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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Vapor-liquid equilibria for the systems difluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride, dichlorodifluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride, and chlorine + hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for difluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride, dichlorodifluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride, and chlorine + hydrogen fluoride have been measured. The experimental data for the binary systems are correlated with the NRTL equation with the vapor-phase association model for the mixtures containing hydrogen fluoride, and the relevant parameters are presented. The binary system difluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride forms a homogeneous liquid phase, and the others form minimum boiling heterogeneous azeotropes at the experimental conditions.

Kang, Y.W. [KIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental and CFC Technology] [KIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental and CFC Technology

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for the systems 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane + hydrogen fluoride, 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane + hydrogen fluoride, and chlorodifluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for the three binary systems (1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane + hydrogen fluoride, 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane + hydrogen fluoride, and chlorodifluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride) have been measured. The experimental data for the binary systems are correlated with the NRTL equation with the vapor-phase association model for the mixtures containing hydrogen fluoride, and the relevant parameters are presented. All of the systems form minimum boiling heterogeneous azeotropes.

Kang, Y.W.; Lee, Y.Y. [KIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [KIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Determination of Stability Constants of Hydrogen and Aluminum Fluorides with a Fluoride-Selective Electrode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to directly determine free fluoride ion concentration (or mean activity) simplifies gathering and interpretation of experimental data for studies of metal complexes. In this work, the new lanthanum fluoride electrode was used to measure free fluoride ion in an investigation of the hydrogen-fluoride and aluminum-fluoride systems in NH4NO3.

Baumann, E.W.

2003-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

4

Spectrophotometric determination of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of fluoride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple, rapid method was required for the determination of 0.01 - 0.1M hydrogen peroxide in the presence of 10M HF and in solutions resulting from the dissolution of unirradiated nuclear fuel elements in this dissolvent. Fluoride is a serious interference in the classical spectrophotometric procedure for determining hydrogen peroxide as the yellow-colored Ti(IV)-peroxide complex. It was thought that this interference could be minimized by the addition of a fluoride-complexing metal ion. Zirconium, aluminum, and boron were studied at various metal ion to fluoride mole ratios to determine the optimum conditions for reducing the interference by fluoride when present at the 0.015M and 0.15M levels. All three were effective in reducing the interference, but only at a metal ion to fluoride ratio of one or greater. Although zirconium was the most effective complexer studied, an excess of ZR(IV) decreased the absorbance of the Ti(IV)-peroxide complex. Since excess aluminum does not interfere, a procedure was developed in which two moles of AI(III) are added for each mole of fluoride in the sample aliquot. The color develops rapidly at room temperature and is stable for at least 24 hours. The absorbance is linear over the range 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}M to 1.8 {times} 10-{sup {minus}3}M H{sub 2}O{sub 2} when measured in 1-cm cuvettes. The method tolerates a variety of metal ions and complexing agents at the 0.02M level.

Delmastro, J.R.

1991-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

5

Chemical emergency preparedness and prevention advisory: Hydrogen fluoride, series 8, No. 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The advisory recommends ways Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) and chemical facilities can reduce risks posed by the presence of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in their communities. Hydrogen fluoride, a strong inorganic acid, is produced and used as a gas or liquid without water (i.e., in anhydrous form), or in a water (aqueous) solution. Inhalation of hydrogen fluoride vapor, either in anhydrous form or from water solutions, can cause irritation if the exposure is mild (i.e., low concentration in air for a short time), or severe damage to the respiratory system or death in the case of exposure to high concentrations. Contact with the liquid or vapor can severely burn the skin, eyes, and other tissue. The largest use of hydrogen fluoride is in the manufacture of fluorine-containing chemicals, particularly chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Hydrogen fluoride may be used in some petroleum refinery operations, aluminum production, nuclear applications, glass etching and polishing, and metal treating and cleaning. Hydrogen fluoride's acute toxicity prompted EPA to list it as an extremely hazardous substance (EHS), with a threshold planning quantity (TPQ) of 100 pounds, under Section 302 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (commonly known as SARA Title III).

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Development and demonstration of a personal monitoring system for exposure to hydrogen fluoride. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A good, functional Hydrogen Fluoride Gasbadge dosimeter has been developed for sampling of airborne HF vapor. The device is small (7.7 cm {times} 5.4 cm {times} 1.9 cm) and can easily and conveniently be worn on one`s lapel. It consists of polyethylene and polypropylene parts and a triethanolamine-impregnated polyproylene collection element. It is completely self contained, requiring no pumps, impingers, or sampling tubes. Subsequent to sampling, the collection element is analyzed quickly and easily with a fluoride selective-ion electrode. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine precision, linearity, interference effects, influences of temperature and humidity, and collection element stability over time. Results of the tests indicate that the Abcor Gasbadge HF dosimeter is an excellent passive HF monitor for work spaces, and that results obtained with it are accurate within {plus_minus}25%. These results have been corroborated in a field study.

Young, M.S.; Monat, J.P.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Thermodynamics of the conversion of calcium and magnesium fluorides to the parent metal oxides and hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have used thermodynamic modeling to examine the reaction of calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) and magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) with water (H{sub 2}O) at elevated temperatures. The calculated, equilibrium composition corresponds to the global free-energy minimum for the system. Optimum, predicted reaction temperatures and reactant mole ratios are reported for the recovery of hydrogen fluoride (HF), a valuable industrial feedstock. Complete conversion of MgF{sub 2} is found at 1,000 C and a ratio of 40 moles of H{sub 2}O per 1 mole of MgF{sub 2}. For CaF{sub 2}, temperatures as high as 1,400 C are required for complete conversion at a corresponding mole ratio of 40 moles of H{sub 2}O per 1 mole of CaF{sub 2}. The authors discuss the presence of minor chemical constituents as well as the stability of various potential container materials for the pyrohydrolysis reactions at elevated temperatures. CaF{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} slags are available as wastes at former uranium production facilities within the Department of Energy Complex and other facilities regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Recovery of HF from these wastes is an example of environmental remediation at such facilities.

West, M.H.; Axler, K.M.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid nitrosyl fluoride Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

nitrosyl hydride CN cyanide radical HF hydrogen fluoride hydrogen ion* carbon monoxide ion sulfur monoxide... with 8 atoms HCCN acetic acid methyl formate methyl radical*...

9

Kinetics of the reactions of hydrogen fluoride with calcium oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper studies the kinetics of interaction of gaseous hydrogen fluoride with calcium oxide at temperatures 300-700 degrees. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory adsorption apparatus modified and adapted for work with corrosive hydrogen fluoride. Calcium oxide samples in granulated form and deposited on gamma-alumina were used in the experiments. Kinetic curves representing variations of the degree of conversion of the solid samples with time are shown. The influence of retardation dure to diffusion was observed in the experiments. The influence of diffusion control on the reaction rate was also observed in a study of the reaction kinetics on supported layers of calcium oxide.

Kossaya, A.M.; Belyakov, B.P.; Kuchma, Z.V.; Sandrozd, M.K.; Vasil'eva, V.G.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

A Study of the Grain Boundaries and Hydrogen in HF-CVD Diamond Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

composition of grain boundaries in polycrystalline diamond lms by transmission electron microscopy and highA Study of the Grain Boundaries and Hydrogen in HF-CVD Diamond Films Israel Yoel Koenka #12;A Study of the Grain Boundaries and Hydrogen in HF-CVD Diamond Films Research Thesis In partial fulllment

Adler, Joan

11

The system ammonium fluoride-hydrogen fluoride-water at zero degrees centigrade and at minus twenty degrees centigrade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

borate formed s1nce the boric acid itself is so weak that it has no measurable effect upon the hydrogen ion concentration. The 1ndicator recommended is brom cresol green and the reactions are: + NHs + HsBOs ? y NHg + HsBO3 HsO+ + HsBOs ? } Hs...ately neutralizes the hydrogen fluoride in the sample and prevents loss from reac- tion with the glass . The flask is then made up to volume. b) 50 milliliters each of saturated aqueous boric acid solution and distilled water are poured into a 500-ml...

Buettner, John Philip

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Hydrogen Fluoride Capture by Imidazolium Acetate Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, I will evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

Chaban, Vitaly

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

anhydrous hydrogen fluoride: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

effect of Hydrogen Booster System on exhaust gases emissions of an internal combustion engine. The hydrogen booster produces hydrogen and oxygen using six water fuel cells and...

14

Low temperature cold trapping of uranium hexafluoride containing hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of a freezer-sublimer system operating at low desublimation pressures to replace 10-in. nuclearly safe cold traps for low assay (<5% U-235) uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) would significantly simplify operations and is economically attractive provided the nuclear safety of the system can be assured. A major requirement of such assurance is the availability of conditions guaranteeing that the nuclear safety design criterion, which requires that the H/U atomic ratio in the condensate in the freezer-sublimer always be less than 0.33 for assays up to 5%, will never be violated. A general vapor pressure equation giving the vapor pressure of HF-UF{sub 6} solutions as a function of temperature and mole fraction UF{sub 6} has been developed. The precision of the data at the 95% confidence level is {plus minus}0.1 torr at temperatures between {minus}100{degree}F and {minus}121{degree}F. The calculated vapor pressure of pure HF is 4.6 torr at {minus}100{degree}F and 3.1 torr at {minus}108{degree}F. Theoretical considerations suggest that the true value will be slightly lower. In experimental studies of the cold trapping operation at {minus}108{degree}F and at a trap pressure of 2.2 torr, only 7.3% of the HF entering the trap was retained in the trap. At a trap pressure of 4.6 torr, over 80% of the HF entering the trap was retained. The data obtained in this study confirms that the physical chemistry of the HF-UF{sub 6} system previously developed accurately describes the behavior of the system and that so long as the pressure in the trap is maintained below the vapor pressure of pure HF at the trap temperatures, there is no way that sufficient HF can be trapped to give an H/U ratio of 0.33 regardless of the HF/UF{sub 6} ratio in the feed to the trap. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

Hobbs, W.E.; Barber, E.J.; Jones, C.G.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Role of hydrogen in Ge/HfO2/Al gate stacks subjected to negative bias temperature instability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Role of hydrogen in Ge/HfO2/Al gate stacks subjected to negative bias temperature instability N 2007; published online 17 January 2008 This work investigates the role of hydrogen and nitrogen in a Ge. Virtually unchanged interface state density as a function of NBTI indicates no atomic hydrogen release from

Misra, Durgamadhab "Durga"

16

The system silver fluoride - hydrogen fluoride - water at zero degrees centigrade and at minus fifteen degrees centigrade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

samples from the acid&ass titraticna vere filtered J ' through veigbed fritted glass filter oruclbles~ snd washed with 1 . V 0. 01 I nitrio aoid and vator. %e oruoiblee vere then dried in aa, oven eot at 140 for fogr bcnua, plaoed in a vaomsa... . . and Coupons, Xeu Tork (1952) ~ 'I g 16 I l \\ 1 I ( v' 4 o Al Figure 1 AHF-HF-HFO At 0 C, Figure 2 AHP-HP-H2G At -15 G. o b0 ID III IS Cw IS ...

Thomas, Hiram Jack

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

17

Liquid-liquid equilibria for hydrogen fluoride + 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane + 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane at {minus}20 and 20 C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

1,1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane is presently under consideration as a replacement for trichlorofluoromethane, which is widely used as a foam blowing agent. 1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane is the major raw material for the production of poly(vinylidene fluoride). These two materials are normally manufactured by the fluorination of 1,1,1-trichloroethane or vinylidene chloride with hydrogen fluoride. A phase separator is normally used to retrieve hydrogen fluoride from the product stream. To design the phase separator, liquid-liquid equilibrium data are required. Liquid-liquid equilibria for the ternary system (hydrogen fluoride + 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane + 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane) have been measured at {minus}20 and 20 C. The results are correlated with the NRTL model, and the relevant parameters are presented.

Kang, Y.W.; Lee, Y.Y. [KIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). CFC Alternatives Technology Center

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

HF separation in a carbonylation process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes the carbonylation of an olefin with carbon monoxide in the presence of hydrogen fluoride catalyst wherein the reaction product is treated with water to produce a mixture of a carboxylic acid, HF and optionally water. The improvement comprises contacting at a temperature in the range of from about 25/sup 0/C up to about 100/sup 0/C, the mixture with one side of a cation permeable membrane of a copolymer of tetrafluoro ethylene and perfluoro-3, 6-dioxa-4-methyl-octen sulfamic acid whose other side is in contact with water.

Grote, D.; Trivedi, B.C.; Mason, T.O.

1987-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

19

Process for converting magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is a process for the conversion of magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride whereby magnesium fluoride is decomposed by heating in the presence of calcium carbonate, calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Magnesium fluoride is a by-product of the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride to form uranium metal and has no known commercial use, thus its production creates a significant storage problem. The advantage of this invention is that the quality of calcium fluoride produced is sufficient to be used in the industrial manufacture of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, steel mill flux or ceramic applications.

Kreuzmann, A.B.; Palmer, D.A.

1984-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

20

ELECTRONIC SOLUTION SPECTRA FOR URANIUM AND NEPTUNIUM IN OXIDATION STATES (III) TO (VI) IN ANHYDROUS HYDROGEN FLUORIDE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spectra have been recorded for solutions in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) of uranium and neptunium in oxidation states (III) to (VI). The spectra for U(III), Np(III) and Np(IV) in AHF are very similar to those in acidified aqueous solution, but that for U(IV) suggests that the cationic species is UF{sub 2}{sup 2+}. The AHF spectra for the elements in oxidation states (V) and (VI) are not comparable with those of the formally analogous aqueous solutions, where the elements exist as well-defined dioxo-cations. However, the AHF spectra can be related to spectra in the gas phase, in the solid state or in non-aqueous solvents for each element in its appropriate oxidation state.

Baluka, M.; Edelstein, N.; O'Donnell, T. A.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Gas-phase hydrogen isotope exchange in HF + D2O  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gas-phase isotope exchange reaction of HF and D2O has been studied by flow tube and matrix isolation techniques over a range of concentrations and reaction times. The matrix isolation/FTIR gas sampling and analysis technique proved capable of detecting reactants and products even at low concentrations (0.02% and less) and for reaction times down to 10 msec. The reaction under study, however, is sufficiently rapid that it appeared complete at 10 msec even at the lowest reactant concentrations used. From these results, it is therefore possible only to place a lower bound on the reaction rate. This lower bound, arrived at by computer modeling an assumed second order reaction in the flow tube, represents a refinement in the previously established limit by about a factor of 10U and may thus be of utility in UF6 atmospheric release models. 4 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Trowbridge, L.D.

1982-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

Does fluoride disrupt hydrogen bond network in cationic lipid bilayer? Time-dependent fluorescence shift of Laurdan and molecular dynamics simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Time-dependent fluorescence shift (TDFS) of Laurdan embedded in phospholipid bilayers reports on hydration and mobility of the phospholipid acylgroups. Exchange of H{sub 2}O with D{sub 2}O prolongs the lifetime of lipid-water and lipid-water-lipid interactions, which is reflected in a significantly slower TDFS kinetics. Combining TDFS measurements in H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O hydrated bilayers with atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provides a unique tool for characterization of the hydrogen bonding at the acylgroup level of lipid bilayers. In this work, we use this approach to study the influence of fluoride anions on the properties of cationic bilayers composed of trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP). The results obtained for DOTAP are confronted with those for neutral phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers. Both in DOTAP and DOPC H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O exchange prolongs hydrogen-bonding lifetime and does not disturb bilayer structure. These results are confirmed by MD simulations. TDFS experiments show, however, that for DOTAP this effect is cancelled in the presence of fluoride ions. We interpret these results as evidence that strongly hydrated fluoride is able to steal water molecules that bridge lipid carbonyls. Consequently, when attracted to DOTAP bilayer, fluoride disrupts the local hydrogen-bonding network, and the differences in TDFS kinetics between H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O hydrated bilayers are no longer observed. A distinct behavior of fluoride is also evidenced by MD simulations, which show different lipid-ion binding for Cl{sup ?} and F{sup ?}.

Pokorna, Sarka; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Hof, Martin, E-mail: martin.hof@jh-inst.cas.cz [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Dolejskova 3, 18223 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vazdar, Mario [Division of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Rudjer Boškovi? Institute, P.O.B. 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Cwiklik, Lukasz [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Dolejskova 3, 18223 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nám. 2, 16610 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Jungwirth, Pavel [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nám. 2, 16610 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

2014-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

23

Removal of fluoride from aqueous nitric acid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several methods for removing fluoride from aqueous nitric acid were investigated and compared with the frequently used aluminum nitrate-calcium nitrate (Ca/sup 2 +/-Al/sup 3 +/) chemical trap-distillation system. Zirconium oxynitrate solutions were found to be superior in preventing volatilization of fluoride during distillation of the nitric acid, producing decontamination factors (DFs) on the order of 2 x 10/sup 3/ (vs approx. 500 for the Ca/sup 2 +/-Al/sup 3 +/ system). Several other metal nitrate systems were tested, but they were less effective. Alumina and zirconia columns proved highly effective in removing HF from HF-HNO/sub 3/ vapors distilled through the columns; fluoride DFs on the order of 10/sup 6/ and 10/sup 4/, respectively, were obtained. A silica gel column was very effective in adsorbing HF from HF-HNO/sub 3/ solutions, producing a fluoride DF of approx. 10/sup 4/.

Pruett, D.J.; Howerton, W.B.; Mailen, J.C.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Band offsets of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} oxides deposited by atomic layer deposition technique on hydrogenated diamond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-k oxide insulators (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}) have been deposited on a single crystalline hydrogenated diamond (H-diamond) epilayer by an atomic layer deposition technique at temperature as low as 120 Degree-Sign C. Interfacial electronic band structures are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on core-level binding energies and valence band maximum values, valence band offsets are found to be 2.9 {+-} 0.2 and 2.6 {+-} 0.2 eV for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H-diamond and HfO{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunctions, respectively. Band gaps of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} have been determined to be 7.2 {+-} 0.2 and 5.4 {+-} 0.2 eV by measuring O 1s energy loss spectra, respectively. Both the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H-diamond and HfO{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunctions are concluded to be type-II staggered band configurations with conduction band offsets of 1.2 {+-} 0.2 and 2.7 {+-} 0.2 eV, respectively.

Liu, J. W.; Liao, M. Y.; Imura, M. [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Koide, Y. [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Nanofabrication Platform, NIMS, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Center of Materials Research for Low Carbon Emission, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

25

Method of making porous ceramic fluoride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for making a porous ceramic composite where fumed silica particles are coated with a nitrate, preferably aluminum nitrate. Next the nitrate is converted to an oxide and formed into a desired configuration. This configuration is heated to convert the oxide to an oxide silicate which is then react with HF, resulting in the fluoride ceramic, preferably aluminum fluoride.

Reiner, R.H.; Holcombe, C.E.

1990-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

26

Method of making porous ceramic fluoride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making a porous ceramic composite where fumed silica particles are coated with a nitrate, preferably aluminum nitrate. Next the nitrate is converted to an oxide and formed into a desired configuration. This configuration is heated to convert the oxide to an oxide silicate which is then react with HF, resulting in the fluoride ceramic, preferably aluminum fluoride.

Reiner, Robert H. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Uranium hexafluoride liquid thermal expansion, elusive eutectic with hydrogen fluoride, and very first production using chlorine trifluoride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three unusual incidents and case histories involving uranium hexafluoride in the enrichment facilities of the USA in the late 1940`s and early 1950`s are presented. The history of the measurements of the thermal expansion of liquids containing fluorine atoms within the molecule is reviewed with special emphasis upon uranium hexafluoride. A comparison is made between fluorinated esters, fluorocarbons, and uranium hexafluoride. The quantitative relationship between the thermal expansion coefficient, a, of liquids and the critical temperature, T{sub c} is presented. Uranium hexafluoride has an a that is very high in a temperature range that is used by laboratory and production workers - much higher than any other liquid measured. This physical property of UF{sub 6} has resulted in accidents involving filling the UF{sub 6} containers too full and then heating with a resulting rupture of the container. Such an incident at a uranium gaseous diffusion plant is presented. Production workers seldom {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} uranium hexafluoride. The movement of UF{sub 6} from one container to another is usually trailed by weight, not sight. Even laboratory scientists seldom {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} solid or liquid UF{sub 6} and this can be a problem at times. This inability to {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} the UF{sub 6}-HF mixtures in the 61.2{degrees}C to 101{degrees}C temperature range caused a delay in the understanding of the phase diagram of UF{sub 6}-HF which has a liquid - liquid immiscible region that made the eutectic composition somewhat elusive. Transparent fluorothene tubes solved the problem both for the UF{sub 6}-HF phase diagram as well as the UF{sub 6}-HF-CIF{sub 3} phase diagram with a miscibility gap starting at 53{degrees}C. The historical background leading to the first use of CIF{sub 3} to produce UF{sub 6} in both the laboratory and plant at K-25 is presented.

Rutledge, G.P. [Central Environmental, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

Divalent fluoride doped cerium fluoride scintillator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The use of divalent fluoride dopants in scintillator materials comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. The preferred divalent fluoride dopants are calcium fluoride, strontium fluoride, and barium fluoride. The preferred amount of divalent fluoride dopant is less than about two percent by weight of the total scintillator. Cerium fluoride scintillator crystals grown with the addition of a divalent fluoride have exhibited better transmissions and higher light outputs than crystals grown without the addition of such dopants. These scintillators are useful in radiation detection and monitoring applications, and are particularly well suited for high-rate applications such as positron emission tomography (PET).

Anderson, David F. (630 Sylvan Pl., Batavia, IL 60510); Sparrow, Robert W. (28 Woodlawn Dr., Sturbridge, MA 01566)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Fluorohydrogenate Cluster Ions in the Gas Phase: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of the [1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium+][F(HF)2.3–] Ionic Liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrospray ionization of the fluorohydrogenate ionic liquid [1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium][F(HF)2.3] ionic liquid was conducted to understand the nature of the anionic species as they exist in the gas phase. Abundant fluorohydrogenate clusters were produced; however, the dominant anion in the clusters was [FHF-], and not the fluoride-bound HF dimers or trimers that are seen in solution. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that HF molecules are bound to the clusters by about 30 kcal/mol. The DFT-calculated structures of the [FHF-]-bearing clusters show that the favored interactions of the anions are with the methynic and acetylenic hydrogen atoms on the imidazolium cation, forming planar structures similar to those observed in the solid state. A second series of abundant negative ions was also formed that contained [SiF5-] together with the imidazolium cation and the fluorohydrogenate anions that originate from reaction of the spray solution with silicate surfaces.

Gary S. Groenewold; James E. Delmore; Michael T. Benson; Tetsuya Tsuda; Rika Hagiwara

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed reactor system at Building 9212. Draft environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is Iocated within the Y-12 Plant on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The current AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems were designed and constructed more than 40 years ago. Because of their deteriorating condition, the corrosive nature of the materials processed, and the antiquated design philosophy upon which they are based, their long-term reliability cannot be assured. The current AHF supply system cannot mitigate an accidental release of AHF and vents fugitive AHF directly to the atmosphere during operations. the proposed action would reduce the risk of exposing the Y-12 Plant work force, the public, and the environment to an accidental release of AHF and would ensure the continuing ability of the Y-12 Plant to manufacture highly enriched uranium metal and process uranium from retired weapons for storage.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed chemical processing systems at Building 9212, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is located within the Y-12 Plant on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The proposed replacement system would be based upon modern design criteria and safety analyses. The replacement AHF supply and distribution system equipment would be located on the existing Dock 8/8A at Building 9212. Utilities would be extended to the dock to service the process equipment. The following process equipment modules would be prefabricated for installation at the modified dock: an AHF cylinder enclosure, an AHF supply manifold and vaporizer module, an AHF sump tank and transfer skid, and an AHF supply off-gas scrubber assembly module. The fluidized-bed reactor system would be constructed in an area adjacent to the existing system in Building 9212. The replacement equipment would consist of a new reduction fluidized-bed reactor, a hydrofluorination fluidized-bed reactor, and associated air emission control equipment. The no-action alternative, which is the continued operation of the existing AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems, was also evaluated.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

The synthesis, characterization and reactivity of high oxidation state nickel fluorides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research described in this thesis has mainly addressed the challenge of the synthesis of thermodynamically unstable nickel fluorides, which cannot be made by traditional thermal methods. A low-temperature approach towards the synthesis of such transition metal fluorides exploits the greater thermodynamic stability of high oxidation states in anions and involves the use of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (aHF) as a solvent. The general method consists of combining an aHF soluble starting material (e.g., K{sub 2}NiF{sub 6}) with a Lewis fluoroacid (e.g., BF{sub 3}), which precipitates a neutral polymeric solid state fluoride: 2 K{sup +} + NiF{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} + BF{sub 3} {r_arrow} NiF{sub 4} + 2 BF{sub 4}{sup {minus}} + 2 K{sup +}. At room temperature, this reaction yields a different structural phase, with composition K{sub x}NiF{sub 3} (x {approx} 0.18). This material has a pseudo-hexagonal tungsten bronze structure (H{sub 0}-K{sub x}NiF{sub 3}), and is an ionic conductor, probably due to K{sup +} ions hosted in the lattice channels. R-NiF{sub 3} is capable of fluorinating a wide range of inorganic and organic substrates. These reactions have probably shed light on the mechanism of the Simons Electrochemical Fluorination (ECF) Process, an important industrial method of fluorinating organic compounds. It has long been speculated that NiF{sub 3} plays a role in the ECF process, which uses nickel electrodes in aHF solvent. K{sub 2}NiF{sub 6} also fluorinates organic compounds in aHF, but interestingly, yields different fluorinated products. The reduction of R-NiF{sub 3} and K{sub 2}NiF{sub 6} during fluorination reactions yields NiF{sub 2}. A method has been developed to regenerate NiF{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} from NiF{sub 2}.

Chacon, L.C. [Univ. of Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Selective etching of high-k HfO{sub 2} films over Si in hydrogen-added fluorocarbon (CF{sub 4}/Ar/H{sub 2} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/Ar/H{sub 2}) plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inductively coupled hydrogen-added fluorocarbon (CF{sub 4}/Ar/H{sub 2} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/Ar/H{sub 2}) plasmas were used to etch HfO{sub 2}, which is a promising high-dielectric-constant material for the gate of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. The etch rates of HfO{sub 2} and Si were drastically changed depending on the additive-H{sub 2} flow rate in C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/Ar/H{sub 2} plasmas. The highly selective etching of HfO{sub 2} over Si was done in the condition with an additive-H{sub 2} flow rate, where the Si surface was covered with the fluorocarbon polymer. The results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the carbon content of the selectively etched HfO{sub 2} surface was extremely low compared with the preetched surface contaminated by adventitious hydrocarbon in atmosphere. In the gas phase of the C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/Ar/H{sub 2} plasmas, Hf hydrocarbide molecules such as metal-organic compounds and Hf hydrofluoride were detected by a quadrupole mass analyzer. These findings indicate that the fluorine species, carbon, and hydrogen can work to etch HfO{sub 2} and that the carbon species also plays an important role in selective etching of HfO{sub 2} over Si.

Takahashi, Kazuo; Ono, Kouichi [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Method of treating fluoride contaminated wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for treating spent aluminum smelting potliner material containing fluoride contaminants is described which comprises: adding silica to the material to form a mixture thereof; elevating the temperature of the mixture within the range of 1,000/sup 0/ to 1,700/sup 0/C. to form a slag; providing sufficient silica in the mixture and forming the slag in the presence of sufficient water for pyrohydrolysis conditions resulting in the volatilization of substantially all of the fluoride contaminants mostly in the form of hydrogen fluoride; and cooling the slag remaining after volatilizatiion of substantially all of the fluoride contaminants to produce an insoluble silicate glass-residue containing any remaining portion of the fluoride contaminants in an immobile state.

Davis, P.K.; Kakaria, V.K.

1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

35

Butane segregated by fluorides, olefins content at Texas terminals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Texas Eastern Products Pipeline Co., Houston (Teppco), this month has begun segregating butane streams at the company's Mont Belvieu and Baytown, Texas terminals according to fluoride and olefin contents. Streams containing fluoride or an olefin content greater than 1 ppm (or both) currently flow into Teppco's south Mont Belvieu terminal. Those fluoride-free streams with less than 1 ppm of olefins flow to its north Mont Belvieu terminal. Butane processed through an isomerization unit yields isobutane, a key component in MTBE. But high-fluoride butane from crude-oil refineries using hydrofluoric (HF) acid alkylation units cannot be used to produce MTBE because fluoride will damage isomerization units' process catalysts. Olefins also affect the efficiency of isomerization units, but less critically than fluorides. Their presence is higher in refinery product than in fractionated NGL. To extend the life of their process catalysts and to maximize yields, producers (including MTBE and isomerization unit operators) are specifying low-fluoride butanes developed from natural-gas fractionators or from refineries that do not use an HF process.

Not Available

1993-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

36

Uranyl fluoride luminescence in acidic aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Luminescence emission spectra and decay rates are reported for uranyl species in acidic aqueous solutions containing HF or added NaF. The longest luminescence lifetime, 0.269 {+-} 0.006 ms, was observed from uranyl in 1 M HF + 1 M HClO{sub 4} at 296 K and decreased with increasing temperature. Based on a luminescence dynamics model that assumes equilibrium among electronically excited uranyl fluoride species and free fluoride ion, this long lived uranyl luminescence in aqueous solution is attributed primarily to UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}. Studies on the effect of added LiNO{sub 3} or Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O showed relatively weak quenching of uranyl fluoride luminescence which suggests that high sensitivity determination of the UF{sub 6} content of WF{sub 6} gas should be feasible via uranyl luminescence analysis of hydrolyzed gas samples of impure WF{sub 6}.

Beitz, J.V.; Williams, C.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Dispersion of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosol and HF vapor in the operating floor during winter ventilation at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gaseous diffusion process is currently employed at two plants in the US: the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, a postulated design basis accident involving large line-rupture induced releases of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) into the process building of a gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) is evaluated. When UF{sub 6} is released into the atmosphere, it undergoes an exothermic chemical reaction with moisture (H{sub 2}O) in the air to form vaporized hydrogen fluoride (HF) and aerosolized uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}). These reactants disperse in the process building and transport through the building ventilation system. The ventilation system draws outside air into the process building, distributes it evenly throughout the building, and discharges it to the atmosphere at an elevated temperature. Since air is recirculated from the cell floor area to the operating floor, issues concerning in-building worker safety and evacuation need to be addressed. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the transport of HF vapor and UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols throughout the operating floor area following B-line break accident in the cell floor area.

Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carter, J.C. [J.C. Carter Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1996-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

38

Determination of the chemistry of HF acidizing with the use of {sup 19}F NMR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A more thorough understanding of the chemistry of HF acid and its reaction products on silica and alumino-silicates is essential to the design and optimization of HF acidizing treatments. To more clearly define the chemistry of HF acidizing, an in-depth investigation of the reaction of HF and H{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} with alumino-silicates was undertaken using {sup 19}F Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition to the fluosilicic acid (H{sub 2}SiF{sub 6}) and AlF{sup 2+} predicted by traditional theories, {sup 19}F NMR spectroscopy shows a complex mixture of silicon and aluminum fluoride species in reacted HF acidizing solutions. During a secondary reaction of silicon fluorides with alumino-silicates, a constant F/Al ratio was maintained until the silicon fluorides had reacted completely. The distribution of the fluoride species depends on the HCl concentration. In this investigation, a tertiary reaction of HF acid on alumino-silicates was identified. When the silicon fluorides have reacted completely to give silica gel, the aluminum fluoride complexes continue to react on fresh alumino-silicates. The reaction causes the aluminum content to increase and the F/Al ratio and acid concentration to decrease. The final F/Al ratio is dependent upon acid strength and temperature. Numerous HF acidizing well returns have been analyzed to verify the reactions conducted in the laboratory. The extent of the reaction of HF acid can be determined with the use of {sup 19}F NMR spectroscopy. In wells with temperatures of 150 to 200 F, the reaction of H{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} is complete. Silicon content was quite low, and pH levels were 2 to 3. The F/Al ratios of the returns were 0.5 to 1.3, depending on the concentration of HCl and HF used in the treatment. In wells less than 100 F, the secondary reaction did not go to completion. Silicon and aluminum fluoride complexes were present in the returns along with live HCl.

Shuchart, C.E.; Buster, D.C.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Synthesis, structure, and reactivity of high oxidation state silver fluorides and related compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This thesis has been largely concerned with defining the oxidizing power of Ag(III) and Ag(II) in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (aHF) solution. Emphasis was on cationic species, since in a cation the electronegativity of a given oxidation state is greatest. Cationic Ag(III) solv has a short half life at ordinary temperatures, oxidizing the solvent to elemental fluorine with formation of Ag(II). Salts of such a cation have not yet been preparable, but solutions which must contain such a species have proved to be effective and powerful oxidizers. In presence of PtF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}, RuF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}, or RhF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}, Ag(III) solv effectively oxidizes the anions to release the neutral hexafluorides. Such reactivity ranks cationic Ag(III) as the most powerfully oxidizing chemical agent known as far. Unlike its trivalent relative Ag (II) solv is thermodynamically stable in acid aHF. Nevertheless, it oxidizes IrF{sub 6}{sup {minus}} to IrF{sub 6} at room temperature, placing its oxidizing potential not more than 2 eV below that of cationic Ag(III). Range of Ag{sup 2+} (MF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}){sub 2} salts attainable in aHF has been explored. An anion must be stable with respect to electron loss to Ag{sup 2+}. The anion must also be a poor F{sup {minus}} donor; otherwise, either AgF{sup +} salts or AgF{sub 2} are generated.

Lucier, G.M.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Calculated structures and fluoride affinities for fluorides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is shown that SCF-MO calculations provide good estimates of the energies of the processes MF/sub n/ ..-->.. M/sup n+/ + nF/sup -/ where M/sup n+/ is an ion of a first- or second-row element in a closed-shell or s/sup 2/ configuration. The fluoride ion affinities are then calculated for a number of molecules and ions. Where comparison with experiment is possible, the agreement is generally good when allowance is made for experimental uncertainties. In favorable cases, accurate heats of formation may be calculated from fluoride affinities.

O'Keeffe, M.

1986-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Amorphous powders of Al-Hf prepared by mechanical alloying  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We synthesized amorphous Al/sub 50/Hf/sub 50/ alloy powder by mechanically alloying an equimolar mixture of crystalline powders of Al and Hf using hexane as a dispersant. We characterized the powder as a function of mechanical-alloying time by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Amorphous Al/sub 50/Hf/sub 50/ powder heated at 10 K s/sup /minus/1/ crystallizes polymorphously at 1003 K into orthorhombic AlHf (CrB-type structure). During mechanical alloying, some hexane decomposes and hydrogen and carbon are incorporated into the amorphous alloy powder. The hydrogen can be removed by annealing the powder by hot pressing at a temperature approximately 30 K below the crystallization temperature. The amorphous compacts have a diamond pyramidal hardness of 1025 DPH. 24 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Schwarz, R.B.; Hannigan, J.W.; Sheinberg, H.; Tiainen, T.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Method for the recovery of fluorides from spent aluminum potlining and the production of an environmentally safe waste residue  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for recovery of fluoride values from spent potlining and fluoride containing insulating materials associated with the potlining is disclosed. Spent potlining and the insulating matericals are reduced to a fine particle size and incinerated. The ash residue is leached with a dilute caustic and the leachate is treated with a calcium compound to precipitate calcium fluoride. The calcium fluoride is dried to a moisture content of less than 0.1 percent and is treated with about 93 to 99 percent concentration of sulfuric acid to produce hydrogen fluoride gas and a metal sulfate. The hydrogen fluoride gas is fed into an alumina dry scrubber to produce alumina with absorbed fluorides to be used as feed material to reduction cells used in the manufacture of aluminum by electrolytic reduction. The metal sulfate residue is treated with lime and constitutes an environmentally safe product which can be disposed of as landfill material.

Snodgrass, J.B.; Cambridge, E.L.

1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

43

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal thermal Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: , calcium hypochlorite, hydrogen fluoride (HF) Ammonium Nitrate acids, metal powders, flammable liquids... , sodium carbide, turpentine, finely divided metals...

44

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metals phase Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: , calcium hypochlorite, hydrogen fluoride (HF) Ammonium Nitrate acids, metal powders, flammable liquids... , sodium carbide, turpentine, finely divided metals...

45

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal dimers Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: , calcium hypochlorite, hydrogen fluoride (HF) Ammonium Nitrate acids, metal powders, flammable liquids... , sodium carbide, turpentine, finely divided metals...

46

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metals final Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: , calcium hypochlorite, hydrogen fluoride (HF) Ammonium Nitrate acids, metal powders, flammable liquids... , sodium carbide, turpentine, finely divided metals...

47

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal complexes Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: , calcium hypochlorite, hydrogen fluoride (HF) Ammonium Nitrate acids, metal powders, flammable liquids... , sodium carbide, turpentine, finely divided metals...

48

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal extraction Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: , calcium hypochlorite, hydrogen fluoride (HF) Ammonium Nitrate acids, metal powders, flammable liquids... , sodium carbide, turpentine, finely divided metals...

49

Magnesium fluoride recovery method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); McKenzie, Donald E. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Hf-irJ  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment ofofOxford SiteToledo SiteTonawanda North - ConsequencesDGwen Hf-irJ

51

Influence of uranium on corrosion of stainless steel in solutions of fluoride in nitric acid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stainless steels corrode rapidly in solutions of fluoride in nitric acid; the higher the fluoride ion content, the more intense is the corrosion. The activating effect of the fluoride ions mainly reduces to dissolution of the oxide films. Small amounts somewhat retard the cathodic reduction of HNO/sub 3/. In this report the authors provide the results of an investigation of the influence of uranium ions on the corrosion-electrochemical behavior of stainless steel 12Kh18N10T in solutions of up to 10 moles/liter of HNO/sub 3/, with fluoride ions up to 0.1 mole/liter. The authors conclude that the retardation of corrosion of stainless steel by uranium, zirconium and aluminum ions in solutions of fluorides in nitric acid is mainly due to the formation of strong complexes of these metals with fluorine ions, leading to a reduction of the number of free HF molecules in the solution. The stronger the complex of metal with fluorine, the higher the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel in a solution of fluoride in nitric acid.

Kurtenov, M.M.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

www.eurofluor.org CTEF Comit Technique Europen du Fluor Comit Technique Europen du Fluor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fluor Working group Storage, Transportation and Safety Guidelines in case of a Hydrogen Fluoride of HF Exposure Page 2 of 20 pages PREFACE Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is essential for chemical industry and therefore, there is a need for HF to be produced, transported, stored and used. HF is primarily

Saskatchewan, University of

53

Nuclear spin relaxation in a vinylidene fluoride and trifluoroethylene copolymer (70/30).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

583 Nuclear spin relaxation in a vinylidene fluoride and trifluoroethylene copolymer (70/30). II orientations dans les chaînes. Abstract. 2014 Measurements of the hydrogen and fluorine nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times T1 from 6 to 300 MHz and T103C1 from 3 to 100 kHz have been performed at different

Boyer, Edmond

54

Methods of using ionic liquids having a fluoride anion as solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method in one embodiment includes contacting a strongly hydrogen bonded organic material with an ionic liquid having a fluoride anion for solubilizing the strongly hydrogen bonded organic material; and maintaining the ionic liquid at a temperature of about 90.degree. C. or less during the contacting. A method in another embodiment includes contacting a strongly hydrogen bonded organic material with an ionic liquid having an acetate or formate anion for solubilizing the strongly hydrogen bonded organic material; and maintaining the ionic liquid at a temperature of less than about 90.degree. C. during the contacting.

Pagoria, Philip (Livermore, CA); Maiti, Amitesh (San Ramon, CA); Gash, Alexander (Brentwood, CA); Han, Thomas Yong (Pleasanton, CA); Orme, Christine (Oakland, CA); Fried, Laurence (Livermore, CA)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

55

Chemistry control and corrosion mitigation of heat transfer salts for the fluoride salt reactor (FHR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a prototype nuclear reactor which operated from 1965 to 1969 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The MSRE used liquid fluoride salts as a heat transfer fluid and solvent for fluoride based {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U fuel. Extensive research was performed in order to optimize the removal of oxide and metal impurities from the reactor's heat transfer salt, 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe). This was done by sparging a mixture of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen gas through the FLiBe at elevated temperatures. The hydrofluoric acid reacted with oxides and hydroxides, fluorinating them while simultaneously releasing water vapor. Metal impurities such as iron and chromium were reduced by hydrogen gas and filtered out of the salt. By removing these impurities, the corrosion of reactor components was minimized. The Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison is currently researching a new chemical purification process for fluoride salts that make use of a less dangerous cleaning gas, nitrogen trifluoride. Nitrogen trifluoride has been predicted as a superior fluorinating agent for fluoride salts. These purified salts will subsequently be used for static and loop corrosion tests on a variety of reactor materials to ensure materials compatibility for the new FHR designs. Demonstration of chemistry control methodologies along with potential reduction in corrosion is essential for the use of a fluoride salts in a next generator nuclear reactor system. (authors)

Kelleher, B. C.; Sellers, S. R.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Scheele, R. D. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ.of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Sol-gel synthesis of high-quality heavy-metal fluoride glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluoride glasses are excellent laser hosts and are very well suited for a broad spectrum of optical applications. However, current fluoride glass synthesis is expensive. The sol-gel method is an affordable alternative for producing high-performance, optical-quality heavy-metal fluoride glasses. The method involves forming a hydrous oxide gel of the constituent metal alkoxides and salts, polymerizing the solution to form a gel, fluorinating the gel with anhydrous HF, melting the amorphous material in an oxidizing atmosphere of SF[sub 6], and casting the melt into desired shapes. ZBLA (57ZrF[sub 4] [times] 36BaF[sub 2] [times] 4LaF[sub 3] [times] 3AlF[sub 3], in mol%) and Nd-doped (0.3 mol%) ZBLA glass rods were prepared by this process and their properties were measured. The sol-gel-based glasses had thermal and optical properties similar to those found in the literature for conventionally prepared fluorides.

Dejneka, M.; Riman, R.E.; Snitzer, E. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Ceramics)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Fluoride removal from water with spent catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption of fluoride from water with spent catalyst was studied. Adsorption density of fluoride decreased with increasing pH. Linear adsorption isotherm was utilized to describe the adsorption reaction. The adsorption was a first-order reaction, and the rate constant increased with decreasing surface loading. Adsorption reaction of fluoride onto spent catalyst was endothermic, and the reaction rate increased slightly with increasing temperature. Fluoro-alumino complex and free fluoride ion were involved in the adsorption reaction. It is proposed that both the silica and alumina fractions of spent catalyst contribute to the removal of fluoride from aqueous solution. Coulombic interaction is proposed as the major driving force of the adsorption reaction of fluoride onto spent catalyst.

Lai, Y.D.; Liu, J.C. [National Taiwan Institute of Technology, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Presentation...

59

Current status of fluoride volatility method development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fluoride Volatility Method is based on a separation process, which comes out from the specific property of uranium, neptunium and plutonium to form volatile hexafluorides whereas most of fission products (mainly lanthanides) and higher transplutonium elements (americium, curium) present in irradiated fuel form nonvolatile tri-fluorides. Fluoride Volatility Method itself is based on direct fluorination of the spent fuel, but before the fluorination step, the removal of cladding material and subsequent transformation of the fuel into a powdered form with a suitable grain size have to be done. The fluorination is made with fluorine gas in a flame fluorination reactor, where the volatile fluorides (mostly UF{sub 6}) are separated from the non-volatile ones (trivalent minor actinides and majority of fission products). The subsequent operations necessary for partitioning of volatile fluorides are the condensation and evaporation of volatile fluorides, the thermal decomposition of PuF{sub 6} and the finally distillation and sorption used for the purification of uranium product. The Fluoride Volatility Method is considered to be a promising advanced pyrochemical reprocessing technology, which can mainly be used for the reprocessing of oxide spent fuels coming from future GEN IV fast reactors.

Uhlir, J.; Marecek, M.; Skarohlid, J. [UJV - Nuclear Research Institute, Research Centre Rez, CZ-250 68 Husinec - Rez 130 (Czech Republic)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Sulfuryl fluoride in the global atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The first calibrated high-frequency, high-precision, in situ atmospheric and archived air measurements of the fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (SO[subscript 2]F[subscript 2]) have been made as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric ...

Muhle, J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Transition metal fluorides: from superconductors to multiferroics.   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transition metal fluorides represent an important family of complex solids displaying a variety of different properties and interesting phenomena. Despite their remarkable behaviour, these classes of materials have not ...

Drathen, Christina

2013-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

62

Method for fluorination of actinide fluorides and oxyfluorides using O/sub 2/F/sub 2/  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates generally to methods of fluorination and more particularly to the use of O/sub 2/F/sub 2/ for the preparation of actinide hexafluorides, and for the extraction of deposited actinides and fluorides and oxyfluorides thereof from reaction vessels. The experiments set forth hereinabove demonstrate that the room temperature or below use of O/sub 2/F/sub 2/ will be highly beneficial for the preparation of pure actinide hexafluorides from their respective tetrafluorides without traces of HF being present as occurs using other fluorinating agents: and decontamination of equipment previously exposed to actinides: e.g., walls, feed lines, etc.

Eller, P.G.; Malm, J.G.; Penneman, R.A.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Methods of Controlling Hydrogen Fluoride Pressure During Chemical...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by the absorber during growth of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO). Technology Marketing Summary Superconductors are remarkable materials that transmit direct current without resistive loss and...

64

Method for removing fluoride contamination from nitric acid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluoride ions are removed from nitric acid solution by contacting the vaporized solution with alumina or zirconium.

Howerton, W.B.; Pruett, D.J.

1982-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

65

Florida Hydrogen Initiative  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety monitoring at any facility engaged in transport, handling and use of hydrogen. Development of High Efficiency Low Cost Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Production and PEM Fuel Cell Applications ? M. Rodgers, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to decrease platinum usage in fuel cells by conducting experiments to improve catalyst activity while lowering platinum loading through pulse electrodeposition. Optimum values of several variables during electrodeposition were selected to achieve the highest electrode performance, which was related to catalyst morphology. Understanding Mechanical and Chemical Durability of Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies ? D. Slattery, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to increase the knowledge base of the degradation mechanisms for membranes used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The results show the addition of ceria (cerium oxide) has given durability improvements by reducing fluoride emissions by an order of magnitude during an accelerated durability test. Production of Low-Cost Hydrogen from Biowaste (HyBrTec?) ? R. Parker, SRT Group, Inc., Miami, FL This project developed a hydrogen bromide (HyBrTec?) process which produces hydrogen bromide from wet-cellulosic waste and co-produces carbon dioxide. Eelectrolysis dissociates hydrogen bromide producing recyclable bromine and hydrogen. A demonstration reactor and electrolysis vessel was designed, built and operated. Development of a Low-Cost and High-Efficiency 500 W Portable PEMFC System ? J. Zheng, Florida State University, H. Chen, Bing Energy, Inc. The objectives of this project were to develop a new catalyst structures comprised of highly conductive buckypaper and Pt catalyst nanoparticles coated on its surface and to demonstrate fuel cell efficiency improvement and durability and cell cost reductions in the buckypaper based electrodes. Development of an Interdisciplinary Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Academic Program ? J. Politano, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL This project developed a hydrogen and fuel cel

Block, David L

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

66

BAND STRUCTURE AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF MAGNESIUM FLUORIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

595 BAND STRUCTURE AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF MAGNESIUM FLUORIDE C. JOUANIN, J. P. ALBERT and C'autres transitions expéri- mentales. Abstract. 2014 The electronic band structure of magnesium fluoride is calculated, only some qualitative investigations exist for the calcium and magnesium fluorides [1, 2]. This lack

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

67

Rare earth/iron fluoride and methods for making and using same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A particulate mixture of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and RE.sub.2 O.sub.3, where RE is a rare earth element, is reacted with an excess of HF acid to form an insoluble fluoride compound (salt) comprising REF.sub.3 and FeF.sub.3 present in solid solution in the REF.sub.3 crystal lattice. The REF.sub.3 /FeF.sub.3 compound is dried to render it usable as a reactant in the thermite reduction process as well as other processes which require an REF.sub.3 /FeF.sub.3 mixture. The dried REF.sub.3 /FeF.sub.3 compound comprises about 5 weight % to about 40 weight % of FeF.sub.3 and the balance REF.sub.3 to this end.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Neveda, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA)

1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

68

Acidizing of Sandstone Reservoirs Using HF and Organic Acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mud acid, which is composed of HCl and HF, is commonly used to remove the formation damage in sandstone reservoirs. However, many problems are associated with HCl, especially at high temperatures. Formic-HF acids have served as an alternative...

Yang, Fei

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

69

THE CORROSION OF SILICATE MATERIALS BY HYDROGEN GAS AND HYDROFLUORIC ACID SOLUTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Reacted Alumino-silicate Glass • . Reaction Between CaO-of Reacted Alumino-silicate Glasses. Reaction with HydrogenGas. . Reaction Between Silicate Glasses and HF Acid

Tso, Stephen T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Aluminum fluoride inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor inactivation and transformation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluoride, in the presence of aluminum ions, reversibly inhibits the temperature-mediated inactivation of unoccupied glucocorticoid receptors in cytosol preparations from mouse L cells. The effect is concentration-dependent, with virtually complete stabilization of specific glucocorticoid-binding capacity at 2 mM fluoride and 100 microM aluminum. These concentrations of aluminum and fluoride are ineffective when used separately. Aluminum fluoride also stabilizes receptors toward inactivation by gel filtration and ammonium sulfate precipitation. Aluminum fluoride prevents temperature-dependent transformation of steroid-receptor complexes to the DNA-binding state. Aluminum fluoride does not inhibit calf intestine alkaline phosphatase, and unoccupied receptors inactivated by this enzyme in the presence of aluminum fluoride can be completely reactivated by dithiothreitol. The effects of aluminum fluoride are due to stabilization of the complex between the glucocorticoid receptor and the 90-kDa mammalian heat-shock protein hsp90, which suggests that aluminum fluoride interacts directly with the receptor. Endogenous thermal inactivation of receptors in cytosol is not accompanied by receptor dephosphorylation. However, inactivation is correlated with dissociation of hsp90 from the unoccupied receptor. These results support the proposal that hsp90 is required for the receptor to bind steroid and dissociation of hsp90 is sufficient to inactivate the unoccupied receptor.

Housley, P.R. (Univ. of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia (USA))

1990-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

71

Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets, and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat transfer equipment designs. All of the data discussed above were taken under forced convective conditions (both laminar and turbulent). Some recent data taken at ORNL under free convection conditions are also presented and results discussed. This data was taken using a simple crucible experiment with an instrumented nickel heater inserted in the salt to induce natural circulation within the crucible. The data was taken over a temperature range of 550oC to 650oC in FLiNaK salt. This data covers both laminar and turbulent natural convection conditions, and is compared to existing forms of natural circulation correlations.

Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Katy, TX)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

73

FLUORIDE ION COMPLEXATION BY STIBONIUM LEWIS ACIDSTOWARD APPLICATION IN BIOIMAGING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, these antimony species react with fluoride ions in organic solvents and sometimes in aqueous solutions to form the corresponding fluorostiboranes. Formation of these fluoride species can be conveniently monitored by a variety of techniques such as UV-vis and NMR...

Haile, Merid 1989-

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

74

Scintillation of rare earth doped fluoride nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scintillation response of rare earth (RE) doped core/undoped (multi-)shell fluoride nanoparticles was investigated under x-ray and alpha particle irradiation. A significant enhancement of the scintillation response was observed with increasing shells due: (i) to the passivation of surface quenching defects together with the activation of the REs on the surface of the core nanoparticle after the growth of a shell, and (ii) to the increase of the volume of the nanoparticles. These results are expected to reflect a general aspect of the scintillation process in nanoparticles, and to impact radiation sensing technologies that make use of nanoparticles.

Jacobsohn, L. G.; McPherson, C. L.; Sprinkle, K. B.; Ballato, J. [Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Yukihara, E. G. [Physics Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078-3072 (United States); DeVol, T. A. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0905 (United States)

2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

75

E-Print Network 3.0 - al hf ta Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-based gate dielectric for MOSFETs with TaN metal gate. By incorporating Ta into HfO2 films, significant... shift than HfO2 3. In this work, we developed HfTaO gate ......

76

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Name of SOP Manual Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) Etching of Glass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

required Fume Hood, safety eye goggles, lab coat, two layers of nitrile gloves and HF Safety Kit Sequential containers. 5. HF is a glass etchant; only use plastic labware to contain HF. 6. Personal protective gear

Thompson, Michael

77

A Brief Overview of Hydrogen Storage Issues and Needs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Brief Overview of Hydrogen Storage Issues and Needs George Thomas and Sunita Satyapal Joint-Chair Mei Cai (GM) ­ Materials Properties Modifications Don Siegel (Ford) ­ (Theory/Modeling) Andrea Sudik equilibrium pressure Pressure at 80 C vs. Formation Energy 1 10 100 1000 10000 10 20 30 40 50 60 Hf 2 S = 145

78

Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Augusta, Georgia August development · Charge from BPTCS to B31 Standards Committee for Hydrogen Piping/Pipeline code development · B31.12 Status & Structure · Hydrogen Pipeline issues · Research Needs · Where Do We Go From Here? #12;4 Code

79

Hf propagation through actively modified ionospheres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a computer modeling capability to predict the effect of localized electron density perturbations created by chemical releases or high-power radio frequency heating upon oblique, one-hop hf propagation paths. We have included 3-d deterministic descriptions of the depleted or enhanced ionization, including formation, evolution, and drift. We have developed a homing ray trace code to calculate the path of energy propagation through the modified ionosphere in order to predict multipath effects. We also consider the effect of random index of refraction variations using a formalism to calculate the mutual coherence functions for spatial and frequency separations based upon a path integral solution of the parabolic wave equation for a single refracted path through an ionosphere which contains random electron density fluctuations. 5 refs., 8 figs.

Argo, P.E.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Wolcott, J.H.; Simons, D.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Warshaw, S.; Carlson, R. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Effect of aluminum fluoride on the physical properties and stability of fluorozirconate and fluorozirco-hafnate glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The glass quality, physical properties, and thermal stability of fluorozirconate and fluorozirco-hafnate glasses were investigated as a function of the AIF{sub 3} content. The AIF{sub 3} concentration varied from 2 to 3.25 mol%. The ratio of the other components was constant, except for 50% substitution of ZrF{sub 4} by HfF{sub 4} in the fluorozirco-hafnate glasses. The physical properties of all the glasses were not affected strongly by AlF{sub 3} content. However, the fluorozirco-hafnate glasses were prone to precipitate out AlF{sub 3} microcrystals for AlF{sub 3} contents greater than 3 mol%. The thermal stability of the glasses revealed a compositional dependence only in the case of the fluorozirco-hafnate glasses. The thermal stability decreased as the AlF{sub 3} content increased above 3 mol%. The authors conclude that the AlF{sub 3} microcrystals nucleated other fluoride phases such as zirconium-barium fluoride crystals.

Busse, L.; Aggarwal, I. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (US)); Sanghera, J.S. (Geo-centers Inc., Ft. Washington, MD (US)); Hart, P.; Sachon, M.G. (Sachs/Freeman Associates, Inc., Landover, MD (US))

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

82

Effects of fluoride emissions on enzyme activity in metabolism of agricultural plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of fluoride on the activity of malatedehydrogenase (MDH) in rape seed and rye grass have been investigated. Fluoride, which has been absorbed from the air, seems to act differently from fluoride added to the soil. The action of airborne fluoride compounds resorbed by the plant on the activity of MDH significantly correlated with the distance from an aluminum plant, crop yield, and fluoride content. 5 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

Moeri, P.B.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

84

EIS-0359: Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, Kentucky Site  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This site-specific EIS considers the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three locations within the Paducah site; transportation of depleted uranium conversion products and waste materials to a disposal facility; transportation and sale of the hydrogen fluoride (HF) produced as a conversion co-product; and neutralization of HF to calcium fluoride and its sale or disposal in the event that the HF product is not sold.

85

Hydrogen Analysis  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on Hydrogen Analysis to the DOE Systems Analysis Workshop held in Washington, D.C. July 28-29, 2004 to discuss and define role of systems analysis in DOE Hydrogen Program.

86

Nuclear Hydrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen High temperature options for nuclear generation of hydrogen on a commercial basis are several years in the future. Thermo-chemical water splitting has been proven to be...

87

Hydrogen Safety  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet, intended for a non-technical audience, explains the basic properties of hydrogen and provides an overview of issues related to the safe use of hydrogen as an energy carrier.

88

Hydrogen Storage  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen storage technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains the different ways in which hydrogen can be stored, as well a

89

Searches for HCl and HF in comets 103P/Hartley 2 and C/2009 P1 (Garradd) with the Herschel space observatory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HCl and HF are expected to be the main reservoirs of fluorine and chlorine wherever hydrogen is predominantly molecular. They are found to be strongly depleted in dense molecular clouds, suggesting freeze-out onto grains in such cold environments. We can then expect that HCl and HF were also the major carriers of Cl and F in the gas and icy phases of the outer solar nebula, and were incorporated into comets. We aimed to measure the HCl and HF abundances in cometary ices as they can provide insights on the halogen chemistry in the early solar nebula. We searched for the J(1-0) lines of HCl and HF at 626 and 1232 GHz, respectively, using the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. HCl was searched for in comets 103P/Hartley 2 and C/2009 P1 (Garradd), whereas observations of HF were conducted in comet C/2009 P1. In addition, observations of H$_2$O and H$_2^{18}$O lines were performed in C/2009 P1 to measure the H$_2$O production rate. Three lines of CH$_3$OH were serendipitously observed in the ...

Bockelée-Morvan, D; Crovisier, J; Lis, D C; Hartogh, P; Moreno, R; de Val-Borro, M; Blake, G A; Szutowicz, S; Boissier, J; Cernicharo, J; Charnley, S B; Combi, M; Cordiner, M A; de Graauw, T; Encrenaz, P; Kidger, M; Küppers, M; Milam, S N; Müller, H S P; Phillips, T G; Rengel, M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

The system sodium fluoride - hydrogen fluoride - water at zero degrees centigrade and at minus fifteen degrees centigrade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. R. , Inst. Obschei i ~lteor . ~him. , 1, 55-$9, (1954) ~ 2. T e, I. V. J ur I ~AI'ed ahe istry, U. . 8. R. II, 214-222, (1~5~ Tananaev, I. V. , Nikolaev, N. S. , and Buslaev, Y. A. , Zhur ~Neor . Khim. t 1, 274-2Rl (1956). 4. T e, I. V. J? I A...~lied ah~eietr, U. 8. 8. S. , ~1, 1018-28 6174ET. 5. Clark, George L. , J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 41, 1477 (1910). 6. HI, J. H. , Pl 'ne ~he 1 t (11) p. 27, Ao d i Press 61950) N~rk. 7. JU, A. :i. d"-dya. H. , J 1*f~Phsi I ~ahe i tr, 56, 1106 \\1952) ~ 8...

Morrison, James Sidney

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Determination of naphthenic acids in California crudes and refinery waste waters by fluoride ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method based on negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry using fluoride (F/sup -/) ions produced from NF/sub 3/ reagent gas has been applied to the analysis of naphthenic acids in California crude oils and refinery waste waters. Since complex mixtures of naphthenic acids cannot be separated into individual components, only the determination of relative distribution of acids classified by the hydrogen deficiency was possible. The identities and relative distribution of paraffinic and mono-, di-, tri, and higher polycyclic acids were obtained from the intensities of the carboxylate (RCOO/sup -/) ions.

Dzidic, I.; Somerville, A.C.; Raia, J.C.; Hart, H.V.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Characterization of double walled carbon nanotubes-polyvinylidene fluoride nanocomposites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the main objectives of this thesis is to disperse double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNT) in a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix, and to characterize the resulting composite using electrical, thermal, and mechanical characterization...

Almasri, Atheer Mohammad

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

93

Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

Weil, R.B.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

ammonium fluoride precatalysts: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sites can be seen in Figure 6-1. Of these sites, all are located within the United States. Fluorides are naturally-occurring components of rocks and soil and are also found in...

95

ammonium fluorides: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sites can be seen in Figure 6-1. Of these sites, all are located within the United States. Fluorides are naturally-occurring components of rocks and soil and are also found in...

96

Theoretical Assessment of 178m2Hf De-Excitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains a comprehensive literature review in support of the theoretical assessment of the {sup 178m2}Hf de-excitation, as well as a rigorous description of controlled energy release from an isomeric nuclear state.

Hartouni, E P; Chen, M; Descalle, M A; Escher, J E; Loshak, A; Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Pruet, J; Thompson, I J; Wang, T F

2008-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

97

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

Friedman, J.; Oberg, C. L.; Russell, L. H.

1981-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

98

Polar intermetallic compounds of the silicon and arsenic family elements and their ternary hydrides and fluorides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation has been made on the effects of hydrogen and fluoride in the solid state chemistry of alkaline-earth and divalent rare-earth metal pnictide (Pn) and tetrelide (Tt) phases A{sub 5}(Pn,Tt,){sub 3}Z{sub x}, where A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Sm, Eu, Yb; Pn = As, Sb, Bi; Tt = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb and Z = H, F. Several trivalent rare-earth-metal pnictides, RE{sub 5}Pn{sub 3} (RE = Y, La, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) and alkaline-earth-metal trielides, A{sub 5}Tr{sub 3}Z{sub x} (Tr = Ga, In, Tl) have been included in an effort to complete observed structural trends. Two main experimental techniques were followed throughout this work, (a) reactions in absence of hydrogen or under continuous high vacuum, and (b) reactions with binary metal hydrides, AH{sub x}, in closed containers. The results demonstrate that all the phases reported with the {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type structure in the A{sub 5}Pn{sub 3} systems are hydrogen-stabilized compounds. Reactions in absence of hydrogen lead to compounds with the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type structure. The structure type {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} (= Ca{sub 5}SB{sub 3}F) was found to be characteristic of ternary systems and inaccurately associated with phases that form in the Y{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}-type. A new series of isomorphous Zintl compounds with the Ca{sub 16}Sb{sub 11}-type structure were prepared and studied as well. All the alkaline-earth-metal tetrelides, A{sub 5}Tt{sub 3}, that crystallize in the Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}-type structure can be interstitially derivatized by hydrogen or fluoride. Binary and ternary compounds were characterized by Guinier powder patterns, single crystal X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. In an effort to establish property-structure relationships, electrical resistivity and magnetic measurements were performed on selected systems, and the results were explained in terms of the Zintl concepts, aided by extended Hueckel band calculations.

Leon-Escamilla, E.A.

1996-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

99

Fluoride, aluminum, and phosphate kinetics in cryolite workers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exposure to cryolite (Na3AlF6) dust may result in skeletal fluorosis. Eight male workers at a cryolite concentrator participated in a 4-day study after 5 days of vacation. Dust exposures were 0.16 to 21.2 mg/m3. Urine was collected before work began and during two 4-hour periods. Preshift urine fluoride concentrations increased during the week. Fluoride concentrations in postshift urine and serum both correlated with the dust exposures. Serum fluoride concentrations decreased with a half-life of 3.3 to 6.9 hours after work. Fluoride clearance was 40.5 to 76.5 mL/min at urinary flow rates of 0.89 to 2.21 mL/min. Serum aluminum concentrations varied without relation to the exposure, but the urinary aluminum excretion correlated with the fluoride levels. Preshift serum-phosphate concentrations increased significantly during the week, possibly indicating changes in mineral metabolism. For monitoring of individual uptake of cryolite dust, serum fluoride measurements are most useful.

Grandjean, P.; Horder, M.; Thomassen, Y. (Odense Univ. (Denmark))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Growth of HfO{sub 2} films using an alternate reaction of HfCl{sub 4} and O{sub 2} under atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HfO{sub 2} films were deposited onto a Si(100) substrate using an alternate reaction of HfCl{sub 4} and O{sub 2} under atmospheric pressure. Self-limiting growth of the HfO{sub 2} was achieved in the range of the growth temperature above 873K. The X-ray diffraction of the HfO{sub 2} films showed a typical diffraction pattern assigned to the monoclinic polycrystalline phase. Residual chloride concentration in HfO{sub 2} films were not higher than 0.1at%. When the growth temperature was 973K, the HfSiO{sub x} is formed in HfO{sub 2} film. This gives effective permittivity value of 9.6 for the HfO{sub 2} film grown at 573K.

Takahashi, Naoyuki [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatu, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan)]. E-mail: tntakah@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp; Nonobe, Shinichi [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatu, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan); Nakamura, Takato [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatu, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan)

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Growth mechanism difference of sputtered HfO{sub 2} on Ge and on Si  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HfO{sub 2} films were deposited by the reactive sputtering on Ge and Si substrates simultaneously, and we found both the interface layer and the HfO{sub 2} film were thinner on Ge substrate than those on Si substrate. A metallic Hf layer has a crucial role for the thickness differences of both interface layer and HfO{sub 2} film, since those thickness differences were observed only when an ultrathin metallic Hf layer was predeposited before the reactive sputtering process. The role of metallic Hf in these phenomena is understandable by assuming the formation of a volatile Hf-Ge-O ternary compound at the early stage of the film growth. This result shows that the HfO{sub 2}/Ge system has an advantage over the HfO{sub 2}/Si system from the viewpoint of further reduction of the gate oxide film thickness.

Kita, Koji; Kyuno, Kentaro; Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Science, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2004-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

102

Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution by using alum sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability of treated alum sludge to remove fluoride from aqueous solution has been investigated. The studies were carried out as functions of contact time, concentration of adsorbent and adsorbate, temperature, pH, and effect of concentrations of other anions. The data indicate that treated alum sludge surface sites are heterogeneous in nature and that fits into a heterogeneous site binding model. The optimum pH for complete removal of fluoride from aqueous solution was found to be 6. The rate of adsorption was rapid during the initial 5 minutes, and equilibrium was attained within 240 minutes. The adsorption followed first-order rate kinetics. The present system followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The loading factor (i.e., the milligram of fluoride adsorbed per gram of alum sludge) increased with initial fluoride concentration, whereas a negative trend was observed with increasing temperature. The influence of addition of anions on fluoride removal depends on the relative affinity of the anions for the surface and the relative concentrations of the anions.

Sujana, M.G.; Thakur, R.S.; Rao, S.B. [CSIR, Bhubaneswar (India). Regional Research Lab.] [CSIR, Bhubaneswar (India). Regional Research Lab.

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Lithium fluoride (LiF) crystal for parametric X-ray (PXR) production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lithium fluoride (LiF) crystal for parametric X-ray (PXR) production B. Sones *, Y. Danon, R 2004 Abstract Parametric X-ray (PXR) production is reported using lithium fluoride (LiF) as a target

Danon, Yaron

104

Hydrogen Bibliography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hydrogen Bibliography is a compilation of research reports that are the result of research funded over the last fifteen years. In addition, other documents have been added. All cited reports are contained in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen Program Library.

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Inhibition of the ATPase activity of Escherichia coli ATP synthase by magnesium fluoride  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inhibition of the ATPase activity of Escherichia coli ATP synthase by magnesium fluoride Zulfiqar activity of Escherichia coli ATP synthase by magnesium fluoride (MgFx) was studied. Wild-type F1-ATPase synthesis mechanism; Magnesium fluoride; ATPase inhibition; Transition state analog 1. Introduction ATP

Zulfiqar Ahmad

106

THE RAMAN SPECTRUM OF MAGNESIUM FLUORIDE By R. S. KRISHNAN and R. S. KATIYAR,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

627. THE RAMAN SPECTRUM OF MAGNESIUM FLUORIDE By R. S. KRISHNAN and R. S. KATIYAR, Department, NOVEMBRE 1965, I Magnesium fluoride, which occurs in nature as the mineral sellaite, crystallizes spectrum of magnesium fluoride (MgF2) taken with a medium Quartz spectrograph. (b) Its microphotometer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric pressure hf Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for: atmospheric pressure hf Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Atomic rearrangements in HfO2Si1-xGex interfaces Deok-Yong Cho and S.-J. Oha Summary: by PDA. PDA was per- formed...

108

Hydrogen Production  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

109

The effect of fluoride and aluminum on the anion exchange of plutonium from nitric acid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anion exchange in nitric acid is a prominent aqueous process used to recover and purify plutonium from impure nuclear materials. This process is sensitive to fluoride ion, which complexes plutonium in competition with the anionic nitrato complex that is strongly sorbed on the anion exchange column. Fluoride interference traditionally has been counteracted by adding a masking agent, such as aluminum, that forms competing complexes with fluoride. The interfering effect of fluoride is known to be a function not only of the fluoride-to-aluminum ratio but also of the fluoride-to-plutonium ratio. This report summarizes a Los Alamos study of the effect of 25 fluoride-aluminum-plutonium conmbinations on the anion exchange sorption of plutonium. Five aluminum-to-plutonium ratios ranging from 0.10 to 10 were each evaluated at five fluoride-to-aluminum ratios that ranged from 0 to 6. The fluoride-to-plutonium ratio has a greater influence on plutonium sorption than does the fluoride-to-aluminum ratio. Aluminum was less effective as a masking agent than had been assumed, because measurable fluoride interference occurred at all levels of added aluminum.

Marsh, S.F.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Capacitive Behavior of HF Power Transformers: Global Approach to Draw Robust Equivalent Circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

behavior of all components. Among these components, HF power transformers constitute a special case. EvenCapacitive Behavior of HF Power Transformers: Global Approach to Draw Robust Equivalent Circuits of n-windings HF power transformers. A global approach, mainly based on energy considerations about

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

Effect of Al addition on the microstructure and electronic structure of HfO2 film  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Al addition on the microstructure and electronic structure of HfO2 film X. F. Wang investigated the microstructures and electronic structures of a series of hafnium aluminate HfAlO films with Al concentration ranging from 0% to 100%. When the films evolve from pure HfO2 to pure Al2O3 by increasing

Gong, Xingao

112

Structural studies of magnesium nitride fluorides by powder neutron diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Samples of ternary nitride fluorides, Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF have been prepared by solid state reaction of Mg{sub 3}N{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} at 1323-1423 K and investigated by powder X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} is cubic (space group: Pm3m) and has a structure related to rock-salt MgO, but with one cation site vacant. Mg{sub 2}NF is tetragonal (space group: I4{sub 1}/amd) and has an anti-LiFeO{sub 2} related structure. Both compounds are essentially ionic and form structures in which nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered. The nitride fluorides show temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour between 5 and 300 K. - Graphical abstract: Definitive structures of the ternary magnesium nitride fluorides Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and the lower temperature polymorph of Mg{sub 2}NF have been determined from powder neutron diffraction data. The nitride halides are essentially ionic and exhibit weak temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definitive structures of Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF were determined by neutron diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered in both structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds exhibit weak, temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compounds are essentially ionic with ionicity increasing with F{sup -} content.

Brogan, Michael A. [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Hughes, Robert W. [WestCHEM, School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Smith, Ronald I. [ISIS Pulsed Neutron and Muon Source, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gregory, Duncan H., E-mail: Duncan.Gregory@glasgow.ac.uk [WestCHEM, School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Code for Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines. B31 Hydrogen...

114

Hydrogen program overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper consists of viewgraphs which summarize the following: Hydrogen program structure; Goals for hydrogen production research; Goals for hydrogen storage and utilization research; Technology validation; DOE technology validation activities supporting hydrogen pathways; Near-term opportunities for hydrogen; Market for hydrogen; and List of solicitation awards. It is concluded that a full transition toward a hydrogen economy can begin in the next decade.

Gronich, S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Utility Technologies

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

115

Geometry of hydrogen bonds formed by lipid bilayer nitroxide probes : A high frequency pulsed ENDOR/EPR study.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solvent effects on magnetic parameters of nitroxide spin labels in combination with side-directed spin-labeling EPR methods provide very useful means for elucidating polarity profiles in lipid bilayers and mapping local electrostatic effects in complex biomolecular systems. One major contributor to these solvent effects is the hydrogen bonds that could be formed between the nitroxide moiety and water and/or the available hydroxyl groups. Here, formation of hydrogen bonds between a lipid bilayer spin probe 5-doxyl stearic acid, 5DSA and hydrogen-bond donors has been studied using high-frequency (HF) pulsed ENDOR and EPR. A hydrogen-bonded deuteron was directly detected in HF ENDOR (130 GHz) spectra of 5DSA dissolved in several deuterated alcohols, while the characteristic signal was absent in nonpolar toluene-d{sub 8}. The length of the hydrogen bond, 1.74 {+-} 0.06 {angstrom}, and its geometry were found to be essentially the same for all four alcohols studied, indicating that nearly identical hydrogen bonds have been formed regardless of the solvent dielectric constant. This strengthens a hypothesis that HF EPR spectra are exclusively sensitive to formation of hydrogen bonds and could be used for probing the hydrogen-bond network in complex biomolecular assemblies and lipid bilayers with site-directed spin-labeling methods.

Smirnova, T. I.; Smirnov, A. I.; Pachtchenko, S.; Poluektov, O. G.; Chemistry; North Carolina State Univ.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Z. Feng*, L.M. Anovitz*, J and industry expectations · DOE Pipeline Working Group and Tech Team activities - FRP Hydrogen Pipelines - Materials Solutions for Hydrogen Delivery in Pipelines - Natural Gas Pipelines for Hydrogen Use #12;3 OAK

117

Hydrogen Technologies Group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hydrogen Technologies Group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory advances the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center's mission by researching a variety of hydrogen technologies.

Not Available

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

The Hype About Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

economy based on the hydrogen fuel cell, but this cannot beus to look toward hydrogen. Fuel cell basics, simplifiedthe path to fuel cell commercialization. Hydrogen production

Mirza, Umar Karim

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Hydrogen Transition Infrastructure Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presentation for the 2005 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program review analyzes the hydrogen infrastructure needed to accommodate a transitional hydrogen fuel cell vehicle demand.

Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Comparison of the Ca+HF(DF) and Sr+HF(DF) reaction dynamics Rong Zhang, David J. Rakestraw,a) Kenneth G. McKendrick,b) and Richard N. Zare  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of the Ca+HF(DF) and Sr+HF(DF) reaction dynamics Rong Zhang, David J. Rakestraw family, Ca and Sr with rovibrationally selected HF or DF, has been carried out under single-collision conditions. A thermal beam of the alkaline earth atoms, Ca or Sr, is fired into a low-pressure gas of HF

Zare, Richard N.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Intrinsic metastability of orthorhombic HfTiO{sub 4} in thin film hafnia-titania  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Orthorhombic (o) HfTiO{sub 4} is crystallized when sputter deposited hafnia-titania nanolaminates with ultrathin layers and bilayer (HfO{sub 2}){sub 0.5}(TiO{sub 2}){sub 0.5} composition are annealed between 573 and 1173 K. However, o-HfTiO{sub 4} demixes after annealing at 1273 K, a result not predicted from bulk thermodynamics. X-ray diffraction and Raman microscopy are used here to study structural changes as o-HfTiO{sub 4} demixes upon long-term annealing at 1273 K into Ti-doped monoclinic HfO{sub 2} and Hf-doped rutile TiO{sub 2}. We conclude that o-HfTiO{sub 4} crystallized at low temperature is intrinsically metastable. A space group symmetry analysis shows that demixing can be accomplished by a continuous phase transition chain.

Cisneros-Morales, Massiel Cristina; Aita, Carolyn Rubin [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States)

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

122

Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of sputter-deposited hafnium oxide (HfO2) thin films grown using HfO2 ceramic target  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hafnium oxide (HfO?) thin films have been made by radio-frequency (rf) magnetron-sputtering onto Si(100) substrates under varying growth temperature (Ts). HfO? ceramic target has been employed for sputtering while varying the Ts from room temperature to 500?C during deposition. The effect of Ts on the growth and microstructure of deposited HfO? films has been studied using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS). The results indicate that the effect of Ts is significant on the growth, surface and interface structure, morphology and chemical composition of the HfO? films. Structural characterization indicates that the HfO? films grown at Ts<200 ?C are amorphous while films grown at Ts>200 ?C are nanocrystalline. An amorphous-to-crystalline transition occurs at Ts=200 ?C. Nanocrystalline HfO? films crystallized in a monoclinic structure with a (-111) orientation. XPS measurements indicated the high surface-chemical quality and stoichiometric nature of the grown HfO? films. An interface layer (IL) formation occurs due to reaction at the HfO?-Si interface for HfO? films deposited at Ts>200 ?C. The thickness of IL increases with increasing Ts. XPS and EDS at the HfO?-Si cross-section indicate the IL is a (Hf, Si)-O compound. The electrical characterization using capacitance-voltage measurements indicate that the dielectric constant decreases from 25 to 16 with increasing Ts.

Aguirre, B.; Vemuri, R. S.; Zubia, David; Engelhard, Mark H.; Shutthanandan, V.; Kamala Bharathi, K.; Ramana, Chintalapalle V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

The Hype About Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

another promising solution for hydrogen storage. However,storage and delivery, and there are safety issues as well with hydrogen

Mirza, Umar Karim

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Hydrogen Technology Validation  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This fact sheet provides a basic introduction to the DOE Hydrogen National Hydrogen Learning Demonstration for non-technical audiences.

125

Hydrogen Analysis Group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL factsheet that describes the general activites of the Hydrogen Analysis Group within NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

Not Available

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Luminescence from Edge Fracture in Shocked Lithium Fluoride Crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Light emitted from a [100] lithium fluoride crystal was characterized under shock wave compression to 28GPa followed by complete stress release at the edges. The light was examined using time-gated optical spectrometry and imaging, time-resolved optical emission measurements, and hydrodynamic modeling. The shock arrival at the circumference of the crystal was delayed relative to the center so that the two regions could be studied at different times. The majority of the light emission originated when the shock waves released at the circumference of the crystal. Unlike previously reported results for shocked lithium fluoride, we found that the light spectrum is not strictly broad band, but has spectral lines associated with atomic lithium in addition to a broad band background. Also, the emission spectrum depends strongly on the gas surrounding the sample. Based on our observations, the line emission appears to be related to fracture of the lithium fluoride crystal from the shock wave releasing at the edges. Experimenters frequently utilize lithium fluoride crystals as transparent windows for observing shock compressed samples. Because of the experimental geometries used, the shock wave in such cases often reaches the circumference of the window at nearly the same moment as when it reaches the center of the sample-window interface. Light generated at the circumference could contaminate the measurement at the interface when this light scatters into the observed region. This background light may be reduced or avoided using experimental geometries which delay the arrival of the shock wave at the edges of the crystal.

Turley, W. D. [NSTec; Stevens, G. D. [NSTec; Capelle, G. A. [NSTec; Grover, M. [NSTec; Holtkamp, D. B. [LANL; LaLone, B. M. [NSTec; Veeser, L. R. [NSTec, LANL

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Electron-stimulated desorption from polished and vacuum fired 316LN stainless steel coated with Ti-Zr-Hf-V  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, two identical 316LN stainless steel tubular samples, which had previously been polished and vacuum-fired and then used for the electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) experiments, were coated with Ti-Zr-Hf-V with different morphologies: columnar and dense. ESD measurement results after nonevaporable getter (NEG) activation to 150, 180, 250, and 350?°C indicated that the values for the ESD yields are significantly (2–20 times) lower than the data from our previous study with similar coatings on nonvacuum-fired samples. Based on these results, the lowest pressure and best long-term performance in particle accelerators will be achieved with a vacuum-fired vacuum chamber coated with dense Ti-Zr-Hf-V coating activated at 180?°C. This is likely due to the following facts: after NEG activation, the hydrogen concentration inside the NEG was lower than in the bulk stainless steel substrate; the NEG coating created a barrier for gas diffusion from the sample bulk to vacuum; the dense NEG coating performed better as a barrier than the columnar NEG coating.

Malyshev, Oleg B., E-mail: oleg.malyshev@stfc.ac.uk; Valizadeh, Reza; Hogan, Benjamin T.; Hannah, Adrian N. [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD Cheshire (United Kingdom)

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

E-Print Network 3.0 - americium fluorides Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

REPRODUCTION Summary: Tritium Uranium Z34 Americium Z41 Cesium i37 Radium ZZ6 Strontium 90 Chloride Fluoride Nit rate Dissolved... Alpha (unidentified) Beta (Unidentified)...

129

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth fluorides Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in Earth's mantle formed by liquid immiscibility Stephan Klemme... . The light rare earth elements (LREEs), Sr, and Ba are partitioned into the fluoride melt, whereas the...

130

Grout formulation for disposal of low-level and hazardous waste streams containing fluoride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition and related process for disposal of hazardous waste streams containing fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. the presence of fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. The presence of fluoride in waste materials acts as a set retarder and as a result, prevents cement-based grouts from setting. This problem is overcome by the present invention wherein calcium hydroxide is incorporated into the dry-solid portion of the grout mix. The calcium hydroxide renders the fluoride insoluble, allowing the grout to set up and immobilize all hazardous constituents of concern. 4 tabs.

McDaniel, E.W.; Sams, T.L.; Tallent, O.K.

1987-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

131

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenic fluorides Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(F), selenium (Se), uranium (U), and radium... : arsenic, fluoride, nitrate, selenium, uranium, and ... Source: Scanlon, Bridget R. - Bureau of Economic Geology, Department of...

132

Solvated Electrons in Very Small Clusters of Polar Molecules: (HF)(3)(-): art. no. 143001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cluster of polar molecules can host an excess electron in at least two ways. First, the excess electron can be tethered to the cluster by its interaction with the cluster?s dipole moment. , Second, the electron can localize inside the cluster, bulk analogs being the hydrated and ammoniated electrons. - While the structural reorganization of the cluster, due to attachment of an excess electron, is typically small for dipole-bound electrons (dbe), it is usually quite significant for''solvated electrons'' (se), since the solvation occurs at the expense of breaking of pre-existing hydrogen bonds. The se structures, however, provide more contact interactions between the polar molecules and the excess electron. For these reasons, it is often assumed that dbe's dominate for small polar clusters, whereas large clusters form se's. Here we show that dbe's and se's coexist in as small a cluster as (HF)3-. The stability of these anions with respect to the neutral cluster results not only from the excess electron binding energy but also from favorable entropic effects, which reflect the greater ''floppiness'' of the anionic structures.

Gutowski, Maciej S. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hall, C (Arizona, University Of); Adamowicz, L (Arizona, University Of); Hendricks, J.H. (Johns Hopkins Univ); De Clercq, Helen (Howard University); Lyapustina, S.A. (Johns Hopkins Univ); Nilles, J.M. (Johns Hopkins Univ); Xu, S.J. (Johns Hopkins Univ); Bowen Jr., K.H. (Johns Hopkins Univ)

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Valve studies: Hydrogen fluoride monitoring of UF{sub 6} cylinder valves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinder valves have, like the cylinders, been in use and/or storage for periods ranging from 15 to 44 years. Visual inspection of the cylinders has shown that the extent of corrosion and the overall cylinder condition varies widely throughout the storage yards. One area of concern is the integrity of the cylinder valves. Visual inspection has found deposits which have been identified as radioactive material on or near the valves. These deposits suggest leakage of UF{sub 6} and may indicate valve degradation; however, these deposits may simply be residual material from cylinder filling operations.

Leedy, R.R.; Ellis, A.R.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Marsh, G.C. [and others

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

E-Print Network 3.0 - ammonium hydrogen fluoride Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

tetrafluoride 7783-58-6 Hexafluoroacetone 684-16-2 ... Source: Manning, Sturt - Cornell Tree-Ring Laboratory, Cornell University Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 10...

135

Photothermal electrostatics of the d-poiyvlnylidene fluoride photopyroelectric hydrogen gas sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

atoms adsorbed and subsequently absorbed in the Pd ground electrode of the PVDF. In this paper in Fig. 1. This amounts to a capacitor consisting of Pd-elec- trode (ground; anode)/PVDF dielectric/Al-Ni-electrode) A detailed photothermal electrostatic consideration of the Pd-pyroelectric junction H, sensor is presented

Mandelis, Andreas

136

Hydrogen Peroxide Storage in Small Sealed Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unstabilized hydrogen peroxide of 85% concentration has been prepared in laboratory quantities for testing material compatibility and long term storage on a small scale. Vessels made of candidate tank and liner materials ranged in volume from 1 cc to 2540 cc. Numerous metals and plastics were tried at the smallest scales, while promising ones were used to fabricate larger vessels and liners. An aluminum alloy (6061-T6) performed poorly, including increasing homogeneous decay due to alloying elements entering solution. The decay rate in this high strength aluminum was greatly reduced by anodizing. Better results were obtained with polymers, particularly polyvinylidene fluoride. Data reported herein include ullage pressures as a function of time with changing decay rates, and contamination analysis results.

Whitehead, J.

1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

137

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation The hydrogen...

138

Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Presentation by 03-Babu for the DOE Hydrogen Pipeline...

139

NREL Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production for Energy Storage & Transportation NREL Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production for Energy Storage &...

140

Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

E-Print Network 3.0 - ab initio hf Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for: ab initio hf Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 imageslogoetsf Introduction Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Applications: Nanotubes and Graphene Perspectives Summary: of...

142

Reduced-temperature processing and consolidation of ultra-refractory Ta4HfC5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

TaC, HfC, and WC powders were subjected to high-energy milling and hot pressing to produce Ta4HfC5, a composite of Ta(4)HfC5 + 30 vol.% WC, and a composite of Ta4HfC5 + 50 vol.% WC. Sub-micron powders were examined after four different milling intervals prior to hot pressing. XRD was used to verify proper phase formation. SEM, relative density, and hardness measurements were used to examine the resulting phases. Hot pressed compacts of Ta4HfC5 showed densification as high as 98.6% along with Vickers hardness values of 21.4 GPa. Similarly, Ta4HfC5 + 30 vol.% WC exhibited 99% densification with a Vickers hardness of 22.5 GPa. These levels of densification were achieved at 1500 degrees C, which is lower than any previously reported sintering temperature for Ta4HfC5. Microhardness values measured in this study were higher than those previously reported for Ta4HfC5. The WC additions to Ta4HfC5 were found to improve densification and increase microhardness. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gaballa, Osama [Ames Laboratory; Cook, B. A. [TRI International; Russell, A. M. [Ames Laboratory

2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

143

HYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to serve as "go-to" organization to catalyze PA Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Economy development #12;FundingHYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM IN PENNSYLVANIA HYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM IN PENNSYLVANIA Melissa Klingenberg, PhDMelissa Klingenberg, PhD #12;Hydrogen ProgramHydrogen Program Air Products

144

Hydrogen Delivery Mark Paster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquids (e.g. ethanol etc.) ­ Truck: HP Gas & Liquid Hydrogen ­ Regional Pipelines ­ Breakthrough Hydrogen;Delivery Key Challenges · Pipelines ­ Retro-fitting existing NG pipeline for hydrogen ­ Utilizing existing NG pipeline for Hythane with cost effective hydrogen separation technology ­ New hydrogen pipeline

145

Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

2007-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

146

Kinetics of aluminum fluoride complexation in acidic waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acidic deposition has an important effect on the transport and speciation of soluble aluminum. Toxicity of aqueous aluminum seems to be strongly dependent on aluminum speciation and the presence of complexing ligands such as fluoride. A study is reported of the complex formation kinetics of AlF/sup 2 +/ in the environmentally significant pH range 2.9-4.9. The pH and temperature dependencies of the overall rate of reaction are discussed along with environmental implications for areas subjected to acidic deposition. 22 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

Plankey, B.J.; Patterson, H.H.; Cronan, C.S.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles UCD-ITS-RR-92-14 September bycost than both. Solar-hydrogen fuel- cell vehicles would becost than both. Solar-hydrogen fuel- cell vehicles would be

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles UCD-ITS-RR-92-14 September byet al. , 1988,1989 HYDROGEN FUEL-CELL VEHICLES: TECHNICALIn the FCEV, the hydrogen fuel cell could supply the "net"

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the hydrogen refueling station. Compressor cost: inputcost) Compressor power requirement: input data 288.80 Initial temperature of hydrogen (Compressor cost per unit of output ($/hp/million standard ft [SCF] of hydrogen/

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

The rate constant for radiative association of HF: Comparing quantum and classical dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiative association for the formation of hydrogen fluoride through the A{sup 1}? ? X{sup 1}?{sup +} and X{sup 1}?{sup +} ? X{sup 1}?{sup +} transitions is studied using quantum and classical dynamics. The total thermal rate constant is obtained for temperatures from 10 K to 20 000 K. Agreement between semiclassical and quantum approaches is observed for the A{sup 1}? ? X{sup 1}?{sup +} rate constant above 2000 K. The agreement is explained by the fact that the corresponding cross section is free of resonances for this system. At temperatures below 2000 K we improve the agreement by implementing a simplified semiclassical expression for the rate constant, which includes a quantum corrected pair distribution. The rate coefficient for the X{sup 1}?{sup +} ? X{sup 1}?{sup +} transition is calculated using Breit–Wigner theory and a classical formula for the resonance and direct contributions, respectively. In comparison with quantum calculations the classical formula appears to overestimate the direct contribution to the rate constant by about 12% for this transition. Below about 450 K the resonance contribution is larger than the direct, and above that temperature the opposite holds. The biggest contribution from resonances is at the lowest temperature in the study, 10 K, where it is more than four times larger than the direct. Below 1800 K the radiative association rate constant due to X{sup 1}?{sup +} ? X{sup 1}?{sup +} transitions dominates over A{sup 1}? ? X{sup 1}?{sup +}, while above that temperature the situation is the opposite.

Gustafsson, Magnus, E-mail: magngu@chem.gu.se; Monge-Palacios, M.; Nyman, Gunnar [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)] [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

151

Comparison of the vacuum-ultraviolet radiation response of HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si dielectric stacks with SiO{sub 2}/Si  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) emitted during plasma processing degrades dielectrics by generating electron-hole pairs. VUV-induced charging of SiO{sub 2}/p-Si and HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si dielectric stacks are compared. For SiO{sub 2}/p-Si, charging is observed for photon energies >15 eV by ionization of dielectric atoms from photoinjected electrons. In HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si, charging is observed for photon >10 eV and is due to ionization by photoinjected electrons and by H{sup +} trapping in the HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} bulk. Hydrogen appears during annealing at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface forming Si-H, which, during irradiation, is depassivated by photoinjected electrons. The authors conclude that dielectric charging in thin oxides (<10 nm) occurs more easily in HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} than in SiO{sub 2}.

Upadhyaya, G. S.; Shohet, J. L. [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory, and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2007-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

152

Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of...

153

Hydrogen and fuel taxation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The competitiveness of hydrogen depends on how it is integrated in the energy tax system in Europe. This paper addresses the competitiveness of hydrogen and… (more)

Hansen, Anders Chr.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Hydrogen Permeation Barrier Coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gaseous hydrogen, H2, has many physical properties that allow it to move rapidly into and through materials, which causes problems in keeping hydrogen from materials that are sensitive to hydrogen-induced degradation. Hydrogen molecules are the smallest diatomic molecules, with a molecular radius of about 37 x 10-12 m and the hydrogen atom is smaller still. Since it is small and light it is easily transported within materials by diffusion processes. The process of hydrogen entering and transporting through a materials is generally known as permeation and this section reviews the development of hydrogen permeation barriers and barrier coatings for the upcoming hydrogen economy.

Henager, Charles H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Hydrogen Program Overview  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to the DOE Hydrogen Program. It describes the program mission and answers the question: “Why Hydrogen

156

Hydrogen | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sources Hydrogen Hydrogen September 30, 2014 Developed by Sandia National Laboratories and several industry partners, the fuel cell mobile light (H2LT) offers a cleaner, quieter...

157

Hydrogen | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

with a catalyst of molybdenum sulfide and exposed to sunlight, these pillars generate hydrogen gas from the hydrogen ions liberated by splitting water. Each pillar is approximately...

158

Hf isotope compositions of northern Luzon arc lavas suggest involvement of pelagic sediments in their source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Hf isotope compositions of northern Luzon arc lavas suggest involvement of pelagic sediments passing through the data intersect fields for depleted mantle and pelagic sediments suggesting. The relationship between Nd and Hf isotopic compositions in the Luzon volcanics show that the type of sediment

Boyer, Edmond

159

Finland HF and Esrange MST radar observations of polar mesosphere summer echoes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Finland HF and Esrange MST radar observations of polar mesosphere summer echoes Tadahiko Ogawa1 (200x) xx:1­8 Finland HF and Esrange MST radar observations of polar mesosphere summer echoes Tadahiko in Finland are presented. The echoes were detected at four frequencies of 9, 11, 13 and 15 MHz at slant

Kirkwood, Sheila

160

Interfacial and structural properties of sputtered HfO{sub 2} layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetron sputtered HfO{sub 2} layers formed on a heated Si substrate were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometer (SE), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling techniques. The results show that the formation of a SiO{sub x} suboxide layer at the HfO{sub 2}/Si interface is unavoidable. The HfO{sub 2} thickness and suboxide formation are highly affected by the growth parameters such as sputtering power, O{sub 2}/Ar gas ratio during sputtering, sputtering time, and substrate temperature. XRD spectra show that the deposited film has (111) monoclinic phase of HfO{sub 2}, which is also supported by FTIR spectra. The atomic concentration and chemical environment of Si, Hf, and O have been measured as a function of depth starting from the surface of the sample by XPS technique. It shows that HfO{sub 2} layers of a few nanometers are formed at the top surface. Below this thin layer, Si-Si bonds are detected just before the Si suboxide layer, and then the Si substrate is reached during the depth profiling by XPS. It is clearly understood that the highly reactive sputtered Hf atoms consume some of the oxygen atoms from the underlying SiO{sub 2} to form HfO{sub 2}, leaving Si-Si bonds behind.

Aygun, G. [Department of Physics, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, TR-35430 Izmir (Turkey); Yildiz, I. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, TR-06531 Ankara (Turkey); Central Laboratory, Middle East Technical University, TR-06531 Ankara (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Ca+HF: The anatomy of a chemical insertion reaction R. L. Jaffe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ca+HF: The anatomy of a chemical insertion reaction R. L. Jaffe NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett theoretical investigation of the gas phase reaction Ca + HF-CaF + H is reported. The overall study involves electronic state of the Ca-F-H system, (b) careful fitting of the computed surface to an analytical form

Zare, Richard N.

162

CAN HYDROGEN WIN?: EXPLORING SCENARIOS FOR HYDROGEN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as biofuel plug-in hybrids, but did well when biofuels were removed or priced excessively. Hydrogen fuel cells failed unless costs were assumed to descend independent of demand. However, hydrogen vehicles were; Hydrogen as fuel -- Economic aspects; Technological innovations -- Environmental aspects; Climatic changes

163

Damage thresholds of fluoride multilayers at 355 nm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluoride multilayer coatings were evaluated for use in 355 nm high reflector applications. The LaF[sub 3]/Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], NdF[sub 3]/Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6] and GdF[sub 3]/Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6] multilayers had laser damage thresholds of 20, 17.9 and 7.4 (measured at 10-ns pulsewidths), respectively. High tensile stresses in the coatings restricted this evaluation to only 5-layer-pair partial reflectors (49--52%).The LaF[sub 3]/Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], NdF[sub 3]/Na[sub 3]Al[sub 6] and GdF[sub 3]/Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6] multilayers had tensile stresses of [approximately] 1.1 [times] 109, 1.3 [times] 109 and 9.3 [times] 10[sup 8] dynes/cm[sup 2], respectively. Substrate material and glow-discharge processing of the substrates were found to influence the density of stress-induced coating fractures and damage thresholds in some cases. If stress fracturing and scatter can be controlled, these fluoride material combinations are suited for 3[omega] applications.

Chow, R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Loomis, G.E.; Rainer, F.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

The synthesis and structural characterization of novel transition metal fluorides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High purity KMF[sub 6] and K[sub 2]MF[sub 6] salts (M = Mo,Re, Ru, Os, Ir, Pt) are obtained from reduction hexafluorides. A rhombohedral unit cell is observed for KReF[sub 6]. Fluoride ion capture by Lewis acids from the hexafluorometallate (IV) salts affords high purity tetrafluorides for M = Mo, Re, Ru, Os, and Pd. The structure of RuF[sub 4] is determined from X-ray synchrotron and neutron powder data. Unit cells based on theorthorhombic PdF[sub 4] type cell are derived from X-ray powder data for ReF[sub 4] and OsF[sub 4]. Fluoride ion capture from KAgF[sub 4] provides the thermally unstable trifluoride as a bright, red, diamagnetic solid. The structure solution of AgF[sub 3] and redetermination of the AuF[sub 3] structure from X-ray synchrotron and neutron powder data demonstrate that the two are isostnictural. Thermal decomposition product of AgF[sub 3] is the mixed valence compound Ag[sup II]Ag[sub 2][sup III]F[sub 8]. Several new salts containing the (Ag - F)[sub n][sup n+] chain cation are prepared. The first linear (Ag - F)[sub n][sup n+] chain is observed in AgF[sup +]BF[sub 4 [sup [minus

Casteel, W.J. Jr.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Ge interactions on HfO{sub 2} surfaces and kinetically driven patterning of Ge nanocrystals on HfO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Germanium interactions are studied on HfO{sub 2} surfaces, which are prepared through physical vapor deposition (PVD) and by atomic layer deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-programed desorption are used to follow the reactions of germanium on HfO{sub 2}. Germanium chemical vapor deposition at 870 K on HfO{sub 2} produces a GeO{sub x} adhesion layer, followed by growth of semiconducting Ge{sup 0}. PVD of 0.7 ML Ge (accomplished by thermally cracking GeH{sub 4} over a hot filament) also produces an initial GeO{sub x} layer, which is stable up to 800 K. PVD above 2.0 ML deposits semiconducting Ge{sup 0}. Temperature programed desorption experiments of {approx}1.0 ML Ge from HfO{sub 2} at 400-1100 K show GeH{sub 4} desorption below 600 K and GeO desorption above 850 K. These results are compared to Ge on SiO{sub 2} where GeO desorption is seen at 550 K. Exploiting the different reactivity of Ge on HfO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} allows a kinetically driven patterning scheme for high-density Ge nanoparticle growth on HfO{sub 2} surfaces that is demonstrated.

Stanley, Scott K.; Joshi, Sachin V.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.; Ekerdt, John G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-0231 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-0240 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-0231 (United States)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

Phase selection and transition in Hf-rich hafnia-titania nanolaminates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hf-rich hafnia-titania nanolaminate films with five HfO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} bilayer architectures (0.64 to 0.94 Hf atom fraction) were sputter deposited on unheated fused silica substrates, annealed post-deposition from 573 to 1273 K, and analyzed by x-ray diffraction to study phase selection and transition. Isochronal annealing for 1 h intervals from 573 to 1173 K produces weak crystallization into monoclinic (m) HfO{sub 2} doped with Ti, i.e., m-Hf{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 2}. The amount of Ti incorporated into m-HfO{sub 2} depends upon both architecture and overall stoichiometry, but in all but the coarsest architecture, exceeds the bulk solubility limit of x = 0.05. Initial annealing at 1273 K produces significant crystallization into a biphasic structure, m-Hf{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 2} and orthorhombic (o) HfTiO{sub 4}. From bulk phase equilibrium considerations, o-HfTiO{sub 4} is expected to crystallize under conditions of interfacial bilayer mixing. However, upon further annealing at 1273 K, o-HfTiO{sub 4} proves to be unstable. o-HfTiO{sub 4} demixing inevitably occurs independent of architecture and stoichiometry, resulting in final crystallization products after 96 h at 1273 K that are m-Hf{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 2} with x {approx_equal} 0.05 and TiO{sub 2} doped with Hf. We suggest that o-HfTiO{sub 4} instability arises from a driving force to form domains similar to those found in the low temperature in/commensurate structures of ZrTiO{sub 4}. A detailed crystallographic group-subgroup analysis of the o (Pbcn) {yields} m (P2{sub 1}/c) transition shows that these domains can be represented by an orientation twin in the latter structure and their creation can be achieved by a single step second-order phase transition.

Cisneros-Morales, Massiel Cristina; Rubin Aita, Carolyn

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

Proximal renal tubular injury in rats sub-chronically exposed to low fluoride concentrations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluoride is usually found in groundwater at a very wide range of concentration between 0.5 and 25 ppm. At present, few studies have assessed the renal effects of fluoride at environmentally relevant concentrations. Furthermore, most of these studies have used insensitive and nonspecific biomarkers of kidney injury. The aim of this study was to use early and sensitive biomarkers to evaluate kidney injury after fluoride exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations. Recently weaned male Wistar rats were exposed to low (15 ppm) and high (50 ppm) fluoride concentrations in drinking water for a period of 40 days. At the end of the exposure period, kidney injury biomarkers were measured in urine and renal mRNA expression levels were assessed by real time RT-PCR. Our results showed that the urinary kidney injury molecule (Kim-1), clusterin (Clu), osteopontin (OPN) and heat shock protein 72 excretion rate significantly increased in the group exposed to the high fluoride concentration. Accordingly, fluoride exposure increased renal Kim-1, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels. Moreover, there was a significant dose-dependent increase in urinary ?-2-microglobulin and cystatin-C excretion rate. Additionally, a tendency towards a dose dependent increase of tubular damage in the histopathological light microscopy findings confirmed the preferential impact of fluoride on the tubular structure. All of these changes occurred at early stages in which, the renal function was not altered. In conclusion using early and sensitive biomarkers of kidney injury, we were able to found proximal tubular alterations in rats sub-chronically exposed to fluoride. - Highlights: • Exposure to low concentrations of fluoride induced proximal tubular injury • Increase in urinary Kim-1, Clu, OPN and Hsp72 in 50 ppm fluoride-exposed group • Increase in urinary B2M and CysC in 15 and 50 ppm fluoride-exposed groups • Fluoride exposure increased renal Kim, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels. • Fluoride increased kidney injury biomarkers at stages where eGFR was unaltered.

Cárdenas-González, Mariana C.; Del Razo, Luz M. [Departmento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan [Unidad de Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, México, D. F., México (Mexico); Jacobo-Estrada, Tania [Departmento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); López-Bayghen, Esther [Departamento de Genética y Biología Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); and others

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Crystal structure of Si-doped HfO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Si-doped HfO{sub 2} was prepared by solid state synthesis of the starting oxides. Using Rietveld refinement of high resolution X-ray diffraction patterns, a substitutional limit of Si in HfO{sub 2} was determined as less than 9 at.?%. A second phase was identified as Cristobalite (SiO{sub 2}) rather than HfSiO{sub 4}, the latter of which would be expected from existing SiO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2} phase diagrams. Crystallographic refinement with increased Si-dopant concentration in monoclinic HfO{sub 2} shows that c/b increases, while ? decreases. The spontaneous strain, which characterizes the ferroelastic distortion of the unit cell, was calculated and shown to decrease with increasing Si substitution.

Zhao, Lili [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Nelson, Matthew; Fancher, Chris M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Aldridge, Henry [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Iamsasri, Thanakorn; Forrester, Jennifer S.; Jones, Jacob L., E-mail: jacobjones@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Nishida, Toshikazu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Moghaddam, Saeed [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

169

Thermal decomposition of HfCl{sub 4} as a function of its hydration state  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermogravimetric behavior of HfCl{sub 4} powders with different hydration states has been compared. Strongly hydrated powders consist of HfOCl{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O with n>4. Partially hydrated powders consist of particles with a HfCl{sub 4} core and a hydrated outerlayer of HfOCl{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O with n in the range of 0-8. Hydrated powders decomposed at temperature lower than 200 deg. C whereas the decomposition of partially hydrated powders was completed at a temperature of around 450 deg. C. The observed differences in decomposition temperature is related to the structure of HfOCl{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O, which is different if n is higher or smaller than 4 and leads to intermediate compounds, which decompose at different temperatures.

Barraud, E. [Laboratoire de Science et Genie des Materiaux et de Metallurgie, UMR CNRS INPL 7584, Ecole des Mines, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Begin-Colin, S. [Laboratoire de Science et Genie des Materiaux et de Metallurgie, UMR CNRS INPL 7584, Ecole des Mines, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France) and Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux, GMI, UMR CNRS-ULP 7504, Ecole de Chimie, Polymeres et Materiaux, 23, rue du Loess, BP 43, F-67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: begin@ipcms.u-strasbg.fr; Le Caer, G. [Groupe Matiere Condensee et Materiaux, UMR CNRS-Universite de Rennes-I 6626, Campus de Beaulieu, Batiment 11A, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Villieras, F. [Laboratoire Environnement et Mineralurgie, UMR CNRS-INPL 7569, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Geologie de Nancy, F-54501 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Barres, O. [Laboratoire Environnement et Mineralurgie, UMR CNRS-INPL 7569, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Geologie de Nancy, F-54501 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Safety Slide 1 Hydrofluoric (HF) Acid Hazards http://www.emsworld.com/web/online/Education/Hydrofluoric-Acid-/5$12949  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Safety Slide 1 ­ Hydrofluoric (HF) Acid Hazards http://www.emsworld.com/web may be delayed for up to 24 hours, even with dilute solutions. HF burns affect deep tissue layers

Cohen, Robert E.

171

Hydrogen Energy Technology Geoff Dutton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) Pyrolysis Water electrolysis Reversible fuel cell Hydrogen Hydrogen-fuelled internal combustion engines Hydrogen-fuelled turbines Fuel cells Hydrogen systems Overall expensive. Intermediate paths, employing hydrogen derived from fossil fuel sources, are already used

Watson, Andrew

172

Digital hf radar observations of equatorial spread-F  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modern digital ionosondes, with both direction finding and doppler capabilities can provide large scale pictures of the Spread-F irregularity regions. A morphological framework has been developed that allows interpretation of the hf radar data. A large scale irregularity structure is found to be nightward of the dusk terminator, stationary in the solar reference frame. As the plasma moves through this foehn-wall-like structure it descends, and irregularities may be generated. Localized upwellings, or bubbles, may be produced, and they drift with the background plasma. The spread-F irregularity region is found to be best characterized as a partly cloudy sky, due to the patchiness of the substructures. 13 references, 16 figures.

Argo, P.E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Ternary ceramic alloys of Zr-Ce-Hf oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ternary ceramic alloy is described which produces toughening of zirconia and zirconia composites through the stress transformation from tetragonal phase to monoclinic phase. This alloy, having the general formula Ce[sub x]Hf[sub y]Zr[sub 1[minus]x[minus]y]O[sub 2], is produced through the addition of appropriate amounts of ceria and hafnia to the zirconia. Typically, improved toughness is achieved with about 5 to about 15 mol % ceria and up to about 40 mol % hafnia. The preparation of alloys of these compositions are given together with data as to the densities, tetragonal phase content, hardness and fracture toughness. The alloys are useful in preparing zirconia bodies as well as reinforcing ceramic composites. 1 fig.

Becher, P.F.; Funkenbusch, E.F.

1990-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

174

Ternary ceramic alloys of ZR-CE-HF oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ternary ceramic alloy which produces toughening of zirconia and zirconia composites through the stress transformation from tetragonal phase to monoclinic phase. This alloy, having the general formula Ce.sub.x Hf.sub.y Zn.sub.1-x-y O.sub.2, is produced through the addition of appropriate amounts of ceria and hafnia to the zirconia. Typically, improved toughness is achieved with about 5 to about 15 mol % ceria and up to about 40 mol % hafnia. The preparation of alloys of these compositions are given together with data as to the densities, tetragonal phase content, hardness and fracture toughness. The alloys are useful in preparing zirconia bodies as well as reinforcing ceramic composites.

Becher, Paul F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Funkenbusch, Eric F. (White Bear Lake, MN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

176

Hydrogen Delivery Liquefaction & Compression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Delivery Liquefaction & Compression Raymond Drnevich Praxair - Tonawanda, NY Strategic Initiatives for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop - May 7, 2003 #12;2 Agenda Introduction to Praxair Hydrogen Liquefaction Hydrogen Compression #12;3 Praxair at a Glance The largest industrial gas company in North

177

NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP . . Toward a More Secure and Cleaner Energy Future for America Based on the results of the National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop to make it a reality. This Roadmap provides a framework that can make a hydrogen economy a reality

178

Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout - Strategic Directions for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop...

179

Composition for absorbing hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

180

The synthesis and structural characterization of novel transition metal fluorides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High purity KMF{sub 6} and K{sub 2}MF{sub 6} salts (M = Mo,Re, Ru, Os, Ir, Pt) are obtained from reduction hexafluorides. A rhombohedral unit cell is observed for KReF{sub 6}. Fluoride ion capture by Lewis acids from the hexafluorometallate (IV) salts affords high purity tetrafluorides for M = Mo, Re, Ru, Os, and Pd. The structure of RuF{sub 4} is determined from X-ray synchrotron and neutron powder data. Unit cells based on theorthorhombic PdF{sub 4} type cell are derived from X-ray powder data for ReF{sub 4} and OsF{sub 4}. Fluoride ion capture from KAgF{sub 4} provides the thermally unstable trifluoride as a bright, red, diamagnetic solid. The structure solution of AgF{sub 3} and redetermination of the AuF{sub 3} structure from X-ray synchrotron and neutron powder data demonstrate that the two are isostnictural. Thermal decomposition product of AgF{sub 3} is the mixed valence compound Ag{sup II}Ag{sub 2}{sup III}F{sub 8}. Several new salts containing the (Ag - F){sub n}{sup n+} chain cation are prepared. The first linear (Ag - F){sub n}{sup n+} chain is observed in AgF{sup +}BF{sub 4 {sup {minus}}} which crystallizes in a tetragonal unit. AgFAuF{sub 4} has a triclinic unit cell and is isostructural with CuFAuF{sub 4}. AgFAuF{sub 6} has an orthorhombic unit cell and appears to be isostructural with AgFAsF{sub 6}. A second mixed valence silver fluoride, Ag{sup II}Ag{sup III}F{sub 5}, is prepared, which magnetic measurements indicate is probably an AgF{sup +} salt. Magnetic data for all of the AgF{sup +} salts exhibit low magnitude, temperature independent paramagnetism characteristic of metallic systems. Cationic AG(II) in acidic AHF solutions is a powerful oxidizer, capable of oxidizing Xe to Xe(II) and O{sub 2} to O{sub 2}{sup +}. Reactions with C{sub 6}F{sub 6} and C{sub 3}F{sub 6} suggest an electron capture mechanism for cationic AG(II) oxidations.

Casteel, W.J. Jr.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Effect of the isoelectric point on the adsorption of molybdates on fluoride-modified aluminas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The isoelectric point (IEP) of ..gamma..-alumina was modified by the addition of various amounts of fluoride. The modified aluminas were used as supports for molybdenum catalysts prepared by equilibrium adsorption at pH = 6.5. Also, the adsorption of molybdate on supports containing various amounts of fluoride was studied as a function of pH. The amount of molybdenum adsorbed on the fluoride-modified aluminas was found to decrease the IEP of the carrier decreased. An electrostatic model is used to interpret the results. 9 references.

Mulcahy, F.M.; Houalla, M.; Hercules, D.M.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Removal of impurities from dry scrubbed fluoride enriched alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pot-gas from an aluminum electrolytic cell is cleaned by a dry scrubbing process using fresh alumina as a scrubbing agent. This alumina is enriched with fluorides and trace impurities in a closed loop system with the pots. The only significant removal of the impurities is due to metal tapping. An improved technique has been developed that is more effective than earlier stripper systems. The impurity-rich fine fraction (< 10 {micro}m) of the enriched alumina is partly attached to the coarser alumina. That attachment has to be broken. Selective impact milling under special moderate conditions and air classifying have shown to be a cost effective process for the removal of impurities. For iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) about 30--70% can be removed by the separation of 0.5--1% of the alumina. Full scale tests have successfully confirmed these results.

Schuh, L. [ABB Corporate Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Wedde, G. [ABB Environmental, Oslo (Norway)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Development Roadmap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) are an emerging reactor class with potentially advantageous performance characteristics and fully passive safety. This paper provides an overview of a technology development pathway for expeditious commercial deployment of first-generation FHRs. The paper describes the principal remaining FHR technology challenges and the development path needed to address the challenges. First-generation FHRs do not appear to require any technology breakthroughs, but will require significant technology development and demonstration. FHRs are currently entering early phase engineering development. As such, the development roadmap is not as technically detailed or specific as would be the case for a more mature reactor class. The higher cost of fuel and coolant; the lack of an approved licensing framework; the lack of qualified, salt-compatible structural materials; and the potential for tritium release into the environment are the most obvious issues that remain to be resolved.

Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL] [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL] [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL] [ORNL; Pointer, William David [ORNL] [ORNL; Robb, Kevin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Removal of fluoride impurities from UF/sub 6/ gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of purifying a UF/sub 6/ gas stream containing one or more metal fluoride impurities composed of a transuranic metal, transition metal or mixtures thereof, is carried out by contacting the gas stream with a bed of UF/sub 5/ in a reaction vessel under conditions where at least one impurity reacts with the UF/sub 5/ to form a nongaseous product and a treated gas stream, and removing the treated gas stream from contact with the bed. The nongaseous products are subsequently removed in a reaction with an active fluorine affording agent to form a gaseous impurity which is removed from the reaction vessel. The bed of UF/sub 5/ is formed by the reduction of UF/sub 6/ in the presence of uv light. One embodiment of the reaction vessel includes a plurality of uv light sources as tubes on which UF/sub 5/ is formed. 2 figures.

Beitz, J.V.

1984-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

185

Evaluation of fluoride-induced metal mobilization in soil columns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluoride in soil solution may cause substantially increased leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Al, and heavy metals from soils. The authors objective was to examine whether increased metal solubility is attributable to formation of fluoro- or organo-complexes. The A horizon of a Slovak soil contaminated with heavy metals and F by Al smelter emissions was used to conduct two column experiments under saturated and steady-state water flow conditions. The columns were leached with 5 mM Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 1 mM NaCl, and 9 mM NaF solutions at pH 5.5 and an electrical conductivity of 1,000 {micro}S cm{sup {minus}1}. Samples were collected in 70-min intervals for approximately 7 d. Two experiments were performed. In the first experiment (single F pulse), a fluoride (F) pulse was applied for 36 pore volumes (PVs), while in the second experiment (dual F pulse), two consecutive F pulses (each for 2.8 PVs) were applied. For both experiments, Cl breakthrough curves (BTCs) revealed a convection-dominated transport regime. The breakthrough of Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Pb paralleled DOC breakthrough in both experiments indicating metal leaching as organocomplex. In the dual F pulse experiment, peak separation of the DOC and the complexed F (F{sub bound}) breakthrough was achieved. The highest F{sub bound} concentration occurred 3.8 PVs later than that of DOC. The AlBTC paralleled that of F{sub bound} but showed tailing with a turning point simultaneous to the highest DOC concentration. Thus, the increase in Al solubility was mainly caused by fluoro-complexation and only to a lesser extent by organo-complexation.

Totsche, K.U.; Wilcke, W.; Koerber, M.; Kobza, J.; Zech, W.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Role of oxygen vacancy in HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated the interface states in HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) systems that were prepared by using the in situ pulsed laser deposition technique. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data revealed that when the HfO{sub 2} film thickness exceeds 11 A, the film composition undergoes a systematic change from Hf silicate to oxygen-deficient HfO{sub x<2}. Furthermore, we determined that the evolution of the interface states clearly depends on the oxygen condition applied during the film growth and that the oxygen vacancy is an important parameter for Hf silicate formation.

Cho, Deok-Yong; Oh, S.-J.; Chang, Y.J.; Noh, T.W.; Jung, Ranju; Lee, Jae-Cheol [CSCMR and School of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); ReCOE and School of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon 440-900 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

187

Towards forming-free resistive switching in oxygen engineered HfO{sub 2?x}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated the resistive switching behavior in stoichiometric HfO{sub 2} and oxygen-deficient HfO{sub 2?x} thin films grown on TiN electrodes using reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Oxygen defect states were controlled by the flow of oxygen radicals during thin film growth. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of sub-stoichiometric hafnium oxide and defect states near the Fermi level. The oxygen deficient HfO{sub 2?x} thin films show bipolar switching with an electroforming occurring at low voltages and low operating currents, paving the way for almost forming-free devices for low-power applications.

Sharath, S. U., E-mail: sharath@oxide.tu-darmstadt.de; Kurian, J.; Hildebrandt, E.; Alff, L. [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Strasse 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Bertaud, T.; Walczyk, C.; Calka, P.; Zaumseil, P.; Sowinska, M.; Walczyk, D. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Gloskovskii, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Brandenburgische Technische Universität, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

188

Low energy N{sub 2} ion bombardment for removal of (HfO{sub 2}){sub x}(SiON){sub 1-x} in dilute HF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ion assisted wet removal of (HfO{sub 2}){sub x}(SiON){sub 1-x} high dielectric constant (k) materials and its effect on electrical properties were investigated. Crystallization temperature of (HfO{sub 2}){sub x}(SiON){sub 1-x} increased as the percentage of SiON increased. The crystallized (HfO{sub 2}){sub 0.6}(SiON){sub 0.4} was damaged and turned to an amorphous film via incorporation of N species into the film by N{sub 2} plasma treatment. In addition, the structure of (HfO{sub 2}){sub 0.6}(SiON){sub 0.4} was disintegrated into HfO{sub 2}, SiO(N), and ON after N{sub 2} plasma treatment. N{sub 2} plasmas using low bias power were applied for wet removal of high-k films and the mechanism of the ion assisted wet removal process was explored. When high bias power was applied, the surface of source and drain regions was nitrided via the reaction between N and Si substrates. Feasibility of the low bias power assisted wet removal process was demonstrated for short channel high-k metal oxide semiconductor device fabrication by the smaller shift of threshold voltage, compared to the high bias power assisted wet removal process as well as the wet-etching-only process.

Hwang, Wan Sik; Cho, Byung-Jin; Chan, Daniel S. H.; Yoo, Won Jong [Silicon Nano Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, E4A 02-04, Engineering Drive 3, 117576 Singapore (Singapore); SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Project Objectives: To gain basic understanding of...

190

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5037: Hydrogen Storage...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5037: Hydrogen Storage Materials - 2004 vs. 2006 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5037: Hydrogen Storage Materials - 2004 vs. 2006 This program record from the Department...

191

Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems- Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems - Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen. Design and operations standards and materials for hydrogen and natural gas pipelines.

192

Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping Analysis. January 22, 2002-July 22, 2002 Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping Analysis. January 22,...

193

Mixed cation phases in sputter deposited HfO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} nanolaminates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanolaminate HfO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} films are grown by reactive sputter deposition on unheated fused SiO{sub 2}, sequentially annealed at 573 to 973 K, and studied by x-ray diffraction. A nanocrystalline structure of orthorhombic (o) HfTiO{sub 4} adjacent to an interface followed by monoclinic (m) Hf{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 2} is identified. m-Hf{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 2}, a metastable phase, is isomorphous with m-HfO{sub 2} and a high pressure phase, m-HfTiO{sub 4}. A Vegard's law analysis shows that the Ti atomic fraction in m-Hf{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 2} is much greater than Ti equilibrium solubility in m-HfO{sub 2}. A space group-subgroup argument proposes that m-Hf{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 2} arises from an o/m-HfTiO{sub 4} second order phase transition to accommodate the larger Hf atom.

Cisneros-Morales, M. C.; Aita, C. R. [Advanced Coatings Experimental Laboratory, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 784, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States)

2008-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

194

A new buffer system for the potentiometric determination of fluoride ion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper attempts to eliminate the lengthy stage of hydrolytic separation of the elements during the potentiometric determination of fluoride ions and also to develop a universal method for the determination of flouride ions. During the development of a procedure for the determination of fluoride ions it is necessary to eliminate the interfering effects of elements which form stable fluoride complexes such as A1 (III), Fe (III), Si (III), Ti (IV), V (IV), Mo (V), and W (V). By the addition of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate to the buffer solution and preliminary extraction of the benzoylphenylhydroxylaminates of the interfering elements with chloroform it was possible to develop a method for the determination of fluoride with a detection limit of 1.10/sup -5/ M.

Zhobinskii, E.Y.; Askochenskaya, R.M.; Novikova, L.B; Wl' Figarov, O.S.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Energy and momentum transfer of He atoms scattered from a lithium fluoride crystal surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy and momentum transfer of He atoms scattered from a lithium fluoride crystal surface H. Legge­surface inter- action is usually described in terms of averaged properties such as the average energy exchange interaction potential has been extensivel

Manson, Joseph R.

196

Characterization Report on Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues and on Fluoride Residues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the chemical characterization of the sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C) residues and the fluoride residues that may be shipped from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Savannah River Site (SRS).

Murray, A.M.

1999-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

197

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminium fluorides Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

illustrated with interferograms of 1 1 849... performance than our present aluminium-magnesium fluoride coatings at 1800 A. As an example of what is now... ) consist of two S U B...

198

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum sodium fluoride Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Information Sciences 28 List of Acronyms, Abbreviations and Symbols Summary: Light Emitting Diode LiAlH4 lithium aluminum hydride LiF lithium fluoride LS Light Scattering...

199

Suppression of interfacial reaction for HfO{sub 2} on silicon by pre-CF{sub 4} plasma treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this letter, the effects of pre-CF{sub 4} plasma treatment on Si for sputtered HfO{sub 2} gate dielectrics are investigated. The significant fluorine was incorporated at the HfO{sub 2}/Si substrate interface for a sample with the CF{sub 4} plasma pretreatment. The Hf silicide was suppressed and Hf-F bonding was observed for the CF{sub 4} plasma pretreated sample. Compared with the as-deposited sample, the effective oxide thickness was much reduced for the pre-CF{sub 4} plasma treated sample due to the elimination of the interfacial layer between HfO{sub 2} and Si substrate. These improved characteristics of the HfO{sub 2} gate dielectrics can be explained in terms of the fluorine atoms blocking oxygen diffusion through the HfO{sub 2} film into the Si substrate.

Lai, C.S.; Wu, W.C.; Chao, T.S.; Chen, J.H.; Wang, J.C.; Tay, L.-L.; Rowell, Nelson [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronic Physics, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Rd., Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Rd., Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Nanya Technology Corporation, Hwa-Ya Technology Park, 669 Fu-Hsing 3rd Rd., Kueishan, Taoyuan 338, Taiwan (China); Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

2006-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

200

Hydrogen energy systems studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF.sub.4 is not further oxidized to AmF.sub.6 by the application of O.sub.2 F at room temperature, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF.sub.6, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride.

FitzPatrick, John R. (Los Alamos, NM); Dunn, Jerry G. (Los Alamos, NM); Avens, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF/sub 4/ is not further oxidized to AmF/sub 6/ by the application of O/sub 2/F at room temperature thereto, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF/sub 6/, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride thereof.

FitzPatrick, J.R.; Dunn, J.G.; Avens, L.R.

1987-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

203

Physical approaches to controlling the fluoride content of fish protein concentrate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the co-current batch extraction process previously described under section B of this chapter. The re- sulting extracted solids were air dried and retained for ash and fluoride determination. F. Analytical Methods Fluoride contents of the FPC samples... INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW METHODS AND MATERIALS A. Raw Materials B. Extraction Technique C. Grinding of Coarse FPC D. Selective Screening and Air Classification E. Flotation Approaches F. Analytical Methods 10 RESULTS 13 DIS CUSS ION 33 SUMMARY...

Rahman, Muhammad Asadur

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Hydrogen Bus Technology Validation Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and evaluate hydrogen enriched natural gas (HCNG) enginewas to demonstrate that hydrogen enriched natural gas (HCNG)characteristics of hydrogen enriched natural gas combustion,

Burke, Andy; McCaffrey, Zach; Miller, Marshall; Collier, Kirk; Mulligan, Neal

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will trump hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles. Advocates ofbenefits sooner than hydrogen and fuel cells ever could.emissions from a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle will be about

Sperling, Dan; Ogden, Joan M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

Ishimoto, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Hydrogen in semiconductors and insulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the electronic level of hydrogen (thick red bar) was notdescribing the behavior of hydrogen atoms as impuritiesenergy of interstitial hydrogen as a function of Fermi level

Van de Walle, Chris G.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Process for the production of high purity zirconium tetrafluoride and other fluorides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for producing metal fluorides for low optical loss glass applications selected from the group. It comprises: aluminum trifluoride, hafnium tetrafluoride and zirconium tetrafluoride. The steps comprise: incompletely reacting reactants of a fluorinating agent selected from the group consisting of F{sub 2}, NF{sub 3}, N{sub 2}F{sub 2}, N{sub 2}F{sub 4}, ClF{sub 3}, BrF{sub 3}, IF{sub 5} and SF{sub 4} and a metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, hafnium and zirconium, or the corresponding metal's compound to produce a reaction product comprising the metal fluoride and at least an amount of the residual metal or its compound effective to react with any metal fluoride impurities in the reactants, and separating the metal fluoride from the reaction product by heating the reaction product to selectively vaporize the metal fluoride for separate recovery from the reaction product and to react the residual metal or its compound with the metal fluoride impurities.

Withers, H.P.; Woytek, A.J.; Lileck, J.T.

1991-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

209

Germanium diffusion during HfO{sub 2} growth on Ge by molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors study the Ge diffusion during HfO{sub 2} growth by molecular beam epitaxy on differently in situ prepared germanium substrates and at different growth temperatures. While HfO{sub 2} layers grown directly on Ge do not show any germanium contamination, oxygen rich interfacial layers such as GeO{sub x} or GeO{sub x}N{sub y} partly dissolve into the HfO{sub 2} layer, giving rise to high Ge contamination (from 1% to 10%). The use of nitridated interfacial layers does not prevent Ge diffusion into the HfO{sub 2} during the growth process because of the high oxygen content present in the nitridated germanium layer.

Ferrari, S.; Spiga, S.; Wiemer, C.; Fanciulli, M.; Dimoulas, A. [Laboratorio MDM-INFM-CNR, Via Olivetti, 2 Agrate Brianza, Milano 20041 (Italy); MBE Laboratory, Institute of Materials Science, DEMOKRITOS National Center for Scientific Research, 153 10 Athens (Greece)

2006-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

210

In situ characterization of initial growth of HfO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial growth of HfO{sub 2} on Si (111) is monitored in situ by ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) scanning probe microscopy. UHV scanning tunneling microscopy and UHV atomic force microscopy reveal the topography of HfO{sub 2} films in the initial stage. The chemical composition is further confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy is utilized to inspect the evolution of the bandgap. When the film thickness is less than 0.6 nm, the bandgap of HfO{sub 2} is not completely formed. A continuous usable HfO{sub 2} film with thickness of about 1.2 nm is presented in this work.

Wang, L.; Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Xue, K.; Xu, J. B. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (Hong Kong)

2009-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

211

LuHf isotope systematics of fossil biogenic apatite and their effects on geochronology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and argillaceous matrices with low permeability (oil shale of Messel, Germany; Posidonienschiefer of Holzmaden the Eifel, Germany. Low 176 Lu/177 Hf ratios in all materials from the Middle Eocene Messel oil shale (e

Schöne, Bernd R.

212

Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen Strategic Initiatives, and Infrastructure Technologies Program #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 2 Copyright: Design & Operation development) #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 3 Copyright: Future H2 Infrastructure Wind Powered

213

Plasma etching of HfO{sub 2} at elevated temperatures in chlorine-based chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma etching of HfO{sub 2} at an elevated temperature is investigated in chlorine-based plasmas. Thermodynamic studies are performed in order to determine the most appropriate plasma chemistry. The theoretical calculations show that chlorocarbon gas chemistries (such as CCl{sub 4} or Cl{sub 2}-CO) can result in the chemical etching of HfO{sub 2} in the 425-625 K temperature range by forming volatile effluents such as HfCl{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. The etching of HfO{sub 2} is first studied on blanket wafers in a high density Cl{sub 2}-CO plasma under low ion energy bombardment conditions (no bias power). Etch rates are presented and discussed with respect to the plasma parameters. The evolution of the etch rate as function of temperature follows an Arrhenius law indicating that the etching comes from chemical reactions. The etch rate of HfO{sub 2} is about 110 A /min at a temperature of 525 K with a selectivity towards SiO{sub 2} of 15. x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses (XPS) reveal that neither carbon nor chlorine is detected on the HfO{sub 2} surface, whereas a chlorine-rich carbon layer is formed on top of the SiO{sub 2} surface leading to the selectivity between HfO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}. A drift of the HfO{sub 2} etch process is observed according to the chamber walls conditioning due to chlorine-rich carbon coatings formed on the chamber walls in a Cl{sub 2}-CO plasma. To get a very reproducible HfO{sub 2} etch process, the best conditioning strategy consists in cleaning the chamber walls with an O{sub 2} plasma between each wafer. The etching of HfO{sub 2} is also performed on patterned wafers using a conventional polysilicon gate. The first result show a slight HfO{sub 2} foot at the bottom of the gate and the presence of hafnium oxide-based residues in the active areas.

Helot, M.; Chevolleau, T.; Vallier, L.; Joubert, O.; Blanquet, E.; Pisch, A.; Mangiagalli, P.; Lill, T. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microelectronique, CNRS, 17 rue des martyrs (CEA-LETI), 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); LTPCM/INPG-CNRS-UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, 38402 Saint-Martin-d'Heres (France); Applied Materials, 974 E. Arques Ave. M/S 81334, Sunnyvale, California 94086 (United States)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Subduction Controls of Hf and Nd Isotopes in Lavas of the Aleutian Island Arc  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hf and Nd isotopic compositions of 71 Quaternary lavas collected from locations along the full length of the Aleutian island arc are used to constrain the sources of Aleutian magmas and to provide insight into the geochemical behavior of Nd and Hf and related elements in the Aleutian subduction-magmatic system. Isotopic compositions of Aleutian lavas fall approximately at the center of, and form a trend parallel to, the terrestrial Hf-Nd isotopic array with {var_epsilon}{sub Hf} of +12.0 to +15.5 and {var_epsilon}{sub Nd} of +6.5 to +10.5. Basalts, andesites, and dacites within volcanic centers or in nearby volcanoes generally all have similar isotopic compositions, indicating that there is little measurable effect of crustal or other lithospheric assimilation within the volcanic plumbing systems of Aleutian volcanoes. Hafnium isotopic compositions have a clear pattern of along-arc increase that is continuous from the eastern-most locations near Cold Bay to Piip Seamount in the western-most part of the arc. This pattern is interpreted to reflect a westward decrease in the subducted sediment component present in Aleutian lavas, reflecting progressively lower rates of subduction westward as well as decreasing availability of trench sediment. Binary bulk mixing models (sediment + peridotite) demonstrate that 1-2% of the Hf in Aleutian lavas is derived from subducted sediment, indicating that Hf is mobilized out of the subducted sediment with an efficiency that is similar to that of Sr, Pb and Nd. Low published solubility for Hf and Nd in aqueous subduction fluids lead us to conclude that these elements are mobilized out of the subducted component and transferred to the mantle wedge as bulk sediment or as a silicate melt. Neodymium isotopes also generally increase from east to west, but the pattern is absent in the eastern third of the arc, where the sediment flux is high and increases from east to west, due to the presence of abundant terrigenous sediment in the trench east of the Amlia Fracture Zone, which is being subducting beneath the arc at Seguam Island. Mixing trends between mantle wedge and sediment end members become flatter in Hf-Nd isotope space at locations further west along the arc, indicating that the sediment end member in the west has either higher Nd/Hf or is more radiogenic in Hf compared to Nd. This pattern is interpreted to reflect an increase in pelagic clay relative to the terrigenous subducted sedimentary component westward along the arc. Results of this study imply that Hf does not behave as a conservative element in the Aleutian subduction system, as has been proposed for some other arcs.

Yogodzinski, Gene; Vervoort, Jeffery; Brown, Shaun Tyler; Gerseny, Megan

2010-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

215

Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout- Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Targets, barriers and research and development priorities for gaseous delivery of hydrogen through hydrogen and natural gas pipelines.

216

DOE Hydrogen Program Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Intl. J. Hydrogen Energy 27: 1217-1228 Melis A, Seibert M and Happe T (2004) Genomics of green algal hydrogen research. Photosynth. Res. 82: 277- 288 Maness P-C, Smolinski...

217

Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop May 7 detection Pipeline Safety: odorants, flame visibility Compression: cost, reliability #12;Breakout Session goal of a realistic, multi-energy distribution network model Pipeline Technology Improved field

218

Hydrogen transport membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

Mundschau, Michael V.

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

219

Hydrogen Fuel Quality (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Jim Ohi of NREL's presentation on Hydrogen Fuel Quality at the 2007 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation on May 15-18, 2007 in Arlington, Virginia.

Ohi, J.

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

220

Chemical states and electronic structure of a HfO(-2) / Ge(001) interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the chemical bonding structure and valence band alignment at the HfO{sub 2}/Ge (001) interface by systematically probing various core level spectra as well as valence band spectra using soft x-rays at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. We investigated the chemical bonding changes as a function of depth through the dielectric stack by taking a series of synchrotron photoemission spectra as we etched through the HfO{sub 2} film using a dilute HF-solution. We found that a very non-stoichiometric GeO{sub x} layer exists at the HfO{sub 2}/Ge interface. The valence band spectra near the Fermi level in each different film structure were carefully analyzed, and as a result, the valence band offset between Ge and GeO{sub x} was determined to be {Delta}E{sub v} (Ge-GeO{sub x}) = 2.2 {+-} 0.15 eV, and that between Ge and HfO{sub 2}, {Delta}E{sub v} (Ge-HfO{sub 2}) = 2.7 {+-} 0.15 eV.

Seo, Kang-ill; McIntyre, Paul C.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Sun, Shiyu; Lee, Dong-Ick; Pianetta, Piero; /SLAC, SSRL; Saraswat, Krishna C.; /Stanford U., Elect.

2005-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

HfO{sub x}N{sub y} gate dielectric on p-GaAs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma nitridation method is used for nitrogen incorporation in HfO{sub 2} based gate dielectrics for future GaAs-based devices. The nitrided HfO{sub 2} (HfO{sub x}N{sub y}) films on p-GaAs improve metal-oxide-semiconductor device characteristics such as interface state density, accumulation capacitance, hysteresis, and leakage current. An equivalent oxide thickness of 3.6 nm and a leakage current density of 10{sup -6} A cm{sup -2} have been achieved at V{sub FB}-1 V for nitrided HfO{sub 2} films. A nitride interfacial layer (GaAsO:N) was observed at HfO{sub 2}-GaAs interface, which can reduce the outdiffusion of elemental Ga and As during post-thermal annealing process. Such suppression of outdiffusion led to a substantial enhancement in the overall dielectric properties of the HfO{sub 2} film.

Dalapati, G. K.; Sridhara, A.; Wong, A. S. W.; Chia, C. K.; Chi, D. Z. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR - Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)

2009-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

222

Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

Rivkin, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Webinar: Hydrogen Refueling Protocols  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, Hydrogen Refueling Protocols, originally presented on February 22, 2013.

224

Questions and Issues on Hydrogen Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Questions and Issues on Hydrogen Pipelines Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen Doe Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Meeting August 31, 2005 #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 2 Copyright: Air Liquide Transmission of Hydrogen --- 3 Copyright: #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 4 Copyright: 3. Special

225

Hydrogen Production CODES & STANDARDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Production DELIVERY FUEL CELLS STORAGE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY VALIDATION CODES & STANDARDS for 2010 · Reduce the cost of distributed production of hydrogen from natural gas and/or liquid fuels to $1 SYSTEMS INTEGRATION / ANALYSES SAFETY EDUCATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Economy Pete Devlin #12;Hydrogen

226

Sensitive hydrogen leak detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

Myneni, Ganapati Rao (Yorktown, VA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Hydrogen Delivery Liquefaction and Compression  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen Delivery Liquefaction and Compression - Overview of commercial hydrogen liquefaction and compression and opportunities to improve efficiencies and reduce cost.

228

Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels,...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced Efficiency, and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced...

229

PREPARATION OF ANHYDROUS F-18 FLUORIDE, T. Tewson. Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals S165; 52, Supplement 1 2009  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The original specific aims of the grant where cut back considerably as the study section reduced both the time and the budget for the project. The objective of the grant was to show that fluorine-18 fluoride could be prepared completely anhydrous and thus substantially more reactive than conventionally dried fluoride using the method of Sun and DiMagno. This method involved using conventionally dried fluoride to prepare an aromatic fluoride in which the aromatic ring is substituted with electron withdrawing groups. The aryl fluoride is then dried and purified and the fluoride is displaced with an anhydrous nucleophile. Using fluorine-19 and macroscopic scale reactions the reactions work well and give anhydrous fluoride salts that are both more reactive and more selective in their reactions than conventionally dried fluoride. The original substrate chosen for the reaction was bromopentacyanobenzene (1). This compound proved to be easy to make but very hard to purify. As an alternative hexabromobenzene, which is commercially available in high purity, was tried. This reacted cleanly with conventionally dried F-18 fluoride in acetonitrile to give [{sup 18}F]-fluoropentabromobenzene (2), which could be dried by passage of the solution over alumina, which also removed any unreacted fluoride. The fluorine-18 fluoride could be liberated from (2) by displacement with an anhydrous nucleophilic tetra-alkylammonium salt but the anion had to be chosen with considerable care. The reaction is potentially reversible especially as, on the no carrier added scale, there is inevitably an excess of hexabromobenzene and so the displacing nucleophile is chosen to deactivate the aromatic compound to further nucleophilic displacement reactions. To this end tetrabutylammonium azide and tetrabutylammonium phenolate have been tried. Both work but the phenolate is probably the better choice. The F-18 fluoride produced by this process is substantially more reactive than conventionally dried fluoride. A solution of the 3'-anhydrothymidine-5-benzoate (3) was added to the fluoride solution and 30% of the fluoride was incorporated in less than 3 minutes at room temperature were as conventionally dried fluoride requires 10 minutes at 160 C and gives {approx}10% incorporation. These results are encouraging in that they show that the objective of truly anhydrous fluoride is worth pursuing but the problem is that you end up with too much 'stuff' in the solution. Four to five milligrams of hexabromobenzene are used for the initial fluorination reaction and enough of the tetra-alkylammonium salt has to be added to react with a substantial number of those bromides. No attempt has been made to optimize these amounts but there is clearly a lot of material in the solution before the final substrate is added. To avoid these difficulties experiments involving a different, low boiling carrier of the fluoride which can be distilled from the initial fluorination mixture have been tried. Phenyltrifluoromethane sulfonate reacts with fluoride to give trifluoromethane sulfonyl fluoride which boils at -20 C as shown. This reaction works with conventionally dried fluorine-18 fluoride and the no carrier added trifluoromethane sulphonyl fluoride distills out of the reaction as it forms. The choice of nucleophile to react it with to liberate the fluoride is limited and the obvious choice is tetrabutylammonium azide as the resulting trifluoromethane sulfonyl azide is unreactive. We have shown that this works in principle but the experimental details have not been explored.

Tewson, T.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Hydrogen separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

Mundschau, Michael (Longmont, CO); Xie, Xiaobing (Foster City, CA); Evenson, IV, Carl (Lafayette, CO); Grimmer, Paul (Longmont, CO); Wright, Harold (Longmont, CO)

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

231

Anti-Hydrogen Jonny Martinez  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anti-Hydrogen Jonny Martinez University of California, Berkeley #12;OUTLINE WHAT IS ANTI-HYDROGEN? HISTORY IMPORTANCE THEORY HOW TO MAKE ANTI-HYDROGEN OTHER ANTI-MATTER EXPERIMENTS CONCLUSION #12;WHAT IS ANTI-HYDROGEN? Anti-hydrogen is composed of a Positron(anti-electron) and anti-Proton. Anti-Hydrogen

Budker, Dmitry

232

Hafnia-Based Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are critical technologies for future gas turbine engines of advanced coal based power generation systems. TBCs protect engine components and allow further increase in engine temperatures for higher efficiency. In this work, nanostructured HfO{sub 2}-based coatings, namely Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (YSH), Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (GSH) and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2} (YSZH) were investigated for potential TBC applications in hydrogen turbines. Experimental efforts are aimed at creating a fundamental understanding of these TBC materials. Nanostructured ceramic coatings of YSH, GSH and YSZH were grown by physical vapor deposition methods. The effects of processing parameters and ceramic composition on the microstructural evolution of YSH, GSH and YSZH nanostructured coatings was studied using combined X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electron microscopy analyses. Efforts were directed to derive a detailed understanding of crystal-structure, morphology, and stability of the coatings. In addition, thermal conductivity as a function of composition in YSH, YSZH and GSH coatings was determined. Laboratory experiments using accelerated test environments were used to investigate the relative importance of various thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical failure modes of TBCs. Effects of thermal cycling, oxidation and their complex interactions were evaluated using a syngas combustor rig.

Ramana, Chintalapalle; Choudhuri, Ahsan

2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

233

First-principles phase diagram calculations for the HfCTiC, ZrCTiC, and HfCZrC solid O. Adjaoud,1,*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transition metal carbides, including the NaCl-structured group IV Ti, Zr, and Hf carbides, have extremely of oxidizing agents, and retain good corrosion resistance to high temperature.1,5,6 The transition-metal high melting points and are therefore referred to collectively as the "refractory carbides

Steinle-Neumann, Gerd

234

Method for producing hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a method for producing high quality hydrogen, the carbon monoxide level of a hydrogen stream which also contains hydrogen sulfide is shifted in a bed of iron oxide shift catalyst to a desired low level of carbon monoxide using less catalyst than the minimum amount of catalyst which would otherwise be required if there were no hydrogen sulfide in the gas stream. Under normal operating conditions the presence of even relatively small amounts of hydrogen sulfide can double the activity of the catalyst such that much less catalyst may be used to do the same job.

Preston, J.L.

1980-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

235

Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nike is a recently completed multi-kilojoule krypton fluoride (KrF) laser that has been built to study the physics of direct drive inertial confinement fusion. This paper describes in detail both the pulsed power and optical performance of the largest amplifier in the Nike laser, the 60 cm amplifier. This is a double pass, double sided, electron beam-pumped system that amplifies the laser beam from an input of 50 J to an output of up to 5 kJ. It has an optical aperture of 60 cm {times} 60 cm and a gain length of 200 cm. The two electron beams are 60 cm high {times} 200 cm wide, have a voltage of 640 kV, a current of 540 kA, and a flat top power pulse duration of 250 ns. A 2 kG magnetic field is used to guide the beams and prevent self-pinching. Each electron beam is produced by its own Marx/pulse forming line system. The amplifier has been fully integrated into the Nike system and is used on a daily basis for laser-target experiments. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Sethian, J.D.; Obenschain, S.P.; Gerber, K.A.; Pawley, C.J.; Serlin, V.; Sullivan, C.A. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 20375 (United States)] [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Webster, W. [Research Support Instruments, 4325-B Forbes Boulevard, Lanham, Maryland 20706 (United States)] [Research Support Instruments, 4325-B Forbes Boulevard, Lanham, Maryland 20706 (United States); Deniz, A.V.; Lehecka, T. [Science Applications International Corporation, 1710 Goodridge Drive, McLean, Virginia 22102 (United States)] [Science Applications International Corporation, 1710 Goodridge Drive, McLean, Virginia 22102 (United States); McGeoch, M.W. [PLEX Corporation, 21 Addington Road, Brookline, Massachusetts 02146 (United States)] [PLEX Corporation, 21 Addington Road, Brookline, Massachusetts 02146 (United States); Altes, R.A.; Corcoran, P.A.; Smith, I.D. [Pulse Sciences, Incorporated, 600 McCormick Street, San Leandro, California 94577 (United States)] [Pulse Sciences, Incorporated, 600 McCormick Street, San Leandro, California 94577 (United States); Barr, O.C. [Pharos Technical Enterprises, 1603 Barcelona Street, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Pharos Technical Enterprises, 1603 Barcelona Street, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

HYDROGEN USAGE AND STORAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is thought that it will be useful to inform society and people who are interested in hydrogen energy. The study below has been prepared due to this aim can be accepted as an article to exchange of information between people working on this subject. This study has been presented to reader to be utilized as a “technical note”. Main Energy sources coal, petroleum and natural gas are the fossil fuels we use today. They are going to be exhausted since careless usage in last decades through out the world, and human being is going to face the lack of energy sources in the near future. On the other hand as the fossil fuels pollute the environment makes the hydrogen important for an alternative energy source against to the fossil fuels. Due to the slow progress in hydrogen’s production, storage and converting into electrical energy experience, extensive usage of Hydrogen can not find chance for applications in wide technological practices. Hydrogen storage stands on an important point in the development of Hydrogen energy Technologies. Hydrogen is volumetrically low energy concentration fuel. Hydrogen energy, to meet the energy quantity necessary for the nowadays technologies and to be accepted economically and physically against fossil fuels, Hydrogen storage technologies have to be developed in this manner. Today the most common method in hydrogen storage may be accepted as the high pressurized composite tanks. Hydrogen is stored as liquid or gaseous phases. Liquid hydrogen phase can be stored by using composite tanks under very high pressure conditions. High technology composite material products which are durable to high pressures, which should not be affected by hydrogen embrittlement and chemical conditions.[1

237

Identification of aluminum scale with the aid of synthetically produced basic aluminum fluoride complexes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum scaling can be a problem following HF acidizing. In this paper, a series of synthetic aluminum scales was prepared and identified. The aluminum compounds of a field scale were identified with similar procedures. Recent field work showed that the use of acetic acid in the HF acidizing sequences significantly decreased scaling. The role of acetic acid is discussed on the basis of laboratory support of these field data.

Shuchart, C.E. (Halliburton Services, Duncan, OK (United States)); Ali, S.A. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Hydrogen Filling Station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for hydrogen development; accelerate the development of photovoltaic components Project Objective 4:

Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

239

Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

psi) High-pressure hydrogen compressor Compressed hydrogen2005 High-pressure hydrogen compressor Compressed hydrogenthe hydrogen, a hydrogen compressor, high-pressure tank

Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Doylestown, PA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA)

2000-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Thermally-driven H interaction with HfO{sub 2} films deposited on Ge(100) and Si(100)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present work, we investigated the thermally-driven H incorporation in HfO{sub 2} films deposited on Si and Ge substrates. Two regimes for deuterium (D) uptake were identified, attributed to D bonded near the HfO{sub 2}/substrate interface region (at 300?°C) and through the whole HfO{sub 2} layer (400–600?°C). Films deposited on Si presented higher D amounts for all investigated temperatures, as well as, a higher resistance for D desorption. Moreover, HfO{sub 2} films underwent structural changes during annealings, influencing D incorporation. The semiconductor substrate plays a key role in this process.

Soares, G. V., E-mail: gabriel.soares@ufrgs.br; Feijó, T. O. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre 91509-900 (Brazil); Baumvol, I. J. R. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre 91509-900 (Brazil); Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul 95070-560 (Brazil); Aguzzoli, C. [Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul 95070-560 (Brazil); Krug, C. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre 91509-900 (Brazil); CEITEC S.A., Porto Alegre 91550-000 (Brazil); Radtke, C. [Instituto de Química, UFRGS, Porto Alegre 91509-900 (Brazil)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

242

Spectroscopic analysis of Al and N diffusion in HfO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray photoelectron core level spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements have been employed to distinguish the effects of Al and N diffusion on the local bonding and microstructure of HfO{sub 2} and its interface with the Si substrate in (001)Si/SiO{sub x}/2 nm HfO{sub 2}/1 nm AlO{sub x} film structures. The diffusion of Al from the thin AlO{sub x} cap layer deposited on both annealed and unannealed HfO{sub 2} has been observed following anneal in N{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} ambient. Both N{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} subsequent anneals were performed to decouple incorporated nitrogen from thermal reactions alone. Causal variations in the HfO{sub 2} microstructure combined with the dependence of Al and N diffusion on initial HfO{sub 2} conditions are presented with respect to anneal temperature and ambient.

Lysaght, P. S.; Price, J.; Kirsch, P. D. [SEMATECH, 257 Fuller Rd, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Woicik, J. C.; Weiland, C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Sahiner, M. A. [Seton Hall University, 400 South Orange Ave, South Orange, New Jersey 07079 (United States)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

HF treatment effect for carbon deposition on silicon (111) by DC sputtering technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface modifications of Si (111) substrate by HF solution for thin film carbon deposition have been systematically studied. Thin film carbon on Si (111) has been deposited using DC Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering with carbon pellet doped by 5% Fe as the target. EDAX characterization confirmed that the carbon fraction on Si substrate much higher by dipping a clean Si substrate by HF solution before sputtering process in comparison with carbon fraction on Si substrate just after conventional RCA. Moreover, SEM and AFM images show the uniform thin film carbon on Si with HF treatment, in contrast to the Si without HF solution treatment. These experimental results suggest that HF treatment of Si surface provide Si-H bonds on top Si surface that useful to enhance the carbon deposition during sputtering process. Furthermore, we investigate the thermal stability of thin film carbon on Si by thermal annealing process up to 900 °C. Atomic arrangements during annealing process were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra indicate that thin film carbon on Si is remaining unchanged until 600 °C and carbon atoms start to diffuse toward Si substrate after annealing at 900 °C.

Aji, A. S., E-mail: aji.ravazes70@gmail.com; Darma, Y., E-mail: aji.ravazes70@gmail.com [Quantum Semiconductor and Devices Lab., Physics of Material Electronics Research Division, Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

244

Characteristics of Hf-silicate thin films synthesized by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hafnium silicate films were grown by alternating the deposition cycles of hafnium oxide and silicon oxide using a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition process. The as-deposited and 900 deg. C annealed hafnium silicate films were determined to be amorphous using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. This suggested that the formation of hafnium silicate suppressed the crystallization of HfO{sub 2} at high temperatures. The dielectric constants increased from {approx}5 to {approx}17 as the hafnium content increased from 9 to 17 at. % in the hafnium silicate films. The leakage currents through the Hf-rich Hf-silicate films were two to three orders of magnitude lower than that of SiO{sub 2} with the same equivalent oxide thickness in the range of 1.6-2.3 nm. The estimated band gap of Hf-silicate films from the O 1s plasma loss spectra increased with the increasing Si content due to the higher band gap of SiO{sub 2} than that of HfO{sub 2}.

Liu Jiurong; Martin, Ryan M.; Chang, Jane P. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

Analysis of hydrogen isotope mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for determining the concentrations of hydrogen isotopes in a sample. Hydrogen in the sample is separated from other elements using a filter selectively permeable to hydrogen. Then the hydrogen is condensed onto a cold finger or cryopump. The cold finger is rotated as pulsed laser energy vaporizes a portion of the condensed hydrogen, forming a packet of molecular hydrogen. The desorbed hydrogen is ionized and admitted into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

Villa-Aleman, Eliel (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Fluoride Glass Fibers James Colaizzi, M. John Matthewson, Tariq Iqbal, and Mahmoud R. Shahriari  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Fluoride Glass Fibers James Colaizzi, M. John Matthewson solutions of various pH values on the mechanical properties of polymer coated optical fibers of an aluminum to failure of the fiber. In static fatigue, the time to failure of the aluminum fluoride-based fibers

Matthewson, M. John

247

BP and Hydrogen Pipelines DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BP and Hydrogen Pipelines DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop August 30-31, 2005 Gary P · UK partnership opened the first hydrogen demonstration refueling station · Two hydrogen pipelines l · " i i l i 2 i i ll i i l pl ifi i · 8" ly idl i i l s Hydrogen Pipelines Two nes, on y a brand

248

Hawaii hydrogen power park Hawaii Hydrogen Power Park  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. (Barrier R ­ Cost) Generate public interest & support. (Barrier S­Siting) #12;Hawaii hydrogen power park H Electrolyzer ValveManifold Water High Pressure H2 Storage Fuel Cell AC Power H2 Compressor Hydrogen Supply O2Hawaii hydrogen power park H Hawaii Hydrogen Power Park 2003 Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Merit Review

249

Hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for reacting pulverized coal with heated hydrogen-rich gas to form hydrocarbon liquids suitable for conversion to fuels wherein the reaction involves injection of pulverized coal entrained in a minimum amount of gas and mixing the entrained coal at ambient temperature with a separate source of heated hydrogen. In accordance with the present invention, the hydrogen is heated by reacting a small portion of the hydrogen-rich gas with oxygen in a first reaction zone to form a gas stream having a temperature in excess of about 1000.degree. C. and comprising a major amount of hydrogen and a minor amount of water vapor. The coal particles then are reacted with the hydrogen in a second reaction zone downstream of the first reaction zone. The products of reaction may be rapidly quenched as they exit the second reaction zone and are subsequently collected.

Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Ion assisted deposition of optical and protective coatings for heavy metal fluoride glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heavy metal fluoride glass materials are attractive for optical applications in the near UV through IR wavelength regions. However, many compositions are relatively soft and hygroscopic and possess low softening temperature (250--300/sup 0/C). We have applied ion assisted deposition (IAD) techniques to deposit MgF/sub 2/, SiO/sub 2/, and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3//SiO/sub 2/ thin film structures on fluoride glass substrates at ambient substrate temperature (--100/sup 0/C). The coatings deposited using IAD improve the environmental durability of the fluoride glass and appear to have reasonably good optical characteristics; without application of IAD, the deposited coatings are not durable and have poor adhesion.

McNally, J.J.; Al-Jumaily, G.A.; McNeil, J.R.

1986-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films. High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films. Abstract: Abstract: Hydrogen is being...

252

Hydrogen powered bus  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

None

2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

253

Hydrogen energy systems studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Hydrogen | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

electric cooperatives* to offer net metering to customers who generate electricity using solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, hydrogen, biomass, landfill gas, geothermal energy,...

255

Renewable Hydrogen (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presentation about the United State's dependence on oil, how energy solutions are challenging, and why hydrogen should be considered as a long-term alternative for transportation fuel.

Remick, R. J.

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

256

Hydrogen Industrial Trucks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Slides from the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Component and System Qualification Workshop held November 4, 2010 in Livermore, CA.

257

Hydrogen purification system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a system to purify hydrogen involving the use of a hydride compressor and catalytic converters combined with a process controller.

Golben, Peter Mark

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

Hydrogen Fuel Cells  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

The fuel cell — an energy conversion device that can efficiently capture and use the power of hydrogen — is the key to making it happen.

259

Department of Energy - Hydrogen  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Goes to.... Lighting Up Operations with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology http:energy.goveerearticlesand-oscar-sustainable-mobile-lighting-goes-lighting-operations-hydro...

260

Sustainable hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA); Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Thin film hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Fleming, Pamela H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Band offsets in HfO{sub 2}/InGaZnO{sub 4} heterojunctions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The valence band discontinuity ({Delta}E{sub V}) of sputter deposited HfO{sub 2}/InZnGaO{sub 4} (IGZO) heterostructures was obtained from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The HfO{sub 2} exhibited a bandgap of 6.07 eV from absorption measurements. A value of {Delta}E{sub V} = 0.48 {+-} 0.025 eV was obtained by using the Ga 2p{sub 3/2}, Zn 2p{sub 3/2}, and In 3d{sub 5/2} energy levels as references. This implies a conduction band offset {Delta}E{sub C} of 2.39 eV in HfO{sub 2}/InGaZnO{sub 4} heterostructures and a nested interface band alignment.

Cho, Hyun [Department of Nanomechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Gyeongnam 627-706 (Korea, Republic of); Douglas, E. A.; Gila, B. P.; Craciun, V.; Lambers, E. S.; Pearton, S. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Ren Fan [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

2012-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

264

Ge doped HfO{sub 2} thin films investigated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The stability of the tetragonal phase of Ge doped HfO{sub 2} thin films on Si(100) was investigated. Hf(Ge)O{sub 2} films with Ge atomic concentrations varying from 0% to 15% were deposited by remote plasma chemical vapor deposition. The atomic structure on the oxide after rapid thermal annealing was investigated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy of the O and Ge K edges and by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The authors found that Ge concentrations as low as 5 at. % effectively stabilize the tetragonal phase of 5 nm thick Hf(Ge)O{sub 2} on Si and that higher concentrations are not stable to rapid thermal annealing at temperatures above 750 deg. C.

Miotti, Leonardo; Bastos, Karen P.; Lucovsky, Gerald; Radtke, Claudio; Nordlund, Dennis [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Box 8202, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 (United States); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91509-900 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

On the K{sup {pi}} = 0{sup +} rotational bands in the {sup 178}Hf nucleus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results obtained by studying the angular distributions of gamma rays with respect to the neutron-beam axis in the reaction {sup 178}Hf(n, n'{gamma}) involving the deexcitation of the K{sup {pi}} = 0{sup +} rotational bands of {sup 178}Hf are presented.New information about themultipole-mixing parameter {delta} in gamma transitions from the levels of these bands is obtained. The K{sup {pi}} = 0{sub 4}{sup +} band is constructed anew. The relationship between the parameter {delta} for the (2{sup +}0{sub n}-2{sup +}0{sub 1}) gamma transition and the energy gap {Delta}{sub n} = E{sub lev}(2{sup +}0{sub n}) - E{sub lev}(0{sup +}0{sub n}), on one hand, and the quasiparticle structure of the rotational band, on the other hand, is discussed for {sup 178}Hf on the basis of the quasiparticle-phonon model.

Govor, L. I.; Demidov, A. M.; Kurkin, V. A., E-mail: kurkin@polyn.kiae.su; Mikhailov, I. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

Hydrogen Delivery - Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Delivery Hydrogen Delivery - Basics Hydrogen Delivery - Basics Photo of light-duty vehicle at hydrogen refueling station. Infrastructure is required to move hydrogen from the...

267

Numerical investigation of mid-infrared Raman soliton source generation in endless single mode fluoride fibers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We numerically investigate Raman soliton generation in a fluoride photonic crystal fiber (PCF) pumped by 1.93 ?m femtosecond fiber lasers in order to get widely tunable laser source in the mid-infrared region. The simulated results show that a continuously tunable range (1.93???3.95??m) over 2000?nm is achieved in 1-m-long fluoride PCF pumped by a 1.93??m femtosecond fiber laser with a pulse width of 200 fs. The power conversion efficiency is also calculated and the maximum efficiency can be up to 84.27%.

Liu, Lai; Qin, Guan-Shi, E-mail: qings@jlu.edu.cn; Tian, Qi-jun; Zhao, Dan; Qin, Wei-Ping, E-mail: wpqin@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

268

Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

Yang, Ralph T. (Ann Arbor, MI); Li, Yingwel (Ann Arbor, MI); Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonication as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

Yang, Ralph T; Li, Yingwei; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

270

Spatially-resolved EELS and EDS Analysis of HfOxNy Gate Dielectrics Deposited by MOCVD using [(C2H5)2N]4Hf with NO and O2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS). HfOxNy gate dielectrics a replacement for SiO2 as the gate dielectric material. HfO2 is a promising candidate due to its high dielectric constant its stability on Si. However, crystallization temperatures of less than 500 °C and high impurity

Ng, Wai Tung

271

Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the previous literature for electrochemical reduction of spent fuels, have been attempted. A quantitative analytical method for measuring the concentration of sodium borohydride in alkaline aqueous solution has been developed as part of this work and is described herein. Finally, findings from stability tests for sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions of several different compositions are reported. For aminoborane, other research institutes have developed regeneration schemes involving tributyltin hydride. In this report, electrochemical reduction experiments attempting to regenerate tributyltin hydride from tributyltin chloride (a representative by-product of the regeneration scheme) are described. These experiments were performed in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. A non-aqueous reference electrode for electrolysis experiments in acetonitrile was developed and is described. One class of boron hydrides, called polyhedral boranes, became of interest to the DOE due to their ability to contain a sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet program goals and because of their physical and chemical safety attributes. Unfortunately, the research performed here has shown that polyhedral boranes do not react in such a way as to allow enough hydrogen to be released, nor do they appear to undergo hydrogenation from the spent fuel form back to the original hydride. After the polyhedral boranes were investigated, the project goals remained the same but the hydrogen storage material was switched by the DOE to ammonia borane. Ammonia borane was found to undergo an irreversible hydrogen release process, so a direct hydrogenation was not able to occur. To achieve the hydrogenation of the spent ammonia borane fuel, an indirect hydrogenation reaction is possible by using compounds called organotin hydrides. In this process, the organotin hydrides will hydrogenate the spent ammonia borane fuel at the cost of their own oxidation, which forms organotin halides. To enable a closed-loop cycle, our task was then to be able to hydrogenate the organotin halides back to th

Dr. Digby Macdonald

2010-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

272

Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

Hindin, Saul G. (Mendham, NJ); Roberts, George W. (Westfield, NJ)

1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

273

Optical spectroscopic study of the SiN/HfO{sub 2} interfacial formation during rf sputtering of HfO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-k stacks formed by chemical-vapor-deposited SiN and high-pressure sputtered HfO{sub 2} in either O{sub 2} or Ar atmosphere have been studied. The introduction of a SiN layer is proposed to prevent the uncontrollable SiO{sub 2} growth while sputtering. The formation of Si-O bonds after the sputtering of the HfO{sub 2} film in O{sub 2} atmosphere was observed by infrared spectroscopy. Optical diagnosis of the plasma demonstrated a high density of O radicals in the system when working with O{sub 2}. The small radius and high reactivity of these O radicals are the source of the SiN oxidation. However, the structure of the SiN film is preserved during Ar sputtering.

Toledano-Luque, M.; Lucia, M. L.; Prado, A. del; San Andres, E.; Martil, I.; Gonzalez-Diaz, G. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

2007-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

274

Two-step behavior of initial oxidation at HfO{sub 2}/Si interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that initial Si oxidation at the HfO{sub 2}/Si(001) interface in O{sub 2} proceeds in a two-step manner with an initial slow stage followed by a fast one. This transition in the oxidation process is most likely caused by crystallization of the HfO{sub 2} film. The first stage at 400-600 deg. C exhibited postdeposition annealing conditions suitable for suppressing the interfacial Si oxide in a monolayer region.

Miyata, Noriyuki [MIRAI, Advanced Semiconductor Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

2006-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

275

Triaxial strongly deformed bands in {sup 164}Hf and the effect of elevated yrast line  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two exotic rotational bands have been identified in {sup 164}Hf and linked to known states. They are interpreted as being associated with the calculated triaxial strongly deformed (TSD) potential energy minimum. The bands are substantially stronger and are located at much lower spins than the previously discovered TSD bands in {sup 168}Hf. In addition to the proton and neutron shell gaps at large trixiality, it was proposed that the relative excitation energy of TSD bands above the yrast line plays an important role in the population of TSD bands.

Ma Wenchao [Department of Physics, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

276

Membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide is provided. The membrane comprises a substrate, a hydrogen permeable first membrane layer deposited on the substrate, and a second membrane layer deposited on the first layer. The second layer contains sulfides of transition metals and positioned on the on a feed side of the hydrogen sulfide stream. The present invention also includes a method for the direct decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen and sulfur.

Agarwal, Pradeep K.

2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

277

High resolution gas phase infrared spectroscopy of the hydrogen bonded complex HCN---HF and its deuterated isotopic species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

constants, The resolution of combination bands, overtones and/or hot bands permitted the calculation of a number of harmonic constants and anharmonic cross terms. Once the molecular parameters for a particular vibration were determined..., it was then possible to use these constants with a specially written Voigt transition profiles program to simulate the recorded spectra. It was possible to determine the excited metastable vibrational predissociation state lifetimes by matching line profiles...

Jackson, Marc William

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies ProgramHydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Hydrogen Codes &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for hydrogen refueling and storage, by 2006; · Complete and adopt the revised NFPA 55 standard for hydrogen storage of hydrogen, by 2008; · Complete U.S. adoption of a Global Technical Regulation (GTR) for hydrogen, storage, and use of hydrogen incorporate project safety requirements into the procurements, by 2005

279

High-power ELF radiation generated by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and localized heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-power ELF radiation generated by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere can cause Earthquakes, the HAARP heater is the most powerful ionospheric heater, with 3.6GW of effective power using HF heating, Cyclones and localized heating Fran De Aquino Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

280

Trapping in deep defects under substrate hot electron stress in TiN/Hf-silicate based gate stacks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Trapping in deep defects under substrate hot electron stress in TiN/Hf-silicate based gate stacks N. Zaslavsky Abstract Substrate hot electron stress was applied on n+ -ringed n-channel MOS capacitors with TiN/Hf-silicate. Introduction Hafnium silicate based high-j gate dielectrics have been put forth as the leading candidates

Misra, Durgamadhab "Durga"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Thick film hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

August 2006 Hydrogen Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report evaluating's primary transportation fuel from petroleum, which is increasingly imported, to hydrogen, which can the energy, environmental and economic benefits of a hydrogen economy. The goals and milestones

283

Hydrogen, Fuel Infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

results of using hydrogen power, of course, will be energy independence for this nation... think about between hydrogen and oxygen generates energy, which can be used to power a car producing only water to taking these cars from laboratory to showroom so that the first car driven by a child born today could

284

Hydrogen Delivery- Current Technology  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen is transported from the point of production to the point of use via pipeline, over the road in cryogenic liquid trucks or gaseous tube trailers, or by rail or barge. Read on to learn more about current hydrogen delivery and storage technologies.

285

Renewable Resources for Hydrogen (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation provides an overview of renewable resources for hydrogen. It was presented at the National Hydrogen Association Hydrogen Conference & Expo in Long Beach, CA, May 3-6, 2010.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.

2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

286

Hydrogen in semiconductors and insulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

type can be applied to hydrogen storage materials. Keywords:can be applied to hydrogen storage materials. Manuscript O-of the formalism to hydrogen storage materials. A partial

Van de Walle, Chris G.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the cost of hydrogen production, distribution, and use.accelerate R&D of zero-emission hydrogen production methods.Renewable hydrogen production is a key area for focused

Sperling, Dan; Ogden, Joan M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Cells, Turbines, and Carbon Capture & Sequestration #12;Production Goal for Hydrogen from Coal Central Separation System PSA Membrane Membrane Carbon Sequestration Yes (87%) Yes (100%) Yes (100%) Hydrogen

289

The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It appears to us that hydrogen is a highly promising option06—16 The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen Daniel Sperling Joan OgdenThe Bumpy Road to Hydrogen 1 Daniel Sperling and Joan Ogden

Sperling, Dan; Ogden, Joan M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Hydrogen Fuel Quality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the past 6 years, open discussions and/or meetings have been held and are still on-going with OEM, Hydrogen Suppliers, other test facilities from the North America Team and International collaborators regarding experimental results, fuel clean-up cost, modeling, and analytical techniques to help determine levels of constituents for the development of an international standard for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12). Significant progress has been made. The process for the fuel standard is entering final stages as a result of the technical accomplishments. The objectives are to: (1) Determine the allowable levels of hydrogen fuel contaminants in support of the development of science-based international standards for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12); and (2) Validate the ASTM test method for determining low levels of non-hydrogen constituents.

Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

291

Photoemission study of energy-band alignment for RuO{sub x}/HfO{sub 2}/Si system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conductive oxides RuO{sub x} as alternative electrode on high-{kappa} HfO{sub 2} gate dielectric have been fabricated by ultrahigh-vacuum sputtering and subsequently oxidized using oxygen plasma. The energy-band alignment for the RuO{sub x}/HfO{sub 2}/Si system and the oxidation-state dependence of barrier height for RuO{sub x} contacting to HfO{sub 2} dielectrics has been analyzed by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The valence- and conduction-band offsets of HfO{sub 2}/Si are determined to be 3.05{+-}0.1 and 1.48{+-}0.1 eV, respectively. The barrier heights for the RuO{sub x} contacting to HfO{sub 2} are oxidation-state dependent, in the range of 1.95-2.73 eV.

Li, Q.; Wang, S.J.; Li, K.B.; Huan, A.C.H.; Chai, J.W.; Pan, J.S.; Ong, C.K. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602, Singapore and Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

292

Low-temperature method for enhancing sputter-deposited HfO{sub 2} films with complete oxidization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A low-temperature method, supercritical CO{sub 2} fluid (SCF) technology, is proposed to improve the dielectric properties of ultrathin hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) film at 150 deg. C without significant formation of parasitic oxide at the interface between HfO{sub 2} and Si substrate. In this research, the HfO{sub 2} films were deposited by dc sputter at room temperature and post-treated by SCF which is mixed with 5 vol % propyl alcohol and 5 vol % H{sub 2}O. From high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image, the interfacial oxide of SCF-treated HfO{sub 2} film is only 5 A ring thick. Additionally, the enhancements in the qualities of sputter-deposited HfO{sub 2} film after SCF process are exhibited by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement.

Tsai, C.-T.; Chang, T.-C.; Liu, P.-T.; Yang, P.-Y.; Kuo, Y.-C.; Kin, K.-T.; Chang, P.-L.; Huang, F.-S. [Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, HsinChu 300, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70 Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics and Display Institute, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Rd., HsinChu 300, Taiwan (China); Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, HsinChu 300, Taiwan (China)

2007-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

293

Hydrogen Data Book from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Hydrogen Data Book contains a wide range of factual information on hydrogen and fuel cells (e.g., hydrogen properties, hydrogen production and delivery data, and information on fuel cells and fuel cell vehicles), and it also provides other data that might be useful in analyses of hydrogen infrastructure in the United States (e.g., demographic data and data on energy supply and/or infrastructure). ItÆs made available from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center along with a wealth of related information. The related information includes guidelines for DOE Hydrogen Program Analysis, various calculator tools, a hydrogen glossary, related websites, and analysis tools relevant to hydrogen and fuel cells. [From http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/cocoon/morf/hydrogen

294

Turing Water into Hydrogen Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Turning Water into Hydrogen Fuel Turning Water into Hydrogen Fuel New method creates highly reactive catalytic surface, packed with hydroxyl species May 15, 2012 | Tags: Franklin,...

295

Compatibility of Inconel 617 alloy with eutectic fluoride salts at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal Energy Storage (TES) capsules made of Inconel 617 alloy were filled with high purity eutectic fluoride salts and thermally cycled at eutectic temperature [plus minus]100 K for a period of up to 50,000 hours. The containment life performance characteristics with fluoride salts were examined. The depletion of Al and Cr near the inner edges was found. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy revealed that both Al and Cr were dissolved in the fluoride salts at high temperatures. The changes in melting temperature and heat of fusion of fluoride salts during thermal cycling were measured with Thermal Differential Analysis. A modified diffusion equation for a one-dimensional semi-infinite bar was applied to the depletion of Al on the interior surfaces of the containers. Good agreement was obtained between the analysis and the measured concentration profiles. The present study suggests that the corrosion was a diffusion controlled process and an expected lifetime of 5--7 years is reasonable and predictable based upon the limited diffusion processes.

Luo, A.; Jacobson, D.L. (Department of Chemical, Bio Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6006 (United States)); Ponnappan, R. (Universal Energy Systems, Inc., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Road, Dayton, Ohio 45432 (United States))

1993-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

296

Primary aluminum: statistical analysis of potline fluoride emissions and alternate sampling frequency. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Statistical analyses were performed on 4 years of fluoride emissions data from a primary aluminum reduction plant. These analyses were used to develop formulae and procedures for use by regulatory agencies in determining alternate sampling frequencies for secondary (roof monitor) emissions testing on a case-by-case basis. Monitoring procedures for ensuring compliance even with a reduced test frequency are also addressed.

Not Available

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Conformational Properties of Poly(vinylidene fluoride). A Quantum Chemistry Study of Model Compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conformational Properties of Poly(vinylidene fluoride). A Quantum Chemistry Study of Model of the conformers of HFH resembling crystalline polymorphs of PVDF, indicating that intermolecular interactions unfavorable second-order interactions between fluorine atoms occur in -CH2- centered t+t+ sequences and

Utah, University of

298

Radiolytic Effects on Fluoride Impurities in a U{sub 3}O{sub 8} Matrix  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The safe handling and storage of radioactive materials require an understanding of the effects of radiolysis on those materials. Radiolysis may result in the production of gases (e.g., corrosives) or pressures that are deleterious to storage containers. A study has been performed to address these concerns as they relate to the radiolysis of residual fluoride compounds in uranium oxides.

Icenhour, A.S.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

300

Selective reflection spectroscopy of a vapour at a calcium fluoride interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selective reflection spectroscopy of a vapour at a calcium fluoride interface T. Passerat de Silans materials exhibit surface resonances located in the thermal infrared. This makes them interesting to search for a fundamental temperature dependence of the atom-surface interaction, originating in the near-field thermal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Neutron diffraction studies of antiferromagnetism in manganous fluoride and some isomorphous compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FLUORIDE AND SOME ISOMORPHOUS COMPOUNDS Major Subject: Physics 1 2 11 16 16 18 27 29 31 38 38 54 58 63 67 75 77 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION . . . ......................... II. MAGNETIC PROPERTY CONSIDERATIONS............... Ill. RELATIONS FOE THE MAGNETIC SCATTERING OF NEUTRONS IV. APPARATUS AND PROCEDURE................... . A. The Neutron Spectrometer.............. B. The Low Temperature Cryostat.......... C. Lov Temperature Coolants. . . . . . . . . D. Sample...

Erickson, Richard Ames

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Meridian-scanning photometer, coherent HF radar, and magnetometer observations of the cusp: a case study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the transport of mass, energy, and momentum from the solar wind into the near-Earth environment, is facilitated with the CUTLASS Finland coherent HF radar, a meridian-scanning photometer located at Ny AÃ? lesund, Svalbard on the scale of minutes, and which are believed to be related to the dynamic nature of energy and momentum

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

303

Metal-gate-induced reduction of the interfacial layer in Hf oxide gate stacks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of high-{kappa} metal oxide gate stacks are often determined in the final processing steps following dielectric deposition. We report here results from medium energy ion scattering and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of oxygen and silicon diffusion and interfacial layer reactions in multilayer gate stacks. Our results show that Ti metallization of HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si stacks reduces the SiO{sub 2} interlayer and (to a more limited extent) the HfO{sub 2} layer. We find that Si atoms initially present in the interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer incorporate into the bottom of the high-{kappa} layer. Some evidence for Ti-Si interdiffusion through the high-{kappa} film in the presence of a Ti gate in the crystalline HfO{sub 2} films is also reported. This diffusion is likely to be related to defects in crystalline HfO{sub 2} films, such as grain boundaries. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and corresponding electron energy loss spectroscopy scans show aggressive Ti-Si intermixing and oxygen diffusion to the outermost Ti layer, given high enough annealing temperature. Thermodynamic calculations show that the driving forces exist for some of the observed diffusion processes.

Goncharova, L. V.; Dalponte, M.; Gustafsson, T.; Celik, O.; Garfunkel, E.; Lysaght, P. S.; Bersuker, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Rd., Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Rd., Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); SEMATECH, 2705 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States)

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Scanning tunneling microscopy study of nitrogen incorporated HfO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact of nitrogen incorporation on the physical and electrical characteristics of the HfO{sub 2} is examined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that nitrogen can be incorporated into the HfO{sub 2} via a two-step thermal anneal--first in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) and subsequently in N{sub 2}. Following the N{sub 2} anneal, scanning tunneling microscopy in UHV reveals a marked reduction in the low-voltage leakage current under gate injection biasing. From band theory and existing first-principles simulation results, one may consistently attribute this improvement to the passivation of oxygen vacancies in the HfO{sub 2} by nitrogen. Improvement in the breakdown strength of the HfO{sub 2} subjected to ramp-voltage stress (substrate injection) is also observed after the N{sub 2} anneal. The local current-voltage curves acquired concurrently during the ramp-voltage stress exhibit 'space-charge limited conduction', which implies that the observed improvement in breakdown strength may be related to a limitation of the current flow through the gate stack in the high stress voltage regime.

Ong, Y. C.; Ang, D. S.; Pey, K. L.; Li, X. [Nanyang Technological University, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); O'Shea, S. J.; Wang, S. J. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR - Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, Singapore 11760 (Singapore); Tung, C. H. [Institute of Microelectronics, A-STAR - Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT The behaviour of Rare-Earth Elements, Zr and Hf during biologically-mediated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 1 The behaviour of Rare-Earth Elements, Zr and Hf during.a,b* , Cangemi M.a , Brusca L.c , Madonia P.c , Saiano F.d , Zuddas P.e a) Department of Earth and Marine at the solid-liquid interface influencing the distribution of trace elements onto microbial surfaces. Since

306

Investigation of HF plasma turbulence excitation and dissipation in the vicinity of 5th  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) of the ionosphere pumped by powerful HF radio waves are presented, Uppsala Division, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden Experimental results on development and relaxation times after PW turn off d 0.7­1.0 ms are 2­4 times faster than collisional ones for the Langmuir waves

307

Oxygen diffusion and reactions in Hf-based dielectrics L. V. Goncharova,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen diffusion and reactions in Hf-based dielectrics L. V. Goncharova,a M. Dalponte, D. G Oxygen transport in and reactions with thin hafnium oxide and hafnium silicate films have been. The exchange rate is faster for pure hafnium oxides than for silicates. The amount of exchanged oxygen

Gustafsson, Torgny

308

HF radar in French Mediterranean Sea: an element of MOOSE Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sea in the context of climate change and anthropogenic pressure and to supply and maintain longHF radar in French Mediterranean Sea: an element of MOOSE Mediterranean Ocean Observing System , Pascal Guterman2 , Karim Bernardet2 1 Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO, UM 110, USTV

Boyer, Edmond

309

Elevated temperature ablation resistance of HfC particle-reinforced tungsten composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

C­W was attributed to the low thermal conductivity, high oxidation resistance, and high melting point of the Hf melting points (e.g., 3440 °C for W), high moduli of elasticity, good thermal shock resistances, and good torch was used to ablate the samples at high temperature. Ablation resistance improved with an in

Hong, Soon Hyung

310

Control of silicidation in HfO2/Si,,100... interfaces Deok-Yong Cho, Kee-Shik Park, B.-H. Choi,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

like nitrogen.6,7 Among these, Hf-silicide is probably most detrimental since it is metallic and degrades the capacitor performance. Metal- lic Hf-silicide formation has been reported in the interfaceControl of silicidation in HfO2/Si,,100... interfaces Deok-Yong Cho, Kee-Shik Park, B.-H. Choi

Oh, Se-Jung

311

Advancing the Hydrogen Safety Knowledge Base  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A White Paper of the International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement Task 31 - Hydrogen Safety

Weiner, Steven C.

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

An Experimental Test Facility to Support Development of the Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need for high-temperature (greater than 600 C) energy exchange and delivery systems is significantly increasing as the world strives to improve energy efficiency and develop alternatives to petroleum-based fuels. Liquid fluoride salts are one of the few energy transport fluids that have the capability of operating at high temperatures in combination with low system pressures. The Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor design uses fluoride salt to remove core heat and interface with a power conversion system. Although a significant amount of experimentation has been performed with these salts, specific aspects of this reactor concept will require experimental confirmation during the development process. The experimental facility described here has been constructed to support the development of the Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor concept. The facility is capable of operating at up to 700 C and incorporates a centrifugal pump to circulate FLiNaK salt through a removable test section. A unique inductive heating technique is used to apply heat to the test section, allowing heat transfer testing to be performed. An air-cooled heat exchanger removes added heat. Supporting loop infrastructure includes a pressure control system; trace heating system; and a complement of instrumentation to measure salt flow, temperatures, and pressures around the loop. The initial experiment is aimed at measuring fluoride salt heat transfer inside a heated pebble bed similar to that used for the core of the pebble bed advanced high-temperature reactor. This document describes the details of the loop design, auxiliary systems used to support the facility, the inductive heating system, and facility capabilities.

Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL; Aaron, Adam M [ORNL] [ORNL; Cunningham, Richard Burns [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Fugate, David L [ORNL] [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL] [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL] [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL] [ORNL; Robb, Kevin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL] [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Amorphous Alloy Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the beginning of this project, thin film amorphous alloy membranes were considered a nascent but promising new technology for industrial-scale hydrogen gas separations from coal- derived syngas. This project used a combination of theoretical modeling, advanced physical vapor deposition fabricating, and laboratory and gasifier testing to develop amorphous alloy membranes that had the potential to meet Department of Energy (DOE) targets in the testing strategies outlined in the NETL Membrane Test Protocol. The project is complete with Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), and Western Research Institute (WRI) having all operated independently and concurrently. GT studied the hydrogen transport properties of several amorphous alloys and found that ZrCu and ZrCuTi were the most promising candidates. GT also evaluated the hydrogen transport properties of V, Nb and Ta membranes coated with different transition-metal carbides (TMCs) (TM = Ti, Hf, Zr) catalytic layers by employing first-principles calculations together with statistical mechanics methods and determined that TiC was the most promising material to provide catalytic hydrogen dissociation. SwRI developed magnetron coating techniques to deposit a range of amorphous alloys onto both porous discs and tubular substrates. Unfortunately none of the amorphous alloys could be deposited without pinhole defects that undermined the selectivity of the membranes. WRI tested the thermal properties of the ZrCu and ZrNi alloys and found that under reducing environments the upper temperature limit of operation without recrystallization is ~250 °C. There were four publications generated from this project with two additional manuscripts in progress and six presentations were made at national and international technical conferences. The combination of the pinhole defects and the lack of high temperature stability make the theoretically identified most promising candidate amorphous alloys unsuitable for application as hydrogen separation membranes in coal fire systems.

Coulter, K

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

314

Nuclear Power PROS -`No' greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

uranium hexafluoride reacting with moisture in air creates the immediate danger of HF hydrogen fluoride or ammonia; hydrofluoric acid is also used in the conversion process) -CO2 emissions involved in mining gases / acid rain: emits Hg, CO2, CO, SOx, NOx (there are pollution controls on SOx and Hg which makes

Toohey, Darin W.

315

Observation of Fractional Stokes-Einstein Behavior in the Simplest Hydrogen-bonded Liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quasielastic neutron scattering has been used to investigate the single-particle dynamics of hydrogen fluoride across its entire liquid range at ambient pressure. For T > 230 K, translational diffusion obeys the celebrated Stokes-Einstein relation, in agreement with nuclear magnetic resonance studies. At lower temperatures, we find significant deviations from the above behavior in the form of a power law with exponent xi = -0.71+/-0.05. More striking than the above is a complete breakdown of the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relation for rotational diffusion. Our findings provide the first experimental verification of fractional Stokes-Einstein behavior in a hydrogen-bonded liquid, in agreement with recent computer simulations.

Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL; Molaison, Jamie J [ORNL; Fernandez-Alonso, F. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Bermejo, F. J. [CSIC - Inst. Estructura de la Materia & Dept. of Electricity and Electronics; Turner, John F. C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); McLain, Sylvia E. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu.sub.5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo.sub.4 and CaNi.sub.5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

Aldridge, Frederick T. (Livermore, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

NREL's Hydrogen Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research and development taking place today at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is paving the way for nature's most plentiful element—hydrogen—to power the next generation. NREL researchers are working to unlock the potential of hydrogen and to advance the fuel cell technologies that will power the automobiles, equipment, and buildings of tomorrow. Hydrogen and fuel cells are a fundamental part of the broader portfolio of renewable technologies that are moving our nation toward its goals of energy independence and sustainability.

None

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Team: Sudarsanam Suresh Babu, Z Pressure Permeation Testing) Hydrogen Pipeline R&D, Project Review Meeting Oak Ridge National Laboratory direction and review) #12;Outline of the presentation Background Hydrogen delivery through steel pipelines

319

Hydrogen plasma enhanced crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen plasma enhanced crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films K. Pangal,a) J. C August 1998; accepted for publication 21 October 1998 We report that a room temperature hydrogen plasma thermal crystallization of amorphous silicon time by a factor of five. Exposure to hydrogen plasma reduces

320

Hydrogen storage compositions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH4- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH4- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy developme

322

The Hydrogen Connection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the world seeks to identify alternative energy sources, hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will offer a broad range of benefits for the environment, the economy and energy security.

Barilo, Nick F.

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Thin film hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

324

Nitrogen Doping and Thermal Stability in HfSiOxNy Studied by Photoemission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated nitrogen-doping effects into HfSiO{sub x} films on Si and their thermal stability using synchrotron-radiation photoemission and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. N 1s core-level photoemission and N K-edge absorption spectra have revealed that chemical-bonding states of N-Si{sub 3-x}O{sub x} and interstitial N{sub 2}-gas-like features are clearly observed in as-grown HfSiO{sub x}N{sub y} film and they decrease upon ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) annealing due to a thermal instability, which can be related to the device performance. Annealing-temperature dependence in Hf 4f and Si 2p photoemission spectra suggests that the Hf-silicidation temperature is effectively increased by nitrogen doping into the HfSiO{sub x} although the interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer is selectively reduced. No change in valence-band spectra upon UHV annealing suggests that crystallization of the HfSiO{sub x}N{sub y} films is also hindered by nitrogen doping into the HfSiO{sub x}.

Toyoda, Satoshi; Okabayashi, Jun; Takahashi, Haruhiko; Oshima, Masaharu; /Tokyo U.; Lee, Dong-Ick; Sun, Shiyu; sun, Steven; Pianetta, Piero A.; /SLAC, SSRL; Ando, Takashi; Fukuda, Seiichi; /SONY, Atsugi

2005-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

325

Interfacial reaction induced phase separation in La{sub x}Hf{sub y}O films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amorphous La{sub x}Hf{sub y}O films containing La at concentrations (x) of 50 and 20% were prepared by atomic layer deposition on ultrathin SiO{sub 2} films (1 nm). We examined the electronic structures and microstructures of the La{sub x}Hf{sub y}O films by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Phase separation into La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} was observed in the La{sub x}Hf{sub y}O films subjected to annealing temperatures over 900 deg. C, although the mixture of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} is thermodynamically stable. The structural changes that occurred as the result of phase separation were dependent on the concentrations of La and Hf in the films. During the annealing treatment, silicate was produced due to interfacial reactions and the interfacial reactions were found to be dependent on the La{sub 2}O{sub 3} content in the La{sub x}Hf{sub y}O films, which has a significant influence on the phase separation process and resulting film structure.

Ma, J. W.; Lee, W. J.; Cho, M.-H. [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. M.; Sohn, H. C. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C. S. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-540 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, H. J. [Process Development Team, Semiconductor R and D Center, Samsung Electronics Co., LTD, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

A low temperature fabrication of HfO{sub 2} films with supercritical CO{sub 2} fluid treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To improve the dielectric properties of sputter-deposited hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) films, the supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}) fluid technology is introduced as a low temperature treatment. The ultrathin HfO{sub 2} films were deposited on p-type (100) silicon wafer by dc sputtering at room temperature and subsequently treated with SCCO{sub 2} fluids at 150 deg. C to diminish the traps in the HfO{sub 2} films. After SCCO{sub 2} treatment, the interfacial parasitic oxide between the Si substrate and HfO{sub 2} layer is only about 5 A, and the oxygen content of the HfO{sub 2} films apparently increased. From current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements, the leakage current density of the SCCO{sub 2}-treated HfO{sub 2} films is repressed from 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -7} A/cm{sup 2} at electric field=3 MV/cm due to the reduction of traps in the HfO{sub 2} films. The equivalent oxide thickness also obviously decreased. Besides, the efficiency of terminating traps is relative to the pressure of the SCCO{sub 2} fluids.

Tsai, C.-T.; Huang, F.-S. [Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, HsinChu 300, Taiwan (China); Chang, T.-C. [Department of Physics, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-set University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Kin, K.-T. [Industrial Technology Research Institute-Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Liu, P.-T.; Yang, P.-Y. [Department of Photonics and Display Institute, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Weng, C.-F. [Department of Physics, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-set University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China)

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Webinar: Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Video recording of the webinar titled, Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials, originally presented on August 13, 2013.

328

Bulk Hydrogen Strategic Directions for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bulk Hydrogen Storage Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop May 7-8, 2003 Crystal City, Virginia #12;Breakout Session - Bulk Hydrogen Storage Main Themes/Caveats Bulk Storage = Anything storage is an economic solution to address supply/demand imbalance #12;Breakout Session - Bulk Hydrogen

329

Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

Williamson, Andrew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Reboredo, Fernando A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

330

CODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE Rev January 2013 1 The following generic Code of Practice applies to all work areas within the University of Alberta that use hydrogen sulfide gas or where hydrogen response procedure requirements. All work areas where hydrogen sulfide is used or may be present within

Machel, Hans

331

Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up. Efforts continued to explore existing catalytic methods involving nano catalysts for capture of CO2 from the fermentation process.

Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

2011-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

332

Hydrogen recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A treatment process for a hydrogen-containing off-gas stream from a refinery, petrochemical plant or the like. The process includes three separation steps: condensation, membrane separation and hydrocarbon fraction separation. The membrane separation step is characterized in that it is carried out under conditions at which the membrane exhibits a selectivity in favor of methane over hydrogen of at least about 2.5.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Comparing air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pathway, with hydrogen production at refueling stations (with centralized hydrogen production and gaseous hydrogenwith centralized hydrogen production and liquid hydrogen (

Sperling, Dan; Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Examining hydrogen transitions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Effect of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride Gel on the Prevention of White Spot Lesions in Patients Undergoing Active Orthodontic Treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel on white spot lesion (WSL) formation utilizing a typical orthodontic treatment interval for the applications. Methods...

Hutto Fretty, Corneil Kimberly

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

336

Investigation and design of a secure, transportable fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (TFHR) for isolated locations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we describe a preliminary design for a transportable fluoride salt cooled high temperature reactor (TFHR) intended for use as a variable output heat and electricity source for off-grid locations. The goals of ...

Macdonald, Ruaridh (Ruaridh R.)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Impact of pH on the removal of fluoride, nitrate and boron by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of pH on boron, fluoride, and nitrate retention by comparing modelled speciation predictions with retention using six different nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis ...

Richards, Laura A.; Vuachère, Marion; Schäfer, Andrea

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Tritium production analysis and management strategies for a Fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature test reactor (FHTR)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Fluoride-salt-cooled High-temperature Test Reactor (FHTR) is a test reactor concept that aims to demonstrate the neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, materials, tritium management, and to address other reactor operational ...

Rodriguez, Judy N

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Preventing fuel failure for a beyond design basis accident in a fluoride salt cooled high temperature reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) combines high-temperature coated-particle fuel with a high-temperature salt coolant for a reactor with unique market and safety characteristics. This combination can ...

Minck, Matthew J. (Matthew Joseph)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Hydrogen storage and generation system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

Dentinger, Paul M. (Sunol, CA); Crowell, Jeffrey A. W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and simulant PuO{sub 2} has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attained, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile materials in the feed boat. The application of vacuum salt distillation (VSD) is of interest to the HB-Line Facility and the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Both facilities are involved in efforts to disposition excess fissile materials. Many of these materials contain chloride and fluoride salt concentrations which make them unsuitable for dissolution without prior removal of the chloride and fluoride salts. Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. Subsequent efforts are attempting to adapt the technology for the removal of fluoride. Fluoride salts of interest are less-volatile than the corresponding chloride salts. Consequently, an alternate approach is required for the removal of fluoride without significantly increasing the operating temperature. HB-Line Engineering requested SRNL to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of an alternate approach using both non-radioactive simulants and plutonium-bearing materials. Whereas the earlier developments targeted the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), the current activities are concerned with the removal of the halide ions associated with plutonium trifluoride (PuF{sub 3}), plutonium tetrafluoride (PuF{sub 4}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). This report discusses non-radioactive testing of small-scale and pilot-scale systems and radioactive testing of a small-scale system. Experiments focused on demonstrating the chemistry for halide removal and addressing the primary engineering questions associated with a change in the process chemistry.

Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

342

Specific interaction of fluoride ions with aluminum and gallium solvates in an ethylene glycol solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of aluminum chloride and gallium chloride with KF in ethylene glycol solutions with F:M/sup 3 +/ mole ratios approximately equal to 2 includes a step involving the formation of fluorine-containing species, in which the fluoride ions are held in the outer sphere of ethylene glycol solvates of aluminum and gallium. Complexes based on hexacoordinate solvates predominate in the solutions of aluminum, while in the case of gallium, in contrast to aluminum, the coexistence of tetra- and hexacoordinate complexes is characteristic. The configurational equilibrium in the solutions of gallium is one of the causes of the structurization of the solutions, i.e., polymerization due to the formation of H bonds between the fluoride ions and the coordinated ethylene glycol molecules.

Petrosyants, S.P.; Tsabel', E.R.; Buslaev, Yu.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Effect of fulvic acid on the kinetics of aluminum fluoride complexation in acidic waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both fluoride ion and fulvic acid are important aluminum binding ligands present in soil and surface waters. As such they play a role in the speciation and toxicity of natural waters that have increased aluminum concentration due to acid precipitation. We report here a kinetic study of aluminum complexation in the presence of both of these naturally occurring ligands. An overall mechanism has been identified and rate constants have been obtained for several of the reactions involved. We find that an a priori model of the two ligands in competition for aluminum is incorrect. In fact, the rate of fluoride ion consumption is increased by the presence of fulvic acid. Evidence is presented that this effect is due to several equilibria, some of which involve mixed-ligand species. The important equilibria in this three-component system are identified and discussed, as are aluminum speciation and toxicity in acidic waters.

Plankey, B.J.; Patterson, H.H.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the exchange processes are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reaction...

Wilkins, David M; Dang, Liem X

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Hydrogen-selective membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2}s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

346

Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

Martin Chaplin

2007-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

347

Hydrogen production from carbonaceous material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrogen is produced from solid or liquid carbon-containing fuels in a two-step process. The fuel is gasified with hydrogen in a hydrogenation reaction to produce a methane-rich gaseous reaction product, which is then reacted with water and calcium oxide in a hydrogen production and carbonation reaction to produce hydrogen and calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate may be continuously removed from the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone and calcined to regenerate calcium oxide, which may be reintroduced into the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone. Hydrogen produced in the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction is more than sufficient both to provide the energy necessary for the calcination reaction and also to sustain the hydrogenation of the coal in the gasification reaction. The excess hydrogen is available for energy production or other purposes. Substantially all of the carbon introduced as fuel ultimately emerges from the invention process in a stream of substantially pure carbon dioxide. The water necessary for the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction may be introduced into both the gasification and hydrogen production and carbonation reactions, and allocated so as transfer the exothermic heat of reaction of the gasification reaction to the endothermic hydrogen production and carbonation reaction.

Lackner, Klaus S.; Ziock, Hans J.; Harrison, Douglas P.

2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

348

Electronic properties of InP (001)/HfO{sub 2} (001) interface: Band offsets and oxygen dependence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using ab-initio methods, atomic structures and electronic properties of InP (001)/HfO{sub 2} (001) interface are studied within the framework of density functional theory. We examine the InP/HfO{sub 2} model interface electronic structures under varying oxidation conditions. The effects of indium and phosphorous concentrations on interfacial bonding, defect states, band offsets, and the thermodynamic stability at the interface are also investigated. The origin of interfacial gap states in InP (001)/HfO{sub 2} (001) interface are proposed, mainly from the P-rich oxides, which is validated by our experimental work. This highlights the importance of surface passivation prior to high-? deposition based on the in situ spectroscopic results of atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} on InP.

KC, Santosh; Dong, Hong; Longo, Roberto C.; Xiong, Ka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Wang, Weichao [Department of Electronics and Microelectronics and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photo-Electronic Thin Film Device and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae, E-mail: kjcho@utdallas.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

349

Initial phases in sputter deposited HfO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminate films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanolaminate films of crystalline HfO{sub 2} and amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were grown by reactive sputter deposition on unheated fused SiO{sub 2} and the surface oxide of <111> Si. X-ray diffraction showed the amount of monoclinic (m) HfO{sub 2} decreased with decreasing HfO{sub 2} layer thickness, consistent with a finite crystal size effect. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of individual crystallites detected tetragonal (t) and orthorhombic (o) HfO{sub 2} as the initial phases formed. Whereas the t{yields}m transition is accomplished by a shear mechanism, we demonstrate the important role of polysynthetic twinning for the o{yields}m transition.

Hoppe, E. E.; Aita, C. R.; Gajdardziska-Josifovska, M. [Advanced Coatings Experimental Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 784, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Department of Physics and Laboratory for Surface Studies, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States)

2007-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

350

Enhanced electrical characteristics of Au nanoparticles embedded in high-k HfO{sub 2} matrix  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present experimental results for laser-induced Au nanoparticle (NP) embedded in a HfO{sub 2} high-k dielectric matrix. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images showed that the Au NPs of 8 nm in diameter were clearly embedded in HfO{sub 2} matrix. Capacitance-voltage measurements of Pt/HfO{sub 2}/Au NPs/HfO{sub 2} on p-type Si substrate reliably exhibited metal-oxide-semiconductor behavior with a large flatband shift of 4.7 V. In addition, the charge retention time at room temperature was found to exceed 10{sup 5} h. This longer time was attributed to the higher electron barrier height via high work function of the Au NP.

Yang, Jung Yup; Kim, Ju Hyung; Choi, Won Joon; Do, Young Ho; Kim, Chae Ok; Hong, Jin Pyo [New Functional Materials and Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

Shape memory response and microstructural evolution of a severe plastically deformed high temperature shape memory alloy (NiTiHf)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NiTiHf alloys have attracted considerable attention as potential high temperature Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) but the instability in transformation temperatures and significant irrecoverable strain during thermal cycling under constant stress remains a...

Simon, Anish Abraham

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

352

EFFECT OF AGING ON THE PHASE TRANSFORMATION AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF Ti36Ni49Hf15 HIGH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, People's Republic of China (Received August 19 the microstructure, transformation temperature, mechanical properties and shape memory effects (SMEs) for Ti36Ni49Hf

Zheng, Yufeng

353

Human Factors Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (HF PFMEA) Application in the Evaluation of Management Risks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.3.1. Mechanisms of Prevention ............................................................................................... 11 2.4. Human Factors Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (HF PFMEA) ....................... 11 2.5. FMEA Components... ........................................................................................... 15 2.5.5. Risk Priority Number ....................................................................................................... 17 2.6. FMEA Model...

Soguilon, Nenita M.

2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

354

Mode specificity in the HF + OH ? F + H{sub 2}O reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Full-dimensional quantum dynamics and quasi-classical trajectory calculations are reported for the title reaction on a recently constructed ab initio based global potential energy surface. Strong mode specificity was found, consistent with the prediction of the sudden vector projection model. Specifically, the HF vibration strongly promotes the reaction while the OH vibration has little effect. Rotational excitations of both reactants slightly enhance the reaction.

Song, Hongwei; Li, Jun; Guo, Hua, E-mail: hguo@unm.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

355

Reactive ion beam etching of HfO{sub 2} film and removal of sidewall redeposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Comparative studies on ion beam etching (IBE) and reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) of HfO{sub 2} film have been carried out using photoresist as the masking layer. The etching rates of HfO{sub 2} film and photoresist mask in pure Ar and Ar/CHF{sub 3} mixture plasmas were measured as a function of ion energy, plasma composition, and ion beam incident angle. It has been found that the RIBE with Ar/CHF{sub 3} plasma is capable of lowering the threshold energy of ion beam and increasing sputtering yield, compared to the IBE with pure Ar. The redeposition of photoresist sidewall is a major issue, due to the formation of nonvolatile etching products during sputtering of HfO{sub 2} film in both IBE and RIBE. However, the sidewall redeposition can be easily removed in HCl solutions with assistance of ultrasonic wave for RIBE with Ar/CHF{sub 3} plasma. Alternatively, the sidewall redeposition can be eliminated by controlling the slope of photoresist sidewall or combined with ion incident angle.

Wang Xudi; Liu Ying; Xu Xiangdong; Fu Shaojun; Cui Zheng [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China) and School of Mechanical and Automobile Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Central Microstructure Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Gate Metal-Induced Diffusion and Interface Reactions in Hf Oxide Films on Si  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When metal electrodes are deposited on a high-{kappa} metal-oxide/SiO{sub 2}/Si stack, chemical interactions may occur both at the metal/high-{kappa} and the high-{kappa}/Si interfaces, causing changes in electrical performance. We report here results from medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) and x-ray photoelectron (XPS) studies of oxygen and silicon transport and interfacial layer reactions in multilayer gate stacks. Our results show that Ti deposition on HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si stacks causes reduction of the SiO{sub 2} interfacial layer and (to a lesser extent) the HfO{sub 2} layer. Silicon atoms initially present in the interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer incorporate into the bottom of the high-{kappa} layer. Some evidence for titanium-silicon interdiffusion through the high-{kappa} film in the presence of a titanium gate in crystalline HfO{sub 2} films is also reported.

Goncharova, Lyudmila V.; Dalponte, Mateus; Celik, Ozgur; Garfunkel, Eric; Gustafsson, Torgny [Departments of Physics and Chemistry, and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Lysaght, Pat S.; Bersuker, Gennadi I. [Sematech, Austin, Texas 78741 (United States)

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

357

Impact of titanium addition on film characteristics of HfO{sub 2} gate dielectrics deposited by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact of 8-to 45-at. % Ti on physical and electrical characteristics of atomic-layer-deposited and annealed hafnium dioxide was studied using vacuum-ultraviolet spectroscopic ellipsometry, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray reflectometry. The role of Ti addition on the electrical performance is investigated using molybdenum (Mo)-gated capacitors. The film density decreases with increasing Ti addition. Ti addition stabilizes the amorphous phase of HfO{sub 2}, resulting in amorphous films as deposited. After a high-temperature annealing, the films transition from an amorphous to a polycrystalline phase. Orthorhombic Hf-Ti-O peaks are detected in polycrystalline films containing 33-at. % or higher Ti content. As Ti content is decreased, monoclinic HfO{sub 2} becomes the predominant microstructure. No TiSi is formed at the dielectric/Si interface, indicating films with good thermal stability. The band gap of Hf-Ti-O was found to be lower than that of HfO{sub 2}. Well-behaved capacitance-voltage and leakage current density-voltage characteristics were obtained for Hf-Ti-O. However, an increased leakage current density was observed with Ti addition. The data from capacitance-voltage stressing indicate a smaller flatband voltage (V{sub fb}) shift in the HfO{sub 2} films with low Ti content when compared with the HfO{sub 2} films. This indicates less charge trapping with a small amount of Ti addition.

Triyoso, D.H.; Hegde, R.I.; Zollner, S.; Ramon, M.E.; Kalpat, S.; Gregory, R.; Wang, X.-D.; Jiang, J.; Raymond, M.; Rai, R.; Werho, D.; Roan, D.; White, B.E. Jr.; Tobin, P.J. [Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Advanced Products Research and Development Laboratory, 3501 Ed Bluestein Boulevard, Austin, Texas 78721 (United States)

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Chemical analysis of HfO{sub 2}/Si (100) film systems exposed to NH{sub 3} thermal processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen incorporation in HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} films utilized as high-k gate dielectric layers in advanced metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors has been investigated. Thin HfO{sub 2} blanket films deposited by atomic layer deposition on either SiO{sub 2} or NH{sub 3} treated Si (100) substrates have been subjected to NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} anneal processing. Several high resolution techniques including electron microscopy with electron energy loss spectra, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been utilized to elucidate chemical composition and crystalline structure differences between samples annealed in NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} ambients as a function of temperature. Depth profiling of core level binding energy spectra has been obtained by using variable kinetic energy x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with tunable photon energy. An 'interface effect' characterized by a shift of the Si{sup 4+} feature to lower binding energy at the HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} interface has been detected in the Si 1s spectra; however, no corresponding chemical state change has been observed in the Hf 4f spectra acquired over a broad range of electron take-off angles and surface sensitivities. The Si 2p spectra indicate Si-N bond formation beneath the HfO{sub 2} layer in the samples exposed to NH{sub 3} anneal. The NH{sub 3} anneal ambient is shown to produce a metastable Hf-N bond component corresponding to temperature driven dissociation kinetics. These findings are consistent with elemental profiles across the HfO{sub 2}/Si(100) interface determined by electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements. X-ray diffraction measurements on similarly treated films identify the structural changes resulting from N incorporation into the HfO{sub 2} films.

Lysaght, Patrick S.; Barnett, Joel; Bersuker, Gennadi I.; Woicik, Joseph C.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Foran, Brendan; Tseng, Hsing-Huang; Jammy, Raj [Front End Process Division, SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Drive, Austin, Texas 78741-6499 (United States); National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Physical Characterization Laboratory, Advanced Technology Development Facility, 2706 Montopolis Drive, Austin, Texas 78741-6499 (United States); Front End Process Division, SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Drive, Austin, Texas 78741-6499 (United States)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

Combinatorial Approach for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Approach for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Combinatorial Approach for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen...

360

Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid Water Microjets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

currents and hydrogen production rates are shown to followmolecules. The hydrogen production efficiency is currentlycurrently available hydrogen production routes that can be

Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pieces of hardware: 1. Hydrogen production equipment (e.g.when evaluating hydrogen production costs. Many analyses inrespect to size and hydrogen production method. These costs

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Renewable Hydrogen From Wind in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Suitability for Hydrogen Production in the Sacramento Area” Renewable Energy  for Hydrogen Production in Californiamodel of renewable hydrogen production in California, which

Bartholomy, Obadiah

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Hydrogen Storage Materials Workshop Proceedings Workshop, October...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

hydrogen. Significant technical barriers remain for safe, cost-effective hydrogen storag compliqh2storworkproceedings.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Program...

364

Natural Gas and Hydrogen Infrastructure Opportunities Workshop...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Natural Gas and Hydrogen Infrastructure Opportunities Workshop Agenda Natural Gas and Hydrogen Infrastructure Opportunities Workshop Agenda Agenda for the Natural Gas and Hydrogen...

365

Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency and Hydrogen Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

in Microalgal Cultures, DOE Hydrogen Program FY 2010 Annual Progress Report Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency and Hydrogen Production in Microalgal Cultures, DOE Hydrogen...

366

Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exposure for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicle technologies.10 gasoline hybrids or 20 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (eachwheels analysis of hydrogen based fuel-cell vehicle pathways

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exposure for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicle technologies10 gasoline hybrids or 20 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (eachwheels analysis of hydrogen based fuel-cell vehicle pathways

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-pressure hydrogen compressor Compressed hydrogenapplies to hydrogen storage vessels and compressors. 2.4.4.vehicles. 3. Compressor: compresses hydrogen gas to achieve

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-pressure hydrogen compressor Compressed hydrogento hydrogen storage vessels and compressors. Feedstock Costvehicles 3. Compressor: compresses hydrogen gas to achieve

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Proceedings  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

including water or oil pipelines for hydrogen transport Assess viability of natural gas safety systems when hydrogen is introduced Conduct field demonstra- tion of hydrogen...

371

Hydrogen Fuel Quality - Focus: Analytical Methods Development...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Quality - Focus: Analytical Methods Development & Hydrogen Fuel Quality Results Hydrogen Fuel Quality - Focus: Analytical Methods Development & Hydrogen Fuel Quality Results...

372

Considerations of Alloy N for Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs) are a promising new class of thermal-spectrum nuclear reactors. The reactor structural materials must possess high-temperature strength and chemical compatibility with the liquid fluoride salt as well as with a power cycle fluid such as supercritical water while remaining resistant to residual air within the containment. Alloy N was developed for use with liquid fluoride salts and it possesses adequate strength and chemical compatibility up to about 700 C. A distinctive property of FHRs is that their maximum allowable coolant temperature is restricted by their structural alloy maximum service temperature. As the reactor thermal efficiency directly increases with the maximum coolant temperature, higher temperature resistant alloys are strongly desired. This paper reviews the current status of Alloy N and its relevance to FHRs including its design principles, development history, high temperature strength, environmental resistance, metallurgical stability, component manufacturability, ASME codification status, and reactor service requirements. The review will identify issues and provide guidance for improving the alloy properties or implementing engineering solutions.

Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Hydrogen production from microbial strains  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

374

Hydrogen: Fueling the Future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As our dependence on foreign oil increases and concerns about global climate change rise, the need to develop sustainable energy technologies is becoming increasingly significant. Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double by the year 2050, as will carbon emissions along with it. This increase in emissions is a product of an ever-increasing demand for energy, and a corresponding rise in the combustion of carbon containing fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Undisputable scientific evidence indicates significant changes in the global climate have occurred in recent years. Impacts of climate change and the resulting atmospheric warming are extensive, and know no political or geographic boundaries. These far-reaching effects will be manifested as environmental, economic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues. Offsetting the projected increase in fossil energy use with renewable energy production will require large increases in renewable energy systems, as well as the ability to store and transport clean domestic fuels. Storage and transport of electricity generated from intermittent resources such as wind and solar is central to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen created from water electrolysis is an option for energy storage and transport, and represents a pollution-free source of fuel when generated using renewable electricity. The conversion of chemical to electrical energy using fuel cells provides a high efficiency, carbon-free power source. Hydrogen serves to blur the line between stationary and mobile power applications, as it can be used as both a transportation fuel and for stationary electricity generation, with the possibility of a distributed generation energy infrastructure. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will be presented as possible pollution-free solutions to present and future energy concerns. Recent hydrogen-related research at SLAC in hydrogen production, fuel cell catalysis, and hydrogen storage will be highlighted in this seminar.

Leisch, Jennifer

2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

375

Etching characteristics of high-k dielectric HfO{sub 2} thin films in inductively coupled fluorocarbon plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inductively coupled fluorocarbon (CF{sub 4}/Ar and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/Ar) plasmas were used to etch HfO{sub 2}, which is a promising high-dielectric-constant material for the gate of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. The etch rates of HfO{sub 2} in CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas exceeded those in C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/Ar plasmas. The tendency for etch rates to become higher in fluorine-rich (high F/C ratio) conditions indicates that HfO{sub 2} can be chemically etched by fluorine-containing species. In C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/Ar plasmas with a high Ar dilution ratio, the etch rate of HfO{sub 2} increased with increasing bias power. The etch rate of Si, however, decreased with bias power, suggesting that the deposition of carbon-containing species increased with increasing the power and inhibited the etching of Si. The HfO{sub 2}/Si selectivity monotonically increased with increasing power, then became more than 5 at the highest tested bias power. The carbon-containing species to inhibit etching of Si play an important role in enhancing the HfO{sub 2}/Si selectivity in C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/Ar plasmas.

Takahashi, Kazuo; Ono, Kouichi; Setsuhara, Yuichi [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Hydrogen and Sulfur Production from Hydrogen Sulfide Wastes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as is currently done. The remaining gases are purified and separated into streams containing the product hydrogen, the hydrogen sulfide to be recycled to the plasma reactor, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. This process has particular...

Harkness, J.; Doctor, R. D.

377

Reactions of Methylene Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was orystallized out as a yellow solid from aloohol and then from ethyl aostate. Melting point 170°C Analysis: Calculated for C17H14O2U s - 10.10$ Found I = 10.00$ SUMMARY 0 It was found that the methods given in the literature for the preparation... following* 1. Metallic sodium replaces either one, or both of the hydrogens, the latter being given off as a free gas. 2. Sodium hydroxide replaces the hydrogen by the metal, with a splitting off of water. 3. Sodium ethylate reacts, giving the metal 3...

Griffin, E. L.

1912-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Thin film hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thin film hydrogen sensor includes a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end. 5 figs.

Cheng, Y.T.; Poli, A.A.; Meltser, M.A.

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

379

Thin film hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thin film hydrogen sensor, includes: a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end.

Cheng, Yang-Tse (Rochester Hills, MI); Poli, Andrea A. (Livonia, MI); Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

The JET Hydrogen-Oxygen Recombination Sensor – A Safety Device for Hydrogen Isotope Processing Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The JET Hydrogen-Oxygen Recombination Sensor – A Safety Device for Hydrogen Isotope Processing Systems

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Effects of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and Ar plasma treatments on the removal of crystallized HfO{sub 2} film  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of plasma treatment using Ar, N{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} on the removal of crystallized HfO{sub 2} films in a dilute HF solution were studied. The resulting damage in source and drain regions, and recess in isolation regions were also investigated. It was found that plasma nitridation with an ion energy of several hundred electron volts can lower the wet etch resistance of crystallized HfO{sub 2} films up to 70 A thick through the generation of Hf-N bonds. However, thermal nitridation did not introduce sufficient nitrogen into bulk crystallized HfO{sub 2} films to lower wet etch resistance. Plasma nitridation without bias power introduced nitrogen to the crystallized HfO{sub 2} in the region only within 10 A of the surface. The enhancement of the etch rate of crystallized HfO{sub 2} in dilute HF and the amount of recess in the active and isolation regions using N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and Ar plasma treatment have been evaluated. Results show that N{sub 2} plasma treatment is the most effective in enhancing the removal rate of crystallized HfO{sub 2} in dilute HF and minimizing recess on substrate among the plasmas studied.

Chen Jinghao; Yoo, Won Jong; Chan, Daniel S.H. [Silicon Nano Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

382

Hydrogen,Fuel Cells & Infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;The President's FY04 Budget Request for FreedomCAR and Hydrogen Fuel Initiatives 4.0Office of Nuclear commercialization decision by 2015. Fuel Cell Vehicles in the Showroom and Hydrogen at Fueling Stations by 2020 #12

383

Oxidation resistant organic hydrogen getters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for removing hydrogen from an atmosphere, comprising a mixture of a polyphenyl ether and a hydrogenation catalyst, preferably a precious metal catalyst, and most preferably Pt. This composition is stable in the presence of oxygen, will not polymerize or degrade upon exposure to temperatures in excess of 200.degree. C., or prolonged exposure to temperatures in the range of 100-300.degree. C. Moreover, these novel hydrogen getter materials can be used to efficiently removing hydrogen from mixtures of hydrogen/inert gas (e.g., He, Ar, N.sub.2), hydrogen/ammonia atmospheres, such as may be encountered in heat exchangers, and hydrogen/carbon dioxide atmospheres. Water vapor and common atmospheric gases have no adverse effect on the ability of these getter materials to absorb hydrogen.

Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Buffleben, George M. (Tracy, CA)

2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

384

Hydrogen Distribution and Delivery Infrastructure  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen delivery technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how hydrogen is transported and delivered today, the challen

385

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

U.S. * 50% of this resource could provide 340,000 kgday of hydrogen. Background: Biogas as an Early Source of Renewable Hydrogen * The majority of biogas resources are...

386

Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Options Analysis  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report, by the Nexant team, documents an in-depth analysis of seven hydrogen delivery options to identify the most cost-effective hydrogen infrastructure for the transition and long term. The pro

387

Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

Srinivas, Girish (Thornton, CO); Bai, Chuansheng (Baton Rouge, LA)

2000-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

388

Muon capture in hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Theoretical difficulties in reconciling the measured rates for ordinary and radiative muon capture are discussed, based on heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. We also examine ambiguity in our analysis due to the formation of p$\\mu$p molecules in the liquid hydrogen target.

S. Ando; F. Myhrer; K. Kubodera

2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

389

Hydrogen isotope separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system of four cryogenic fractional distillation columns interlinked with two equilibrators for separating a DT and hydrogen feed stream into four product streams, consisting of a stream of high purity D.sub.2, DT, T.sub.2, and a tritium-free stream of HD for waste disposal.

Bartlit, John R. (Los Alamos, NM); Denton, William H. (Abingdon, GB3); Sherman, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Resistive hydrogen sensing element  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods are described for providing a hydrogen sensing element with a more robust exposed metallization by application of a discontinuous or porous overlay to hold the metallization firmly on the substrate. An apparatus includes: a substantially inert, electrically-insulating substrate; a first Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and completely covered by a substantially hydrogen-impermeable layer so as to form a reference resistor on the substrate; a second Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and at least a partially accessible to a gas to be tested, so as to form a hydrogen-sensing resistor; a protective structure disposed upon at least a portion of the second Pd containing metallization and at least a portion of the substrate to improve the attachment of the second Pd containing metallization to the substrate while allowing the gas to contact said the second Pd containing metallization; and a resistance bridge circuit coupled to both the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The circuit determines the difference in electrical resistance between the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The hydrogen concentration in the gas may be determined. The systems and methods provide advantages because adhesion is improved without adversely effecting measurement speed or sensitivity.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Fossil-Based Hydrogen Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Fossil-Based Hydrogen Production Praxair Praxair SNL TIAX · Integrated Ceramic Membrane System for H2

392

Webinar: Hydrogen Storage Materials Requirements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, Hydrogen Storage Materials Requirements, originally presented on June 25, 2013.

393

Detroit Commuter Hydrogen Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was undertaken to demonstrate the viability of using hydrogen as a fuel in an internal combustion engine vehicle for use as a part of a mass transit system. The advantages of hydrogen as a fuel include renew-ability, minimal environmental impact on air quality and the environment, and potential to reduce dependence on foreign energy sources for the transportation sector. Recognizing the potential for the hydrogen fuel concept, the Southeast Michigan Congress of Governments (SEMCOG) determined to consider it in the study of a proposed regional mass transit rail system for southeast Michigan. SEMCOG wanted to evaluate the feasibility of using hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (H2ICE) vehicles in shuttle buses to connect the Detroit Metro Airport to a proposed, nearby rail station. Shuttle buses are in current use on the airport for passenger parking and inter-terminal transport. This duty cycle is well suited to the application of hydrogen fuel at this time because of the ability to re-fuel vehicles at a single nearby facility, overcoming the challenge of restricted fuel availability in the undeveloped hydrogen fuel infrastructure. A cooperative agreement between SEMCOG and the DOE was initiated and two H2ICE buses were placed in regular passenger service on March 29, 2009 and operated for six months in regular passenger service. The buses were developed and built by the Ford Motor Company. Wayne County Airport Authority provided the location for the demonstration with the airport transportation contractor, Metro Cars Inc. operating the buses. The buses were built on Ford E450 chassis and incorporated a modified a 6.8L V-10 engine with specially designed supercharger, fuel rails and injectors among other sophisticated control systems. Up to 30 kg of on-board gaseous hydrogen were stored in a modular six tank, 350 bar (5000 psi) system to provide a 150 mile driving range. The bus chassis and body were configured to carry nine passengers with luggage. By collecting fuel use data for the two H2ICE buses, with both written driver logs and onboard telemetry devices, and for two conventional propane-gasoline powered buses in the same service, comparisons of operating efficiency and maintenance requirements were completed. Public opinion about the concept of hydrogen fuel was sampled with a rider survey throughout the demonstration. The demonstration was very effective in adding to the understanding of the application of hydrogen as a transportation fuel. The two 9 passenger H2ICE buses accumulated nearly 50,000 miles and carried 14,285 passengers. Data indicated the H2ICE bus fuel economy to be 9.4 miles/ gallon of gasoline equivalent (m/GGE) compared to the 10 passenger propane-gasoline bus average of 9.8 m/GGE over 32,400 miles. The 23- passenger bus averaged 7.4 m/GGE over 40,700 miles. Rider feedback from 1050 on-board survey cards was overwhelmingly positive with 99.6% indicating they would ride again on a hydrogen powered vehicle. Minimal maintenance was required for theses buses during the demonstration project, but a longer duration demonstration would be required to more adequately assess this aspect of the concept.

Brooks, Jerry; Prebo, Brendan

2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

394

California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a ���¢��������real-world���¢������� retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation���¢��������s hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling stations with a focus on safe, convenient, fast-fills. These potential areas were then compared to and overlaid with suitable sites from various energy companies and other potential station operators. Work continues to match vehicle needs with suitable fueling station locations. Once a specific site was identified, the necessary agreements could be completed with the station operator and expected station users. Detailed work could then begin on the site drawings, permits, safety procedures and training needs. Permanent stations were successfully installed in Irvine (delivered liquid hydrogen), Torrance (delivered pipeline hydrogen) and Fountain Valley (renewable hydrogen from anaerobic digester gas). Mobile fueling stations were also deployed to meet short-term fueling needs in Long Beach and Placerville. Once these stations were brought online, infrastructure data was collected and reported to DOE using Air Products���¢�������� Enterprise Remote Access Monitoring system. Feedback from station operators was incorporated to improve the station user���¢��������s fueling experience.

Edward C. Heydorn

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

395

Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Ned Niccolls Materials Engineer Chevron Energy Technology Company Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop August 30-31, 2005 #12;Outline 2 Overall perspectives from long term use of hydrogen piping in refining. Piping specifications and practices. The (few

396

The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in combustion engines, or converted into hydrogen at fuelengines are now nearly zero-emitting. What do these lessons imply for hydrogen?Hydrogen will find it difficult to compete with the century-long investment in petroleum fuels and internal combustion engines.

Sperling, Dan; Ogden, Joan M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Proceedings NATIONAL HYDROGEN VISION MEETING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's Plan directs us to explore the possibility of a hydrogen economy..." Spencer Abraham, Secretary be found at the end of this document.) The intent was to identify a common vision of a "hydrogen economy of the Group: Which factors are most likely to support/inhibit the development of a "hydrogen economy

398

January 2005 HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 January 2005 HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF PIPELINE STEELS: CAUSES AND REMEDIATION P. Sofronis, I. Robertson, D. Johnson University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Hydrogen Pipeline R&D Project Review Meeting Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN January 5-6, 2005 #12;2 January 2005 Hydrogen

399

Composites Technology for Hydrogen Pipelines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Composites Technology for Hydrogen Pipelines Barton Smith, Barbara Frame, Larry Anovitz and Cliff;Composites Technology for Hydrogen Pipelines Fiber-reinforced polymer pipe Project Overview: Investigate of pipeline per day. · $190k/mile capital cost for distribution pipelines · Hydrogen delivery cost below $1

400

CODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE 1 The following generic Code of Practice applies to all work areas within the University of Alberta that use hydrogen sulfide gas. It outlines responsibilities, safe procedure requirements. All work areas where hydrogen sulfide is used within the University of Alberta must

Machel, Hans

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Hybrid & Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as Challenge X use this facility to develop advanced vehicles. Hydrogen Fueling Station Developed byAir Products and Chemicals, Inc. with funding from US DOE, the commercial hydrogen fueling station was installed at Penn State University Park in Fall 2004. This station will be used to fuel in-service hydrogen

Lee, Dongwon

402

Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

1993-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

403

Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Gorski, Anthony J. (Woodridge, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project Solicitation Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project...

405

Combinatorial Approaches for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Approaches for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Combinatorial Approaches for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Presentation on NIST Combinatorial Methods at the...

406

International Hydrogen Infrastructure Challenges Workshop Summary...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

More Documents & Publications Introduction to SAE Hydrogen Fueling Standardization Light Duty Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Protocol Fuel Cell...

407

Webinar: Hydrogen Storage Materials Database Demonstration |...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Storage Materials Database Demonstration Webinar: Hydrogen Storage Materials Database Demonstration Presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Hydrogen...

408

Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH): Thermochemic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH): Thermochemical Cycle Selection and Investment Priority Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH):...

409

International Hydrogen Infrastructure Challenges Workshop Summary...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

International Hydrogen Infrastructure Challenges Workshop Summary - NOW, NEDO, and DOE International Hydrogen Infrastructure Challenges Workshop Summary - NOW, NEDO, and DOE...

410

Upcoming Webinar December 16: International Hydrogen Infrastructure...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Upcoming Webinar December 16: International Hydrogen Infrastructure Challenges NOW, DOE, and NEDO Upcoming Webinar December 16: International Hydrogen Infrastructure Challenges...

411

A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production ...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production...

412

Technoeconomic Analysis of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Hydrogen...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Analysis of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Hydrogen Production Technoeconomic Analysis of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Hydrogen Production This report documents the engineering and cost...

413

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

3veenstra.pdf More Documents & Publications Technology Validation Controlled Hydrogen Fleet & Infrastructure Analysis HYDROGEN TO THE HIGHWAYS...

414

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Storage Hydrogen Storage Developing safe, reliable, compact, and cost-effective hydrogen storage tech- nologies is one be Stored? Hydrogen storage will be required onboard vehicles and at hydrogen production sites, hydrogen

415

Solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

Turnbull, Robert J. (Urbana, IL); Foster, Christopher A. (Champaign, IL); Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Advanced hydrogen utilization technology demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a study done by Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC). DDC used a 6V-92TA engine for experiments with hydrogen fuel. The engine was first baseline tested using methanol fuel and methanol unit injectors. One cylinder of the engine was converted to operate on hydrogen fuel, and methanol fueled the remaining five cylinders. This early testing with only one hydrogen-fueled cylinder was conducted to determine the operating parameters that would later be implemented for multicylinder hydrogen operation. Researchers then operated three cylinders of the engine on hydrogen fuel to verify single-cylinder idle tests. Once it was determined that the engine would operate well at idle, the engine was modified to operate with all six cylinders fueled with hydrogen. Six-cylinder operation on hydrogen provided an opportunity to verify previous test results and to more accurately determine the performance, thermal efficiency, and emissions of the engine.

Hedrick, J.C.; Winsor, R.E. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States)] [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities and Challenges *  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A hydrogen economy, the long-term goal of many nations, can potentially provide energy security, along with environmental and economic benefits. However, the transition from a conventional petroleum-based energy system to a hydrogen economy involves many uncertainties, such as the development of efficient fuel cell technologies, problems in hydrogen production and distribution infrastructure, and the response of petroleum markets. This study uses the U.S. MARKAL model to simulate the impacts of hydrogen technologies on the U.S. energy system and identify potential impediments to a successful transition. Preliminary findings identify potential market barriers facing the hydrogen economy, as well as opportunities in new R&D and product markets for bioproducts. Quantitative analysis also offers insights on policy options for promoting hydrogen technologies. The objective of this paper is to study the transition from a petroleum-based energy system to a hydrogen economy, and ascertain the consequent opportunities and

418

Polymer system for gettering hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel composition comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon-carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces. Organic polymers molecules containing carbon-carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble catalyst composition, comprising a hydrogenation catalyst and a catalyst support, preferably Pd supported on carbon, provide a hydrogen getter composition useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces even in the presence of contaminants such as common atmospheric gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide, ammonia, oil mists, and water. The hydrogen getter composition disclosed herein is particularly useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces containing potentially explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

Shepodd, Timothy Jon (330 Thrasher Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Whinnery, LeRoy L. (4929 Julie St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Polymer formulations for gettering hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel composition comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon-carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces. Organic polymers molecules containing carbon-carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble catalyst composition, comprising a hydrogenation catalyst and a catalyst support, preferably Pd supported on carbon, provide a hydrogen getter composition useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces even in the presence of contaminants such as common atmospheric gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide, ammonia, oil mists, and water. The hydrogen getter composition disclosed herein is particularly useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces containing potentially explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

Shepodd, Timothy Jon (Livermore, CA); Whinnery, LeRoy L. (Livermore, CA)

1998-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

420

HYDROFLUORIC ACID SCRUBBER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Each year over a million gallons of water are used to scrub hydrogen fluoride (HP) vapors from waste off-gas streams. Use of other potential scrubber solutions such as potassium hydroxide (KOH), aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (ANN), and monobasic aluminum nitrate (monoban) would result in significant volume reductions. A laboratory study was initiated to (1) demonstrate the effectiveness of these scrubber solutions to sorb HF, (2) determine if unexpected reactions occurred at flowsheet conditions, and (3) determine the consequences of deviation from flowsheet conditions. Caustic or aluminum scrubber solutions remove hydrogen fluoride from off-gas streams. Solids which appear with aluminum could be avoided by heating the scrubber solution.

PANESKO JV; MERRITT HD

2011-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Geothermal hydrogen sulfide removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

UOP Sulfox technology successfully removed 500 ppM hydrogen sulfide from simulated mixed phase geothermal waters. The Sulfox process involves air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide using a fixed catalyst bed. The catalyst activity remained stable throughout the life of the program. The product stream composition was selected by controlling pH; low pH favored elemental sulfur, while high pH favored water soluble sulfate and thiosulfate. Operation with liquid water present assured full catalytic activity. Dissolved salts reduced catalyst activity somewhat. Application of Sulfox technology to geothermal waters resulted in a straightforward process. There were no requirements for auxiliary processes such as a chemical plant. Application of the process to various types of geothermal waters is discussed and plans for a field test pilot plant and a schedule for commercialization are outlined.

Urban, P.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Reversible hydrogen storage materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

Ritter, James A. (Lexington, SC); Wang, Tao (Columbia, SC); Ebner, Armin D. (Lexington, SC); Holland, Charles E. (Cayce, SC)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

423

Mechanisms and selectivity for etching of HfO{sub 2} and Si in BCl{sub 3} plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have investigated plasma etching of HfO{sub 2}, a high dielectric constant material, and poly-Si in BCl{sub 3} plasmas. Etching rates were measured as a function of substrate temperature (T{sub s}) at several source powers. Activation energies range from 0.2 to 1.0 kcal/mol for HfO{sub 2} and from 0.8 to 1.8 kcal/mol for Si, with little or no dependence on source power (20-200 W). These low activation energies suggest that product removal is limited by chemical sputtering of the chemisorbed Hf or Si-containing layer, with a higher T{sub s} only modestly increasing the chemical sputtering rate. The slightly lower activation energy for HfO{sub 2} results in a small improvement in selectivity over Si at low temperature. The surface layers formed on HfO{sub 2} and Si after etching in BCl{sub 3} plasmas were also investigated by vacuum-transfer x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A thin boron-containing layer was observed on partially etched HfO{sub 2} and on poly-Si after etching through HfO{sub 2} films. For HfO{sub 2}, a single B(1s) feature at 194 eV was ascribed to a heavily oxidized species with bonding similar to B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. B(1s) features were observed for poly-Si surfaces at 187.6 eV (B bound to Si), 189.8 eV, and 193 eV (both ascribed to BO{sub x}Cl{sub y}). In the presence of a deliberately added 0.5% air, the B-containing layer on HfO{sub 2} is largely unaffected, while that on Si converts to a thick layer with a single B(1s) peak at 194 eV and an approximate stoichiometry of B{sub 3}O{sub 4}Cl.

Wang Chunyu; Donnelly, Vincent M. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of various HF-based etching processes on the laser damage resistance of scratched fused silica surfaces has been investigated. Conventionally polished and subsequently scratched fused silica plates were treated by submerging in various HF-based etchants (HF or NH{sub 4}F:HF at various ratios and concentrations) under different process conditions (e.g., agitation frequencies, etch times, rinse conditions, and environmental cleanliness). Subsequently, the laser damage resistance (at 351 or 355 nm) of the treated surface was measured. The laser damage resistance was found to be strongly process dependent and scaled inversely with scratch width. The etching process was optimized to remove or prevent the presence of identified precursors (chemical impurities, fracture surfaces, and silica-based redeposit) known to lead to laser damage initiation. The redeposit precursor was reduced (and hence the damage threshold was increased) by: (1) increasing the SiF{sub 6}{sup 2-} solubility through reduction in the NH4F concentration and impurity cation impurities, and (2) improving the mass transport of reaction product (SiF{sub 6}{sup 2-}) (using high frequency ultrasonic agitation and excessive spray rinsing) away from the etched surface. A 2D finite element crack-etching and rinsing mass transport model (incorporating diffusion and advection) was used to predict reaction product concentration. The predictions are consistent with the experimentally observed process trends. The laser damage thresholds also increased with etched amount (up to {approx}30 {micro}m), which has been attributed to: (1) etching through lateral cracks where there is poor acid penetration, and (2) increasing the crack opening resulting in increased mass transport rates. With the optimized etch process, laser damage resistance increased dramatically; the average threshold fluence for damage initiation for 30 {micro}m wide scratches increased from 7 to 41 J/cm{sup 2}, and the statistical probability of damage initiation at 12 J/cm{sup 2} of an ensemble of scratches decreased from {approx}100 mm{sup -1} of scratch length to {approx}0.001 mm{sup -1}.

Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Steele, R A; Shen, N; Monticelli, M V; Feit, M D; Laurence, T A; Norton, M A; Carr, C W; Wong, L L

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

425

Effect of electron-phonon interaction on resistivity of some heavy fermion (HF) systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here, we have analyzed the electron-phonon interaction in the Periodic Anderson Model (PAM) to describe the temperature dependence of resistivity in some heavy fermion (HF) systems for finite wave vector (q) and for finite temperature (T). Since the resistivity is related to the imaginary part of the electron self energy, the expression for the same is evaluated through double time temperature dependant Green function technique of the Zubarev type. The effect of different system parameters namely the position of 4f level, E{sub 0} and the electron - phonon coupling strengths on resistivity have been studied. The results obtained give satisfactory explanations to the experimental observations.

Sahoo, J., E-mail: jitendrasahoo2008@gmail.com [Assistant Director, Regional Office of Vocational Education, Sambalpur, Odisha-768004 (India); Shadangi, N. [Dept. of Physics, Silicon Institute of Technology, Sambalpur, Odisha-768200 (India); Nayak, P. [School of Physics, Sambalpur University, Sambalpur, Odisha-768019 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

426

Hydrogen | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power BasicsGermany: EnergyPowerInformationHomerHydrogen Companies Loading

427

Hydrogen | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power BasicsGermany: EnergyPowerInformationHomerHydrogen Companies

428

A new class of materials with promising thermoelectric properties: MNiSn (M=Ti, Zr, Hf)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

TiNiSn, ZrNiSn and HfNiSn are members of a large group of intermetallic compounds which crystallize in the cubic MgAgAs-type structure. Polycrystalline samples of these compounds have been prepared and investigated for their thermoelectric properties. With thermopowers of about {minus}200 {micro}V/K and resistivities of a few m{Omega}cm, power factors S{sup 2}/{rho} as high as 38 {micro}W/K{sup 2}cm were obtained at 700 K. These remarkably high power factors are, however, accompanied by a thermal conductivity, solid solutions Zr{sub 1{minus}x}Hf{sub x}NiSn, Zr{sub 1{minus}x}Ti{sub x}NiSn, and Hf{prime}{sub 1{minus}x}Ti{sub x}NiSn were formed. The figure of merit of Zr{sub 0.5}Hf{sub 0.5}NiSn at 700 K (ZT = 0.41) exceeds the end members ZrNiSn (ZT = 0.26) and HfNiSn (ZT = 0.22).

Hohl, H.; Ramirez, A.P.; Kaefer, W.; Fess, K.; Thurner, Ch.; Kloc, Ch.; Bucher, E.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond laser-induced damage in HfO{sub 2} single-layer film and HfO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} high reflector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HfO{sub 2} single layers, 800 nm high-reflective (HR) coating, and 1064 nm HR coating were prepared by electron-beam evaporation. The laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDTs) and damage morphologies of these samples were investigated with single-pulse femtosecond and nanosecond lasers. It is found that the LIDT of the HfO{sub 2} single layer is higher than the HfO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} HR coating in the femtosecond regime, while the situation is opposite in the nanosecond regime. Different damage mechanisms are applied to study this phenomenon. Damage morphologies of all samples due to different laser irradiations are displayed.

Yuan Lei; Zhao Yuanan; Shang Guangqiang; Wang Chengren; He Hongbo; Shao Jianda; Fan Zhengxiu [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China) and Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China) and Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Suppression of near-edge optical absorption band in sputter deposited HfO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminates containing nonmonoclinic HfO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanolaminates of polycrystalline (tetragonal+orthorhombic) HfO{sub 2} and amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are sputter deposited on unheated fused SiO{sub 2}, air annealed at 573-1273 K, and analyzed by x-ray diffraction and spectrophometry. Significant O 2p{yields}Hf 5d interband absorption occurs in all films at energy E{>=}6.2 eV. For E<6.2 eV, films annealed below 1273 K retain a featureless optical absorption edge despite further crystallization. A band with a 5.65 eV onset concurrently develops with m-HfO{sub 2} crystallization after a 1273 K anneal, indicating this phase and not nanocrystallinity per se is responsible for increased absorption.

Hoppe, E. E.; Aita, C. R. [Advanced Coatings Experimental Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 784, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States)

2008-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

431

Fluoride removal in the presence of organophosphates: application to chemical warfare agent destruction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generated. Of the many commercially available anion exchange resins, two were identified by their manufacturer as possible fluoride exchangers. Rohm & Haas' Amberlite IRA- 400(OH/Gl) and Dow Corporation's Dowex MWA-1 were examined for their ability... crystal 105-107 extremel soluble Table 63: Physical Properties of MPA, GAS? 993-13-5. *As determined by titration, appendix F. APPENDIX C REVIEW OF ION EXCHANGE Ion exchange is based on the principle of a fixed ionic group bound to a resin which...

Wenaas, Christopher Eric

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

[sup 27]Al NMR, GT-IR and ethanol-[sup 18]O TPD characterization of fluorided alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New environmental legislation in the United States requiring reformulation of gasoline and diesel fuels is making its necessary to develop better, alternative acid catalysts for alkylation and isomerization reactions, and for hydrotreating catalysts for sulfur and nitrogen removal from refinery streams. A series of F/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] samples (wt % F = 0 to 20) has been studied using a combination of solid-state [sup 27]Al NMR, FT-IR, and ethanol-[sup 18]O TPD techniques. Solid-state [sup 27]Al NMR is particularly sensitive to amorphous phases or small crystallites present on the catalyst surface, many of which cannot be detected by XRD. [sup 27]Al NMR shows the presence of three types of AlF[sub 3](H[sub 2]O)[sub n] species (with n varying between 0 and 3) on fluorided alumina. FT-IR studies of ethanol adsorption show that fluoride blocks the sites required for dissociative chemisorption of ethanol. A similar analysis of adsorbed pyridine shows an increase in the number of Broensted acid sites with the addition of up to 10 wt % fluoride. However, increasing the fluoride loading to 20 wt % decreases the number of Broensted acid sites. The TPD of ethanol-[sup 18]O from F/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] samples shows that at low levels fluoride serves to block Lewis acid sites, but at higher levels its predominant role is to increase the Broensted acidity of the alumina surface. The pyridine adsorption and TPD experiments show that fluoride strengthens the remaining Lewis acid sites. 14 figs., 3 tabs.

DeCanio, E.C. (Texaco R D Dept., Beacon, NY (United States) Wesleyan Univ., Middletown, CT (United States)); Bruno, J.W. (Wesleyan Univ., Middletown, CT (United States)); Nero, V.P.; Edwards, J.C. (Texaco R D Dept., Beacon, NY (United States))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Surface acidity and cumene conversion. II. A study of. gamma. -alumina containing fluoride, cobalt, and molybdenum additives: the effect of reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of reduction of the cumene conversion activity of a series of fluoride-impregnated, alumina-supported cobalt-molybdenum catalysts has been investigated. Such catalysts exhibit two different types of Broensted acid sites, one associated with the molybdenum and the other with the fluorided alumina surface. Reduction with H/sub 2/ eliminates the former type of site, but does not affect the latter. Reduction does not affect the activity of the alumina catalyst which is impregnated only with fluoride, but conversions for the other catalysts are reduced by 2-10%. In hydrocracking experiments, the dramatic influence of fluoride impregnation on cumene conversion and the synergistic nature of the fluoride and cobalt/molybdenum are demonstrated.

Boorman, P.M.; Kydd, R.A.; Sarbak, Z.; Somogyvari, A.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Hydrogen Fuel Pilot Plant and Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) teamed with Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Arizona Public Service (APS) to develop the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant that produces and compresses hydrogen on site through an electrolysis process by operating a PEM fuel cell in reverse; natural gas is also compressed onsite. The Pilot Plant dispenses 100% hydrogen, 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG), and 100% CNG via a credit card billing system at pressures up to 5,000 psi. Thirty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles (including Daimler Chrysler, Ford and General Motors vehicles) are operating on 100% hydrogen and 15 to 50% H/CNG blends. Since the Pilot Plant started operating in June 2002, they hydrogen and H/CNG ICE vehicels have accumulated 250,000 test miles.

J. Francfort (INEEL)

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compressor Compressed hydrogen storage Figure 2: High-compressor Compressed hydrogen storage Clean Energy Group lduction, and a hydrogen compression, storage, and Energy

Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel Cell & Infrastructure...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel Cell & Infrastructure Technologies Program, Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Projects Fact Sheet. SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus:...

437

Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

report on renewable hydrogen production. We hope that youis one method of hydrogen production at small and mediumis one method of hydrogen production at small and medium

Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Hydrogen Strategies: an Integrated Resource Planning Analysis for the Development of Hydrogen Energy Infrastructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

concepts and knowledge in hydrogen energy systems and theirdevelop alternative hydrogen-energy scenarios. The scenariosof alternative hydrogen energy pathways to characterize an

Pigneri, Attilio

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Other State Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Programs Regional Levelrelated to hydrogen and fuel cell tech- nologies. Otherapplications of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. They

Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

High-pressure Storage Vessels for Hydrogen, Natural Gas andHydrogen...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Gas and Blends - Materials Testing and Design Requirements for Hydrogen Components and Tanks International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings Hydrogen...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Hydrogen Strategies: an Integrated Resource Planning Analysis for the Development of Hydrogen Energy Infrastructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

concepts and knowledge in hydrogen energy systems and theirInternational Hydrogen Energy Congress and Exhibition IHECthe Development of Hydrogen Energy Infrastructures Attilio

Pigneri, Attilio

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Partnership Finalizes Hydrogen Energy Roadmap,” World WideCommercialization Strategy for Hydrogen Energy Technologies,Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Energy Station Concepts: Are “

Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 9017: On-Board Hydrogen...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hydrogen Storage Systems - Projected Performance and Cost Parameters DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 9017: On-Board Hydrogen Storage Systems - Projected Performance...

444

Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy Timothy E. LipmanElectricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy Timothy E. Lipmanof electricity, hydrogen, and thermal energy; 2) a survey of

Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Effective work function of Pt, Pd, and Re on atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Platinum and Pd show a significant difference in work function on SiO{sub 2} and high-K materials (HfO{sub 2}). The effective metal work functions for Pd, Pt, and Re on atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2}, which are different from the vacuum work function and important for device threshold voltage control, are measured by the C-V method. The difference is attributed to the dipoles at the metal/HfO{sub 2} interface, which is a result of charge transfer across the interface. Moreover, the extracted charge neutrality level and screening parameter are correlated with the phase development, film stoichiometry, and density of interface states at the metal/high-K interface.

Gu Diefeng; Dey, Sandwip K.; Majhi, Prashant [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6006 (United States) and Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5706 (United States); Planar CMOS Scaling, SEMATECH, Austin, Texas 78741 (United States)

2006-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

446

Plasma and vacuum ultraviolet induced charging of SiO{sub 2} and HfO{sub 2} patterned structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors compare the effects of plasma charging and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on oxidized patterned Si structures with and without atomic-layer-deposited HfO{sub 2}. It was found that, unlike planar oxidized Si wafers, oxidized patterned Si wafers charge up significantly after exposure in an electron-cyclotron resonance plasma. The charging is dependent on the aspect ratio of the patterned structures. This is attributed to electron and/or ion shading during plasma exposure. The addition of a 10 nm thick HfO{sub 2} layer deposited on top of the oxidized silicon structures increases the photoemission yield during VUV irradiation, resulting in more trapped positive charge compared to patterns without the HfO{sub 2} dielectric.

Lauer, J. L.; Upadhyaya, G. S.; Sinha, H.; Kruger, J. B.; Nishi, Y.; Shohet, J. L. [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Stanford Nanofabrication Facility, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94303 (United States); Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

Local elastic modulus of RF sputtered HfO{sub 2} thin film by atomic force acoustic microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) is a useful nondestructive technique for measurement of local elastic modulus of materials at nano-scale spatial resolution by measuring the contact resonance spectra for higher order modes of the AFM cantilever. The elastic modulus of RF sputtered HfO{sub 2} thin film has been measured quantitatively, using reference approach in which measurements are performed on the test and reference samples. Using AFAM, the measured elastic modulus of the HfO{sub 2} thin film is 223±27 GPa, which is in agreement with the literature value of 220±40 GPa for atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2} thin film using nanoindentation technique.

Jena, S., E-mail: shuvendujena9@gmail.com; Tokas, R. B., E-mail: shuvendujena9@gmail.com; Sarkar, P., E-mail: shuvendujena9@gmail.com; Thakur, S.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Misal, J. S.; Rao, K. D. [Optics and Thin Film Laboratory, Autonagar, BARC-Vizag, Visakhapatnam-530 012 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

448

First observation of /sup 162/Hf decay completion of an alpha -decay chain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The new isotope /sup 162/Hf (T/sub 1/2/=(37.6+or-0.8)s) is produced in a /sup 142/Nd (/sup 24/Mg,4n) reaction. The activities produced in this reaction are transported to a measuring station by use of a He- jet system. Decay properties are observed with alpha -, gamma -, and gamma - gamma -spectroscopy. The Z-assignment of the new isotope is based on a cross bombardment on /sup 141/Pr target and on the results of a gamma -X-ray coincidence measurement. The mass assignment is deduced from the excitation function measurements. From the measured alpha -decay energy E/sub alpha /=4308 (10) keV new mass values are derived for /sup 162/Hf, /sup 166/W, /sup 170/Os, /sup 174/Pt, and /sup 178/Hg. These new mass values make it possible to establish systematics of two-proton and one-proton binding energies far from stability. (20 refs).

Schrewe, U J; Hagberg, E; Hardy, J C; Koslowsky, V T; Schmeing, H; Sharma, K S

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Effects of shock waves on the performance of a cw supersonic HF chemical laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of oblique shock waves on the gain and the output power of a cw supersonic HF chemical laser are theoretically investigated. A one-dimensional model is used to solve the flow of a premixed H/sub 2/--SF/sub 6/--H/sub e/ or H/sub 2/--F/sub 2/--H/sub e/ mixture through the resonator, allowing the presence of oblique shock waves in the flow. It is shown that a shock wave significantly affects the laser performance due to the gas compression at the shock front and due to acceleration of the chemical and energy transfer processes. It was found that immediately behind the shock front the gain coefficients and the photon energy sharply increase and further downstream they fall off rapidly, thus the profiles of the gain and radiation flux become narrower along the flow direction. Integration of the radiation flux along the cavity coordinate reveals that in some cases the total available power is significantly higher than the available power obtained in the undisturbed flow. For HF lasers pumped by the chain reactions it was found that choking occurs over a wide range of flow parameters including very weak shock waves. This is due to the large amount of heat released by the exothermic reactions.

Stricker, J.; Waichman, K.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Measurements of spatial and frequency coherence of an equatorial hf path during spread-F  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In August 1990, the authors set up an hf path on the equatorial path between Maloelap Atoll and Bikini Atoll. This path, which had a range of 702 km, reflected in the ionosphere approximately 100 km north of the Altair radar location on Kwajalein. Transmitters at Maloelap broadcasted four cw tones within bandwidth of either 4 kHz, 9 kHz, or 70 kHz to be used to determine frequency coherence and also a phase-coded pseudo random sequence with a bandwidth of 60 kHz (channel probe) to be used to determine time delay spread. A spatial array of antennas was deployed at Bikini to measure spatial and frequency coherence using the cw broadcasts. The system was run in the post-sunset time period over two weeks during which almost every night showed significant degradation due to spread F resulting in rapid fading, decreased spatial and frequency coherence, and increased time delay spread. Doppler spreads of greater than 20 Hz were not uncommon, and the spatial correlation distances and frequency coherence bandwidths became so small (50 meters and 1 kHz respectively) that the experiment had to be readjusted. Measurements taken by the Altair incoherent scatter radar and the CUPRI 50 MHz coherent scatter radar indicate that although the bistatic hf channel is affected by the large scale plume structures, most of the [open quotes]damage[close quotes] is done by the bottomside spread F.

Fitzgerald, T.J.; Argo, P.E.; Carlos, R.C.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Measurements of spatial and frequency coherence of an equatorial hf path during spread-F  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In August 1990, the authors set up an hf path on the equatorial path between Maloelap Atoll and Bikini Atoll. This path, which had a range of 702 km, reflected in the ionosphere approximately 100 km north of the Altair radar location on Kwajalein. Transmitters at Maloelap broadcasted four cw tones within bandwidth of either 4 kHz, 9 kHz, or 70 kHz to be used to determine frequency coherence and also a phase-coded pseudo random sequence with a bandwidth of 60 kHz (channel probe) to be used to determine time delay spread. A spatial array of antennas was deployed at Bikini to measure spatial and frequency coherence using the cw broadcasts. The system was run in the post-sunset time period over two weeks during which almost every night showed significant degradation due to spread F resulting in rapid fading, decreased spatial and frequency coherence, and increased time delay spread. Doppler spreads of greater than 20 Hz were not uncommon, and the spatial correlation distances and frequency coherence bandwidths became so small (50 meters and 1 kHz respectively) that the experiment had to be readjusted. Measurements taken by the Altair incoherent scatter radar and the CUPRI 50 MHz coherent scatter radar indicate that although the bistatic hf channel is affected by the large scale plume structures, most of the {open_quotes}damage{close_quotes} is done by the bottomside spread F.

Fitzgerald, T.J.; Argo, P.E.; Carlos, R.C.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Breakout Session - Bulk Hydrogen Storage RD&D Needs Top 6 Categories: Advanced Concepts Advanced Materials Codes & Standards Studies & Analyses Tools & Techniques Demonstration &...

453

Hydrogen-Bond Networks: Strengths of Different Types of Hydrogen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

energetic driving force for enzyme catalysis and conformational changes such as in protein folding due to multiple hydrogen bonds in a HBN. Citation: Shokri A, Y Wang, GA...

454

Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing Activities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity teamed with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Public Service to develop and monitor the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant. The Pilot Plant provides 100% hydrogen, and hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG)-blended fuels for the evaluation of hydrogen and H/CNG internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in controlled and fleet testing environments. Since June 2002, twenty hydrogen and H/CNG vehicles have accumulated 300,000 test miles and 5,700 fueling events. The AVTA is part of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These testing activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This paper discusses the Pilot Plant design and monitoring, and hydrogen ICE vehicle testing methods and results.

J. Francfort; D. Karner

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Quantum Confinement in Hydrogen Bond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, the quantum confinement effect is proposed as the cause of the displacement of the vibrational spectrum of molecular groups that involve hydrogen bonds. In this approach the hydrogen bond imposes a space barrier to hydrogen and constrains its oscillatory motion. We studied the vibrational transitions through the Morse potential, for the NH and OH molecular groups inside macromolecules in situation of confinement (when hydrogen bonding is formed) and non-confinement (when there is no hydrogen bonding). The energies were obtained through the variational method with the trial wave functions obtained from Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (SQM) formalism. The results indicate that it is possible to distinguish the emission peaks related to the existence of the hydrogen bonds. These analytical results were satisfactorily compared with experimental results obtained from infrared spectroscopy.

Santos, Carlos da Silva dos; Ricotta, Regina Maria

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

amide hydrogen exchange: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Economics of Hydrogen Technologies Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Internal Combustion Engine Transportation Applications Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Hydrogen Internal Power...

457

Nancy Garland DOE Hydrogen Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

commercialization decision by 2015 Fuel cell vehicles in showroom and hydrogen at fuel stations by 2020 #12;Hydrogen, and distributed combined heat and power applications. #12;DOE Hydrogen Program Budget $544DOT $37,301Earmarks (EE,830$30,000$29,432Storage R&D (EE) $14,363$25,325$22,564Production & Delivery R&D (EE) FY 05 Appropriations* ($000) FY 05

458

Aluminum hydroxide solubility in aqueous solutions containing fluoride ions at 50/sup 0/Cype  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum hydroxide solubility experiments were performed at 50/sup 0/C using the method of May et al. (1979b). The shift observed by May at 25/sup 0/C between acidic and alkaline solution was also observed in these experiments. Infrared spectra of solids separated from solutions show that the low solubility values observed in alkaline medium can be related to the formation of a new solid phase: bayerite (or nordstrandite) (pK*/sub S/sub 4// = 13.4 at 50/sup 0/C) in the presence of initial gibbsite. A second set of experiments was performed in solutions containing fluoride ions in the 10/sup -4/-10/sup -3/ M concentration range. Fluorocomplexes are important in acidic solution; Al(OH)/sub m/F/sub p/ mixed complexes can be important in the minimum of Al solubility when total fluoride exceeds 10/sup -3/ M. The authors propose values of thermodynamic data for Al(OH)/sub 2/F/sub 2//sup -/, Al(OH)F/sub 3//sup -/, Al(OH)/sub 2/F/sup 0/ and for aluminum trifluoride solid. The difference of aluminum hydroxide solubility between acidic and alkaline medium is still observed.

Sanjuan, B.; Michard, G.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Self-fabricated single mode waveguide in fluoride glass excited by self-channeled plasma filaments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Self-fabricated permanent structure of single mode waveguide in optical fluoride glasses was demonstrated using the self-channeled plasma filament excited by a femtosecond (130 fs) Ti:sapphire laser ({lambda}{sub p}=790 nm). The photoinduced refractive index modification in ZrF{sub 4}-BaF{sub 2}-LaF{sub 3}-AlF{sub 3}-NaF glasses reached a length of approximately 10-15 mm from the input surface of the optical glass with the diameters ranging from 5 to 8 {mu}m at the input intensities of more than 1.0x10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}. The graded refractive index profiles were fabricated to be a symmetric form from the center of optical fluoride glass, and a maximum value of refractive index change ({delta}n) was measured to be 1.3x10{sup -2}. The beam profile of the output beam transmitted through the modified region showed that the photoinduced refractive index modification produced a permanent structure of single mode waveguide.

Cho, Sung-Hak; Chang, Won-Seok; Kim, Jae-Goo; Whang, Kyoung-Hyun [Nano Machining Laboratory, Korea Institute of Machinery and Material (KIMM), 171 Jang-dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

460

Measurement of the Melting Point Temperature of Several Lithium-Sodium-Beryllium Fluoride Salt (Flinabe) Mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium fluorides studied for molten salt fission reactors, has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for fusion applications. The melting points of 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} and LiF-BeF{sub 2} are 460 deg. C and 363 deg. C, but LiF-BeF{sub 2} is rather viscous and has less lithium for breeding. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing liquid for the first wall and blanket were investigated. Flinabe (a mixture of LiF, BeF{sub 2} and NaF) was selected for a molten salt design because a melting temperature below 350 deg. C appeared possible and this provided an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a stainless steel crucible under vacuum. One had an apparent melting temperature of 305 deg. C. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, melting procedures and temperature curves for the melting and cooling are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible is reported in an accompanying paper.

McDonald, J.M; Nygren, R.E.; Lutz, T.J.; Tanaka, T.J; Ulrickson, M.A.; Boyle, T.J.; Troncosa, K.P. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Effect of Phosphate, Fluoride, and Nitrate on Gibbsite Dissolution Rate and Solubility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory tests have been completed with simulated tank waste samples to investigate the effects of phosphate, fluoride, and nitrate on the dissolution rate and equilibrium solubility of gibbsite in sodium hydroxide solution at 22 and 40{degrees}C. Results are compared to relevant literature data and to computer model predictions. The presence of sodium nitrate (3 M) caused a reduction in the rate of gibbsite dissolution in NaOH, but a modest increase in the equilibrium solubility of aluminum. The increase in solubility was not as large, though, as the increase predicted by the computer model. The presence of phosphate, either as sodium phosphate or sodium fluoride phosphate, had a negligible effect on the rate of gibbsite dissolution, but caused a slight increase in aluminum solubility. The magnitude of the increased solubility, relative to the increase caused by sodium nitrate, suggests that the increase is due to ionic strength (or water activity) effects, rather than being associated with the specific ion involved. The computer model predicted that phosphate would cause a slight decrease in aluminum solubility, suggesting some Al-PO4 interaction. No evidence was found of such an interaction.

Herting, Daniel L. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

462

Sandia National Laboratories: Hydrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive SolarEducation Programs:CRFProvideAidsCanal,GridInfrastructureHydrogen Sandia

463

Sandia National Laboratories: Hydrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLS Exhibit at ExploraGlobalFacilityHeliostatHiroshiHydrogen

464

Hydrogen | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to:PhotonHolyName HousingIII WindHybridsCar CoHydrogen Jump to:

465

Experiment Hazard Class 11 - Hydrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

arrestors must be provided on all hydrogen supplies and must be located immediately downstream of the first regulator or other location determined by a safety review. Flammable...

466

Hydrogen Codes and Standards (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presented at the 2006 DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Annual Merit Review in Washington, D.C., May 16-19, 2006.

Ohi, J.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels,...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced Efficiency, and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Results of two Reports from the National Research Council...

468

Hydrogen Technology Research at SRNL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a U.S. Department of Energy research and development laboratory located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. SRNL has over 50 years of experience in developing and applying hydrogen technology, both through its national defense activities as well as through its recent activities with the DOE Hydrogen Programs. The hydrogen technical staff at SRNL comprises over 90 scientists, engineers and technologists. SRNL has ongoing R&D initiatives in a variety of hydrogen storage areas, including metal hydrides, complex hydrides, chemical hydrides and carbon nanotubes. SRNL has over 25 years of experience in metal hydrides and solid-state hydrogen storage research, development and demonstration. As part of its defense mission at SRS, SRNL developed, designed, demonstrated and provides ongoing technical support for the largest hydrogen processing facility in the world based on the integrated use of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage, separation, and compression. The SRNL has been active in teaming with academic and industrial partners to advance hydrogen technology. A primary focus of SRNL's R&D has been hydrogen storage using metal and complex hydrides. SRNL and its Hydrogen Technology Research Laboratory have been very successful in leveraging their defense infrastructure, capabilities and investments to help solve this country's energy problems. SRNL has participated in projects to convert public transit and utility vehicles for operation using hydrogen fuel. Two major projects include the H2Fuel Bus and an Industrial Fuel Cell Vehicle (IFCV) also known as the GATOR{trademark}. Both of these projects were funded by DOE and cost shared by industry. These are discussed further in Section 3.0, Demonstration Projects. In addition to metal hydrides technology, the SRNL Hydrogen group has done extensive R&D in other hydrogen technologies, including membrane filters for H2 separation, doped carbon nanotubes, storage vessel design and optimization, chemical hydrides, hydrogen compressors and hydrogen production using nuclear energy. Several of these are discussed further in Section 2, SRNL Hydrogen Research and Development.

Danko, E.

2011-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

469

Catalyzed borohydrides for hydrogen storage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen storage material and process is provided in which alkali borohydride materials are created which contain effective amounts of catalyst(s) which include transition metal oxides, halides, and chlorides of titanium, zirconium, tin, and combinations of the various catalysts. When the catalysts are added to an alkali borodydride such as a lithium borohydride, the initial hydrogen release point of the resulting mixture is substantially lowered. Additionally, the hydrogen storage material may be rehydrided with weight percent values of hydrogen at least about 9 percent.

Au, Ming (Augusta, GA)

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

470

Technical and Economic Assessment of Regional Hydrogen Transition Strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system spatial layouts for hydrogen production and deliveryWe estimate costs for hydrogen production, delivery anda hydrogen depot (i.e. hydrogen production facility or city-

Ogden, Joan; Yang, Christopher; Nicholas, Michael

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

The Hydrogen Laboratory and The Brazilian Reference Center for...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

The Hydrogen Laboratory and The Brazilian Reference Center for Hydrogen Energy The Hydrogen Laboratory and The Brazilian Reference Center for Hydrogen Energy Presentation given by...

472

Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

costs to estimate hydrogen pipeline costs. Davis, CA: ITS-hydrogen. The cost of hydrogen pipeline delivery de- pendshydrogen trucks, and hydrogen pipelines, were devel- oped

Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

costs to estimate hydrogen pipeline costs. Davis, CA: ITS-hydrogen trucks, and hydrogen pipelines, were devel- opedFor large amounts of hydrogen, pipeline transmission is pre-

Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies FY 2003 Progress Report Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies FY 2003 Progress Report 1 addresses the following technical barriers from the Hydrogen Production section of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells Photoelectrodes ." #12;Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies FY 2003 Progress Report 2

475

Photoinduced Hydrogen Abstraction from Phenols by Aromatic Ketones. A New Mechanism for Hydrogen Abstraction by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photoinduced Hydrogen Abstraction from Phenols by Aromatic Ketones. A New Mechanism for Hydrogen carried out of the kinetics of inter- and intramolecular phenolic hydrogen abstraction phenolic hydrogen, which yields the corresponding phenoxyl-hemipinacol biradical. The biradicals have also

Leigh, William J.

476

2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen Fueling Station 2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen Fueling Station December 16, 2013 -...

477

Interplay between gadolinium dopants and oxygen vacancies in HfO{sub 2}: A density functional theory plus Hubbard U investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of gadolinium (Gd) doping on the oxygen vacancy (V{sub O}) in monoclinic HfO{sub 2} have been studied by the first-principles calculations within the spin-polarized generalized gradient approximation plus Hubbard U approach. It is found that the Gd dopant and V{sub O} show strong attractive interaction, resulting in a cooperative effect that the substitution of Gd for Hf (Gd{sub Hf}) would increase the probability of oxygen vacancies generation and vice versa. The Gd{sub Hf} is more energetically favorable to be next to the vacancy site of a three-coordinated oxygen (O3), forming a complex defect Gd{sub Hf} + V{sub O}. A single Gd{sub Hf} acts a hole donor and passivates the defect states of V{sub O}. Our results suggest that the decrease of the V{sub O}-related defect states observed in the photoluminescence spectra of Gd-HfO{sub 2} is because Gd doping passivates the defect states of V{sub O}, rather than caused by decrease of V{sub O} concentration. Our findings would clarify the debate about the influence of Gd doping on the oxygen vacancies in HfO{sub 2}.

Zhang, Wei [Department of Criminal Science and Technology, Nanjing Forest Police College, Nanjing 210023 (China); Hou, Z. F., E-mail: zhufeng.hou@gmail.com [Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

478

13.21 Geochemistry of the Rare-Earth Element, Nb, Ta, Hf, and Zr Deposits RL Linnen, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

13.21 Geochemistry of the Rare-Earth Element, Nb, Ta, Hf, and Zr Deposits RL Linnen, University to Y, the rare- earth elements (REE, La to Lu), Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta. The rare elements, Canada ã 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 13.21.1 Introduction 543 13.21.1.1 Uses of Rare Elements

Chakhmouradian, Anton

479

A comparison of EISCAT and HF Doppler observations of a ULF wave D. M. Wright, T. K. Yeoman, J. A. Davies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A comparison of EISCAT and HF Doppler observations of a ULF wave D. M. Wright, T. K. Yeoman, J. A, Wright et al. (1997) presented a detailed study of ULF wave signatures observed by a new sounder at high observed by HF Doppler Correspondence to: D. M. Wright Presented at the Eighth International EISCAT

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

480

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen Storage Developing safe, reliable, compact, and cost of space. Where and How Will Hydrogen be Stored? Hydrogen storage will be required onboard vehicles to storing hydrogen include: · Physical storage of compressed hydrogen gas in high pressure tanks (up to 700

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hf hydrogen fluoride" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Analysis of Renewable Hydrogen Rangan Banerjee  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of Renewable Hydrogen Rangan Banerjee Energy Systems Engineering IIT Bombay Lecture Dioxide Concentrations #12;Hydrogen Energy Can hydrogen energy mitigate the energy problem? Can hydrogen,COOKED FOOD etc.. #12;Source : Energy After Rio: UNDP Publication. #12;Hydrogen pathways Photo chemical Solar

Banerjee, Rangan

482

Hydrogen purifier module with membrane support  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

483

Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

484

Hydrogen Production From Metal-Water Reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Production From Metal-Water Reactions Why Hydrogen Production? Hydrogen is a critical. Current methods of hydrogen storage in automobiles are either too bulky (large storage space for gas phase) or require a high input energy (cooling or pressurization systems for liquid hydrogen), making widespread use

Barthelat, Francois

485

Distributed Energy Fuel Cells DOE HydrogenDOE Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Distributed Energy Fuel Cells DOE HydrogenDOE Hydrogen andand Fuel CellsFuel Cells Coordination Catalyst Development Water and Thermal Management Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems #12; Meeting Fuel Cell Coordination Meeting June 2-3, 2003 Electricity Users Kathi EppingKathi Epping #12

486

Advanced thermochemical hydrogen cycles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this program is to contribute to the development of practical thermochemical cycles for the production of hydrogen from water. Specific goals are: investigate and evaluate the technical and economic viability of thermochemical cycles as an advanced technology for producing hydrogen from water; investigate and evaluate the engineering principles involved in interfacing individual thermochemical cycles with the different thermal energy sources (high temperature fission, solar, and fusion); and conduct a continuing research and development effort to evaluate the use of solid sulfates, oxides and other compounds as potentially advanced cycles and as alternates to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ based cycles. Basic thermochemistry studies have been completed for two different steps in the decomposition of bismuth sulfate. Two different bismuth sulfate cycles have been defined for different sulfuric acid strengths. The eventual best cycle will depend on energy required to form sulfuric acid at different concentrations. A solids decomposition facility has been constructed and practical studies of solid decompositions are being conducted. The facility includes a rotary kiln system and a dual-particle fluidized bed system. Evaluation of different types of cycles for coupling with different heat sources is continuing.

Hollabaugh, C.M.; Bowman, M.G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Siemens has developed a roadmap to achieve the DOE goals for efficiency, cost reduction, and emissions through innovative approaches and novel technologies which build upon worldwide IGCC operational experience, platform technology, and extensive experience in G-class operating conditions. In Phase 1, the technologies and concepts necessary to achieve the program goals were identified for the gas turbine components and supporting technology areas and testing plans were developed to mitigate identified risks. Multiple studies were conducted to evaluate the impact in plant performance of different gas turbine and plant technologies. 2015 gas turbine technologies showed a significant improvement in IGCC plant efficiency, however, a severe performance penalty was calculated for high carbon capture cases. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the DOE 2010 and 2015 efficiency targets can be met with a two step approach. A risk management process was instituted in Phase 1 to identify risk and develop mitigation plans. For the risks identified, testing and development programs are in place and the risks will be revisited periodically to determine if changes to the plan are necessary. A compressor performance prediction has shown that the design of the compressor for the engine can be achieved with additional stages added to the rear of the compressor. Tip clearance effects were studied as well as a range of flow and pressure ratios to evaluate the impacts to both performance and stability. Considerable data was obtained on the four candidate combustion systems: diffusion, catalytic, premix, and distributed combustion. Based on the results of Phase 1, the premixed combustion system and the distributed combustion system were chosen as having the most potential and will be the focus of Phase 2 of the program. Significant progress was also made in obtaining combustion kinetics data for high hydrogen fuels. The Phase 1 turbine studies indicate initial feasibility of the advanced hydrogen turbine that meets the aggressive targets set forth for the advanced hydrogen turbine, including increased rotor inlet temperature (RIT), lower total cooling and leakage air (TCLA) flow, higher pressure ratio, and higher mass flow through the turbine compared to the baseline. Maintaining efficiency with high mass flow Syngas combustion is achieved using a large high AN2 blade 4, which has been identified as a significant advancement beyond the current state-of-the-art. Preliminary results showed feasibility of a rotor system capable of increased power output and operating conditions above the baseline. In addition, several concepts were developed for casing components to address higher operating conditions. Rare earth modified bond coat for the purpose of reducing oxidation and TBC spallation demonstrated an increase in TBC spallation life of almost 40%. The results from Phase 1 identified two TBC compositions which satisfy the thermal conductivity requirements and have demonstrated phase stability up to temperatures of 1850 C. The potential to join alloys using a bonding process has been demonstrated and initial HVOF spray deposition trials were promising. The qualitative ranking of alloys and coatings in environmental conditions was also performed using isothermal tests where significant variations in alloy degradation were observed as a function of gas composition. Initial basic system configuration schematics and working system descriptions have been produced to define key boundary data and support estimation of costs. Review of existing materials in use for hydrogen transportation show benefits or tradeoffs for materials that could be used in this type of applications. Hydrogen safety will become a larger risk than when using natural gas fuel as the work done to date in other areas has shown direct implications for this type of use. Studies were conducted which showed reduced CO{sub 2} and NOx emissions with increased plant efficiency. An approach to maximize plant output is needed in order to address the DOE turbine goal for 20-30% reduction o

Joesph Fadok

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor EHC was evaluated against DOE applications for compressing hydrogen at automobile filling stations, in future hydrogen pipelines and as a commercial replacement for conventional diaphragm hydrogen compressors. It was also evaluated as a modular replacement for the compressors used in petrochemical refineries. If the EHC can be made inexpensive, reliable and long lived then it can satisfy all these applications save pipelines where the requirements for platinum catalyst exceeds the annual world production. The research performed did not completely investigate Molybdenum as a hydrogen anode or cathode, it did show that photoetched 316 stainless steel is inadequate for an EHC. It also showed that: molybdenum bipolar plates, photochemical etching processes, and Gortex Teflon seals are too costly for a commercial EHC. The use of carbon paper in combination with a perforated thin metal electrode demonstrated adequate anode support strength, but is suspect in promoting galvanic corrosion. The nature of the corrosion mechanisms are not well understood, but locally high potentials within the unit cell package are probably involved. The program produced a design with an extraordinary high cell pitch, and a very low part count. This is one of the promising aspects of the redesigned EHC. The development and successful demonstration of the hydraulic cathode is also important. The problem of corrosion resistant metal bipolar plates is vital to the development of an inexpensive, commercial PEM fuel cell. Our research suggests that there is more to the corrosion process in fuel cells and electrochemical compressors than simple, steady state, galvanic stability. It is an important area for scientific investigation. The experiments and analysis conducted lead to several recommended future research directions. First, we need a better understanding of the corrosion mechanisms involved. The diagnosis of experimental cells with titration to determine the loss of membrane active sites is recommended. We suspect that the corrosion includes more than simple galvanic mechanisms. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are poorly understood. Shunt currents at hydraulic cathode ports were problematic, but are not difficult to cure. In addition to corrosion there is evidence of high component resistivity. This may be due to the deposition of organic compounds, which may be produced electrochemically on the surface of the metal support screens that contact carbon gas diffusion layers (GDLs) or catalyst supports. An investigation of possible electro-organic sythesis mechanisms with emphasis on oxalates formation is warranted. The contaminated cell parts can be placed in an oxidizing atmosphere at high temperature and the weight loss can be observed. This would reveal the existence of organic compounds. Investigation into the effects of conductivity enhancers such as carbon microlayers on supporting carbon paper is also needed. Corrosion solutions should be investigated such as surface passivation of 316 SS parts using nitric acid. Ultra thin silane/siloxane polymer coatings should be tried. These may be especially useful in conjunction with metal felt replacement of carbon paper. A simple cure for the very high, localized corrosion of the anode might be to diffusion bond the metal electrode support screen to bipolar plate. This will insure uniform resistance perpendicular to the plane of the cell and eliminate some of the dependence of the resistance on high stack compression. Alternative materials should be explored. Alternatives to carbon in the cell may be helpful in any context. In particular, alternatives to carbon paper GDLs such as metal felts and alternatives to carbon supports for Pt such as TiC and TiB2 might also be worthwhile and would be helpful to fuel cells as well. Some alternative to the metals we used in the cell, Mo and 316 SS, are potentially useful. These include Al/Mg/Si alloys. Corrosion resistant materials such as Nb and Mo might prove useful as cladding materials that can be hot stamp

David P. Bloomfield; Brian S. MacKenzie

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Infrared study on room-temperature atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium and remote plasma-excited oxidizing agents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Room-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO{sub 2} was examined using tetrakis (ethylmethylamino)hafnium (TEMAH) and remote plasma-excited water and oxygen. A growth rate of 0.26?nm/cycle at room temperature was achieved, and the TEMAH adsorption and its oxidization on HfO{sub 2} were investigated by multiple internal reflection infrared absorption spectroscopy. It was observed that saturated adsorption of TEMAH occurs at exposures of ?1?×?10{sup 5}?L (1 L?=?1?×?10{sup ?6} Torr s) at room temperature, and the use of remote plasma-excited water and oxygen vapor is effective in oxidizing the TEMAH molecules on the HfO{sub 2} surface, to produce OH sites. The infrared study suggested that Hf–OH plays a role as an adsorption site for TEMAH. The reaction mechanism of room temperature HfO{sub 2} ALD is discussed in this paper.

Kanomata, Kensaku [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510, Japan and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Ohba, Hisashi; Pungboon Pansila, P.; Ahmmad, Bashir; Kubota, Shigeru; Hirahara, Kazuhiro; Hirose, Fumihiko, E-mail: fhirose@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Hydrogen and OUr Energy Future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2003, President George W. Bush announced the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative to accelerate the research and development of hydrogen, fuel cell, and infrastructure technologies that would enable hydrogen fuel cell vehicles to reach the commercial market in the 2020 timeframe. The widespread use of hydrogen can reduce our dependence on imported oil and benefit the environment by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutant emissions that affect our air quality. The Energy Policy Act of 2005, passed by Congress and signed into law by President Bush on August 8, 2005, reinforces Federal government support for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Title VIII, also called the 'Spark M. Matsunaga Hydrogen Act of 2005' authorizes more than $3.2 billion for hydrogen and fuel cell activities intended to enable the commercial introduction of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles by 2020, consistent with the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. Numerous other titles in the Act call for related tax and market incentives, new studies, collaboration with alternative fuels and renewable energy programs, and broadened demonstrations--clearly demonstrating the strong support among members of Congress for the development and use of hydrogen fuel cell technologies. In 2006, the President announced the Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI) to accelerate research on technologies with the potential to reduce near-term oil use in the transportation sector--batteries for hybrid vehicles and cellulosic ethanol--and advance activities under the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. The AEI also supports research to reduce the cost of electricity production technologies in the stationary sector such as clean coal, nuclear energy, solar photovoltaics, and wind energy.

Rick Tidball; Stu Knoke

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

A Minimum Free Energy Reaction Path for the E2 Reaction between Fluoro Ethane and a Fluoride Ion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Minimum Free Energy Reaction Path for the E2 Reaction between Fluoro Ethane and a Fluoride Ion, such as the mechanism and the free-energy profile, remains an important challenge not only for enzyme catalysis1 of the reaction free-energy profile is very cumbersome with constrained molecular dynamics (MD) and umbrella

Nielsen, Steven O.

492

Luminescence and electrical properties of solution-processed ZnO thin films by adding fluorides and annealing atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: {yields} Systematic study of the fluorides doped solution-processed ZnO thin films via the luminescence and electrical behaviors. {yields} Defect-related visible emission bands are affected by annealing ambient and fluoride addition. {yields} Adding lithium fluoride followed by annealing in oxygen ambient leads to a controlled defect density with proper TFT performance. -- Abstract: To develop an efficient channel layer for thin film transistors (TFTs), understanding the defect-related luminescence and electrical property is crucial for solution-processed ZnO thin films. Film growth with the fluorides addition, especially using LiF, followed by the oxygen ambient post-annealing leads to decreased defect-related emission as well as enhanced switching property. The saturation mobility and current on/off ratio are 0.31 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} and 1.04 x 10{sup 3}. Consequently, we can visualize an optimized process condition and characterization method for solution-processed TFT based on the fluorine-doped ZnO film channel layer by considering the overall emission behavior.

Choi, Sungho, E-mail: shochoi@krict.re.kr [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)] [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung-Yoon [Chemical and Electronic Materials Division, LG Electronics, Hyangjeong-dong, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)] [Chemical and Electronic Materials Division, LG Electronics, Hyangjeong-dong, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ha-Kyun [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)] [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

493

An experimental study of the aqueous solubility and speciation of Y(III) fluoride at temperatures up to 250 C  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are known to be of hydrothermal origin or modified by hydrothermal processes (e.g., Oreskes and Einaudi information on the behavior of the REE in hydrothermal processes is essential for a better understanding fluoride-rich hydrothermal systems. Our results emphasize the usefulness of the Y/Ho ratio as a geochemical

Devernal, Anne

494

Energy transfer kinetics in oxy-fluoride glass and glass-ceramics doped with rare-earth ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation of donor-acceptor energy transfer kinetics in dual rare earths doped precursor oxy-fluoride glass and its glass-ceramics containing NaYF{sub 4} nano-crystals is reported here, using three different donor-acceptor ion combinations such as Nd-Yb, Yb-Dy, and Nd-Dy. The precipitation of NaYF{sub 4} nano-crystals in host glass matrix under controlled post heat treatment of precursor oxy-fluoride glasses has been confirmed from XRD, FESEM, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. Further, the incorporation of dopant ions inside fluoride nano-crystals has been established through optical absorption and TEM-EDX analysis. The noticed decreasing trend in donor to acceptor energy transfer efficiency from precursor glass to glass-ceramics in all three combinations have been explained based on the structural rearrangements that occurred during the heat treatment process. The reduced coupling phonon energy for the dopant ions due to fluoride environment and its influence on the overall phonon assisted contribution in energy transfer process has been illustrated. Additionally, realization of a correlated distribution of dopant ions causing clustering inside nano-crystals has also been reported.

Sontakke, Atul D.; Annapurna, K. [Glass Science and Technology Section, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata - 700 032 (India)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies ProgramHydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Program Overview  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For The Hydrogen Economy President Bush "Hydrogen fuel cells represent one of the most encouraging, innovative for the Hydrogen Economy Hydrogen is America's clean energy choice. Hydrogen is flexible, affordable, safe Calls for "International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy" April 28, 2003 Secretary of Energy

496

Appendix G: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix G: Radiation #12;#12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

497

Appendix A: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix A: Radiation #12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

498

CATALYTICALLY ENCHANCED SYSTEMS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrogenation reaction. However, development of a hydrogen storage system based on this technology seems. The dehydrogenation of cycloalkanes to arenes releases approximately 7 weight percent hydrogen. Such a storage system

499

Technical Assessment: Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technical Assessment: Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage for Vehicular Applications October 30, 2006 .....................................................................................................................................................................8 APPEND