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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hfcs perfluorocarbons pfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs Danish consumption and emissions, 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption and emissions, 2007 Tomas Sander Poulsen AND EMISSION OF F-GASES 7 1.1.1 Consumption 7 1.1.2 Emission 7 1.1.3 Trends in total GWP contribution from F 21 4 EMISSION OF F-GASES 23 4.1.1 Emissions of HFCs from refrigerants 23 4.1.2 Emissions of HFCs from


Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)



Perfluorocarbons in the global atmosphere: tetrafluoromethane, hexafluoroethane, and octafluoropropane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present atmospheric baseline growth rates from the 1970s to the present for the long-lived, strongly infrared-absorbing perfluorocarbons (PFCs) tetrafluoromethane (CF4), hexafluoroethane (C2F6), and octafluoropropane ...

Muhle, J.


Trends and inferred emissions of atmospheric high molecular weight perfluorocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric observations and atmospheric observation-based global emission estimates are presented for the five high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C 4 F 1 0 ), dodecafluoropentane (C5 F1 2 ), ...

Ivy, Diane Jean




E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the perfluorocarbons (PFCs) CF4 and C2F6 (1). Owing to the high global warming potentials of these gases (2 that trace levels of CF4 are present in the anode off-gas during #12;periods of normal operation (5

Sadoway, Donald Robert


Towards Elimination of the Anode Effect and Perfluorocarbon Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on anode effect Hall-H�roult cell produces CF4 and C2F6 (PFCs) p PFCs have high GWP p in US, Al smelting & Sadoway (1997) r CF4 = a exp (b E ), where b = 0.331 V�1 #12;Sadoway, MIT ECS Meeting, Philadelphia, May

Sadoway, Donald Robert


EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5. High-GWP gases 5. High-GWP gases 5.1. Total emissions Greenhouse gases with high global warming potential (high-GWP gases) are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which together represented 3 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2009. Emissions estimates for the high-GWP gases are provided to EIA by the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation. The estimates for emissions of HFCs not related to industrial processes or electric transmission are derived from the EPA Vintaging Model. Emissions from manufacturing and utilities are derived by the EPA from a mix of public and proprietary data, including from the EPA's voluntary emission reduction partnership programs. For this year's EIA inventory, 2008 values for HFC-23 from HCFC-22



E-Print Network [OSTI]

USING LIDAR TO MEASURE PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS FOR THE VERIFICATION AND MONITORING OF CAP AND COVER to detect PMCH (perfluoromethylcyclohexane, one of a group of PFTs used at BNL). Laboratory measurements then measured down to 1 ppb-m. These results are very promising and show great potential for monitoring


Word Pro - S12  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Note 1. Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Green- Note 1. Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Green- house Gases. Greenhouse gases are those gases-such as water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus preventing long-wave radiant energy from leaving Earth's atmosphere. The net effect is a trapping of absorbed radiation and a tendency to warm the planet's surface. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions account for about 98 percent of U.S. CO 2 emissions. The vast majority of CO 2 emissions come from fossil fuel combustion, with smaller amounts from the nonfuel use of fossil fuels, as well as from electricity generation using geothermal energy and non-


Using CO2 Lidar for Standoff Detection of a Perfluorocarbon Tracer in Air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Tag, Track and Location System Program (TTL) is investigating the use of PFTs as tracers for tagging and tracking items of interest or fallen soldiers. In order for the tagging and tracking to be valuable there must be a location system that can detect the PFTs. This report details the development of an infrared lidar platform for standoff detection of PFTs released into the air from a tagged object or person. Furthering work performed using a table top lidar system in an indoor environment; a mobile mini lidar platform was assembled using an existing Raman lidar platform, a grating tunable CO{sub 2} IR laser, Judson HgCdTe detector and miscellaneous folding optics and electronics. The lidar achieved {approx}200 ppb-m sensitivity in laboratory and indoor testing and was then successfully demonstrated at an outdoor test. The lidar system was able to detect PFTs released into a vehicle from a distance of 100 meters. In its final, fully optimized configuration the lidar was capable of repeatedly detecting PFTs in the air released from tagged vehicles. Responses were immediate and clear. This report details the results of a proof-of-concept demonstration for standoff detection of a perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) using infrared lidar. The project is part of the Tag, Track and Location System Program and was performed under a contract with Tracer Detection Technology Corp. with funding from the Office of Naval Research. A lidar capable of detecting PFT releases at distance was assembled by modifying an existing Raman lidar platform by incorporating a grating tunable CO{sub 2} IR laser, Judson HgCdTe detector and miscellaneous folding optics and electronics. The lidar achieved {approx}200 ppb-m sensitivity in laboratory and indoor testing and was successfully demonstrated at an outdoor test. The demonstration test (scripted by the sponsor) consisted of three parked cars, two of which were tagged with the PFT. The cars were located 70 (closest) to 100 meters (farthest) from the lidar (the lidar beam path was limited by site constraints and was {approx}100 meters). When one door of each of the cars was opened (sequentially), the lidar was clearly able to determine which vehicles had been tagged and which one was not. The lidar is probably capable of greater than 0.5 kilometer standoff distances based on the extreme amount of signal return achieved (so much that the system had to be de-tuned). The BNL lidar system, while optimized to the extent possible with available parts and budget, was not as sensitive as it could be. Steps to improve the lidar are detailed in this report and include using a better laser system (for more stable power output), dual wavelengths (to improve the sensitivity and allow common mode noise reduction and to allow the use of the lidar in a scanning configuration), heterodyning (for range resolved PFT detection) and an off-axis optical configuration (for improved near field sensitivity).

Heiser,J.H.; Smith, S.; Sedlacek, A.



Primary aluminum production : climate policy, emissions and costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Climate policy regarding perfluorocarbons (PFCs) may have a significant influence on investment decisions in the production of primary aluminum. This work demonstrates an integrated analysis of the effectiveness and likely ...

Harnisch, Jochen.; Sue Wing, Ian.; Jacoby, Henry D.; Prinn, Ronald G.


Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C[subscript 4]F[subscript 10], C[subscript 5]F[subscript 12], C[subscript 6]F[subscript 14], C[subscript 7]F[subscript 16] and C[subscript 8]F[subscript 18  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global emission estimates based on new atmospheric observations are presented for the acylic high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C[subscript 4]F[subscript 10]), dodecafluoropentane (C[subscript ...

Ivy, Diane J.


published in Light Metals 2001, J.L. Anjier, editor, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 2001, pp. 303-307. TOWARDS ELIMINATION OF ANODE EFFECT AND PFC EMISSIONS VIA CURRENT SHUNTING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) results in the generation of the perfluorocarbons (PFCs) CF4 and C2F6 [1]. Owing to the high global with AE, recent measurements made on industrial cells indicate that trace levels of CF4 are present

Sadoway, Donald Robert


Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Climate Change 2001: Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis Get Javascript Other reports in this collection 4. Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases Contents Executive Summary 4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 Sources of Greenhouse Gases 4.1.2 Atmospheric Chemistry and Feedbacks 4.1.3 Trace Gas Budgets and Trends 4.1.4 Atmospheric Lifetimes and Time-Scales 4.2 Trace Gases: Current Observations, Trends and Budgets 4.2.1 Non-CO2 Kyoto Gases Methane (CH4) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) 4.2.2 Montreal Protocol Gases and Stratospheric Ozone (O3) 4.2.3 Reactive Gases Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) Nitrogen oxides (NOx)


Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 51455164, 2010 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/5145/2010/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-absorbing perfluorocarbons (PFCs) tetrafluoromethane (CF4), hexafluoroethane (C2F6), and octafluoropropane (C3F8) in both dry air mole fraction), for CF4; the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE). Pre-industrial background values of 34.7±0.2 ppt CF4

Meskhidze, Nicholas


Perfluorocarbon Nanoparticles for Molecular Imaging and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was confined to the field of nuclear imaging; however, advances in nanotechnology have extended this research computed tomography (SPECT), and ultrasound (US), among others. The application of nanotechnology to MR, G. Lanza, and S. Wickline are with the Department of Medicine, Washington University School

McCarthy, John E.



E-Print Network [OSTI]

National Laboratory, Hanford, Fernald, and Rocky Flats. Barriers are also considered an important reme


Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Human activities have caused a rapid increase in GHG concentrations. This rising level contributes to global climate change, which contributes to environmental and public health problems.

Not Available



Trifluoroacetic acid from degradation of HCFCs and HFCs: A three-dimensional modeling study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diego, Calif. , 1977. Wallington, T. J. , M.D. Hurley, J. C.26, 1318-1324, 1992. Wallington, T. J. , M.D. Hurley, J. M.data reported by Wallington et al. [1996] indicate that the

Kotamarthi, V. R; Rodriguez, J. M; Ko, M. K. W; Tromp, T. K; Sze, N. D; Prather, Michael J



Splashing and boiling mechanisms of melt layer losses of PFCs during plasma instabilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and computational modeling to predict the effects of viscosity, heat conduction, and phase change on the stability TEXTOR experi- ments have shown constantly present fine melt spray and macro- scopic losses of melt]. In this work, the inviscid stability theory [7­9] is further devel- oped to include the effects of viscosity

Harilal, S. S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hfcs perfluorocarbons pfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


September/October 2006 Out of the Ivory Tower Safety of HFCS GM plants: GM-less Pollen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

printed in the article was a little more information that I shared on Imperial Valley beekeeping. I also on to say that honey bee colonies survived in Imperial County where temperatures reached 120 degrees F in the Imperial County area, at least one beekeeper said that if they wanted to know what went on in deep

Ferrara, Katherine W.



E-Print Network [OSTI]

to ground water movement, meteorological water infiltration, vapor- and gas-phase transport, transpiration). Introduction One of the more promising remediation options available to the DOE waste management community contaminant plumes and to restrict remediation methods, such as vacuum extraction, to a limited area


Trends and Inferred Emissions of Atmospheric High Molecular Weight Perfluorocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Their atmospheric histories are based on measurements of 36 Northern Hemisphere and 468F18. Based on our observations, the 2011 globally averaged dry air mole fractions of these high12, 0.27 ppt for C6F14, 0.12 ppt for C7F16 and 0.09 ppt for C8F18. Newly measured infrared absorption


Controlling the hydrogenic fuel inventory in plasma facing components (PFCs) will be necessary for the successful operation of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

defect defect existing defect Surface before ion implantation T collecting and distorting lattice incident ion W atom T in lattice T 2 T 2 + nm + + + + T ions are implanted into the tungsten (W) lattice and diffuse through it until they are trapped at a defect (typically a missing or diplaced W atom). The pressure of T atoms in the lattice can also be so high that they displace W atoms creating more traps. Such high pressures are enhanced by the slow recombination and release of T 2 . Contact: Bruce Lipschultz blip@psfc.mit.edu 617-253-8636 Fusion 'fuel economy' studied under reactor-like conditions New results from the Alcator C-Mod tokamak raise concerns about retention of tritium fuel in the metal walls of fusion reactors like ITER. Recent experiments on Alcator C-Mod, the first diverted tokamak with all metal walls, showed


Controlling the hydrogenic fuel inventory in plasma facing components (PFCs) will be necessary for the successful operation of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dennis Whyte Dennis Whyte whyte@psfc.mit.edu 617-253-1748 Mixing-up magnetic fields may solve a runaway problem for fusion walls New results from the Alcator C-Mod tokamak suggests that a major concern for ITER, the generation of high energy electrons during plasma disruptions, may be mitigated by stochastic magnetic fields generated during the disruption process. The goal of magnetic fusion is to confine very hot plasma with magnetic fields that circulate around a central axis forming a toroidally (donut) shaped geometry. However there is a case where good confinement is bad for the fusion device: runaway electrons. If the electric field around the torus is large enough so that electrons gain energy faster from the field than they lose it to collisions, they can be accelerated up to near the speed of light. This "runaway" condition is


Carbon Sequestration 101  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Field Efforts Field Efforts Sequestering CO 2 in Geologic Formations SPE 2003 Eastern Section Meeting of AAPG September 6 - 10, 2003 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Scott M. Klara - National Energy Technology Laboratory What's All The Fuss About? CO 2 Concentrations On The Rise (~280 ppm to 370 ppm over last 100 years) Temperature Change from Present ( o C) CO 2 Concentration (ppmv) 200 150 50 350 300 250 200 100 0 ∆T atm (Vostok) CO 2 (Vostok) 2 0 -2 -4 Time Before Present (kyr) CO 2 & CH 4 - The Primary GHG Contributors Methane 9% Nitrous Oxide 5% HFCs, PFCs, SF 6 2% CO 2 from Energy 81% Other CO 2 3% "EIA Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U.S.: 2000" United States Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Equivalent Global Warming Basis) All Fossil Fuels & Energy Sectors Contribute CO 2 Emissions Industry 32% Industry 32% Commercial


Microsoft PowerPoint - Sequestration Briefing - October-07.ppt  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration R&D Overview Carbon Sequestration R&D Overview Office of Fossil Energy Carbon Sequestration Briefing October 2007 Sean Plasynski, PhD Sequestration Technology Manager Office of Fossil Energy R&D Focus is on Coal & Electricity Oil 43% Oil 43% Coal 36% Coal 36% Natural Gas 21% Electricity 39% Electricity 39% Other 30% Other 30% Transportation 32% Transportation 32% United States CO2 Emissions 36% Emissions From Coal 39% Emissions From Electricity Office of Fossil Energy R&D Focus is on CO 2 Methane 9% Nitrous Oxide 5% HFCs, PFCs, SF 6 2% CO 2 from Energy 81% Other CO 2 3% "EIA Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U.S.: 2000" United States Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Equivalent Global Warming Basis) Office of Fossil Energy Annual CO 2 Emissions Extremely Large 6,300,000,000 Carbon Dioxide (CO


Kyoto Protocol | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kyoto Protocol Kyoto Protocol Jump to: navigation, search http://www.wired.com/thisdayintech/tag/climate-change/ Kyoto protocol negotiation The Kyoto Protocol, negotiated in 1997 and into force in 2005, is a binding agreement in which industrialized nations will seek emission-reducing strategies for the future years to come. "The Kyoto Protocol is a legally binding agreement under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2% compared to the year 1990 (but note that, compared to the emissions levels that would be expected by 2010 without the Protocol, this target represents a 29% cut). The goal is to lower overall emissions from six greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, HFCs, and PFCs - calculated as an average over


Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Letters of Intent/Agreements Letters of Intent/Agreements Aluminum Association Logo The Aluminum Association and its members participating in the Voluntary Aluminum Industry Partnership (VAIP), representing 98% of primary aluminum production in the United States, have committed under the Climate VISION program to a direct carbon intensity reduction of emissions of perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and of emissions of CO2 from the consumption of the carbon anode from the primary aluminum reduction process. The Climate VISION target is a 53% total carbon equivalent reduction from these sources by 2010 from 1990 levels. The industry has been working to reduce greenhouse gas emissions for over a decade and this new commitment equates to an additional direct carbon-intensity reduction of 65% since 2000. As a



E-Print Network [OSTI]

- amperometry and chronopotentiometry. Anode gases have been analyzed by gas chromatography on-line during results, the following hypothesis is offered in explanation of the mechanism of the anodic process of PFC the initial stages of the anode effect. Introduction One of the undesirable consequences of the anode effect

Sadoway, Donald Robert


Laboratory testing and modeling to evaluate perfluorocarbon compounds as tracers in geothermal systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal stability and adsorption characteristics of three perfluorinated hydrocarbon compounds were evaluated under geothermal conditions to determine the potential to use these compounds as conservative or thermally-degrading tracers in Engineered (or Enhanced) Geothermal Systems (EGS). The three compounds tested were perfluorodimethyl-cyclobutane (PDCB), perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH), and perfluorotrimethylcyclohexane (PTCH), which are collectively referred to as perfluorinated tracers, or PFTs. Two sets of duplicate tests were conducted in batch mode in gold-bag reactors, with one pair of reactors charged with a synthetic geothermal brine containing the PFTs and a second pair was charged with the brine-PFT mixture plus a mineral assemblage chosen to be representative of activated fractures in an EGS reservoir. A fifth reactor was charged with deionized water containing the three PFTs. The experiments were conducted at {approx}100 bar, with temperatures ranging from 230 C to 300 C. Semi-analytical and numerical modeling was also conducted to show how the PFTs could be used in conjunction with other tracers to interrogate surface area to volume ratios and temperature profiles in EGS reservoirs. Both single-well and cross-hole tracer tests are simulated to illustrate how different suites of tracers could be used to accomplish these objectives. The single-well tests are especially attractive for EGS applications because they allow the effectiveness of a stimulation to be evaluated without drilling a second well.

Reimus, Paul W [Los Alamos National Laboratory



An Improved Gas Chromatographic Method for the Determination of Perfluorocarbon Tracers in the Atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......U.S. Department of Energy, New York, New York...U.S. Department of Energy, New York, New York...quantity, hence the cost, of the tracer required...experiments in the geysers geothermal area. RH. Gudiksen...U. S. Department of Energy, New York, NY(1991......

Raymond J. Lagomarsino



Feasibility of a Perfluorocarbon tracer based network to support Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting of Sequestered CO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) will act as a bridging technology necessary to facilitate a transition from fossil fuels to a sustainable energy based economy. The Department of Energy (DOE) target leak rate for sequestration reservoirs is 1% of ...

Thomas B. Watson; Terrence Sullivan



Albany, OR * Anchorage, AK * Morgantown...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

GEOSEQ: Monitoring of Geological CO2 Sequestration Using Isotopes and Perfluorocarbon Tracers (PFTs) Background The purpose of this project is to develop monitoring, verification,...


ITP Aluminum: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and particulate), perfluorocarbons (CF 4 , C 2 F 6 ), polycyclic organic matter Wet air pollution control (APC) effluents (if applicable) Spent potlining (RCRA- listed K088),...


EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - What are...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

gases such as hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride). The Greenhouse Effect Concentrations of several important greenhouse gases have increased by about 33...


E-Print Network 3.0 - armoured actively cooled Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on the actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor... of the actively cooled component itself. These have...


Supplement 1. PFC emissions from UNFCCC data1086 Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emission are reported to UNFCCC by 34 Annex I countries as part of their obligations as signatories to the1087  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(UNFCCC, 2009). Emissions are reported for CF4, C2F6, C3F8, c-C4F8, C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 in Gg) 6500 (CF4), 9200 (C2F6), 7000 (C3F8), 8700 (c-1089 C4F8), 7000 (C4F10), 7500 (C5F12), and 7400 (C6F14 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 CF4 S 8.58 7.86 7.16 6.77 6.19 6.16 6.31 6.04 5.87 5.74 5.59 4.63 4.47 4

Meskhidze, Nicholas


Wind Power and the Clean Development Mechanism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biogas Cement HFCs Geothermal EE Households Solar N2O Fugitive Tidal EE Service Transport Energy distrib 200 300 400 500 600 700 Lara Landfill (10 MW) Korat Biogas (3 MW) Rukmani Rice Husk (10 MW) Palestina


Plasma abatement of perfluorocompounds in inductively coupled plasma reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plasma abatement of perfluorocompounds in inductively coupled plasma reactors Xudong ``Peter'' Xu PFCs , gases which have large global warming potentials, are widely used in plasma processing, the effluents from plasma tools using these gases typically have large mole fractions of PFCs. The use of plasma

Kushner, Mark

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hfcs perfluorocarbons pfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Spatial and Temporal Trends of Perfluorinated Compounds in Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Alaska  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wildlife from remote locations have been shown to bioaccumulate perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in their tissues. ... The Chukchi Sea belugas forage in Arctic water between the United States and Russia and based on prevailing wind and ocean currents, these animals may be more reflective of PFCs emissions coming from Asia and Russia. ...

Jessica L. Reiner; Steven G. OConnell; Amanda J. Moors; John R. Kucklick; Paul R. Becker; Jennifer M. Keller



Fluorine Speciation Analysis Using Reverse Phase Liquid Chromatography Coupled Off-Line to Continuum Source Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (CS-MAS): Identification and Quantification of Novel Fluorinated Organic Compounds in Environmental and Biological Samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1-4) Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are especially well-known for their unusual solubility, being simultaneously hydro- and lipophobic. ... (5, 6) This recognition has triggered a boost in interest in the monitoring of PFCs in water, wildlife and food. ... Chemicals used for AAS modifiers, reported by Gleisner et al.,(17) included gallium nitride (99.9%, ...

Zhiwei Qin; David McNee; Heike Gleisner; Andrea Raab; Kwaku Kyeremeh; Marcel Jaspars; Eva Krupp; Hai Deng; Jrg Feldmann



Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) related to the Registry in three areas: (1) assessing the availability and usefulness of industry-specific metrics, (2) evaluating various methods for establishing baselines for calculating GHG emissions reductions related to specific actions taken by Registry participants, and (3) establishing methods for calculating electricity CO2 emission factors. The third area of research was completed in 2002 and is documented in Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the California Electric Power Sector (Marnay et al., 2002). This report documents our findings related to the first areas of research. For the first area of research, the overall objective was to evaluate the metrics, such as emissions per economic unit or emissions per unit of production that can be used to report GHG emissions trends for potential Registry participants. This research began with an effort to identify methodologies, benchmarking programs, inventories, protocols, and registries that u se industry-specific metrics to track trends in energy use or GHG emissions in order to determine what types of metrics have already been developed. The next step in developing industry-specific metrics was to assess the availability of data needed to determine metric development priorities. Berkeley Lab also determined the relative importance of different potential Registry participant categories in order to asses s the availability of sectoral or industry-specific metrics and then identified industry-specific metrics in use around the world. While a plethora of metrics was identified, no one metric that adequately tracks trends in GHG emissions while maintaining confidentiality of data was identified. As a result of this review, Berkeley Lab recommends the development of a GHG intensity index as a new metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends.Such an index could provide an industry-specific metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends to accurately reflect year to year changes while protecting proprietary data. This GHG intensity index changes

Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst




SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia



E-Print Network 3.0 - actively cooled plasma-facing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

m2. Each cassette... - The ITER plasma-facing components (PFCs) directly face the thermonuclear plasma and cover an area of about... of a plasma facing material (armour) mounted...


Comparison of H-Mode Plasmas Diverted to Solid and Liquid Lithium Surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) in NSTX. Among the goals was to use lithium recoating to sustain deuterium (D) retention by a static liquid lithium surface, approximating the ability of flowing liquid lithium to maintain chemical reactivity. Lithium evaporators were used to deposit lithium on the LLD surface. Improvements in plasma edge conditions were similar to those with lithiated graphite plasma-facing components (PFCs), including an increase in confinement over discharges without lithiumcoated PFCs and ELM reduction during H-modes. With the outer strike point on the LLD, the D retention in the LLD was about the same as that for solid lithium coatings on graphite, or about two times that achieved without lithium PFC coatings. There were also indications of contamination of the LLD surface, possibly due erosion and redeposition of carbon from PFCs. Flowing lithium may thus be needed for chemically active PFCs during long-pulse operation.

R. Kaita, et. al.



Bioaccumulation of Perfluorochemicals in Pacific Oyster under Different Salinity Gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bioaccumulation of Perfluorochemicals in Pacific Oyster under Different Salinity Gradients ... Where Kdsw and Kd0 represent the distribution coefficients in saline and pure water, respectively, S is salinity and kads is a constant for sorption salting constant (?kads = 0.0352?). ... Based on the fact that biotransformation of PFCs is negligible (35), the faster depuration rate for PFCs at higher salinities is attributable to increases in the uptake volume of water associated with increased salinity. ...

Junho Jeon; Kurunthachalam Kannan; Han Kyu Lim; Hyo Bang Moon; Jin Sung Ra; Sang Don Kim



Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 31413147, 2008 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/8/3141/2008/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Wallington2 1Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen catalytic ozone destruc- tion cycles (Wallington et al., 1994). The atmospheric life- time of HFCs is determined by their reactivity towards OH Correspondence to: T. J. Wallington (twalling@ford.com) radicals

Meskhidze, Nicholas


Honeywell developing low-GWP liquid blowing agent for foam insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Honeywell reports that it is developing a new blowing agent with low global warming potential (GWP) for energy-efficient polyurethane foam insulation. The non-flammable liquid blowing agent will provide customers with an alternative to hydrocarbons and traditional hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and assist customers in reducing the overall environmental impact of foam, the company says.



Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCs.S. CO2 emissions sources. U.S. CO2 transportation emissions sources by mode. #12;CenterTransportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge


Theoretical investigation of liquid metal MHD free surface flows for ALPS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Free surface plasma facing components (PFCs) offer the potential to solve the lifetime issues limiting current solid surface designs for tokamak fusion reactors by eliminating the problems of erosion and thermal stresses accompanying solid surface designs. The moving PFC free surfaces provide the possibility of absorbing impurities and possibly helium for removal outside of the plasma chamber. Free surface PFCs may also offer more creative possibilities for heat removal and higher thermal conversion efficiencies for the entire system. Design requirements for PFCS include handling {approximately}50% of the plasma heat flux and 90% of the ion flux. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) liquid metal flows with free surfaces are discussed with reference to Advanced Limiter-divertor Plasma-facing Systems (ALPS) program. Specific MHD issues for the jet divertor are outlined. Results for the rivulet flow and for the thermocapillary flow in a jet are presented.

Molokov, S.; Cox, I.; Reed, C. B.



Chapter 10: Biological Impacts of ClimateChange 1.Nature of Climate Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enters the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), solid waste and by the decay of organic waste in municipal solid waste landfills. · Nitrous Oxide (N2O): Nitrous oxide and solid waste. · Fluorinated Gases: Hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride

Gottgens, Hans


A Carbon Arc Process for Treatment of CF4 Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations are reported for low molecular weight perfluorocarbons (C2F6 and CF4) and their dilute (10% molar) mixtures in N2 adsorbing unto slitlike graphite pores. ... The technological feasibility and chemical kinetics of carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) decomposition with tandem packed-bed plasmas (TPBPs) are investigated in this study. ...

Daniel T. Chen; Moses M. David; George V. D. Tiers; Joseph N. Schroepfer



Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 261269, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/261/2012/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

abundant perfluorocarbon (PFC) in the present day atmosphere, behind CF4 (75 ppt) and C2F6 (4 ppt in the atmosphere is CF4. The first atmospheric measurements were reported in the late 1970s (Rasmussen et al., 1979-day abundances of these compounds are much lower than CF4, being typically in the range of a few ppt or less

Meskhidze, Nicholas


Pressure-dependent Resonance Frequency for Lipid-coated Microbubbles at Low Acoustic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with diameters ranging from 1-10m, filled with gas of low water solubility (e.g. perfluorocarbon, nitrogen in this device, one for gas inlet flow, two for liquid inlet flow, and the last one for microbubbles outlet flow channel and gas channel were 50 m and 35 m, respectively, while the width of the orifice was 7 m. Figure 1


NOAA Air Resources Laboratory Monthly Activity Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Perfluorocarbon Tracer Analysis Development 11. Radar Wind Profiler 12. Transport and Dispersion Modeling 13. Coordination with BEA Emergency Management Group 14. SORD Review 15. WRF Model 16. Mesoscale Modeling 17. Air of the local NOX sources within the watershed on N deposition to the watershed and bay, supplemented


Environment International, Vol. 8, pp. 419-433, 1982 0160-4120/82/070419-15503.00/0 Printed in the USA. All rights reserved. Copyright 1982 Pergamon Press Ltd.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) sources and miniature passive samplers, both about the size of a cigarette, tests of passive adsorption tube samplers performed reproducibly and identically (to within + 2%-3%) in laboratory-story house. Multiple location sampling, as well as sampling in rooms with and without a miniature source


Measurements of chemical erosion of ATJ graphite by low energy D  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in plasma facing components (PFCs). Because of their high thermal conductivities, excellent shock resistance. PACS: 34.50.Dy; 52.20.Hv; 52.40.Hf; 79.20.?m; 79.20.Rf Keywords: Carbon-based materials; Chemical problems in the development of commercially viable fusion technology is identification of materials for use



E-Print Network [OSTI]

/extracted energy in a tokamak (1GJ) Several generations of carbon PFCs designed, manufactured and operated Tore loops 15 MW of HF plasma heating Fuelling systems Diagnostics WEST project ~ few days of ITER operation BECOMES WEST Limiter configuration Carbon Two symmetric divertor coils and supporting structures Plasma


Primary Aluminum Production: Climate Policy, Emissions and Costs Jochen Harnisch, Ian Sue Wing, Henry D. Jacoby and Ronald G. Prinn*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Primary Aluminum Production: Climate Policy, Emissions and Costs Jochen Harnisch, Ian Sue Wing a significant influence on investment decisions in the production of primary aluminum. This work demonstrates for the baseline years 1990 and 1995. We then present projections for regional emissions of PFCs from the aluminum

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E-Print Network [OSTI]

). At the same time, it was also found to be a pervasive con- taminant in human blood in the US (Hansen et al. 2001). As a result, the major US manufacturer of PFCs voluntarily withdrew PFOS and other structurally are not fully understood. ·Research in the Great Lakes and elsewhere suggests that wastewater e uent and urban


Disruption, VDE and Runaway Electron Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

redistribute in-divertor energy Magnetic energy 35 (?) MJ For 6.5 MA, total out to VV Current quench duration 6 burn also have enough thermal and magnetic energy to put in-vessel (PFC) and torus vessel systems -- Global vertical and lateral force on VV, etc. · Thermal loading on PFCs, etc. -- Divertor targets


Microsoft PowerPoint - Proceedings Cover Sheets  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Geological CO Geological CO 2 Sequestration using Perfluorocarbon Gas Tracers and Isotopes Phelps, T.J., McCallum, S.D., Cole, D.R., Kharaka, Y.K., and Hovorka, S.D. ABSTRACT The Frio Brine Field Test, Phase I, demonstrated the relatively straight forward method of CO 2 injection and its rapid transport to the monitoring well. Our field monitoring methodologies, especially measurements of conservative perfluorocarbon gas tracers (PFTs), pH, alkalinity, gas compositions and stable isotopes proved to be sensitive for tracking the injected CO 2 . Multiple PFT tracer suites were introduced via an injection well at three separate times during the Frio Test. The use of PFT suites provided data for identification of multiple breakthroughs at a monitoring well 30 meters up-dip. Travel times for each



Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Monitoring Geologically Sequestered Monitoring Geologically Sequestered CO 2 during the Frio Brine Pilot Test using Perfluorocarbon Tracers 1 McCallum, S.D., 1 Riestenberg, D.E., 1 Cole, D.R., 2 Freifeld, B.M., 2 Trautz, R.C., 3 Hovorka, S.D., and 1 Phelps*, T.J. 1 Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1505 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831- 6036 USA 2 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720- 90R1116, USA 3 Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, University Station, Box X, Austin, Texas 78713-8924, USA *Corresponding author and presenter (phelpstj@ornl.gov) Abstract A suite of gaseous perfluorocarbon (PFT) conservative tracers were successfully employed to monitor migration of the CO 2 plume during the Frio Brine Pilot Test. The conservative tracers enabled


PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique April 2, 2012 - 3:11pm Addthis The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to measure changes over time when determining a building's air-infiltration rate. The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to measure changes over time when determining a building's air-infiltration rate. What does this mean for me? You can save 5%-30% on your energy bill by making upgrades following a home energy assessment. A professional energy auditor may use the PFT air infiltration measurement technique to find out where your home has air leaks, though a blower door test is more commonly used.


Overview of the US-Japan collaborative investigation on hydrogen isotope retention in neutron-irradiated and ion-damaged tungsten  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma-facing components (PFCs) will be exposed to 14 MeV neutrons from deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reactions, and tungsten, a candidate PFC for the divertor in ITER, is expected to receive a neutron dose of 0.7 displacement per atom (dpa) by the end of operation in ITER. The effect of neutron-irradiation damage has been mainly simulated using high-energy ion bombardment. While this prior database of results is quite valuable for understanding the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in PFCs, it does not encompass the full range of effects that must be considered in a practical fusion environment due to short penetration depth, damage gradient, high damage rate, and high PKA energy spectrum of the ion bombardment. In addition, neutrons change the elemental composition via transmutations, and create a high radiation environment inside PFCs, which influence the behavior of hydrogen isotope in PFCs, suggesting the utilization of fission reactors is necessary for neutron irradiation. Therefore, the effort to correlate among high-energy ions, fission neutrons, and fusion neutrons is crucial for accurately estimating tritium retention under a neutron-irradiation environment. Under the framework of the US-Japan TITAN program, tungsten samples (99.99 at. % purity from A.L.M.T. Co.) were irradiated by neutron in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), ORNL, at 50 and 300C to 0.025, 0.3, and 1.2 dpa, and the investigation of deuterium retention in neutron-irradiation was performed in the INL Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE), the unique high-flux linear plasma facility that can handle tritium, beryllium and activated materials. This paper reports the recent results from the comparison of ion-damaged tungsten via various ion species (2.8 MeV Fe2+, 20 MeV W2+, and 700 keV H-) with that from neutron-irradiated tungsten to identify the similarities and differences among them.

Masashi Shimada; Y. Hatano; Y. Oya; T. Oda; M. Hara; G. Cao; M. Kobayashi; M. Sokolov; H. Watanabe; B. Tyburska; Y. Ueda; P. Calderoni



VOL. 65, NO. 3 (SEPTEMBER 2012) P. 245256 Perfluorinated Chemicals in Meromictic Lakes on the Northern Coast  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

revealed the presence of several PFCs in catchment snowpack, inflowing streams, lake water, and the aquatic the lake via streams and flows directly under the lake ice to the ocean. The onset of summer open water lacs méromictiques situés sur la côte nord de l'île d'Ellesmere au Nunavut, et d'évaluer les résultats

Vincent, Warwick F.


Thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical design of plasma facing components for SST-1 tokamak  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are one of the major sub-systems of SST-1 tokamak. PFC of SST-1 consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles and limiters are designed to be compatible for steady state operation. The main consideration in the design of the PFC cooling is the steady state heat removal of up to 1MW/m2. The PFC has been designed to withstand the peak heat fluxes and also without significant erosion such that frequent replacement of the armor is not necessary. Design considerations included 2-D steady state and transient tile temperature distribution and resulting thermal loads in PFC during baking, and cooling, coolant parameters necessary to maintain optimum thermal-hydraulic design, and tile fitting mechanism. Finite Element (FE) models using ANSYS have been developed to carry out the heat transfer and stress analyses of the PFC to understand its thermal and mechanical behaviors. The results of the calculation led to a good understanding of the coolant flow behavior and the temperature distribution in the tube wall and the different parts of the PFC. Thermal analysis of the PFC is carried out with the purpose of evaluating the thermal mechanical behavior of PFCs. The detailed thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical designs of \\{PFCs\\} of SST-1 are discussed in this paper.

Paritosh Chaudhuri; S.K.S. Parashar; P. Santra; D. Chenna Reddy



Decomposition of Perfluorocompounds on Alumina-Based Catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The control of the atmospheric release of PFCs (perfluorocompounds) is an important environmental problem worldwide. PFCs are powerful greenhouse gases used by the semiconductor and liquid crystal industries as etching and cleaning agents. We developed a catalyst that decomposes PFCs with only water. Al2O3 was selected from the survey of some single metal-oxide catalysts. Addition of another metal-oxide improved the decomposition ratio and durability. The Al2O3-based catalyst decomposed CF4, C2F6, C3F8, C4F8, NF3 and SF6 by more than 99% at 750 degrees Celsius. Furthermore, our catalyst retained a high decomposition ratio as demonstrated by a continuous run for about 4000 hours at 700-750 degrees Celsius. The influence of chlorine as an impurity with regard to the SF6 decomposition ratio on the catalyst was examined. SF6 was decomposed at more than 99% during 8 hours in the presence of 400 ppm chlorine. Chlorine concentration in the outlet gas was less than TLV. No chlorine compounds were found by X-ray diffraction analysis of the used catalyst. That is, the hydrogenation of chlorine did not inhibit the surface catalytic reaction for PFC. Also, CF4 was decomposed at the condition of 1.4% of high concentration. The conversion remained higher than 99% throughout during a durability test. Furthermore, we investigated a large-scale decomposition system in the paper.

Kanno, Shuichi; Tamata, Shin; Kurokawa, Hideaki



Demonstration of high efficiency elastocaloric cooling with large ?T using NiTi wires  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vapor compression (VC) is by far the most dominant technology for meeting all cooling and refrigeration needs around the world. It is a mature technology with the efficiency of modern compressors approaching the theoretical limit but its environmental footprint remains a global problem. VC refrigerants such as hydrochloroflurocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are a significant source of green house gas emissions and their global warming potential (GWP) is as high as 1000 times that of CO2 [Buildings Energy Data Book (Building Technologies Program Department of Energy 2009)]. There is an urgent need to develop an alternative high-efficiency cooling technology that is affordable and environmentally friendly [A. D. Little Report For Office of Building Technology State and Community Programs Department of Energy 2001]. Here we demonstrate that elastocaloric cooling (EC) a type of solid-state cooling mechanism based on the latent heat of reversible martensitic transformation can have the coefficient of performance as high as ?11 with a directly measured ?T of 17?C. The solid-state refrigerant of EC completely eliminates the use of any GWP refrigerants including HCFCs/HFCs.

Jun Cui; Yiming Wu; Jan Muehlbauer; Yunho Hwang; Reinhard Radermacher; Sean Fackler; Manfred Wuttig; Ichiro Takeuchi



Software/firmware design specification for 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Collector Subsystem Software/Firmware Design Specification exists as a stand-alone document to provide a complete description of the software and firmware employed for the operation of the 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant Collector Subsystem. The software/firmware systems have the capability to allow operator control of up to 2048 heliostats in the operation of the 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant at Barstow, California. This function includes the capability of operator-commanded mode control, graphic displays, status displays, alarm generation, system redundancy and interfaces to the Operational Control System (OCS), the Data Acquisition System (DAS), and the Beam Characterization System (BCS) through the OCS. The operational commands will provide for the following: (a) safe beam movement whenever automatic beam movement is required; (b) single and multiple heliostat addressing; (c) emergency heliostat movement for high-wind conditions and receiver problems; and (d) recovery for full or partial power-loss conditions. The control hardware consists of a host computer, the Heliostat Array Controller (HAC), interfaced to a group of communication controllers, the Heliostat Field Controllers (HFCs), communicating with individual processors, the Heliostat Controllers (HCs), which monitor and command a single heliostat. The system consists of two HACs and 64 HFCs with up to 32 HCs per HFC.

Ladewig, T.D.



Gunnar I. Senum | BNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gunnar I. Senum Gunnar I. Senum Chemist Education State University of New York at Stony Brook, Ph.D., Chemistry Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, B.S., Chemistry Professional Affiliations American Chemical Society American Physical Society American Association for the Advancement of Science Areas of Interest Application and modeling of chromatographic systems for the development of techniques for the detection and quantification of trace components with the consequent application to geophysical trace gases, indoor pollution and various industrial applications Development of chemicalcompounds as atmospheric, hydrological or aerosol tracers Experience Presently responsible for the development and applications of new techniques using perfluorocarbon tracers in the Tracer Technology Center,


Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Resources and Links -  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Federal/State Programs Federal/State Programs DOE Aluminum Industry of the Future Collaborative R&D partnerships between DOE Industrial Technologies Program and industry to maximize technology investments. EPA Voluntary Aluminum Industrial Partnership The Voluntary Aluminum Industrial Partnership (VAIP) is an innovative pollution prevention program developed jointly by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the primary aluminum industry. Participating companies (Partners) work with EPA to improve aluminum production efficiency while reducing perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions, potent greenhouse gases that may remain in the atmosphere for thousands of years. See all Federal/State Programs DOE State Activities For information on activities, financial assistance, and solicitations


Method for inducing hypothermia  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

Becker, Lance B. (Chicago, IL); Hoek, Terry Vanden (Chicago, IL); Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL)




SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brookhaven National Laboratory has been funded since October of 2000 to provide assistance to the University of Georgia in conducting footprint analyses of individual towers based on meteorology and trace gas measurements. Brookhaven researchers conducted air flow measurements using perfluorocarbon tracers and meteorological instrumentation for three experimental campaigns at an AmeriFlux research site maintained by Dr. Monique Leclerc near Gainesville, FL. In addition, BNL provided assistance with remote data collection and distribution from remote field sites operated by Dr. John Hom of the US Forest Service in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey and at FACE research sites in North Carolina and Wisconsin.




Metal buildings study: performance of materials and field validation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 5000 square-foot metal building located at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been monitored over a winter season. Energy flows through wall sections were monitored using portable calorimeters. Air infiltration was measured using perfluorocarbon tracers, and the associated heat losses were calculated. Slab losses were assessed through a comparison of measured temperature gradients with results obtained through the use of heat-flow meters. The effect of thermal bridges and compressed insulation in locations where support beams are joined to the exterior skin was found to increase heat losses significantly. A retrofit strategy including spray insulation of beams is projected to save 30% on heating energy.

Loss, W.



Thermal Behavior of SST-1 Vacuum Vessel and Plasma Facing Components during Baking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract For plasma physics experiment, the baking of vacuum vessel (VV) as well as plasma facing components (PFC) of Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is very essential. SST-1 vacuum vessel consists of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible sixteen sectors in which U-shaped baking channels are embedded on inner surfaces of each of them. Similarly, \\{PFCs\\} are comprised of modular graphite diverters and movable graphite based limiters and stainless steel (SS 304L) tubes are brazed on the back plate of PFC for baking. Baking of SST-1 vacuum vessel and plasma facing components are carried out using nitrogen gas heating and supply system. SST-1 main vacuum vessel is baked at 150C by circulating hot nitrogen gas at 250C at 4.5bar gauge (g) pressure through these U-shaped channels. The plasma facing components (PFC) are baked at 250C or more in the similar fashion by passing hot nitrogen gas through these SS brazed tubes. Thermal analysis shows that the temperature of 150C at the vacuum vessel is achieved within ten hours if hot nitrogen gas is passed at the ramp rate of 50C/h while thermal shields are maintained at 85K. It is also observed that the baking of either of them at a given temperature could be possible through radiation if one of them is maintained at desired temperature. The vacuum vessel at room temperature could be baked to 150C due to radiation from PFC after 40hours when PFC alone is baked at 150C. The mass flow rate required to bake SST-1 vacuum vessel at 150C is 1.074kg/s while that for raising \\{PFCs\\} temperature to 150C is 0.57kg/s. The mass flow rate required to bake \\{PFCs\\} at 250C is 0.80kg/s.

Ziauddin Khan; Yuvakiran Paravastu; Subrata Pradhan



First operation with the JET International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like wall  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To consolidate International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design choices and prepare for its operation, Joint European Torus (JET) has implemented ITER's plasma facing materials, namely, Be for the main wall and W in the divertor. In addition, protection systems, diagnostics, and the vertical stability control were upgraded and the heating capability of the neutral beams was increased to over 30 MW. First results confirm the expected benefits and the limitations of all metal plasma facing components (PFCs) but also yield understanding of operational issues directly relating to ITER. H-retention is lower by at least a factor of 10 in all operational scenarios compared to that with C PFCs. The lower C content (? factor 10) has led to much lower radiation during the plasma burn-through phase eliminating breakdown failures. Similarly, the intrinsic radiation observed during disruptions is very low, leading to high power loads and to a slow current quench. Massive gas injection using a D{sub 2}/Ar mixture restores levels of radiation and vessel forces similar to those of mitigated disruptions with the C wall. Dedicated L-H transition experiments indicate a 30% power threshold reduction, a distinct minimum density, and a pronounced shape dependence. The L-mode density limit was found to be up to 30% higher than for C allowing stable detached divertor operation over a larger density range. Stable H-modes as well as the hybrid scenario could be re-established only when using gas puff levels of a few 10{sup 21} es{sup ?1}. On average, the confinement is lower with the new PFCs, but nevertheless, H factors up to 1 (H-Mode) and 1.3 (at ?{sub N}?3, hybrids) have been achieved with W concentrations well below the maximum acceptable level.

Neu, R. [EFDA-CSU, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany) [EFDA-CSU, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fr Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Arnoux, G.; Beurskens, M.; Challis, C.; Giroud, C.; Lomas, P.; Maddison, G.; Matthews, G.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Meigs, A.; Rimini, F. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)] [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bobkov, V.; Dux, R.; Hobirk, J.; Lang, P.; Maggi, C.; Ptterich, T.; Sertoli, M.; Sieglin, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fr Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fr Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Brezinsek, S. [IEK-4, Association EURATOM/Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, Jlich 52425 (Germany)] [IEK-4, Association EURATOM/Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, Jlich 52425 (Germany); and others



Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1018110193, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/10181/2012/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.77 ppt for HFC-152a, 79.1 ppt for CF4, 4.22 ppt for PFC-116, and 0.56 ppt for PFC-218. The background for HFC-152a, 2.4 ± 2.1 kt yr-1 for CF4, 0.27 ± 0.26 kt yr-1 for PFC-116, and 0.061 ± 0.095 kt yr-1., 2010; Montzka et al., 2010; Oram et al., 1998). PFCs are emit- ted from aluminum smelters (CF4, PFC-116

Meskhidze, Nicholas


Electrolytic production of neodymium without perfluorinated carbon compounds on the offgases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing neodymium in an electrolytic cell without formation of perfluorinated carbon gases (PFCs), the method comprising the steps of providing an electrolyte in the electrolytic cell and providing an anode in an anode region of the electrolyte and providing a cathode in a cathode region of the electrolytic cell. Dissolving an oxygen-containing neodymium compound in the electrolyte in the anode region and maintaining a more intense electrolyte circulation in the anode region than in the cathode region. Passing an electrolytic current between said anode and said cathode and depositing neodymium metal at the cathode, preventing the formation of perfluorinated carbon gases by limiting anode over voltage.

Keller, Rudolf (Export, PA); Larimer, Kirk T. (Pittsburgh, PA)


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hfcs perfluorocarbons pfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


The Evaluation of the Heat Loading from Steady, Transient, and Off-Normal Conditions in ARIES Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The heat loading on plasma facing components (PFCs) provides a critical limitation for design and operation of the first wall, divertor, and other special components. Power plants will have high power entering the scrape-off layer and transporting to the first wall and divertor. Although the design for steady heat loads is understood, the approach for transient and offnormal loading is not. The characterization of heat loads developed for ITER1 can be applied to power plants to better develop the operating space of viable solutions and point to research focus areas.

C.E. Kessel, M.S. Tillack and J. Blanchard



Super Building Insulation by CO2 Foaming Process Research Project |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emerging Technologies » Super Building Insulation by CO2 Foaming Emerging Technologies » Super Building Insulation by CO2 Foaming Process Research Project Super Building Insulation by CO2 Foaming Process Research Project The Department of Energy is currently researching the development of building superinsulation through a carbon dioxide (CO2) foaming process. Project Description This project seeks to develop building super insulation through a carbon dioxide foaming process that does not use hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and which produces insulation with a high R-value. Project Partners Research is being undertaken between the Department of Energy and The Industrial Science & Technology Network. Project Goals The goal of this project is to develop advanced insulation without HFC, and to achieve a competitive processing cost for CO2 foaming technology.


Atmospheric Measurements of Climate-Relevant Species  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Measurements of Climate-Relevant Species Atmospheric Measurements of Climate-Relevant Species CDIAC's data collection includes measurements of the following climate-relevant chemical species. A summary of recent greenhouse gas concentrations is also available. To determine how compounds are named, see the CDIAC "Name that compound" page. Butane (C4H10) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Isotopes Carbon Monoxide (CO) Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Chlorofluorocarbons Chloroform (CHCl3) Deuterium (2H) Ethane (C2H6) Ethyl Nitrate (C2H5ONO2) Ethyne (C2H2) Fluoroform (CHF3) Halogenated Compounds (modern records) Halons (fluorocarbons) Hydrogen (H2) Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) i-Propyl Nitrate (C3H7ONO2) Methane (CH4) Methyl Bromide (CH3Br) Methyl Chloride (CH3Cl) Methyl Chloroform (CH3CCl3)


The ALE/GAGE/AGAGE Network (DB1001)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » ALE/GAGE/AGAGE Network Atmospheric Trace Gases » ALE/GAGE/AGAGE Network The ALE / GAGE / AGAGE Network (DB1001) DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1001 Links to Additional Sources Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) home page How halocarbons (CFCs, HFCs, HCFCs, and halons) are named CDIAC data base including some of the same compounds, and a tabulation of their uses and atmospheric lifetimes Investigators R.G. Prinn, R.F. Weiss, P.J. Fraser, P.G. Simmonds, S. O'Doherty, P. Salameh, L. Porter, P. Krummel, R.H.J. Wang, B. Miller, C. Harth, B. Greally, F.A. Van Woy, L.P. Steele, J. Müehle, G. Sturrock, F.N. Alyea, J. Huang, and D.E. Hartley Description In the ALE/GAGE/AGAGE global network program, continuous high frequency gas chromatographic measurements of four biogenic/anthropogenic gases (methane,


Sandeman-012113 - Argonne National Laboratories, Materials Sicence Division  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sandeman-012113 Sandeman-012113 JOINT PSE/MSD SEMINAR SPEAKER: Karl G. Sandeman Department of Physics TITLE: "(Tri)critical Phase Transitions in Magnetocaloric Materials " DATE: Monday, January 21, 2013 TIME: 3:00 p.m. PLACE: Building 223 / S-105 HOST: Seungbum Hong ABSTRACT: Much of today's research in so-called functional materials is driven by the quest for technologies that use energy more efficiently and reduce our impact on the environment. Such pressures drive a renewed investigation of some of the most fundamental properties of condensed matter. Solid-state phase transitions are one good example. In order to find an energy efficient solution to the problem of reducing our use of HFCs in a variety of cooling applications, a new field has been defined.


Research in chemical kinetics. Annual report, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress on the seven projects under this contract is reported. The projects are: (1) Chlorine atom reactions with vinyl bromide. Mass spectrometric investigations of the anti-Markownikoff rule. (2) Chlorine atom reactions with CF{sub 2}{double_bond}CFBr. (3) Gas phase thermal {sup 38}Cl reactions with (CH{sub 2}{double_bond}CH){sub n}M (M=Sn, Si, n=4; M=Sb, n=3; M=Hg, n=2). (4) Gas phase reactions of thermal chlorine atoms with (CH{sub 3}){sub 4}M (M=C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb). (5) Hydrogen abstraction reactions by thermal chlorine atoms with HFCs, HCFCs, and halomethanes. (6) Half-stabilization pressure of chlorine atoms plus ethylene in a nitrogen bath. (7) {sup 14}C content of atmospheric OCS, C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8}.

Rowland, F.S.



Determination of properties of PVE lubricants with HFC refrigerants[PolyVinylEther  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polyalkyleneglycol (PAG) and polyol ester (POE) have been developed as refrigeration lubricants, used with HFC134a. PAG is used for automotive air conditioning systems and POE is used for domestic reciprocating refrigerators and for A/C systems. Although PAG exhibits good lubricity performance, it is difficult to use for domestic reciprocating refrigerators due to its low dielectric property. POE is difficult to use for automotive A/C systems, due to hydrolysis and poor lubricity performance. Polyvinylether (PVE) can be used in place of PAG and POE with HFC refrigerants. PVE is used for A/C systems as well as refrigerator and freezer applications. PVE is an ideal lubricant for use with HFCs.

Kaneko, Masato; Sakanoue, Shuichi; Tazaki, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Shoichi; Takagi, Minoru; Goodin, M.



Synopsis of residential refrigerator/freezer alternative refrigerants evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental testing on residential refrigerator/freezers (R/Fs) is summarized in this paper. R/F testing focused on two areas: alternative refrigerants and equipment configurations. The refrigerants evaluated consisted of single components, azeotropes, and zeotropes derived from hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrocarbons (HCs). These refrigerants were evaluated in conventional and unconventional R/F designs. Major and minor design modifications were studied. Minor modifications consisted of various capillary tube lengths, door insulations, and compressors, while major modifications included two-evaporator and two-cycle R/F systems. Results obtained from testing the two-cycle system will be discussed in a later paper. This paper presents the experimental results of alternative technologies evaluated as replacements for ozone depleting chemicals.

Baskin, E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)



Demonstration of High Efficiency Elastocaloric Cooling with Large Delta- T Using NiTi Wires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor compression (VC) is by far the most dominant technology for meeting all cooling and refrigeration needs around the world. It is a mature technology with the efficiency of modern compressors approaching the theoretical limit, but its envi-ronmental footprint remains a global problem. VC refrigerants such as hydrochlo-roflurocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are a significant source of green house gas (GHG) emissions, and their global warming potential (GWP) is as high as 1000 times that of CO2. It is expected that building space cooling and re-frigeration alone will amount to {approx} 5% of primary energy consumption and {approx}5% of all CO2 emission in U.S. in 2030 . As such, there is an urgent need to develop an al-ternative high-efficiency cooling technology that is affordable and environmentally friendly. Among the proposed candidates, magnetocaloric cooling (MC) is currently received a lot of attention because of its high efficiency. However, MC is inherently expensive because of the requirement of large magnetic field and rare earth materi-als. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new type of solid-state cooling mechanism based on the latent heat of reversible martensitic transformation. We call it elasto-caloric cooling (EC) after the superelastic transformation of austenite it utilizes. The solid-state refrigerant of EC is cost-effective, and it completely eliminates the use of any refrigerants including HCFCs/HFCs. We show that the COP (coefficient of per-formance) of a jugular EC with optimized materials can be as high as > 10 with measured {Delta}T of 17 C.

Cui, Jun; Wu, Yiming; Muehlbauer, Jan; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Fackler, Sean; Wuttig, Manfred; Takeuchi, Ichiro



Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in house dust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We developed a high throughput analytical method using on-line solid phase extraction coupled with isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-HPLC-MS/MS) to simultaneously determine the concentrations of 17 polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) in house dust. The sample preparation includes dispersion of the dust samples in 0.1 M formic acid:MeOH (1:1), followed by agitation and filtration, addition of the isotope-labeled internal standard solution to the filtrate, and analysis by on-line SPE-HPLC-MS/MS. The limits of quantitation were <4.0 ng/g. The method accuracies ranged between 73.2% and 100.2% for the different analytes at two spike levels. We confirmed the validity of the method by analyzing 39 household dust samples collected in 2004. Of the 17 PFCs measured, 6 of them-perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBuS), N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide, 2-(N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetic acid (Et-PFOSA-AcOH), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) ethanol (Me-PFOSA-EtOH), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)-had detection frequencies >70%. We detected PFOS, PFBuS, and PFHxS at the highest median concentration, followed by Et-PFOSA-AcOH and Me-PFOSA-EtOH.

Kato, Kayoko [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy., Mailstop F53, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)] [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy., Mailstop F53, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Calafat, Antonia M., E-mail: acalafat@cdc.gov [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy., Mailstop F53, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy., Mailstop F53, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)] [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy., Mailstop F53, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)



Tritium plasma experiment: Parameters and potentials for fusion plasma-wall interaction studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The tritium plasma experiment (TPE) is a unique facility devoted to experiments on the behavior of deuterium/tritium in toxic (e.g., beryllium) and radioactive materials for fusion plasma-wall interaction studies. A Langmuir probe was added to the system to characterize the plasma conditions in TPE. With this new diagnostic, we found the achievable electron temperature ranged from 5.0 to 10.0 eV, the electron density varied from 5.0 x 10{sup 16} to 2.5 x 10{sup 18} m{sup -3}, and the ion flux density varied between 5.0 x 10{sup 20} to 2.5 x 10{sup 22} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} along the centerline of the plasma. A comparison of these plasma parameters with the conditions expected for the plasma facing components (PFCs) in ITER shows that TPE is capable of achieving most ({approx}800 m{sup 2} of 850 m{sup 2} total PFCs area) of the expected ion flux density and electron density conditions.

Shimada, Masashi; Sharpe, J. Phillip [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); Kolasinski, Robert D.; Causey, Rion A. [Hydrogen and Metallurgical Science Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)



Project Title  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Monitoring Geological CO Monitoring Geological CO 2 Sequestration using Perfluorocarbon and Stable Isotope Tracers Project Number FEAA-045 Tommy J. Phelps and David R. Cole* Oak Ridge National Laboratory Phone: 865-574-7290 email: phelpstj@ornl.gov (*The Ohio State University) U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage R&D Project Review Developing the Technologies and Building the Infrastructure for CO 2 Storage August 22, 2013 2 Project Overview: Goals and Objectives Goal: Develop methods to interrogate subsurface for improved CO 2 sequestration, field test characterization and MVA, demonstrate CO 2 remains in zone, and tech transfer. Objectives: 1. Assessment of injections in field. PFT gas tracers are analyzed by GC-ECD to



Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

0 0 NETL Accomplishments 2 Advancing energy options to fuel our economy, strengthen our security, and improve our environment. Our Mission 3 2010 NETL Accomplishments 86 66 54 52 28 8 6 4 CONTENTS NETL Mission Message from the Director NETL Powers the Future of Energy Advanced Power Systems 10 Gasification 14 Fuel Cells 16 SECA Reaches 2010 Program Goal 18 Turbines 22 Turbine Program Develops Prototypes for Reducing Emissions 24 Materials Clean Energy 30 Carbon Capture 34 Carbon Storage 36 Perfluorocarbon Tracers Go with the Flow 38 Carbon Sequestration Partnerships 44 Demand-Side Efficiency 48 Air, Water, Land A Century of Science Reliable Supply 56 Energy Infrastructure 60 Methane Hydrates 62 Natural Gas and Oil Production


Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Letters of Intent/Agreements Letters of Intent/Agreements The U.S. semiconductor industry, represented by the members of the Environmental Protection Agency's PFC Reduction/Climate Partnership for the Semiconductor Industry, has committed to reduce absolute perfluorocompound (PFC) emissions by 10% below the 1995 baseline level by the year 2010. Perfluorocompounds include the most potent and long-lived greenhouse gases such as perfluorocarbons (e.g., CF4, C2F6, C3F8), trifluoromethane (CHF3), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) voluntary semiconductor industry partnership was developed collaboratively with the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA). EPA, SIA, and the Partner companies (listed below) are working to reduce industry greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. EPA's


Home Energy Audits | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

April 4, 2012 April 4, 2012 This Month on Energy Savers: March 2012 We also covered some driving tips to help save money at the pump, ideas for new parents, and unveiled how you can connect with energy savings tips on the go. April 2, 2012 Energy 101: Home Energy Checkup (Text Version) The text version for the Home Energy Checkup 101 video. April 2, 2012 Blower door test during a home energy audit. Credit: Holtkamp Heating & A/C, Inc. Blower Door Tests Professional energy auditors use blower door tests to help determine a home's airtightness. April 2, 2012 The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to measure changes over time when determining a building's air-infiltration rate. PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique


Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Resources and Links -  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Resources & Links Resources & Links Technical Information Publications Case Studies Publications Some of the following publications are available for download as Adobe PDF documents. Download Acrobat Reader Factors Affecting Emissions from Commercial Aluminum Reduction Cells (PDF 316 KB) The U.S. EPA and the Aluminum Association sponsored measurements of two perfluorocarbon (PFC) gases: tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoroethane. The measurements at six primary aluminum production facilities provided data on emissions of these compounds during normal aluminum smelting operations. Technology and Economics of Reducing PFC Emissions from Aluminium Production (PDF 139 KB) The paper, presented in 2002 at the Third International Symposium on Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGG-3), provides an overview of global efforts


BNL | Tracer Technology Group | BNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tracer Technology Group Tracer Technology Group Tracer Technology Image The Tracer Technology Group (TTG) developed the use of perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) as tools for studying long range atmospheric transport and dispersion in the early 1980s.We are world leaders in the use of PFTs for solving diverse research and engineering problems in the atmospheric sciences, the energy production and utility industries, and building characterization. The unique capabilities of the TTG are derived from our analytical expertise, infrastructure, and experience. We have developed PFT analytical methods that have detection limits at the femtogram level. We can measure global background levels of PFTS at the parts per quadrillion levels. Our scientists and technical staff have extensive experience in


Vibrational Spectroscopy at High Pressure in CF4: Implications to the Phase Diagram  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The molecular analogue of methane, CF{sub 4} is the most fundamental saturated perfluorocarbon, exhibiting complex optical behavior that is highly unusual for such a simple molecular system. We present Raman measurements in solid CF{sub 4} over a wide range in pressure from 1.6 to over 30 GPa at room temperature. The Raman spectra exhibit polarization-dependent intensity variations and history-dependent absence or presence of high pressure modes. Our results compellingly demonstrate that previously identified phase transitions in CF{sub 4} based on Raman signatures need to be reconsidered. Though our data suggest possible new high-pressure transitions, we do not identify new phases because of spectral complexity. Finally, we used the measured longitudinal and transverse optical mode splitting to estimate the dipole moment derivative at high pressures and find it close to that of gaseous CF{sub 4}.

Lorenzana, H E; Magnus, J L; Evans, W J; Hemmi, N



Metal Surface Decontamination by the PFC Solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PFC (per-fluorocarbon) spray decontamination equipment was fabricated and its decontamination behavior was investigated. Europium oxide powder was mixed with the isotope solution which contains Co-60 and Cs-137. The different shape of metal specimens artificially contaminated with europium oxide powder was used as the surrogate contaminants. Before and after the application of the PFC spray decontamination method, the radioactivity of the metal specimens was measured by MCA. The decontamination factors were in the range from 9.6 to 62.4. The spent PFC solution was recycled by distillation. Before and after distillation, the turbidity of PFC solution was also measured. From the test results, it was found that more than 98% of the PFC solution could be recycled by a distillation. (authors)

Hui-Jun Won; Gye-Nam Kim; Wang-Kyu Choi; Chong-Hun Jung; Won-Zin Oh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, P.O.Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon, Korea, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)



Dependence of LTX plasma performance on surface conditions as determined by in situ analysis of plasma facing components  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) diagnostic has been implemented on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) at PPPL, providing the first in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surface characterization of tokamak plasma facing components (PFCs). MAPP samples were exposed to argon glow discharge conditioning (GDC), lithium evaporations, and hydrogen tokamak discharges inside LTX. Samples were analyzed with XPS, and alterations to surface conditions were correlated against observed LTX plasma performance changes. Argon GDC caused the accumulation of nm-scale metal oxide layers on the PFC surface, which appeared to bury surface carbon and oxygen contamination and thus improve plasma performance. Lithium evaporation led to the rapid formation of a lithium oxide (Li2O) surface; plasma performance was strongly improved for sufficiently thick evaporative coatings. Results indicate that a 5 h argon GDC or a 50 nm evaporative lithium coating will both significantly improve LTX plasma performance.

M. Lucia; R. Kaita; R. Majeski; F. Bedoya; J.P. Allain; T. Abrams; R.E. Bell; D.P. Boyle; M.A. Jaworski; J.C. Schmitt


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hfcs perfluorocarbons pfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


An investigation of energy harvesting from renewable sources with PVDF and  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Piezoelectric materials have been in use for many years; however, with an increasing concern about global warming, piezoelectricity has gained significant importance in research and development for extracting energy from the environment. In this work the voltage responses of ceramic based piezoelectric fibre composite structures (PFCs) and polymer based piezoelectric strips, PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride), were evaluated when subjected to various wind speeds and water droplets in order to investigate the possibility of energy generation from these two natural renewable energy sources for utilization in low power electronic devices. The effects of material dimensions, drop mass, releasing height of the drops and wind speed on the voltage output were studied and the power was calculated. This work showed that piezoelectric polymer materials can generate higher voltage/power than ceramic based piezoelectric materials and it was proved that producing energy from renewable sources such as rain drops and wind is possible by using piezoelectric polymer materials.

D Vatansever; R L Hadimani; T Shah; E Siores




Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Task Task Responsible People Major Projects: Cryopump installation Vieira, Pierson, LaBombard Tungsten Tile installation Vieira, Blip New lower hybrid couplers Vieira, Parker Rotate DNB Scott, Vieira Repair ICRF antennas/feeds as required Wuktich, Vieira Complete installation of FFT on E-Port Wukitch, Binus Continue Upgrades to LH fault protection Terry Finalize design of new 4-Strap Antenna Vieira, Wukitch Continue design of 2nd launcher Vieira, Parker General Ops: Alternator High-Pot and minor inspection Rowell Service Liquid Nitrogen System Dekow Service LN2 vent duct Dekow, Pfeiffer Service Power System Cochran Sparker Development Irby Service/Repair PFCs Vieira, Blip, LaBombard Replace HEAT TC Scanner Burke Replace HV reed relays in TF Scanner Burke Real-Time TF Voltage Tap Monitors?


Heat Flux Calculation and Problem of Flaking of Boron Carbide Coatings on the Faraday Screen of the ICRH Antennas During Tore Supra High Power, Long Pulse Operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reliable and repetitive high power and long pulse tokamak operation is strongly dependant of the ability to secure the Plasma Facing Components (PFCs). In Tore Supra, a network of 7 infrared (IR) video cameras is routinely used to prevent PFCs overheating and damage in selected regions. Real time feedback control and offline analysis are essential for basic protection and understanding of abnormal thermal events. One important limitation detected by the IR real time feed-back loop during high power RF operation (injected power of 9.5 MW over 26 s and 12 MW over 10 s have been achieved respectively in 2006 and 2008) is due to the interaction between fast ions which increase the power flux density and flaking of the boron carbide coatings on the Faraday screen box of the ICRH antennas. An IR-based experimental procedure is proposed in order to detect new flakes during plasma operation. The thermal response of the B4C coating is studied with and without flaking during plasma operation. The experimental heat flux deposited by fast ion losses on the Faraday screen is calculated for high (3.8 T) and low magnetic field (2 T) during high RF power operation (with fundamental hydrogen minority and second harmonic ICRH heating schemes respectively). The paper addresses both thermal science issues applied to machine protection and limitation due to fast ions issues during high RF power, long pulse operation. Safety margin to critical heat flux and number of fatigue cycles under heat load are presented in the paper.

Corre, Y. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance] [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Lipa, M. [CEA IRFM, St. Paul-lez-Durance, France] [CEA IRFM, St. Paul-lez-Durance, France; Agarici, G. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona, Spain] [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona, Spain; Basiuk, V. [CEA IRFM, St. Paul-lez-Durance, France] [CEA IRFM, St. Paul-lez-Durance, France; Colas, L. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)] [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Courtois, X. [CEA, St. Paul Les Durance, France] [CEA, St. Paul Les Durance, France; Dumont, R. J. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance] [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Ekedahl, A. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM)] [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Gardarein, J. L. [University of Aix, Marseille, France] [University of Aix, Marseille, France; Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL] [ORNL; Martin, V. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM)] [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Moncada, V. [CEA, St. Paul Les Durance, France] [CEA, St. Paul Les Durance, France; Portafaix, C. [CEA, St. Paul Les Durance, France] [CEA, St. Paul Les Durance, France; Rigollet, F. [University of Aix, Marseille, France] [University of Aix, Marseille, France; Tawizgant, R. [CEA, St. Paul Les Durance, France] [CEA, St. Paul Les Durance, France; Travere, J. M. [CEA, St. Paul Les Durance, France] [CEA, St. Paul Les Durance, France; Valliez, K. [CEA, St. Paul Les Durance, France] [CEA, St. Paul Les Durance, France



Buildings Energy Data Book: 7.1 National Legislation  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

5 5 Phase Out Schedule of Halocarbons in the U.S. (1) Gas % By % By Chlorofluorocarbons 75% 1994 75% 1994 (CFCs) 100% 1996 (4) 100% 1996 Bromofluorocarbons 100% 1994 (4) 100% 1994 (Halons) Hydrochlorofluorocarbons 35.0% 2004 35% 2003 (HCFCs) 75.0% 2010 75% 2010 90.0% 2015 90% 2015 99.5% 2020 99.5% 2020 100% 2030 (4) 100% 2030 Hydrofluorocarbons N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. (HFCs) Note(s): Source(s): 1989 HCFC consumption + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC consumption 1996 N.A. N.A. 1) The phase out of halocarbons is consistent with Title VI of the Clean Air Act and is in accordance with the Montreal Protocol and Amendments. 2) The amount of gas produced and consumed in this year is established and defined as the base level. To meet basic domestic needs, levels of production are allowed to exceed the base level by up to 10%. 3) After this year, levels of production are no longer


Global warming implications of non-fluorocarbon technologies as CFC replacements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many technologies could be developed for use in place of conventional compression systems for refrigeration and air conditioning. Comparisons of the global warming impacts using TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) can be used to identify alternatives that have the potential for lower environmental impacts than electric-driven vapor compression systems using HCFCs and HFCs. Some options, such as secondary heat transfer loops in commercial refrigeration systems to reduce refrigerant charge and emission rates, could be useful in reducing the losses of refrigerants to the atmosphere. Use of ammonia instead of a fluorocarbon in a system with a secondary loop offers only a small potential for decreasing TEWI, and this may not warrant the increased complexity and risks of using ammonia in a retail sales environment. A few technologies, such as adsorption heat pumps, have efficiency levels that show reduced TEWI levels compared to conventional and state of the art compression systems, and further development could lead to an even more favorable comparison. Health and safety risks of the alternative technologies and the materials they employ must also be considered.

Fischer, S.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.



Global warming and end-use efficiency implications of replacing CFCs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The direct contribution of CFCs to calculated global warming has been recognized for some time. As a result of the international agreement to phase out CFCs due to stratospheric ozone and the ensuing search for suitable alternatives, there has recently been increased attention on the DIRECT global warming potential (GWP) of the fluorocarbon alternatives as greenhouse gases. However, to date there has been little focus on the INDIRECT global warming effect arising from end-use efficiency changes and associated CO{sub 2} emissions. A study being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) addresses this combined or total global warming impact of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related applications. This paper reviews selected results for air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heat pump applications. The analysis indicates that the CFC user industries have made substantial progress in approaching near-equal energy efficiency with the HCFC/HFC alternative refrigerants. The findings also bring into question the relative importance of the DIRECT (chemical-related) effect in many applications. Replacing CFCs is an important step in reducing the total global warming impact, and at present the HCFC and HFCS appear to offer the best efficiency and lowest total impact of options available in the relatively short time period required for the transition away from CFCs.

Fairchild, P.D.; Fischer, S.K.



Energy and global warming impacts of next generation refrigeration and air conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant developments have occurred in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and the application of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerant working fluids since the original TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) report in 1991. System operating and performance data on alternative refrigerants and refrigeration technologies justify and updated evaluation of these new alternative refrigerants and competing technologies in well-characterized applications. Analytical and experimental results are used to show quantitative comparisons between HFCS, HFC blends, hydrocarbons, and ammonia, used as refrigerants. An objective evaluation is presented for commercial and near commercial non-CFC refrigerants/blowing agents and alternative refrigeration technologies. This information is needed for objective and quantitative decisions on policies addressing greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. The evaluation assesses the energy use and global warming impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies that could be commercialized during the phase out of HCFCS. Quantitative comparison TEWI for two application areas are presented. Opportunities for significant reductions in TEWI are seen with currently known refrigerants through improved maintenance and servicing practices and improved product designs.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.



Final report on activities and findings under DOE grant Interactive Photochemistry in Earth System Models to Assess Uncertainty in Ozone and Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric chemistry controls the abundances and hence climate forcing of important greenhouse gases including N2O, CH4, HFCs, CFCs, and O3. Attributing climate change to human activities requires, at a minimum, accurate models of the chemistry and circulation of the atmosphere that relate emissions to abundances. This DOE-funded research provided realistic, yet computationally optimized and affordable, photochemical modules to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that augment the CESM capability to explore the uncertainty in future stratospheric-tropospheric ozone, stratospheric circulation, and thus the lifetimes of chemically controlled greenhouse gases from climate simulations. To this end, we have successfully implemented Fast-J (radiation algorithm determining key chemical photolysis rates) and Linoz v3.0 (linearized photochemistry for interactive O3, N2O, NOy and CH4) packages in LLNL-CESM and for the first time demonstrated how change in O2 photolysis rate within its uncertainty range can significantly impact on the stratospheric climate and ozone abundances. From the UCI side, this proposal also helped LLNL develop a CAM-Superfast Chemistry model that was implemented for the IPCC AR5 and contributed chemical-climate simulations to CMIP5.

Prather, Michael J. [UCI



Lithium As Plasma Facing Component for Magnetic Fusion Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of lithium in magnetic fusion confinement experiments started in the 1990's in order to improve tokamak plasma performance as a low-recycling plasma-facing component (PFC). Lithium is the lightest alkali metal and it is highly chemically reactive with relevant ion species in fusion plasmas including hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, carbon, and oxygen. Because of the reactive properties, lithium can provide strong pumping for those ions. It was indeed a spectacular success in TFTR where a very small amount (~ 0.02 gram) of lithium coating of the PFCs resulted in the fusion power output to improve by nearly a factor of two. The plasma confinement also improved by a factor of two. This success was attributed to the reduced recycling of cold gas surrounding the fusion plasma due to highly reactive lithium on the wall. The plasma confinement and performance improvements have since been confirmed in a large number of fusion devices with various magnetic configurations including CDX-U/LTX (US), CPD (Japan), HT-7 (China), EAST (China), FTU (Italy), NSTX (US), T-10, T-11M (Russia), TJ-II (Spain), and RFX (Italy). Additionally, lithium was shown to broaden the plasma pressure profile in NSTX, which is advantageous in achieving high performance H-mode operation for tokamak reactors. It is also noted that even with significant applications (up to 1,000 grams in NSTX) of lithium on PFCs, very little contamination (< 0.1%) of lithium fraction in main fusion plasma core was observed even during high confinement modes. The lithium therefore appears to be a highly desirable material to be used as a plasma PFC material from the magnetic fusion plasma performance and operational point of view. An exciting development in recent years is the growing realization of lithium as a potential solution to solve the exceptionally challenging need to handle the fusion reactor divertor heat flux, which could reach 60 MW/m2 . By placing the liquid lithium (LL) surface in the path of the main divertor heat flux (divertor strike point), the lithium is evaporated from the surface. The evaporated lithium is quickly ionized by the plasma and the ionized lithium ions can provide a strongly radiative layer of plasma ("radiative mantle"), thus could significantly reduce the heat flux to the divertor strike point surfaces, thus protecting the divertor surface. The protective effects of LL have been observed in many experiments and test stands. As a possible reactor divertor candidate, a closed LL divertor system is described. Finally, it is noted that the lithium applications as a PFC can be quite flexible and broad. The lithium application should be quite compatible with various divertor configurations, and it can be also applied to protecting the presently envisioned tungsten based solid PFC surfaces such as the ones for ITER. Lithium based PFCs therefore have the exciting prospect of providing a cost effective flexible means to improve the fusion reactor performance, while providing a practical solution to the highly challenging divertor heat handling issue confronting the steadystate magnetic fusion reactors.

Masayuki Ono



Characterization and performance of a field aligned ion cyclotron range of frequency antenna in Alcator C-Mod  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating is expected to provide auxiliary heating for ITER and future fusion reactors where high Z metallic plasma facing components (PFCs) are being considered. Impurity contamination linked to ICRF antenna operation remains a major challenge particularly for devices with high Z metallic PFCs. Here, we report on an experimental investigation to test whether a field aligned (FA) antenna can reduce impurity contamination and impurity sources. We compare the modification of the scrape of layer (SOL) plasma potential of the FA antenna to a conventional, toroidally aligned (TA) antenna, in order to explore the underlying physics governing impurity contamination linked to ICRF heating. The FA antenna is a 4-strap ICRF antenna where the current straps and antenna enclosure sides are perpendicular to the total magnetic field while the Faraday screen rods are parallel to the total magnetic field. In principle, alignment with respect to the total magnetic field minimizes integrated E|| (electric field along a magnetic field line) via symmetry. A finite element method RF antenna model coupled to a cold plasma model verifies that the integrated E|| should be reduced for all antenna phases. Monopole phasing in particular is expected to have the lowest integrated E||. Consistent with expectations, we observed that the impurity contamination and impurity source at the FA antenna are reduced compared to the TA antenna. In both L and H-mode discharges, the radiated power is 20%30% lower for a FA-antenna heated discharge than a discharge heated with the TA-antennas. However, inconsistent with expectations, we observe RF induced plasma potentials (via gas-puff imaging and emissive probes to be nearly identical for FA and TA antennas when operated in dipole phasing). Moreover, the highest levels of RF-induced plasma potentials are observed using monopole phasing with the FA antenna. Thus, while impurity contamination and sources are indeed reduced with the FA antenna configuration, the mechanism determining the SOL plasma potential in the presence of ICRF and its impact on impurity contamination and sources remains to be understood.

Wukitch, S. J.; Garrett, M. L.; Ochoukov, R.; Terry, J. L.; Hubbard, A.; Labombard, B.; Lau, C.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Miller, D.; Reinke, M. L.; Whyte, D. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Collaboration: Alcator C-Mod Team



TheU-Tube: A Novel System for Acquiring Borehole Fluid Samplesfrom a Deep Geologic CO2 Sequestration Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel system has been deployed to obtain geochemical samples of water and gas, at in situ pressure, during a geologic CO2 sequestration experiment conducted in the Frio brine aquifer in Liberty County, Texas. Project goals required high-frequency recovery of representative and uncontaminated aliquots of a rapidly changing two-phase (supercritical CO2-brine) fluid from 1.5 km depth. The datasets collected, using both the liquid and gas portions of the downhole samples, provide insights into the coupled hydro-geochemical issues affecting CO2 sequestration in brine-filled formations. While the basic premise underlying the U-Tube sampler is not new, the system is unique because careful consideration was given to the processing of the recovered two-phase fluids. In particular, strain gauges mounted beneath the high-pressure surface sample cylinders measured the ratio of recovered brine to supercritical CO2. A quadrupole mass spectrometer provided real-time gas analysis for perfluorocarbon and noble gas tracers that were injected along with the CO2. The U-Tube successfully acquired frequent samples, facilitating accurate delineation of the arrival of the CO2 plume, and on-site analysis revealed rapid changes in geochemical conditions.

Freifeld, Barry M.; Trautz, Robert C.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Myer, Larry R.; Hovorka, Susan D.; Collins, Daniel J.



Taggants, method for forming a taggant, and a method for detecting an object  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A taggant comprising at least one perfluorocarbon compound surrounded by a polyphosphazene compound. The polyphosphazene compound has the chemical structure: ##STR00001## wherein G.sub.1 and G.sub.2 are pendant groups having different polarities, m is an integer greater than or equal to 100, and each of A and B is independently selected from hydrogen, an alkyl, an alkene, an alkoxide, a polyether, a polythioether, a siloxane, and --X(CH.sub.2).sub.nY.sup.1(CH.sub.2)p.sub.1Y.sup.2(CH.sub.2)p.sub.2 . . . Y.sup.i(CH.sub.2)p.sub.iCH.sub.3, where n ranges from 1 to 6, X and Y are independently selected from oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium, and p.sub.1 through p.sub.i range from 1 to 6. Cyclic polyphosphazene compounds lacking the A and B groups are also disclosed, as are methods of forming the taggant and of detecting an object.

Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID)




SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.




Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.



Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.



Tin-containing zeolites are highly active catalysts for the isomerization of glucose in water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The isomerization of glucose into fructose is a large-scale reaction for the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS; reaction performed by enzyme catalysts) and recently is being considered as an intermediate step in the possible route of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Here, it is shown that a large-pore zeolite that contains tin (Sn-Beta) is able to isomerize glucose to fructose in aqueous media with high activity and selectivity. Specifically, a 10% (wt/wt) glucose solution containing a catalytic amount of Sn-Beta (1?50 Sn:glucose molar ratio) gives product yields of approximately 46% (wt/wt) glucose, 31% (wt/wt) fructose, and 9% (wt/wt) mannose after 30 min and 12 min of reaction at 383 K and 413 K, respectively. This reactivity is achieved also when a 45 wt% glucose solution is used. The properties of the large-pore zeolite greatly influence the reaction behavior because the reaction does not proceed with a medium-pore zeolite, and the isomerization activity is considerably lower when the metal centers are incorporated in ordered mesoporous silica (MCM-41). The Sn-Beta catalyst can be used for multiple cycles, and the reaction stops when the solid is removed, clearly indicating that the catalysis is occurring heterogeneously. Most importantly, the Sn-Beta catalyst is able to perform the isomerization reaction in highly acidic, aqueous environments with equivalent activity and product distribution as in media without added acid. This enables Sn-Beta to couple isomerizations with other acid-catalyzed reactions, including hydrolysis/isomerization or isomerization/dehydration reaction sequences [starch to fructose and glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) demonstrated here].

Moliner, Manuel; Roman-Leshkov, Yuriy; Davis, Mark E.



Alcator C-Mod Program C Mod Alcator  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Program Program C Mod Alcator - Program Science Objectives Hutchinson 15m Budget, Schedules, and Manpower Marmar 20 MIT Institutional Issues Porkolab 10 OFES Budget Planning Meeting, Gaithersburg, Mar 2003 C Mod Alcator - Program Exploits Unique Features of the C-Mod Tokamak Major thrusts: Quasi-steady Advanced Tokamak: utilizing long pulse length cf L/R, new LH facility. Burning Plasma Support: High B; reactor pressure, q ; i-e coupled; Mo PFCs. Unique dimensional parameters give special relevance to topical science research: Transport: Marginal stability, pedestal, electron transp. Edge/Divertor: SOL transport, Neutrals, Power handling. Wave/Particle: Purely RF driven. ICRF, LH physics. MHD: Active MHD spectroscopy. ICRF/LH stabilization. C Mod Alcator - Momentum Transport Without Sources 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 -1 0 1 2 3 4 V Tor (10 4 m/s) 0.6 0.3 0.0 0.50


International Space Station power module thermal control system hydraulic performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Space Station (ISS) uses four photovoltaic power modules (PVMs) to provide electric power for the US On-Orbit Segment. The PVMs consist of photovoltaic arrays (PVAs), orbit replaceable units (ORUs), photovoltaic radiators (PVRs), and a thermal control system (TCS). The PVM TCS function is to maintain selected PVM components within their specified operating ranges. The TCS consists of the pump flow control subassembly (PFCS), piping system, including serpentine tubing for individual component heat exchangers, headers/manifolds, fluid disconnect couplings (FQDCs), and radiator (PVR). This paper describes the major design requirements for the TCS and the results of the system hydraulic performance predictions in regard to these requirements and system component sizing. The system performance assessments were conducted using the PVM TCS fluid network hydraulic model developed for predicting system/component pressure losses and flow distribution. Hardy-Cross method of iteration was used to model the fluid network configuration. Assessments of the system hydraulic performance were conducted based on an evaluation of uncertainties associated with the manufacturing and design tolerances. Based on results of the analysis, it was concluded that all design requirements regarding system performance could be met. The hydraulic performance range, enveloping possible system operating parameter variations was determined.

Goldberg, V. [Boeing North American, Inc., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.



Strike Point Control for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the first control algorithm for the inner and outer strike point position for a Spherical Torus (ST) fusion experiment and the performance analysis of the controller. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD) will be installed on NSTX which is believed to provide better pumping than lithium coatings on carbon PFCs. The shape of the plasma dictates the pumping rate of the lithium by channeling the plasma to LLD, where strike point location is the most important shape parameter. Simulations show that the density reduction depends on the proximity of strike point to LLD. Experiments were performed to study the dynamics of the strike point, design a new controller to change the location of the strike point to desired location and stabilize it. The most effective PF coils in changing inner and outer strike points were identified using equilibrium code. The PF coil inputs were changed in a step fashion between various set points and the step response of the strike point position was obtained. From the analysis of the step responses, PID controllers for the strike points were obtained and the controller was tuned experimentally for better performance. The strike controller was extended to include the outer-strike point on the inner plate to accommodate the desired low outer-strike points for the experiment with the aim of achieving "snowflake" divertor configuration in NSTX.

E. Kolemen, D. A. Gates, C.W. Rowley, N. J. Kasdin, J. Kallman,S. Gerhardt, V. Soukhanovskii, D. Mueller



The impact of lithium wall coatings on NSTX discharges and the engineering of the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent experiments on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) have shown the benefits of solid lithium coatings on carbon PFC's to diverted plasma performance, in both L- and H-mode confinement regimes. Better particle control, with decreased inductive flux consumption, and increased electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement time, and DD neutron rate were observed. Successive increases in lithium coverage resulted in the complete suppression of ELM activity in H-mode discharges. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD), which will employ the porous molybdenum surface developed for the LTX shell, is being installed on NSTX for the 2010 run period, and will provide comparisons between liquid walls in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) and liquid divertor targets in NSTX. LTX, which recently began operations at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, is the world's first confinement experiment with full liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs). All materials and construction techniques in LTX are compatible with liquid lithium. LTX employs an inner, heated, stainless steel-faced liner or shell, which will be lithium-coated. In order to ensure that lithium adheres to the shell, it is designed to operate at up to 500-600 degrees C to promote wetting of the stainless by the lithium, providing the first hot wall in a tokamak to Operate at reactor-relevant temperatures. The engineering of LTX will be discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kugel, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Avasarala, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Bell, M. G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Berzak, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gransted, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gray, T. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Jacobson, C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kallman, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaye, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kozub, T. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); LeBlanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Lepson, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Lundberg, D. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Maingi, Rajesh [ORNL; Mansfield, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Paul, S. F. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Pereverzev, G. V. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching, Germany; Schneider, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Soukhanovskii, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Strickler, T. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Stotler, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Timberlake, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Zakharov, L. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)


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Carbothermal reduction of alumina: Thermochemical equilibrium calculations and experimental investigation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The production of aluminum by the electrolytic HallHroult process suffers from high energy requirements, the release of perfluorocarbons, and vast greenhouse gas emissions. The alternative carbothermic reduction of alumina, while significantly less energy-intensive, is complicated by the formation of aluminum carbide and oxycarbides. In the present work, the formation of Al, as well as Al2OC, Al4O4C, and Al4C3 was proven by experiments on mixtures of Al2O3 and activated carbon in an Ar atmosphere submitted to heat pulses by an induction furnace. Thermochemical equilibrium calculations indicate that the Al2O3-reduction using carbon as reducing agent is favored in the presence of limited amounts of oxygen. The temperature threshold for the onset of aluminum production is lowered, the formation of Al4C3 is decreased, and the yield of aluminum is improved. Significant further enhancement in the carbothermic reduction of Al2O3 is predicted by using CH4 as the reducing agent, again in the presence of limited amounts of oxygen. In this case, an important by-product is syngas, with a H2/CO molar ratio of about 2, suitable for methanol or FischerTropsch syntheses. Under appropriate temperature and stoichiometry of reactants, the process can be designed to be thermo-neutral. Using alumina, methane, and oxygen as reagents, the co-production of aluminum with syngas, to be converted to methanol, predicts fuel savings of about 68% and CO2 emission avoidance of about 91%, vis--vis the conventional production of Al by electrolysis and of methanol by steam reforming of CH4. When using carbon (such as coke or petcoke) as reducing agent, fuel savings of 66% and CO2 emission avoidance of 15% are predicted. Preliminary evaluation for the proposed process indicates favorable economics, and the required high temperatures process heat is readily attainable using concentrated solar energy.

M. Halmann; A. Frei; A. Steinfeld



Bubble departure in the direct-contact boiling field with a continuous liquid-liquid interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Behavior of vapor bubbles was experimentally investigated in the boiling field where a volatile liquid layer of per-fluorocarbon PF5050 (boiling point 306K) was directly in contact with an immiscible hot liquid layer of water above it. Heat was supplied to the continuous liquid-liquid interface by the impingement of the downward hot water jet. Vapor bubbles were generated not only from this continuous interface but from a large number of PF5050 droplets floating on it. According to precise observation, incipience of boiling did not occur at the liquid-liquid interface but in the PF5050 liquid close to the interface in both cases of continuous and dispersed interfaces. As a result, the bubbles broke up the thin PF5050 liquid film above them and rose up into the water layer. This bubble departure phenomenon, which does not occur in the ordinary pool boiling field on the solid heating wall, is very important to evaluate the heat transfer performance in the present direct-contact boiling system. For modeling this behavior, sizes of the bubbles were measured at the moment just after they were released into the water pool. Volumes of the bubbles were larger in the case of departing from the continuous liquid-liquid interface than from the droplets. This tendency could be explained by taking into account the buoyancy force acting on unit area of the thin PF5050 liquid film above the bubble before departure, which was one of the most important parameters for the liquid film breakdown. (author)

Kadoguchi, Katsuhiko [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)



Oxidation and volatilization of a niobium alloy. Fusion Safety Program/Activation Products Task  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the findings from a preliminary investigation into oxidation and volatilization characteristics of a niobium alloy. Niobium is a candidate alloy for use in plasma facing components (PFCS) in experimental fusion reactors like the Intemational Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). An experimental alloy was tailored to simulate small changes in chemistry which could result from transmutations from irradiation. The alloy was exposed in air and steam between 800{degree}C and 1200{degree}C. Volatilized products and hydrogen were collected and measured. Post-test examinations were also performed on the samples to determine the amount of material loss during the exposures. The obtained measurements of volatilization flux (g/m{sup 2}-s), hydrogen generation rates (liters/m{sup 2}-s), and recession rates (mm/s) are data which can be used for safety analyses and material performance to predict consequences which may result from an accident involving the ingress of air or steam into the plasma chamber of fusion reactor. In our volatility tests, only molybdenum and niobium were found at release levels above the detection limit. Although molybdenum is present at only 0.12 wt%, the quantities of this element volatilized in air are nearly comparable to the quantities of niobium released. The niobium release in steam is only three to four times higher than that of molybdenum in steam. The hydrogen production of the niobium alloy is compared with other PFC materials that we have tested, specifically, beryllium, graphite, and a tunesten alloy. At high temperatures, the hydrogen production rate of the niobium alloy is among the lowest of these materials, significantly lower than beryllium. To understand what this means in an accident situation, modeling is necessary to predict temperatures, and therefore total hydrogen production. The INEL is currently doing this modeling.

Smolik, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.



Oxidation and volatilization of a niobium alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the findings from a preliminary investigation into oxidation and volatilization characteristics of a niobium alloy. Niobium is a candidate alloy for use in plasma facing components (PFCS) in experimental fusion reactors like the Intemational Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). An experimental alloy was tailored to simulate small changes in chemistry which could result from transmutations from irradiation. The alloy was exposed in air and steam between 800[degree]C and 1200[degree]C. Volatilized products and hydrogen were collected and measured. Post-test examinations were also performed on the samples to determine the amount of material loss during the exposures. The obtained measurements of volatilization flux (g/m[sup 2]-s), hydrogen generation rates (liters/m[sup 2]-s), and recession rates (mm/s) are data which can be used for safety analyses and material performance to predict consequences which may result from an accident involving the ingress of air or steam into the plasma chamber of fusion reactor. In our volatility tests, only molybdenum and niobium were found at release levels above the detection limit. Although molybdenum is present at only 0.12 wt%, the quantities of this element volatilized in air are nearly comparable to the quantities of niobium released. The niobium release in steam is only three to four times higher than that of molybdenum in steam. The hydrogen production of the niobium alloy is compared with other PFC materials that we have tested, specifically, beryllium, graphite, and a tunesten alloy. At high temperatures, the hydrogen production rate of the niobium alloy is among the lowest of these materials, significantly lower than beryllium. To understand what this means in an accident situation, modeling is necessary to predict temperatures, and therefore total hydrogen production. The INEL is currently doing this modeling.

Smolik, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.



Measurement of the ratio of hydrogen to deuterium at the KSTAR 2009 experimental campaign  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The control of the ratio of hydrogen to the deuterium is one of the very important issues for ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) minority heating as well as the plasma wall interaction in the tokamak. The ratio of hydrogen to deuterium during the tokamak shot was deduced from the emission spectroscopy measurements during the KSTAR 2009 experimental campaign. Graphite tiles were used for the plasma facing components (PFCs) at KSTAR and its surface area exposed to the plasma was about 11 m{sup 2}. The data showed that it remained as high as around 50% during the campaign period because graphite tiles were exposed to the air for about two months and the hydrogen contents at the tiles are not fully pumped out due to the lack of baking on the PFC in the 2009 campaign. The validation of the spectroscopy method was checked by using the Zeeman effects and the ratio of hydrogen to the deuterium is compared with results from the residual gas analysis. During the tokamak shot, the ratio is low below 10% initially and saturated after around 1 s. When there is a hydrogen injection to the vessel via ion cyclotron wall conditioning and the boronization process where the carbone is used, the ratio of the hydrogen to the deuterium is increased by up to 100% and it recovers to around 50% after one day of operation. However it does not decrease below 50% at the end of the experimental campaign. It was found that the full baking on the PFC (with a high temperature and sufficient vacuum pumping) is required for the ratio control which guarantees the efficient ICRF heating at the KSTAR 2010 experimental campaign.

Kwak, Jong-Gu; Wang, Son Jong; Kim, Sun Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong, Daejeon, South Korea, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Min; Na, Hoon Kyun [National Fusion Research Institute, Yuseong, Daejeon, South Korea, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)



Reduction of Carbon Footprint and Energy Efficiency Improvement in Aluminum Production by Use of Novel Wireless Instrumentation Integrated with Mathematical Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work addressed the greenhouse gas emission and electrical energy consumption of the aluminum industry. The objective was to provide a means for reducing both through the application of wireless instrumentation, coupled to mathematical modeling. Worldwide the aluminum industry consumes more electrical energy than all activities in many major countries (e.g. the UK) and emits more greenhouse gasses (e.g. than France). Most of these excesses are in the 'primary production' of aluminum; that is the conversion of aluminum oxide to metal in large electrolytic cells operating at hundreds of thousands of amps. An industry-specific GHG emission has been the focus of the work. The electrolytic cells periodically, but at irregular intervals, experience an upset condition known as an 'anode effect'. During such anode effects the cells emit fluorinated hydrocarbons (PFCs, which have a high global warming potential) at a rate far greater than in normal operation. Therefore curbing anode effects will reduce GHG emissions. Prior work had indicated that the distribution of electrical current within the cell experiences significant shifts in the minutes before an anode effect. The thrust of the present work was to develop technology that could detect and report this early warning of an anode effect so that the control computer could minimize GHG emissions. A system was developed to achieve this goal and, in collaboration with Alcoa, was tested on two cells at an Alcoa plant in Malaga, Washington. The project has also pointed to the possibility of additional improvements that could result from the work. Notable among these is an improvement in efficiency that could result in an increase in cell output at little extra operating cost. Prospects for commercialization have emerged in the form of purchase orders for further installations. The work has demonstrated that a system for monitoring the current of individual anodes in an aluminum cell is practical. Furthermore the system has been installed twice on a smelter in the US without exposing workers to hazards usually associated with running signal wires in aluminum plants. The results display the early warning of an anode effect that potentially can be used to minimize such anode effects with their excessive GHG emissions. They also point to a possible, but substantial, economic benefit that could result in improved current efficiency by anode adjustment based on individual anode current measurements.

James W. Evans



Recent Progress in the NSTX/NSTX-U Lithium Program and Prospects for Reactor-Relevant Liquid-Lithium Based Divertor Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Developing a reactor compatible divertor has been identified as a particularly challenging technology problem for magnetic confinement fusion. While tungsten has been identified as the most attractive solid divertor material, the NSTX/NSTX-U lithium (Li) program is investigating the viability of liquid lithium (LL) as a potential reactor compatible divertor plasma facing component (PFC) . In the near term, operation in NSTX-U is projected to provide reactor-like divertor heat loads < 40 MW/m^2 for 5 s. During the most recent NSTX campaign, ~ 0.85 kg of Li was evaporated onto the NSTX PFCs where a ~50% reduction in heat load on the Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) was observed, attributable to enhanced divertor bolometric radiation. This reduced divertor heat flux through radiation observed in the NSTX LLD experiment is consistent with the results from other lithium experiments and calculations. These results motivate an LL-based closed radiative divertor concept proposed here for NSTX-U and fusion reactors. With an LL coating, the Li is evaporated from the divertor strike point surface due to the intense heat. The evaporated Li is readily ionized by the plasma due to its low ionization energies, and the ionized Li ions can radiate strongly, resulting in a significant reduction in the divertor heat flux. Due to the rapid plasma transport in divertor plasma, the radiation values can be significantly enhanced up to ~ 11 MJ/cc of LL. This radiative process has the desired function of spreading the focused divertor heat load to the entire divertor chamber facilitating the divertor heat removal. The LL divertor surface can also provide a "sacrificial" surface to protect the substrate solid material from transient high heat flux such as the ones caused by the ELMs. The closed radiative LLD concept has the advantages of providing some degree of partition in terms of plasma disruption forces on the LL, Li particle divertor retention, and strong divertor pumping action from the Li-coated divertor chamber wall. By operating at a lower temperature than the first wall, the LLD can serve to purify the entire reactor chamber, as impurities generally migrate toward lower temperature Li-condensed surfaces. To maintain the LL purity, a closed LL loop system with a modest capacity (e.g., ~ 1 Liter/sec for ~ 1% level "impurities") is envisioned for a steady-state 1 GW-electric class fusion power plant.

M. Ono, et al.