between the electrodes to lase. 3 figures.

  10. Metod And Apparatus For Debris Mitigation For An Electrical Discharge Source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Silfvast, William T.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2005-05-03

    Method and apparatus for mitigating the transport of debris generated and dispersed from electric discharge sources by thermophoretic and electrostatic deposition. A member is positioned adjacent the front electrode of an electric discharge source and used to establish a temperature difference between it and the front electrode. By flowing a gas between the member and the front electrode a temperature gradient is established that can be used for thermophoretic deposition of particulate debris on either the member or front electrode depending upon the direction of the thermal gradient. Establishing an electric field between the member and front electrode can aid in particle deposition by electrostatic deposition.

  11. Method and apparatus for debris mitigation for an electrical discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Rader, Daniel J.; Silfvast, William T.

    2006-01-24

    Method and apparatus for mitigating the transport of debris generated and dispersed from electric discharge sources by thermophoretic and electrostatic deposition. A member is positioned adjacent the front electrode of an electric discharge source and used to establish a temperature difference between it and the front electrode. By flowing a gas between the member and the front electrode a temperature gradient is established that can be used for thermophoretic deposition of particulate debris on either the member or front electrode depending upon the direction of the thermal gradient. Establishing an electric field between the member and front electrode can aid in particle deposition by electrostatic deposition.

  12. Theoretical investigation of phase-controlled bias effect in capacitively coupled plasma discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Deuk-Chul; Yoon, Jung-Sik [Convergence Plasma Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    We theoretically investigated the effect of phase difference between powered electrodes in capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) discharges. Previous experimental result has shown that the plasma potential could be controlled by using a phase-shift controller in CCP discharges. In this work, based on the previously developed radio frequency sheath models, we developed a circuit model to self-consistently determine the bias voltage from the plasma parameters. Results show that the present theoretical model explains the experimental results quite well and there is an optimum value of the phase difference for which the V{sub dc}/V{sub pp} ratio becomes a minimum.

  13. 13.0 LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL 13.1 LIQUID EFFLUENT DISCHARGE RESTRICTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3-1 13.0 LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL 13.1 LIQUID EFFLUENT DISCHARGE RESTRICTIONS 13.1.1 Introduction This section addresses requirements for management of restrictions for discharge of liquid effluents to the soil column at Hanford. These managerial requirements are the result, in part, of EPA's and Ecology's reviews of the Liquid Effluent Study (LES) that was submitted by DOE in August 1990. The LES included information on the 33 Phase I and Phase II liquid effluent streams and was

  14. Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for Plasma Cleaning of a CEBAF

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    5-Cell SRF Cavity (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for Plasma Cleaning of a CEBAF 5-Cell SRF Cavity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for Plasma Cleaning of a CEBAF 5-Cell SRF Cavity We report the preliminary results on plasma generation in a 5-cell CEBAF superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity for the application of cavity interior surface cleaning. CEBAF currently has {approx}300 of

  15. Note: Rapid reduction of graphene oxide paper by glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo, Zheng; Qian, Jiajing; Duan, Liangping; Qiu, Kunzan Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa; Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2015-05-15

    This note reports on a novel method for the rapid reduction of graphene oxide (GO) paper using a glow discharge plasma reactor. Glow discharge is produced and sustained between two parallel-plate graphite electrodes at a pressure of 240 mTorr. By exposing GO paper at the junction of negative-glow and Faraday-dark area for 4 min, the oxygen-containing groups can be effectively removed (C/O ratio increases from 2.6 to 7.9), while the material integrality and flexibility are kept well. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the as-obtained reduced GO paper can be potentially used for supercapacitor application.

  16. Arc discharge regulation of a megawatt hot cathode bucket ion source for the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie Yahong; Hu Chundong; Liu Sheng; Jiang Caichao; Li Jun; Liang Lizhen; Collaboration: NBI Team

    2012-01-15

    Arc discharge of a hot cathode bucket ion source tends to be unstable what attributes to the filament self-heating and energetic electrons backstreaming from the accelerator. A regulation method, which based on the ion density measurement by a Langmuir probe, is employed for stable arc discharge operation and long pulse ion beam generation. Long pulse arc discharge of 100 s is obtained based on this regulation method of arc power. It establishes a foundation for the long pulse arc discharge of a megawatt ion source, which will be utilized a high power neutral beam injection device.

  17. Ambient-atmosphere glow discharge for determination of elemental concentration in solutions in a high-throughput or transient fashion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Michael R.; Hieftje, Gary M.; Andrade, Francisco

    2011-04-19

    An ambient atmosphere glow discharge spectrometer is disclosed having a capillary, two electrodes and a means for recording the atomic emissions.

  18. On the physical processes ruling an atmospheric pressure air glow discharge operating in an intermediate current regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L. Mancinelli, B.; Chamorro, J. C.; Cejas, E.; Kelly, H.

    2015-02-15

    Low-frequency (100 Hz), intermediate-current (50 to 200 mA) glow discharges were experimentally investigated in atmospheric pressure air between blunt copper electrodes. Voltage–current characteristics and images of the discharge for different inter-electrode distances are reported. A cathode-fall voltage close to 360 V and a current density at the cathode surface of about 11 A/cm{sup 2}, both independent of the discharge current, were found. The visible emissive structure of the discharge resembles to that of a typical low-pressure glow, thus suggesting a glow-like electric field distribution in the discharge. A kinetic model for the discharge ionization processes is also presented with the aim of identifying the main physical processes ruling the discharge behavior. The numerical results indicate the presence of a non-equilibrium plasma with rather high gas temperature (above 4000 K) leading to the production of components such as NO, O, and N which are usually absent in low-current glows. Hence, the ionization by electron-impact is replaced by associative ionization, which is independent of the reduced electric field. This leads to a negative current-voltage characteristic curve, in spite of the glow-like features of the discharge. On the other hand, several estimations show that the discharge seems to be stabilized by heat conduction; being thermally stable due to its reduced size. All the quoted results indicate that although this discharge regime might be considered to be close to an arc, it is still a glow discharge as demonstrated by its overall properties, supported also by the presence of thermal non-equilibrium.

  19. High-Power Electrostatic Discharges in PETN: Threshold and Scaling Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liou, W; McCarrick, J F; Hodgin, R L; Phillips, D F

    2010-03-05

    There is a considerable set of data establishing the safety of PETN-based detonators that are insulted by electrostatic discharge (ESD) from a human body. However, the subject of ESD safety has garnered renewed interest because of the sparse data on high-power, low-impedance discharges that result when the source is a metallic object such as a tool. Experiments on as-built components, using pin-to-cap fault circuits through PETN-based detonators, showed significant evidence of a power dependence but with a very broad energy threshold and some uncertainty in the breakdown path. We have performed a series of experiments using a well-defined arc discharge path and a well-characterized source that is capable of independent variation of energy and power. Studies include threshold variation with power, arc length, powder surface area, and surface vs. bulk discharge paths. We find that an energy threshold variation with power does not appear to exist in the tested range of fractions to tens of MW, and that there are many subtleties to proper energy and power bookkeeping. We also present some test results for PBX 9407.

  20. High explosives vapor detection by atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization/tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G.

    1996-02-01

    The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of traces of high explosives is described. Particular emphasis is placed on use of the quadrupole ion trap as the type of tandem mass spectrometer. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge provides a simple, rugged, and efficient means for anion formation while the quadrupole ion trap provides for efficient tandem mass spectrometry. Mass selective ion accumulation and non-specific ion activation methods can be used to overcome deleterious effects arising from ion/ion interactions. Such interactions constitute the major potential technical barrier to the use of the ion trap for real-time monitoring of targeted compounds in uncontrolled and highly variable matrices. Tailored waveforms can be used to effect both mass selective ion accumulation and ion activation. Concatenated tailored waveforms allow for both functions in a single experiment thereby providing the capability for monitoring several targeted species simultaneously. The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with a state-of-the-art analytical quadrupole ion trap is a highly sensitive and specific detector for traces of high explosives. The combination is also small and inexpensive relative to virtually any other form of tandem mass spectrometry. The science and technology underlying the glow discharge/ion trap combination is sufficiently mature to form the basis for an engineering effort to make the detector portable. 85 refs.

  1. Investigation on oblique shock wave control by arc discharge plasma in supersonic airflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Jian; Li Yinghong; Xing Fei

    2009-10-01

    Wedge oblique shock wave control by arc discharge plasma in supersonic airflow was investigated theoretically, experimentally, and numerically in this paper. Using thermal choking model, the change in oblique shock wave was deduced, which refer that the start point of shock wave shifts upstream, the shock wave angle decreases, and its intensity weakens. Then the theoretical results were validated experimentally in a Mach 2.2 wind tunnel. On the test conditions of arc discharge power of approx1 kW and arc plasma temperature of approx3000 K, schlieren photography and gas pressure measurements indicated that the start point of shock wave shifted upstream of approx4 mm, the shock wave angle decreased 8.6%, and its intensity weakened 8.8%. The deduced theoretical results match the test results qualitatively, so thermal mechanism and thermal choking model are rational to explain the problem of oblique shock wave control by arc discharge plasma. Finally, numerical simulation was developed. Based on thermal mechanism, the arc discharge plasma was simplified as a thermal source term that added to the Navier-Stokes equations. The simulation results of the change in oblique shock wave were consistent with the test results, so the thermal mechanism indeed dominates the oblique shock wave control process.

  2. Preliminary investigation Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    This report documents the characterization activities and findings of a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site. The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12 east of Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The characterization project was completed as a required condition of the ``Temporary Water Pollution Control Permit for the Discharge From Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Facility`` issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The project objective was to collect shallow soil samples in eight locations in the former surface discharge area. Based upon field observations, twelve locations were sampled on September 6, 1995 to better define the area of potential impact. Samples were collected from the surface to a depth of approximately 0.3 meters (one foot) below land surface. Discoloration of the surface soil was observed in the area of the discharge pipe and in localized areas in the natural drainage channel. The discoloration appeared to be consistent with the topographically low areas of the site. Hydrocarbon odors were noted in the areas of discoloration only. Samples collected were analyzed for bulk asbestos, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (Semi-VOCs), and gamma scan.

  3. Solid target boronization of the MST reversed-field pinch during pulsed discharge cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Den Hartog, D.J.; Kendrick, R.D.

    1994-06-01

    A solid rod of hot-pressed boron carbide is currently being used as the source of boron during boronization of MST. In previous work the authors have demonstrated that boronization can be effectively accomplished by insertion of a low apparent density B{sub 4}C rod into the edge hydrogen plasma of normal high-power RFP discharges. The authors have now extended that technique and can boronize MST by inserting a negatively biased B{sub 4}C rod into pulsed discharge cleaning (PDC) helium plasmas. The same positive results of reduced impurity contamination and particle reflux are achieved with this new boronization method. The bias for the target is provided by the ohmic heating transformer which is pulsed to produce the PDC discharges. Current flow through the B{sub 4}C rod is limited by an inductor. The amount of hydrogen in the amorphous boron carbide films is minimal because the only hydrogen in the PDC plasma is that left over from RFP discharges.

  4. Electric field measurement in microwave discharge ion thruster with electro-optic probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ise, Toshiyuki; Tsukizaki, Ryudo; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Togo, Hiroyoshi; Kuninaka, Hitoshi

    2012-12-15

    In order to understand the internal phenomena in a microwave discharge ion thruster, it is important to measure the distribution of the microwave electric field inside the discharge chamber, which is directly related to the plasma production. In this study, we proposed a novel method of measuring a microwave electric field with an electro-optic (EO) probe based on the Pockels effect. The probe, including a cooling system, contains no metal and can be accessed in the discharge chamber with less disruption to the microwave distribution. This method enables measurement of the electric field profile under ion beam acceleration. We first verified the measurement with the EO probe by a comparison with a finite-difference time domain numerical simulation of the microwave electric field in atmosphere. Second, we showed that the deviations of the reflected microwave power and the beam current were less than 8% due to inserting the EO probe into the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration. Finally, we successfully demonstrated the measurement of the electric-field profile in the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration. These measurements show that the electric field distribution in the thruster dramatically changes in the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration as the propellant mass flow rate increases. These results indicate that this new method using an EO probe can provide a useful guide for improving the propulsion of microwave discharge ion thrusters.

  5. Effect of packing material on methane activation in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Sungkwon; Hoon Lee, Dae; Seok Kang, Woo; Song, Young-Hoon

    2013-12-15

    The conversion of methane is measured in a planar-type dielectric barrier discharge reactor using ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (sphere), ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (sphere), and ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1620 mesh). Investigations on the surface properties and shape of the three packing materials clearly indicate that methane activation is considerably affected by the material used. Capacitances inside the discharge gap are estimated from chargevoltage plots, and a comparison of the generated and transferred charges for different packing conditions show that the difference in surface properties between ?- and ?-phase Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} affects the discharge characteristics. Moreover, all packing conditions show different charge characteristics that are related to the electron density. Finally, the packing material's shape affects the local electron temperature, which is strongly related to methane conversion. The combined results indicate that both microscale and macroscale variations in a packing material affect the discharge characteristics, and a packing material should be considered carefully for effective methane activation.

  6. Structural properties of dusty plasma in direct current and radio frequency gas discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramazanov, T. S.; Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Jumabekov, A. N.; Dosbolayev, M. K.

    2008-05-15

    This paper presents radial distribution functions of dust particles obtained experimentally in dc and rf discharges. Pressure and interaction energy of dusty particles were calculated on the basis of these functions. The Langevin dynamics computer simulation for each experiment was performed. The comparisons with computer simulations are made.

  7. Dynamics of the ion flow in a discharge with crossed E and H fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Movsesyants, Yu. B. Tyuryukanov, P. M.

    2011-12-15

    The experimental and theoretical results of the investigation of an ion flow in a low-pressure discharge in crossed E and H fields are presented. It is shown that two quasi-stationary current states can be realized in a transonic collisionless flow of ions in a cold plasma.

  8. Measurements of time average series resonance effect in capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H.; Kakati, M.

    2011-10-15

    Self-excited plasma series resonance is observed in low pressure capacitvely coupled radio frequency discharges as high-frequency oscillations superimposed on the normal radio frequency current. This high-frequency contribution to the radio frequency current is generated by a series resonance between the capacitive sheath and the inductive and resistive bulk plasma. In this report, we present an experimental method to measure the plasma series resonance in a capacitively coupled radio frequency argon plasma by modifying the homogeneous discharge model. The homogeneous discharge model is modified by introducing a correction factor to the plasma resistance. Plasma parameters are also calculated by considering the plasma series resonances effect. Experimental measurements show that the self-excitation of the plasma series resonance, which arises in capacitive discharge due to the nonlinear interaction of plasma bulk and sheath, significantly enhances both the Ohmic and stochastic heating. The experimentally measured total dissipation, which is the sum of the Ohmic and stochastic heating, is found to increase significantly with decreasing pressure.

  9. Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana open bays. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1996-03-22

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has a program of research in the environmental aspects of oil and gas extraction. This sampling project will characterize the environmental impacts associated with the discharge of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), metals and organics in produced water. This report is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico, supported by the USDOE. These assessments are being coordinated with the field study, using the collected data to perform human health and ecological risk assessments. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the development and use of appropriate discharge practices. The initial human health and ecological risk assessments consist of conservative screening analyses meant to identify potentially important contaminants, and to eliminate others from further consideration. More quantitative assessments were done for contaminants identified, in the screening analysis, as being of potential concern. Section 2 gives an overview of human health and ecological risk assessment to help put the analyses presented here in perspective. Section 3 provides the hazard assessment portion of the risk assessment, and identifies the important receptors and pathways of concern. Section 3 also outlines the approach taken to the risk assessments presented in the rest of the report. The remaining sections (4 through 9) present the human health and ecological risk assessments for discharges of produced water to open bays in Louisiana.

  10. Final Report: Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana open bays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1996-03-01

    Potential human health and environmental impacts from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico are of concern to regulators at the State and Federal levels, the public, environmental interest groups and industry. Current and proposed regulations require a zero discharge limit for coastal facilities, based primarily on studies in low energy, poorly flushed environments. However, produced water discharges in coastal Louisiana include a number of open bay sites, where potential human health and environmental impacts are likely to be smaller than those demonstrated for low energy canal environments, but greater than the minimal impacts associated with offshore discharges. Additional data and assessments are needed to support risk managers at the State and Federal levels in the development of regulations that protect human health and the environment without unnecessary cost to the economic welfare of the region and the nation. This project supports the Natural Gas and Oil Initiative objectives to: (1) improve coordination on environmental research; (2) streamline State and Federal regulation; (3) enhance State, and Federal regulatory decision making capability; (4) enhance dialogue through industry/government/public partnerships; and (5) work with States and Native American Tribes.

  11. Discharge Performance of Li-O2 Batteries Using a Multiscale Modeling Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Stewart, Mark L.; Zhang, Jiguang; Pan, Wenxiao

    2015-06-10

    To study the discharge performance of Li–O2 batteries, we propose a multiscale modeling framework that links models in an upscaling fashion from the nanoscale to mesoscale and finally to the device scale. We have effectively reconstructed the microstructure of a Li–O2 air electrode in silico, conserving the porosity, surface-to-volume ratio, and pore size distribution of the real air electrode structure. The mechanism of rate-dependent morphology of Li2O2 growth is incorporated into the mesoscale model. The correlation between the active-surface-to-volume ratio and averaged Li2O2 concentration is derived to link different scales. The proposed approach’s accuracy is first demonstrated by comparing the predicted discharge curves of Li–O2 batteries with experimental results at the high current density. Next, the validated modeling approach effectively captures the significant improvement in discharge capacity due to the formation of Li2O2 particles. Finally, it predicts the discharge capacities of Li–O2 batteries with different air electrode microstructure designs and operating conditions.

  12. State waste discharge permit application 400 Area secondary cooling water. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site that affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Based upon compositional and flow rate characteristics, liquid effluent streams on the Hanford Site have been categorized into Phase 1, Phase 2, and Miscellaneous streams. This document only addresses the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream, which has been identified as a Phase 2 stream. The 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream includes contribution streams from the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility, the Maintenance and Storage Facility, the 481-A pump house, and the Fast Flux Test Facility.

  13. Plasma-Enhanced Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Fuel Blends Using Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappelli, Mark; Mungal, M Godfrey

    2014-10-28

    This project had as its goals the study of fundamental physical and chemical processes relevant to the sustained premixed and non-premixed jet ignition/combustion of low grade fuels or fuels under adverse flow conditions using non-equilibrium pulsed nanosecond discharges.

  14. Evolution of Some Particle Detectors Based On the Discharge in Gases

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Charpak, G.

    1969-11-19

    Summary of the properties of some of the detectors that are commonly used in counter experiments to localize charged particles, and which are based on discharge in gases under the influence of electric fields and some basic facts of gaseous amplification in homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields.

  15. Comparative analysis of discharges into Lake Michigan, Phase I - Southern Lake Michigan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Elcock, D.; Gasper, J. R.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-06-30

    BP Products North America Inc. (BP) owns and operates a petroleum refinery located on approximately 1,700 acres in Whiting, East Chicago, and Hammond, Indiana, near the southern tip of Lake Michigan. BP provided funding to Purdue University-Calumet Water Institute (Purdue) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct studies related to wastewater treatment and discharges. Purdue and Argonne are working jointly to identify and characterize technologies that BP could use to meet the previous discharge permit limits for total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia after refinery modernization. In addition to the technology characterization work, Argonne conducted a separate project task, which is the subject of this report. In Phase I of a two-part study, Argonne estimated the current levels of discharge to southern Lake Michigan from significant point and nonpoint sources in Illinois, Indiana, and portions of Michigan. The study does not consider all of the chemicals that are discharged. Rather, it is narrowly focused on a selected group of pollutants, referred to as the 'target pollutants'. These include: TSS, ammonia, total and hexavalent chromium, mercury, vanadium, and selenium. In Phase II of the study, Argonne will expand the analysis to cover the entire Lake Michigan drainage basin.

  16. Capacitively Coupled Radio Frequency Discharge Plasmas In Hydrogen: Particle Modeling and Negative Ion Kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diomede, P.; Longo, S.; Capitelli, M.

    2005-05-16

    We present a 1D(r)2D(v) particle code for capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge plasmas in hydrogen, which includes a rigorous kinetic modeling of ion transport and several solutions to speed up the convergence. In a test case the effect of surface atom recombination and molecule vibrational deactivation on H- concentration is investigated.

  17. Experimental study on thermal characteristics of positive leader discharges using Mach-Zehnder interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, X. Zeng, R.; Zhuang, C.; Chen, S.

    2015-06-15

    Leader discharge is one of the main phases in long air gap breakdown, which is characterized by high temperature and high conductivity. It is of great importance to determine thermal characteristics of leader discharges. In this paper, a long-optical-path Mach-Zehnder interferometer was set up to measure the thermal parameters (thermal diameter, gas density, and gas temperature) of positive leader discharges in atmospheric air. IEC standard positive switching impulse voltages were applied to a near-one-meter point-plane air gap. Filamentary channels with high gas temperature and low density corresponding to leader discharges were observed as significant distortions in the interference fringe images. Typical diameters of the entire heated channel range from 1.5?mm to 3.5?mm with an average expansion velocity of 6.7?m/s. In contrast, typical diameters of the intensely heated region with a sharp gas density reduction range from 0.4?mm to 1.1?mm, about one third of the entire heated channel. The radial distribution of the gas density is calculated from the fringe displacements by performing an Abel inverse transform. The typical calculated gas density reduction in the center of a propagating leader channel is 80% to 90%, corresponding to a gas temperature of 1500?K to 3000?K based on the ideal gas law. Leaders tend to terminate if the central temperature is below 1500?K.

  18. Charging/discharging behavior and mechanism of silicon quantum dots embedded in amorphous silicon carbide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Xixing; Zeng, Xiangbin Zheng, Wenjun; Liao, Wugang; Feng, Feng

    2015-01-14

    The charging/discharging behavior of Si quantum dots (QDs) embedded in amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC{sub x}) was investigated based on the Al/insulating layer/Si QDs embedded in a-SiC{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si (metal-insulator-quantum dots-oxide-silicon) multilayer structure by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G-V) measurements. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy measurements reveal the microstructure and distribution of Si QDs. The occurrence and shift of conductance peaks indicate the carrier transfer and the charging/discharging behavior of Si QDs. The multilayer structure shows a large memory window of 5.2 eV at ±8 V sweeping voltage. Analysis of the C-V and G-V results allows a quantification of the Coulomb charging energy and the trapped charge density associated with the charging/discharging behavior. It is found that the memory window is related to the size effect, and Si QDs with large size or low Coulomb charging energy can trap two or more electrons by changing the charging voltage. Meanwhile, the estimated lower potential barrier height between Si QD and a-SiC{sub x}, and the lower Coulomb charging energy of Si QDs could enhance the charging and discharging effect of Si QDs and lead to an enlarged memory window. Further studies of the charging/discharging mechanism of Si QDs embedded in a-SiC{sub x} can promote the application of Si QDs in low-power consumption semiconductor memory devices.

  19. A Spectroscopic Study of Impurity Behavior in Neutral-beam and Ohmically Heated TFTR Discharges

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Stratton, B. C.; Ramsey, A. T.; Boody, F. P.; Bush, C. E.; Fonck, R. J.; Groenbner, R. J.; Hulse, R. A.; Richards, R. K.; Schivell, J.

    1987-02-01

    Quantitative spectroscopic measurements of Z{sub eff}, impurity densities, and radiated power losses have been made for ohmic- and neutral-beam-heated TFTR discharges at a plasma current of 2.2 MA and toroidal field of 4.7 T. Variations in these quantities with line-average plasma density (anti n{sub e}) and beam power up to 5.6 MW are presented for discharges on a graphite movable limiter. A detailed discussion of the use of an impurity transport model to infer absolute impurity densities and radiative losses from line intensity and visible continuum measurements is given. These discharges were dominated by low-Z impurities with carbon having a considerably higher density than oxygen, except in high-anti n{sub e} ohmic discharges, where the densities of carbon and oxygen were comparable. Metallic impurity concentrations and radiative losses were small, resulting in hollow radiated power profiles and fractions of the input power radiated being 30 to 50% for ohmic heating and 30% or less with beam heating. Spectroscopic estimates of the radiated power were in good agreement with bolometrically measured values. Due to an increase in the carbon density, Z{sub eff} rose from 2.0 to 2.8 as the beam power increased from 0 to 5.6 MW, pointing to a potentially serious dilution of the neutron-producing plasma ions as the beam power increased. Both the low-Z and metallic impurity concentrations were approximately constant with minor radius, indicating no central impurity accumulation in these discharges.

  20. An atomistically informed mesoscale model for growth and coarsening during discharge in lithium-oxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welland, Michael J.; Lau, Kah Chun; Redfern, Paul C.; Wolf, Dieter; Curtiss, Larry A.; Liang, Linyun; Zhai, Denyun

    2015-12-14

    An atomistically informed mesoscale model is developed for the deposition of a discharge product in a Li-O{sub 2} battery. This mescocale model includes particle growth and coarsening as well as a simplified nucleation model. The model involves LiO{sub 2} formation through reaction of O{sub 2}{sup −} and Li{sup +} in the electrolyte, which deposits on the cathode surface when the LiO{sub 2} concentration reaches supersaturation in the electrolyte. A reaction-diffusion (rate-equation) model is used to describe the processes occurring in the electrolyte and a phase-field model is used to capture microstructural evolution. This model predicts that coarsening, in which large particles grow and small ones disappear, has a substantial effect on the size distribution of the LiO{sub 2} particles during the discharge process. The size evolution during discharge is the result of the interplay between this coarsening process and particle growth. The growth through continued deposition of LiO{sub 2} has the effect of causing large particles to grow ever faster while delaying the dissolution of small particles. The predicted size evolution is consistent with experimental results for a previously reported cathode material based on activated carbon during discharge and when it is at rest, although kinetic factors need to be included. The approach described in this paper synergistically combines models on different length scales with experimental observations and should have applications in studying other related discharge processes, such as Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} deposition, in Li-O{sub 2} batteries and nucleation and growth in Li-S batteries.

  1. The Design of a RapidDischarge Varistor System for the MICE Magnet Circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A.

    2008-07-23

    The need for a magnet circuit discharge system, in order to protect the magnet HTS leads during a power failure, has been discussed in recent MICE reports [1], [2]. In order to rapidly discharge a magnet, one has to put enough resistance across the lead. The resistance in this case is varistor that is put across the magnet in the event of a power outage. The resistance consists of several diodes, which act as constant voltage resistors and the resistance of the cables connecting the magnets in the circuit to each other and to the power supply. In order for the rapid discharge system to work without quenching the magnets, the voltage across the magnets must be low enough so that the diodes in the quench protection circuit don't fire and cause the magnet current to bypass the superconducting coils. It is proposed that six rapid discharge varistors be installed across the three magnet circuits the power the tracker solenoids, which are connected in series. The focusing magnets, which are also connected in series would have three varistors (one for each magnet). The coupling magnets would have a varistor for each magnet. The peak voltage that is allowed per varistor depends on the number of quench protection diodes that make up the quench protection circuit for each magnet coil circuit. It is proposed that the varistors be water cooled as the magnet circuits are being discharged through them. The water cooling circuit can be supplied with tap water. The tap water flows only when the varistor temperature reaches a temperature of 45 C.

  2. The dependence of extracted current on discharge gas pressure in neutral beam ion sources on HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, H. L.; Cao, J. Y.; Rao, J.; Lei, G. J.; Jiang, S. F.; Liu, H.; Yu, L. M.; Xie, W. M.; Li, M.; Yang, X. F.; Zou, G. Q.; Lu, D. L.; Duan, X. R.

    2012-02-15

    The discharge gas pressure is a key factor to influence the extracted current of ion source. In this paper, the dependence of extracted current on discharge gas pressure was investigated in detail at different arc discharge currents. The discharge gas pressure with a very broad range (0.1 Pa-2.7 Pa) was scanned for the first time. It is turned out that, with the increasing of discharge gas pressure, the extracted current increases and the arc voltage decreases at different arc currents; however, when the discharge gas pressure exceeds a certain value, the extracted current decreases. For the same discharge gas pressure, the higher the arc current, the higher the arc voltage and the extracted current are. The arc efficiency was also calculated, and its dependence on gas pressure was almost the same with the dependence of extracted current on gas pressure, but at the same discharge gas pressure, the lower the arc current, the higher the arc efficiency is and the lower the extracted current is.

  3. X-ray emission from a nanosecond-pulse discharge in an inhomogeneous electric field at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Cheng; Shao Tao; Ren Chengyan; Zhang Dongdong; Tarasenko, Victor; Kostyrya, Igor D.; Ma Hao; Yan Ping

    2012-12-15

    This paper describes experimental studies of the dependence of the X-ray intensity on the anode material in nanosecond high-voltage discharges. The discharges were generated by two nanosecond-pulse generators in atmospheric air with a highly inhomogeneous electric field by a tube-plate gap. The output pulse of the first generator (repetitive pulse generator) has a rise time of about 15 ns and a full width at half maximum of 30-40 ns. The output of the second generator (single pulse generator) has a rise time of about 0.3 ns and a full width at half maximum of 1 ns. The electrical characteristics and the X-ray emission of nanosecond-pulse discharge in atmospheric air are studied by the measurement of voltage-current waveforms, discharge images, X-ray count and dose. Our experimental results showed that the anode material rarely affects electrical characteristics, but it can significantly affect the X-ray density. Comparing the density of X-rays, it was shown that the highest x-rays density occurred in the diffuse discharge in repetitive pulse mode, then the spark discharge with a small air gap, and then the corona discharge with a large air gap, in which the X-ray density was the lowest. Therefore, it could be confirmed that the bremsstrahlung at the anode contributes to the X-ray emission from nanosecond-pulse discharges.

  4. Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc.

  5. Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1990-06-26

    An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

  6. Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1988-06-28

    An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

  7. Hydrogeologic controls on ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River near the Hanford Townsite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luttrell, S.P.; Newcomer, D.R.; Teel, S.S.; Vermeul, V.R.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River in the Hanford Townsite vicinity. The primary objectives of the work are to: describe the hydrogeologic setting and controls on ground-water movement and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; understand the river/aquifer relationship and its effects on contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; quantify the ground-water and contaminant mass discharge to the Columbia River; and provide data that may be useful for a three-dimensional model of ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the Hanford Townsite study area. The majority of ground-water contamination occurs within the unconfined aquifer; therefore, ground-water and contaminant discharge from the unconfined aquifer is the emphasis of this study. The period of study is primarily from June 1990 through March 1992.

  8. Improved volume-averaged model for steady and pulsed-power electronegative discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sungjin; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Gudmundsson, J. T.

    2006-11-15

    An improved volume-averaged global model is developed for a cylindrical (radius R, length L) electronegative (EN) plasma that is applicable over a wide range of electron densities, electronegativities, and pressures. It is applied to steady and pulsed-power oxygen discharges. The model incorporates effective volume and surface loss factors for positive ions, negative ions, and electrons combining three electronegative discharge regimes: a two-region regime with a parabolic EN core surrounded by an electropositive edge, a one-region parabolic EN plasma, and a one-region flat-topped EN plasma, spanning the plasma parameters and gas pressures of interest for low pressure processing (below a few hundred millitorr). Pressure-dependent effective volume and surface loss factors are also used for the neutral species. A set of reaction rate coefficients, updated from previous model calculations, is developed for oxygen for the species O{sub 2}, O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}{sub g}), O, O{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sup +}, and O{sup -}, based on the latest published cross-section sets and measurements. The model solutions yield all of the quantities above together with such important processing quantities such as the neutral/ion flux ratio {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}, with the discharge aspect ratio 2R/L and pulsed-power period and duty ratio (pulse on-time/pulse period) as parameters. The steady discharge results are compared to an experiment, giving good agreement. For steady discharges, increasing 2R/L from 1 to 6 leads to a factor of 0.45 reduction in {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}. For pulsed discharges with a fixed duty ratio, {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} is found to have a minimum with respect to pulse period. A 25% duty ratio pulse reduces {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} by a factor of 0.75 compared to the steady-state case.

  9. Two-dimensional positive column structure in a discharge tube with radius discontinuity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zobnin, A. V. Usachev, A. D.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.

    2014-11-15

    The low-pressure (40 and 90?Pa) low-current (4 and 10?mA) direct current discharge in a tube with a sharp change of its radius is studied both numerically and experimentally. A fully self-consistent hybrid numerical model of a two-dimensional non-uniform positive column in neon is developed using a nonlocal approach. The model combines kinetic simulation of the electrons (under two-terms approach) and fluid description of the neon ions and permits to calculate the distribution of all plasma parameters in the direct current discharges in the cameras with cylindrical geometry and radius discontinuity. The simulation results are compared with the measured 585.3?nm neon spectral line absolute intensities and excited 1s{sub 3} metastable neon atom number densities. Non-local electron kinetics in the transition region and formation of standing strata are discussed.

  10. Current-voltage characteristics of dc corona discharges in air between coaxial cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Yuesheng; Zhang, Bo He, Jinliang

    2015-02-15

    This paper presents the experimental measurement and numerical analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of dc corona discharges in air between coaxial cylinders. The current-voltage characteristics for both positive and negative corona discharges were measured within a specially designed corona cage. Then the measured results were fitted by different empirical formulae and analyzed by the fluid model. The current-voltage characteristics between coaxial cylinders can be expressed as I = C(U − U{sub 0}){sup m}, where m is within the range 1.5–2.0, which is similar to the point-plane electrode system. The ionization region has no significant effect on the current-voltage characteristic under a low corona current, while it will affect the distribution for the negative corona under a high corona current. The surface onset fields and ion mobilities were emphatically discussed.

  11. Study on a negative hydrogen ion source with hot cathode arc discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, S. H. Fang, X.; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 ; Zhang, H. J.; Qian, C.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, P.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-02-15

    A negative hydrogen (H{sup ?}) ion source with hot cathode arc discharge was designed and fabricated as a primary injector for a 10 MeV PET cyclotron at IMP. 1 mA dc H{sup ?} beam with ? {sub N,} {sub RMS} = 0.08 ??mm?mrad was extracted at 25 kV. Halbach hexapole was adopted to confine the plasma. The state of arc discharge, the parameters including filament current, arc current, gas pressure, plasma electrode bias, and the ratio of I{sub e{sup ?}}/I{sub H{sup ?}} were experimentally studied. The discussion on the result, and opinions to improve the source were given.

  12. Studies of Discharge Parameters Influence on the IPD Plasma Deposition Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabinski, Marek; Zdunek, Krzysztof

    2006-01-15

    The paper presents recent studies of a current sheet dynamics influence on the surface engineering process of impulse plasma deposition (IPD). During the IPD process plasma is generated in the working gas due to a high-voltage high-current oscillating pulse discharge, ignited within an interelectrode region of a coaxial accelerator. The changes of plasma dynamics and generation mechanisms, e.g. the electric arc instead of the plasma sheet formation during the consecutive half-periods of discharge, cause the different deposition efficiency for accelerator with the outer electrode system composed of stainless steel rods instead of standard tubular one. The coating efficiency and deposited layer quality have been examined for the titanium nitride as the model material for surface engineering.

  13. Environmental and economic assessment of discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettleson, D.A.

    1997-11-24

    Task 3 (Environmental Field Sampling and Analysis of NORM, Heavy Metals, and Organics) and 4 (Monitoring of the Recovery of Impacted Wetland and Open Bay Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana and Texas) activities involved continued data analysis and report writing. Task 5 (Assessment of Economic Impacts of Offshore and Coastal Discharge Requirements on Present and Future Operations in the Gulf of Mexico Region) was issued as a final report during the previous reporting period. Task 6 (Synthesis of Gulf of Mexico Seafood Consumption and Use Patterns) activities included the preparation of the final report. There were no Task 7 (Technology Transfer Plan) activities to report. Task 8 (Project Management and Deliverables) activities involved the submission of the necessary reports and routine management.

  14. Computational studies for plasma filamentation by magnetic field in atmospheric microwave discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2014-12-01

    Plasma filamentation is induced by an external magnetic field in an atmospheric discharge using intense microwaves. A discrete structure is obtained at low ambient pressure if a strong magnetic field of more than 1 T is applied, due to the suppression of electron diffusion, whereas a diffusive pattern is generated with no external field. Applying a magnetic field can slow the discharge front propagation due to magnetic confinement of the electron transport. If the resonance conditions are satisfied for electron cyclotron resonance and its higher harmonics, the propagation speed increases because the heated electrons easily ionize neutral particles. The streamer velocity and the pattern of the microwave plasma are positively controlled by adjusting two parameters—the electron diffusion coefficient and the ionization frequency—through the resonance process and magnetic confinement, and hot, dense filamentary plasma can be concentrated in a compact volume to reduce energy loss in a plasma device like a microwave rocket.

  15. 2D laser-collision induced fluorescence in low-pressure argon discharges

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barnat, E. V.; Weatherford, B. R.

    2015-09-25

    Development and application of laser-collision induced fluorescence (LCIF) diagnostic technique is presented for the use of interrogating argon plasma discharges. Key atomic states of argon utilized for the LCIF method are identified. A simplified two-state collisional radiative model is then used to establish scaling relations between the LCIF, electron density, and reduced electric fields (E/N). The procedure used to generate, detect and calibrate the LCIF in controlled plasma environments is discussed in detail. LCIF emanating from an argon discharge is then presented for electron densities spanning 109 e cm–3 to 1012 e cm–3 and reduced electric fields spanning 0.1 Tdmore » to 40 Td. Lastly, application of the LCIF technique for measuring the spatial distribution of both electron densities and reduced electric field is demonstrated.« less

  16. Methane activation using Kr and Xe in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Sungkwon; Lee, Dae Hoon Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Woo Seok; Song, Young-Hoon

    2014-10-15

    Methane has interested many researchers as a possible new energy source, but the high stability of methane causes a bottleneck in methane activation, limiting its practical utilization. To determine how to effectively activate methane using non-thermal plasma, the conversion of methane is measured in a planar-type dielectric barrier discharge reactor using three different noble gases—Ar, Kr, and Xe—as additives. In addition to the methane conversion results at various applied voltages, the discharge characteristics such as electron temperature and electron density were calculated through zero-dimensional calculations. Moreover, the threshold energies of excitation and ionization were used to distinguish the dominant particle for activating methane between electrons, excited atoms, and ionized atoms. From the experiments and calculations, the selection of the additive noble gas is found to affect not only the conversion of methane but also the selectivity of product gases even under similar electron temperature and electron density conditions.

  17. Electron dynamics and plasma jet formation in a helium atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Algwari, Q. Th.; O'Connell, D.

    2011-09-19

    The excitation dynamics within the main plasma production region and the plasma jets of a kHz atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet operated in helium was investigated. Within the dielectric tube, the plasma ignites as a streamer-type discharge. Plasma jets are emitted from both the powered and grounded electrode end; their dynamics are compared and contrasted. Ignition of these jets are quite different; the jet emitted from the powered electrode is ignited with a slight time delay to plasma ignition inside the dielectric tube, while breakdown of the jet at the grounded electrode end is from charging of the dielectric and is therefore dependent on plasma production and transport within the dielectric tube. Present streamer theories can explain these dynamics.

  18. Isotope effects on desorption kinetics of hydrogen isotopes implanted into stainless steel by glow discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuyama, M.; Kondo, M.; Noda, N.; Tanaka, M.; Nishimura, K.

    2015-03-15

    In a fusion device the control of fuel particles implies to know the desorption rate of hydrogen isotopes by the plasma-facing materials. In this paper desorption kinetics of hydrogen isotopes implanted into type 316L stainless steel by glow discharge have been studied by experiment and numerical calculation. The temperature of a maximum desorption rate depends on glow discharge time and heating rate. Desorption spectra observed under various experimental conditions have been successfully reproduced by numerical simulations that are based on a diffusion-limited process. It is suggested, therefore, that desorption rate of a hydrogen isotope implanted into the stainless steel is limited by a diffusion process of hydrogen isotope atoms in bulk. Furthermore, small isotope effects were observed for the diffusion process of hydrogen isotope atoms. (authors)

  19. 2D laser-collision induced fluorescence in low-pressure argon discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnat, E. V.; Weatherford, B. R.

    2015-09-25

    Development and application of laser-collision induced fluorescence (LCIF) diagnostic technique is presented for the use of interrogating argon plasma discharges. Key atomic states of argon utilized for the LCIF method are identified. A simplified two-state collisional radiative model is then used to establish scaling relations between the LCIF, electron density, and reduced electric fields (E/N). The procedure used to generate, detect and calibrate the LCIF in controlled plasma environments is discussed in detail. LCIF emanating from an argon discharge is then presented for electron densities spanning 109 e cm–3 to 1012 e cm–3 and reduced electric fields spanning 0.1 Td to 40 Td. Lastly, application of the LCIF technique for measuring the spatial distribution of both electron densities and reduced electric field is demonstrated.

  20. Experimental observation of standing wave effect in low-pressure very-high-frequency capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Jia; Wang, You-Nian

    2014-07-28

    Radial uniformity measurements of plasma density were carried out by using a floating double probe in a cylindrical (21 cm in electrode diameter) capacitive discharge reactor driven over a wide range of frequencies (27–220 MHz). At low rf power, a multiple-node structure of standing wave effect was observed at 130 MHz. The secondary density peak caused by the standing wave effect became pronounced and shifts toward the axis as the driving frequency further to increase, indicative of a much more shortened standing-wave wavelength. With increasing rf power, the secondary density peak shift toward the radial edge, namely, the standing-wave wavelength was increased, in good qualitative agreement with the previous theory and simulation results. At higher pressures and high frequencies, the rf power was primarily deposited at the periphery of the electrode, due to the fact that the waves were strongly damped as they propagated from the discharge edge into the center.